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Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Therefore, irradiation could serve as a possible processing method for protein utilization improvement in defatted Jatropha curcas seeds before using as a protein supplement in animal feed

2011-06-06

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Improvement of the digestibility of the proteins of the red alga Palmaria palmata by physical processes and fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palmaria palmata (dulse) is an edible red alga constituting a potential protein source in human diet. However, previous studies showed that the digestibility of dulse proteins is bad because of the cell-wall encapsulating cytoplasmic proteins and the presence of fibers. The water-soluble xylan, present in high proportions in dulse, could be involved to explain the weak digestibility of proteins. To limit the influence of fibers and to improve the nutritional quality of these proteins, we have treated dulse by physical processes or by fermentation by moulds. After a 30 min predigestion by pepsin followed by a 6 h digestion into a cell dialysis containing porcine pancreatin, the corrected in vitro digestibility of crude dulse was very low (about 1.5% after correction by digestibility blank). The in vitro protein digestibility was estimated to 58% of that of casein for dulse samples obtained after washing in demineralized water and grinding in liquid nitrogen. The in vitro protein digestibility of fermented samples was 45%-65% of that of casein. After physical treatment, the digestibility improvement was related to the elimination of soluble molecules such as xylan and mineral salts. The improvement observed after fermentations seemed due to the degradation of insoluble fibers. PMID:14609091

Marrion, Olivier; Schwertz, Annie; Fleurence, Joël; Guéant, Jean Louis; Villaume, Christian

2003-10-01

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Tannin elimination and improvement of the digestibility of protein sorghum grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hybrids of sorghum grains [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] containing 3.8, 3.0 and 0.2% of tannins were treated. Abrasive dehulling and storage of moist grains were tested separately and in combination to reduce the tannin content and to improve the nutritional quality of grains. The moisture content of the grains was increased from 12 to 30% by humidifying them with water, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate or sodium hypochlorite solutions. Abrasive dehulling of the grains to a yield between 75 and 80%, humidifying the grains with acetic acid (1% v/v) and storing them during 7 days at 20 degrees C proved to be the most effective procedure. In this way tannin can be totally reduced and the in vitro digestibility of protein can be increased to 87.5%. PMID:9659427

Agudelo, R A; Fliedel, G; Alarcón, O M

1997-06-01

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Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

2010-02-01

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Improvement of hydrophobic integral membrane protein identification by mild performic acid oxidation-assisted digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) are critical for the maintenance of biological systems and represent important targets for the treatment of disease. The hydrophobicity and low abundance of IMPs make them difficult to analyze. In proteomic analyses, hydrophobic peptides including transmembrane domains are often underrepresented, and this reduces the sequence coverage and reliability of the identified IMPs. Here we report a new strategy, mild performic acid oxidation treatment (mPAOT), for improvement of IMP identification. In the mPAOT strategy, the hydrophobicity of IMPs is significantly decreased by oxidizing their methionine and cysteine residues with performic acid, thereby improving the solubility and enzymolysis of these proteins. The application of the mPAOT strategy to the analysis of IMPs from human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 cell line demonstrated that many IMPs, including those with high hydrophobicity, could be reliably identified. PMID:20732293

Cao, Rui; Liu, Yisong; Chen, Ping; Lv, Rong; Song, Qin; Sheng, Tingting; He, Quanyuan; Wang, Yin; Wang, Xianchun; Liang, Songping

2010-12-15

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Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

Tuross, N.

2013-12-01

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Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite for being able to devise better alternatives. Hence, for 7 d we treated pigs, weaned at 24 d of age, with a combination of amoxicillin (25 mg/kg feed and injection of 8.75 mg/kg body weight per 12 h) and ZnO (2.5 g/kg feed). The pigs treated with antimicrobials (n 11) showed no signs of gut malfunction at any time, whereas untreated weaned controls (n 11) developed clinical diarrhoea. The antimicrobial treatment resulted in a higher daily weight gain compared with weaned controls (101 v. - 44 g/d, P <0.0001), whereas both groups had a similar degree of villous atrophy compared with unweaned 24-d-old controls In 8; P <0.05). The antimicrobial treatment gave a dramatic reduction in small intestinal microbial diversity, and specifically prevented tissue colonization with Escherichia coli compared with weaned controls. Further, the antimicrobial treatment improved amylase, trypsin and small intestinal aminopeptidase A and N activities (all P <0.05). Specifically for the colon, the antimicrobial treatment was associated with reduced tissue weight (- 23 %, P <0.05), reduced concentration of SCFA (P <0.05), and increased mucosal goblet cell area (P <0.0001) compared with weaned controls. We conclude that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacteria] load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density.

Thymann, Thomas; Sørensen, Kristina U.

2007-01-01

8

Multiple enzymatic digestions and ion mobility separation improve quantification of bacterial ribosomal proteins by data independent acquisition liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass spectrometry-based quantification of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) associated with mature ribosomes and ribosome assembly complexes is typically accomplished by relative quantification strategies. These strategies provide information on the relative stoichiometry of proteins within the complex compared to a wild-type strain. Here we have evaluated the applicability of a label-free approach, enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)), for absolute "ribosome-centric" quantification of r-proteins in Escherichia coli mature ribosomes. Because the information obtained in this experiment is related to the number of peptides identified per protein, experimental conditions that allow accurate and reproducible quantification of r-proteins were found. Using an additional dimension of gas-phase separation through ion mobility and the use of multiple endoproteinase digestion significantly improved quantification of proteins associated with mature ribosomes. The actively translating ribosomes (polysomes) contain amounts of proteins consistent with their known stoichiometry within the complex. These measurements exhibited technical and biological reproducibilities at %CV less than 15% and 35%, respectively. The improved LC-MS(E) approach described here can be used to characterize in vivo ribosome assembly complexes captured during ribosome biogenesis and assembly under different perturbations (e.g., antibiotics, deletion mutants of assembly factors, oxidative stress, nutrient deprivation). Quantitative analysis of these captured complexes will provide information relating to the interplay and dynamics of how these perturbations interfere with the assembly process. PMID:24738621

Dator, Romel P; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

2014-05-01

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Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

2003-07-01

10

On-target ultrasonic digestion of proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, we report a novel on-target protein cleavage method. The method utilizes ultrasonic energy and allows up to 20 samples to be cleaved in 5 min for protein identification and one sample in 30 s for on-tissue digestion. The standard proteins were spotted on a conductive glass slide in a volume of 0.5 ?L followed by 5 min of ultrasonication after trypsin addition. Controls (5 min, 37°C no ultrasonication) were also assayed. After trypsin addition, digestion of the tissues was enhanced by 30 s of ultrasonication. The samples were analyzed and compared to those obtained by using conventional 3 h heating proteolysis. The low sample volume needed for the digestion and reduction in sample-handling steps and time are the features that make this method appealing to the many laboratories working with high-throughput sample treatment. PMID:23457053

Santos, Hugo M; Kouvonen, Petri; Capelo, Jose-Luis; Corthals, Garry L

2013-05-01

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Protein digestibility (in vitro) of chickpea and blackgram seeds as affected by domestic processing and cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein digestibility (in vitro) of grains of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and blackgram (Vigna mungo) cultivars varied from 48 to 53% and 52 to 58%, respectively. Soaking, cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds), autoclaving and sprouting improved significantly the protein digestibility of all the cultivars of chickpea and blackgram. Autoclaving was found to be most effective followed by cooking and sprouting; cooking of sprouts had only marginal effect. Protein digestibility was higher when soaked instead of unsoaked grains were cooked. PMID:2762243

Jood, S; Chauhan, B M; Kapoor, A C

1989-06-01

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IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of t...

2012-01-01

13

IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of the parent proteins remaining after gastric digestion, whose majority disappeared after complete gastro-duodenal digestion. Despite the fact that the most of proteins were broken down by gastro-duodenal digestion into low molecular weight peptides, these molecules retain an allergenic potential.

Želmíra Balážová

2012-02-01

14

Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated with the fibre content in decortification fractions of Bomi and the high-lysine mutant Risø 1508. The digestibility was positively correlated with the hordein concentration for the Bomi fractions, but not for the 1508 fractions.

Buchmann, N. B.

1979-01-01

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Improving digestibility of feather meal by steam flash explosion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poultry feathers are available in large quantities. However, natural feathers have poor digestibility and are often considered as solid wastes. To improve the digestibility of poultry feathers, steam flash explosion (SFE) was applied to duck feathers at different pressures ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 MPa for 1 min. The pepsin digestibility, disulfide bond content, and major secondary structure component (?-sheets) of duck feathers before and after the process were examined. The results showed that SFE could effectively increase pepsin digestibility of feather meal. Under the optimal conditions (1.8 MPa for 1 min), the pepsin digestibility of exploded feather meal achieved approximately 91%, which was about 9 times higher than that of the original feathers. The pepsin digestibility was highly correlated with the degree of reduction of disulfide bonds (R(2) = 0.98) and slightly negatively correlated with ?-sheet structure. SFE is an effective method to improve the bio-utilization of feather meal. PMID:24617674

Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei

2014-04-01

16

Protein digestability of vegetables and field peas (Pisum sativum). Varietal differences and effect of domestic processing and cooking methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein digestibility was found to be 60.4 to 66.5 percent in raw unprocessed seeds of different pea cultivars. Protein digestibility (in vitro) was improved by the common methods of domestic processing and cooking including soaking, dehulling, ordinary cooking, pressure cooking and sprouting of legume grains. Pressure cooking had more pronounced effect on protein digestibility followed by ordinary cooking, sprouting, soaking for 18 h and (12 h) and dehulling. Pressure cooking of soaked and dehulled seeds was noticed to give most improved protein digestibility. PMID:7971789

Bishnoi, S; Khetarpaul, N

1994-07-01

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Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one....

Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Themis Sakaguti Graciano

2012-01-01

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Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

2012-06-01

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ENZYME DIGEST AND ACID HYDROLYZED INDEX OF PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pancreatopeptidase (Elastase) digest index was devised for a rapid and accurate estimation of protein quality. This index was calculated on the basis of all the amino acids released by an in-vitro Elastase digestion, acid hydrolyses of same sample and the residue of enzyme hydrolyzed. The amino acids were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography. Samples used were cooked white kidneybeans, cooked and over-heated soybean powder, and skimmed milk powder. Good correlation was observed between e...

Mostafavi, H. Mohammadiha P.

1984-01-01

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In Mesopore Protein Digestion: A New Forthcoming Strategy in Proteomics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conventional protocols for in solution or in gel protein digestion require many steps and long reaction times. The use of trypsin immobilized onto solid supports has recently captured the attention of many research groups, because these systems can speed-up protein digestion significantly. The utilization of new materials such as mesoporous silica as supports, in which enzyme and substrate are dramatically concentrated and confined in the nanospace, offers new opportunities to reduce the complexity of proteomics workflows. An overview of the procedures for in situ proteolysis of single proteins or complex protein mixtures is reported, with a special focus on porous materials used as catalysts. The challenging efforts for designing such systems aimed at mimicking the biochemistry of living cells are reviewed. Potentials, limitations and challenges of this branch of enzyme catalysis, which we indicate as in mesopore digestion, are discussed, in relation to its suitability for high-speed and high-throughput proteomics.

Rosa Terracciano

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Improved anaerobic digestion by staged fermentation and advanced reactor design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anaerobic digestion process has taken on new importance and emphasis in recent years because of its potential applications for energy and chemicals production from various types of renewable-carbon resources, and because it can be coupled with certain electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical processes to generate electric power, hydrocarbons, methanol, and other high-value products. A number of initiatives have been taken to improve the anaerobic digestion process in keeping with the increasing appreciation for its utility and versatility of application in municipal, industrial, and rural settings.

Ghosh, S.; Bostian, H.E.; Henry, M.P.; Sajjad, A.; Farrell, J.B.; Salotto, B.V.

1985-01-01

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Phytase studies in pigs and poultry: effect on protein digestion and energy utilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytase is applied for improving digestibility of phosphorus in pig and poultry diets. Indepen-dently, phytase also improves animal performance. The mechanisms to explain this effect were investigated and quantified. Protein can be complexed with phytate, especially under the acid conditions that occurs in the stomach of animals. Dietary phytase supplementation pre-vents formation of such complexes or, if such complexes are formed, helps to release protein faster and to a larger extent from p...

2005-01-01

23

The on-bead digestion of protein corona on nanoparticles by trypsin immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteins interacting with nanoparticles would form the protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles in biological systems, which would critically impact the biological identities of nanoparticles and/or result in the physiological and pathological consequences. The enzymatic digestion of protein corona was the primary step to achieve the identification of protein components of the protein corona for the bottom-up proteomic approaches. In this study, the investigation on the tryptic digestion of protein corona by the immobilized trypsin on a magnetic nanoparticle was carried out for the first time. As a comparison with the usual overnight long-time digestion and the severe self-digestion of free trypsin, the on-bead digestion of protein corona by the immobilized trypsin could be accomplished within 1h, along with the significantly reduced self-digestion of trypsin and the improved reproducibility on the identification of proteins by the mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. It showed that the number of identified bovine serum (BS) proteins on the commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles was increased by 13% for the immobilized trypsin with 1h digestion as compared to that of using free trypsin with even overnight digestion. In addition, the on-bead digestion of using the immobilized trypsin was further applied on the identification of human plasma protein corona on the commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which leads the efficient digestion of the human plasma proteins and the identification of 149 human plasma proteins corresponding to putative critical pathways and biological processes. PMID:24572545

Hu, Zhengyan; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

2014-03-21

24

Ostrich (Strutio camelus meat protein quality and digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-free diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein ratio (NPR, net protein utilization (NPU, and true digestibility (TD. There were differences (p<0.05 among treatment groups for all evaluated biological parameters. Mean true digestibility values were 92.12% and 75.77% for casein and ostrich meat, respectively.

LS Reis

2008-09-01

25

Effect of Processing Treatments Followed by Fermentation on Protein Content and Digestibility of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two pearl millet cultivars namely Gadarif and Gazeera were used in this study. The effect of soaking, debranning, dry heating and germination of the grains before and after fermentation on protein content and digestibility was investigated. The effect of processing treatments on the protein content was fluctuated and varied between the cultivars. For both cultivars germination of the grains increased the protein content and digestibility (except course ground grains. For both cultivars fermentation of the germinated and course ground grains increased the protein content while fermentation of other treated grains fluctuated between the cultivars. The protein digestibility of the treated grains after fermentation was greatly improved. For both cultivars fermentation of the germinated grains gave higher protein digestibility (> 90% compared to all other treatments.

Amro B. Hassan

2006-01-01

26

Starch and protein digestibility of newly released moth bean cultivars: Effect of soaking, dehulling, germination and pressure cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of soaking (12 h), soaking (12 h) dehulling, germination (60 h) and pressure cooking on starch and protein digestibility of four varieties of moth bean, one Local commonly used by the farmers of the area and three newly released high yielding varieties, Jwala, RMO 225 and RMO 257, was studied. The starch digestibility of raw unprocessed moth bean cultivars differed significantly (P dehulling, germination and pressure cooking brought about appreciable enhancement in protein digestibility (1-19%) over the control and starch digestibility (19-115%) of all the four moth bean cultivars. However, out of all the processing treatments, germination (60 h) of soaked seeds (12 h) was the most effective in bringing about improvement in digestibility of starch and protein followed by dehulling and soaking (12 h). PMID:11534463

Negi, A; Boora, P; Khetarpaul, N

2001-08-01

27

Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop a mathematical description based on a master equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome species, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation rates

2009-01-01

28

Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of the cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop the mathematical description based on a master-equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome specie, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation ...

Goldobin, Denis S

2014-01-01

29

ENZYME DIGEST AND ACID HYDROLYZED INDEX OF PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pancreatopeptidase (Elastase digest index was devised for a rapid and accurate estimation of protein quality. This index was calculated on the basis of all the amino acids released by an in-vitro Elastase digestion, acid hydrolyses of same sample and the residue of enzyme hydrolyzed. The amino acids were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography. Samples used were cooked white kidneybeans, cooked and over-heated soybean powder, and skimmed milk powder. Good correlation was observed between elastase index value and their biological values reported in the literature from feeding trials. The pattern of aminoacids released by acid and by enzyme hydrolysis was about the same.

H.Mohammadiha P. Mostafavi

1984-08-01

30

The movement of proteins across the insect and tick digestive system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The movement of intact proteins across the digestive system was shown in a number of different blood-feeding and non-blood-feeding insects in the orders Blattaria, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Siphonaptera, as well as in two tick families Ixodidae and Argasidae. Protein movement was observed for both normal dietary and xenobiotic proteins, which suggest that the mechanism for transfer is not substrate specific. The number of studies on the mechanism of movement is limited. The research so far suggests that movement can occur by either a transcellular or an intercellular pathway in the ventriculus with most of the research describing the former. Transfer is by continuous diffusion with no evidence of pinocytosis or vesicular transport common in mammalian systems. Proteins can move across the digestive system without modification of their primary or multimeric structure and with retention of their functional characteristics. Accumulation in the hemolymph is the result of the protein degradation rate in the gut and hemolymph and transfer rate across the digestive system and can be highly variable depending on species. Research on the development of delivery systems to enhance protein movement across the insect digestive system is in its infancy. The approaches so far considered with some success include the use of lipophilic-polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, the development of fusion proteins with lectins, reduced gut protease activity and the development of amphiphilic peptidic analogs. Additional research on understanding the basic mechanisms of protein delivery across the insect digestive system, the importance of structure activity in this transfer and the development of technology to improve movement across the gut could be highly significant to the future of protein and nucleic acid-based insecticide development as well as traditional chemical insecticidal technologies. PMID:18177888

Jeffers, Laura A; Michael Roe, R

2008-02-01

31

The Determining of Digestible Energy and Digestibility Coefficients of Protein, Calcium and Phosphorus of Malt (Germinated Barley in Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determinate digestible energy and digestibility coefficients of protein, calcium and phosphorus of malt (germinated barley and barley in broilers nutrition. Four dietary treatments included barley diet (96.24% of diet and three other diets which malt was replacing with barley as 32.08, 64.16 and 96.24% (malt diet were fed from 18-25 days of age. Experimental data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results of experiment indicated that digestible energy value and nutrient digestibility coefficients were significantly increased with replacing of malt with barley in experimental diets (p<0.01. Digestibility coefficients of protein, calcium and phosphorus in malt diet were significantly higher 16, 4.5 and 4% respectively, than barley diet (p<0.01. Digestible energy value determined for malt and barley using the regression analysis was 3213.34 and 2848.3 Kcal/Kg, respectively.

Amin Sabet Moghaddam

2009-01-01

32

Reduction of hexavalent chromium by digested oat bran proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is associated with an increase in oxidative stress, such as DNA, lipid and protein oxidations. This study investigated, for the first time, the ability of digested food proteins to reduce Cr(VI) and scavenge free radicals. Protamex, an endopeptidase was used to digest oat bran protein isolates for 1, 2, 3, and 4h. The hydrolysates (1mg/ml) showed a maximum Cr(VI)-reducing activity of 5.4 ± 0.4% and 44.6% at pH 7.4 and 3.0, respectively. The difference might be due to charge or conformation changes depending on the pH. The 2h hydrolysate possessed the highest O2(-) inhibition activity (57.4 ± 5.1%), while the 1h hydrolysate had the highest HO inhibition (11.6 ± 0.6%). A correlation (R(2)=0.82) was observed between the O2(-) scavenging activities of hydrolysates and their Cr(VI)-reducing activities at pH 3.0 only. Further investigations of the digested oat bran proteins are required to determine their ability to reduce Cr(VI) oxidative stress damage in vivo. PMID:24491717

Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Gao, Qing; Baakdah, Morooj M

2014-06-15

33

Toxic Trypsin Digest Fragment from the Bacillus thuringiensis Parasporal Protein  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enzymatic digestion in vitro of the Bacillus thuringiensis protoxin presumably releases and activates the toxin in a manner analogous to that which occurs when a B. thuringiensis sporulated fermentation preparation passes through the midgut of a lepidopteran larva. Therefore, a sporulated culture of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (serotype 3a3b) HD-263 was treated with trypsin to release an activated toxin soluble in bicarbonate buffer. A 63-kilodalton protein, toxic to cabbage looper larva...

Aronson, John N.; Arvidson, Harold C.

1987-01-01

34

Microbial delignification with white rot fungi improves forage digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three wild-type white rot fungi and two cellulase-less mutants developed from Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3 (formerly Sporotrichum pulverulentum) were tested for their ability to delignify grass cell walls and improve biodegradation by rumen microorganisms. Fungal-treated and control stems of Bermuda grass were analyzed for their content of ester- and ether-linked aromatics by using alkali extraction and gas chromatography, for in vitro dry weight digestion and production of volatile fatty acids in in vitro fermentations with mixed ruminal microorganisms, for loss of lignin and other aromatics from specific cell wall types by using microspectrophotometry, and for structural changes before and after in vitro degradation by rumen microorganisms by using transmission electron microscopy. P. chrysosporium K-3 and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora FP 90031-sp produced the greatest losses in lignin and improved the biodegradation of Bermuda grass over that of untreated control substrate. However, C. subvermispora removed the most lignin and significantly improved biodegradation over all other treatments. Phellinus pini RAB-83-19 and cellulase-less mutants 3113 and 85118 developed from P. chrysosporium K-3 did not improve the biodegradation of Bermuda grass lignocellulose. Results indicated that C. subvermispora extensively removed ester-linked p-coumaric and ferulic acids and also removed the greatest amount of non-ester-linked aromatics from plant cell walls. Microscopic observations further indicated that C. subvermispora removed esters from parenchyma cell walls as well as esters and lignin from the more recalcitrant cell walls (i.e., sclerenchyma and vascular tissues). C. subvermispora improved in vitro digestion and volatile fatty acid production by ruminal microorganisms by about 80%, while dry matter loss due to fungi was about 20% greater than loss in untreated control stems. The chemical and structural studies used identified sites of specific fungal attack and suggested mechanisms whereby improvement occurred. PMID:16349123

Akin, D E; Sethuraman, A; Morrison, W H; Martin, S A; Eriksson, K E

1993-12-01

35

Effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on improvement of anaerobic digestive characteristic of sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study was made about main anaerobic digestive characteristics of sludge which was subjected to a 60Co gamma-irradiation pretreatment. The results showed the gamma-irradiation pretreatment can clearly improve anaerobic digestibility of sludge and pick up the anaerobic digestion speed of sludge. (authors)

2005-10-01

36

Microwave-assisted Protein Digestion on Various Locations of a Microplate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effectiveness of microwave-assisted protein digestion in different well positions of a 96-well microplate wasinvestigated where microwave-assisted protein digestion of bovine serum albumin was performed in 10 different wells of a 96-wellmicroplate in a microwave oven. Similarly increased sequence coverages (~70%) were generally observed for the 10 microwaveassistedprotein digestion samples compared to conventional overnight digestion (63%), which is possibly due to higher miscleavageratio...

2011-01-01

37

Differential digestion of human milk proteins in a simulated stomach model.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key element in understanding how human milk proteins support the health and development of the neonate is to understand how individual proteins are affected during digestion. In the present study, a dynamic gastric model was used to simulate infant gastric digestion of human milk, and a subsequent proteomic approach was applied to study the behavior of individual proteins. A total of 413 human milk proteins were quantified in this study. This approach demonstrated a high degree of variability in the susceptibility of human milk proteins to gastric digestion. Specifically this study reports that lipoproteins are among the class of slowly digested proteins during gastric processes. The levels of integral lysozyme C and partial lactadherin in milk whey increase over digestion. Mucins, ribonuclease 4, and macrophage mannose receptor 1 are also resistant to gastric digestion. The retention or enhancement in whey protein abundance can be ascribed to the digestive release of milk-fat-globule-membrane or immune-cell enclosed proteins that are not initially accessible in milk. Immunoglobulins are more resistant to digestion compared to total milk proteins, and within the immunoglobulin class IgA and IgM are more resistant to digestion compared to IgG. The gastric digestion of milk proteins becomes more apparent from this study. PMID:24694256

Zhang, Qiang; Cundiff, Judy K; Maria, Sarah D; McMahon, Robert J; Wickham, Martin S J; Faulks, Richard M; van Tol, Eric A F

2014-02-01

38

Effect of Phytase Supplementation on the Digestibility of Crude Protein, Amino Acids and Phosphorus of Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata) in Broilers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea contains phytate-P and other nutrients like amino acids which are poorly digested in broilers. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve digestibility of these nutrients. In 2 experiments the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein, amino acids and P of cowpea in broilers were investigated. Experiment One, had 6 diets in which 0, 150 or 300 g kg-1 cowpea replaced maize starch and 0 or 500 units of phytase enzy...

Iyayi, Eustace A.

2013-01-01

39

Protein Digestibility of Different Animal and Plant Protein Sources for Labeo rohita Fingerlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A laboratory trial was conducted on the protein digestibility of rohu (Labeo rohita fingerlings in a static indoor fish rearing water system of glass made aquaria (90 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm for a period of 75 days. Each treatment had two replicates containing 12 fingerlings. Five experimental diets A, B, C, D and E were prepared from different combination of five major sources of protein viz., fish meal, protein concentrate, meat & bone meal, mix of animal protein sources and mix of plant protein sources each containing 33% dietary protein level. The apparent protein digestibility (APD values of the above mentioned diets were 81.70, 78.66, 75.53, 72.53 and 69.96%.

P. K. Sarker

2000-01-01

40

Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart.) is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional [...] factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein), tests (bacuri almond flours) and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV), (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds) when compared to the control group (92.3%). The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

Lima e Silva, Magalli Costa Barbosa; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; Braga Neto, José Antônio; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues.

 
 
 
 
41

Digestion and absorption of protein along ovine gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digestion and absorption of protein were determined in ovine gastrointestinal tract with cerium-141 as an unabsorbed reference substance. Nitrogen flows changed little in rumen and reticulum, but in the proximal small intestine flows increased because of secretion of .9 g nitrogen per day per kg body weight. This secretion included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidases A and B; maximal activity was in proximal segments of the small intestine and decreased with distance from the pylorus. Activity of chymotrypsin decreased more rapidly than that of trypsin. Amino acid flows reflected the influx of protein in the duodenum; absorption was approximately 55% in the terminal ileum. No major changes of proportions of individual amino acids were observed. Overall nitrogen absorption was 72.6% of which 6% was in the large intestine. The major soluble protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract consisted of peptides with molecular weight 7,000 to 14,000 daltons. Soluble high molecular weight protein was observed only in rumen and duodenum. Low molecular weight peptides and amino acids accumulated only in the proximal small intestine. Solubilization of protein and breakdown of peptides of 7,000 to 14,000 molecular weight appear to be rate limiting for protein absorption in sheep

1985-01-01

42

Protein Levels for Heat-Exposed Broilers: Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Energy and Protein Metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat stress causes significant economic losses on broilers production due to poorer performance and carcass quality. Considering that protein has the highest heat increment among nutrients, it has been suggested that protein levels should be reduced in diets for heat-exposed broilers. Nevertheless, there are no conclusive results on the benefits of such practice, and further studies should be performed to elucidate some reported discrepancies. Thus, a trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels (17, 20 and 23% and environmental temperature (22 and 32°C on the performance, nutrients digestibility, and energy and protein metabolism of broiler chickens from 21 to 42 days of age. Nutrients digestibility was determined by total excreta collection, and energy and protein metabolism was evaluated by comparative slaughter method. It was concluded that (1 heat exposure impairs broilers performance and increases nitrogen excretion, but do not change nutrients digestibility; (2 high-protein diets are technically feasible and promotes lower heat production for broilers reared under thermoneutral or hot environments, however, high-protein diets increases nitrogen excretion.

Daniel Emygdio de Faria Filho

2007-01-01

43

The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the Venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested to assimilate nutrients as the plants grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about its prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition.

Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse

2012-01-01

44

Effect of suppressing the synthesis of different kafirin subclasses on grain endosperm texture, protein body structure and protein nutritional quality in improved sorghum lines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To improve sorghum grain protein nutritional quality, improved sorghum lines were transformed to suppress the synthesis of different kafirin sub-classes, or backcrossed into transgenic lines with improved protein quality. Co-suppression of the alpha-, gamma- and delta-kafirin sub-classes and removal of the tannin trait resulted in transgenic sorghum lines with high cooked protein digestibility ( 80%), improved Amino Acid Score (0.8) and Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid S...

Da Silva, Laura S.; Jung, Rudolf; Zhao, Zuo-yo; Glassman, Kimberly; Taylor, Janet; Taylor, J. R. N.

2011-01-01

45

MALDI-target integrated platform for affinity-captured protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

To address immunocapture of proteins in large cohorts of clinical samples high throughput sample processing is required. Here a method using the proteomic sample platform, ISET (integrated selective enrichment target) that integrates highly specific immunoaffinity capture of protein biomarker, digestion and sample cleanup with a direct interface to mass spectrometry is presented. The robustness of the on-ISET protein digestion protocol was validated by MALDI MS analysis of model proteins, ranging from 40 fmol to 1 pmol per nanovial. On-ISET digestion and MALDI MS/MS analysis of immunoaffinity captured disease-associated biomarker PSA (prostate specific antigen) from human seminal plasma are presented. PMID:24356215

Ahmad-Tajudin, Asilah; Adler, Belinda; Ekström, Simon; Marko-Varga, György; Malm, Johan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

2014-01-01

46

Effects of Malting and Fermentation on Anti-Nutrient Reduction and Protein Digestibility of Red Sorghum, White Sorghum and Pearl Millet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorghum and millet and their products require specialized treatment in order to improve their nutritive value, organoleptic properties and shelf-life. They contain anti-nutrients which are the major phytochemicals which negatively affects their nutritive values. The phytochemicals of concern include tannins and phytates, which interfere with mineral absorption, palatability and protein digestibility. Malting and fermentation treatments were applied to reduce the anti-nutrients, improve protein digestibility, and acidity to increase the products shelf life. The effects of malting and fermentation on the cereals nutritive value and anti-nutrient reduction were studied and evaluated for a period of 8 days. A treatment combining malting for 3 days and fermentation for 2 days respectively both at room temperatures (25°C was employed. Tannins and phytates were significantly reduced (p ? 0.05 by malting and fermentation. Protein digestibility was significantly (p ? 0.05 improved by malting and fermentation treatments; malted cereals digestibility ranged between 34.5-68.1% while the fermented flours protein digestibility range was 97.4-98.3%. The pH values were lowered to below 4.0, a level at which they could effectively inhibit spoilage microorganisms at the end of the fermentation period. A combination of optimum time treatments of malting and fermentation for 3 days and 2 days respectively were effective in reducing tannins and phytates and improving protein digestibility of the cereals.

C. A. Onyango

2012-11-01

47

Fractionation and evaluation of radical-scavenging peptides from in vitro digests of buckwheat protein ?  

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Buckwheat protein (BWP) isolate was subjected to a two-stage in vitro digestion (1 h pepsin followed by 2 h pancreatin at 37 °C). The antioxidant potential of the BWP digests was compared by assessing their capacity to scavenge 2,2?-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiszoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+•) and hydroxyl (•OH) radicals. The 2-h pancreatin digest, which demonstrated the strongest activity against both radicals, was subjected to Sephadex G-25 gel filtration. Of the six fractions collecte...

Ma, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Youling L.; Zhai, Jianjun; Zhu, Haining; Dziubla, Thomas

2010-01-01

48

Comparison of net portal absorption with predicted flow of digestible amino acids: scope for improving current models?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between measured net portal absorptions (NPA) and flows of digestible essential amino acids (EAA) predicted with the National Research Council model (NRC, 2001) or the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (CNCPS, version 5.0.34). Net portal absorption data were obtained from 33 measurements of portal-arterial plasma EAA concentration differences among 8 treatments in lactating dairy cows, with plasma flow estimated from downstream dilution of para amino-hippurate. The predicted digestible flows from NRC (2001) related better than CNCPS to NPA observed in our studies, as shown by the lower standard errors on the slopes for all EAA and lower root mean prediction errors for all EAA except Met and Phe. However, the partitioning of the prediction error indicated a systematic underprediction (mean bias) for the NRC model (2001), with the exception of Ile. It is important to note that a relationship of unity was not expected, as discussed in the paper, because of losses of EAA through portal-drained viscera metabolism. A revised set of predictive equations for digestible EAA was obtained using a subset of data from NRC (2001) limited to trials conducted with dairy cows. This increased the predicted flows of digestible EAA by only 2%. Flows of digestible EAA were also estimated using a factorial approach, assuming an AA composition for each fraction of the duodenal flow estimated by NRC (undegradable, microbial, and endogenous proteins). This resulted in a slight improvement in the slope of the regression between predicted flows and measured NPA, but still yielded predicted digestive flows that were too low to support observed NPA. Finally, on the basis of literature values, increment of the digestibility of the undegradable fraction of forages and of microbial protein is suggested to improve the relationship between predicted digestible flows and NPA. Overall, this study indirectly confirms, across EAA, smaller losses through gut metabolism for His, Met, and Lys, intermediate losses for the branched-chain AA with the higher losses for Thr. PMID:17106106

Pacheco, D; Schwab, C G; Berthiaume, R; Raggio, G; Lapierre, H

2006-12-01

49

Protein enrichment of corn cob heteroxylan waste slurry by thermophilic aerobic digestion using Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) of heteroxylan waste was implemented at waste load of 30gL(-1) with mineral nitrogen supplementation to study effect of the process on waste degradation, protein accretion and quality. Digestions were carried out at 45 50, 55, 60 and 65 degrees C using Bacillusstearothermophilus in a CSTR under batch conditions at 1.0vvm aeration rate, pH 7.0 for a maximum of 120h. Amylase and xylanase activities appeared rapidly in the digest, while basal protease activity appeared early in the digestion and increased towards end of the processes. Highest degradation of volatile suspended solid, hemicellulose and fibre occurred at 55 degrees C while highest degradation of total suspended solid occurred at 60 degrees C. Highest protein accretion (258.8%) and assimilation of mineral nitrogen and soluble protein occurred at 55 degrees C. The % content of amino acids of digest crude protein increased relative to raw waste and with digestion temperature. Quality of digest protein was comparable to the FAO standard for feed use. TAD has potentials for use in the protein enrichment of waste. PMID:18313292

Ugwuanyi, J Obeta; Harvey, Linda M; McNeil, Brian

2008-10-01

50

Development of continuous microwave-assisted protein digestion with immobilized enzyme.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, an easy and efficiency protein digestion method called continuous microwave-assisted protein digestion (cMAED) with immobilized enzyme was developed and applied for proteome analysis by LC-MS(n). Continuous microwave power outputting was specially designed and applied. Trypsin and bromelain were immobilized onto magnetic micropheres. To evaluate the method of cMAED, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and protein extracted from ginkgo nuts were used as model and real protein sample to verify the digestion efficiency of cMAED. Several conditions including continuous microwave power, the ratio of immobilized trypsin/BSA were optimized according to the analysis of peptide fragments by Tricine SDS-PAGE and LC-MS(n). Subsequently, the ginkgo protein was digested with the protocols of cMAED, MAED and conventional heating enzymatic digestion (HED) respectively and the LC-MS(n) profiles of the hydrolysate was compared. Results showed that cMAED combined with immobilized enzyme was a fast and efficient digestion method for protein digestion and microwave power tentatively affected the peptide producing. The cMAED method will be expanded for large-scale preparation of bioactive peptides and peptide analysis in biological and clinical research. PMID:24530398

Chen, Zhengyi; Li, Yongle; Lin, Shuhai; Wei, Meiping; Du, Fuyou; Ruan, Guihua

2014-03-01

51

In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula.Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro

L Hartati

2012-01-01

52

Host hemolymph proteins and protein digestion in larval Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: braconidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Host plasma proteins and protein digestion in larval parasitoids were studied during trophic interactions of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a host, larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We could detect no apparent differences in host hemolymph protein patterns up to 72 h after paralysation and/or parasitization by H. hebetor. A 190 kDa putative apolipophorin I present in host hemolymph could not be detected in the midguts of feeding H. hebetor larvae indicating that it is rapidly digested. The major 60 kDa storage proteins (putative hexamerins) in host hemolymph were detected in the parasitoid midgut and were completely digested 24 h after cessation of feeding and the beginning of cocoon formation. Host hemolymph had a pH of about 6.4. The pH optima of the midgut proteinases in the larval parasitoid were in the alkaline region, but midgut fluid in feeding parasitoid larvae was about pH 6. 8. Based on enzyme activity against selected artificial proteinase substrates including azocasein, N-alpha-benzoyl-L-Arg p-nitroanilide (BApNA), succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide (SAAPFpNA), succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu p-nitroanilide (SAAPLpNA), and inhibition by selected proteinase inhibitors, serine proteinases appear to be the predominant class of enzymes involved in protein digestion in the midguts of H. hebetor. There is also an active aminopeptidase (LpNA) associated with the microsomal fraction of midgut preparations. There was no evidence for preoral digestion or ingestion of proteinases from host hemolymph by the parasitoid larva. There was a very active BApNAase in the soluble fraction of midgut extracts. This activity increased on a per midgut basis up to 24 h after the beginning of cocoon formation but decreased rapidly by 48 h. Two major (P1 and P3) and several minor proteinases were detected in midgut extracts of H. hebetor analysed with gelatin zymograms. The apparent molecular mass of P1 varied from 95 to 49 kDa depending on protein loading. P3 had an apparent molecular mass of 39 kDa that was independent of protein loading. In summary, electrophoretic evidence indicates that host hemolymph protein patterns do not change significantly for at least 72 h after paralysation by H. hebetor. The role, if any, of envenomization in preventing breakdown of hemolymph proteins during this time remains to be determined. Because the predominant host hemolymph proteins, a putative apolipophorin I and the putative hexamerins, are readily digested by the serine proteinases present in the midguts of this parasitoid larva, these or similar proteins would provide an easily digested source of dietary amino acids that could be used for development of artificial diets for this beneficial insect. PMID:10899460

Baker, J E; Fabrick, J A

2000-10-01

53

Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TSadded was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TSadded and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TSadded were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

2010-10-01

54

Integrative Effects of Feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on Growth Performance and Digestibility in Broilers: Promotion Muscle Protein Metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA?+?FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15?d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% FOS, and combined of 0.05% AA and 0.05% FOS. Results from measurement of growth performance and digestibility revealed a significant increase in the body weight gain with improved feed conversion rate in the experimental groups. Interestingly, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude protein utilization (CPU) were improved. In addition, plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, while plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by feeding AA, FOS, and AA?+?FOS. Expressions of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were increased in experimental groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of either Aspergillus awamori or fructooligosaccharide or both improves digestibility and growth performance probably by promoting skeletal muscle protein metabolism.

Saleh, Ahmed A.; Amber, Khairy; El-Magd, Mohammed A.; Atta, Mostafa S.; Mohammed, Ahmed A.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Abd El-Kader, Hanaa

2014-01-01

55

Integrative Effects of Feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on Growth Performance and Digestibility in Broilers: Promotion Muscle Protein Metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA?+?FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15?d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% FOS, and combined of 0.05% AA and 0.05% FOS. Results from measurement of growth performance and digestibility revealed a significant increase in the body weight gain with improved feed conversion rate in the experimental groups. Interestingly, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude protein utilization (CPU) were improved. In addition, plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, while plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by feeding AA, FOS, and AA?+?FOS. Expressions of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were increased in experimental groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of either Aspergillus awamori or fructooligosaccharide or both improves digestibility and growth performance probably by promoting skeletal muscle protein metabolism. PMID:24895630

Saleh, Ahmed A; Amber, Khairy; El-Magd, Mohammed A; Atta, Mostafa S; Mohammed, Ahmed A; Ragab, Mohamed M; Abd El-Kader, Hanaa

2014-01-01

56

Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the...

2012-01-01

57

Anaerobic digestion of carbohydrate and protein-based wastewaters in fluidized bed bioreactors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work is focused on evaluating the anaerobic digestion of complex substrates (proteins and carbohydrates) in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs). In a previous paper, an AFBR model was adjusted using only the experimental data obtained during the acclimatization stage (glucose and acetate-based feeding) of two mesophilic bioreactors. Here, the sensitivity of that model to represent the digestion processes of proteins such as gelatin and albumin, and sucrose as a carbohydrate, ...

Fuentes, M.; Scenna, N. J.; Aguirre, P. A.; Mussati, M. C.

2007-01-01

58

Computational analysis of the relationship between allergenicity and digestibility of allergenic proteins in simulated gastric fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified (GM food, with regard to allergenic potential of transgene-encoded xenoproteins, typically involves several different methods, evaluation by digestibility being one thereof. However, there are still debates about whether the allergenicity of food allergens is related to their resistance to digestion by the gastric fluid. The disagreements may in part stem from classification of allergens only by their sources, which we believe is inadequate, and the difficulties in achieving identical experimental conditions for studying digestion by simulated gastric fluid (SGF so that results can be compared. Here, we reclassify allergenic food allergens into alimentary canal-sensitized (ACS and non-alimentary canal-sensitized (NACS allergens and use a computational model that simulates gastric fluid digestion to analyze the digestibilities of these two types. Results The model presented in this paper is as effective as SGF digestion experiments, but more stable and reproducible. On the basis of this model, food allergens are satisfactorily classified as ACS and NACS types by their pathways for sensitization; the former are relatively resistant to gastric fluid digestion while the later are relatively labile. Conclusion The results suggest that it is better to classify allergens into ACS and NACS types when understanding the relationship between their digestibility and allergenicity and the digestibility of a target foreign protein is a parameter for evaluating its allergenicity during safety assessments of GM food.

Ni Ting

2007-10-01

59

Influence of whey protein-beet pectin conjugate on the properties and digestibility of ?-carotene emulsion during in vitro digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of a whey protein isolate (WPI)-beet pectin (BP) conjugate (formed by dry-heating) on the physical properties and digestibilities of ?-carotene and carrier oil in oil-in-water emulsions was studied when they passed through a model gastrointestinal system. ?-Carotene emulsions were stabilized by WPI, unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP, separately. The emulsions were then passed through an in vitro digestion model and the mean droplet size, droplet distribution, zeta-potential, free fatty acids and ?-carotene released were measured. The stability to droplet flocculation and coalescence during digestion was increased for the WPI-BP conjugate stabilized emulsion. Addition of BP onto the WPI stabilized emulsions could inhibit the releases of carrier oil (MCT) and ?-carotene. The releases of free fatty acids and ?-carotene did not differ greatly between the unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP stabilized emulsions. These results have important implications for protein-polysaccharide stabilized emulsions and conjugates used for the protection and delivery of bioactive compounds. PMID:24629983

Xu, Duoxia; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang; Panya, Atikorn; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

2014-08-01

60

Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed. PMID:24128503

Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

2014-02-15

 
 
 
 
61

Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 Ã? 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3 d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility

Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

2014-01-01

62

Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility. PMID:24835962

Alstrup, L; Weisbjerg, M R; Hymøller, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Nielsen, M O

2014-07-01

63

Influence of Strain of Chickens on Ileal Amino Acids Digestibility of Different Protein Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four protein sources (soyabean meal, fish silage, sardine fish and fishmeal using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated; representing four different proteins sources and was evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-period of 23 h in every 24 h. Diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. On the fourth day after the adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then the birds were killed to allow for sampling of ileal digesta, from Meckels diverticulum to the ileal-caecal-colonic injunction. Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001 higher digestibility coefficients and digestible content of amino acids across all the protein sources than the local birds. Out of the four protein sources evaluated in this study, fishmeal had the lowest amino acids digestibility coefficient for the two bird breeds (p<0.001. The digestibility coefficient and digestible content of amino acids estimates for fish silage was the highest across the two strains (p<0.001. The lower digestibility of amino acids for soyabean meal is related to the presence of; antinutritional factor, trypsin inhibitor. Fish silage shows a great potential to be used as protein supplements for poultry feeding. The results suggest that the class of chickens and protein source significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible contents of amino acids in the nutrient assessed in this study.

I.T. Kadim

2011-01-01

64

Tube-Gel Digestion: A NOVEL PROTEOMIC APPROACH FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF MEMBRANE PROTEINS*S  

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This study describes a new protein digestion protocol in which a variety of detergents can be used to solubilize membrane proteins and facilitate trypsin digestion with higher efficiency. In this protocol, proteins are dissolved in solutions containing various detergents and directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide gel matrix without electrophoresis. Detergents are subsequently eliminated from the gel matrix while proteins are still immobilized in the gel matrix. After in-gel digestion of ...

Lu, Xiaoning; Zhu, Haining

2005-01-01

65

A general protease digestion procedure for optimal protein sequence coverage and PTM analysis of recombinant glycoproteins: Application to the characterization of hLOXL2 glycosylation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using recombinant DNA technology for expression of protein therapeutics is a maturing field of pharmaceutical research and development. As recombinant proteins are increasingly utilized as biotherapeutics, improved methodologies ensuring the characterization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) are needed. Typically, proteins prepared for PTM analysis are proteolytically digested and analyzed by mass spectrometry. To assure full coverage of the PTMs on a given protein, one must obtain c...

2011-01-01

66

Effect of Fermentation, Malt-Pretreatment and Cooking on Antinutritional Factors and Protein Digestibility of Sorghum Cultivars  

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Full Text Available Two sorghum cultivars namely, Mugud (low tannin and Karamaka (high tannin were used in this study. The flour of the seeds of both cultivars was mixed with 5% malt. Then the flour with or without malt was fermented for 16 h. Samples were taken every 2 h during fermentation to study changes in pH, total acidity, crude protein and dry matter. Fermentation of the flour with or without malt resulted in an increase in crude protein content and total acidity for both cultivars. Moreover, the fermented flour with or without malt was cooked to study changes in phytate, tannins and in vitro protein digestibility of the cultivars. A highly significant (P < 0.05 reduction in antinutritional factors (phytate and tannins was observed for malted and fermented flour compared to the fermented dough. Cooking significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the in vitro protein digestibility of the treated cultivars but the extent of the reduction is lower in malted samples. Fermentation alleviates the adverse effect of cooking on sorghum protein digestibility after addition of malt. Results obtained revealed that addition of malt followed by fermentation is a useful method to improve the nutritional value of sorghum even after cooking.

Wedad Wedad

2008-01-01

67

Protein and Digestible Threonine Levels in Pre Starter Diets for Broiler Chicks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This experiment was carried out in experimental poultry facilities of University of Goias to estimate digestible threonine (Thr) requirement for broiler from 1 to 21 days of age. 384 AgRoss-508 broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, with two protein levels (205 and 221 g/kg) and four digestible threonine levels (6.1, 7.1, 8.1 and 9.1 g/kg) with four replications of 12 birds each. The performance, nutrient digestibility and morfom...

Alexandre Barbosa de Brito; Jose Henrique Stringhini; Roberto de Moraes Jardim Filho; Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier; Marcos Barcellos Cafe; Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

2013-01-01

68

Analytical criteria for predicting apparent digestibility of soybean protein in preruminant calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of experiments on the use of soybean as a protein source in milk replacers for veal calves was undertaken to determine the relationships between the physicochemical and antinutritional properties and apparent digestibilities of nine soybean products. Soybean provided between 58 and 71% of dietary CP, and skim milk or whey powder provided the remainder. Soybean products were analyzed for CP, native protein, aggregated protein, carbohydrate-linked protein, peptides, antitryptic activity, and immunoreactivity of lectin, glycinin, alpha-conglycinin, and beta-conglycinin. The apparent digestibility of N calculated for soybean protein varied between 59 and 84%. Simple linear correlations were significant between apparent digestibility of soybean N and concentrations of native protein, antitryptic activity, glycinin, alpha-conglycinin, and beta-conglycinin. However, only variation in antitryptic activity, alpha-conglycinin, and beta-conglycinin contributed significantly to an explanation for the variation in apparent digestibility of soybean N in a multiple linear equation. Under our experimental conditions, beta-conglycinin was the best predictor of digestibility of soybean N. Antitryptic activity became the best predictor when soybean products had no detectable beta-conglycinin. PMID:8708110

Lalles, J P; Tukur, H M; Toullec, R; Miller, B G

1996-03-01

69

Improved design of anaerobic digesters for household biogas production in indonesia: one cow, one digester, and one hour of cooking per day.  

Science.gov (United States)

A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ? 1 h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor proved to be a major drawback. Here, we improved the digester configuration to remedy clogging while maintaining system performance. Controlled experiments were performed using four 9-L laboratory-scale digesters operated at a temperature of 27 ± 1 °C, a volatile solids loading rate of 2.0 g VS · L(-1) · day(-1), and a 21-day hydraulic retention time. Two of the digesters were replicates of the original design (control digesters), while the other two digesters included internal mixing or effluent recycle (experimental digesters). The performance of each digester was compared based on methane yields, VS removal efficiencies, and steady-state solids concentrations during an operating period of 311 days. Statistical analyses revealed that internal mixing and effluent recycling resulted in reduced solids accumulation compared to the controls without diminishing methane yields or solids removal efficiencies. PMID:24715809

Usack, Joseph G; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T

2014-01-01

70

Improved Design of Anaerobic Digesters for Household Biogas Production in Indonesia: One Cow, One Digester, and One Hour of Cooking per Day  

Science.gov (United States)

A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3?m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ?1?h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor proved to be a major drawback. Here, we improved the digester configuration to remedy clogging while maintaining system performance. Controlled experiments were performed using four 9-L laboratory-scale digesters operated at a temperature of 27 ± 1°C, a volatile solids loading rate of 2.0?g VS·L?1·day?1, and a 21-day hydraulic retention time. Two of the digesters were replicates of the original design (control digesters), while the other two digesters included internal mixing or effluent recycle (experimental digesters). The performance of each digester was compared based on methane yields, VS removal efficiencies, and steady-state solids concentrations during an operating period of 311 days. Statistical analyses revealed that internal mixing and effluent recycling resulted in reduced solids accumulation compared to the controls without diminishing methane yields or solids removal efficiencies.

Usack, Joseph G.; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T.

2014-01-01

71

Evaluation of single cell protein from pulp mills: laboratory analyses and in vivo digestibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single cell protein (SCP) derived from secondary clarifiers of pulp mills is a potential commercial protein supplement in many areas. Samples of SCP were collected from several pulp mills in the Pacific Northwest and evaluated by laboratory procedures. Six in vivo digestion trials were conducted to determine the relative nutritive value of SCP that was dewatered by centrifugation or by the addition of a polyacrylamide polymer before being put through a belt press and dried with a sonic dehydrator. Amino acid analyses showed that SCP was higher in methionine than was cottonseed meal (CSM) and had a similar level of lysine. True protein, based upon amino acids recovered in SCP samples, ranged from 51.6 to 65.9% of the crude protein (CP). Pepsin digestibility of the CP ranged from 16.2 to 36.8%. Pepsin digestibility increased by 6.3 to 11.3 percentage units when SCP were incubated in a buffered rumen fluid for 24 hours. Solubility of the nitrogenous components in 10% Burroughs' buffer solution ranged from 12.4 to 36.5%. The range in mineral composition was : P, .62 to 1.55%; Ca, .14 to .99%; K, .21 to 5.52%; Mg, .07 to .59%. The concentration of trace minerals and heavy metals varied considerably from sample to sample. Digestion trials were conducted with sheep to compare SCP with CSM; 20 to 50% of the total CP was provided by the SCP sources. The CP digestibilities of the centrifuged and the polymer-dewatered SCP were 70.5 to 70.8% and 66.3 to 69.9%, respectively, of that observed for CSM. In all digestion trials, sheep consumed the SCP diets readily, and no digestive disturbances were observed. On the basis of laboratory and in vivo results, pulp mill SCP has the potential to be a viable protein supplement for livestock.

Kellems, R.O.; Aseltine, M.S.; Church, D.C.

1981-12-01

72

Comprehensive analysis of protein digestion using six trypsins reveals the origin of trypsin as a significant source of variability in proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypsin is an endoprotease commonly used for sample preparation in proteomics experiments. Importantly, protein digestion is dependent on multiple factors, including the trypsin origin and digestion conditions. In-depth characterization of trypsin activity could lead to improved reliability of peptide detection and quantitation in both targeted and discovery proteomics studies. To this end, we assembled a data analysis pipeline and suite of visualization tools for quality control and comprehensive characterization of preanalytical variability in proteomics experiments. Using these tools, we evaluated six available proteomics-grade trypsins and their digestion of a single purified protein, human serum albumin (HSA). HSA was aliquoted and then digested for 2 or 18 h for each trypsin, and the resulting digests were desalted and analyzed in triplicate by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Peptides were identified and quantified using the NIST MSQC pipeline and a comprehensive HSA mass spectral library. We performed a statistical analysis of peptide abundances from different digests and further visualized the data using the principal component analysis and quantitative protein "sequence maps". While the performance of individual trypsins across repeat digests was reproducible, significant differences were observed depending on the origin of the trypsin (i.e., bovine vs porcine). Bovine trypsins produced a higher number of peptides containing missed cleavages, whereas porcine trypsins produced more semitryptic peptides. In addition, many cleavage sites showed variable digestion kinetics patterns, evident from the comparison of peptide abundances in 2 h vs 18 h digests. Overall, this work illustrates effects of an often neglected source of variability in proteomics experiments: the origin of the trypsin. PMID:24116745

Walmsley, Scott J; Rudnick, Paul A; Liang, Yuxue; Dong, Qian; Stein, Stephen E; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

2013-12-01

73

Changes in Total Protein Digestibility, Fractions Content and Structure During Cooking of Lentil Cultivars  

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Full Text Available The effect of cooking on total protein digestibility and fractions content and structure of lentil cultivars was investigated. Cooking significantly (P = 0.05 reduced the protein digestibility using pepsin and/or pancreatin. Pepsin digestibility of raw seeds ranged from 44.6 to 52.1% and that of both pepsin and pancreatin ranged from 81.8 to 99.9%. Cooking reduced the protein digestibility of the cultivars and was found to be range from 22.3 to 19.7% when pepsin was used and ranged from 77.1 to 88.2% when both pepsin and pancreatin were used. The major protein in lentil was albumin followed by globulin. Cooking significantly (P = 0.05 decreased the albumin content. The decrease was accompanied by significant increment in the glutelin fractions. SDS-PAGE of cooked lentil protein fractions showed that lentil protein was altered quantitatively and qualitatively due to cooking. The number of subunits of total protein in lentil cultivars before cooking was found to range from 17 to 19 bands. However, after cooking they decreased and ranged from 13 to 16 bands. The effect of cooking was most pronounced in the prolamins fractions and its subunits were reduced from 4 to 2 with a higher molecular weight of 56.0kDa.

Mashair A. Sulieman

2008-01-01

74

Investigation of protein digestibility and amino acid absorption in different segments of porcine digestive tract. 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 4 pigs (live weight 63 kg) with re-entrance cannulae in the duodenum as well as in the ileocecal region intake, excretion and flow rate of protein, methionine and 35S were measured after supplementary oral application of 35S-methionine to a wheat-wheat gluten-lysine diet and a protein-free diet, respectively, over a period of 7 days. For both the N and the methionine metabolism patterns were outlined according to the measured values and with the aid of a compartment model. The endogenous and exogenous levels of proteins and methionine in the duodenum, ileum and feces were estimated

1979-01-01

75

Use of self assembled magnetic beads for on-chip protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of grafted trypsin magnetic beads in a microchip for performing protein digestion is described. The PDMS device uses strong magnets to create a magnetic field parallel to the flow with a strong gradient pointing through the center of the chip channel. This allows for the formation of a low-hydrodynamic resistance plug of magnetic trypsin beads that serves as a matrix for protein digestion. This device represents an inexpensive way of fabricating a multi open-tubular-like column with an appropriate pore size for proteins. Kinetics studies of the hydrolysis of a model peptide show a 100-fold increase in digestion speed obtained by the microsystem when compared to a batch wise system. This system also offers the great advantage of easy replacement, as the bead matrix is easily washed out and replaced. High performance and reproducibility for digesting recombinant human growth hormone are confirmed by analysing the digest products in both CE and MALDI-TOF MS. Similar sequence coverage (of about 44%) is obtained from MS analysis of products after 10 minutes on-chip and 4 h with soluble trypsin in bulk. PMID:16100577

Slovakova, Marcela; Minc, Nicolas; Bilkova, Zuzana; Smadja, Claire; Faigle, Wolfgang; Fütterer, Claus; Taverna, Myriam; Viovy, Jean-Louis

2005-09-01

76

Cultivar and processing effects on the pasting characteristics, tannin content and protein quality and digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Four popular West African local cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), with distinctly different seed coat colors, were evaluated for their relative amylograph pasting characteristics, condensed tannin content, in vitro protein digestibility and Tetrahymena protein efficiency ratio (t-PER). The effects of roasting and dehulling on these properties were also determined. There were wide variations in the hot paste viscosity characteristics of the different cultivars studied. The raw cowpea flour samples exhibited maximum paste viscosities ranging between 260 Brabender Units (BU) for the Mottled cultivar and 460 BU for the cream-colored Blackeye cultivar. Cowpea cultivars with the greatest peak viscosities showed low stabilities to extended cooking. Roasting depressed paste viscosity properties of all the cowpea cultivars studied. Tannin concentrations were 0.3-6.9 and 7.2-116 mg CE/g flour from whole cowpea seeds and seed coats respectively, increasing with intensity of seed color. Although dehulling removed 98% of the tannin content of raw cowpeas, improvement in protein quality as a result of dehulling was observed for only the highly-pigmented Maroon-red variety. Roasting significantly improved digestibility and more than doubled the t-PER of all cowpea cultivars studied. Roasted cowpeas possess adequate nutritional and functional qualities as protein supplements in cereal-based weaning foods. However, it appears that dehulling is necessary to enhance the nutritional quality of the highly pigmented cultivars of cowpea. PMID:9650727

Plahar, W A; Annan, N T; Nti, C A

1997-01-01

77

Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germination of legumes followed by hydrothermal treatments is an effective mean of improving nutritive value of legumes. The protein content of mungbean, chickpea and cowpea increased by 9-11, 11-16 and 8-11% after germination. A significant (p???0.05) decrease in protein content was observed on pressure cooking and microwaving in all three legumes. The carbohydrates decreased by 1 to 3% during soaking and 2 to 6% during germination. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) was observed after soaking as well as after three germination periods. Germination resulted in an increase in IVPD from 15 to 25% in mungbean, 6 to 17% in chickpea and 6 to 17% in cowpea. A significant (p???0.05) increase in IVPD was observed when raw sprouts of three legumes were subjected to pressure cooking and microwaving. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) increased significantly (p???0.05) after germination, the percent increase being 8 to 12% in mungbean, 9 to 11% in chickpea and 10 to 13% in cowpea. The duration of germination had significant (p???0.05) effect on IVSD. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in IVSD was observed when legume sprouts were subjected to pressure cooking and microwave cooking. PMID:23572840

Uppal, Veny; Bains, Kiran

2012-04-01

78

Protein and Digestible Threonine Levels in Pre Starter Diets for Broiler Chicks  

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Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental poultry facilities of University of Goias to estimate digestible threonine (Thr requirement for broiler from 1 to 21 days of age. 384 AgRoss-508 broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, with two protein levels (205 and 221 g/kg and four digestible threonine levels (6.1, 7.1, 8.1 and 9.1 g/kg with four replications of 12 birds each. The performance, nutrient digestibility and morfometrical index were evaluated. The polynomial regression and linear response plateau (LRP model was used to estimate digestible, had been the Minimum Square of Deviations (MSD utilized for choice criterion. Used polynomial regression, the results showed that a quadratic effect (p2/21 days - Y = 510.08 + 508.91x - 324.61x2 which estimates a 7.9 and 7.1 g/kg of digestible Thr, but LRP model showed low MSD and smaller estimates for digestible Thr levels (7.7 and 6.7 g/kg in seven and 21 days, respectively. The results showed a tendency if lower levels of digestible Thr (below to 7.1 g/kg reduced intestinal length. The digestible Thr levels recommended for pre-starter phase vary from 7.7 at 6.7 g/kg, estimated by LRP model and 7.9 at 7.1 g/kg estimated by polynomial regression for mean body weight at seven and 21 days of age, respectively, but the LRP values presented smaller minimum square of deviations.

Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

2013-01-01

79

Quantifying raft proteins in neonatal mouse brain by 'tube-gel' protein digestion label-free shotgun proteomics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The low concentration and highly hydrophobic nature of proteins in lipid raft samples present significant challenges for the sensitive and accurate proteomic analyses of lipid raft proteins. Elimination of highly enriched lipids and interfering substances from raft samples is generally required before mass spectrometric analyses can be performed, but these procedures often lead to excessive protein loss and increased sample variability. For accurate analyses of the raft proteome, simplified protocols are needed to avoid excessive sample handling and purification steps. Results We have devised a simple protocol using a 'tube-gel' protein digestion that, when combined with mass spectrometry, can be used to obtain comprehensive and reproducible identification and quantitation of the lipid raft proteome prepared from neonatal mouse brain. Lipid rafts (detergent-resistant membranes using Triton X-100 extraction prepared from neonatal mouse brain were directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide tube-gel matrix without prior protein separation. After in-gel digestion of proteins, nanospray LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the extracted peptides, and the resulting spectra were searched to identify the proteins present in the sample. Using the standard 'label-free' proteomics approach, the total number of MS/MS spectra for the identified proteins was used to provide a measure of relative protein abundances. This approach was successfully applied to lipid rafts prepared from neonatal mouse brain. A total of 216 proteins were identified: 127 proteins (58.8% were predicted to be membrane proteins, or membrane-associated proteins and 175 proteins (~80% showed less than a 2-fold variation in the relative abundance in replicate samples. Conclusion The tube-gel protein digestion protocol coupled with nanospray LC-MS/MS (TubeGeLC-MS/MS offers a simple and reproducible method for identifying and quantifying the changes of relative abundances in lipid raft proteins from neonatal mouse brain and could become a useful approach for studying lipid raft proteins from various tissues.

Tint G Stephen

2007-09-01

80

Development of an open-tubular trypsin reactor for on-line digestion of proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was initiated to construct a micro-reactor for protein digestion based on trypsin-coated fused-silica capillaries. Initially, surface plasmon resonance was used both for optimization of the surface chemistry applied in the preparation and for monitoring the amount of enzyme that was immobilized. The highest amount of trypsin was immobilized on dextran-coated SPR surfaces which allowed the covalent coupling of 11 ng mm(-2) trypsin. Fused-silica capillaries were modified in a similar manner and the resulting open-tubular trypsin-reactors having a pH optimum of pH 8.5, display a high activity when operated at 37 degrees C and are stable for at least two weeks when used continuously. Trypsin auto-digestion fragments, sample carry-over, and loss of signal due to adsorption of the protein were not observed. On-line digestion without prior protein denaturation, followed by micro-LC separation and photodiode array detection, was tested with horse-heart cytochrome C and horse skeletal-muscle myoglobin. The complete digestion of 20 pmol microL(-1) horse cytochrome C was observed when the average residence time of the protein sample in a 140 cm x 50 microm capillary immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) was 165 s. Mass spectrometric identification of the injected protein on the basis of the tryptic peptides proved possible. Protein digestion was favorable with respect to reaction time and fragments formed when compared with other on-line and off-line procedures. These results and the easy preparation of this micro-reactor provide possibilities for miniaturized enzyme-reactors for on-line peptide mapping and inhibitor screening. PMID:17899035

Stigter, E C A; de Jong, G J; van Bennekom, W P

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effects of dietary digestible lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in the carcass of broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in the diets of male and female broilers on protein and fat deposition. A total of 2160 Avian Farms broilers. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, and treatments consisted of the effects of three digestible lysine levels nested within each sex, with 12 replicates and 30 birds per experimental unit. The adopted digestible lysine levels corresponded to 92.5, 100.0, and 107.5% of the nutritional requirements of phases 1 to 21 days, 22 to 42 days, and 43 to 56 days of age, respectively. In each phase, the experimental diets contained similar calorie and protein levels within each sex. No significant effects of lysine levels were found on dry matter and fat percentages in the carcass of birds during the evaluated periods. Also, there were no significant effects of lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in males or females. However, males presented higher protein deposition and lower fat deposition than females during the total experimental period. Gompertz equations showed that females deposit more fat and less protein than males, and that this affected the fall in the curve of protein deposition, when the curve of fat deposition was still rising. Therefore, it was concluded that the older the broilers at slaughter, the higher their body fat content and the lower their body protein content, particularly in females.

F de C Tavernari

2009-06-01

82

Effects of dehulling, cooking and storage conditions on protein quality and digestibility of soybeans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soybeans were dehulled, stored under two environmental conditions [25 degrees C/75% R.H. (Env. 1) and 38 degrees C/90% R.H. (Env.2)], optimally cooked and assayed for trypsin inhibitor and protein quality with laboratory rats. Dehulling did not significantly affect protein quality (PER and NPR) and protein digestibility of raw and cooked soybeans. Raw soybeans diets were significantly poorer in protein quality and digestibility when compared with cooked counterparts. PER values of dehulled-cooked soybean diets decreased significantly (P<0.05) as seeds were stored for up to 3 months under either environment. There were no significant differences in PER values due to storage during the period from 3 to 6 months. PER values for whole-cooked soybean diets exhibited a significant decline only when stored for 6 months under Env. 2. PMID:8729251

Cabral, L C; Serna-Saldivar, S O; Tinksley, A M; Weber, C W

1995-03-01

83

Histochemical studies on enzyme-digested protein plugs of patients with chronic pancreatitis: a preliminary report.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sulfated acidic mucopolysaccharides have been found to be significant components of "protein plugs" in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The precise identification of the mucopolysaccharides and their distribution within the protein plugs may clarify the pathogenesis of the plugs. Pure pancreatic juice from five patients with chronic pancreatitis was obtained by endoscopic retrograde catheterization of the papilla of Vater. Enzymes for digestion of the plugs included hyaluronidas...

Harada, Hideo; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Miki, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirofumi; Ochi, Kozi; Kimura, Ikuro; Takeda, Masahiko; Tanaka, Juntaro; Tanaka, Toshio

1983-01-01

84

Effects of malondialdehyde modification on the in vitro digestibility of soy protein isolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soy protein isolate (SPI) was modified by lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), and the in vitro digestibility of modified SPI was investigated. Results indicated that incubation with increasing MDA concentration resulted in significant carbonyl group generation and loss of free amino groups of SPI. Fluorescence loss of natural tryptophan and formation of Schiff base were observed. Noncovalent interaction between molecules was enhanced and became the main force that led to the solubility reduction of MDA-modified SPI. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated that SPI had higher thermal stability and lower total calorimetric enthalpy after MDA pretreatment. Electrophoresis showed that ?-conglycinin was more sensitive to MDA modification. In vitro digestion indicated that MDA could induce non-disulfide covalent polymer of SPI, which could not be digested by pepsin and pancreatin. ? subunits of ?-conglycinin became more resistant to digestion with increasing MDA concentration. Evaluation of the free amino acid profile in the digests indicated that MDA-modified SPI had deteriorating nutritive quality. PMID:24236702

Chen, Nannan; Zhao, Qiangzhong; Sun, Weizheng; Zhao, Mouming

2013-12-11

85

SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

M Bassompierre

1997-10-01

86

Improved method for identification of low abundance proteins using 2D-gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF and TOF/TOF  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Differential protein expression studies have been routinely performed in our laboratory to determine the health effects of environmentally-important chemicals. In this abstract, improvements in the in-gel protein digestion, MALDI plate spotting and data acquisition...

87

Minimizing asynchronism to improve the performances of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and corn stover.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the existence of the asynchronism during the anaerobic co-digestion of different substrates, two typical substrates of food waste and corn stover were anaerobically digested with altering organic loadings (OL). The results indicated that the biodegradability of food waste and corn stover was calculated to be 81.5% and 55.1%, respectively, which was main reason causing the asynchronism in the co-digestion. The asynchronism was minimized by NaOH-pretreatment for corn stover, which could improve the biodegradability by 36.6%. The co-digestion with pretreatment could increase the biomethane yield by 12.2%, 3.2% and 0.6% comparing with the co-digestion without pretreatment at C/N ratios of 20, 25 and 30 at OL of 35g-VS/L, respectively. The results indicated that the digestibility synchronism of food waste and corn stover was improved through enhancing the accessibility and digestibility of corn stover. The biomethane production could be increased by minimizing the asynchronism of two substrates in co-digestion. PMID:24880810

Zhou, Qi; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Jaffu, Muhanmad; Chufo, Akiber; Li, Xiujin

2014-08-01

88

Effect of gel structure on the gastric digestion of whey protein emulsion gels.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to characterize and determine the disintegration of emulsion gels in a human gastric simulator (HGS) and the physicochemical characteristics of gastric digesta. Using thermal treatment at 90 °C, whey protein emulsion gels with different structures and gel strengths were formed by varying the ionic strength. Simulated boluses of soft (containing 10 mM NaCl) and hard (200 mM NaCl) gels, which had similar particle sizes to those of human subjects, were created for gastric digestion. Soft gels disintegrated faster than hard gels in the HGS. The boluses of both gels gradually disintegrated into particles of size ?10 ?m. With further digestion, the protein matrix of the soft gel particles dissolved, the proteins were disrupted mainly by proteolysis and large quantities of oil droplets were released. In contrast, for the hard gel particles, although all proteins were hydrolysed after 240 min the breakdown of the particles was slow and no oil droplets were released after 300 min. The differences in the breakdown of soft and hard gels in the HGS were attributed to the structures of the emulsion gel, which may result in different sets of peptides in the digestion. In addition, coalescence of the oil droplets was observed only for the soft gel. PMID:24652237

Guo, Qing; Ye, Aiqian; Lad, Mita; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

2014-02-28

89

Sonoreactor-based technology for fast high-throughput proteolytic digestion of proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast (120 s) and high-throughput (more than six samples at once) in-gel trypsin digestion of proteins using sonoreactor technology has been achieved. Successful protein identification was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific identification of the adenylylsulphate reductase alfa subunit from a complex protein mixture from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was done as a proof of the methodology. The new sample treatment is of easy implementation, saves time and money, and can be adapted to online procedures and robotic platforms. PMID:17269750

Rial-Otero, R; Carreira, R J; Cordeiro, F M; Moro, A J; Fernandes, L; Moura, I; Capelo, J L

2007-02-01

90

Effect of domestic processing on the cooking time, nutrients, antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of the African yambean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of processing (soaking, dehulling, fermentation and heat treatment) on the cooking time, protein, mineral, tannin, phytate and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the African yambean (AYB) were examined. The cooking time ranged from 90-155 minutes. Soaking reduced cooking time by about 50 percent. Soaking for 12 hours was the most appropriate to reduce cooking time, tannin and phytate levels. It improved in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). Prolonged soaking (24 hours) decreased calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) values by 19 percent and 35 percent, respectively. Dehulling showed that Ca, Fe, magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were concentrated in the seed coat of the AYB. The seeds soaked and dehulled retained Mg and Zn. Dehulling reduced tannin but had no significant effect on phytate and the IVPD of the AYB except for seeds soaked for 12 hours before dehulling. Soaking for 24 hours before dehulling significantly increased crude protein content by 16 percent (p < 0.05). Blanching and roasting increased the IVPD by 8-11 percent. Fermentation had no effect on the crude protein, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn but significantly reduced phytate content of the AYB. Fermentation had no advantage over heat treatment with respect to improving the in vitro protein digestibility of the AYB. PMID:9139303

Ene-obong, H N; Obizoba, I C

1996-01-01

91

Anaerobic digestion of carbohydrate and protein-based wastewaters in fluidized bed bioreactors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The present work is focused on evaluating the anaerobic digestion of complex substrates (proteins and carbohydrates) in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs). In a previous paper, an AFBR model was adjusted using only the experimental data obtained during the acclimatization stage (glucose and ac [...] etate-based feeding) of two mesophilic bioreactors. Here, the sensitivity of that model to represent the digestion processes of proteins such as gelatin and albumin, and sucrose as a carbohydrate, is analyzed. Some kinetic expressions and parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis processes need to be modified to represent the real behavior of bioreactors. Under the analyzed operating conditions, a hydraulic retention time higher than 1 day is suggested to ensure good system efficiency.

Fuentes, M.; Scenna, N. J.; Aguirre, P. A.; Mussati, M. C..

92

Improvement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of agri-food waste by addition of glycerol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic co-digestion is a promising alternative to manage agri-food waste rather than landfilling, composting or incineration. But improvement of methane yield and biodegradability is often required to optimize its economic viability. Biomethanization of agri-food solid waste presents the disadvantage of a slow hydrolytic phase, which might be enhanced by adding a readily digestible substrate such as glycerol. In this study, strawberry extrudate, fish waste and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing are mixed at a proportion of 54:5:41, in VS (VS, total volatile solids), respectively. The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion at lab-scale of the mixture was stable at loads lower than 1.85 g VS/L, reaching a methane yield coefficient of 308 L CH4/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm) and a biodegradability of 96.7%, in VS. Moreover, the treatment capacity of strawberry and fish waste was increased 16% at adding the crude glycerol. An economic assessment was also carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed process. Even in a pessimistic scenario, the net balance was found to be positive. The glycerol adding implied a net saving in a range from 25.5 to 42.1 €/t if compared to landfill disposal. PMID:24726968

Serrano, Antonio; Siles, Jose A; Chica, Arturo F; Martin, M Angeles

2014-07-01

93

Functionality, in Vitro Digestibility and Physicochemical Properties of Two Varieties of Defatted Foxtail Millet Protein Concentrates  

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Full Text Available Two varieties of foxtail millet protein concentrates (white and yellow were characterized for in vitro trypsin digestibility, functional and physicochemical properties. Millet protein concentrate was easily digested by trypsin in vitro. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU for humans. Yellow millet protein concentrate (YMPC possessed the highest differential scanning calorimetry result (peak temperature of 88.98 °C, delta H = 0.01 J/g, white millet protein concentrate (WMPC had the lowest (peak temperature 84.06 °C, delta H = 0.10 J/g. The millet protein concentrates had molecular sizes around 14.4 and 97.4 kDa. They have U-shape solubility curves. Waterbinding capacity was in the range of 5.0 and 7.0 g/g, while oil absorption capacity ranged between 4.8 and 5.9 g/g. WMPC had higher bulk density (0.22 g/mL and emulsifying capacity than YMPC and Soy Protein Concentrate (SPC. Foam capacity and foam stability ranged from 137 to 73 g/mL for WMPC, from 124 to 61 g/mL SPC and from 124 to 46 g/mL for YMPC. Millet protein concentrates are potential functional food ingredients.

Huiming Zhou

2009-12-01

94

Development of an open-tubular trypsin reactor for on-line digestion of proteins  

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A study was initiated to construct a micro-reactor for protein digestion based on trypsin-coated fused-silica capillaries. Initially, surface plasmon resonance was used both for optimization of the surface chemistry applied in the preparation and for monitoring the amount of enzyme that was immobilized. The highest amount of trypsin was immobilized on dextran-coated SPR surfaces which allowed the covalent coupling of 11 ng mm?2 trypsin. Fused-silica capillaries were modified in a similar m...

Stigter, E. C. A.; Jong, G. J.; Bennekom, W. P.

2007-01-01

95

Effects of gamma irradiation on ruminal protein degradation and intestinal digestibility of cottonseed meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dry matter of cottonseed meal (CSM) was determined by freeze-drying 1 g sample in duplicate. Based on this value, sufficient water was added to increase the moisture content of 2.5 kg of CSM to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was carried out in a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 deg. C. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.37 Gy/s. Three polyethylene packages of samples were irradiated in a gamma cell for total doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy in the presence of air. Prior to sealing in plastic bags, samples were allowed to air equilibrate for 2 h, then refrigerated (4 deg. C). Duplicate nylon bags of untreated or irradiated CSM were suspended in the rumen of four non-lactating Holstein cows for up to 48 h, and in situ resulting data were fitted to non-linear degradation model to calculate degradation parameters of crude protein. Proteins of untreated and treated CSM bag residues were fractionated by gel electrophoresis. Intestinal digestibility of crude protein was measured using the mobile nylon bag technique. As shown, gamma irradiation of CSM resulted in decreasing of crude protein disappearance in the rumen. This is beneficial effect for high producing ruminants, which need high amount of escaped protein from rumen to intestine. Fitting disappearance data to non-linear degradation model showed that the wash out fraction and degradation rate of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01), but the potentially degradable fraction increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increases in irradiation doses. As a consequence, the effective degradability of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as doses increased. Intestinal digestibility of ruminally undegraded crude protein increased linearly (P < 0.01) as irradiation doses increased. Three major protein components were observed: globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S. Electrophoretic results indicated that globulin 9S in untreated cottonseed meal (whereas globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S in gamma irradiated cottonseed meal) make the bulk of escaped protein. In gamma irradiated CSM, there were cross-linked products of the degraded protein molecules that could not penetrate the running gels. Gamma irradiation of protein will result in denaturation of protein and probably transform the proteins to a more resistant structure. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation of cottonseed meal appeared to be an effective means of increasing digestible rumen undegradable protein content. (author)

2009-06-08

96

Amino acid composition, available lysine content and in vitro protein digestibility of selected tropical crop seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the search for alternative sources of food to alleviate hunger continues, this study was undertaken to determine nitrogen and amino acid content, chemical score, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of 8 lesser known, wild tropical seeds, gathered in Nigeria. Results were contrasted with a tropical soybean variety (Glycine max, TGX 1660-15F). The investigated seeds were Millettia thonningii, Gliricidia sepium, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Albizia zygia, Daneillia ogea and Afzella bella from the family of Leguminosae, Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) and Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae). The crude protein content, based on nitrogen determination, was found to be lower in the wild seeds compared to soybean, which was partly due to the relatively high content of non-protein nitrogen. With reference to amino acid requirement and digestibility in most seed samples, lysine, followed by sulphur amino acids and threonine, were the limiting amino acids. It was concluded, that these less familiar wild seed plants may be used as valuable food or feed complements. However, further investigation is necessary to elucidate potential toxic and antinutritional factors. PMID:9201749

Petzke, K J; Ezeagu, I E; Proll, J; Akinsoyinu, A O; Metges, C C

1997-01-01

97

Ruminally undegradable protein content and digestibility for forages using the mobile bag in situ technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate RUP content and digestibility for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, upland native range, and warm-season grasses. Samples were collected from esophageally cannulated cows or ruminally cannulated steers. Forages were ruminally incubated in in situ bags for durations of time based on 75% of total mean retention time, which was based on IVDMD and rate of passage calculations. One-half of the bags were duodenally incubated and excreted in the feces, and NDIN was analyzed on all bags for RUP calculations. Crude protein was numerically greater early in the growing cycle for grasses compared with later as grasses matured (P ? 0.32). The RUP was 13.3%, 13.3%, and 19.7% of CP for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. These values tended to be lower early in the growth cycle and increased (linear P ? 0.13) as forages matured for warm-season grasses and subirrigated meadows. Because both CP and RUP content change throughout the growing season, expressing RUP as a percentage of DM gives more consistent averages compared with RUP as a percentage of CP. Coefficient of variation values for RUP as a percentage of DM averaged 0.21 over all 4 experiments compared with 0.26 for RUP as a percentage of CP. Average RUP as a percentage of DM was 2.03%, 1.53%, and 1.94% for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. Total tract indigestible protein (TTIDP) linearly increased with maturity for subirrigated meadow samples (P < 0.01). A quadratic response (P ? 0.06) for TTIDP was observed in smooth bromegrass and warm-season grass samples. Digestibility of RUP varied considerably, ranging from 25% to 60%. Subirrigated meadow, native range, and smooth bromegrass samples tended to have linear decreases (P ? 0.11) in RUP digestibility throughout the growing season. The amount of digested RUP was fairly consistent across experiments and averages for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range were 0.92%, 0.64%, and 0.49% of DM, respectively. Warm-season grasses in Exp. 2 had greater RUP (4.31% of DM) and amount of RUP digested (2.26% of DM), possibly because of cattle selecting for leadplant that contains more CP than the grasses. Forages can vary in CP, RUP, TTIDP, and RUP digestibility depending on the forage type, year, and time within year, but RUP digestibility is likely less than what previous sources have reported. PMID:23478833

Buckner, C D; Klopfenstein, T J; Rolfe, K M; Griffin, W A; Lamothe, M J; Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Schacht, W H; Schroeder, P

2013-06-01

98

Effects of dietary crude protein levels on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of Thai indigenous male goats  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of Thai indigenous male goats fed different levels of crude protein (CP in total mixed rations (TMR. Twenty goats, average body weight of 15.84±2.35 kg were used. The four dietary treatments were randomly allocated into 5 blocks of the animals stratified on their initial body weight. Dietary treatments contained 8, 10, 12 and 14% CP (% of DM with a concentrate: roughage ratio of 85: 15. The feeding trial lasted for 120 days. At the end of feeding trial, digestion trial was conducted by total collection method for a 7-day period. Increasing levels of CP contents (8, 10, 12 and 14% significantly lead to increasing amount of crude protein intake (CPI, from 47.00 to 84.81 g/d and digestible crude protein intake, from 2.89 to 6.28 g/BW0.75/d (p<0.05. Increasing CP levels in TMR resulted in linearly increased goat’s final body weight (23.10, 23.42, 24.10 and 27.42 kg, respectively, weight gain(6.84, 7.37, 7.60 and 11.06 kg, respectively and average daily gain (ADG (56.97, 61.42, 63.30 and 92.13 g/d, respectively(p<0.01. Crude protein digestibility (62.05, 67.39, 71.23 and 74.89%, respectively was increased linearly (p<0.05 with increasing levels of CP levels in TMR. The results of the regression of CPI (g/BW0.75/d on ADG (g/BW0.75/d showed thatthe goats needed 3.57 g/BW0.75/d to maintain their body weight. The estimation of CP requirement for goat BW gain (g/g gain was 0.49. It can be concluded that increasing levels of CP content in TMR not only improved CPI but also enhanced CP digestibility and promoted growth performance of Thai indigenous goats. According to Thai indigenous goat response linearly to levels of CP in TMR so that more research study is needed to evaluate whether feeding greater levels CP wouldimprove the growth performance.

Kabuan Intharak

2010-01-01

99

Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by c...

J. Woodward J. P. Brown B. R. Evans K. A. Affholter

1992-01-01

100

Modifications of wheat flour proteins during in vitro digestion of bread dough, crumb, and crust: an electrophoretic and immunological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proteins of wheat flour have several biological activities that can affect human health and physiology when wheat-based foods are consumed. The modifications of bread crumb and crust proteins during an in vitro peptic/pancreatic digestion process were studied by electrophoresis and immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies specific for single proteins or groups of homologous proteins of the wheat flour, and the results were compared to those obtained for an unheated dough sample. The results show that baking affects the extent of proteolysis and the immunological and physicochemical features of the digestion products in relation to the level of the heat treatment. Therefore, the results concerning the digestion of the unheated wheat flour or dough are not representative of what happens when baked products enter the human digestive tract. PMID:11368585

Pasini, G; Simonato, B; Giannattasio, M; Peruffo, A D; Curioni, A

2001-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

A general protease digestion procedure for optimal protein sequence coverage and PTM analysis of recombinant glycoproteins: Application to the characterization of hLOXL2 glycosylation  

Science.gov (United States)

Using recombinant DNA technology for expression of protein therapeutics is a maturing field of pharmaceutical research and development. As recombinant proteins are increasingly utilized as biotherapeutics, improved methodologies ensuring the characterization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) are needed. Typically, proteins prepared for PTM analysis are proteolytically digested and analyzed by mass spectrometry. To assure full coverage of the PTMs on a given protein, one must obtain complete sequence coverage of the protein, which is often quite challenging. The objective of the research described here is to design a protocol that maximizes protein sequence coverage and enables detection of post-translational modifications, specifically N-linked glycosylation. To achieve this objective, a highly efficient proteolytic digest protocol using trypsin was designed by comparing the relative merits of denaturing agents (urea and Rapigest™ SF), reducing agents (dithiothreitol, DTT, and tris(2-carboxyethyl)phophine, TCEP), and various concentrations of alkylating agent (iodoacetamide, IAM). After analysis of human apo-transferrin using various protease digestion protocols, ideal conditions were determined to contain 6 M urea for denaturation, 5 mM TCEP for reduction, 10 mM IAM for alkylation, and 10 mM DTT, to quench excess IAM before the addition of trypsin. This method was successfully applied to a novel recombinant protein, human lysyl oxidase-like 2 (hLOXL2). Furthermore, the glycosylation PTMs were readily detected at two glycosylation sites in the protein. These digestion conditions were specifically designed for PTM analysis of recombinant proteins and biotherapeutics, and the work described herein fills an unmet need in the growing field of biopharmaceutical analysis.

Rebecchi, Kathryn R.; Go, Eden P.; Xu, Li; Woodin, Carrie L.; Mure, Minae; Desaire, Heather

2011-01-01

102

Efficient Digestion and Mass Spectral Analysis of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1: A Recombinant Membrane Protein Expressed in Yeast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attempts to characterize recombinant integral membrane proteins (IMPs) by mass spectrometry are frequently hindered by several factors including the detergents required for extraction and purification that interferes with analysis, poor solubility, incomplete digestion, and limited identification of the transmembrane domain-spanning peptides. The goal of this study was to examine and develop methods for purification of an IMP that are amenable to downstream digestion of the protein and peptid...

2008-01-01

103

Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP Enzyme Improves the Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Piglet Fed a Cottonseed Meal-Based Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available NSP is the major factor introducing a low digestibility of cottonseed meal in piglets. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of NSP enzyme on the nutrient digestibility of weaned piglets fed a cottonseed meal-based diets. About 15 weaned piglets (14±1.4 kg were selected and ileal fistula surgery was done to determine the DE, CP, DM and NSP’s apparent digestibility. The results indicated that NSP enzyme improved piglet’s apparent digestibility (p<0.05 in varying degrees; pectinase resulted in obvious degradation of the cell wall and increased piglets’ DE (26.69% and CP of ileal digesta (20.33% and compound enzyme was better in improving cottonseed meal based diets than single enzyme.

Xiaosong Wu

2012-01-01

104

Establishment of an abalone digestive gland cell line secreting various glycosidases in protein-free culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cell line designated as ADG was established from an abalone digestive gland using ERDF medium supplemented with 8% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 8% abalone hemolymph, and high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, and CaCl2. ADG cells proliferated better in protein-free medium than in FBS-supplemented medium. Among 9 kinds of media examined, ERDF medium was shown to be optimal for cell growth. ADG cells secreted 13 different kinds of glycosidases in protein-free medium: ?-L-fucosidase, ?...

Kusumoto, Kenichi; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Katakuta, Yoshinori; Murakami, Hiroki; Kamei, Yuto

1997-01-01

105

Magnetic proteinase K reactor as a new tool for reproducible limited protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an aid to differentiating between the prion proteins Prp(c) and PrP(Sc), the preparation and use of immobilized Proteinase K (PK) is described. An accumulation of PrP(Sc) in the central nervous system is the one of the causes of neurodegenerative disease. Current routine diagnosis is based on the postmortem detection of the distinct neuropathological lesion profiles of CNS and by the presence of the PK-resistant core of the prion protein isolated from brain lysates. An assay with PK immobilized to magnetic -COOH micro- and nanoparticles can offer a convenient as well as economic method. The individual immobilization steps were verified by measuring the zeta potential of the particles. The stability of the newly developed PK magnetic reactor, observed during kinetics measurements, was highly satisfactory. The calculated values of the apparent Michaelis constant (4.25 mM for native enzyme and 1.28 mM for immobilized enzyme) were determined from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Human growth hormone was digested using the newly prepared magnetic PK reactor and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the digests showed satisfactory efficiency. Controlled digestion of PrP(c) from the Mov mouse cell line was demonstrated with Western blot detection. PMID:18335999

Slováková, Marcela; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Bílková, Zuzana; Juklícková, Martina; Hernychová, Lenka; Viovy, Jean-Louis

2008-04-01

106

Performance and stability improvements in anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed municipal biowaste by a biofilm system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this present study, thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment improved the hydrolysis of organic solids and the solid-liquid separation ability of MB, making it possible to obtain a long solid retention time (SRT) and high degradation ratio in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biofilm carriers were introduced into ASBR to prolong the mean cell retention time (MCRT). The biofilm system operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5-5 gVSL(reactor)(-1)day(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13.3 days. The biofilm carriers provided perfect conditions for microbe retention and growth, improving the digestion efficiency. The MCRT was 89-150 days and SRT was 24-36 days, with the methane yield of 330-370 mL g(-1)VS(added) and VS(d) of 62-70%. Meanwhile, due to the mass-transport resistance and high microbe density of the biofilm, the system show high stability. Therefore, the biofilm system provided an approach for a highly efficient anaerobic digestion of municipal biowaste. PMID:19910188

Wang, Wei; Hou, Huahua; Hu, Song; Gao, Xingbao

2010-03-01

107

Behaviour of whey protein emulsion gel during oral and gastric digestion: effect of droplet size.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of whey protein stabilized-emulsion gels with different droplet size distributions (D4,3 = ?1, 6 and 12 ?m) was produced, and the mechanical properties of the gels in the linear viscoelastic region and at large deformation were measured, along with the physicochemical and structural changes of the gels during oral mastication and gastric digestion. The gels containing 1 ?m oil droplets had an aggregated particle structure with proteins coating at oil droplets whereas the gels containing 12 ?m oil droplets had a particle-filled structure with spatially continuous matrix. During oral processing, the release of oil droplets from the gels increased as the droplet size increased, with coalescence being seen in gels containing oil droplets of 6 and 12 ?m diameter. Under gastric digestion, high degrees of coalescence and phase separation of oil droplets occurred in the gels containing 6 and 12 ?m oil droplets because of oil droplet release from the gel matrix; this led to slow gastric emptying. The gels were finally broken down into peptide aggregates and oil droplets (or free oil). The gels, containing 1 ?m oil droplets disintegrated into various particles of several to several tens of microns with a low degree of oil droplet release and coalescence. Protein breakdown was slower in these gels, suggesting that the protein structures of the gel matrices were affected by the sizes of the incorporated oil droplets. PMID:24763731

Guo, Qing; Ye, Aiqian; Lad, Mita; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

2014-05-21

108

Effect of Mannanase on Broiler Performance, Ileal and In-vitro Protein Digestibility, Uric Acid and Litter Moisture in Broiler Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein digestibility and uric acid excretion may play the vital role in feed efficiency and consequently effect on broiler performance. Five hundred unsexed Arian day old chickens were placed after pre-starter feeding (10 days in 22 pens with 23 chickens in each. This study was modulated in two levels of Mannanase (Tread mark of Hemicell enzyme enzyme (0 and 5 kg/ton and three levels of metabolizable energy (3000, 2900 and 2850 kcal/kg. Six treatments were arranged and statistical status was in complete random design (CRD by management in factorial (2 x 3 in this experiment. There is no any significant effect on IIeal protein digestibility by different levels of enzyme. Where this digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05 by 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy (ME compared to other level of energy (Table 5. Ileal protein digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05 by interaction between 2900 Kcal/kg ME and different levels of enzyme in comparison to 2850 kcal/kg ME with zero level of enzyme. Dry matter in-vitro digestibility (DMID was greater significant (P<0.05 by using enzyme compared with no enzyme treatment Increased significantly in-vitro dry matter digestibility (P<0.05 was observed by 2850 kcal/kg ME compared to other level of energy. Otherwise increasing significant (P<0.05 dry matter digestibility was found by 2850 kcal/kg ME energy and high level of enzyme compared to other treatment with exception of 2850 kcal/kg ME and zero level of enzyme. The similar trend was indicted on in-vitro protein digestibility (CPID regarding enzyme reaction. In addition this item was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by 3000 kcal/kg ME in comparison to other levels of energy. The highest significant rate (P<0.05 was appeared on in-vitro protein digestibility by interaction between of 2850kcal/kg ME and high level of enzyme with exception of 2900 kcal/kg ME and high amount of enzyme. Although no significant reaction was observed in uric acid excretion by energy but this parameter significantly decreased (P<0.05 by high level of enzyme. In their interaction huge declining was shown by 3000 kcal/kg ME and high level of enzyme in comparison to 2900 kcal/kg ME and low level of enzyme. No significantly response was shown regarding litter moisture by all treatments. No response has been appeared in feed intake (FI regarding enzyme level but higher significant (P<0.05 body weight (BW was indicated by high level of enzyme in the end of experiment (42 days of age. Growth rate (GR was greater significant (P<0.05 by using high level of enzyme but no differences was obtained in feed conversion ratio (FCR in concern to different levels of enzyme in the end of this study. The results of this study have shown that hemicell enzyme could improve performance and increased IIeal protein digestibility, in-vitro DM, CP digestibility and reduction in uric acid excretion which may lead to reduce protein utilization in broiler feeding

A.A. Saki

2005-01-01

109

Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

... August 2013 Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development ... pigmentation loss associated with the skin disorder in mice, according to recent research funded by the NIH’s ...

110

Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A stable and robust trypsin-based biocatalytic system was developed and demonstrated for proteomic applications. The system utilizes polymer nanofibers coated with trypsin aggregates for immobilized protease digestions. After covalently attaching an initial layer of trypsin to the polymer nanofibers, highly concentrated trypsin molecules are crosslinked to the layered trypsin by way of a glutaraldehyde treatment. This new process produced a 300-fold increase in trypsin activity compared with a conventional method for covalent trypsin immobilization and proved to be robust in that it still maintained a high level of activity after a year of repeated recycling. This highly stable form of immobilized trypsin was also resistant to autolysis, enabling repeated digestions of bovine serum albumin over 40 days and successful peptide identification by LC-MS/MS. Finally, the immobilized trypsin was resistant to proteolysis when exposed to other enzymes (i.e. chymotrypsin), which makes it suitable for use in “real-world” proteomic applications. Overall, the biocatalytic nanofibers with enzyme aggregate coatings proved to be an effective approach for repeated and automated protein digestion in proteomic analyses.

Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Lee, Sang-mok; Ahn, Hye-kyung; Nair, Sujith; Kim, Seong H.; Kim, Beom S.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Camp, David G.; Grate, Jay W.; Smith, Richard D.; Koo, Yoon-mo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

2009-04-01

111

Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (p<0.001). For carbohydrate fraction, the highest C fraction was also observed in GP (2.67%) and in relation to the other citrus pulps (p<0.001). Ruminal CP disappearance was highest in OP (71.89%) (p<0.001). The level of post-ruminal CP disappearance, measured by MTSP, was highest for BP (34.94%) (p<0.001). The highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was found for TP (80.44%) followed by that estimated for BP (78.38%) (p<0.001). The estimated metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) varied from 9.77 for LP to 12.91 for BP. Tangerine pulp had the highest true rumen digestibility (TRD) (p<0.001). According to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products. PMID:22703299

Lashkari, S; Taghizadeh, A

2013-08-01

112

The influence of protein-flavonoid interactions on protein digestibility in vitro and the antioxidant quality of breads enriched with onion skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different types of breads enriched with onion skin were studied. The objectives were twofold: to show and examine protein-phenolic interactions and to discuss results concerning phenolic content, antioxidant activity and protein digestibility in the light of in vitro bioaccessibility. Phenolic contents and antiradical abilities were linked with the level of onion skin supplement however, the amounts determined were significantly lower than expected. Fortification influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 78.4% for control breads to 55% for breads with a 4% supplement). Electrophoretic and chromatographic studies showed the presence of indigestible protein-flavonoid complexes - with molecular weights about 25 kDa and 14.5 kDa; however, the reduction of free amino group levels and the increase in chromatogram areas suggest that flavonoids also bind to other bread proteins. The interaction of phenolics with proteins affects antioxidant efficacy and protein digestibility; thus, they have multiple effects on food quality and pro-health properties. PMID:23768379

Swieca, Micha?; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Czy?, Jaros?aw

2013-11-01

113

Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin {beta}- and {alpha}-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously.

Stigter, E.C.A. [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.c.a.stigter@uu.nl; Jong, G.J. de; Bennekom, W.P. van [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2008-07-07

114

Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin ?- and ?-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously

2008-07-07

115

Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin beta- and alpha-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously. PMID:18558117

Stigter, E C A; de Jong, G J; van Bennekom, W P

2008-07-01

116

In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula) e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja) em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações conten [...] do 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P Abstract in english This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate) and plant (soybean meal) ingredients. Three replicate groups of [...] prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (P

Analía Verónica, Fernández Gimenez; Ana Cristina, Díaz; Susana María, Velurtas; Jorge Lino, Fenucci.

117

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

Kenan Koprucu

2004-01-01

118

Influence of nonhistone chromatin protein HMG-1 on the enzymatic digestion of purified DNA.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of chicken erythrocyte High Mobility Group protein 1 (HMG-1) on the enzymatic hydrolysis of purified double-stranded and single-stranded bacteriophage lambda DNA was studied. HMG-1 was found to inhibit the digestion of single- and double-stranded DNA by S1 nuclease and DNase I, respectively. HMG-I increased the rate of hydrolysis of double-stranded DNA by micrococcal nuclease, particularly at low HMG-1/DNA ratios, and had little effect on the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by mi...

Shastri, K.; Isackson, P. J.; Fishback, J. L.; Land, M. D.; Reeck, G. R.

1982-01-01

119

Effect of Different Processing Methods, on Nutrient Composition, Antinutrional Factors, and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Dolichos Lablab Bean [Lablab purpuresus (L Sweet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different traditional processing methods, soaking, cooking roasting, autoclaving and germination on the nutrient composition antinutritional factor, and in-vitro digestibility in Dolichos lablab seeds were investigated. Germination significantly increased the protein and moisture content, whereas roasting and autoclaving decreased their contents. Crude lipid content, was significantly reduced by various processing. Ash content varied significantly between raw and processed samples. The trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid content significantly decreased by different process methods, while the amounts of tannins significantly decreased. The cooking of presoaked seed appeared to be the most effective method for reducing trypsin inhibitor activity. The reduction in content of phytic acid was found to be somewhat greater in roasted sample compared to others. Germination significantly increased tannins content compared to the other traditional methods. Germination was the most effective in improving protein digestibility when compared to soaking and cooking.

Magdi A. Osman

2007-01-01

120

Co-inoculating ruminal content neither provides active hydrolytic microbes nor improves methanization of ¹³C-cellulose in batch digesters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose hydrolysis often limits the kinetics and efficiency of anaerobic degradation in industrial digesters. In animal digestive systems, specialized microorganisms enable cellulose biodegradation at significantly higher rates. This study aims to assess the potential of ruminal microbial communities to settle and to express their cellulolytic properties in anaerobic digesters. Cellulose-degrading batch incubations were co-inoculated with municipal solid waste digester sludge and ruminal content. ¹³C-labeled cellulose degradation was described over time with Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Results were linked to the identification of the microorganisms assimilating ¹³C and to the monitoring of their relative dynamics. Cellulose degradation in co-inoculated incubations was efficient but not significantly improved. Transient disturbances in degradation pathways occurred, as revealed by propionate accumulation. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis dynamics and pyrosequencing revealed that expected classes of Bacteria and Archaea were active and degraded cellulose. However, despite the favorable co-inoculation conditions, molecular tools also revealed that no ruminal species settled in the bioreactors. Other specific parameters were probably needed for this to happen. This study shows that exploiting the rumen's cellulolytic properties in anaerobic digesters is not straightforward. Co-inoculation can only be successful if ruminal microorganisms manage to thrive in the anaerobic digester and outcompete native microorganisms, which requires specific nutritional and environmental parameters, and a meticulous reproduction of the selection pressure encountered in the rumen. PMID:24219327

Chapleur, Olivier; Bize, Ariane; Serain, Thibaut; Mazéas, Laurent; Bouchez, Théodore

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

The influence of protein fractions from bovine colostrum digested in vivo and in vitro on human intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colostrum consists of a number of biologically active proteins and peptides that influence physiological function and development of a neonate. The present study investigated the biological activity of peptides released from first day bovine colostrum through in vitro and in vivo enzymatic digestion. This was assessed for proliferative activity using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84. Digestion of the protein fraction of bovine colostrum in vitro was conducted with the enzymes pepsin, chymosin and trypsin. Pepsin and chymosin digests yielded protein fractions with proliferative activity similar to that observed with undigested colostrum and the positive control foetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast trypsin digestion significantly (Pwhey protein digesta significantly increased (P<0·05) epithelial cell proliferation in comparison to a synthetic peptide mix. Bovine colostrum protein digested in vivo was collected from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in newborn calves fed either once (n=3 calves) or three times at 12-h intervals (n=3 calves). Digesta collected from the distal duodenum, jejunum and colon of calves fed once, significantly (P<0·05) stimulated cell proliferation in comparison with comparable samples collected from calves fed multiple times. These peptide enriched fractions are likely to yield candidate peptides with potential application for gastrointestinal repair in mammalian species. PMID:24433585

Morgan, Alison J; Riley, Lisa G; Sheehy, Paul A; Wynn, Peter C

2014-02-01

122

Protein improvement in crop plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

1974-01-01

123

Comparison of Chemical Composition and Protein Digestibility, Carotenoids, Tanins and Alkaloids Content of Wild Lupinus Varieties Flour  

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Proximate composition, carotenoids, tannins, quinolizidine alkaloids and in vitro protein digestibility were determined in flours of two wild lupines seeds recollected at central region of Mexico. Varieties identified as Lupinus barkeri and Lupinus montanus were compared with a domesticated cultivated Lupinus albus crop. Although total protein content resulted significantly (pL. barkeri and L. montanus, no significantly (p...

Norma Guemes-Vera; Jorge Martinez-Herrera; Hernandez-chavez, Juan F.; Jorge Yanez-Fernandez; Alfonso Totosaus

2012-01-01

124

Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

1980-04-25

125

Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas ( Pisum satinum L), cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils ( Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly ( pphytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

El-Niely, Hania F. G.

2007-06-01

126

Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:23799542

Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

2013-09-01

127

Establishment of an abalone digestive gland cell line secreting various glycosidases in protein-free culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cell line designated as ADG was established from an abalone digestive gland using ERDF medium supplemented with 8% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 8% abalone hemolymph, and high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), MgSO(4), and CaCl(2). ADG cells proliferated better in protein-free medium than in FBS-supplemented medium. Among 9 kinds of media examined, ERDF medium was shown to be optimal for cell growth. ADG cells secreted 13 different kinds of glycosidases in protein-free medium: ?-L-fucosidase, ?-L-fucosidase, ?-D-galactosidase, ?-D-galactosidase, N-acetyl-?-D-galactosaminidase, N-acetyl-?-D-galactosaminidase, ?-D-glucosidase, ?-D-glucosidase, N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase, N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase, ?-D-mannosidase, ?-D-mannosidase, ?-D-xylosidase, and 1-3 xylanase. When ADG cells were cultured in Grace's insect cell medium, the activity of some secreted glycosidases increased 25-fold to 65-fold per cell as compared with control cells cultured in ERDF medium. ADG - abalone digestive gland; ERDF - enriched RDF; FBS - fetal bovine serum; L-15 - Leibovitz's L-15 media; DME - Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; F-12 - nutrient mixture (Ham); LDF - L-15; DME: F-12 = 10 : 7 : 3; MEM - minimum essential medium; RPMI - RPMI medium 1640; 199 - media 199; GIC - Grace's insect cell medium; pNP -p -nitrophenol. PMID:22358657

Kusumoto, K; Shirahata, S; Katakuta, Y; Murakami, H; Kamei, Y

1997-07-01

128

Estimation of the True Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Dietary Protein in the Small Intestine of Ruminants by the Mobile Bag Technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed. The results showed that increased degradability of the protein in the rumen decreased the intestinal digestibility, which shows that feedstuffs contain a protein fraction which is both undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the intestine. The results thus indicate that it is possible to calculate the intestinal digestibility from information on the intestinal digestibility of the protein in the intact feed at any degradability estimated. The results clearly show that intestinal digestibility of undegraded dietary protein cannot be considered as a constant value as used in most protein evaluation systems introduced in recent years.

Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

1992-01-01

129

Intestinal digestion of dietary and endogenous proteins along the small intestine of calves fed soybean or potato.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to investigate the quantitative and qualitative changes in dietary and endogenous protein components along the small intestine of calves. They were fed milk replacers in which protein was provided either by skim milk powder alone, as control diet, or by skim milk powder and a soy concentrate, a partially hydrolyzed soy protein isolate, or a potato protein concentrate (1:1 on a CP basis). The calves were continuously infused with the liquid milk substitute diets into the abomasum. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal digesta were collected through T-piece cannulas. Digestibility (corrected for total endogenous protein) of dietary protein and the concentration of dietary, host endogenous, and bacterial proteins were estimated from the AA composition of digesta using multiple linear regression. The apparent digestibility of feed components increased linearly between the duodenum and the ileum. It was lower with the diets containing plant protein than with the control, especially at the ileum (85% for CP with soy concentrate, 73% with soy isolate, and 81% with potato concentrate vs 91% with skim milk powder). The real digestibility of dietary protein at the ileum was estimated to be 96, 95, 94, and 99%, respectively, for each of the dietary components. The partition of protein components in digesta between dietary, nonspecific endogenous, specific host endogenous, and(or) specific bacterial proteins varied along the small intestine and between diets at a given site. Intestinal apparent reabsorption of host endogenous protein was estimated to be equivalent to at least 86% of the jejunum flow. To conclude, the lower apparent digestibility of the plant protein sources studied resulted more from an enhanced loss of host and bacterial endogenous proteins than from decreased hydrolysis of dietary protein and absorption of their AA. PMID:11721853

Montagne, L; Toullec, R; Lallès, J P

2001-10-01

130

The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheepâ??s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep�s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep�s, 6 � 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P0.05 among crude protein and TDN treatments. Different energy and protein ration treatments caused different DM and OM intake but were not cause different in DM and OM digestibility. Based on the research results, a study on the effects of different ration�s energy and protein ratio towards N efficiency should be conducted in order to increase cattle productivity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.75-79 [How to cite this article: Mawati, S., Soedarsono, S., Sunarso, S. & Purnomoadi, A. (2013. The Effects of Different Energy and Ratio to Sheep�s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(2,76-79. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.75-79] /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

Agung Purnomoadi

2013-06-01

131

Ponceau 4R: A Novel Staining Agent for Resolve Food Proteins on PAGE and Its Impact on Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ponceaue 4R interaction with protein, Nisin and BSA was concentration dependent and may be used for protein assay. As the dye binds with almost all the proteins and current methodology may be used for the estimation of proteins in various food systems. During the course of present work staining with ponceau 4R of resolved proteins on PAGE (poly acryl amide gel electrophorosis was comparable with Coommassie Brilliant Blue R250. The Ponceaue 4R was highly sensitive, rapid and produced sharp red bands on the gel on 0.2% concentration. The effects of pH, concentration of proteins and dye were also investigated in various conditions which would help food processors to use a calculated amount of dye. The impact of tryptic digestibility on Ponceaue 4R -Protein Complexes (PPC has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect on the digestion of PPC.

Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed

2012-10-01

132

Histochemical studies on enzyme-digested protein plugs of patients with chronic pancreatitis: a preliminary report.  

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Full Text Available Sulfated acidic mucopolysaccharides have been found to be significant components of "protein plugs" in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The precise identification of the mucopolysaccharides and their distribution within the protein plugs may clarify the pathogenesis of the plugs. Pure pancreatic juice from five patients with chronic pancreatitis was obtained by endoscopic retrograde catheterization of the papilla of Vater. Enzymes for digestion of the plugs included hyaluronidase of the bovine testes and streptomyces hyalurolyticus, chondroitinase ABC and AC, and sialidase (neuraminidase. Our study indicated that: I Sialic acid is distributed throughout the plugs and may be a major component, followed by a lesser amount of chondroitin sulfate B. 2 Chondroitin sulfate A, C, D and E and chondroitin may be minor components. 3 Hyaluronic acid is negligible in the plugs.

Harada,Hideo

1983-06-01

133

High-sensitivity peptide mapping by capillary zone electrophoresis and microcolumn liquid chromatography, using immobilized trypsin for protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Procedures for the reduced-scale analysis of proteins by peptide mapping have been developed, allowing peptide maps to be obtained from picomole to femtomole quantities of protein. The use of trypsin immobilized on agarose gel and placed in a small reactor column has made it possible to reproducibility digest as little as 50 ng of protein. This represents a decrease in sample size of approximately 3 orders of magnitude from conventional tryptic digestion schemes. Separations of tryptic digests were accomplished by using either microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Separations of 100 ng (4 pmol) of tryptic digest samples of beta-casein were achieved with microcolumn HPLC, while separations of approximately 2 ng (80 fmol) of beta-casein tryptic digest (from a total sample size of 50 ng) were possible with CZE. Peptide maps from phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of beta-casein were readily distinguishable using both separation methods, demonstrating an ability to detect a single amino acid modification in a protein. Relative standard deviations of peak retention or migration times were less than 3% for microcolumn HPLC and less than 1% for CZE. PMID:2596696

Cobb, K A; Novotny, M

1989-10-15

134

Uric Acid Determination in Poultry Excreta and its Application to Correcting Protein Digestibility Values: Spectrophotometry with Ultraviolet Detection vs HPLIC  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of uric acid contents of poultry excreta was examined for use in the estimation of apparent protein digestibility. Uric acid was determined either by high-performance liquid chromatography or by spectrophotometric method. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was used with absorbance measured at 285 nm. The method used a reverse-phase system with a C18-bonded column (250*4.6 mm, i.d.. The mobile phase was distilled deionized water. Injection volume was 20 l with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Correlation (r between the two methods for uric acid content of excreta from birds fed diets with different methionine levels was 0.976. The uric acid values were then used to determine apparent protein digestibility. The apparent protein digestibility values, when corrected for uric acid nitrogen, were comparable with those calculated from amino acid analysis.

R. R. Marquardt

2002-10-01

135

Changes in nitrogenous and other chemical constituents, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of germinating fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 7 days of germination on levels of nitrogenous and other nutrition related parameters, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed was studied. The non-protein nitrogen gradually increased and the protein nitrogen content decreased during germination. Albumin and globulin fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of fluted pumpkin seeds, constituting about 58.6% of the total protein of the ungerminated (raw) seeds. The protein fractions, albumin and glutelin, were observed to increase by 61.5% and 57.0%, respectively, while a 54.6% decrease was noted in the prolamine fraction. The globulin fraction increased at the beginning of germination but decreased at the end. Germination significantly (p< or =0.05) increased the crude protein, nitrogen solubility and in vitro protein digestibility but decreased the fat, phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the seeds. PMID:10540985

Giami, S Y; Chibor, B S; Edebiri, K E; Achinewhu, S C

1999-01-01

136

Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAPâ??s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

2012-01-01

137

Comparative study on chemical pretreatment methods for improving enzymatic digestibility of crofton weed stem.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng), a potential pathway was proposed by using it as a feedstock for production of fermentable sugars. Three chemical pretreatment methods were used for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem. Mild H2SO4 pretreatment could obtain a relatively high yield of sugars in the pretreatment (32.89%, based on initial holocellulose), however, it led to only a slight enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. NaOH pretreatment could obtain a higher enzymatic conversion ratio of cellulose compared with H2SO4 pretreatment. Peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment seemed to be the most effective for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem in the three chemical pretreatment methods under the same conditions. The conversion ratio of cellulose in the sample pretreated by PAA under the "optimal" condition was increased to 50% by cellulase loading of 80 FPU/g cellulose for 72 h incubation. A number of empirical quadratic models were successfully developed according to the experimental data to predict the yield of sugar and degree of delignification. PMID:17709243

Zhao, Xuebing; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Dehua

2008-06-01

138

Enzymatic protein digests do not assist in E. coli discrimination at the strain level using mass spectrometry  

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Different procedures for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry-based E. coli classification at the strain level using the enzymatic digestion of proteins from the cell lysate have been studied. The effects of ultrasonic energy as well as the effects of protein reduction and protein alkylation in the sample treatment and in the subsequent classification were assessed. The final optimal method for classification was then compared with an intact cell-based ...

Carreira, Ricardo J.; Nunes-miranda, J. D.; Alexandre Gonçalves; Gilberto Igrejas; Patrícia Poeta; Silvana Gómez-Meire; Miguel Reboiro-Jato; Florentino Fdez-Riverola; Carlos Lodeiro; José-Luis Capelo-Martínez

2013-01-01

139

Release of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of this study was to determine the ability of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) proteins to release angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) peptides during simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion using a static (SM; no absorption in the intestinal phase) and a dynamic model (DM; simultaneous absorption of digested products in the intestinal phase via passive diffusion). Gastric and gastric + small intestinal digests of flaxseed proteins of both models possessed ACEI activity. The ACEI activity of the gastric + small intestinal digest in the DM (IC(50) unabsorbed, 0.05 mg N/mL; IC(50) absorbed, 0.04 mg N/mL) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the SM (IC(50), 0.39 mg N/mL). Two peptides, a pentapeptide (Trp-Asn-Ile/Leu-Asn-Ala) and a hexapeptide (Asn-Ile/Leu-Asp-Thr-Asp-Ile/Leu), were identified in the most active ACEI fraction (0.5-1 kDa) of the absorbable flaxseed protein digest by de novo sequencing. PMID:21776963

Marambe, Harsha K; Shand, Phyllis J; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

2011-09-14

140

Vegetable processing wastes addition to improve swine manure anaerobic digestion: Evaluation in terms of methane yield and SEM characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate for swine manure anaerobic digestion. ? Two hydraulic retention times of 25 and 15 d, respectively. ? SEM characterization of anaerobic sludges to observe microbial composition. ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate increases methane yields up to three times. ? Microbial composition changes after 120 d of digestion. -- Abstract: The effect of adding vegetable waste as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of swine manure was investigated. The study was carried out at laboratory scale using semi-continuous stirred tank reactors working at 37 °C. Organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.4 and 0.6 g VS L?1 d?1 were evaluated, corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 25 and 15 d, respectively. The addition of vegetable wastes (50% dw/dw) resulted in an improvement of 3 and 1.4-fold in methane yields at HRTs of 25 and 15 d, respectively. Changes on microbial morphotypes were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Samples analyzed were sludge used as inoculum and digestate obtained from swine manure anaerobic reactors. SEM pictures demonstrated that lignocellulosic material was not completely degraded. Additionally, microbial composition was found to change to cocci and rods morphotypes after 120 d of anaerobic digestion.

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mobilization of PCBs and lindane from soil during in vitro digestion and their distribution among bile salt micelles and proteins of human digestive fluid and the soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Children can take up contaminated soil via hand-to-mouth behavior. The contaminants can be mobilized from the soil by digestive juices and thus become available for intestinal absorption. In the present study components of an in vitro digestion model were varied to study their effect on the mobilization of several PCBs and lindane from surrogate soil (OECD-medium). Approximately 35% of the PCBs and 57% of lindane were bioaccessible after a default digestion. Since the mobilization was independent of the spiking level, a partitioning-based model could describe the distribution of the test compounds. Fitting the data to the model yielded a ratio of partitioning coefficients that indicated that approximately 60% of the PCBs were sorbed to the OECD-medium, 25% to bile salt micelles, and 15% to proteins. The respective values for lindane were 40%, 23%, and 32%. The relatively large fraction of the mobilized compounds that was sorbed to bile salt micelles indicates that micelles play a central role in making hydrophobic compounds bioaccessible. The distribution model is suitable for explaining the results reported in several literature studies and can be used to extrapolate the physiological parameters for the worst case situation and trends in the bioaccessible fraction.

Oomen, A.G.; Sips, A.J.A.M.; Groten, J.P.; Sijm, D.T.H.M.; Tolls, J.

2000-01-15

142

Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds  

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Full Text Available A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéicos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR, na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta. A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável.The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were evaluated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pepsin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29 had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

Antonio Ferriani Branco

2006-08-01

143

On-plate digestion using a commercial micro-fraction collector for nano-HPLC MALDI-TOF/TOF protein analysis  

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A new method for on-plate protein digestion and MALDI MS analysis is proposed involving an automated one-step sample separation using nanoflow-HPLC followed by nanoliter fraction collection and on-plate digestion with trypsin. This procedure uses a commercial automatic nanoliter fraction collection system for on-line spotting of the eluent onto a MALDI target. After protein digestion, the reaction is stopped by the addition of acidified matrix using the same automated system. Collected spots ...

Vitorino, Rui; Guedes, Sofia; Tomer, Kenneth; Domingues, Pedro; Duarte, Jose?; Amado, Francisco

2008-01-01

144

Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Origin on the Redox Status in the Digestive Tract of Mice  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of high protein (soybean protein or casein on the balance between production of free radicals and antioxidant level in digestive organs of mice. For this purpose, male (C57BL/6J mice were adapted to experimental diets containing soybean protein or casein with 20% (normal protein diets, NPDs or 60% (high protein diets, HPDs, and HPDs supplemented with 0.06g/kg cysteamine. After two weeks of feeding, oxidative and antioxidative parameters in duodenum, liver and pancreas were measured. The results show that ingestion of high protein markedly increased contents of superoxide anion and malondialdehyde (MDA, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and Na+ K+-ATPase, and content of reduced glutathione (GSH in digestive organs of mice (P<0.05. Levels of oxidative parameters were lower and antioxidant capacity of both enzyme and non-enzyme was higher in mice fed with soybean protein than those fed with casein. In groups fed HPDs supplemented with cysteamine, oxidative stress was mitigated. However, oxidative parameter levels were still higher than those of NPD-fed groups. The present study indicates that ingestion of high protein diets could result in an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant, and thus induce oxidative stress in digestive organs of mice. The oxidative damage was smaller in mice fed with high level of soy protein in comparison with casein.

Guowei Le

2008-04-01

145

Effect of processing on protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization of millet and legume based infant mixes and biscuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of combinations of millet and legume and processing on digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization was evaluated using albino rats. The millets and legumes selected for the study include sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, chickpea and green gram (P radiatus). The processes tested include dehulling, boiling, roasting, malting and baking. Among the combinations tested, the sorghum-chickpea combination had significantly (p < 0.05) higher digestibility. Between the processes tested, roasting resulted in significantly higher net protein utilization. Results of biological study on biscuits prepared by using millet and legume combination flours, indicated the biscuits to be of good protein quality. PMID:8865331

Geervani, P; Vimala, V; Pradeep, K U; Devi, M R

1996-04-01

146

Optimization of separation and digestion conditions in immune complexome analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immune complexome analysis is a method for identifying and profiling of antigens in circulating immune complexes (CICs); it involves separation of immune complexes from serum, direct tryptic digestion of these complexes, and protein analysis via nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS). To improve this method, we initially investigated the effects of two factors-the gradient elution program and nano-LC column type (C18-packed, C8-packed, or packed spray capillary column)-on the numbers of peptides and proteins identified. Longer gradient elution times resulted in higher identification capability throughout the range of 25-400 min. Moreover, the packed spray capillary column supported identification of more peptides and proteins than did any other column. In addition, microwave-assisted digestion was compared with conventional digestion, which involved incubation overnight at 37 °C. Microwave-assisted digestion produced more partially digested peptides than did conventional digestion. However, the percentages of miscleaved peptides in all of the identified peptides in microwave-assisted digestion of immune complexes (a protein mixture) were lower than those in the physical stimulation-assisted digestion of a model protein. Microwave-assisted digestion is slightly inferior to, or as effective as, conventional digestion, but it drastically reduces the digestion time. PMID:24012793

Baba, Miyako; Ohyama, Kaname; Kishikawa, Naoya; Kuroda, Naotaka

2013-12-15

147

In vitro pH-Stat protein hydrolysis of feed ingredients for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. 2. In vitro protein digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients  

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Using enzyme fractions isolated from the pyloric caeca of farmed Atlantic cod, the in vitro degree of protein hydrolysis (DH) of numerous conventional and novel feed ingredients were measured by a closed-system pH-Stat assay. Regression equations describing the relationship between in vivo apparent protein digestibility (ADC) and in vitro protein DH were used to predict in vitro protein ADC. The equations resulted in good correlation (<4 percentage points difference) between ‘measured’ an...

2011-01-01

148

Antinutritional Evaluation and In vitro Protein Digestibility of Some Nigerian Cucurbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antinutritional factors of three Nigerian cucurbits namely, ‘snake tomato’ Trichosanthes cucumerina, ‘pumpkins’ Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata were analyzed. The antinutritional factors evaluated were tannin ranging from 0.23 to 0.49%; oxalate, 0.01 to 0.23%; cyanogenic glycosides, 0.43 to 0.44% and trypsin inhibitor, 6.32 to 11.58 TI unit/g. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in some of the antinutritional components of the cucurbits evaluated. The samples exhibited high protein digestibility but low levels of antinutrients which showed that the cucurbits studied cannot be toxic for human consumption postulating that the samples are of high nutritional quality so large scale production should be encouraged.

Okoye Ngozi Franca

2012-01-01

149

Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

2014-02-01

150

Protein improvement in cereals and mungbean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cereal and legumes are the main sources of protein in developing countries such as Pakistan. Efforts are being made to improve the quantity and quality of cereal and mungbean proteins through conventional and mutation breeding techniques. Some mutants of wheat, triticale and mungbean are under trial for their agronomic performance and for protein evaluation. The results from studies of these mutants and some other promising lines are presented. (author)

1982-12-06

151

Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4?±?2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P??0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P??0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response. PMID:23096766

Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

2013-03-01

152

In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: karalue@bigpond.net.au

2005-08-19

153

In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg 15N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the 15N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

2005-08-19

154

Rapid Changes in Plasma Membrane Protein Phosphorylation during Initiation of Cell Wall Digestion 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [?-32P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at Mr 22,000. These effects appeared not to be due to nonspecific protease activity and neither in vivo nor in vitro exposure to driselase caused a significant loss of Coomassie blue-staining bands on the gels of the isolated plasma membranes. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselase preparation was required for the observed responses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Blowers, David P.; Boss, Wendy F.; Trewavas, Anthony J.

1988-01-01

155

Rapid Changes in Plasma Membrane Protein Phosphorylation during Initiation of Cell Wall Digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [gamma-(32)P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M(r) 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M(r) 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M(r) 22,000. These effects appeared not to be due to nonspecific protease activity and neither in vivo nor in vitro exposure to driselase caused a significant loss of Coomassie blue-staining bands on the gels of the isolated plasma membranes. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic (32)P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselase preparation was required for the observed responses. PMID:16665936

Blowers, D P; Boss, W F; Trewavas, A J

1988-02-01

156

Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M{sub r} 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M{sub r} 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M{sub r} 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic {sup 32}P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses.

Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J. (Univ. of Edinburgh (England))

1988-02-01

157

Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [?-32P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at Mr 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses

1988-01-01

158

Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Improving cell wall digestion and animal performance with fibrolytic enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aimed to summarize published responses to treatment of cattle diets with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE), to discuss reasons for variable EFE efficacy in animal trials, to recommend strategies for improving enzyme testing and EFE efficacy in ruminant diets, and to identify proteomic differences between effective and ineffective EFE. A meta-analysis of 20 dairy cow studies with 30 experiments revealed that only a few increased lactational performance and the response was inconsistent. This variability is attributable to several enzyme, feed, animal, and management factors that were discussed in this paper. The variability reflects our limited understanding of the synergistic and sequential interactions between exogenous glycosyl hydrolases, autochthonous ruminal microbes, and endogenous fibrolytic enzymes that are necessary to optimize ruminal fiber digestion. An added complication is that many of the standard methods of assaying EFE activities may over- or underestimate their potential effects because they are based on pure substrate saccharification and do not simulate ruminal conditions. Our recent evaluation of 18 commercial EFE showed that 78 and 83% of them exhibited optimal endoglucanase and xylanase activities, respectively, at 50 °C, and 77 and 61% had optimal activities at pH 4 to 5, respectively, indicating that most would likely act suboptimally in the rumen. Of the many fibrolytic activities that act synergistically to degrade forage fiber, the few usually assayed, typically endoglucanase and xylanase, cannot hydrolyze the recalcitrant phenolic acid-lignin linkages that are the main constraints to ruminal fiber degradation. These factors highlight the futility of random addition of EFE to diets. This paper discusses reasons for the variable animal responses to dietary addition of fibrolytic enzymes, advances explanations for the inconsistency, suggests a strategy to improve enzyme efficacy in ruminant diets, and describes differences among the proteomes of effective and ineffective EFE. PMID:24663173

Adesogan, A T; Ma, Z X; Romero, J J; Arriola, K G

2014-04-01

159

Improved the slow digestion property of maize starch using partially ?-amylolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, partial ?-amylolysis was used to modulate the starch fine structure responsible for the slow digestion property of starch. Normal maize starch modified using ?-amylase for 2 h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 11.16% to 24.38%. The ?-amylase treatment increased the amylose content from 28.4% to 32.5%, decreased the molecular weight from 32.5×10(7) to 3.8×10(5) g/mol and increased the number of shorter chains (DP13). (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of ?-1,6 linkages from 7.4% to 10.1% in the enzyme treated starches. Both the increase in the amount of shorter chains and the increase in ?-1,6 linkages were attributed to the slow digestion property of starch. These results suggest that starches treated with partial ?-amylolysis retain a branched structure and slow digestibility. PMID:24444916

Miao, Ming; Xiong, Shanshan; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Huan; Cui, Steve W; Zhang, Tao

2014-06-01

160

Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection.

Hassan, Amro B.; Diab, Eiman E.; Mahmoud, Nagat S.; Elagib, Randa A. A.; Rushdi, Mohamed A. H.; Osman, Gammaa A. M.

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Identification of a low digestibility ?-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

2013-01-01

162

Identification of a Low Digestibility ?-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernandez, Adrian; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Ivan J.

2013-01-01

163

Formation of a phorbol ester-binding fragment from protein kinase C by proteolytic digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When washed human platelets were disrupted by sonication in the presence of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, both the catalytic and ["3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu)-binding activities of protein kinase C were recovered in the soluble fraction and were not separable from each other upon several column chromatographies. Platelet protein kinase C required diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid for its activation and showed a molecular weight of about 87,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. However, when platelets were first incubated with 2 microM Ca2+-ionophore A23187 for 5 min at 37 degrees C in the medium containing 3 mM CaCl_2 and then disrupted under the same conditions, the catalytic and ["3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activities were separately recovered in the soluble and particulate fractions, respectively; moreover, the catalytic activity recovered in the soluble fraction became independent of diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid, and showed a molecular weight of about 50,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. The kinetic properties of this Mr 50,000 enzyme were similar to those of the catalytic fragment of rat brain protein kinase C described previously. In a cell-free system, digestion with trypsin of protein kinase C highly purified from rat brain caused the generation of a fragment which had no catalytic activity but showed full ["3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activity. The molecular weight of this fragment was estimated to be about 35,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that protein kinase C consists of at least two functionally different domains, a hydrophobic phorbol ester- or diacylglycerol-binding and hydrophilic catalytic domains

1986-01-01

164

Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and dry matter (DM) and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal) in compound diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for pou...

2012-01-01

165

Characterization, in vitro Trypsin Digestibility and Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Soybean Protein Meal with Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, soybean protein meal was subjected to solid state fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 either in the presence or absence of a protease. The extracts were investigated for changes in mineral composition, amino acid composition, in vitro trypsin digestibility, DPPH radical scavenging activities and electrophoretic pattern. The amino acid and mineral element compositions showed significant (pin vitro trypsin digestibility and showed a single polypeptide with estimated molecular weight of 14.4 kDa in the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE assay.

O.S. Gbadamosi

2009-01-01

166

Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher ...

Grajales-garci?a, Eva M.; Perla Osorio-Díaz; Isabel Goñi; Deisy Hervert-Hernández; Guzma?n-maldonado, Salvador H.; Bello-pe?rez, Luis A.

2011-01-01

167

EVALUATION OF APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH AND WITHOUT FISH MEAL FOR LABEO ROHITA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The apparent digestibility coefficients of three protein levels of reference diets (without fish meal and test diets (with fish meal were estimated for Labeo rohita. Three test diets (test diet-I, test diet-II and test diet-III and three reference diets (reference diet-I, reference diet-II and reference diet-III having 28, 30 and 32% protein levels were prepared. Chromic oxide was used as an internal marker in the experimental diets for the evaluation of digestibility of protein levels. The differences in apparent digestibility for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy of reference and test diets were highly significant (P<0.01. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter were 32.10 ± 0.30 and 35.30 ± 0.30% for reference and test diets -III. The ADCs of crude protein and crude fat were 77.92 ± 0.10, 69.23 ± 0.06 and 75.77 ± 0.05, 70.40 ± 0.22% for reference and test diets-III, respectively. The values of ADCs of gross energy were maximum for reference diet-III (52.28 ± 0.25% and test diet-III (48.65 ± 0.78%. The ADCs of dry matter were 19.80 ± 1.40 and 18.15 ± 0.05% for reference and test diet-I. The ADCs of crude protein and crude fat were 73.93 ± 0.05, 68.43 ± 1.58 and 59.49 ± 1.13, 57.02 ± 2.42% for reference and test diet-I respectively. The ADCs values of gross energy were for reference diet-I (42.43 ± 0.36% and test diet-I (39.09 ± 1.35%. The better ADCs for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy were at 32% protein level.

Y. GUL, M. SALIM AND B. RABBANI

2007-07-01

168

Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

2007-06-01

169

Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

2007-06-15

170

Digestive tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131I, 125I or 82Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14C and 191Y. The use of 57Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131I, 125I and 51Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51Cr

1976-01-01

171

Ultrasonic assisted protein enzymatic digestion for fast protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sonoreactor versus ultrasonic probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different ultrasonic energy sources, the sonoreactor and the ultrasonic probe, are compared for enzymatic digestion of proteins for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) using the peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) procedure. Variables such as (i) trypsin/protein ratio; (ii) sonication time; (iii) ultrasound amplitude; and (iv) protein concentration are studied and compared. As a general rule, the trypsin/protein ratio and the minimum protein concentration successfully digested are similar with both ultrasonic energy sources. Results showed that the time needed to digest proteins was shorter with the ultrasonic probe, 60s versus 120s, for the same amplitude of sonication, 50%. However, lower standard deviations and cleaner MALDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained with the sonoreactor. In addition, the sonoreactor device provided higher sample throughput (6 samples for the sonoreactor versus 1 sample for the ultrasonic probe) and easier sample handling for lower sample volumes (25 microl). Finally, a comparison of both methodologies for the specific identification of the adenylylsulphate reductase alfa subunit from a complex protein mixture from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was done as a proof of the procedure. PMID:17719595

Rial-Otero, R; Carreira, R J; Cordeiro, F M; Moro, A J; Santos, H M; Vale, G; Moura, I; Capelo, J L

2007-09-28

172

Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-12-15

173

Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

2010-12-01

174

Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased ( P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved ( P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

2010-12-01

175

An aptamer-based trypsin reactor for on-line protein digestion with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An immobilized trypsin reactor that was based on aptamers has been developed and applied for the first time for proteomic digestion. Briefly, 25 single-stranded DNA aptamers that were specific for trypsin were obtained after SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) selection. TApt.23 (no. 23 trypsin aptamer), which had the lowest dissociation constant (Kd) value (0.0123 ?M), was amino-modified and subsequently grafted to an amino-modified silica surface with glutaraldehyde. The results indicated that 14.65±0.35 ?g of trypsin could be immobilized on 10mg of TApt.23-silica when an optimized borate buffer was used. Subsequently, a trypsin reactor was fabricated by using a PEEKsil micro column. Compared with in-solution digestion, the aptamer-based trypsin reactor exhibited similar results for protein identification but used a much shorter digestion time (?30 min). An on-line analysis platform, which included a trypsin reactor coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry device, was built through a 6-port valve and achieved efficient protein digestion compared with in-solution and off-line methods. Compared with irreversible covalent enzyme immobilization, the aptamer-based carrier enables more rapid and convenient immobilized trypsin elution as well as re-immobilization of the enzyme. This superior reactor demonstrated that an aptamer could become a more widely used method for enzyme immobilization and other applications. PMID:23831476

Xiao, Peng; Lv, Xuefei; Wang, Shanshan; Iqbal, Javed; Qing, Hong; Li, Qin; Deng, Yulin

2013-10-15

176

Your Digestive System and How It Works  

Science.gov (United States)

... and lower muscle mixes food with digestive juice Stomach acid Protein Small intestine Peristalsis Small intestine digestive juice ... lining. The glands in the stomach lining produce stomach acid and an enzyme that digests protein. Pancreas. The ...

177

Effect of Processing Treatments Followed by Fermentation on Protein Content and Digestibility of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) Cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two pearl millet cultivars namely Gadarif and Gazeera were used in this study. The effect of soaking, debranning, dry heating and germination of the grains before and after fermentation on protein content and digestibility was investigated. The effect of processing treatments on the protein content was fluctuated and varied between the cultivars. For both cultivars germination of the grains increased the protein content and digestibility (except course ground grains). For both cultivar...

Hassan, Amro B.; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.; Osman, Nuha M.; Eltayeb, Mohamed M.; Osman, Gammaa A.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

2006-01-01

178

Eco-efficient post treatment of digestate from farm and collective biogas plants to improve nutrients (N&P) recycling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste from agriculture and others sectors is a widely used technology which shows increasing implementation due to its capacity to produce renewable energy and also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. The development of AD is also an opportunity to improve nutrient recycling from organic waste through the development of an eco-effi cient post-treatment system. In this context, LCA was applied to evaluate the sustainability of diff erent raw digestate post-treatment technologies regarding recycling of nutrients from agricultural and organic waste to agricultural soils for decreased resource depletion and climate mitigation. Substitution of the use of N and P mineral fertilizers with recycled soil health improver or organic fertilizers products as function of fi ve diff erent post-treatment technologies and raw digestate characteristics was evaluated. A particular attention was carried to (1) the gaseous emissions (NH3 and N2O) from process (post-treatment) but also after land spreading and (2) the carbon cycle considering the CO2 carbon costs of fertiliser production and the soil carbon sequestration benefit.

Trémier, Anne; Béline, Fabrice

179

Can electromagnetic fields influence the structure and enzymatic digest of proteins? A critical evaluation of microwave-assisted proteomics protocols  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reevaluates the putative advantages of microwave-assisted tryptic digests compared to conventionally heated protocols performed at the same temperature. An initial investigation of enzyme stability in a temperature range of 37–80 °C demonstrated that trypsin activity declines sharply at temperatures above 60 °C, regardless if microwave dielectric heating or conventional heating is employed. Tryptic digests of three proteins of different size (bovine serum albumin, cytochrome c and ?-casein) were thus performed at 37 °C and 50 °C using both microwave and conventional heating applying accurate internal fiber-optic probe reaction temperature measurements. The impact of the heating method on protein degradation and peptide fragment generation was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Time-dependent tryptic digestion of the three proteins and subsequent analysis of the corresponding cleavage products by MALDI-TOF provided virtually identical results for both microwave and conventional heating. In addition, the impact of electromagnetic field strength on the tertiary structure of trypsin and BSA was evaluated by molecular mechanics calculations. These simulations revealed that the applied field in a typical laboratory microwave reactor is 3–4 orders of magnitude too low to induce conformational changes in proteins or enzymes.

Damm, Markus; Nusshold, Christoph; Cantillo, David; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Gruber, Karl; Sattler, Wolfgang; Kappe, C. Oliver

2012-01-01

180

Effect of Soaking, Sprouting and Cooking on Chemical Composition, Bioavailability of Minerals and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical composition, bioavailability of minerals and in vitro digestibility of proteins in karkade seed (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as affected by soaking, sprouting and cooking were studied. The different methods showed varied deviation of nutrients and antinutrients from the raw seeds. Sprouting and cooking significantly increased protein content and decreased starch and soluble carbohydrates levels. K, Na and all the trace elements studied were decreased by processing methods. Cooking was more effective in improving bioavailability of minerals studied than soaking or sprouting. Total polyphenols reduced more by cooking, while phytic acid did not change significantly by processing. In vitro protein digestibility was significantly reduced by all processing methods, with soaking gave the highest percentage of reduction and cooking the lowest percentage. The results also indicated that domestic processing methods changed total acidity and fat acidity as well as N solubility in water and 1 M NaCl. Amino acid profile of the karkade seed indicated that sulfur amino acids and threonine are the limiting amino acids. With respect to FAO pattern, considerable proportion of the essential amino acids were retained on processing, except for lysine on soaking and sprouting and sulfur acids on sprouting and cooking.

Abu El Gasim A. Yagoub

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

2012-12-01

182

Effect of Protein Level, Main Protein and non Forage Fiber Source on Digestibility, N Balance and Energy Value of Sheep Rations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

in vivo digestion trials were conducted, by using a latin square 4x4 experimental design with castrated rams, to evaluate the effects of diet?s CP level, N degradability and Non-Forage Fiber Source (NFFS) on nutrient digestibility, N balance and energy value of sheep rations. In each trial, rams were fed at maintenance level four isocaloric-isonitrogenous and isofibrous rations, differing in main protein and/or NFFS source. At the first trial mean CP/ME ratio of the diets ...

Ch. Milis; Liamadis, D.

2007-01-01

183

Effects of total ammonia on anaerobic digestion and an example of digestor performance from cattle manure-protein mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure slurries was performed at different total ammonia concentrations, c. 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mM. Digestor performances, i.e. daily methane yields, volatile acid concentrations, pH and relative rates of utilization of acetate, propionate and glucose were monitored. Rates of utilization were determined prior to, during initial time periods following a change in total ammonia concentration and after acclimation had occurred. Digestor performances indicated inhibition occurred, followed by return to steady-state performance. Relative rates of acetate utilization were most affected by changes in total ammonia concentrations. Thus, we concluded that methanogenic metabolism was primarily inhibited by a high concentration of total ammonia. Anaerobic digestion of manure-bovine serum albumin as an example of manure containing high concentrations of proteinaceous material was also performed at three different added protein concentrations. Digestor instability was proportional to protein concentration.

Robbins, J.E.; Gerhardt, S.A.; Kappel, T.J.

1989-01-01

184

Influence of dietary protein level and source on the course of protein digestion along the small intestine of the veal calf.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the dietary crude protein (CP) content and source on the distribution of digesta proteins and peptides according to their molecular mass along the small intestine of veal calves. Diets contained 14, 104, 205, and 279 g/kg of CP supplied by skim milk powder (SMP) in experiment 1. Diets contained only SMP or SMP plus proteins (1:1 on digestible CP basis) from either a soybean protein concentrate (SPC), an isolated soy protein partially hydrolyzed (HSPI), or a potato protein concentrate (PPC) in experiment 2. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal digesta were collected from calves fitted with simple cannulae and continuously infused the milk replacers into the abomasum. The distribution of molecular mass (Mr) of proteins and peptides was studied by gel filtration chromatography. Increasing the dietary CP level of milk replacers increased the flow of oligopeptides and free amino acids in ileal digesta. Incorporating plant protein increased the flow of proteins with Mr > 20,000 in the duodenum and that of proteins and peptides with Mr < 10,000 in the ileum. Hydrolysis of oligopeptides and absorption may be a limiting step in the digestion of plant protein in the veal calf. PMID:12703630

Montagne, L; Crévieu-Gabriel, I; Toullec, R; Lallès, J P

2003-03-01

185

Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

Duangrat Chookird

2010-05-01

186

Impact of Legume Flours on Quality and In Vitro Digestibility of Starch and Protein from Gluten-Free Cakes  

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The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of incorporation of different legumes (chickpea, pea, lentil and bean) on quality, chemical composition and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of gluten-free layer cake (rice flour/legume flour, 50:50). The incorporation of legume flours increased the batter viscosity and, with exception of chickpea, resulted in higher specific cake volume than that in control. Chickpea and pea containing cakes had the brightest and the most yellowish ...

Arocha Gularte, Marcia; Go?mez, Manuel; Rosell, Cristina M.

2012-01-01

187

Optimization of Immobilized Gallium (III) Ion Affinity Chromatography for Selective Binding and Recovery of Phosphopeptides from Protein Digests  

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Although widely used in proteomics research for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) often suffers from low specificity and differential recovery of peptides carrying different numbers of phosphate groups. By systematically evaluating and optimizing different loading, washing, and elution conditions, we have developed an efficient and highly selective procedure for the enrichment of phosphopeptides using a comme...

2008-01-01

188

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758)  

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Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), corn (Zea mays) gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida), gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis) and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus) exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was a...

Kenan Koprucu; Pinar Tatli Seven; Gulizar Tuna

2004-01-01

189

Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and in Vitro Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet  

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From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra) were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich frac...

Florence Suma Pushparaj; Asna Urooj

2011-01-01

190

Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes / True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV) com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéi [...] cos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR), na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta). A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável. Abstract in english The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were eva [...] luated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pepsin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29) had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

Antonio Ferriani, Branco; Sabrina Marcantonio, Coneglian; Fábio José, Maia; Kátia Cylene, Guimarães.

191

Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 ?mol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 ?mol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

Luis A. Bello-Pérez

2011-12-01

192

Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion. (paper)

2013-03-29

193

Effects of ruminal protein degradability and frequency of supplementation on site and extent of digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics in lambs fed low-quality forage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Suffolk wether lambs (34.5 +/- 2.0 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square-designed experiment to examine the effects of ruminal protein degradability and supplementation frequency on site and extent of digestion in lambs consuming a low-quality forage diet. Wethers were fed a basal diet of mature crested wheatgrass hay (4.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption plus 1 of 4 supplements: 1) a high RDP supplement provided daily (RDP-D), 2) the high RDP supplement provided on alternate days (RDP-A), 3) a high RUP supplement provided on alternate days (RUP-A), or 4) a 50:50 mixture of the RDP and RUP supplements, provided on alternate days (MIX-A). Forage OM, N, NDF, or ADF intakes were not affected by treatment. True ruminal OM digestibility was greater (P < 0.001) for MIX-A lambs compared with other treatments. True ruminal N digestibility was less (P < 0.01) in RUP-A lambs compared with other treatments. Ruminal digestibilities of NDF and ADF were greater (P protein supplementation with a mixture of RDP and RUP may improve digestibility in lambs consuming low-quality forage, which may be related to decreased fluctuation in ruminal ammonia concentrations as a result of greater endogenous N recycling. PMID:19854985

Atkinson, R L; Toone, C D; Ludden, P A

2010-02-01

194

Digestive Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

195

Enzymatic digestion improves testicular sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), vital spermatozoa from the tissue is obtained from testes by enzymatic treatment besides the mechanical treatment. Objective: To increase the sperm recovery success of testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with enzymatic digestion if no sperm is obtained from testis tissue by mechanical method. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples were collected from 150 men who presented with clinical and laboratory data indicating NOA by means of TESE and micro dissection TESE methods. Initially, mature spermatozoa were examined for by mechanical extraction technique shredding the biopsy fractions. In cases whom no spermatozoa was observed after maximum 30 min of initial searching under the inverted microscope, the procedure was followed by enzymatic digestion using DNaseI and collagenase type IV. Surgery type, pathology, AZF, karyotype, hormones and testis size were compared in patients. Results: Of 150 cases with NOA, conventional mincing method extended with enzymatic treatment yielded successful sperm recovery in 13 (about 9%) patients. Comparison of parameters revealed that level of FSH and LH were significantly different (p=0.04 and 0.08 respectively) between two groups that response negative and positive to enzymatic digestion. Conclusion: The combination of conventional TESE and enzymatic digestion is an effective method to recover spermatozoa. The benefit of the mincing combined with enzyme to sperm retrieval for NOA firstly shorten the mechanical searching time, leading to minimizing further cellular damage as well as exposure to external conditions, and secondly reduce the number of cases with sperm recovery failures. Also, the serum level of FSH and LH are factors that influence the chance of sperm retrieval. PMID:24639777

Modarresi, Tahereh; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Hosseinifar, Hani; Akhlaghi, Ali Asghar; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali

2013-06-01

196

A general protease digestion procedure for optimal protein sequence coverage and post-translational modifications analysis of recombinant glycoproteins: application to the characterization of human lysyl oxidase-like 2 glycosylation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using recombinant DNA technology for expression of protein therapeutics is a maturing field of pharmaceutical research and development. As recombinant proteins are increasingly utilized as biotherapeutics, improved methodologies ensuring the characterization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) are needed. Typically, proteins prepared for PTM analysis are proteolytically digested and analyzed by mass spectrometry. To ensure full coverage of the PTMs on a given protein, one must obtain complete sequence coverage of the protein, which is often quite challenging. The objective of the research described here is to design a protocol that maximizes protein sequence coverage and enables detection of post-translational modifications, specifically N-linked glycosylation. To achieve this objective, a highly efficient proteolytic digest protocol using trypsin was designed by comparing the relative merits of denaturing agents (urea and Rapigest SF), reducing agents [dithiothreitol (DTT) and tris(2-carboxyethyl)phophine (TCEP)], and various concentrations of alkylating agent [iodoacetamide (IAM)]. After analysis of human apo-transferrin using various protease digestion protocols, ideal conditions were determined to contain 6 M urea for denaturation, 5 mM TCEP for reduction, 10 mM IAM for alkylation, and 10 mM DTT, to quench excess IAM before the addition of trypsin. This method was successfully applied to a novel recombinant protein, human lysyl oxidase-like 2. Furthermore, the glycosylation PTMs were readily detected at two glycosylation sites in the protein. These digestion conditions were specifically designed for PTM analysis of recombinant proteins and biotherapeutics, and the work described herein fills an unmet need in the growing field of biopharmaceutical analysis. PMID:21954900

Rebecchi, Kathryn R; Go, Eden P; Xu, Li; Woodin, Carrie L; Mure, Minae; Desaire, Heather

2011-11-15

197

Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37±1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9-70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others. PMID:23790673

Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

2013-12-01

198

Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP) by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2) with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5%) and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36) of laying ...

Seyed Naser Mousavi; Saeed Khalaji; Abdollah Ghasemi-Jirdehi; Farhad Foroudi

2013-01-01

199

Investigation on the effects of various protein levels with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP) by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2) with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5%) and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36) of laying ...

Mousavi, Seyed N.; Saeed Khalaji; Abdollah Ghasemi-Jirdehi; Farhad Foroudi

2013-01-01

200

Effects of ethanol and protein deficiency on pancreatic digestive and lysosomal enzymes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is not fully understood. An increase in pancreatic digestive and lysosomal enzyme synthesis because of ethanol consumption could contribute to the development of pancreatic injury in alcoholics. This study aimed, firstly, to determine the effect of ethanol on the content and messenger RNA levels of pancreatic digestive enzymes and on the messenger RNA level of the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B, and secondly, to examine the influence of concomitant pro...

Apte, M. V.; Wilson, J. S.; Korsten, M. A.; Mccaughan, G. W.; Haber, P. S.; Pirola, R. C.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Development and validation of a spectroscopic method to predict wheat protein digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The CP digestibility is traditionally measured by chemical analyses of CP and marker concentration in digesta and diets. Potentially, CP digestibility can also be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of digesta and diet. Spectroscopy is a rapid, nondestructive method to ascertain qualitative and quantitative chemical information. Based on Beer's law, a spectroscopic method was developed to predict in vivo CP digestibility. To validate, samples of digesta and diet of wheat grain with predetermined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP were scanned on a Fourier transform midinfrared (FTIR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflectance attachment. The AID of CP was calculated from peak intensities of spectra and measured marker concentrations in digesta and diet and then compared with in vivo AID of CP. The AID of CP of a wheat-based diet was predicted accurately with a deviation of 0.68 ± 0.86% from in vivo AID of CP ranging from 60.4 to 87.8%. Functional group digestibility based on the peak at 1,643 cm(-1) or the Amide I region was strongly correlated (r ? 0.99; P < 0.001) with in vivo AID of CP. In conclusion, instead of predictions based on calibrations, CP digestibility can also be potentially predicted directly from FTIR spectra. PMID:23365397

Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

2012-12-01

202

Effect of dietary soluble fibre level and protein source on growth, digestion, caecal activity and health of fattening rabbits.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From weaning (34 d of age) until slaughter (76 d), 216 hybrid rabbits were divided into six experimental groups and fed ad libitum six iso-protein (CP: 15.9% as-fed), iso-starch (9.1%) and iso-ADF (21.4%) diets formulated in a bi-factorial arrangement, with three soluble fibre levels (LS: 5.8% vs. MS: 7.4% vs. HS: 8.5%) and two protein sources (Soy: soybean meal vs. Sun: sunflower meal). The increase in dietary soluble fibre level linearly increased (PL<0.001) in vivo digestibility of dry mat...

Trocino, Angela; Fragkiadakis, M.; Radaelli, G.; Xiccato, Gerolamo

2010-01-01

203

Research on crude protein and digestibility of Arnica montana L. using conventional NIR spectrometry and hyperspectral imaging NIR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arnica montana L. (AM) is considered a medicinal plant, used as hay in feed ration. The aim of this study is to assess the prediction of protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility value in grass mixtures containing Arnica montana L., and in a second step to check if these values have a positive or negative influence in the mixtures. Crude protein has been selected because it is one of the most important quality parameters of forages as nutritional element used in animal feeding...

Dale, Laura; Fernandez, Juan Antonio; Vermeulen, Philippe; Lecler, Bernard; Bogdan, Anca Dorina; Pacurar, Florin; Rotar, Ioan; Thewis, Andre?; Baeten, Vincent

2012-01-01

204

Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (P<0.05). EB irradiation was more effective than GR irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA (P<0.05). EB and GR treatments at a dose of 75 kGy increased in vitro digestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM. - Highlights: ? Irradiation was effective on reducing ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal. ? Ionizing radiations, especially electron beam, lessened ruminal degradability of amino acid substantially. ? Irradiation processing could be used as a safe and efficient method in improving nutritional value of cottonseed meal.

2012-06-01

205

The Effect of Three Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Digestibility and Tests Function in Male Pubertal Rabbits  

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Full Text Available Six healthy crossbred rabbits (New Zealand white & Chinchilla were assigned to each of three isocaloric rations viz: treatment A (control with 20% crude protein on dry matter basis (CP, treatment B with 14% CP and treatment C with 24% CP. The performance parameters considered included dry matter and CP digestibility, feed intake, growth rate, and reproduction parameters like paired testes weight, paired testes volume/density, gonadal sperm reserves and daily sperm production. The results showed that CP digestibility was significantly affected (P= 0.05 while dry matter digestibility was not significantly affected. Average weight gain was significantly different (P= 0.05 between treatment B and C but not between B and C and control. There was no significant dietary effect on relative testis weight among treatments but testis volume was significantly enhanced by dietary CP. Daily sperm production and gonadal sperm reserves were significantly enhanced (P= 0.05 with increasing dietary CP. It is concluded that dietary crude protein significantly enhances the reproduction efficiency of pubertal rabbits.

Ladokun, AO.

2006-01-01

206

Influence of dietary protein sources on the amino acid profiles available for digestion and metabolism in lactating cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six lactating Holstein cows, fitted with T-type cannulas in the proximal duodenum, were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design to determine influence of supplemental protein on amino acid profiles of duodenal chyme and plasma. Protein sources were blood meal, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed meal, which furnished approximately 46% of the total protein in corn-grain corn silage diets. Markers were 15N to estimate rumen bacteria and chromic oxide to estimate nutrient flow. Dry matter intake was lowest on blood meal. Duodenal flow of N exceeded N intake 23% on blood meal and corn gluten meal. Percentages of organic matter and protein digested in the rumen were 56.5, 41.8; 61.2, 53.4; and 50.6, 56.2 for the respective diets. Variation in patterns of amino acids flowing to the duodenum, but not in coccygeal blood, closely reflected dietary differences with six of eight essential amino acids highest for the same treatment in both diet and duodenal chyme. Essential amino acids in least abundance for milk production, measured by mammary extraction coefficients, differed among diets. We conclude that supplemental protein source influences greatly the quantity and pattern of amino acids available for digestion in lactating dairy cows. PMID:2273149

King, K J; Huber, J T; Sadik, M; Bergen, W G; Grant, A L; King, V L

1990-11-01

207

Comparison of Chemical Composition and Protein Digestibility, Carotenoids, Tanins and Alkaloids Content of Wild Lupinus Varieties Flour  

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Full Text Available Proximate composition, carotenoids, tannins, quinolizidine alkaloids and in vitro protein digestibility were determined in flours of two wild lupines seeds recollected at central region of Mexico. Varieties identified as Lupinus barkeri and Lupinus montanus were compared with a domesticated cultivated Lupinus albus crop. Although total protein content resulted significantly (pL. barkeri and L. montanus, no significantly (p>0.05 difference were found in in vitro protein digestibility. Ash and crude fiber contents were significantly (p L. barkeri and L. montanus ether extract was significantly (pLupinus species. Wild varieties of Lupinus could represent a viable alternative looking for new protein resources, from the techno-functional and nutritional point of view. Lupin flour is a good source of minerals and functional compounds, like carotenoids as antioxidant or dietary fiber, with health-promoting properties. Antinutritional factors associated to lupin can be minimized or eliminated by processing (soaking, dehulling and cooking. These characteristics of wild Lupinus varieties result in a revalorization of these crops as a protein and other healthy promoting compounds for human or animal consumption.

Jorge Yanez-Fernandez

2012-01-01

208

[Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA) profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19 g), using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean paste, sorghum meal, and wheat meal. The experiment consisted of a single-factor, completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. Samples of ingredients, diets and feces were analyzed for nitrogen and amino acids. For amino acid assay, we used reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. To avoid partial loss of methionine and cystine, samples of ingredients, diets, and feces were oxidized with performic acid to methionine sulfone and cysteic acid prior to acid hydrolysis. The apparent dry matter and protein digestive utilization coefficients varied from 68% to 109% and from 70% to 103%, respectively. Apparent digestibility of protein for casein, soy paste, wheat meal and wheat gluten were very high (over 90%), corn gluten and poultry byproducts meal showed high protein digestibility (over 80%), but porcine byproducts meal and sorghum meal had low digestibility (76% and 70%, respectively). There was a reasonable, but not total, correspondence between apparent protein digestibility and average essential amino acid digestibility coefficients, except for arginine in corn gluten, phenylalanine and leucine in sorghum meal, phenylalanine in soy paste and lysine in wheat meal and poultry by-product meal. The most digestible feed ingredients for whiteleg shrimp were: wheat gluten, wheat meal and soy paste; poultry byproduct meal and corn gluten were less digestible and the lowest digestibility occurred in porcine byproduct meal and sorghum meal. Feedstuffs exhibited great variability in dry matter, protein and amino acid digestive utilization coefficients, which should be considered when formulating shrimp feeds. PMID:21250486

Terrazas, Martín; Civera, Roberto; Ibarra, Lilia; Goytortúa, Ernesto

2010-12-01

209

Using context to improve protein domain identification  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying domains in protein sequences is an important step in protein structural and functional annotation. Existing domain recognition methods typically evaluate each domain prediction independently of the rest. However, the majority of proteins are multidomain, and pairwise domain co-occurrences are highly specific and non-transitive. Results Here, we demonstrate how to exploit domain co-occurrence to boost weak domain predictions that appear in previously observed combinations, while penalizing higher confidence domains if such combinations have never been observed. Our framework, Domain Prediction Using Context (dPUC, incorporates pairwise "context" scores between domains, along with traditional domain scores and thresholds, and improves domain prediction across a variety of organisms from bacteria to protozoa and metazoa. Among the genomes we tested, dPUC is most successful at improving predictions for the poorly-annotated malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for which over 38% of the genome is currently unannotated. Our approach enables high-confidence annotations in this organism and the identification of orthologs to many core machinery proteins conserved in all eukaryotes, including those involved in ribosomal assembly and other RNA processing events, which surprisingly had not been previously known. Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrate that this new context-based approach will provide significant improvements in domain and function prediction, especially for poorly understood genomes for which the need for additional annotations is greatest. Source code for the algorithm is available under a GPL open source license at http://compbio.cs.princeton.edu/dpuc/. Pre-computed results for our test organisms and a web server are also available at that location.

Llinás Manuel

2011-03-01

210

New technologies in proteomics: automated excision and digestion of fluorescently stained protein gel spots and identification of proteins by MALDI-QTOF mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation is an overview of the techniques and systems we use for large-scale proteomics in plants. This includes a variety of 2D gel electrophoresis methods, and automation of spot-cutting, in-gel digestion, nanoLC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry and SEQUEST based protein identification. Examples and applications of several new technologies will also be shown, including the use of a robotic spot cutter in conjunction with high sensitivity fluorescent protein staining and the identification of proteins by redundant peptide identification in a high-throughput fashion using a hybrid MALDI-Qtof mass spectrometer

2001-10-01

211

Food allergy to wheat products: the effect of bread baking and in vitro digestion on wheat allergenic proteins. A study with bread dough, crumb, and crust.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of baking and digestion on the allergenicity of wheat flour proteins has been studied. Pooled sera of patients suffering from food allergy to wheat products were tested for IgE binding to the proteins of the wheat dough and of the bread crumb and crust, before and after being in vitro digested. During in vitro digestion, the IgE binding protein components of the unheated dough tended to disappear, whereas a permanence of IgE recognition was evident for both the bread crumb and crust. This indicates that the baking process increases the resistance of the potential allergens of the wheat flour to proteolytic digestion, allowing them to reach the gastrointestinal tract, where they can elicit the immunological response. Therefore, the effects of baking must be carefully considered in studying food allergies to wheat products. PMID:11714375

Simonato, B; Pasini, G; Giannattasio, M; Peruffo, A D; De Lazzari, F; Curioni, A

2001-11-01

212

Non Starch Polysaccharidase - A Potent tool in improving fibre digestibility in Ruminants  

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Full Text Available Manipulation of rumen fermentation by using feed additives has been gaining popularity in ruminant nutrition in recent years. One such approach is the use of fibrolytic enzymes in the treatment of feedstuffs to enhance their digestibility. The better understanding of the production techniques, enzyme activity, mode of enzyme action and application techniques of commercial non starch polysaccharidase enzymes can help the scientific community for competent utilization of these biotechnological products for efficient utilization of the available feed resources. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 142-144

Yancy Mary Issac

2010-06-01

213

Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in ?sex reversal Nile tilapia? ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

Gutierrez, Felix Walter; Quispe, Máximo; Valenzuela, Luz.

214

The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources  

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Full Text Available Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef; Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa; Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay, 200 g fishmeal. The concentrations of the amino-acids threonine, iso-leucine, leucine and arginine were increased in the total ration when lucerne hay replaced the tef hay while fishmeal supplementation increased the methionine and lysine contents, which provided a wide range of concentrations of digestible amino-acids in each of the 4 rations.

F.E. Van Niekerk

2012-07-01

215

Characterization of condensed tannins purified from legume forages: chromophore production, protein precipitation, and inhibitory effects on cellulose digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify simple screening tools for selecting condensed tannin (CT)-containing forages as candidate sources for further study, CT were isolated from nine legumes, and their molecular weights (MW), chromophore production, capacity to precipitate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Fraction 1 protein (Rubisco) isolated from alfalfa, and inhibition of filter paper digestion were compared. Sources were as follows: leaves of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata Dum.-Cours.), crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.), and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.); stems of hedysarum (Hedysarum alpinum L.); seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); and whole plants of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. corniculatus L.) and three varieties of big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus Cav.), viz., Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr, L. uliginosus var. glabriusculus, and L. uliginosus var. villosus. Molecular weights and sizes (degrees of polymerization) of the CT varied considerably within and among plant species. Average MW ranged from 3036 Da (crown vetch) to 7143 Da (lespedeza). All CT exhibited greater capacity (w/w basis) to bind alfalfa Rubisco than BSA. Relative astringencies (microg CT required to precipitate 1 mg protein) against BSA ranged from 262.5 for CT from lespedeza to 435.5 for CT from L. corniculatus, and against Rubisco, from 49.6 (sainfoin) to 108.2 (alfalfa seed). Including CT at 300 microg/ml in cultures of Fibrobacter succinogenes reduced digestion of cellulose filter paper by 19.8% (sainfoin) to 92.4% (crown vetch) and increased the specific activity of cell-associated endoglucanase. There were no correlations between inhibitory effects of CT on filter paper digestion and (1) chromophore formation during CT assay by butanol-HCl, vanillin-HCl, or H2SO4; (2) precipitation of BSA or alfalfa Rubisco; and (3) MW of CT. The most inhibitory CT for cellulose digestion included those with broad and with narrow MW distributions. Sainfoin was the most desirable source of CT, as it had the highest capacity to bind alfalfa protein and was least inhibitory to cellulose digestion by F. succinogenes. This study suggests that these properties are not easily defined via chemical means, and that biological assays using rumen bacteria may help identify those CT with properties of nutritional interest. PMID:16132212

McAllister, Tim A; Martinez, Tomas; Bae, Hee Dong; Muir, Alister D; Yanke, L Jay; Jones, Graham A

2005-09-01

216

/ Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 [...] × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

Nivea Regina de Oliveira, Felisberto; Marcelo Teixeira, Rodrigues; Marco Aurélio Delmondes, Bomfim; Rogério da Silva, Matos; Ana Gabriela Pombo Celles, Cordeiro; Márcia Maria Cândido da, Silva.

217

Biphasic microreactor for efficient membrane protein pretreatment with a combination of formic acid assisted solubilization, on-column pH adjustment, reduction, alkylation, and tryptic digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combining good dissolving ability of formic acid (FA) for membrane proteins and excellent complementary retention behavior of proteins on strong cation exchange (SCX) and strong anion exchange (SAX) materials, a biphasic microreactor was established to pretreat membrane proteins at microgram and even nanogram levels. With membrane proteins solubilized by FA, all of the proteomics sample processing procedures, including protein preconcentration, pH adjustment, reduction, and alkylation, as well as tryptic digestion, were integrated into an "SCX-SAX" biphasic capillary column. To evaluate the performance of the developed microreactor, a mixture of bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c was pretreated. Compared with the results obtained by the traditional in-solution process, the peptide recovery (93% vs 83%) and analysis throughput (3.5 vs 14 h) were obviously improved. The microreactor was further applied for the pretreatment of 14 ?g of membrane proteins extracted from rat cerebellums, and 416 integral membrane proteins (IMPs) (43% of total protein groups) and 103 transmembrane peptides were identified by two-dimensional nanoliquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (2D nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS) in triplicate analysis. With the starting sample preparation amount decreased to as low as 50 ng, 64 IMPs and 17 transmembrane peptides were identified confidently, while those obtained by the traditional in-solution method were 10 and 1, respectively. All these results demonstrated that such an "SCX-SAX" based biphasic microreactor could offer a promising tool for the pretreatment of trace membrane proteins with high efficiency and throughput. PMID:23957459

Zhao, Qun; Liang, Yu; Yuan, Huiming; Sui, Zhigang; Wu, Qi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

2013-09-17

218

Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility of high-protein distillers dried grains and corn germ fed to growing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments were conducted to measure energy, P, and AA digestibility in 2 novel co-products from the ethanol industry [i.e., high-protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and corn germ]. These products are produced by dehulling and degerming corn before it enters the fermentation process. Experiment 1 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure DE and ME in HP DDG, corn germ, and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW, 48.9 +/- 1.99 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on corn, corn and HP DDG, or corn and corn germ. Pigs were allotted to a replicated, 3 x 3 Latin square design. The DE and ME in corn (4,056 and 3,972 kcal/kg of DM, respectively) did not differ from the DE and ME in corn germ (3,979 and 3,866 kcal/kg of DM, respectively). However, HP DDG contained more (P < 0.05) energy (4,763 kcal of DE/kg of DM and 4,476 kcal of ME/kg of DM) than corn or corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and true total tract digestibility of P in HP DDG and corn germ. Thirty growing pigs (initial BW, 33.2 +/- 7.18 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed a diet based on HP DDG or corn germ. A P-free diet was used to measure endogenous P losses. Pigs were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design, with 10 replications per treatment. The ATTD and the retention of P were calculated for the diets containing HP DDG and corn germ, and the endogenous loss of P was estimated from pigs fed the P-free diet. The ATTD was lower (P < 0.05) in corn germ (28.6%) than in the HP DDG (59.6%). The retention of P was also lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn germ (26.7%) than in pigs fed HP DDG (58.9%). The endogenous loss of P was estimated to be 211 +/- 39 mg per kg of DMI. The true total tract digestibility of P for HP DDG and corn germ was calculated to be 69.3 and 33.7%, respectively. In Exp. 3, apparent ileal digestibility and standardized ileal digestibility values of CP and AA in HP DDG and corn germ were measured using 6 growing pigs (initial BW, 78.2 +/- 11.4 kg) allotted to a replicated, 3 x 3 Latin square design. The apparent ileal digestibility for CP and all AA except Arg and Pro, and the standardized ileal digestibility for CP and all AA except Arg, Lys, Gly, and Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in HP DDG than in corn germ. It was concluded that HP DDG has a greater digestibility of energy, P, and most AA than corn germ. PMID:17644788

Widmer, M R; McGinnis, L M; Stein, H H

2007-11-01

219

Modeling alkali consumption and digestibility improvement from alkaline treatment of wheat straw  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The alkali consumption during alkaline treatment of wheat straw at ambient temperature was measured as a function of time, solids concentration, and alkali concentration. The maximum measured alkali consumption was 5.5 g NaOH/100 g TS over a period of 30 days of treatment. Chemical functional groups (e.g., acyl and carboxyl groups) were measured and compared with the observed alkali consumption. The kinetics of alkali consumption were studied and a model was developed which predicts alkali consumption reasonably well. Use of this model was made to predict biodegradability of alkali-treated wheat straw, since a strong correlation was found to exist between alkali consumption and observed biodegradability. The method of bioconversion used was anaerobic digestion for methane production.

Pavlostathis, S.G.; Gossett, J.M.

1985-01-01

220

Processing Effects on Some Antinutritional Factors and In vitro Multienzyme Protein Digestibility (IVPD of Three Tropical Seeds: Breadnut (Artocarpus altilis, Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale and Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis  

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Full Text Available Mature seeds of breadnut, cashewnut and fluted pumpkin were processed in the laboratory into the raw dried, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds. Differently processed seeds were dried at 50°C, ground and sieved through 500?m sieves. The seed flours were evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activity, tannin, phosphorus compounds and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD. The results show that processing significantly (P = 0.05 affected the antinutritional factors in the seed flours. Breadnut flours contain 2.8-5.3g/kg phytic acid, 5.8-9.2g/kg tannin and 0.9-8.1mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Cashewnut flours contain 6.0-9.9g/kg phytic acid, 5.1-13.3g/kg tannin and 0.8-2.5mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fluted pumpkin seed flours contain 2.8-13.8g/kg phytic acid, 7.5-19.1g/kg tannin and 0.0-11.0mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fermentation is the most effective processing method to reduce phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity while boiling is most effective in reducing the tannin content. The result of IVPD of the seeds generally show that the boiled samples are the most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw dried/germinated samples are the least. The order of digestibility of the three seeds is fluted pumpkin (72.0 - 86.0% > cashewnut (74.3 - 82.9% > Breadnut flour (71.3 - 78.3%. Processing techniques used reduced the antinutritional factors in the seeds and improve its IVPD when compared with the raw dried seed flours.

T.N. Fagbemi

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The Improving Literacy through School Libraries Program of "No Child Left Behind": Tips for Writing a Winning Grant Proposal. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

This ERIC Digest is intended to help eligible school library personnel write an effective proposal for the "Improving Literacy Through School Libraries" (LSL) grant program, which provides funding for high-need K-12 school library programs to improve reading achievement by providing students with increased access to school library materials, to…

Mardis, Marcia A.

222

Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some dietary protein sources but not others. PMID:24431326

Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

2014-04-01

223

Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

Malinauskyt?, Ernesta; Ramanauskait?, Jovita; Leskauskait?, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

2014-12-15

224

A peptidomic analysis of human milk digestion in the infant stomach reveals protein-specific degradation patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro digestion of isolated milk proteins results in milk peptides with a variety of actions. However, it remains unclear to what degree protein degradation occurs in vivo in the infant stomach and whether peptides previously annotated for bioactivity are released. This study combined nanospray LC separation with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, comprehensive structural libraries, and informatics to analyze milk from 3 human mothers and the gastric aspirates from their 4- to 12-d-old postpartum infants. Milk from the mothers contained almost 200 distinct peptides, demonstrating enzymatic degradation of milk proteins beginning either during lactation or between milk collection and feeding. In the gastric samples, 649 milk peptides were identified, demonstrating that digestion continues in the infant stomach. Most peptides in both the intact milk and gastric samples were derived from ?-casein. The numbers of peptides from ?-casein, lactoferrin, ?-lactalbumin, lactadherin, ?-casein, serum albumin, bile salt-associated lipase, and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase were significantly higher in the gastric samples than in the milk samples (P milk and gastric samples (P milk peptides with immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of clinical relevance to the proximal intestinal tract. Data are available via ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD000688). PMID:24699806

Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andrés; Khaldi, Nora; Borghese, Robyn; Bhandari, Aashish; Underwood, Mark A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

2014-06-01

225

Enzymatic protein digests do not assist in E. coli discrimination at the strain level using mass spectrometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different procedures for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry-based E. coli classification at the strain level using the enzymatic digestion of proteins from the cell lysate have been studied. The effects of ultrasonic energy as well as the effects of protein reduction and protein alkylation in the sample treatment and in the subsequent classification were assessed. The final optimal method for classification was then compared with an intact cell-based approach in a different set of samples. Our results show that E. coli classification at the strain level is possible as 12 different strains were correctly classified using intact cell analysis. Overall, the confidence level in classification was higher when the analysis was performed with the intact cell approach.

Ricardo J. Carreira

2013-01-01

226

Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

1992-12-01

227

Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

1992-01-01

228

The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef); Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa); Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes...

Niekerk, F. E.; Niekerk, C. H.

2012-01-01

229

Protein sources and digestive enzyme activities in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) Fontes protéicas e atividade de enzimas digestivas em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digestive enzymes activity influence feed utilization by fish, and its understanding is important to optimize diet formulation. This study reports the digestive enzyme activities of jundiá juveniles fed diets with protein sources. Fish were fed six experimental diets for 90 days: MBY (meat and bone meal + sugar cane yeast), SY (soybean meal + sugar cane yeast), S (soybean meal), MBS (meat and bone meal + soybean meal), FY (fish meal + sugar cane yeast) and FS (fish meal + soybean meal), and ...

Rafael Lazzari; João Radünz Neto; Fabio de Araújo Pedron; Vania Lucia Loro; Alexandra Pretto; Carolina Rosa Gioda

2010-01-01

230

Effect of different concentrations of protein on the digestive system of juvenile silver catfish Efeito de diferentes concentrações de proteína sobre o sistema digestivo de juvenis de jundiá  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspects of digestion in juvenile silver catfish Rhamdia quelen fed with four levels of protein (20, 27, 34 and 41%) were studied. The studied traits were digestive enzymes (nonspecific proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase) and weight gain. The experiment lasted 60 days; 160 juvenile catfish with initial body weight of 32 grams were transferred to the experimental system of 500L tanks with re-circulated and thermostatized water. The average weight of silver catfish increased wi...

Melo, J. F. B.; Lundstedt, L. M.; Moraes, G.; Inoue, L. A. K. A.

2012-01-01

231

Ileal and total tract apparent crude protein and amino acid digestibility of ensiled and dried cassava leaves and sweet potato vines in growing pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL + SPV in growing (>60 kg BW) pigs. Coefficients of ileal (CIAD) and total tract (CTTAD) apparent digestibilities of organic matter (OM), CP, AA, crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fi...

Nguyen, T. H. L.; Ngoan, L. D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

2012-01-01

232

Elastase Digests  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite many advances in membrane proteomics during the last decade the fundamental problem of accessing the transmembrane regions itself has only been addressed to some extent. The present study establishes a method for the nano-LC-based analysis of complex membrane proteomes on the basis of a methanolic porcine pancreatic elastase digest to increase transmembrane coverage. Halobacterium salinarium purple and Corynebacterium glutamicum membranes were successfully analyzed by using the new protocol. We demonstrated that elastase digests yield a large proportion of transmembrane peptides, facilitating membrane protein identification. The potential for characterization of a membrane protein through full sequence coverage using elastase is there but is restricted to the higher abundance protein components. Compatibility of the work flow with the two most common mass spectrometric ionization techniques, ESI and MALDI, was shown. Currently better results are obtained using ESI mainly because of the low response of MALDI for strictly neutral peptides. New findings concerning elastase specificity in complex protein mixtures reveal a new prospect beyond the application in shotgun experiments. Furthermore peptide mass fingerprinting with less specific enzymes might be done in the near future but requires an adaptation of current search algorithms to the new proteases.

Rietschel, Benjamin; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Meyer, Bjoern; Bornemann, Sandra; Schuerken, Malte; Karas, Michael; Poetsch, Ansgar

2009-01-01

233

Improving protein docking with binding site prediction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions are fundamental as many proteins mediate their biological function through these interactions. Many important applications follow directly from the identification of residues in the interfaces between protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, such as drug design, protein mimetic engineering, elucidation of molecular pathways, and understanding of disease mechanisms. The identification of interface residues can also guide the docking proce...

2008-01-01

234

Ileal apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities and endogenous nitrogen losses in pigs fed soybean and rapeseed products.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of various protein sources on the apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of CP and amino acids (AA) and on the recoveries of ileal endogenous nitrogen (N) in pigs. Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured using the 15N-isotope dilution method. Thirteen pigs (BW of 13 to 20 kg) were fitted with a post-valve-T-cecal cannula and two indwelling blood catheters. They were fed twice daily at a level of 2.6 times ME for maintenance. Cornstarch-based diets contained a soy concentrate (SC; 180.5 g/kg), soybean meal (SBM; 295 g/kg), or a mixture of toasted and untoasted soybean meal (mSBM; 330.4 g/kg) in Trial I or three rapeseed cakes, dehulled-toasted (RC1; 395 g/kg), non-dehulled-toasted (RC2; 458 g/kg), and dehulled-untoasted (RC3; 390 g/kg) in Trial II. The protein sources provided diets with similar levels of apparent ileal digestible CP (108 g/kg as-fed diet) and Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, and Trp. The AID of CP was greater (P .05; 2.24, 3.03, and 2.89 for RC1, RC2, and RC3, respectively) among diets in Trial II. We concluded that AID of CP of the soybean diets were associated with endogenous and dietary N losses. For these diets, increased ENL and dietary N losses were associated with a higher dietary trypsin inhibitor activity. For the rapeseed diets, dehulling increased AID of CP and AA, due to reduced ENL (P = .08) and dietary N losses (P .05) while reducing the true ileal CP digestibility (P < .05). PMID:9498366

Grala, W; Verstegen, M W; Jansman, A J; Huisman, J; van Leeusen, P

1998-02-01

235

A Quantitative Study of the Effects of Chaotropic Agents, Surfactants, and Solvents on the Digestion Efficiency of Human Plasma Proteins by Trypsin  

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Plasma biomarkers studies are based on the differential expression of proteins between different treatment groups or between diseased and control populations. Most mass spectrometry-based methods of protein quantitation, however, are based on the detection and quantitation of peptides, not intact proteins. For peptide-based protein quantitation to be accurate, the digestion protocols used in proteomic analyses must be both efficient and reproducible. There have been very few studies, however,...

Proc, Jennifer L.; Kuzyk, Michael A.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Yang, Juncong; Smith, Derek S.; Jackson, Angela M.; Parker, Carol E.; Borchers, Christoph H.

2010-01-01

236

Improved molecular diagnosis of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD): validation of the differential double digestion for FSHD.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major advance in the molecular diagnosis of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is the recently reported elimination of confounding DNA fragments arising from homologous sequences located at 10q26. In order to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of this important diagnostic test, we have compared a group of 130 patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for FSHD with 200 control subjects not known to have an increased risk of having an FSHD mutation. Among the FSHD cases the smallest BlnI/EcoRI fragment sizes ranged from 10 to > 48 kb with 94.6% (95% CI 89.2-97.8%) of cases having fragment sizes of 34 kb or less. Among the 400 chromosomes from controls the smallest BlnI/EcoRI fragment observed with the EcoRI/BlnI double restriction enzyme digest was 38 kb +/- 2 kb, suggesting a test specificity at a fragment size 38 kb. The Southern blot analysis with DNA probe p13E-11 has created a valuable molecular diagnostic test for FSHD. PMID:9192267

Upadhyaya, M; Maynard, J; Rogers, M T; Lunt, P W; Jardine, P; Ravine, D; Harper, P S

1997-06-01

237

On the digestibility and utilization of labelled protein of feeds and foods rich in dietary fibres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Labelled straw meal as model substance and broiler hens as experimental animals, which take in 25% of ration dry matter as straw were used. Since the digestibility of high-polymeric carbohydrate is considerably increased by ?-rays in ruminants untreated and irradiated straw were included. The hens were given a ration which also contained labelled wheat and which was supplemented with straw meal in order to find the origin of the additional N excretion by the fibre. (author)

1986-01-01

238

Optimizing feeding composition and carbon-nitrogen ratios for improved methane yield during anaerobic co-digestion of dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the possibilities of improving methane yield from anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates, using a mixture of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and wheat straw (WS), based on optimized feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Co-digestion of DM, CM and WS performed better in methane potential than individual digestion. A larger synergetic effect in co-digestion of DM, CM and WS was found than in mixtures of single manures with WS. As the C/N ratio increased, methane potential initially increased and then declined. C/N ratios of 25:1 and 30:1 had better digestion performance with stable pH and low concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen and free NH(3). Maximum methane potential was achieved with DM/CM of 40.3:59.7 and a C/N ratio of 27.2:1 after optimization using response surface methodology. The results suggested that better performance of anaerobic co-digestion can be fulfilled by optimizing feeding composition and the C/N ratio. PMID:22784956

Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

2012-09-01

239

Acid and rennet gels exhibit strong differences in the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid bioavailability.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at determining the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid absorption after ingestion by six multi-canulated mini-pigs of two gelled dairy matrices having the same composition, similar rheological and structural properties, but differing by their mode of coagulation (acidification/renneting). Duodenal, mid-jejunal effluents and plasma samples were collected at different times during 7h after meal ingestion. Ingestion of the acid gel induced a peak of caseins and ?-lactoglobulin in duodenal effluents after 20min of digestion and a peak of amino acids in the plasma after 60min. The rennet gel induced lower levels of both proteins in the duodenum (with no defined peak) as well as much lower levels of amino acids in the plasma than the acid gel. Plasma ghrelin concentrations suggested a potentially more satiating effect of the rennet gel compared to the acid gel. This study clearly evidences that the gelation process can significantly impact on the nutritive value of dairy products. PMID:24054204

Barbé, Florence; Ménard, Olivia; Le Gouar, Yann; Buffière, Caroline; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Laroche, Béatrice; Feunteun, Steven Le; Rémond, Didier; Dupont, Didier

2014-01-15

240

Experimental and clinical studies on simultaneous fat and protein tolerance digestion-absorption test using 131I-triolein and 125I-RISA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous fat and protein tolerance digestion-absorption test using 131I-triolein and 125I-RISA was investigated experimentally in rats and clinically in 148 inpatients with various diseases. The results were as follows: Animal experiments. Fat absorption was markedly impaired in the exclusion of bile from the intestine. Each function of fat and protein absorption was independently detected. These animal experiments gave the clinical evaluation of this test for fat and protein digestion-absorption function. Clinical investigations. The test meal was prepared without using commercial Tween 80 as an emulgent. Either fat or protein absorption was markedly impaired in some patients with various diseases. Inpatients with various diseases investigated were divided into 3 groups by correlation coefficient between fecal excretion ratios of fat and protein. Each function of fat and protein digestion-absorption was able to be detected independently by this test simultaneously. This test can further be used as a labolatory aid in evaluating fat and protein digestion-absorption function in patients with malabsorption syndrome. (author)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Fat digestion in veal calves fed milk replacers low or high in calcium and containing either casein or soy protein isolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis tested was that the inhibitory effect of dietary soy protein versus casein on fat digestion in veal calves would be smaller when diets were fed with high instead of low calcium content. Male calves, 1 wk of age, were fed 1 of 4 experimental milk replacers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. There were 19 animals per dietary group. The milk replacers contained either casein or soy protein isolate as variable protein source and were either low or high in calcium. Body weight gain was not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Soy protein isolate versus casein significantly reduced apparent fat digestibility. High versus low calcium intake also depressed fat digestion. The protein effect was smaller (2.9% units) for the high than the low calcium diets (3.6% units), but the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Soy protein isolate versus casein raised fecal bile acid excretion and so did high versus low calcium intake. The difference in bile acid excretion between the soy and casein containing diets was significantly greater for the high than low calcium diets. The absorption of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium was higher for the casein diets than for the soy-containing diets. This study shows for the first time that soy protein isolate versus casein depressed fat digestion and raised fecal bile acid excretion in veal calves. PMID:15259241

Yuangklang, C; Wensing, Th; Van den Broek, L; Jittakhot, S; Beynen, A C

2004-04-01

242

Investigation on the effects of various protein levels with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P?0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P?0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P?0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P?0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P?0.01. Significant (P?0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

Seyed N. Mousavi

2013-01-01

243

The extent of ovalbumin in vitro digestion and the nature of generated peptides are modulated by the morphology of protein aggregates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of heat-induced aggregation on the extent of ovalbumin digestion and the nature of peptides released was investigated using an in vitro digestion model. The extent of hydrolysis, estimated by the disappearance of intact ovalbumin and the appearance of soluble peptides, was greater for the linear aggregates as compared to the spherical aggregates. The latter result may be due to differences in the surface area to volume ratio of the aggregates, or the degree of unfolding of the proteins during aggregate preparation. Peptide identification using LC-MS/MS highlighted that ovalbumin aggregation rendered a number of peptide bonds accessible to digestive proteases which were not accessible in native ovalbumin. Moreover, the peptide bonds that were cleaved appeared to be specific depending on the morphology of the aggregates. This work illustrates the links existing between food structure and their breakdown during the digestive process. Such quantitative and qualitative differences may have important nutritional consequences. PMID:24679801

Nyemb, Kéra; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Dupont, Didier; Jardin, Julien; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Nau, Françoise

2014-08-15

244

Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC, heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested and digested (Enprocal D selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells. Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80, MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-? and up-regulated IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.

Kanwar Rupinder K

2009-01-01

245

Ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of dogs as affected by soybean protein inclusion in dry, extruded diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-based protein sources are generally less variable in chemical composition than animal-based protein sources. However, relatively few data are available on the nutrient digestibilities of plant-based protein sources by companion animals. The effects of including selected soybean protein sources in dog diets on nutrient digestion at the ileum and in the total tract, as well as on fecal characteristics, were evaluated. Six protein sources were used: soybean meal (SBM), Soyafluff 200W (soy flour), Profine F (traditional aqueous-alcohol extracted soy protein concentrate [SPC 1]), Profine E (extruded SPC [SPC 2]), Soyarich I (modified molecular weight SPC [SPC 3]), and poultry meal (PM). All diets were extruded and kibbled. Test ingredients varied in CP and fat contents; however, diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Nutrient intakes were similar, except for total dietary fiber (TDF), which was lower (P < 0.01) for dogs fed the PM diet. Apparent ileal digestibilities of DM, OM, fat, and TDF were not different among treatments; however, CP digestibility at the terminal ileum was higher (P < 0.01) for diets containing soy protein sources than for PM. Total tract CP digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) for soy protein-containing diets than for PM. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, fat, and TDF were not different among treatments. Apparent amino acid digestibilities at the terminal ileum, excluding methionine, threonine, alanine, and glycine, were higher (P < 0.01) for soy protein-containing diets than for PM. Dogs fed SPC diets had lower (P < 0.01) fecal outputs (g asis feces/g DMI) than dogs fed the SF diet, and dogs fed SBM tended (P < 0.11) to have lower fecal outputs than dogs fed the SF diet. However, dogs fed the PM diet had lower (P < 0.03) fecal outputs than dogs fed SPC-containing diets. Fecal outputs and scores reflected the TDF and nonstructural carbohydrate contents of the soy protein fraction. Soy protein sources are well utilized by the dog prior to the terminal ileum, and SPC offers a viable alternative to PM as a protein source in dry, extruded canine diets. PMID:11424690

Clapper, G M; Grieshop, C M; Merchen, N R; Russett, J C; Brent, J L; Fahey, G C

2001-06-01

246

Protein fraction and digestibility of marandu, xaraes and campo grande grasses in monocropping and intercropping systems under different sowing methods - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15134  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the protein fraction and in vitro dry matter digestibility of marandu, xaraes grasses and campo grande in monocropping and intercropping systems under different planting methods, for a period of two years. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications. The treatments consisted of the following crop systems: campo grande in monocropping; xaraés grass in monocropping; marandu grass in monocropping; xaraés intercropped with campo grande in rows; xaraés intercropped with campo grande, broadcast; marandu grass intercropped with campo grande in rows; and marandu intercropped with campo grand, broadcast. The evaluations were conducted for two years, consisting of seasonal evaluations (autumn, winter, spring and summer in the same plots, with repeated measurements over time. The results showed that xaraes and marandu grasses were similar between crop systems, indicating that both can be intercropped with campo grande. The intercropping of campo grande with Brachiaria brizantha cultivars improved the protein fraction and digestibility. The row method of planting provided better protein fractions and in vitro dry matter digestibility.

Welma Santos Crunivel

2013-01-01

247

Characterization of Tannin and Study of in vitro Protein Digestibility and Mineral Profile of Sudanese and Indian Sorghum Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, mineral profile, tannin content, and effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility , and separation and identification of free and bound phenolic acids of Sudanese sorghum cultivar (namely feterita and Indian sorghum cultivar (namely CSH5. Chemical composition of the two sorghum cultivars was determined. Sudanese cultivar showed significantly (p<0.05 high moisture, ash, protein, and fat while Indian cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in fiber and carbohydrate contents. Cupper, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium were determined for the two cultivars. Results revealed that, Sudanese cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in cupper, calcium, iron, and sodium while Indian cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in phosphorus and potassium content. Tannin content in Sudanese cultivar was significantly (P<0.05 higher compared to Indian cultivar. Effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility revealed that cooking significantly (P<0.05 reduced the in vitro protein digestibility of the two sorghum cultivars. The phenolic acids (PAs as free and bound form content were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the two sorghum cultivars. Syringic, p-coummaric, ferulic acid were detected as free form of phenolic acids of Indian cultivar while gallic , protocatechuic, gentisic, caffeic, p-coummaric , and ferulic acids were detected in free form of Sudanese cultivar. Gallic, protocatechuic , gentisic, and p-coummaric were not detected in free form in Indian cultivar while syringic acid was not detected in Sudanese cultivar in free form. Indian cultivar contained high caffeic and ferulic acid in free form compared to Sudanese cultivar. Syringic , caffeic, p- coummaric and ferulic acids were detected in bound form in Indian cultivar while gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coummaric and ferulic acid were detected in bound form in Sudanese cultivar. Gallic, protocatechuic and gentisic acids were not detected in free and bound form in Indian cultivar while p-coummaric acid was only detected in bound form in Indian cultivar. Syringic, caffeic, p-coummaric and ferulic acids content in bound form were high in Indian cultivar than Sudanese cultivar. Generally phenolic acids of the two cultivars exist mostly in bound form.

Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem

2009-01-01

248

Improving the prediction of yeast protein function using weighted protein-protein interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics can be used to predict protein function, leading to an understanding of cellular activities, and equally-weighted protein-protein interactions (PPI are normally used to predict such protein functions. The present study provides a weighting strategy for PPI to improve the prediction of protein functions. The weights are dependent on the local and global network topologies and the number of experimental verification methods. The proposed methods were applied to the yeast proteome and integrated with the neighbour counting method to predict the functions of unknown proteins. Results A new technique to weight interactions in the yeast proteome is presented. The weights are related to the network topology (local and global and the number of identified methods, and the results revealed improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of prediction in terms of cellular role and cellular locations. This method (new weights was compared with a method that utilises interactions with the same weight and it was shown to be superior. Conclusions A new method for weighting the interactions in protein-protein interaction networks is presented. Experimental results concerning yeast proteins demonstrated that weighting interactions integrated with the neighbor counting method improved the sensitivity and specificity of prediction in terms of two functional categories: cellular role and cell locations.

Saloma Nahed H

2011-04-01

249

Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P < 0.05). Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P < 0.05) for diets based on cooked rice than diets based on cooked corn with diets based on pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P < 0.01). Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs. PMID:19820052

Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

2010-02-01

250

Improved mass spectrometric analysis of membrane proteins based on rapid and versatile sample preparation on nanodiamond particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a novel streamlined sample preparation procedure for mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of membrane proteins using surface-oxidized nanodiamond particles. The platform consists of solid-phase extraction and elution of the membrane proteins on nanodiamonds, concentrating the membrane proteins on the nanodiamonds and separating out detergents, chaotropic agents, and salts, and other impurities that are often present at high concentrations in solubilized membrane preparations. In this manner, membrane-protein extracts are transformed into MS-ready samples in minutes. The protocol is not only fast, but also widely adaptable and highly effective for preparing generic membrane protein samples for both MALDI-MS studies of membrane-protein complexes and shotgun membrane proteomics studies. As proof of concept, we have demonstrated substantial improvements in the MALDI-MS analysis of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) complex, a three-subunit transmembrane protein solubilized in various detergent buffers. Enzymatic digestions of membrane proteins are also greatly facilitated since the proteins extracted on to the nanodiamonds are exposed on the surface of the nanoparticles rather than in SDS gels or in detergent solutions. We illustrate the effectiveness of nanodiamonds for SDS removal in the preparation of membrane proteins for MS analysis on the proteome level by examining the quality of the tryptic peptides prepared by on-surface nanodiamond digestion of an E. coli membrane fraction for shotgun proteomics. PMID:23763332

Pham, Minh D; Yu, Steve S-F; Han, Chau-Chung; Chan, Sunney I

2013-07-16

251

Anaerobic digestion process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane gas produced according to an anaerobic digestion of organic wastes is introduced into digested separated water which is alkalized by a photo-culture of algae, whereby impurity carbon dioxide gas is removed by absorption. Accordingly, methane of high concentration is recovered and at the same time, by-product algae is recycled as feedstock, and thereby improving the yield of methane.

Haga, R.; Ishida, M.; Odawara, Y.

1982-10-19

252

Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to estimate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable p...

Rita de Cássia Oliveira Sant'Ana; Fabrícia Queiroz Mendes; Christiano Vieira Pires; Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira

2011-01-01

253

Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p?=?0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p?=?0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619.

2013-01-01

254

Anaerobic Digestion  

...Anaerobic Digestion You need to upgrade your Flash Player Click here to get the latest Flash ...Our People Typical Projects Our Business Sustainability The Future Contact Us Anaerobic Digestion This business has been established, with the support of a ...energy, through the use of proven and established technologies, particularly in anaerobic digestion. We are developing a portfolio of agricultural anaerobic digestion plants,... Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is the biological treatment and natural breakdown of organic materials, in the absence of oxygen, to ...

255

Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner  

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Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

Louise Dye

2013-04-01

256

The Effects of Soluble Protein and Sugar Concentration on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Crossbred Steers  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of varying the Soluble Protein (SP and sugar concentration in total mixed rations. Four crossbred Thai native steers, 24126 kg BW, fitted with rumen cannulae were arranged in a 4x4 Latin square design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The steers were fed treatment rations with varied SP (60.0 or 80.0% of CP and sugar (11.0 or 22.0% of DM levels. Steers fed a high SP diet tended to exhibit a decrease in their DMI (p3-N, BUN and BG levels were not significantly different after increasing the intake of SP or sugar. Increasing the SP and sugar levels did not affect the total VFA concentration in the rumen however, feeding a high SP diet tended to decrease the acetate concentration (p<0.10; 55.5 and 64.8%. The high SP-level diet decreased the total tract ADF (p<0.05, DM and OM (p<0.10 digestibility. This study indicated that a low SP and sugar level diet had more positive effects on the intake, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in crossbred Thai steers.

Yanin Opatpattanakit

2011-01-01

257

Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia  

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Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of gross energy and dry matter (DM and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal in compound diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582, and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

Igo Gomes Guimarães

2012-08-01

258

Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and dry matter (DM) and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal) in compou [...] nd diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582), and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

Igo Gomes, Guimarães; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Rosângela do Nascimento, Fernandes.

259

Digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets containing non conventional vegetable proteins fed to pigs of genetic strains suitable for outdoor systems  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate on growing pigs kept in metabolism crates, either belonging to a “traditional” cross-breed (Duroc x Large White – DLW or a local breed (Cinta Senese – CS, the digestibility and the nitrogen balance of non-conventional vegetable protein sources (field beans, pea and sunflower cake when compared to soybean meal. The four diets were formulated so as to supply the same crude protein amount. CS pigs showed lower apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for crude protein (81,38% vs 82,65% and crude fibre (35,97% vs 40,65%. Nitrogen balance was more favourable in DLW pigs (32,12% vs 19,67% which showed a higher nitrogen retention (+69%.With respect to the protein source, no differences were observed for nitrogen balance. Sunflower diet showed the higher ADC for ether extract (+20% compared with soybean diet. Crude fibre digestibility was lowered in sunflower (-33% and field beans (-13% diets. Sunflower and field beans diets showed the lowest gross energy digestibility coefficients. Field pea diet had the highest ADC for crude fibre (+ 12% leading to ADCs for organic matter and gross energy comparable to those of soybean meal. It is concluded that field bean, sunflower cake and field pea could be considered as valuable non-conventional protein sources in swine nutrition.

L. Sardi

2010-04-01

260

The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (plupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. PMID:22540870

Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effect on digestion and performance of dietary protein content and of increased substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean protein concentrate in starter diets for young rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein source / availability on the intestinal microbiota, digestive traits and nutritional performance of early-weaned rabbits. The effects of supplemental antibiotics in the drinking water were also evaluated. Four isoenergetic and isofibrous diets were formulated: a control diet with a high protein (207 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and lucerne hay content (HPHL), a diet with low crude protein (CP) (179 g/kg DM) and high lucerne hay content (LPHL) and low protein diets in which the lucerne hay in diet LPHL was replaced partially (LPML) or totally (LPLL) with soya-bean protein concentrate. Rabbits, weaned at 25 days (52 per diet), were fed the experimental diets for a 2-week period and thereafter received a commercial diet until 56 days of age. The incidence of mortality was investigated using 70 animals per diet without supplemental medication. The profile of the ileal microbiota was studied at 35 days of age in rabbits treated (18 per diet) or not (12 per diet) with antibiotic. As expected, supplementation with antibiotics effectively reduced fattening mortality rate and microbial biodiversity. However, lowering of also the dietary CP content led to a reduction in the mortality rate ( P < 0.05), both in animals treated with (by 80%) or without (by 39%) antibiotics. In addition, there was a reduction ( P < 0.05) in the frequency of Clostridium perfringens in non-medicated animals. Neither jejunal morphology nor growth performance, over the whole fattening period, was affected by dietary CP content of the experimental diets. However, with HPHL, feed efficiency was higher (by 4.8%; P < 0.01) than with LPHL diets. Substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean meal in low protein diets did not affect apparent faecal or ileal digestibility of DM and CP. However, the ileal digestibility of cystine, alanine, aspartic acid, and proline was lowered ( P < 0.05) with increasing substitution by soya bean. Nevertheless, ileal CP flow, incidence of mortality and presence of C. perfringens were unaffected. Our results suggest that a reduction in dietary CP, resulting in reduced lumenal flows of nitrogen through the ileum, may be beneficial for young rabbits and limit the numbers of potentially harmful bacteria in the lower gut. Modulation of dietary CP should be contemplated as a strategy to increase the intestinal health in rabbits. PMID:22444465

Chamorro, S; Gómez-Conde, M S; Pérez de Rozas, A M; Badiola, I; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

2007-06-01

262

The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 4. Sites of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influenced by dietary reactive tannin concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Vegetative secondary growth Lotus pedunculatus was cut daily, and fed fresh at hourly intervals (600 g dry matter (DM)/d) to three groups each of three sheep fitted with permanent cannulas into the rumen and duodenum. Lotus fed to two of the groups was sprayed with low and high rates of polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight 3350), which specifically binds the condensed tannins (CT). Nutrient intake and faecal excretion were measured directly, duodenal flows estimated from continuous intraruminal infusion of inert ruthenium phenanthroline (Ru-P) and CrEDTA markers, and rumen pool sizes measured at slaughter. 2. Dietary concentrations of total reactive CT (i.e. that not bound to PEG) were 95, 45 and 14 g/kg DM, whilst the corresponding values for free CT were 15, 5 and 2 g/kg DM. 3. Increasing dietary reactive CT concentration linearly increased duodenal flows of non-ammonia nitrogen, but linearly decreased the apparent digestibility of energy and organic matter, and rumen digestion of hemicellulose but not of cellulose. Rumen digestion as a proportion of total digestion was increased by the higher PEG rate for organic matter, energy, pectin and lignin. 4. High dietary CT concentration was associated with increased N retention. Rumen ammonia concentration and pool size showed only a slight decline on this diet, indicating that there must have been increased recycling of N into the rumen. 5. Increasing dietary reactive CT concentration had no effect on the rate at which carbohydrate constituents were degraded in the rumen per unit time (FDR), but increased the rate at which their undegraded residues (FOR) left the rumen per unit time. The latter appeared to be the principal mechanism by which rumen digestion as a proportion of total digestion was reduced at high dietary CT concentrations. From a comparison of FDR and FOR of carbohydrate components in lotus and Brassica oleracea diets, it was concluded that hemicellulose digestion was rate-limiting for rumen cell-wall digestion, probably due to bonding with lignin. However, the considerable post-rumen digestion of hemicellulose was not associated with post-rumen lignin digestion. 6. It was concluded that a desired concentration of CT in Lotus sp. should represent a balance between the positive effect of CT in improving the efficiency of N digestion and their negative effect in depressing rumen carbohydrate digestion. A recommended concentration is 30-40 g/kg DM. PMID:3663569

Barry, T N; Manley, T R; Duncan, S J

1986-01-01

263

The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

1987-01-01

264

Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and in Vitro Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet  

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Full Text Available From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich fraction roasting, boiling, pressure cooking & germination respectively. Processing had little effect on the total dietary fiber (TDF content in both varieties; however the bran rich fraction showed highest TDF content of around 29%. Tannins effectively lowered upon boiling and pressure cooking respectively, but significantly increased (P ? 0.05 upon germination. Although the % IVPD of the millet (45.5 – 49.3 g/100g was low, it significantly increased upon milling (bran rich fraction, roasting and germination respectively.

Florence Suma Pushparaj

2011-10-01

265

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo para beta (Betta splendens. Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens. Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

2007-08-01

266

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta / Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB) e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe) e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo) para beta (Betta splendens). Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários [...] de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário) para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held [...] in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium) for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Jener Alexandre Sampaio, Zuanon; Hamilton, Hisano; Dario Rocha, Falcon; Fernanda Garcia, Sampaio; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

267

Nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs fed phytase-supplemented barley-based diets containing soybean meal or canola meal as a protein source.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of phytase on nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs fed barley-based diet with soybean meal or canola meal as protein source was investigated. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (70 kg initial BW) were fed five diets in a 5 x 5 Latin square design with one added column. The five diets were based on barley-soybean meal (BSBM) or barley-canola meal (BCM) without or with phytase at 500 FTU/kg, and a casein-cornstarch-based diet, which was used to estimate standardised ileal AA digestibilities. No interactions were detected between phytase and diet on any of the response criteria measured except for apparent total tract N digestibility, which was reduced in BSBM diet but not BCM diet by phytase. Phytase increased (p BSBM and BCM diets by at least 17 percentage units, and tended (p < 0.10) to increase the apparent ileal digestibilities of histidine, isoleucine, threonine, valine, cysteine, glycine and tyrosine. In conclusion, the effect of phytase in barley-based diets for finishing pigs on all response criteria measured in this study, except apparent total tract N digestibility, was not influenced by protein source. PMID:19489456

Woyengo, Tofuko A; Dickson, Taryn; Sands, Jason S; Nyachoti, Charles M

2009-04-01

268

Apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acid in feedstuffs used in Nile Tilapia feed as determined by the technique of dissection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal) in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of the Thai strain during the growt [...] h phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time) into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus) using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.

Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Patrícia de Souza Lima, Cunha; Sylvia Sanae, Takishita; Rafael Alves, Vianna.

269

Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P34 kDa; Pkiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins. PMID:24252432

Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

2014-03-28

270

CYP1A- and CYP3A-immunopositive protein levels in digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mediterranean Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

CYP1A-immunopositive protein can be elevated in response to planar PAHs and PCBs in Mytilus sp. digestive gland whilst CYP3A-immunopositive protein has been associated with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation in fish. Levels of CYP1A- and CYP3A-immunopositive protein were determined in Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland microsomes collected from 12 sites in the Mediterranean Sea during May and September 2001. CYP1A-immunopositive protein was significantly highest at contaminated sites whilst CYP3A-immunopositive protein was significantly lowest. A weak negative correlation (r2 = 0.21) was seen between CYP1A- and CYP3A-immunopositive protein. Little evidence of differences at the different sampling times was observed. These results confirm previous work indicating elevation of CYP1A-immunopositive protein in Mytilus sp. digestive gland at contaminated sites. Further study is required to characterise CYP3A-like expression in Mytilus and to elucidate the consequences of possible CYP3A-like down-regulation at contaminated sites. PMID:15178093

Shaw, Jennifer P; Peters, Lawrence D; Chipman, J Kevin

2004-01-01

271

Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A and ?-amylase (RP-E on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS. Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P P P P P > 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action.

Yang Lin

2012-02-01

272

Improvement of protein content in winter wheat with physicochemical mutagens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation is one of the approaches to improve the protein content of wheat. In present experiments the wheat mutation contained high protein, gluten and lysine were obtained by means of treating dry seeds with different physicochemical mutation. The procedure of breeding for improving the qiality of wheat was found

1985-01-01

273

Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages  

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The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP), total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), cassava (Manihot esculenta), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea), and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP) and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including ...

Lidia Ferreira Miranda; Norberto Mario Rodriguez; Elzânia Sales Pereira; Augusto César de Queiroz; Roberto Daniel Sainz; Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel; Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto

2012-01-01

274

Apparent Digestibility of Feed Nutrients, Total Tract and Ileal Amino Acids of Broiler Chicken Fed Quality Protein Maize (Obatampa) and Normal Maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two hundred and forty Ross Broiler chicken were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the apparent digestibility of Obatampa, a quality protein maize (QPM) and normal maize (NM) nutrients with respect to crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract, as well as total tract and Ileal amino acids. There were 4 dietary treatments, each having 3 replicates with 20 birds per replicate. Two pure diets each of NM and QPM were formulated, one each withou...

Onimisi, P. A.; Dafwang, I. I.; Omage, J. J.; Onyibe, J. E.

2008-01-01

275

Characterization of Tannin and Study of in vitro Protein Digestibility and Mineral Profile of Sudanese and Indian Sorghum Cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, mineral profile, tannin content, and effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility , and separation and identification of free and bound phenolic acids of Sudanese sorghum cultivar (namely feterita) and Indian sorghum cultivar (namely CSH5). Chemical composition of the two sorghum cultivars was determined. Sudanese cultivar showed significantly (p<0.05) high moisture, ash, protein, and fat while Indian cultiva...

Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem; Muralikrishna, G.; El Tinay, A. H.; Mustafa, A. I.

2009-01-01

276

Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO{sub 3} or the mixture HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and without heating to dryness; (II) without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and with heating to dryness; (III) with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 {mu}g g{sup -1}.

Lavilla, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Gonzalez-Costas, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, C. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)]. E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

2007-05-22

277

Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO3 or the mixture HNO3/H2O2 and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (II) without H2O2 and with heating to dryness; (III) with H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H2O2 and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 ?g g-1

2007-05-22

278

Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2011-05-15

279

Digestibility of Nutrients on Broiler Given Various Protein Sources and Two Levels of Quebracho Tannin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Suatu penelitian telah dilaksanakan yang bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh sumber protein dan kandungan tannin dalam ransum terhadap kecernaan nutrien pada ayam broiler. Sebanyak enampuluh empat ayam telah digunakan dan ditempatkan secara acak dalam faktorial 2x4 sebanyak delapan ulangan. Protein yang digunakan meliputi gelatin, tepung ikan, tepung bulu dan campuran tepung daging dan kedelai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Quebracho Tanin (QT) menekan kecernaan nutrien pada broiler. Su...

2006-01-01

280

Statistical digests  

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281

Protein digestibility of weaning foods prepared from rice-minced meat and rice-mungbean combination in infants using a short term nitrogen balance method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three diets based on rice-dehulled mungbean, rice-minced meat and rice-mungbean with hull were tested with infants 11 to 20 months of age using a short term nitrogen balance technique. The results indicate that with isocaloric and isonitrogenous intake, all the subjects given either of the three diets were in positive nitrogen balance. The protein quality, in terms of nitrogen absorption and true digestibility, of rice-meat diet was superior to that of rice-bean diets. Among the rice-bean diets, it was noted that rice-mungbean with hull had a lower digestibility as compared to rice-dehulled mungbean diet. The poor digestibility of rice-mungbean with hull diet is the first limiting factor in its utilization by infants. Dehulling of mungbean before cooking is recommended for preparing weaning food for infant feeding. PMID:6644389

Hussain, T; Tontisirin, K; Chaowanakarnkit, L

1983-08-01

282

Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína / Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das fraç [...] ões solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73%) e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%). O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16%) e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%). Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado). Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten), com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. T [...] he soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73%) and highest intestinal digestibility (98%). Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16%) and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously). Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility). Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

N.M., Rodriguez; J.F.C., Moreira; P.C.C., Fernandes; C.M., Veloso; E.O.S., Saliba; I., Borges; L.C., Gonçalves; A.L.C.C., Borges.

283

Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das frações solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73% e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%. O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16% e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%. Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado. Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten, com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue.This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. The soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73% and highest intestinal digestibility (98%. Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16% and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously. Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility. Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

N.M. Rodriguez

2003-06-01

284

Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by mobile bag incubated with or without pepsin-HCl and three-step techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted [...] with permanent rumen and duodenal cannulae. Intestinal digestibility was measured using the mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique with or without incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution, and a three-step in vitro technique. The rate of ruminal disappearances of DM and CP, and the potential degradation of CP from nylon bags of both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than that for leucaena fodder. Potential degradation (A+B) values of CP were 45.6%, 54.2% and 52.8% for leucaena, Madras thorn and moringa fodders, respectively. Average DM and CP digestibility in the intestine and total tract for both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than for leucaena fodder. Average digestibility of DM and CP in the intestine and total tract measured using MNB without pepsin-HCl solution was significantly lower than with pepsin-HCl and with the three-step methods. These data suggest that the results of in vivo and in vitro methods for estimating intestinal digestibility are similar, though in all methods the incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution is necessary.

P., Paengkoum; S., Traiyakun; S., Paengkoum.

285

Optimum ratio of histidine in the piglet ideal protein model and its effects on body metabolism. I. Basal diet formulation based on digestible amino acids according to the ideal protein model for 10 to 20 kg piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4 x 4 Latin square design was used to determine ileal apparent digestibility of amino acids (AAs) in corn, soybean meal, feather meal and dried whey in young pigs. The data were then to be used in formulating a basal diet for studies on AA metabolism in young pigs. Eight castrates T-cannulated at terminal ileum (average initial body weight 12.5 +/- 0.62 kg) were divided into 4 groups on the basis of body weight and transferred to individual metabolism crates. They were then fed four experimental diets containing the four feedstuffs to be tested (corn, soybean meal, feather meal and dried whey). The trial lasted 20 days, which included 4 five-day periods for ileal digesta collection. It was found that the digestibility of the AAs was similar to that reported in literature. Based on the findings a basal diet for this research was formulated according to an ideal protein model for the 10 to 20 kg piglet, on the basis of digestible AAs and containing 14.13 MJ/kg digestible energy, 18.22% crude protein, 1.04% digestible lysine and 0.23% digestible histidine. PMID:12389225

Zhang, J H; Li, D F; Gong, L M; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, D F

2002-04-01

286

Compositions and methods for improved protein production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Steve Sungjin

2014-06-03

287

Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Germination of legumes followed by hydrothermal treatments is an effective mean of improving nutritive value of legumes. The protein content of mungbean, chickpea and cowpea increased by 9–11, 11–16 and 8–11% after germination. A significant (p???0.05) decrease in protein content was observed on pressure cooking and microwaving in all three legumes. The carbohydrates decreased by 1 to 3% during soaking and 2 to 6% during germination. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in i...

Uppal, Veny; Bains, Kiran

2012-01-01

288

Protein digestibility of ruminant feeds by the three-step procedure Digestibilidade da proteína de alimentos utilizados na alimentação de ruminantes pelo método das três etapas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three-step procedure was used to evaluate ruminal degradable and undegradable protein of soybean meal (SM, sorghum grain (SG, cottonseed (CT, corn silage (CS and tomato byproduct (TBP. Feeds were initially incubated in rumen of fistulated steers for 16 h. After that, 15mg of nitrogen were submitted to acid pepsin, for one hour, and alkaline pepsin for 24 h. The SM and CT showed 97 and 93% total protein digestibility, which is the major portion available in the rumen (94 and 92% respectively. The SG protein showed the lowest digestibility (73% followed by TBP and CS that had 72 and 73% total protein digestibility. It was concluded that SM and CT showed high protein digestibility, however the most portion was degraded in the rumen and that besides the high lignin proportion, the TBP was the one which supplied more available intestinal protein.Avaliaram-se as proporções de proteína degradável e não-degradável no rúmen do farelo de soja (FS, sorgo grão (SG, caroço de algodão (CA, silagem de milho (SM e do resíduo industrial de tomate (RIT pelo método das três etapas. Os alimentos foram inicialmente incubados por 16h no rúmen de bovinos fistulados. Posteriormente, uma quantidade que continha 15mg de nitrogênio foi submetida à digestão em pepsina ácida por uma hora e em pancreatina alcalina por 24h. O FS e o CA apresentaram 97 e 93% de digestibilidade da PB, estando a maior parte desse nitrogênio disponível no rúmen (94 e 92% respectivamente. A proteína do SG apresentou o menor valor de digestibilidade (64%, sendo seguida pelo RIT e pela SM, que apresentaram 72 e 73% de proteína total digestível. Concluiuse que o FS e o CA apresentaram elevada digestibilidade da proteína, entretanto, a maior parte do desaparecimento ocorreu no rúmen. Apesar da elevada proporção de proteína indigestível, o RIT foi o alimento que mais disponibilizou proteína para ser digerida no intestino.

Norberto Mario Rodíguez

2007-12-01

289

[Evaluation of two methods to determine the polyphenol content in raw and cooked beans and its effect on protein digestibility].  

Science.gov (United States)

The polyphenolic compounds present in raw and cooked, and dried, with and without the cooking broth of common white, black and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were measured by the Folin-Denis method for total polyphenols, and by the protein precipitation method of Hagerman-Butler, which measures their biological activity. The polyphenol content was measured during 20 consecutive days on the same sample, using three different extracts of volume from each sample. Statistical analysis of the results by the Folin-Denis method indicated that variability among the three aliquots was different for each bean color. A non-parametric analysis, however, indicated that the average in the three levels of concentration for beans of all colors, was the same. A similar analysis of the results by the Hagerman-Butler method demonstrated that variability and average values for the three aliquots were equal for black and red beans but not for white beans. The coefficient of variation was lower for the higher aliquot of the extract. A significant correlation (r = 0.72, P less than 0.05, n = 60) was found between the two methods for all beans using the larger aliquot of the extract. The correlation was highly significant (r = 0.84, P less than 0.05) when white bean values were eliminated. The polyphenolic content varied with seed color and the thermic process reduced their content, as measured by the two methods. The losses in polyphenolics as measured by the Folin-Denis in the cooked beans dried with broth, varied from 31.4 to 36.3%, and from 39.8 to 51.1% for the cooked bean flour dried without broth. The losses by the Hagerman-Butler method were from 25.0 to 93.5% in the cooked bean flours dried with cooking broth, and from 33.3 to 95.7% when dried without the broth. The higher losses were recorded for red beans. In vivo digestibility for cooked bean flours, dried and without broth, were 73.2, 69.6 and 64.5%, and 71.9, 71.9 and 68.8% for white, red and black beans, respectively. A negative correlation (r = -0.39) and significant (p less than 0.05) was found between polyphenolic content in the diet and in vivo protein digestibility. PMID:1841538

Bressani, R; de Mora, D R; Flores, R; Gómez-Brenes, R

1991-12-01

290

Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility / Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento [...] é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS), quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to es [...] timate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP), quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.

Rita de Cássia Oliveira, Sant' Ana; Fabrícia Queiroz, Mendes; Christiano Vieira, Pires; Maria Goreti de Almeida, Oliveira.

291

Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to estimate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP, quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS, quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos.

Rita de Cássia Oliveira Sant'Ana

2011-08-01

292

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 ?molGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

Aleksandra Zambrowicz

2012-12-01

293

Exigência de treonina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Digestible threonine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings using ideal protein concept  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações com 1,35% de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos de tilápia, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial de 1,64 ± 0,03 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições, e doze peixes por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações com diversas relações treonina:lisina digestível (69,0; 74,0; 79,0; 84,0 e 89,0% e relação metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 70,0% e uma ração com relação treonina:lisina digestível de 84,0% e de metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 75,0%, todas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais, e alimentados à vontade, seis vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a composição corporal, as deposições de proteína e gordura e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. O consumo de ração, o teor de proteína corporal e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com a relação treonina:lisina na ração, contudo, não foram influenciados pelo aumento da relação metionina + cistina:lisina da ração. Os níveis de treonina total ou digestível que proporcionaram os melhores resultados de desempenho em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo foram de 1,11 e 0,99%, enquanto os níveis que promoveram melhor deposição de proteína corporal foram de 1,43 e 1,28%, que correspondem às relações treonina:lisina total de 71,0 e 69,0% e treonina:lisina digestível de 90,0 e 89,0%.The effects of digestible threonine levels, based on ideal protein concept in diets with 1.35% of digestible lysine on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings performance. Four hundred thirty two reverted Nile tilapia, Thailand strain, with initial weight of 1.64 ± 0.03 g, were allotted to completely randomized design, with six diets and six replications with twelve fishes each. The five diets, isoenergetic isoproteic, consisted of various threonine:digestible lysine ratio (69.0, 74.0, 79.0, 84.0, and 89.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine ratio of 70.0% and one diet with threonine:digestible lysine of 84.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine of 75.0%. The fish were kept in 36 aquariums of 130 L, equipped with water supply, controlled temperature and individual aeration, and ad libitum fed six times a day for 30 days. Performance, body composition, protein and fat depositions and nitrogen retention efficiency of fishes were evaluated. Consumption of feed, body protein content and body protein deposition increased in a linear fashion in accordance to threonine:digestible lysine in the diet, however, was not affected by the increase of dietary methionine + cystine:digestible lysine. Total or digestible threonine levels that provided the best results of performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings were 1.11 and 0.99%, while the levels that promoted better body protein deposition were 1.43 and 1.28%, which correspond to threonine:total lysine ratio of 71.0 and 69.0% and threonine:digestible lysine of 90.0 and 89.0%.

Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

2008-12-01

294

Exigência de treonina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo / Digestible threonine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings using ideal protein concept  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações com 1,35% de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos de tilápia, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial d [...] e 1,64 ± 0,03 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições, e doze peixes por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações com diversas relações treonina:lisina digestível (69,0; 74,0; 79,0; 84,0 e 89,0%) e relação metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 70,0% e uma ração com relação treonina:lisina digestível de 84,0% e de metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 75,0%, todas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais, e alimentados à vontade, seis vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a composição corporal, as deposições de proteína e gordura e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. O consumo de ração, o teor de proteína corporal e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com a relação treonina:lisina na ração, contudo, não foram influenciados pelo aumento da relação metionina + cistina:lisina da ração. Os níveis de treonina total ou digestível que proporcionaram os melhores resultados de desempenho em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo foram de 1,11 e 0,99%, enquanto os níveis que promoveram melhor deposição de proteína corporal foram de 1,43 e 1,28%, que correspondem às relações treonina:lisina total de 71,0 e 69,0% e treonina:lisina digestível de 90,0 e 89,0%. Abstract in english The effects of digestible threonine levels, based on ideal protein concept in diets with 1.35% of digestible lysine on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings performance. Four hundred thirty two reverted Nile tilapia, Thailand strain, with initial weight of 1.64 ± 0.03 g, were allotted to [...] completely randomized design, with six diets and six replications with twelve fishes each. The five diets, isoenergetic isoproteic, consisted of various threonine:digestible lysine ratio (69.0, 74.0, 79.0, 84.0, and 89.0%) and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine ratio of 70.0% and one diet with threonine:digestible lysine of 84.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine of 75.0%. The fish were kept in 36 aquariums of 130 L, equipped with water supply, controlled temperature and individual aeration, and ad libitum fed six times a day for 30 days. Performance, body composition, protein and fat depositions and nitrogen retention efficiency of fishes were evaluated. Consumption of feed, body protein content and body protein deposition increased in a linear fashion in accordance to threonine:digestible lysine in the diet, however, was not affected by the increase of dietary methionine + cystine:digestible lysine. Total or digestible threonine levels that provided the best results of performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings were 1.11 and 0.99%, while the levels that promoted better body protein deposition were 1.43 and 1.28%, which correspond to threonine:total lysine ratio of 71.0 and 69.0% and threonine:digestible lysine of 90.0 and 89.0%.

Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Wagner Azis Garcia de, Araújo.

295

Latex proteins from the plant Calotropis procera are partially digested upon in vitro enzymatic action and are not immunologically detected in fecal material.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soluble proteins from the latex of Calotropis procera (LP) were investigated in vitro and in vivo for digestibility as the latex has previously been shown to produce considerable toxic effects on animals. The latex is also an important biologically active compound that displays antiinflammatory and antidiarrhea properties. The proteins were digested by the action of trypsin, pepsin or chemotrypsin as revealed by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE analysis. Furthermore, the full LP digestion was easily achieved by protease treatment. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against LP failed to detect cross-reactive molecules in fecal material of experimental rats following 35 consecutive days of LP consumption in water. Similar patterns of electrophoresis were observed for the negligible amounts of protein observed in the fecal extracts of control and test animals. No death or toxic effects were observed among animals. Taken together these results suggest that harmful and toxic effects on animals of the latex from C. procera are present in its rubber and low molecular weight fractions rather than its protein content. PMID:16581200

Ramos, Márcio V; Aguiar, Valéria C; da Silva Xavier, Ana A; Lima, Michael W; Bandeira, Glaís P; Etchells, J Peter; Nogueira, Nádia A P; Alencar, Nylane M N

2006-06-01

296

Optimization of immobilized gallium (III) ion affinity chromatography for selective binding and recovery of phosphopeptides from protein digests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although widely used in proteomics research for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) often suffers from low specificity and differential recovery of peptides carrying different numbers of phosphate groups. By systematically evaluating and optimizing different loading, washing, and elution conditions, we have developed an efficient and highly selective procedure for the enrichment of phosphopeptides using a commercially available gallium(III)-IMAC column (PhosphoProfile, Sigma). Phosphopeptide enrichment using the reagents supplied with the column is incomplete and biased toward the recovery and/or detection of smaller, singly phosphorylated peptides. In contrast, elution with base (0.4 M ammonium hydroxide) gives efficient and balanced recovery of both singly and multiply phosphorylated peptides, while loading peptides in a strong acidic solution (1% trifluoracetic acid) further increases selectivity toward phosphopeptides, with minimal carryover of nonphosphorylated peptides. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, a matrix commonly used when analyzing phosphopeptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was also evaluated as an additive in loading and eluting solvents. Elution with 50% acetonitrile containing 20 mg/mL dihydroxybenzoic acid and 1% phosphoric acid gave results similar to those obtained using ammonium hydroxide as the eluent, although the latter showed the highest specificity for phosphorylated peptides. PMID:19183793

Aryal, Uma K; Olson, Douglas J H; Ross, Andrew R S

2008-12-01

297

Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows  

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Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein (CP) after passing the rumen, the intestines and the total gastro-intestinal (GI) tract in grass and grass silages were determined with the two-step mobile nylon bag technique and a two-step in vitro...

Cone, J. W.; Gelder, A. H.; Mathijssen-kamman, A. A.; Hindle, V. A.

2006-01-01

298

Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa / The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternati [...] vos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados. Abstract in english Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as t [...] hose suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days) and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

Amistá, Maria Júlia de Miguel; Tavano, Olga Luisa.

299

Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternativos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados.Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as those suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

Maria Júlia de Miguel Amistá

2013-03-01

300

Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment and a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap. The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de-açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia/sulfato de amônio para conterem 10% de proteína bruta. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 240 kg ± 15 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 5 × 5. Foram realizadas coletas totais de fezes, abomasal e dois esvaziamentos pela manhã. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho apresentaram maiores digestibilidades ruminal da proteína e intestinal do extrato etéreo, taxas de ingestão, passagem e de digestão da matéria seca, justificando os maiores consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp. As maiores taxas de passagem nos animais alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura justificam os maiores consumos de matéria seca e FDNcp em relação ao observado com o fornecimento de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Animais consumindo dietas contendo silagem de milho apresentam maiores taxas de passagem da matéria seca e digestão da FDNcp. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, armazenada ou não, favorecem o consumo e a taxa de passagem da matéria seca, em relação a dietas com cana ensilada. O uso de cal na ensilagem não melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem a taxa de passagem da dieta. A cana-de-açúcar armazenada por 72 horas possui características digestíveis semelhantes às da cana-de-açúcar in natura.

Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage / Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de- [...] açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia/sulfato de amônio para conterem 10% de proteína bruta. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 240 kg ± 15 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 5 × 5. Foram realizadas coletas totais de fezes, abomasal e dois esvaziamentos pela manhã. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho apresentaram maiores digestibilidades ruminal da proteína e intestinal do extrato etéreo, taxas de ingestão, passagem e de digestão da matéria seca, justificando os maiores consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp). As maiores taxas de passagem nos animais alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura justificam os maiores consumos de matéria seca e FDNcp em relação ao observado com o fornecimento de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Animais consumindo dietas contendo silagem de milho apresentam maiores taxas de passagem da matéria seca e digestão da FDNcp. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, armazenada ou não, favorecem o consumo e a taxa de passagem da matéria seca, em relação a dietas com cana ensilada. O uso de cal na ensilagem não melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem a taxa de passagem da dieta. A cana-de-açúcar armazenada por 72 horas possui características digestíveis semelhantes às da cana-de-açúcar in natura. Abstract in english It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment a [...] nd a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap). The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.

Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Felipe Antunes, Magalhães; Rilene Ferreira Diniz, Valadares; Lays Débora, Mariz; Edenio, Detmann; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Maria Ignez, Leão.

302

Improving protein secondary structure prediction with aligned homologous sequences.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most recent protein secondary structure prediction methods use sequence alignments to improve the prediction quality. We investigate the relationship between the location of secondary structural elements, gaps, and variable residue positions in multiple sequence alignments. We further investigate how these relationships compare with those found in structurally aligned protein families. We show how such associations may be used to improve the quality of prediction of the secondary structure el...

Di Francesco, V.; Garnier, J.; Munson, P. J.

1996-01-01

303

Sustainable energy development strategies in the rural Thailand: The case of the improved cooking stove and the small biogas digester  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the strategies to overcome barriers to the adoption of improved cooking stove (ICS) and small biogas digester (SBD) technologies in Thailand. Firstly, to obtain the appropriate strategies to implement the ICS and the SBD, a pattern of energy consumption in the residential sector is investigated. Then the potential of reduction of energy consumption and corresponding emissions by the ICS and the SBD is assessed. The identification and ranking of barriers to the adoption of the ICS and the SBD technologies are also investigated. In this study the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used to assess the energy consumption and the corresponding emissions reduction. Then, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is used to identify and rank the barriers. Results from the LEAP model show that the cumulative total energy consumption and corresponding emissions reductions during the period 2002-2030 by the ICS are 27,887.7 ktoe and 10,041.0 thousand tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent, respectively. An average emissions reduction cost per tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent per year is US$ 0.95 for a fuel wood cooking stove and US$ 0.35 for a charcoal cooking stove. Regarding the SBD, the cumulative total liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption reduction and CO{sub 2} mitigation are 5780.9ktoe and 1548.8 thousand tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent during the period 2002-2030, respectively. Results from AHP analysis of ranking of barriers show that the three most important barriers in the adoption of the ICS are (i) high investment cost, (ii) lack of information, and (iii) lack of financial sources. For the SBD, the three most important barriers are (i) high investment cost, (ii) lack of financial sources, and (iii) lack of experts and skilled manpower. The sustainable energy triangle strategy (SETS) is implemented to overcome barriers in the adoption of the ICS. Results show that the traditional cooking stoves are successfully replaced (more than 20% per year). Regarding the SBD, the biogas pool project (BPP) is implemented to resolve the over supply of biogas. Results also show that the BPP is a proper strategy. (author)

Limmeechokchai, Bundit [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22 Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Chawana, Saichit [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2007-06-15

304

Effect of Incremental Levels of Dried Tomato Pomace with and without Dietary Enzyme Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Ileal Protein Digestibility of Broiler Chicks  

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This experiment was carried out in order to determine the nutritional value of Dried Tomato Pomace (DTP) and the impact of its incremental levels with and without enzyme supplementation on broilers growth performance and ileal protein digestibility. About 384 days old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were raised together until day 7. At 7 days of age chicks were randomly allocated to one of eight treatments with 4 replicates of 12 birds each according to factorial arrangement based on a completely r...

Sayed Ali Tabeidian; Mehdi Toghyani; Majid Toghyani; Ahmadreza Shahidpour

2011-01-01

305

Protein biofortified sorghum: effect of processing into traditional african foods on their protein quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein biofortification into crops is a means to combat childhood protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in developing countries, by increasing the bioavailability of protein in staple plant foods and ensuring sustainability of the crop. Protein biofortification of sorghum has been achieved by both chemically induced mutation and genetic engineering. For this biofortification to be effective, the improved protein quality in the grain must be retained when it is processed into staple African foods. Suppression of kafirin synthesis by genetic engineering appeared to be superior to improved protein digestibility by chemical mutagenesis, because both the lysine content and protein digestibility were substantially improved and maintained in a range of African foods. For the genetically engineered sorghums, the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score was almost twice that of their null controls and considerably higher than the high protein digestibility sorghum type. Such protein biofortified sorghum has considerable potential to alleviate PEM. PMID:21338110

Taylor, Janet; Taylor, John R N

2011-03-23

306

Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were composed to investigate the effects of incorporation of potato protein concentrate (PPC) and supplementation of methionine in the diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on feeding rate, digestion, growth, feed utilization and body composition. The control diet contained all Danish L T-fish meal as protein sources. The other experimental diets contained 2.2, 5.6, 8.9 and 11.1% PPC respectively. Diet 6 contained 5.6% PPC and 1.7% methionine. A 4-week trial was conducted at about 12degreeC. The results showed that feeding rate decreased with increased incorporation levels of PPC. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ash increased with increased proportion of dietary PPC, while there was no significant effect on the apparent digestibility of crude fat. The incorporation of 5.6% PPC decreased growth rate and 8.9% PPC decreased both growth and feed efficiency. Supplementation of 1.7% methionine decreased both feeding rateand growth.

Jokumsen, Alfred

1999-01-01

307

Improvement of protein quality in grain legumes. An overview on mutational improvement of protein quality in pigeon pea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grain legumes provide an essential part of the diet in developing countries in terms of protein. Besides increasing production also improving the grain quality would be an important objective. The paper discusses the methodology for protein improvement in seeds of pigeon pea. Variety Hy-2 was irradiated with 20, 25, 30 and 35 Kr of gamma radiation and the M_2 population was screened for total sulfur content

1982-02-01

308

Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processing methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, atividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados.Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein digestibility. Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima were submitted to the following treatments, which were carried out in quadruplicate: used raw; boiled for 5, 10, and 15 minutes; and steamed for 10 minutes. Next, the seeds were freeze-dried, grinded, and stored at room temperature until the analyses were completed. There was no significant difference among the treatments as for the levels of polyphenols. The raw seeds showed the highest content of cyanide, smallest level of trypsin inhibitor, and smallest protein digestibility. The 10-minute boiling resulted in the lowest content of saponins and greatest protein digestibility. No Hemaglutinin activity was detected in the samples. It can be concluded that the 10-minute boiling was the treatment that produced better results.

Luciana de Paula Naves

2010-05-01

309

Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima) submetidas a diferentes processamentos / Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) submitted to different processing methods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, a [...] tividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE) por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados. Abstract in english Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglu [...] tinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein digestibility. Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) were submitted to the following treatments, which were carried out in quadruplicate: used raw; boiled for 5, 10, and 15 minutes; and steamed for 10 minutes. Next, the seeds were freeze-dried, grinded, and stored at room temperature until the analyses were completed. There was no significant difference among the treatments as for the levels of polyphenols. The raw seeds showed the highest content of cyanide, smallest level of trypsin inhibitor, and smallest protein digestibility. The 10-minute boiling resulted in the lowest content of saponins and greatest protein digestibility. No Hemaglutinin activity was detected in the samples. It can be concluded that the 10-minute boiling was the treatment that produced better results.

Naves, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; Santos, Custódio Donizete dos; Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto de.

310

Efeitos da fonte de proteína da dieta sobre a digestão de amido em bovinos Effects of diet protein source on starch digestion in cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de três fontes de proteína: uréia (UR, farinha de penas (FPE e farelo de glúten de milho (FGM sobre a digestão ruminal, intestinal e total do amido em bovinos. Utilizaram-se três bovinos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, castrados, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental quadrado latino 3 x 3. Não houve efeito da fonte protéica (P > 0,05 sobre os parâmetros de digestão avaliados com relação à matéria seca, bem como a composição química microbiana e pH ruminal. A dieta UR apresentou maior produção ruminal de amônia seguida pelas dietas FGM e FPE (P The effect of three protein sources, urea (UR, feather meal (FM and corn gluten meal (CGM on ruminal, intestinal and total starch digestion in cattle was evaluated. Three Holstein steers implanted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae, in a 3x3 Latin square design, were used. Protein source (p > 0.05 did not affect dry matter evaluations, chemical microbial composition and ruminal pH. UR diet showed highest ruminal ammonium production, followed by CGM and FM diets (P < 0.05. The apparent and true microbial efficiency was higher in CGM diet (P < 0.05 and identical to UR and FM diets. Protein source did not affect intestinal digestibility starch. Total digestibility coefficient (% of starch failed to show any significant difference, albeit total digestion of starch (g/day was higher (P < 0.05 in UR and FM diets.

Kátia Cylene Guimarães

2001-05-01

311

Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP, total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii, cassava (Manihot esculenta, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and ramie (Boehmeria nivea, and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation. For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

Lidia Ferreira Miranda

2012-03-01

312

Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems. PMID:24785791

Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

2014-06-01

313

A replaceable microreactor for on-line protein digestion in a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system with tandem mass spectrometry detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system that incorporates a replaceable enzymatic microreactor for on-line protein digestion. In this system, trypsin is immobilized on magnetic beads. At the start of each experiment, old beads are flushed to waste and replaced with a fresh plug of beads, which is captured by a pair of magnets at the distal tip of the first capillary. For analysis, proteins are separated in the first capillary. A fraction is then parked in the reactor to...

Li, Yihan; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J.

2011-01-01

314

Protein digestibility of ruminant feeds by the three-step procedure Digestibilidade da proteína de alimentos utilizados na alimentação de ruminantes pelo método das três etapas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The three-step procedure was used to evaluate ruminal degradable and undegradable protein of soybean meal (SM), sorghum grain (SG), cottonseed (CT), corn silage (CS) and tomato byproduct (TBP). Feeds were initially incubated in rumen of fistulated steers for 16 h. After that, 15mg of nitrogen were submitted to acid pepsin, for one hour, and alkaline pepsin for 24 h. The SM and CT showed 97 and 93% total protein digestibility, which is the major portion available in the rumen (94 and 92% respe...

Warley Efrem Campos; Ana Luiza Costa Cruz Borges; Helton Mattana Saturnino; Ricardo Reis Silva; Eloísa Oliveira Simões Saliba; Norberto Mario Rodíguez; Breno Mourão Sousa; Marcos Claudio Pinheiro Rogério

2007-01-01

315

Low-protein solid feed improves the utilization of milk replacer for protein gain in veal calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to quantify the contribution of low-protein solid feed (SF) intake, in addition to milk replacer, to protein and energy retention in veal calves. Because of potential interactions between milk replacer and SF, occurring at either the level of digestion or postabsorption, this contribution might differ from that in calves fed either SF or milk replacer alone. Forty-eight Holstein Friesian male calves, 55±0.3 kg of body weight (BW), were divided across 16 groups of 3 calves each. Groups were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 incremental levels of SF intake: 0, 9, 18, or 27 g of DM of SF/kg of BW(0.75) per day. The SF mixture consisted of 25% chopped wheat straw, 25% chopped corn silage, and 50% nonpelleted concentrate (on a DM basis). Each group was housed in a respiration chamber for quantification of energy and N balance at each of 2 BW: at 108±1.1 kg and at 164±1.6 kg. The milk replacer supply was 37.3g of DM/kg of BW(0.75) per day at 108 kg of BW and 40.7 g of DM/kg of BW(0.75) per day at 164 kg of BW, irrespective of SF intake. Within a chamber, each calf was housed in a metabolic cage to allow separate collection of feces and urine. Indirect calorimetry and N balance data were analyzed by using regression procedures with SF intake-related variables. Nitrogen excretion shifted from urine to feces with increasing SF intake. This indicates a higher gut entry rate of urea and may explain the improved N utilization through urea recycling, particularly at 164 kg of BW. At 108 kg of BW, the gross efficiency of N retention was 61% for calves without SF, and it increased with SF intake by 5.4%/g of DM of SF per day. At 164 kg of BW, this efficiency was 49% for calves without SF, and it increased by 9.9%/g of DM of SF per day. The incremental efficiency of energy retention, representing the increase in energy retained per kilojoule of extra digestible energy intake from SF, was 41% at 108 kg of BW and 54% at 164 kg of BW. Accordingly, the apparent total-tract digestibility of NDF increased with BW, from 46% at 108 kg of BW to 56% at 164 kg of BW. On average, 5.5% of gross energy from SF was released as CH(4) in veal calves, which is similar to reported values in cattle fed only SF. In conclusion, the provision of low-protein SF resulted in improved N utilization for protein gain, particularly toward the end of the fattening period. In heavy calves, recycling of urea originating from amino acids in milk replacer potentially contributes substantially to the N retention of veal calves fed SF. PMID:22959940

Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Alferink, S J J; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

2012-11-01

316

Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. These countries experience serious shortages of animal feeds and fodders of the conventional type. Natural forages are very variable both in quality and quantity, conventional agro-industrial by-products are scarce and vary seasonal, and grains are required almost exclusively for human consumption. The small farmers in developing countries have limited resources available to them for feeding their ruminant livestock. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Providing adequate good-quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Recent advances in ration balancing include manipulation of feed to increase the quantity and quality of protein and energy delivered to the small intestine. Selection of feeds based on high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with the high dry matter digestibility, and development of feeding strategies based on high efficiency as well as high microbial protein synthesis in the rumen will lead to higher supply of protein post-ruminally. The strategy for improving production has therefore been to maximize the efficiency of utilization of available feed resources in the rumen by providing optimum conditions for microbial growth and thereby supplementing dietary nutrients to complement and balance the products of rumen digestion to the animal's requirement

2004-01-01

317

In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vitro method that mimics digestive processes in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. An experiment was designed to use this method for predicting site, rate and extent of starch digestion i...

2001-01-01

318

The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

M Bata

1999-05-01

319

Apparent Digestibility of Feed Nutrients, Total Tract and Ileal Amino Acids of Broiler Chicken Fed Quality Protein Maize (Obatampa and Normal Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two hundred and forty Ross Broiler chicken were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the apparent digestibility of Obatampa, a quality protein maize (QPM and normal maize (NM nutrients with respect to crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract, as well as total tract and Ileal amino acids. There were 4 dietary treatments, each having 3 replicates with 20 birds per replicate. Two pure diets each of NM and QPM were formulated, one each without synthetic lysine supplementation (T2 and T3 for NM and QPM respectively and one each with synthetic lysine supplementation (T2 and T4 for NM and QPM respectively. The diets were fed to the birds for two weeks before feacal collections and dissecting for Ileal sampling. Apparent Digestibility of nutrients, fecal and Ileal amino acids were higher for normal maize diets without lysine supplementation. Supplementation of diets with synthetic lysine increased nutrient and amino acids digestibility for QPM.

P.A. Onimisi

2008-01-01

320

Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria of the genus Caldicellusiruptor and Dictyoglomus. In a reactor experiment inoculation of a 68°C pretreatment reactor with Caldicellusiruptor resulted in a 93% increase in the methane yield of the pre-treatment reactor for a period of 18 days, but gave only a slight increase in the overall methane yield of the two-stage setup.

Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel Intestinal protein digestibility of by-products from biodiesel industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não degradados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR, proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI.The objective of this research was to determine intestinal protein digestibility (ID of some biodiesel by-products in the form of cakes and the meals. Eight by-products were: cakes and meals of physic nut, turnip, lupine, cotton cake, cottonseed meal. The by-products were incubated in the rumen for 16 hours, were the undegradable rumen residues were submitted to enzymatic digestion with pepsin and pancreatin solution for the determination of ID. In the incubation residues the following was also determined: dry matter degradability (RD, rumen degradable protein (RDP and rumen undegradable protein (RUP. The intestinal protein digestibility of biodiesel by-products ranged from 2.4 to 48.6%. All the by-products evaluated in this study were characterized as high protein sources and were considered high-RDP. The by-products presented low intestinal protein digestibility. The ID protein of biodiesel by-products was higher in the cakes than the meals. The by-products evaluated, the cottonseed cake and meal presented the highest ID coefficients.

G.S. Couto

2012-10-01

322

Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel / Intestinal protein digestibility of by-products from biodiesel industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI) da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não deg [...] radados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR), proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR). A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine intestinal protein digestibility (ID) of some biodiesel by-products in the form of cakes and the meals. Eight by-products were: cakes and meals of physic nut, turnip, lupine, cotton cake, cottonseed meal. The by-products were incubated in the rumen for [...] 16 hours, were the undegradable rumen residues were submitted to enzymatic digestion with pepsin and pancreatin solution for the determination of ID. In the incubation residues the following was also determined: dry matter degradability (RD), rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP). The intestinal protein digestibility of biodiesel by-products ranged from 2.4 to 48.6%. All the by-products evaluated in this study were characterized as high protein sources and were considered high-RDP. The by-products presented low intestinal protein digestibility. The ID protein of biodiesel by-products was higher in the cakes than the meals. The by-products evaluated, the cottonseed cake and meal presented the highest ID coefficients.

Couto, G.S.; Silva Filho, J.C.; Corrêa, A.D.; Silva, E.A.; Pardo, R.M.P.; Esteves, C..

323

Discrimination of outer membrane proteins with improved performance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer membrane proteins (OMPs perform diverse functional roles in Gram-negative bacteria. Identification of outer membrane proteins is an important task. Results This paper presents a method for distinguishing outer membrane proteins (OMPs from non-OMPs (that is, globular proteins and inner membrane proteins (IMPs. First, we calculated the average residue compositions of OMPs, globular proteins and IMPs separately using a training set. Then for each protein from the test set, its distances to the three groups were calculated based on residue composition using a weighted Euclidean distance (WED approach. Proteins from the test set were classified into OMP versus non-OMP classes based on the least distance. The proposed method can distinguish between OMPs and non-OMPs with 91.0% accuracy and 0.639 Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC. We then improved the method by including homologous sequences into the calculation of residue composition and using a feature-selection method to select the single residue and di-peptides that were useful for OMP prediction. The final method achieves an accuracy of 96.8% with 0.859 MCC. In direct comparisons, the proposed method outperforms previously published methods. Conclusion The proposed method can identify OMPs with improved performance. It will be very helpful to the discovery of OMPs in a genome scale.

Hu Jing

2008-01-01

324

Desempenho de cordeiros e estimativa da digestibilidade do amido de dietas com diferentes fontes protéicas / Lamb performance and estimation of starch digestibility of diets with different protein sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de fontes protéicas sobre desempenho, características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros confinados, e estimar a digestibilidade do amido de rações com alta proporção de grãos. Foram distribuídos 28 cordeiros Santa Inês, em blocos completos ao acaso [...] , de acordo com o peso vivo e a idade, no início do experimento. As fontes protéicas foram os farelos de: soja, amendoim, canola e algodão, em dietas isonitrogenadas com 90% de concentrado e 10% de volumoso (feno de coast-cross). Na determinação da digestibilidade, foram utilizados quatro borregos em delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4, e a digestibilidade do amido foi estimada a partir do teor de amido fecal. Não houve diferenças (p>0,05) quanto ao consumo de matéria seca, ganho de peso vivo médio, conversão alimentar, características da carcaça e da carne, entre as fontes protéicas avaliadas. A digestibilidade do amido apresentou coeficiente de determinação de 93%. Independentemente da fonte protéica utilizada, o teor de amido nas fezes é um indicador eficiente na estimativa da digestibilidade do amido de dietas com alta proporção de concentrado para cordeiros. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of protein sources on feedlot lambs performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and to estimate starch digestibility of high grain diets. Twenty eight Santa Inês ram lambs were selected in a complete randomized block design, according to bo [...] dy weight and age in the beginning of the experiment. Protein sources were the following meals: soybean, peanut, canola, and cottonseed in isonitrogenous diets with 90% concentrate and 10% roughage (coast-cross hay). Four ram lambs (48 kg) were used to determine starch digestibility in a 4x4 latin square design, and starch digestibility was estimated by fecal concentration of starch. There were no differences (p>0.05) for dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed conversion, carcass characteristics and meat quality, among the protein sources evaluated. Determination coefficient for starch digestibility was 93%. Fecal starch content is an accurate indicator of the starch digestibility estimation in lambs feeding high grain diets, independently of the protein source used.

Mário Adriano Ávila, Queiroz; Ivanete, Susin; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Clayton Quirino, Mendes; Renato Shinkai, Gentil; Omer Cavalcanti, Almeida; Rafael Camargo do, Amaral; Gerson Barreto, Mourão.

325

Desempenho de cordeiros e estimativa da digestibilidade do amido de dietas com diferentes fontes protéicas Lamb performance and estimation of starch digestibility of diets with different protein sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de fontes protéicas sobre desempenho, características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros confinados, e estimar a digestibilidade do amido de rações com alta proporção de grãos. Foram distribuídos 28 cordeiros Santa Inês, em blocos completos ao acaso, de acordo com o peso vivo e a idade, no início do experimento. As fontes protéicas foram os farelos de: soja, amendoim, canola e algodão, em dietas isonitrogenadas com 90% de concentrado e 10% de volumoso (feno de coast-cross. Na determinação da digestibilidade, foram utilizados quatro borregos em delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4, e a digestibilidade do amido foi estimada a partir do teor de amido fecal. Não houve diferenças (p>0,05 quanto ao consumo de matéria seca, ganho de peso vivo médio, conversão alimentar, características da carcaça e da carne, entre as fontes protéicas avaliadas. A digestibilidade do amido apresentou coeficiente de determinação de 93%. Independentemente da fonte protéica utilizada, o teor de amido nas fezes é um indicador eficiente na estimativa da digestibilidade do amido de dietas com alta proporção de concentrado para cordeiros.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of protein sources on feedlot lambs performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and to estimate starch digestibility of high grain diets. Twenty eight Santa Inês ram lambs were selected in a complete randomized block design, according to body weight and age in the beginning of the experiment. Protein sources were the following meals: soybean, peanut, canola, and cottonseed in isonitrogenous diets with 90% concentrate and 10% roughage (coast-cross hay. Four ram lambs (48 kg were used to determine starch digestibility in a 4x4 latin square design, and starch digestibility was estimated by fecal concentration of starch. There were no differences (p>0.05 for dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed conversion, carcass characteristics and meat quality, among the protein sources evaluated. Determination coefficient for starch digestibility was 93%. Fecal starch content is an accurate indicator of the starch digestibility estimation in lambs feeding high grain diets, independently of the protein source used.

Mário Adriano Ávila Queiroz

2008-09-01

326

Antinutrients and digestibility (in vitro) of soaked, dehulled and germinated cowpeas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytic acid, polyphenols, protein and starch digestibility (in vitro) in two varieties, namely CS-46 and CS-88, of soaked, dehulled and germinated cowpeas were determined. Soaking for 12 hours, dehulling of soaked seeds and germination for different time periods (24, 36 and 48 h) contributed significantly in reducing the phytic acid and polyphenol content of cowpeas. Removal of seed coat (dehulling) of soaked cowpeas reduced the polyphenols by 70-71%. Soaking (12 h) brought about an improvement in protein and starch digestibility which further increased after dehulling. Progressive increase in digestibility (protein and starch) was noticed, with an increase in germination period. Dehulling of soaked seeds was most effective in reducing the polyphenolic content, and germination in enhancing protein and starch digestibility. PMID:10904935

Preet, K; Punia, D

2000-01-01

327

Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins. PMID:25012537

Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

2014-07-01

328

Improving a designed photo-controlled DNA-binding protein  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Photo-controlled transcription factors could be powerful tools for probing the roles of transcriptional processes in a variety of settings. Previously, we designed a photo-controlled DNA binding protein based on a fusion between the bZIP region of GCN4 and photoactive yellow protein from H. halophila (Morgan et al., J. Mol. Biol. 2010, 399:94–112). Here we report a structure-based attempt to improve the degree of photoswitching observed with this chimeric protein. Using computational design...

Fan, Helen Y.; Morgan, Stacy-anne; Brechun, Katherine E.; Chen, Yih-yang; Jaikaran, Anna S. I.; Woolley, G. Andrew

2011-01-01

329

An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization for Protein Folding Prediction  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we combine particle swarm optimization (PSO and levy flight to solve the problem of protein folding prediction, which is based on 3D AB off-lattice model. PSO has slow convergence speed and low precision in its late period, so we introduce levy flight into it to improve the precision and enhance the capability of jumping out of the local optima through particle mutation mechanism. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is turned to be an effective way to analyze protein structure.

Xin Chen

2011-02-01

330

Improvement of a Potential Anthrax Therapeutic by Computational Protein Design*  

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Past anthrax attacks in the United States have highlighted the need for improved measures against bioweapons. The virulence of anthrax stems from the shielding properties of the Bacillus anthracis poly-?-d-glutamic acid capsule. In the presence of excess CapD, a B. anthracis ?-glutamyl transpeptidase, the protective capsule is degraded, and the immune system can successfully combat infection. Although CapD shows promise as a next generation protein therapeutic against anthrax, improvements ...

2011-01-01

331

Bacterial artificial chromosomes improve recombinant protein production in mammalian cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of appropriate expression vectors for large scale protein production constitutes a critical step in recombinant protein production. The use of conventional expression vectors to obtain cell lines is a cumbersome procedure. Often, stable cell lines produce low protein yields and production is not stable over the time. These problems are due to silencing of randomly integrated expression vectors by the surrounding chromatin. To overcome these chromatin effects, we have employed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC as expression vector to obtain stable cell lines suitable for protein production. Results In this work, we explore the efficacy of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome based vector applied to production of the constant region of the human IgG1. Direct comparison of bulk HEK 293 cell cultures generated with a "conventional" vector or with a BAC-based vector showed that the BAC-based vector improved the protein yield by a factor of 10. Further analysis of stable cell clones harboring the BAC-based vector showed that the protein production was directly proportional to the number of integrated BAC copies and that the protein production was stable for at least 30 passages. Conclusion Generation of stable cell clones for protein production using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes offers a clear advantage over the use of conventional vectors. First, protein production is increased by a factor of 10; second, protein production is stable overtime and third, generation of BAC-based expression vectors does not imply a significant amount of work compare to a conventional vector. Therefore, BAC-based vectors may become an attractive tool for protein production.

Bauer Anton

2009-01-01

332

Carbohydrate-protein coingestion improves multiple-sprint running performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute carbohydrate-protein ingestion has been shown to improve steady-state endurance performance. This study compared the effects of carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein ingestion on self-regulated simulated multiple-sprint sport performance. Nine participants completed two trials of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test involving 4 x 15 min blocks of regulated exercise followed by 2 x 15 min blocks of self-regulated exercise. Participants consumed 2.5 ml · kg(-1) of an 8% carbohydrate (CHO trial) or 6% carbohydrate plus 2% whey protein beverage (CHO-P trial) every 15 minutes. Distance covered (4.2%) and maximal speed (6.1%) decreased (P running speed declined in the final 15 min of the CHO trial only (P = 0.002), with protein providing a likely small improvement (2.7%: ±2.5%). No differences (P > 0.05) between beverages were observed in body mass or plasma volume change, urine volume, heart rate, gut fullness, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood glucose or serum insulin. Blood urea concentration increased in the CHO-P trial only (mean ± SD: 45.4 ± 9.9 c.f. 39.2 ± 11.4 g · dL(-1), P = 0.003). These findings show carbohydrate-protein ingestion is likely to enhance multiple-sprint sport exercise performance above carbohydrate, potentially through altered central fatigue or increased protein oxidation. PMID:23134234

Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri

2013-01-01

333

Chapter 11. Digestive tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploration of the digestive tube by radioactive tracers relates mainly to the functional study of certain digestion or absorption troubles. The tracer absorbed by the digestibe system was followed by counting of the stools, successive measurements of the plasma radioactivity, measurements of urinary elimination or uptake on a storage organ such as the liver in the case of vitamin B12, measurement of whole-body radioactivity for vitamin B12 and iron. The different isotopic techniques used to study intestinal absorption of lipids, proteins and aminoacids, vitamin B 12 and iron were described and their contribution to the detection of exudative enteropathies and digestive haemorrhage was shown. It was pointed out that the stomach is one of the organs most accessible to standard exploration techniques. The role of sup(99m)Tc in both the morphological exploration of stomach and the study of gastric secretion, of 51Cr and 129Cs in the study of gastric evacuation were demonstrated

1975-01-01

334

Effect of Incremental Levels of Dried Tomato Pomace with and without Dietary Enzyme Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Ileal Protein Digestibility of Broiler Chicks  

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Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in order to determine the nutritional value of Dried Tomato Pomace (DTP and the impact of its incremental levels with and without enzyme supplementation on broilers growth performance and ileal protein digestibility. About 384 days old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were raised together until day 7. At 7 days of age chicks were randomly allocated to one of eight treatments with 4 replicates of 12 birds each according to factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design. Treatments included 0, 3, 6 and 9% of DTP for starter period (7-21 days; 0, 6, 9 and 12% for grower period (21-42 days and 0, 9, 12 and 15% for finisher period (42-49 days with and without enzyme supplementation. Body weight gain and feed intake of chicks were recorded at the end of each period and calculated for entire experimental period. Food conversion ratio was also calculated for different periods. At 49 days of age, two male birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of protein digestibility by chromium oxide marker. Increasing DTP in none-enzyme supplemented treatments resulted in a significant reduction of daily weight gain (p0.05 impact on carcass characteristics. There was no deleterious impact of experimental diets observed on ileal protein digestibility. The obtained results suggest that DTP along with enzyme supplementation could be incorporated in broilers diet up to 3, 6 and 9% for starter, grower and finisher periods, respectively without any adverse effect on performance and carcass characteristics.

Ahmadreza Shahidpour

2011-01-01

335

Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable protein in diets of Holstein cows: 1. Feed intake, digestibility and milk production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english To evaluate the effect of different ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) on lactation responses, digestion and dry matter intake (DMI), nine multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows, averaging 171 ± 17 days in milk and 24.1 ± 3.3 kg of milk/d were assigned to a 3 [...] × 3 Latin square design. The total mixed rations (TMR) included 45% forage on a dry matter (DM) basis and 55% concentrates. The RDP (g/kg of DM) and NFC : RDP ratios of diets were respectively: 1) 98 and 4.10 (LRDP), 2) 108 and 3.71 (MRDP), 3) 118 and 3.34 (HRDP). Ratios were achieved through altering the RDP content of the diets while the NFC was held constant at 401 g/kg of DM. Urea was supplemented as a source of RDP to decrease the ratio. DMI and organic matter intake (OMI) were affected by treatment and tended to decrease linearly from LRDP to HRDP. Crude protein intake (CPI) increased linearly as the amount of RDP in the diets increased. Apparent organic matter digestion in the total tract decreased significantly in the HRDP diet. Percentage of protein and solid non-fat (SNF) and concentration of milk urea-nitrogen (MUN) in milk increased linearly when cows were fed diets with the higher amounts of RDP. Results showed that low producing cows are less likely to respond to altering NFC : RDP ratios than high producing cows, but digestibility in the MRDP treatment was higher and RDP level equal to 108 (g/kg of DM). A NFC : RDP ratio equal to 3.71 was useful and recommendable for mid-lactation dairy cow.

Afzalzadeh, A.; Rafiee, H.; Khadem, A.A.; Asadi, A..

336

Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously. PMID:23208612

Hou, Jin; Osterlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

2013-04-01

337

Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous α-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously.

Hou, Jin; Ã?sterlund, Tobias

2013-01-01

338

Seasonal variation in mussel Mytilus edulis digestive gland cytochrome P4501A- and 2E-immunoidentified protein levels and DNA strand breaks (Comet assay).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mytilus edulis digestive gland microsomes were prepared from indigenous populations sampled from a clean reference site (Port Quin) and an urban-industrial contaminated site (Blackpool) in the UK. Samples were collected in March/April, May, August and December 1998. Western blot analysis was performed using polyclonal antibodies to fish CYP1A and rat CYP2E using partially purified M. edulis CYP as a positive control, to aid identification. CYP1A- and CYP2E-immunopositive protein levels showed different site-specific seasonal variation with higher levels of CYP2E determined in May (P CYP1A-immunopositive protein but not CYP2E-immunopositive protein were observed in the samples collected in December (P < 0.05). This correlated with lower levels of nuclear DNA damage (Comet assay expressed as per cent tail DNA) observed in December compared to August (P < 0.05). PMID:11460727

Shaw, J P; Large, A T; Chipman, J K; Livingstone, D R; Peters, L D

2000-01-01

339

Effects of Mangosteen Peel (Garcinia mangostana) Supplementation on Rumen Ecology, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Digestibility and Voluntary Feed Intake in Cattle  

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Four, rumen fistulated cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experiment was to study effects of crude saponins and condensed tannins in mangosteen peel on rumen microorganisms and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in cattle. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = Control (without Mangosteen peel supplementation, MSP); T2 = 50 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T3 = 100 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T4 = 150 g DM of MSP/hd/d with urea-tr...

Ngamsaeng, A.; Wanapat, M.; Khampa, S.

2006-01-01

340

Double restriction-enzyme digestion improves the coverage and accuracy of genome-wide CpG methylation profiling by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS was developed to measure DNA methylation of high-CG regions at single base-pair resolution, and has been widely used because of its minimal DNA requirements and cost efficacy; however, the CpG coverage of genomic regions is restricted and important regions with low-CG will be ignored in DNA methylation profiling. This method could be improved to generate a more comprehensive representation. Results Based on in silico simulation of enzyme digestion of human and mouse genomes, we have optimized the current single-enzyme RRBS by applying double enzyme digestion in the library construction to interrogate more representative regions. CpG coverage of genomic regions was considerably increased in both high-CG and low-CG regions using the double-enzyme RRBS method, leading to more accurate detection of their average methylation levels and identification of differential methylation regions between samples. We also applied this double-enzyme RRBS method to comprehensively analyze the CpG methylation profiles of two colorectal cancer cell lines. Conclusion The double-enzyme RRBS increases the CpG coverage of genomic regions considerably over the previous single-enzyme RRBS method, leading to more accurate detection of their average methylation levels. It will facilitate genome-wide DNA methylation studies in multiple and complex clinical samples.

Wang Junwen

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Improvement of anaerobic digestion performance by continuous nitrogen removal with a membrane contactor treating a substrate rich in ammonia and sulfide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of reduced ammonia levels on anaerobic digestion was investigated. Two reactors were fed with slaughterhouse waste, one with a hollow fiber membrane contractor for ammonia removal and one without. Different organic loading rates (OLR) and free ammonia and sulfide concentrations were investigated. In the reactor with the membrane contactor, the NH4-N concentration was reduced threefold. At a moderate OLR (3.1 kg chemical oxygen demand - COD/m(3)/d), this reactor performed significantly better than the reference reactor. At high OLR (4.2 kg COD/m(3)/d), the reference reactor almost stopped producing methane (0.01 Nl/gCOD). The membrane reactor also showed a stable process with a methane yield of 0.23 Nl/g COD was achieved. Both reactors had predominantly a hydrogenotrophic microbial consortium, however in the membrane reactor the genus Methanosaeta (acetoclastic) was also detected. In general, all relevant parameters and the methanogenic consortium indicated improved anaerobic digestion of the reactor with the membrane. PMID:24607456

Lauterböck, B; Nikolausz, M; Lv, Z; Baumgartner, M; Liebhard, G; Fuchs, W

2014-04-01

342

Perspective: A Program to Improve Protein Biomarker Discovery for Cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomarkers for cancer risk, early detection, prognosis, and therapeutic response promise to revolutionize cancer management. Protein biomarkers offer tremendous potential in this regard due to their great diversity and intimate involvement in physiology. An effective program to discover protein biomarkers using existing technology will require team science, an integrated informatics platform, identification and quantitation of candidate biomarkers in disease tissue, mouse models of disease, standardized reagents for analyzing candidate biomarkers in bodily fluids, and implementation of automation. Technology improvements for better fractionation of the proteome, selection of specific biomarkers from complex mixtures, and multiplexed assay of biomarkers would greatly enhance progress.

Aebersold, Ruedi; Anderson, Leigh N.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Druker, Brian; Hartwell, L D.; Smith, Richard D.

2005-06-01

343

IMPROVEMENT OF COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGY OF TABLETS WITH SUNFLOWER PROTEIN  

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Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the improvement of composition and technology of tablets with plant proteins. As objects of research were chosen natural compounds: sunflower protein and immunomodulator (mix-factor. The manufacturing of tablets has been performed with preliminary wet granulation. Substitution of moisturizer from purified water to mixfactor. During the studies the new composition of immunomodulatory tablets has been developed, which meets SPU requirements, water substitution to mixfactor as a moisturizer has been justified, the optimum parameters of technological process have been determined, on the basis of experimental data it has been set that the granules are tablettable with addition of a binder.

Mansky A. A.

2014-01-01

344

Improving a designed photocontrolled DNA-binding protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photocontrolled transcription factors could be powerful tools for probing the roles of transcriptional processes in a variety of settings. Previously, we designed a photocontrolled DNA-binding protein based on a fusion between the bZIP region of GCN4 and photoactive yellow protein from Halorhodospira halophila [Morgan, S. A., et al. (2010) J. Mol. Biol. 399, 94-112]. Here we report a structure-based attempt to improve the degree of photoswitching observed with this chimeric protein. Using computational design tools PoPMuSiC 2.0, Rosetta, Eris, and bCIPA, we identified a series of single- and multiple-point mutations that were expected to stabilize the folded dark state of the protein and thereby enhance the degree of photoswitching. While a number of these mutations, particularly those that introduced a hydrophobic residue at position 143, did significantly enhance dark-state protein stability as judged by urea denaturation studies, dark-state stability did not correlate directly with the degree of photoswitching. Instead, the influence of mutations on the degree of photoswitching was found to be related to their effects on the degree to which DNA binding slowed the pB to pG transition in the PYP photocycle. One mutant, K143F, caused an ?10-fold slowing of the photocycle and also showed the largest difference in the apparent K(d) for DNA binding, 3.5-fold lower, upon irradiation. This change in the apparent K(d) causes a 12-fold enhancement in the fraction bound DNA upon irradiation due to the cooperativity of DNA binding by this family of proteins. The results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to a practical problem in protein design and suggest strategies for further improvement of designed photocontrolled transcription factors. PMID:21214273

Fan, Helen Y; Morgan, Stacy-Anne; Brechun, Katherine E; Chen, Yih-Yang; Jaikaran, Anna S I; Woolley, G Andrew

2011-02-22

345

Digestion Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

To reinforce students' understanding of the human digestion process, the functions of several stomach and small intestine fluids are analyzed, and the concept of simulation is introduced through a short, introductory demonstration of how these fluids work. Students learn what simulation means and how it relates to the engineering process, particularly in biomedical engineering. The teacher demo requires vinegar, baking soda, water and aspirin.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

346

Protein sources and digestive enzyme activities in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Fontes protéicas e atividade de enzimas digestivas em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digestive enzymes activity influence feed utilization by fish, and its understanding is important to optimize diet formulation. This study reports the digestive enzyme activities of jundiá juveniles fed diets with protein sources. Fish were fed six experimental diets for 90 days: MBY (meat and bone meal + sugar cane yeast, SY (soybean meal + sugar cane yeast, S (soybean meal, MBS (meat and bone meal + soybean meal, FY (fish meal + sugar cane yeast and FS (fish meal + soybean meal, and then sampled every 30 days and assayed in two intestine sections for digestive enzymes - trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase - activities; gastric protease was assayed in the stomach. Digestive and hepatosomatic index, intestinal quotient, digestive tract length and weight gain were also measured. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were higher (p As enzimas digestivas influenciam a utilização dos alimentos em peixes, e seu conhecimento é importante para otimizar a formulação de dietas. Este trabalho descreve a atividade de enzimas digestivas em juvenis de jundiá alimentados com fontes protéicas. Os peixes foram alimentados com seis dietas (90 dias: MBY (farinha de carne e ossos + levedura de cana, SY (farelo de soja + levedura de cana, S (farelo de soja, MBS (farinha de carne e ossos + farelo de soja, FY (farinha de peixe + levedura de cana e FS (farinha de peixe + farelo de soja. A cada 30 dias, foram analisadas as enzimas digestivas (tripsina, quimiotripsina e amilase no intestino. No estômago, foi mensurada a protease ácida. Foram estimados os índices digestivo e hepato-somático, quociente intestinal, comprimento do trato digestório e ganho em peso. As atividades de tripsina e quimiotripsina foram maiores (p < 0,0001 nos peixes alimentados com as dietas com fontes de origem animal (MBY, MBS, FY e FS. As proteases alcalinas foram afetadas negativamente pelo farelo de soja nas dietas. A atividade de amilase apresentou grandes variações. Os peixes alimentados com as dietas MBY e MBS apresentaram maior atividade de protease ácida (p < 0,0001. Os ganhos em peso foram maiores nos peixes alimentados com as dietas MBS e FS (p < 0,05. Os maiores valores (p < 0,05 de comprimento do trato digestório foram verificados nos peixes alimentados com as dietas MBS e FY. A composição da dieta influencia na atividade de enzimas digestivas do jundiá.

Rafael Lazzari

2010-01-01

347

Can understanding the packing of side chains improve the design of protein-protein interactions?  

Science.gov (United States)

With the long-term goal to improve the design of protein-protein interactions, we have begun extensive computational studies to understand how side-chains of key residues of binding partners geometrically fit together at protein-peptide interfaces, e.g. the tetratrico-peptide repeat protein and its cognate peptide). We describe simple atomic-scale models of hydrophobic dipeptides, which include hard-core repulsion, bond length and angle constraints, and Van der Waals attraction. By completely enumerating all minimal energy structures in these systems, we are able to reproduce important features of the probability distributions of side chain dihedral angles of hydrophic residues in the protein data bank. These results are the crucial first step in developing computational models that can predict the side chain conformations of residues at protein-peptide interfaces.

Zhou, Alice; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

2011-03-01

348

VOLUNTARY INTAKE, APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY AND DIGESTA KINETICS OF THREE PROTEIN-LEVEL FORAGES FED TO SHEEP CONSUMO VOLUNTÁRIO, DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE E CINÉTICA DIGESTIVA DE TRÊS FORRAGEIRAS EM OVINOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The aim of this work was to evaluate the voluntary intake, apparent digestibility and digesta kinetics of three protein-level forages fed to Santa Inês sheep. Six sheep (LW = 40 ± 5.7 kg fitted with rumen cannulas were used. Lucerne (LUC, signalgrass (SIG and Tifton-85 grass (TIF hays were chosen due to their crude protein (CP content (respectively, 191, 29 and 75 g kg-1 DM. Treatments and animals were fitted in a double Latin square (3 treatments, 3 periods, 6 animals. To measure the voluntary intake, animals were kept in individual stall with free access to water and food, during the first phase of each period. The feed consisted exclusively of LUC, SIG or TIF and mineral supplementation. Apparent digestibility was determined by total faeces collection. Digesta kinetics was estimated using Co-EDTA and Cr mordant fibre as markers to liquid and solid phases, respectively. Means were compared by Tukey test. Dry matter voluntary intake of treatment LUC was higher (P < 0.05 than treatments SIG and TIF and it reflected the strong relationship between intake and protein content in the diet. Dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficients were superior (P < 0.05 for LUC. Crude protein apparent digestibility showed differences (P < 0.05 between the three treatments, being LUC (0.694 the highest observed followed by TIF (0.500. Crude protein apparent digestibility of SIG was practically null (0.001, indicating intense protein deficit. Dry matter voluntary intake and digestibility of tested feeds were influenced by chemical composition and digestion kinetics. Low protein feeds had a prejudicial effect in nutrient apparent digestibi-lity, decreasing until nullity for protein of treatment SIG.

Key-words: Lucerne, marker, nutrition, ruminant, signalgrass, Tifton.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo voluntário, a digestibilidade aparente e a cinética diges-tiva de três forragens, com teores protéicos distintos, em ovinos. Utilizaram-se  seis ovinos da raça Santa Inês (PV = 40 ± 5,7 kg, machos adultos, castrados e providos de cânulas ruminais. Optou-se pelo uso de fenos de alfafa (ALF, de braquiária (BRA e de capim Tifton-85 (TIF pelos seus teores de proteína bruta (PB, respectivamente, 191, 29 e 75 g kg-1 MS. Alocaram-se os tratamentos e os animais em delineamento de dois quadrados latinos (três tratamentos, três períodos e seis animais. As dietas consistiam exclusivamente de ALF, BRA ou TIF e mistura mineral, oferecida separadamente. O ensaio de consumo voluntário foi realizado em baias individuais e os de digestibilidade e cinética digestiva, em gaiolas de metabolismo. Determinou-se a digestibilidade aparente por coleta total de fezes. Estimou-se a cinética digestiva mediante o uso de Co-EDTA e fibra Cr-mordantada como marcadores das fases líquida e sólida, respectivamente. Compararam-se as médias por teste de Tukey. O consumo voluntário de MS do tratamento ALF foi maior (P < 0,05 que os tratamentos BRA e TIF, o que refletiu a forte relação entre consumo e teor de proteína na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS e da MO também foram superiores (P < 0,05 para ALF. A digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta mostrou diferenças (P < 0,05 entre os três tratamentos, sendo ALF (0,694 a mais alta que se observou, seguida por TIF (0,500. Para o tratamento BRA, essa variável foi praticamente nula (0,001, indicando déficit protéico intenso. O consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente dos alimentos testados receberam influência da composição química e da cinética digestiva. Alimentos com baixo teor protéico prejudicaram a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes, diminuindo, próximo à nulidade, para a proteína do tratamento BRA.

Palavras-chaves:  Alfafa, braquiária, marcadores, nutrição, ruminantes, Tifton.

Adibe Luiz Abdalla

2007-12-01

349

Improving the Performance of an HMM for Protein Family Modelling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A hidden Markov model for protein modelling consists of sub-models for alpha-helix, beta-sheets, coil and possibly more. It is described how to estimate the model parameters as a whole from labeled sequences instead of estimating the parameters from the individual parts independently from subsequences. It is argued that the standard maximum likelihood ML estimation is not the optimal for training such model. In this study a new method is used where instead of estimating the parameters of model that maximizing the probability of the protein sequences (ML, we maximize the probability of the correct labels prediction, such a criterion is called conditional maximum likelihood CML. The advantage of this method is to optimize recognition of model. We tested our method on some of protein families such as L-asparagines, we noted that the performance of HMM is improved in prediction process.

Mohamed Hamza El-Sayed

2007-01-01

350

The partial substitution of digestible protein with gelatinized starch as an energy source reduces susceptibility to lipid oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the influence of dietary gelatinized starch and protein on the fatty acid composition of muscle in rainbow trout and European sea bass and on the susceptibility of flesh to lipid peroxidation. The possibility that flesh peroxidation could be accounted for by lipogenesis and the deposition of fat was also explored. The inclusion of gelatinized starch in the diet of rainbow trout improved growth with respect to that observed in fish fed crude starch (P<.001). This was especially noticeable at the lowest concentration of dietary protein tested (P = .037); suggesting that gelatinized starch may partially replace protein in the production of energy without inducing a negative effect on growth. However, in European sea bass, the gelatinization of starch and dietary protein concentration showed no significant effect on final body weight. The intramuscular neutral lipid concentration of the sea bass was reduced by the gelatinization of dietary starch (P = .034). The highest dietary protein concentration increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in the neutral (P = .0742) and polar (P = .0033) lipid fractions. The dietary inclusion of high levels of protein in rainbow trout led to a lower concentration of total (n-3) (P = .0457) and (n-6) (P = .0522) fatty acids and a higher concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (P = .0006). The inclusion of gelatinized starch led to a lower concentration of (n-3) fatty acids (P = .0034) and a higher concentration of saturated fatty acids (P = .0007). The polar fraction was hardly affected by the same treatment. A significantly lower susceptibility of the dorsal muscle to oxidation was observed in groups of European sea bass fed gelatinized starch (P<.01). A similar trend was observed in rainbow trout, although differences were not significant. The findings suggest that the digestible protein concentration of nutrient-dense diets for rainbow trout and European sea bass can be reduced with a beneficial effect on tissue lipid oxidation and no negative effects on growth and muscle composition. PMID:10641880

Alvarez, M J; López-Bote, C J; Diez, A; Corraze, G; Arzel, J; Dias, J; Kaushik, S J; Bautista, J M

1999-12-01

351

Use of the mobile nylon bag technique for determination of apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three digestibility experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of determination of apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) by the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) using 21 feedstuffs and three mixed diets. In two conventional digestibility experiments (Exp. 1 and 2), AID were determined using in total 10 barrows (BW 35 kg) fitted with simple T-cannulas at the terminal ileum. For the MNBT studies, four pigs were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the proximal duodenum and a Post-Valve T-Caecum (PVTC) cannula at the terminal ileum. The MNBT studies included the feedstuffs (n = 10) from Exp. 1 and 2 as well as 14 further feedstuffs and mixed diets in which AID coefficients had been determined in previous trials. For each feedstuff 60 nylon bags were used. In vitro digestion of the bags was carried out in pepsin-HCl solution with 450 IU pepsin/l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from the nylon bags during the in vitro and in vivo phase. In comparison with AID determined by the conventional method, AID of CP was on average 2.4% lower, whereas AID of lysine was on average 8.5% higher when determined by the MNBT. There was no significant (P > 0.05) correlation between AID coefficients of CP and AA determined by the conventional method and the MNBT, when all feedstuffs were taken into account. However, in cereals (n = 11), the correlation between AID coefficients determined by both methods was significant (P < 0.05) for CP (r = 0.61) and some AA (r ranging between 0.62 and 0.72). In conclusion, the potential of the MNBT to determine AID of CP and AA is rather limited. Differences in coefficients of AID of CP and AA were attributed to several factors such as diffusion of sample particles or endogenous protein through the nylon bags as well as to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (e.g. in legume seeds and oilseed meals).

Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U

2011-01-01

352

Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed proteins are providing the basis for future plant breeding strategies. The Symposium concluded with reviews of the possible use of cell cul