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Sample records for improves protein digestive

  1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Pretreatment of Whey Protein Isolates Improves Their Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle M. Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI and native (nWPI whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Protein denaturation improves enzymatic digestion efficiency for direct tissue analysis using mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setou, M.; Hayasaka, T.; Shimma, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Matsumoto, M.

    2008-12-01

    Molecular identification using high-sensitivity tandem mass spectrometry is essential for protein analysis on the tissue surface. Here we report an improved digestion protocol for protein identification directly on the tissue surface using mass spectrometry. By denaturation process and the use of detergent-supplemented trypsin solution, we could successfully detect and identify many molecules such as tubulin, neurofilament, and synaptosomal-associated 25 kDa protein directly from a mouse cerebellum section.

  3. Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as n...

  4. Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-02-01

    The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

  5. Insect protein digestion improves purity of Steinernema carpocapsae in vitro culture and reduces culture period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cuiling; Jian, Heng; Zhao, Aiqin; Jiang, Xia; Liu, Qian

    2013-10-01

    Insect protein, used for in vitro culture media for entomopathogenic nematode, produces nematodes of high quality. However, the time-consuming culture and poor purity of nematodes hinder the commercial application of insect protein media. We show that hydrolyzed insect protein improves nematode purity in in vitro culture. The results revealed that nematode purity was increased by more than 90 %, and the culture period was reduced by 6 days. Estimated economic efficiency of using hydrolyzed insect protein medium was increased by 44.25 % over that obtained with non-hydrolyzed insect medium. PMID:23949996

  6. Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyman, T; SØrensen, K U

    2007-01-01

    The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite for being able to devise better alternatives. Hence, for 7 d we treated pigs, weaned at 24 d of age, with a combination of amoxicillin (25 mg/kg feed and injection of 8·75 mg/kg body weight per 12 h) and ZnO (2·5 g/kg feed). The pigs treated with antimicrobials (n 11) showed no signs of gut malfunction at any time, whereas untreated weaned controls (n 11) developed clinical diarrhoea. The antimicrobial treatment resulted in a higher daily weight gain compared with weaned controls (101 v. - 44 g/d, P < 0·0001), whereas both groups had a similar degree of villous atrophy compared with unweaned 24-d-old controls (n 8; P < 0·05). The antimicrobial treatment gave a dramatic reduction in small intestinal microbial diversity, and specifically prevented tissue colonization with Escherichia coli compared with weaned controls. Further, the antimicrobial treatment improved amylase, trypsin and small intestinal aminopeptidase A and N activities (all P < 0·05). Specifically for the colon, the antimicrobial treatment was associated with reduced tissue weight ( - 23 %, P < 0·05), reduced concentration of SCFA (P < 0·05), and increased mucosal goblet cell area (P < 0·0001) compared with weaned controls. We conclude that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacterial load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density.

  7. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  8. Kafirinas, proteínas clave para conferir digestibilidad y calidad proteica al grano de sorgo Kafirins, key proteins to improve digestibility and proteic quality of sorghum grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Chiquito-Almanza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El sorgo es un alimento básico en varios países de África y Asia. Sin embargo, su grano es deficiente en lisina y su calidad proteica disminuye cuando se cocina. Los intentos para conferir calidad proteica al grano de sorgo, no han satisfecho los requerimientos nutricionales, y las alternativas biotecnológicas se han enfocado a la expresión heteróloga de proteínas, sin prestar atención a incrementar la digestibilidad proteica. El incremento del contenido de lisina en maíz QPM y el silenciamiento génico de las ?-zeínas en maíz, sugieren que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas, una familia de prolaminas del sorgo homólogas a las zeínas de maíz, permite incrementar el contenido de lisina y la digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. En esta revisión se discuten aspectos básicos de la clasificación de las kafirinas, su homología con las zeínas de maíz, y su contribución en la calidad y digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. El objetivo es sustentar la hipótesis de que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas mediante silenciamiento génico es una estrategia clave para mejorar el valor nutritivo del grano del sorgo, el estudio se llevó a cabo durante 2009 y 2010.Sorghum is a basic food in several countries of Africa and Asia. However, its grain is deficient in lysine and its proteic quality diminishes when is cooked. Attempts to confer proteic quality to sorghum grain have not satisfed the nutritional requirements, and biotechnical alternatives have been focused to proteins' heterologous expression, without taking into account to increase proteic digestibility. Increment of lysine content in QPM corn and gene silencing of ?-zeins in corn, suggest that modification of expression of kafirins, a prolamin family of sorghum homologous to corn zeins, allows to increase lysin content and the proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. In this revision basic issues of kafirins classification are discussed, their homology with corn zeins, and their contribution in quality and proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. The objective of this work is to support the hypothesis that modification of kafirins expression by means of gene silencing is key strategy to improve nutritious value in sorghum grain, study was carried out during 2009 and 2010.

  9. Kafirinas, proteínas clave para conferir digestibilidad y calidad proteica al grano de sorgo / Kafirins, key proteins to improve digestibility and proteic quality of sorghum grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Chiquito-Almanza; Gabriel, Cobielles-Castrejón; Noé, Montes-García; Víctor, Pecina-Quintero; José Luis, Anaya-López.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El sorgo es un alimento básico en varios países de África y Asia. Sin embargo, su grano es deficiente en lisina y su calidad proteica disminuye cuando se cocina. Los intentos para conferir calidad proteica al grano de sorgo, no han satisfecho los requerimientos nutricionales, y las alternativas biot [...] ecnológicas se han enfocado a la expresión heteróloga de proteínas, sin prestar atención a incrementar la digestibilidad proteica. El incremento del contenido de lisina en maíz QPM y el silenciamiento génico de las ?-zeínas en maíz, sugieren que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas, una familia de prolaminas del sorgo homólogas a las zeínas de maíz, permite incrementar el contenido de lisina y la digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. En esta revisión se discuten aspectos básicos de la clasificación de las kafirinas, su homología con las zeínas de maíz, y su contribución en la calidad y digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. El objetivo es sustentar la hipótesis de que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas mediante silenciamiento génico es una estrategia clave para mejorar el valor nutritivo del grano del sorgo, el estudio se llevó a cabo durante 2009 y 2010. Abstract in english Sorghum is a basic food in several countries of Africa and Asia. However, its grain is deficient in lysine and its proteic quality diminishes when is cooked. Attempts to confer proteic quality to sorghum grain have not satisfed the nutritional requirements, and biotechnical alternatives have been fo [...] cused to proteins' heterologous expression, without taking into account to increase proteic digestibility. Increment of lysine content in QPM corn and gene silencing of ?-zeins in corn, suggest that modification of expression of kafirins, a prolamin family of sorghum homologous to corn zeins, allows to increase lysin content and the proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. In this revision basic issues of kafirins classification are discussed, their homology with corn zeins, and their contribution in quality and proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. The objective of this work is to support the hypothesis that modification of kafirins expression by means of gene silencing is key strategy to improve nutritious value in sorghum grain, study was carried out during 2009 and 2010.

  10. Digestibility of proteins and starch (in vitro) of amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

    1992-04-01

    The effects of different domestic processing and cooking methods on starch digestibility (in vitro) and protein digestibility (in vitro) of four strains of amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean) were investigated. An increase of 35 to 48% and 22 to 25% was observed in starch digestibility and protein digestibility, respectively, when the seed of amphidiploids were soaked for 18 h. Cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds) and germination improved significantly the starch digestibility and protein digestibility of all the varieties. PMID:1374184

  11. IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    Želmíra Balážová; Milan Ch?apek; Eva Palen?árová; Zdenka Gálová

    2012-01-01

    In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of t...

  12. Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus(L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g on the weight gain (WG, food conversion FC, retained protein (PR, retained energy (ER and protein efficiency ratio (PER in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” (Oreochromis niloticus. Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between the experimental diets. In diets with 30% proteins, the increase of digestible energy significantly enhances WG, FC, PR, ER and PER, where the level of 3.7 kcal/g had the best performance. With 35% protein, the increase of digestible energy had not significant influence on the GP, CA, PR, ER and PER, however the growth of sex reversal Nile Tilapia was improved with the level of 3.3 kcal/g. When were compared both diets, were not find significant differences. Considering the protein cost, it can be concluded that best response was obtained with a diet containing 30 % of protein and 3.7 kcal/g of digestible energy and optimum digestible energy/ digestible protein ratio of 13.75 kcal/g protein.

  13. IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of the parent proteins remaining after gastric digestion, whose majority disappeared after complete gastro-duodenal digestion. Despite the fact that the most of proteins were broken down by gastro-duodenal digestion into low molecular weight peptides, these molecules retain an allergenic potential.

  14. A Localized In-Situ Hydrogel-Mediated Protein Digestion and Extraction Technique For On-Tissue Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Glenn A.; Nicklay, Joshua J.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    A simultaneous on-tissue proteolytic digestion and extraction method is described for the in-situ analysis of proteins from spatially distinct areas of a tissue section. The digestion occurs on-tissue within a hydrogel network, and peptides extracted from this gel are identified with liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). The hydrogels are compatible with solubility agents (e.g. chaotropes and detergents) known to improve enzymatic digestion of proteins. Additionally, digestions and extr...

  15. Pepsin digestibility of proteins in sorghum and other major cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Mertz, Edwin T.; Hassen, Mohamed M.; Cairns-whittern, Carleen; Kirleis, Allen W.; Tu, Lichuan; Axtell, John D.

    1984-01-01

    We have shown previously that sorghum is highly digestible in the rat. However, other workers have shown that sorghum is much less digestible than wheat, maize, and rice in young children. Because the rat does not show these digestibility differences, we developed an empirical pepsin digestion method, first reported in 1981, which simulates the digestion values found in children. In this report the method has been improved and used to analyze wheat, maize, rice, millet, and sorghum and certai...

  16. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated with the fibre content in decortification fractions of Bomi and the high-lysine mutant Risø 1508. The digestibility was positively correlated with the hordein concentration for the Bomi fractions, but not for the 1508 fractions.

  17. Transgenic sorghum with altered kafirin synthesis: kafirin solubility, polymerization, and protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Laura S; Taylor, Janet; Taylor, John R N

    2011-09-14

    Transgenic sorghum (TG) lines with altered kafirin synthesis, particularly suppression of ?-kafirin synthesis, and improved protein quality have been developed. The proportion of kafirin extracted with 60% tert-butyl alcohol alone was greatly increased in the TG lines. However, the total amount of kafirin remained unchanged. Further, in the TG lines, the kafirin was much less polymerized by disulfide bonding. There was also evidence of compensatory synthesis of other kafirin proteins. Cooked protein digestibility was increased in the TG form, even after removal of interfering starch. The TG protein bodies were intermediate in appearance between the normal type and the invaginated high digestibility mutants. Hence, the increased protein digestibility of these TG lines is probably related to their lower levels of disulfide-bonded kafirin polymerization, allowing better access of proteases. This work appears to confirm that disulfide bond formation in kafirin is responsible for the reduced protein digestibility of cooked sorghum. PMID:21819142

  18. Fast On–Line Digestion System for Protein Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Lourette, Natacha M.; Clowers, Brian; Hixson, Kim K; Heibeck, Tyler; Prior, David C; Pasa-Toli?, Ljiljana; Camp, David G.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient on-line digestion system that reduces the number of sample manipulation steps has been demonstrated for high throughput proteomics. By incorporating a pressurized sample loop into a liquid chromatography-based separation system, both sample and enzyme (e.g., trypsin) can be simultaneously introduced to produce a complete, yet rapid digestion. Both standard proteins and a complex Shewanella oneidensis global protein extract were digested and analyzed using the automated on-line pr...

  19. Improving digestibility of feather meal by steam flash explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Poultry feathers are available in large quantities. However, natural feathers have poor digestibility and are often considered as solid wastes. To improve the digestibility of poultry feathers, steam flash explosion (SFE) was applied to duck feathers at different pressures ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 MPa for 1 min. The pepsin digestibility, disulfide bond content, and major secondary structure component (?-sheets) of duck feathers before and after the process were examined. The results showed that SFE could effectively increase pepsin digestibility of feather meal. Under the optimal conditions (1.8 MPa for 1 min), the pepsin digestibility of exploded feather meal achieved approximately 91%, which was about 9 times higher than that of the original feathers. The pepsin digestibility was highly correlated with the degree of reduction of disulfide bonds (R(2) = 0.98) and slightly negatively correlated with ?-sheet structure. SFE is an effective method to improve the bio-utilization of feather meal. PMID:24617674

  20. Nanocomplexation between Curcumin and Soy Protein Isolate: Influence on Curcumin Stability/Bioaccessibility and in Vitro Protein Digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Ping; Li, Bian-Sheng; Tang, Chuan-He

    2015-04-01

    The complexation of nanoparticles in unheated and heated (at 75-95°) soy protein isolate (SPI) with curcumin and the effects on curcumin stability/bioaccessibility and in vitro protein digestibility were investigated. The nanoparticles did not display noticeable changes in size and morphology upon nanocomplexation with curcumin, except their surface hydrophobicity. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin progressively decreased with increasing initial curcumin concentration in the dispersion, while the load amount linearly increased. The solubility of curcumin in water was enhanced by the complexation above 98000-fold (vs free curcumin in water). The formation of the nanocomplexes considerably improved the storage stability of curcumin. In vitro simulated digestion experiments indicated that the complexation also improved the bioaccessibility of curcumin; the bioaccessibility was greatly impaired by hydrolysis-induced protein aggregation. Addtionally, the nanocomplexation significantly improved the in vitro protein digestibility of both unheated and heated SPI. PMID:25779681

  1. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

    1346-13-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

  2. Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.k8science.org/.

  3. Microwave-assisted specific chemical digestion for rapid protein identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lin; Low, Teck Yew; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a rapid microwave-assisted protein digestion technique based on classic acid hydrolysis reaction with 2% formic acid solution. In this mild chemical environment, proteins are hydrolyzed to peptides, which can be directly analyzed by MALDI-MS or ESI-MS without prior sample purification. Dilute formic acid cleaves proteins specifically at the C-terminal of aspartyl (Asp) residues within 10 min of exposure to microwave irradiation. By adjusting the irradiation time, we found that the extent of protein fragmentation can be controlled, as shown by the single fragmentation of myoglobin at the C-terminal of any of the Asp residues. The efficacy and simplicity of this technique for protein identification are demonstrated by the peptide mass maps of in-gel digested myoglobin and BSA, as well as proteins isolated from Escherichia coli K12 cells. PMID:16342144

  4. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in vitro digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio.

  5. Multiplex comparison of the digestibility of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins in rice grains by in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gang-hua; Kagiya, Yukari; Kitta, Kazumi

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the digestibility of rice allergenic and nonallergenic proteins under the influence of the rice grain matrix, rice powder was subjected to in vitro digestion by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Rice proteins were extracted from the liquid and the solid phases and analysed by SDS-PAGE, and rice allergenic proteins were detected by a multiplex immunodetection method. The digestion of soluble proteins was carried out in both liquid and solid phases, while that of insoluble proteins only occurred in the solid phase. In SGF digestion, rice proteins were more quickly digested at pH 1.2 than at pH 2.0 or 2.5. Moreover, the digestibility of five kinds of rice allergenic proteins was influenced by pH level, heat processing, starch matrix, solubility, and protein properties, on a case-by-case basis. On the other hand, all detected rice allergenic proteins and non-allergenic proteins were rapidly digested in SIF. PMID:25172754

  6. A capillary monolithic trypsin reactor for efficient protein digestion in online and offline coupling to ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spross, Jens; Sinz, Andrea

    2010-02-15

    We describe the preparation of a capillary trypsin immobilized monolithic enzyme reactor (IMER) for a rapid and efficient digestion of proteins down to the femtomole level. Trypsin was immobilized on a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol dimethycrylate) monolith using the glutaraldehyde technique. Digestion efficiencies of the IMER were evaluated using model proteins and protein mixtures as well as chemically cross-linked lysozyme regarding the addition of denaturants and increasing digestion temperature. The trypsin IMER described herein is applicable for the digestion of protein mixtures. Even at a 1000-fold molar excess of one protein, low-abundance proteins are readily identified, in combination with MS/MS analysis. An online setup of the IMER with reversed phase nano-HPLC separation and nano-ESI-MS/MS analysis was established. The great potential of the trypsin IMER for proteomics applications comprise short digestion times in the range of seconds to minutes, in addition to improved digestion efficiencies, compared to in-solution digestion. PMID:20099804

  7. Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of the cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop the mathematical description based on a master-equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome specie, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation ...

  8. ENZYME DIGEST AND ACID HYDROLYZED INDEX OF PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Mohammadiha P. Mostafavi

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A pancreatopeptidase (Elastase digest index was devised for a rapid and accurate estimation of protein quality. This index was calculated on the basis of all the amino acids released by an in-vitro Elastase digestion, acid hydrolyses of same sample and the residue of enzyme hydrolyzed. The amino acids were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography. Samples used were cooked white kidneybeans, cooked and over-heated soybean powder, and skimmed milk powder. Good correlation was observed between elastase index value and their biological values reported in the literature from feeding trials. The pattern of aminoacids released by acid and by enzyme hydrolysis was about the same.

  9. Robust Trypsin Coating on Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers in Rigorous Conditions and Its Uses for Protein Digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Byoung Chan; Jun, Seung-Hyun; Chang, Mun Seock; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Smith, Richard D.; Gu, Man Bock; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Beom S.; Kim, Jungbae

    2010-12-15

    An efficient protein digestion in proteomic analysis requires the stabilization of proteases such as trypsin. In the present work, trypsin was stabilized in the form of enzyme coating on electrospun polymer nanofibers (EC-TR), which crosslinks additional trypsin molecules onto covalently-attached trypsin (CA-TR). EC-TR showed better stability than CA-TR in rigorous conditions, such as at high temperatures of 40 °C and 50 °C, in the presence of organic co-solvents, and at various pH's. For example, the half-lives of CA-TR and EC-TR were 0.24 and 163.20 hours at 40 ºC, respectively. The improved stability of EC-TR can be explained by covalent-linkages on the surface of trypsin molecules, which effectively inhibits the denaturation, autolysis, and leaching of trypsin. The protein digestion was performed at 40 °C by using both CA-TR and EC-TR in digesting a model protein, enolase. EC-TR showed better performance and stability than CA-TR by maintaining good performance of enolase digestion under recycled uses for a period of one week. In the same condition, CA-TR showed poor performance from the beginning, and could not be used for digestion at all after a few usages. The enzyme coating approach is anticipated to be successfully employed not only for protein digestion in proteomic analysis, but also for various other fields where the poor enzyme stability presently hampers the practical applications of enzymes.

  10. Evaluation of digestible protein and energy in juvenile Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digestible protein to digestible energy ratio, and minimal digestible protein for maximum growth, efficiency, and nitrogen gain of juvenile Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus were determined. During a 10-week trial Florida pompano (6.3±0.50 g) were fed one of twelve diets formulated with an arra...

  11. Enzyme-friendly, mass spectrometry-compatible surfactant for in-solution enzymatic digestion of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Qing; Gilar, Martin; Lee, Peter J; Bouvier, Edouard S P; Gebler, John C

    2003-11-01

    Improved in-solution tryptic digestion of proteins in terms of speed and peptide coverage was achieved with the aid of a novel acid-labile anionic surfactant (ALS). Unlike SDS, ALS solubilizes proteins without inhibiting trypsin or other common endopeptidases activity. Trypsin activity was evaluated in the presence of various denaturants; little or no decrease in proteolytic activity was observed in 0.1-1% ALS solutions (w/v). Sample preparation prior to mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography analysis consists of sample acidification. ALS degrades rapidly at low-pH conditions, which eliminates surfactant-caused interference with analysis. Described methodology combines the advantages of protein solubilization, rapid digestion, high peptide coverages, and easy sample preparation for mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography analyses. PMID:14588046

  12. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis : Quantitative assessment of protein digestion protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mass spectrometry-based protein quantification studies uses peptide-centric analytical methods and thus strongly relies on efficient and unbiased protein digestion protocols for sample preparation. We present a novel objective approach to assess protein digestion efficiency using a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein fractions. We evaluated nine trypsin-based digestion protocols, based on standard in-solution or on spin filter-aided digestion, including new optimized protocols. We investigated various reagents for protein solubilization and denaturation (dodecyl sulfate, deoxycholate, urea), several trypsin digestion conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows for efficient, unbiased generation and recovery of peptides from all protein classes, including membrane proteins. This deoxycholate-assisted protocol was also optimal for spin filter-aided digestions as compared to existing methods.

  13. Microwave-assisted Protein Digestion on Various Locations of a Microplate

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongkwon Kim; Jangmi Hong; Kyu Hwan Park; Hyun Sik Kim; Ji-hye Lee; Sehwan Park; Sunyoung Lee

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of microwave-assisted protein digestion in different well positions of a 96-well microplate wasinvestigated where microwave-assisted protein digestion of bovine serum albumin was performed in 10 different wells of a 96-wellmicroplate in a microwave oven. Similarly increased sequence coverages (~70%) were generally observed for the 10 microwaveassistedprotein digestion samples compared to conventional overnight digestion (63%), which is possibly due to higher miscleavageratio...

  14. Microbial delignification with white rot fungi improves forage digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D E; Sethuraman, A; Morrison, W H; Martin, S A; Eriksson, K E

    1993-12-01

    Three wild-type white rot fungi and two cellulase-less mutants developed from Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3 (formerly Sporotrichum pulverulentum) were tested for their ability to delignify grass cell walls and improve biodegradation by rumen microorganisms. Fungal-treated and control stems of Bermuda grass were analyzed for their content of ester- and ether-linked aromatics by using alkali extraction and gas chromatography, for in vitro dry weight digestion and production of volatile fatty acids in in vitro fermentations with mixed ruminal microorganisms, for loss of lignin and other aromatics from specific cell wall types by using microspectrophotometry, and for structural changes before and after in vitro degradation by rumen microorganisms by using transmission electron microscopy. P. chrysosporium K-3 and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora FP 90031-sp produced the greatest losses in lignin and improved the biodegradation of Bermuda grass over that of untreated control substrate. However, C. subvermispora removed the most lignin and significantly improved biodegradation over all other treatments. Phellinus pini RAB-83-19 and cellulase-less mutants 3113 and 85118 developed from P. chrysosporium K-3 did not improve the biodegradation of Bermuda grass lignocellulose. Results indicated that C. subvermispora extensively removed ester-linked p-coumaric and ferulic acids and also removed the greatest amount of non-ester-linked aromatics from plant cell walls. Microscopic observations further indicated that C. subvermispora removed esters from parenchyma cell walls as well as esters and lignin from the more recalcitrant cell walls (i.e., sclerenchyma and vascular tissues). C. subvermispora improved in vitro digestion and volatile fatty acid production by ruminal microorganisms by about 80%, while dry matter loss due to fungi was about 20% greater than loss in untreated control stems. The chemical and structural studies used identified sites of specific fungal attack and suggested mechanisms whereby improvement occurred. PMID:16349123

  15. Co-digestion of municipal sewage sludge and solid waste: modelling of carbohydrate, lipid and protein content influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielfa, A; Cano, R; Pérez, A; Fdez-Polanco, M

    2015-03-01

    Solid wastes from industrial, commercial and community activities are of growing concern as the total volume of waste produced continues to increase. The knowledge of the specific composition and characteristics of the waste is an important tool in the correct development of the anaerobic digestion process. The problems derived from the anaerobic digestion of sole substrates with high lipid, carbohydrate or protein content lead to the co-digestion of these substrates with another disposed waste, such as sewage sludge. The kinetic of the anaerobic digestion is especially difficult to explain adequately, although some mathematical models are able to represent the main aspects of a biological system, thus improving understanding of the parameters involved in the process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the experimental biochemical methane potential on the co-digestion of sewage sludge with different solid wastes (grease; spent grain and cow manure) through the implementation of four kinetic models. The co-digestion of grease waste and mixed sludge obtained the best improvements from the sole substrates, with additional positive synergistic effects. The Gompertz model fits the experimental biochemical methane potential to an accuracy of 99%, showing a correlation between the percentage of lipid in the substrates and co-digestions and the period of lag phase. PMID:25698789

  16. Relação lisina digestível: proteína digestível em rações para tilápias-do-nilo / Digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio in diets for Nile tilapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovani Sampaio, Gonçalves; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Leonardo, Tachibana; Maria Julia Santa, Rosa; Igo Gomes, Guimarães.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação lisina digestível:proteína digestível em rações para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo. As tilápias (11,0 ± 0,43 g) foram distribuídas em 36 aquários (250 litros) numa densidade de seis peixes/aquário. Foram formuladas 12 rações com 22,0; 26,0 ou 3 [...] 0,0% de proteína digestível, com base na composição em aminoácidos digestíveis, e 4,5; 6,0; 7,5 ou 9,0% de lisina, em relação à proteína digestível, fornecidas à vontade durante 60 dias. Houve interação significativa dos fatores lisina digestível/proteína digestível para o ganho de peso, uma vez que o aumento dos níveis de lisina em rações com 26,0 e 30,0% de proteína digestível promoveu aumento linear desse parâmetro. Os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com os níveis de 26,0 e 30,0% proteína digestível, que determinaram aumento do consumo diário de proteína digestível. O nível de lisina promoveu redução linear da conversão alimentar e aumento linear da taxa de eficiência proteica. O nível de 26,0% de proteína digestível pode ser utilizado em rações para juvenis de tilápiado-nilo, entretanto essas rações devem ser formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis e relação lisina digestível/proteína digestível de 6,0%. Quando utilizados níveis superiores a 26,0% de proteína digestível, o nível máximo de 7,5% de lisina digestível em relação à proteína digestível melhora o ganho de peso na espécie. Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the best digestible protein/digestible lysine ratio that should be present in feed fed to Nile tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen tilapias (11.0 ± 0.43g) were distributed in 36 fish tanks (205 L) at a density of 6 fish/tank. Twelve feeds were formulated with th [...] ree different digestible protein (DP) levels 22.0; 26.0 and 30.0% (based on digestible amino acids) and four different lysine percentages of 4.5; 6.0; 7.5 or 9.0% in relation to digestible protein. The fish were fed ad libtum during a 60-day period. There was significant effect of the digestible protein and digestible lysine ratio on weight gain, because the increase in lysine levels in feeds with 26 and 30% DP promoted linear increase in this parameter. The best values for feed conversion were obtained at the levels 26 and 30% DP that increased the daily consumption of digestible protein. The lysine level caused a linear reduction in feed conversion and linear increase in the protein efficiency rate. The results suggested that the 26% DP level might be used in ration to feed Nile tilapia juveniles; however, these should contain digestible amino acids and the digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio should be 6.0%. However, for levels higher than 26% DP, a maximum digestible lysine level of 7.5% DP improved weight gain for the species.

  17. Growth of Nile tilapia post-larvae from broodstock fed diet with different levels of digestible protein and digestible energy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silia Maria de Negreiros, Sousa; André, Freccia; Lilian Dena dos, Santos; Fábio, Meurer; Lucélia, Tessaro; Robie Allan, Bombardelli.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different levels of digestible energy and digestible protein in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock on offspring growth during sex reversal stage. A total of 2,700 post-larvae (8.2±0.001 mg) derived from breeders fed nine d [...] iets with distinct levels of digestible protein (28, 34 and 40% DP) and digestible energy (2,800; 3,400; and 4,000 kcal DE.kg-1) were stored in twenty-seven 70 L tanks. After 30 days of growth, their average final weight (AFW, g), average weight gain (AWG, g), final standard length (SL, cm), condition factor (CF), specific growth rate (SGR, %/day), stock uniformity (UNI, %), survival (SUR, %) and sex reversal rate (SRR, %) were measured. Although female nutrition is thought to influence the performance or quality of progeny during early life stages, no influence of diets supplied to broodstock was detected on any parameter. Nonetheless, the offspring presented commercially satisfactory growth rates. Thus, diets containing 28% of digestible protein and 2,800 kcal of digestible energy.kg of diet-1 can be used to feed Nile tilapia broodstock without jeopardizing offspring performance during the sex reversal phase.

  18. Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magalli Costa Barbosa, Lima e Silva; Priscila Aiko, Hiane; José Antônio, Braga Neto; Maria Ligia Rodrigues, Macedo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart.) is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional [...] factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein), tests (bacuri almond flours) and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV), (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds) when compared to the control group (92.3%). The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

  19. Changes in Total Protein Digestibility, Fractions Content and Structure During Cooking of Lentil Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Mashair A. Sulieman; Amro B. Hassan; Gamaa A. Osman; Mohamed M. El Tyeb; Elhadi A.I. El Khalil; Abdullahi H. El Tinay; Elfadil E. Babiker

    2008-01-01

    The effect of cooking on total protein digestibility and fractions content and structure of lentil cultivars was investigated. Cooking significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the protein digestibility using pepsin and/or pancreatin. Pepsin digestibility of raw seeds ranged from 44.6 to 52.1% and that of both pepsin and pancreatin ranged from 81.8 to 99.9%. Cooking reduced the protein digestibility of the cultivars and was found to be range from 22.3 to 19.7% when pepsin was used and ranged from 77.1...

  20. The role of protein digestibility and antacids on food allergy outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Untersmayr, Eva; Jensen-jarolim, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Digestion assays with simulated gastric fluid have been introduced for characterization of food proteins to imitate the effect of stomach proteolysis on dietary compounds in vitro. By using these tests, dietary proteins can be categorized as digestion-resistant class 1 (true allergens triggering direct oral sensitization) or as labile class 2 allergens (nonsensitizing elicitors). Thus the results of these digestion assays mirror situations of intact gastric proteolysis. Alterations in the gas...

  1. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by exogenous fibrolytic enzymes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.F.J., van de Vyver; B.A., Useni.

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), crude protein (CP) and on the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in sheep of a milled substrate consisting of a 50 : 50 mixture of l [...] ucerne hay (LH) and wheat straw (WS). Four cannulated Döhne-Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two groups in a 2 x 2 cross-over experiment. Additional to the in situ study, the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled LH and WS were determined. The substrate was pre-treated with distilled water (control) or EFE (treatment) 12 hours prior to incubation to allow interaction between the substrate and enzyme. Adding EFE significantly improved the in vitro cumulative gas production (GP), but it did not affect the in vitro MPS measured as purine derivates of the GP residues. The enzyme significantly increased the in vitro DM and NDF disappearances after 36 hours. However, the in situ disappearances of DM, NDF and CP of the roughage mixture were not affected by the EFE. Further, the in situ MPS was increased significantly with the EFE treatment of the mixed substrate. It is concluded that the improved ruminal digestion of DM, NDF and CP is not only due to direct enzyme hydrolysis, but also due to the improvement of MPS.

  2. The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the Venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested to assimilate nutrients as the plants grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about its prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition.

  3. Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C

    2014-07-01

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet potato proteins were incubated with pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin and protein breakdown was visualized with SDS-PAGE. After pepsin digestion, samples were assayed for amylase inhibitory activity. Sporamin, the major storage protein in sweet potatoes, which functions as a trypsin inhibitor as well, exhibited resistance to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Sporamin from blanched peel of orange sweet potatoes was less resistant to pepsin digestion than sporamin from outer peel and from extract of the white-skinned Caiapo sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitory activity remained after simulated gastric digestion, with the Caiapo potato protein and peel samples exhibiting higher inhibitory activity compared to the blanched peel sample. Amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was not present in any of the samples after digestion. PMID:25473492

  4. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula.Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro

  5. In vitro digestion of soluble cashew proteins and characterization of surviving IgE-reactive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability of food allergens to digestion varies; and the ability of food proteins to cause an allergic reaction may be affected by the susceptibility of the allergen to digestion by proteases, including pepsin and trypsin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cashew nut allergens are often a ca...

  6. Histology-directed microwave assisted enzymatic protein digestion for MALDI MS analysis of mammalian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Domenico; Norris, Jeremy L; Caprioli, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    This study presents on-tissue proteolytic digestion using a microwave irradiation and peptide extraction method for in situ analysis of proteins from spatially defined regions of a tissue section. The methodology utilizes hydrogel discs (1 mm diameter) embedded with trypsin solution. The enzyme-laced hydrogel discs are applied to a tissue section, directing enzymatic digestion to a spatially confined area of the tissue. By applying microwave radiation, protein digestion is performed in 2 min on-tissue, and the extracted peptides are then analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The reliability and reproducibility of the microwave assisted hydrogel mediated on-tissue digestion is demonstrated by the comparison with other on-tissue digestion strategies, including comparisons with conventional heating and in-solution digestion. LC-MS/MS data were evaluated considering the number of identified proteins as well as the number of protein groups and distinct peptides. The results of this study demonstrate that rapid and reliable protein digestion can be performed on a single thin tissue section while preserving the relationship between the molecular information obtained and the tissue architecture, and the resulting peptides can be extracted in sufficient abundance to permit analysis using LC-MS/MS. This approach will be most useful for samples that have limited availability but are needed for multiple analyses, especially for the correlation of proteomics data with histology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:25427280

  7. FRACTIONATION OF DIGESTIVE PROTEINASES FROM TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) LARVAE AND ROLE IN PROTEIN DIGESTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases were purified and characterized by gel filtration chromatography combined with activity electrophoresis. Cysteine proteinases, consisting of at least six distinct activities, were found in three chromatographic peaks in anterior and posterior midgut chro...

  8. Influence of protein type on oxidation and digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions: gliadin, caseinate, and whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2015-05-15

    The influence of three surface-active proteins on the oxidative stability and lipase digestibility of emulsified ?-3 oils was examined: deamidated wheat gliadin (gliadin); sodium caseinate (CN); whey protein isolate (WPI). Gliadin and WPI were more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation (hydroperoxides and TBARS) of fish oil-in-water emulsions than CN. Protein oxidation during storage was determined by measuring the loss of tryptophan fluorescence. The CN-emulsions exhibited the highest loss of tryptophan fluorescence during aging, as well as the highest amount of lipid oxidation. Potential reasons for the differences in oxidative stability of the emulsions with different proteins include differences in interfacial film thickness, protein chelating ability, and antioxidant amino acids profiles. During in vitro digestion, gliadin-stabilized emulsions had the lowest digestion rate of the three proteins. These results have important implications for using proteins to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for ?-3 oils. PMID:25577077

  9. Impact of dehulling on the physico-chemical properties and in vitro protein digestion of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Giosafatto, C V L; Masi, P; Mariniello, L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of dehulling on the microstructural, physico-chemical characteristics, and in vitro protein digestion of common bean flours with particular regard to differences between adults and infants. The microstructure of flour samples from undehulled (WB) and manually dehulled (SB) beans, observed through scanning electron microscopy, showed that WB starch granules appeared to be surrounded by an integral matrix, while the SB starch granule structure was still visible although covered by protein clusters. The starch granules were oval and spherical, with heterogeneous sizes ranging from 19 to 30 ?m in diameter. Particle size analysis determined with a laser diffraction particle size analyzer showed similar bimodal particle size distributions of small (1-25 ?m) and large (>100 ?m) granules, though the particle size of WB was obviously higher than SB. Color and other physico-chemical analyses showed that dehulling had significant (P vitro gastric and duodenal digestion experiments carried out under physiological conditions showed that the SB samples are more likely to be digested by infants. From our results, it is possible to conclude that the dehulling process improves bean flour protein digestion which could be utilized in various food applications. PMID:25778680

  10. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected. PMID:14641959

  11. Tube-Gel Digestion: A NOVEL PROTEOMIC APPROACH FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF MEMBRANE PROTEINS*S

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaoning; Zhu, Haining

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a new protein digestion protocol in which a variety of detergents can be used to solubilize membrane proteins and facilitate trypsin digestion with higher efficiency. In this protocol, proteins are dissolved in solutions containing various detergents and directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide gel matrix without electrophoresis. Detergents are subsequently eliminated from the gel matrix while proteins are still immobilized in the gel matrix. After in-gel digestion of ...

  12. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TSadded was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TSadded and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TSadded were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  13. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3 d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility

  14. Tracking the fate of pasta (T. Durum semolina) immunogenic proteins by in vitro simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mackie, Alan

    2015-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the celiacogenic/immunogenic proteins and peptides released during digestion of pasta (Triticum durum semolina). Cooked pasta was digested using a harmonized in vitro static model of oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. The course of pasta protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE, and gluten proteins were specifically analyzed by Western blot using sera of celiac patients. Among the allergens, nonspecific lipid-transfer protein was highly resistant to gastro-duodenal hydrolysis, while other digestion-stable allergens such as ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were not detected being totally released in the pasta cooking water. To simulate the final stage of intestinal degradation, the gastro-duodenal digesta were incubated with porcine jejunal brush-border membrane hydrolases. Sixty-one peptides surviving the brush-border membrane peptidases were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including several gluten-derived sequences encrypting different motifs responsible for the induction of celiac disease. These results provide new insights into the persistence of wheat-derived peptides during digestion of cooked pasta samples. PMID:25682706

  15. Assessment of enzymatic efficiency on protein digestion in the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscanga, A; Moyano, F J; Alvarez, C A

    2010-12-01

    The present study develops an experimental procedure aimed to estimate the efficiency of protein digestion in fish by measuring both gut transit rate and total amount of the main intestinal proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin). The selected species was the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Total time for digestion, calculated through the estimation of gut transit rate using differently colored feeds, was 7.15 h. Mean production of trypsin and chymotrypsin was 15.94 and 24.11 mU in the proximal intestine and much lower (2,39, 4.90 mU) in the distal intestine. The enzyme efficiency, calculated from the average enzyme activity and time of residence of the digesta in each intestinal section, points to the major role of proximal intestine in protein digestion for this species. Results are discussed in relation to the main features characterizing digestion in stomachless fish. PMID:20306330

  16. Facile Trypsin Immobilization in Polymeric Membranes for Rapid, Efficient Protein Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Wei-han; Tan, Yu-jing; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2010-01-01

    Sequential adsorption of poly(styrene sulfonate) and trypsin in nylon membranes provides a simple, inexpensive method to create stable, microporous reactors for fast protein digestion. The high local trypsin concentration and short radial diffusion distances in membrane pores facilitate proteolysis in residence times of a few seconds, and the minimal pressure drop across the thin membranes allows their use in syringe filters. Membrane digestion and subsequent MS analysis of bovine serum album...

  17. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  18. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, G V; Jensen, B B; Bach Knudsen, K E; Canibe, N

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating prices of cereals have led to an interest in alternative ingredients for feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation and the addition of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients of a diet based on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of ?-glucanase + xylanase + pectinase (FLF+Enz). The FLF was prepared by mixing feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) and, once daily, replacing 50% of the mixture with an equal amount of fresh feed and water. The diets were fed to 8 ileal cannulated barrows in a double Latin square design. Ileal digesta and feces were collected after an adaption period of 10 d. Results showed microbiologically good-quality fermented diets. The levels of Enterobacteriaceae were 5.1 to 5.4 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the ileum and 5.1 to 5.2 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the feces. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP was increased by fermentation (73.2% in FLF vs. 69.0% in nFLF; = 0.033), and digestibility of P showed a tendency ( = 0.073) toward an increase. Addition of the enzyme mixture resulted in a pronounced reduction of dietary NSP compared with FLF (12.8% total NSP in FLF+Enz vs. 15.9% total NSP in FLF; < 0.001), which also led to increased apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total and insoluble NSP (total NSP, 31.1% in FLF+Enz vs. 13.6% in FLF; = 0.002). The Control did not, in general, show higher digestibility values than the experimental diet. However, in the cases were it did, fermentation and enzyme addition brought the digestibility to the level of the Control. In conclusion, fermentation increased the ATTD of CP and the AID of P, with the same tendency ( ? 0.07) for the ATTD. Addition of NSP-degrading enzymes resulted in a pronounced reduction in the concentration of NSP in the feed along with increased AID of NSP. Hence, the experimental diet seems to be a possible alternative to a traditional diet for pigs. PMID:26020320

  19. Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J.; Heaven, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the...

  20. Genetic variation and breeding strategies for improved cell wall digestibility in annual forage crops. A review

    OpenAIRE

    BARRIÈRE, Yves; Guillet, Carine; Goffner, Deborah; Pichon, Magalie

    2003-01-01

    Forage plants are the basis of ruminant nutrition, and cell wall digestibility is the limiting factor of their feeding value. Cell wall digestibility is therefore "the" target for improving the feeding value of forage crops. Among annual forages, maize cropped for silage making is the most widely used, and much research in genetics, physiology and molecular biology of annual forages is devoted to maize. Sorghum, immature small grain cereals and straws of small grain cereals are also given to ...

  1. Enrichment and desalting of tryptic protein digests and the protein depletion using boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Protein tryptic digests were desalted and enriched utilizing hexagonal boron nitride. • Phosphopeptides were desalted with high recovery rates. • Boron nitride exhibits high wettability allowing fast sample preparation. • Boron nitride shows protein depletion capability applied for peptide purification. - Abstract: Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in modern bioanalysis and the interest in new efficient solid phase extraction (SPE) materials still remains high. In this work, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is introduced as a new SPE material for the isolation and enrichment of peptides. The h-BN is isoelectronic and structurally similar to graphite. It has remarkable properties including good thermal conductivity, excellent thermal and chemical stability and a better oxidation resistance than graphite. BN attracts increasing interest because of its wide range of applicability. In the present work, the great potential of h-BN, as a new SPE-material, on the enrichment, preconcentration and desalting of tryptic digest of model proteins is demonstrated. A special attention was dedicated to the efficient enrichment of hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Two elution protocols were developed for the enrichment of peptides compatible for subsequent MALDI-MS and ESI-MS analysis. In addition, the recoveries of 5 peptides and 3 phosphopeptides with wide range of pI values utilizing h-BN materials with different surface areas were investigated. 84 106% recovery rate could be achieved using h-BN materials. The results were compared with those obtained using graphite and silica C18 under the same elution conditions, and lower recoveries were obtained. In addition, h-BN was found to have a capability of protein depletion, which is requisite for the peptide profiling

  2. Enrichment and desalting of tryptic protein digests and the protein depletion using boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischnaller, Martin; Köck, Rainer; Bakry, Rania, E-mail: rania.bakry@uibk.ac.at; Bonn, Günther K.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Protein tryptic digests were desalted and enriched utilizing hexagonal boron nitride. • Phosphopeptides were desalted with high recovery rates. • Boron nitride exhibits high wettability allowing fast sample preparation. • Boron nitride shows protein depletion capability applied for peptide purification. - Abstract: Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in modern bioanalysis and the interest in new efficient solid phase extraction (SPE) materials still remains high. In this work, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is introduced as a new SPE material for the isolation and enrichment of peptides. The h-BN is isoelectronic and structurally similar to graphite. It has remarkable properties including good thermal conductivity, excellent thermal and chemical stability and a better oxidation resistance than graphite. BN attracts increasing interest because of its wide range of applicability. In the present work, the great potential of h-BN, as a new SPE-material, on the enrichment, preconcentration and desalting of tryptic digest of model proteins is demonstrated. A special attention was dedicated to the efficient enrichment of hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Two elution protocols were developed for the enrichment of peptides compatible for subsequent MALDI-MS and ESI-MS analysis. In addition, the recoveries of 5 peptides and 3 phosphopeptides with wide range of pI values utilizing h-BN materials with different surface areas were investigated. 84–106% recovery rate could be achieved using h-BN materials. The results were compared with those obtained using graphite and silica C18 under the same elution conditions, and lower recoveries were obtained. In addition, h-BN was found to have a capability of protein depletion, which is requisite for the peptide profiling.

  3. Ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility in blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) fed extruded diets containing different protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhile, Stine G; Skrede, Anders; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Szymeczko, Roman; Hove, Knut

    2005-02-01

    This study compared apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of macronutrients and amino acids in blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) fed dry extruded diets. The control diet contained fish meal as the main protein source, while in the other diets 50% of the fish meal protein was replaced by not de-hulled solvent-extracted soybean meal, meat meal or bacterial protein meal. Ileal digestibility was obtained with animals modified with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA method). There were no significant differences in the average digestibility of CP, Lys, Trp, Val, Ala or Glu between IRA modified and intact animals. Average ileal digestibilities of His, Thr, Asp, Cys, Gly, Hyp, Pro, Ser, starch and total carbohydrates (CHO) were significantly lower compared with total tract values. Average ileal digestibility of Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Tyr and crude fat was significantly higher than total tract digestibility. Digestibility measured in IRA modified animals showed less variability compared with values from intact animals. There were significant differences among diets in ileal as well as total tract digestibility of orude protein, most amino acids, starch and CHO, and in ileal digestibility of crude fat. Ileal crude protein digestibility of the diets ranged from 81.0-86.4% and total tract digestibility from 82.5-86.4%. Ileal amino acid digestibilities ranged from 70.1 (Asp) to 93.3% (Arg) and total tract values ranged from 72.8 (Cys) to 92.2% (Arg). Both ileal and total tract digestibilities of crude protein and most amino acids were significantly lower for diets containing meat meal or bacterial protein meal compared with the control fish meal-based diet and the diet with soybean meal. Although ileal digestibility may be more accurate than total tract digestibility in estimating the protein and amino acid supply in blue foxes, total tract digestibility may be acceptable because of numerically small differences between ileal and total tract digestibilities for protein and most amino acids. It was further concluded that ileal digestibilities of starch and CHO in the blue fox are lower than corresponding total tract digestibilities. PMID:15889653

  4. Accelerated enzymatic digestion for the analysis of plant proteins.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dy?ka, Filip; Bobá?, P.; Bobálová, Janette

    2011. P211. [Advances in Metabolic Profiling & Mass Spec Europe /3./. 08.11.2011-09.11.2011, Dublin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ?R IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ultrasonic * infrared * digestion Subject RIV: CB - Analy tical Chemistry, Separation

  5. Modelling of pepsin digestibility of myofibrillar proteins and of variations due to heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Daudin, Jean-Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2015-04-01

    Digestibility of myofibrillar proteins by pepsin was determined by in vitro trials and mathematical modelling. A primary model was developed to predict in vitro digestion kinetics, and a secondary model based on the mechanisms of protein denaturation was then added to take into account the effect of meat heating. Model predictions agreed with measurements in the pH and pepsin concentration ranges 1.8-3.8 and 6-50 U mg(-1) respectively. The utility of the model is illustrated by a simple example where meat is assumed to be heated homogeneously, and myofibrillar proteins to be directly in contact with pepsin. The combined effects of heating time, temperature, enzyme concentration and pH modified the digestibility value, which also depends on residence time in the stomach. PMID:25442553

  6. Effect of cooking on in vitro digestion of pork proteins: a peptidomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Li; Xu, Xinglian; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-01-14

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of cooking on in vitro digestibility and peptide profiling of pork protein. We simulated gastrointestinal digestion of cooked pork that was treated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin treatment. Digested products were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses. Cooking led to a reduction (p < 0.05) in digestibility and band intensities on sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. Peptide profiling and identification analyses also showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the m/z ranges and number of peptides from the pepsin-digested products between raw (4 °C) and very well done samples (100 °C). Peptides sequenced from pepsin-digested samples under lower degrees of doneness disappeared as the temperature increased. Meanwhile, the trypsin cleavages appeared more consistent among different degrees of cooking. Further work may be needed to evaluate the bioavailability of the digested products under different cooking temperatures. PMID:25420116

  7. Ostrich (Strutio camelus) meat protein quality and digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ls, Reis; Tc, Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-free diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR), net protein utili...

  8. Quantifying raft proteins in neonatal mouse brain by 'tube-gel' protein digestion label-free shotgun proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tint G Stephen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low concentration and highly hydrophobic nature of proteins in lipid raft samples present significant challenges for the sensitive and accurate proteomic analyses of lipid raft proteins. Elimination of highly enriched lipids and interfering substances from raft samples is generally required before mass spectrometric analyses can be performed, but these procedures often lead to excessive protein loss and increased sample variability. For accurate analyses of the raft proteome, simplified protocols are needed to avoid excessive sample handling and purification steps. Results We have devised a simple protocol using a 'tube-gel' protein digestion that, when combined with mass spectrometry, can be used to obtain comprehensive and reproducible identification and quantitation of the lipid raft proteome prepared from neonatal mouse brain. Lipid rafts (detergent-resistant membranes using Triton X-100 extraction prepared from neonatal mouse brain were directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide tube-gel matrix without prior protein separation. After in-gel digestion of proteins, nanospray LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the extracted peptides, and the resulting spectra were searched to identify the proteins present in the sample. Using the standard 'label-free' proteomics approach, the total number of MS/MS spectra for the identified proteins was used to provide a measure of relative protein abundances. This approach was successfully applied to lipid rafts prepared from neonatal mouse brain. A total of 216 proteins were identified: 127 proteins (58.8% were predicted to be membrane proteins, or membrane-associated proteins and 175 proteins (~80% showed less than a 2-fold variation in the relative abundance in replicate samples. Conclusion The tube-gel protein digestion protocol coupled with nanospray LC-MS/MS (TubeGeLC-MS/MS offers a simple and reproducible method for identifying and quantifying the changes of relative abundances in lipid raft proteins from neonatal mouse brain and could become a useful approach for studying lipid raft proteins from various tissues.

  9. Comparison of digestion protocols for microgram quantities of enriched protein samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervey, W Judson; Strader, Michael Brad; Hurst, Gregory B

    2007-08-01

    Standard biochemical techniques that are used for protein enrichments, such as affinity isolation and density gradient centrifugation, frequently yield high-nanogram to low-microgram quantities at a significant expenditure of resources and time. The characterization of selected protein enrichments by the "shotgun" mass spectrometry approach is often compromised by the lack of effective and efficient in-solution proteolysis protocols specifically tailored for these small quantities of proteins. This study compares the results of five different digestion protocols that were applied to 2.5 mug portions of protein isolates from two disparate sources: Rhodopseudomonas palustris 70S ribosomal proteins, and Bos taurus microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Proteolytic peptides produced according to each protocol in each type of protein isolate were analyzed by one-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effectiveness of each digestion protocol was assessed on the basis of three parameters: number of peptide identifications, number of protein identifications, and sequence coverage. The two protocols using a solvent containing 80% acetonitrile (CH3CN) for trypsin digestions performed as well as, and in some instances better than, protocols employing other solvents and chaotropes in both types of protein isolates. A primary advantage of the 80% CH3CN protocol is that it requires fewer sample manipulation steps. PMID:17616116

  10. Comparison of Digestion Protocols for Microgram Quantities of Enriched Protein Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Strader, Michael B [ORNL; Strader, Michael Brad [National Institutes of Health; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Standard biochemical techniques that are used for protein enrichments, such as affinity isolation and density gradient centrifugation, frequently yield high nanogram to low microgram quantities at a significant expenditure of resources and time. The characterization of selected protein enrichments by the "shotgun" mass spectrometry approach is often compromised by the lack of effective and efficient in-solution proteolysis protocols specifically tailored for these small quantities of proteins. This study compares the results of five different digestion protocols that were applied to 2.5 g portions of protein isolates from two disparate sources: Rhodopseudomonas palustris 70S ribosomal proteins, and Bos taurus microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Proteolytic peptides produced according to each protocol in each type of protein isolate were analyzed by one-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effectiveness of each digestion protocol was assessed on the basis of three parameters: number of peptide identifications, number of protein identifications, and sequence coverage. The two protocols using a solvent containing 80% acetonitrile (CH3CN) for trypsin digestions performed as well as, and in some instances better than, protocols employing other solvents and chaotropes in both types of protein isolates. A primary advantage of the 80% CH3CN protocol is that it requires fewer sample manipulation steps.

  11. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the strongest inhibitor. Mercuric chloride was also administered to rats in vivo for 5 to 8 months. Renal lysosomal enzymes from these animals also had a decreased ability to digest the two substrate proteins. Furthermore, the digestion of lysozyme intravenously injected into mercury-intoxicated rats was decreased in renal cortical slices incubated in vitro. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that intravenously injected labeled lysozyme was located primarily over lysosomes in proximal tubule cells 1 hour after injection in both control animals and mercury-intoxicated rats. These results suggest a decreased catabolism of low molecular weight proteins in the kidney during chronic mercury intoxication

  12. Effects of dietary digestible lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in the carcass of broilers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F de C, Tavernari; CB, Buteri; HS, Rostagno; LFT, Albino.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in the diets of male and female broilers on protein and fat deposition. A total of 2160 Avian Farms broilers. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, and treatments consisted of the effect [...] s of three digestible lysine levels nested within each sex, with 12 replicates and 30 birds per experimental unit. The adopted digestible lysine levels corresponded to 92.5, 100.0, and 107.5% of the nutritional requirements of phases 1 to 21 days, 22 to 42 days, and 43 to 56 days of age, respectively. In each phase, the experimental diets contained similar calorie and protein levels within each sex. No significant effects of lysine levels were found on dry matter and fat percentages in the carcass of birds during the evaluated periods. Also, there were no significant effects of lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in males or females. However, males presented higher protein deposition and lower fat deposition than females during the total experimental period. Gompertz equations showed that females deposit more fat and less protein than males, and that this affected the fall in the curve of protein deposition, when the curve of fat deposition was still rising. Therefore, it was concluded that the older the broilers at slaughter, the higher their body fat content and the lower their body protein content, particularly in females.

  13. Cell surface molecules and fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion: effect of proteolytic digestion of membrane proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Comoglio, Paolo; TARONE, Guido

    1982-01-01

    Proteases have been used as a tool to investigate the role of surface molecules in fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Proteolytic digestion of membrane-proteins by pronase (1 mg/ml for 20 min at 37 degrees C) completely inhibited adhesion of baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts on fibronectin-coated plastic dishes. Various degrees of inhibition were also obtained after treatment with proteinase K, chymotrypsin, papain, subtilopeptidase A, and thermolysin. Protein synthesis was required to r...

  14. Collaborative Peer Review. The Role of Faculty in Improving College Teaching. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keig, Larry; Waggoner, Michael D.

    This digest, based on a full report of the same title, provides an examination of the improvement of college teaching and argues for the central involvement of faculty themselves in collaborative peer review and looks at some central issues and challenges to implementation. Since summative evaluation involved in tenure and promotion decisions…

  15. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Goat’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards goat’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male goats, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg,  coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P0.05 among crude protein and TDN treatments. Different energy and protein ration treatments caused different DM and OM intake but were not cause different in DM and OM digestibility. Based on the research results, a study on the effects of different ration’s energy and protein ratio towards N efficiency should be conducted in order to increase cattle productivity.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.76-79[How to cite this article: Mawati, S.,  Soedarsono, S., Sunarso, S. & Purnomoadi, A. (2013. The Effects of Different Energy and Ratio to Goat’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility. International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,76-79. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.76-79

  16. Protein evaluation of dog food using mink (Neovison vison) as a model for ileal protein digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Badina, Abudurasak Ige

    2012-01-01

    Dog owners pay lot of attention on providing proper nutrition to their dog that will support longevity and good health. Great effort is therefore made by feed producers concerning information about nutritional quality of dog food ingredients and at to what extent they cover the nutritional requirement of dogs at different life stages. Protein and amino acid content and utilization is of great importance in the evaluation of pet food ingredients. A key factor in protein utilization is digest...

  17. Effects of pressure toasting on in situ degradability and intestinal protein and protein-free organic matter digestibility of rapeseed

    OpenAIRE

    Azarfar, A.; Ferreira, C.; Goelema, J. O.; Poel, A. F. B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapeseed is a protein supplement that contains up to 40% crude protein (CP) on a dry matter (DM) basis, but a large part of its protein can be easily degraded in the rumen. Therefore, before inclusion in ruminant's diet, the extent of its protein degradation in the rumen must be reduced without altering its intestinal digestibility. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of pressure toasting (T, 130 °C) at two residence times (1.5 and 10min) alone or in combination with...

  18. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  19. Recycling of waste oyster shell for improvement in digested sludge dewaterability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ho; Shim, Eun Gi; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kwak, Chul; Park, In Soo; Hwang, Young Gi [Division of Fine Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine applicability of waste oyster shells as conditioning agent, to determine the optimum conditions for improving digested sludge dewaterability and to compare with CaCO{sub 3}. If waste oyster shells were used as conditioning agent for dewatering digested sludge, it estimated that the optimum conditions were dosage 30 g/L, particle size 10 mesh, temp. 30 degree C, pH 7 and dewatering pressure 2.66 * 10{sup 4} N/m{sup 2}. On teh basis of induced optimum conditions, its specific resistance was 1.33 * 10{sup 12} m/kg of addomg waste oyster shells in digested sludge and was low about 2.8 times than raw digested sludge 3.74 * 101{sup 2} m/kg. But, it was almost similar to 1.24 * 10{sup 12} m/kg, if adding CaCO{sub 3} in digested sludge. Therefore, in view of waste recycling, it seemed that we could utilize waste containing analogy composition with waste oyster shells. 20 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Comparison of Chemical Composition and Protein Digestibility, Carotenoids, Tanins and Alkaloids Content of Wild Lupinus Varieties Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Yanez-Fernandez; Juan F. Hernandez-Chavez; Jorge Martinez-Herrera; Norma Guemes-Vera; Alfonso Totosaus

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, carotenoids, tannins, quinolizidine alkaloids and in vitro protein digestibility were determined in flours of two wild lupines seeds recollected at central region of Mexico. Varieties identified as Lupinus barkeri and Lupinus montanus were compared with a domesticated cultivated Lupinus albus crop. Although total protein content resulted significantly (p0.05) difference were found in in vitro protein digestibility. Ash and crude fiber contents were significantly (p

  1. Should digestion assays be used to estimate persistence of potential allergens in tests for safety of novel food proteins?

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Rod A; Schnell Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Food allergies affect an estimated 3 to 4% of adults and up to 8% of children in developed western countries. Results from in vitro simulated gastric digestion studies with purified proteins are routinely used to assess the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. The digestion of purified proteins in simulated gastric fluid typically progresses in an exponential fashion allowing persistence to be quantified using pseudo-first-order rate constants or half lives. However, the pers...

  2. Preparation of high efficiency and low carry-over immobilized enzymatic reactor with methacrylic acid-silica hybrid monolith as matrix for on-line protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huiming; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a novel kind of organic-silica hybrid monolith based immobilized enzymatic reactor (IMER) was developed. The monolithic support was prepared by a single step "one-pot" strategy via the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane and vinyltrimethoxysilane and in situ copolymerization of methacrylic acid and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes with ammonium persulfate as the thermal initiator. Subsequently, the monolith was activated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) - N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), followed by the modification of branched polyethylenimine (PEI) to improve the hydrophilicity. Finally, after activated by EDC and NHS, trypsin was covalently immobilized onto the monolithic support. The performance of such a microreactor was evaluated by the in sequence digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin, followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Compared to those obtained by traditional in-solution digestion, not only higher sequence coverages for BSA (74±1.4% vs. 59.5±2.7%, n=6) and myoglobin (93±3% vs. 81±4.5%, n=6) were obtained, but also the digestion time was shortened from 24h to 2.5 min, demonstrating the high digestion efficiency of such an IMER. The carry-over of these two proteins on the IMER was investigated, and peptides from BSA could not be found in mass spectrum of myoglobin digests, attributed to the good hydrophilicity of our developed monolithic support. Moreover, the dynamic concentration range for protein digestion was proved to be four orders of magnitude, and the IMER could endure at least 7-day consecutive usage. Furthermore, such an IMER was coupled with nano-RPLC-ESI/MS/MS for the analysis of extracted proteins from Escherichia coli. Compared to formerly reported silica hybrid monolith based IMER and the traditional in-solution counterpart, by our developed IMER, although the identified protein number was similar, the identified distinct peptide number was improved by 7% and 25% respectively, beneficial to improve the reliability of protein identification. The IMER was further online integrated with two-dimensional nano-HPLC-MS/MS system for the analysis of protein extracts from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with low metastasis rate, and more than 3000 protein groups were identified, with only 46 proteins identified from the residues of the IMER. All these results demonstrated that such a hybrid monolith based IMER would be of great promise in the high throughput and high confidence proteome analysis. PMID:25456586

  3. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... August 2013 Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development ... pigmentation loss associated with the skin disorder in mice, according to recent research funded by the NIH’s ...

  4. Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.

  5. Digestibility and structural properties of thermal and high hydrostatic pressure treated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minjie; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed the effects of thermal (40, 60, 80, 100 and 127 °C) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 200, 400 and 600 MPa) treatments on the in vitro digestibility and structural properties of sweet potato protein (SPP). The results showed that the in vitro digestibility of SPP increased significantly with increasing heating temperature and heating time (0-60 min), while HHP treatment had little or no effect. Native SPP denaturation temperature (T d ) and enthalpy change (?H) were 89.0 °C and 9.6 J/g, respectively. Thermal and HHP treated SPP had T d of 84.6-88.9 °C and 86.4-87.6 °C, respectively. ?H of thermal treated SPP was 3.6-6.4 J/g, while that of HHP treated SPP was 5.9-7.8 J/g. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that HHP and thermal treatments both significantly reduced SPP thermodynamic stability. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that native SPP contains ?-helixes, ?-sheets and random coils (4.3, 48.0 and 47.7%, respectively). After thermal treatment at 127 °C for 20 min, the content of ?-helixes and turns increased significantly (13.2 and 27.6%, respectively), whereas the content of ?-sheets decreased significantly (12.3%). In contrast, HHP treatment increased the content of ?-sheets, but decreased the content of random coils. This study suggested that the SPP structure changes might be the main reason affecting the in vitro digestibility of SPP, and thermal treatment was more effective at changing SPP secondary structures and improving in vitro SPP digestibility than HHP treatment. PMID:24913513

  6. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of carbohydrate and protein-based wastewaters in fluidized bed bioreactors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Fuentes; N. J., Scenna; P. A., Aguirre; M. C., Mussati.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on evaluating the anaerobic digestion of complex substrates (proteins and carbohydrates) in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs). In a previous paper, an AFBR model was adjusted using only the experimental data obtained during the acclimatization stage (glucose and ac [...] etate-based feeding) of two mesophilic bioreactors. Here, the sensitivity of that model to represent the digestion processes of proteins such as gelatin and albumin, and sucrose as a carbohydrate, is analyzed. Some kinetic expressions and parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis processes need to be modified to represent the real behavior of bioreactors. Under the analyzed operating conditions, a hydraulic retention time higher than 1 day is suggested to ensure good system efficiency.

  8. Identification of barley proteins from in-gel digests by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ehulka, Pavel; Chmelík, Josef; Allmaier, G.

    Budapest : Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2001, s. 136. [Informal Meeting on Mass Spec trometry /19./. Noszvaj (HU), 29.04.2001-03.05.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 230; GA ?R GA521/99/1576 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : barley proteins * in-gel digest * MALDI-TOF MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separat ion

  9. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Covalent Chromatography after Derivatization of Protein Digests Immobilized on Reversed-Phase Supports

    OpenAIRE

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed ?-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithiopro...

  10. Evaluation of digestible energy and protein for growth and nitrogen retention in juvenile Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Florida pompano (6.3±0.50 g) were fed one of twelve diets formulated with an array of crude protein (340, 380, 420, 480, or 500 g/kg diet) and crude lipid (60, 100, 120, 160 or 180 g/kg diet) levels and estimated digestible protein/digestible energy (DP/DE) of 18.9 to 26.8 mg/kJ. In a seco...

  11. The effect of physiological conditions on the surface structure of proteins: Setting the scene for human digestion of emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Valderrama, J.; Gunning, A. P.; Ridout, M. J.; Wilde, P. J.; Morris, V. J.

    2009-10-01

    Understanding and manipulating the interfacial mechanisms that control human digestion of food emulsions is a crucial step towards improved control of dietary intake. This article reports initial studies on the effects of the physiological conditions within the stomach on the properties of the film formed by the milk protein ( ? -lactoglobulin) at the air-water interface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface tension and surface rheology techniques were used to visualize and examine the effect of gastric conditions on the network structure. The effects of changes in temperature, pH and ionic strength on a pre-formed interfacial structure were characterized in order to simulate the actual digestion process. Changes in ionic strength had little effect on the surface properties. In isolation, acidification reduced both the dilatational and the surface shear modulus, mainly due to strong repulsive electrostatic interactions within the surface layer and raising the temperature to body temperature accelerated the rearrangements within the surface layer, resulting in a decrease of the dilatational response and an increase of surface pressure. Together pH and temperature display an unexpected synergism, independent of the ionic strength. Thus, exposure of a pre-formed interfacial ? -lactoglobulin film to simulated gastric conditions reduced the surface dilatational modulus and surface shear moduli. This is attributed to a weakening of the surface network in which the surface rearrangements of the protein prior to exposure to gastric conditions might play a crucial role.

  12. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  13. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Goat’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Mawati; S. Soedarsono; S. Sunarso; Agung Purnomoadi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep�s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep�s, 6 � 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78%) were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component...

  14. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheepâ??s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Purnomoadi; Sunarso, S.; Soedarsono, S.; Sri Mawati

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep�s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep�s, 6 � 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78%) were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content...

  15. The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve anaerobic digestion of activated sludge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Machnicka; K, Gr& #369; bel; J, Suschka.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracellular and extracellular components are set free and are immediately availabl [...] e for biological degradation which leads to an improvement of the subsequent anaerobic process. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge results in organic matter and a polymer transfer from the solid phase to the liquid phase, and an increase in COD value of 284 mg??-1 was observed, i.e. from 42 mg??-1 to 326 mg??-1. In addition the degree of disintegration changed from 14% after 15 min disintegration to 54% after 90 min of disintegration. A disruption of bacterial cells by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. The cells of the activated sludge micro-organisms rupture and addition to the digestion process leads to increased biogas production. The hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge leads to a higher degree of degradation and higher biogas production. Adding the disintegrated sludge (10%, 20% and 30% of volume) to fermentation processes resulted in an improvement in biogas production of about 22%, 95% and 131% respectively.

  16. Comparison of metabolic rates and feed nutrient digestibility in conventional, genetically improved (GIFT) and genetically male (GMNT) Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Shamsuddin Mohammed; Focken, Ulfert; Becker, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    Various aspects of energy metabolism and feed digestibility were evaluated in two reportedly improved strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) namely GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) and GMNT (genetically male Nile tilapia) and compared with those of CNT (conventional Nile tilapia). Fish were stocked individually in a computer-controlled respirometer system at 27+/-0.1 degrees C for 10 weeks. Metabolic rates were measured at three different feeding levels: starved, maintenance (3.0 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) and growth (7.5 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) using a fishmeal based feed containing TiO2 marker (41% crude protein, 9% crude lipid and 19 kJ (g DM)(-1) gross energy). The standard metabolic rate (SMR), measured at the beginning of the experiment (45.4+/-4.6, 52.4+/-7.7 and 46.8+/-4.6 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1) respectively for GIFT, GMNT and CNT), did not differ significantly between the groups (pfeeding level. The specific dynamic action (% offered feed energy) showed no significant differences among the groups. Digestibility coefficients of feed dry matter, protein, lipid and energy for the three tilapia groups also did not differ significantly. Therefore, we concluded that the genetic improvement or modification in the GIFT or GMNT might not upgrade the inherent physiological potential compared to CNT as far as energy metabolism and digestion efficiencies are concerned. PMID:17555997

  17. Protein improvement in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resourcesn of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  18. Ruminal degradation, amino acid composition, and intestinal digestibility of the residual components of five protein supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, H A; Schingoethe, D J; Henson, J E

    1996-09-01

    Two ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (approximately 202 DIM) were used to determine the in situ degradability of five protein supplements: blood meal, meat and bone meal, corn gluten meal, expeller soybean meal, and solvent extracted soybean meal. Dacron bags containing 4 g of each supplement in duplicate were soaked in water and then incubated in the rumen for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h for 3 d. Four extra sample bags of each supplement were incubated in the rumen for 12 h to determine the in vitro intestinal digestibility and AA analysis of the residues. Protein supplements were also analyzed for their AA content. Ruminal degradability of individual supplements varied. Solvent soybean meal was the most degradable, and blood meal was the least degradable. Specific first-limiting essential AA were isoleucine for blood meal and meat and bone meal, lysine for corn gluten meal, and methionine for the soybean meals. The RUP fraction in solvent-extracted and expeller soybean meals tended to be more intestinally digestible than did the protein in blood meal and meat and bone meal. In general, all protein supplements, except solvent-extracted soybean meal, were high in RUP and had the potential to provide good quality AA to complement microbial AA for production. PMID:8899532

  19. Analysis of peptides and protein digests by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry using neutral pH elution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Chowdhury, Jamil; Alam, Asif; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the advantages of carrying out the analysis of peptides and tryptic digests of proteins under gradient elution conditions at pH 6.5 by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and in-line electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are documented. For these RP separations, a double endcapped, bidentate anchored n-octadecyl wide pore silica adsorbent was employed in a capillary column format. Compared to the corresponding analysis of the same peptides and protein tryptic digests using low pH elution conditions for their RP-HPLC separation, this alternative approach provides improved selectivity and more efficient separation of these analytes, thus allowing a more sensitive identification of proteins at different abundance levels, i.e. more tryptic peptides from the same protein could be confidently identified, enabling higher sequence coverage of the protein to be obtained. This approach was further evaluated with very complex tryptic digests derived from a human plasma protein sample using an online two-dimensional (2D) strong cation-exchange (SCX)-RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Again, at pH 6.5, with mobile phases of different compositions, improved chromatographic selectivities were obtained, concomitant with more sensitive on-line electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric (ESI-MS/MS) analysis. As a consequence, more plasma proteins could be confidently identified, highlighting the potential of these RP-HPLC methods with elution at pH 6.5 to extend further the scope of proteomic investigations. PMID:25892073

  20. In situ identification of the synthrophic protein fermentative Coprothermobacter spp. involved in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Maria Cristina; Braguglia, Camilla Maria; Rossetti, Simona

    2014-09-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have recently attracted great attention because of their potential application in improving different biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion of various substrates, wastewater treatment or hydrogen production. In this study we report on the design of a specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe for detecting members of Coprothermobacter genus characterized by a strong protease activity to degrade proteins and peptides. The newly designed CTH485 probe and helper probes hCTH429 and hCTH439 were optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on thermophilic anaerobic sludge samples. In situ probing revealed that thermo-adaptive mechanisms shaping the 16S rRNA gene may affect the identification of thermophilic microorganisms. The novel developed FISH probe extends the possibility to study the widespread thermophilic syntrophic interaction of Coprothermobacter spp. with hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea, whose establishment is a great benefit for the whole anaerobic system. PMID:25041640

  1. Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin ?- and ?-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously

  2. The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW and 0.37 g N/kg BW, and this intake was the most appropriate for the conditioning of intensely exercised horses, considering the responses related to NI, NA, and the estimated NR to NA ratio. The NDF and ADF responses indicated that dietary fiber was more digested with an increased amount of N in the digestive tract. PMID:25568371

  3. Estimation of the True Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Dietary Protein in the Small Intestine of Ruminants by the Mobile Bag Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    1992-01-01

    Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed. The results showed that increased degradability of the protein in the rumen decreased the intestinal digestibility, which shows that feedstuffs contain a protein fraction which is both undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the intestine. The results thus indicate that it is possible to calculate the intestinal digestibility from information on the intestinal digestibility of the protein in the intact feed at any degradability estimated. The results clearly show that intestinal digestibility of undegraded dietary protein cannot be considered as a constant value as used in most protein evaluation systems introduced in recent years.

  4. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Koprucu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

  5. Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Lee, Sang-mok; Ahn, Hye-kyung; Nair, Sujith; Kim, Seong H.; Kim, Beom S.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Camp, David G.; Grate, Jay W.; Smith, Richard D.; Koo, Yoon-mo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2009-04-01

    A stable and robust trypsin-based biocatalytic system was developed and demonstrated for proteomic applications. The system utilizes polymer nanofibers coated with trypsin aggregates for immobilized protease digestions. After covalently attaching an initial layer of trypsin to the polymer nanofibers, highly concentrated trypsin molecules are crosslinked to the layered trypsin by way of a glutaraldehyde treatment. This new process produced a 300-fold increase in trypsin activity compared with a conventional method for covalent trypsin immobilization and proved to be robust in that it still maintained a high level of activity after a year of repeated recycling. This highly stable form of immobilized trypsin was also resistant to autolysis, enabling repeated digestions of bovine serum albumin over 40 days and successful peptide identification by LC-MS/MS. Finally, the immobilized trypsin was resistant to proteolysis when exposed to other enzymes (i.e. chymotrypsin), which makes it suitable for use in “real-world” proteomic applications. Overall, the biocatalytic nanofibers with enzyme aggregate coatings proved to be an effective approach for repeated and automated protein digestion in proteomic analyses.

  6. Can electromagnetic fields influence the structure and enzymatic digest of proteins? A critical evaluation of microwave-assisted proteomics protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Damm, Markus; Nusshold, Christoph; Cantillo, David; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Gruber, Karl; Sattler, Wolfgang; Kappe, C. Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This study reevaluates the putative advantages of microwave-assisted tryptic digests compared to conventionally heated protocols performed at the same temperature. An initial investigation of enzyme stability in a temperature range of 37–80 °C demonstrated that trypsin activity declines sharply at temperatures above 60 °C, regardless if microwave dielectric heating or conventional heating is employed. Tryptic digests of three proteins of different size (bovine serum albumin, cytochrome ...

  7. Feed transit and apparent protein, phosphorus and energy digestibility of practical feed ingredients by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Jorge; Yu?fera, Manuel; Valente, Luisa M. P.; Rema, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted with Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of protein, phosphorus and energy in practical feed ingredients. The digestible energy (DE) content was also evaluated. Test ingredients were anchovy fishmeal, solvent-extracted soybean meal, corn gluten and wheat meal. Due to their low cohesion, sole faeces were collected directly in posterior intestine by dissection. The feed transit time along the gastrointestinal tra...

  8. The Compare Improvement of Ultrasonic Treatment to Dewatering and Digestion in Aerobic and Anaerobic Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kargar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Backgrounds and Objectives: Large quantities of sludge are produced in biological wastewater treatment. Because this sludge is highly rotten, it should be stabilized before its disposal. Aerobic and anaerobic digestion is widely considered as stabilization techniques. Because of high retention time and sludge dewatering difficulties, reduction in retention time, operation and maintenance should be given into consideration. Ultrasonic process increases the enzymatic activity, so decreases the hydrolysis time, a limiting factor in digestion process, and contributes to the decrease of the detention time. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of ultrasound in improving dewatering and stabilization of aerobic and anaerobic digested sludge. In addition, the impact of ultrasonic treatment on improvement of sludge dewatering and aerobic and anaerobic digestion is compared.Materials and Methods: In this survey, samples of aerobic and anaerobic digestion were collected from local full-scale Garb Town and Tehran South wastewater treatment plant, respectively. The grab samples were collected for 4 month from July to October 2010. Total numbers of 20 samples were collected biweekly for each type of digestion. Each sample was sonicated for 15, 30, 60, and 90 min under 35 and 131 kHz frequencies separately. Total solids, volatile solids , pH, temperature , total COD, dissolved COD and settle able solids were measured. Ultrasound bath of the solution in a 300 mL glass reactor was performed as a bath reactor with power of 500 W.Result: The results showed that the application of ultrasonic wave increased dissolved COD and temperature and decreased volatile solid, pH and settle able solids. Application of ultrasonic wave with frequency of 131 kHz decreased the VS and increased the dewatering of sludge more effective than the 35 kHz frequency and the highest performance was at 15 min of time and 131 kHz of frequency. Also sonication method showed better efficiency for anaerobic sludge samples compared to the aerobic sludge samples.                 Conclusion: The results obtained showed that digestion and dewatering properties of sludge improved by ultrasonic application. Therefore it can be used as an alternative method for the sludge treatment. st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. [Effect of cooking on protein digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, R A; Alarcón, O M; Fliedel, G

    1998-03-01

    The changes in protein digestibility that occur during cooking have interested many scientists. In this study the effect of cooking sorghum in water on the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) was evaluated using sorghum grains not containing tannin (SST), and grains containing detoxified tannin (SPD). The results were compared with rice and maize. The effect of sulfites present in the water used for cooking was also determined. The IVPD of sorghum excent of tannins before cooking was 71.1% smaller (p rice (90.6%) or sorgum with detoxified tannins (80.4%). After cooking in water the IVPD decreased to 23.1%, 66.3%, 3.1% and 3.2% for SST, SPD, polished rice and corn endosperms, respectively. The IVPD of SST and SPD treated with 0.1M sodium bisulfite was 65.2 and 50.1%, which corresponds to a decrease in IVPD of 8.0 and 37.7%, respectively. Similar results were obtained when 0.1M sodium metabisulfite is added to the cooking media. These findings demonstrate that sulfites inhibit the sudden decrease of the IVPD of cooked sorghum grains, and suggest that these compounds may block the formation of disulfide bridges (-S-S-) among the gamma-kafirins molecules located on the surface of the sorghum protein bodies or possibly other factors involved which will be later studied. PMID:9754405

  10. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Analía Verónica, Fernández Gimenez; Ana Cristina, Díaz; Susana María, Velurtas; Jorge Lino, Fenucci.

    1379-13-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula) e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja) em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações conten [...] do 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P Abstract in english This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate) and plant (soybean meal) ingredients. Three replicate groups of [...] prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (P

  11. Enzymatic protein digestion using a dissolvable polyacrylamide gel and its application to mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemori, Nobuaki; Takemori, Ayako; Ishizaki, Jun; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-09-15

    Enzymatic protein digestion in polyacrylamide gel has been used for sample pretreatment in mass spectrometry-based proteomics due to its effectiveness in removing contaminants that interfere with sample ionization. However, the difficulty of recovering the digested peptides from the solid gel matrix has been a drawback of this method. Here we have developed a novel in-gel digestion method to enhance peptide recovery using a dissolvable, bis-acrylylcystamine (BAC)-crosslinked polyacrylamide gel. After enzymatic protein digestion in BAC gel, we completely dissolved the gel by reductive treatment with tris-(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine to release the digested peptides from the gel. Our analysis revealed that the reductive dissolution of the BAC gel enhances the peptide recovery, which has a significantly higher protein identification capability than the conventional method, using an insoluble polyacrylamide gel. In addition, protein samples trapped in dehydrated BAC gel were stable at room temperature and reproducible sample recovery was obtained after storage for one week. These results indicate that the proposed method could be an effective tool for conducting sample pretreatment for mass spectrometry-based protein analysis. PMID:25063926

  12. Effect of Protein to Energy Ratio on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Enzymatic Digestive Activity of Juvenile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus) Reared in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas-vega, M. E.; Gil-romero, A.; Miranda-baeza, A.; Sandoval-muy, M. A.; Lo?pez-eli?as, J. A.; Nieves-soto, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible Protein to Energy ratio (P/E) on growth performance, body composition and enzymatic digestive activity of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus) reared in seawater. Six diets were evaluated (30, 23, 20, 15, 10 and 8 P/E) on the growth, digestibility, body composition and enzymatic digestive activity of juvenile tilapia. The results indicated that the P/E ratios in diets, significantly affects the growth, s...

  13. Screening exogenous fibrolytic enzyme preparations for improved in vitro digestibility of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Arriola, K G; Gonzalez, C F; Silva-Sanchez, C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2015-04-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of 12 exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products (EFE) on ruminal in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) and preingestive hydrolysis of a 4-wk regrowth of bermudagrass haylage (BH), to examine the accuracy of predicting NDFD with EFE activity measures, and to examine the protein composition of the most and least effective EFE at increasing NDFD. In experiment 1, effects of 12 EFE on NDFD of BH were tested. Enzymes were applied in quadruplicate to culture tubes containing ground BH. The suspension was incubated for 24 h at 25°C before addition of rumen fluid media and further incubation for 24 h at 39°C. The experiment was repeated twice. In addition, regression relationships between EFE activity measures and NDFD were examined. Compared with the values for the control, 9 EFE-treated substrates had greater NDFD (37.8 to 40.4 vs. 35.6%), 6 had greater total VFA concentration (59.1 to 61.2 vs. 55.4 mM), and 4 had lower acetate-to-propionate ratios (3.03 to 3.16 vs. 3.24). In experiment 2, EFE effects on preingestive fiber hydrolysis were evaluated by incubating enzyme-treated and untreated bermudagrass suspensions in quadruplicate for 24 h at 25°C and examining fiber hydrolysis measures. Compared with values for the control, 3 EFE reduced neutral detergent fiber concentration (62.8 to 63.7 vs. 67.3%), 10 increased release of water-soluble carbohydrates (26.8 to 58.5 vs. 22.8 mg/g), and 8 increased release of ferulic acid (210 to 391 vs. 198?g/g). Regression analyses revealed that enzyme activities accurately [coefficient of determination (R(2))=0.98] predicted preingestive hydrolysis measures (water-soluble carbohydrates, ferulic acid), moderately (R(2)=0.47) predicted neutral detergent fiber hydrolysis, but poorly (R(2)?0.1) predicted dry matter and NDFD. In experiment 3, proteomic tools were used to examine the protein composition of the most and least effective EFE at improving NDFD. Relative to the least effective, the most effective EFE at increasing NDFD contained 10 times more endoglucanase III, 17 times more acetylxylan esterase with a cellulose-binding domain 1, 33 times more xylanase III, 25 times more ?-xylosidase, and 7.7 times more polysaccharide monooxygenase with cellulose-binding domain 1 and 3 times more swollenin. The most effective EFE had a much greater quantity of fibrolytic enzymes and key proteins necessary for hemicellulose and lignocellulase deconstruction. This study identified several EFE that increased the NDFD and in vitro fermentation of 4-wk BH and revealed why some EFE are more effective than others. PMID:25682133

  14. Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation had influence on in vitro protein digestibility and minerals availability of peanut. • Total mineral and protein content of peanut were not changed after treatments. • The treatment decreased the in vitro protein digestibility of peanut. • The irradiation of peanut resulted in increment of its minerals availability

  15. Uric Acid Determination in Poultry Excreta and its Application to Correcting Protein Digestibility Values: Spectrophotometry with Ultraviolet Detection vs HPLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Marquardt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of uric acid contents of poultry excreta was examined for use in the estimation of apparent protein digestibility. Uric acid was determined either by high-performance liquid chromatography or by spectrophotometric method. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was used with absorbance measured at 285 nm. The method used a reverse-phase system with a C18-bonded column (250*4.6 mm, i.d.. The mobile phase was distilled deionized water. Injection volume was 20 l with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Correlation (r between the two methods for uric acid content of excreta from birds fed diets with different methionine levels was 0.976. The uric acid values were then used to determine apparent protein digestibility. The apparent protein digestibility values, when corrected for uric acid nitrogen, were comparable with those calculated from amino acid analysis.

  16. A Comparative Study of In-Gel Digestions Using Microwave and Pressure-Accelerated Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Rudy; Tran, Diana; Ching, Bonnie; Phinney, Brett S.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most popular methods to prepare tryptic peptides for bottom-up proteomic analysis is in-gel digestion. To date, there have been few studies comparing various digestion methods. In this study, we compare the efficiency of several popular in-gel digestion methods, along with new technologies that may improve digestion efficiency, using a human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysate protein standard. The efficiency of each protocol was based on the average number of proteins identified and ...

  17. THE EFFECT OF THE CONCENTRATION OF ENZYME ON THE RATE OF DIGESTION OF PROTEINS BY PEPSIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop, J H

    1920-05-20

    1. In certain cases the rate of digestion of proteins by pepsin is not proportional to the total concentration of pepsin. 2. It is suggested that this is due to the fact that the enzyme in solution is in equilibrium with another substance (called peptone for convenience) and that the equilibrium is quantitatively expressed by the law of mass action, according to the following equation. See PDF for Equation It is assumed that only the uncombined pepsin affects the hydrolysis of the protein. 3. The hypothesis has been put in the form of a differential equation and found to agree quantitatively with the experimental results when the concentration of pepsin, peptone, or both is varied. 4. Pepsin inactivated with alkali enters the equilibrium to the same extent as active pepsin. 5. Under certain conditions (concentration of peptone large with respect to pepsin, and concentration of substrate relatively constant) the relative change in the amount of active pepsin is inversely proportional to the concentration of peptone and the equation simplifies to Schütz's rule. 6. An integral equation is obtained which holds for the entire course of the digestion (except for the first few minutes) with varying enzyme concentration. This equation is identical in form with the one derived by Arrhenius for the action of ammonia on ethyl acetate. 7. It is pointed out that there are many analogies between the action of pepsin on albumin solutions and the action of toxins on an organism. PMID:19871825

  18. Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2013-09-01

    The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:23799542

  19. In vitro pH-Stat protein hydrolysis of feed ingredients for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. 2. In vitro protein digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Tibbetts, S.; Verreth, J. A. J.; Lall, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Using enzyme fractions isolated from the pyloric caeca of farmed Atlantic cod, the in vitro degree of protein hydrolysis (DH) of numerous conventional and novel feed ingredients were measured by a closed-system pH-Stat assay. Regression equations describing the relationship between in vivo apparent protein digestibility (ADC) and in vitro protein DH were used to predict in vitro protein ADC. The equations resulted in good correlation (

  20. Effects of synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen on fermentation, nutrient utilization and total tract digestibility in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Birgul Bozan; Gulay Deniz; Bulent Haluk Gulmez; Hakan Biricik; Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen; Hidir Gencoglu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of synchronizing the dietary starch and crude protein (CP) degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization, fermentation, and total tract digestibility in sheep. The four diets were formulated with different rates of starch and CP release in the rumen but with similar metabolic energy, starch, and CP. The diets were slowly degradable starch, slowly degradable protein; slowly degradable starch, rapidly degradable protein; rapidly...

  1. Digesting pythons quickly oxidize the proteins in their meals and save the lipids for later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A

    2015-07-01

    Pythons digesting rodent meals exhibit up to 10-fold increases in their resting metabolic rate (RMR); this increase in RMR is termed specific dynamic action (SDA). Studies have shown that SDA is partially fueled by oxidizing dietary nutrients, yet it remains unclear whether the proteins and the lipids in their meals contribute equally to this energy demand. We raised two populations of mice on diets labeled with either [(13)C]leucine or [(13)C]palmitic acid to intrinsically enrich the proteins and lipids in their bodies, respectively. Ball pythons (Python regius) were fed whole mice (and pureed mice 3 weeks later), after which we measured their metabolic rates and the ?(13)C in the breath. The ?(13)C values in the whole bodies of the protein- and lipid-labeled mice were generally similar (i.e. 5.7±4.7‰ and 2.8±5.4‰, respectively) but the oxidative kinetics of these two macronutrient pools were quite different. We found that the snakes oxidized 5% of the protein and only 0.24% of the lipids in their meals within 14?days. Oxidation of the dietary proteins peaked 24?h after ingestion, at which point these proteins provided ?90% of the metabolic requirement of the snakes, and by 14?days the oxidation of these proteins decreased to nearly zero. The oxidation of the dietary lipids peaked 1 day later, at which point these lipids supplied ?25% of the energy demand. Fourteen days after ingestion, these lipids were still being oxidized and continued to account for ?25% of the metabolic rate. Pureeing the mice reduced the cost of gastric digestion and decreased SDA by 24%. Pureeing also reduced the oxidation of dietary proteins by 43%, but it had no effect on the rates of dietary lipid oxidation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that pythons are able to effectively partition the two primary metabolic fuels in their meals. This approach of uniquely labeling the different components of the diet will allow researchers to examine new questions about how and when animals use the nutrients in their meals. PMID:25987734

  2. Amaranth-protein interaction in food system and its impact on tryptic digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranth, a food color, is used in variety of food products to attract consumers, especially children. The purpose of the present study was to identify the component present in the food system which acts as a carrier of color and its distribution. The protein is the most possible candidate for color-conjugates and this was first explored by staining the resolved food proteins on PAGE simultaneously and separately with Amaranth as well as by Coomassie brilliant blue R250. It is the most widely used dye for protein assay. The color intensity of the Amaranth-protein complexes was slightly less than those of Coomassie brilliant blue R250, although the bands stained by Amaranth were very sharp, clearly separated and distinct. The staining procedure followed for Amaranth was quick. The impact of tryptic digestibility on amaranth-protein complexes has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect. The possible moode of conjugation between amino acid and azo-bond is also discussed. (author)

  3. Effects of different fermented soy protein and apparent ileal digestible lysine levels on weaning pigs fed fermented soy protein-amended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Wang, Jian P; Kim, In H

    2012-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different fermented soybean proteins and the apparent ileal digestible lysine levels on weaning pigs fed fermented soy protein (FSP)-amended diets. In Exp. 1, 70 crossed piglets (6.25 ± 0.40 kg) were used in a 5-week trial to evaluate two different FSP. In Exp. 2, 20 weaning barrows (6.15 ± 0.45 kg) were used in a metabolism trial to determine the effects of the apparent ileal digestible (1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5%) lysine levels in weaning pigs fed FSP (5%) diet. In Exp. 1, pigs fed the diet containing Lactobacillus spp. FSP showed higher nitrogen (N) digestibility (Purea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels (P<0.05) than those fed the Aspergillus oryzae FSP diet. In Exp. 2, increasing dietary lysine levels increased the average daily gain, apparent dry matter, N digestibility, N retention and essential amino acids in the current study (P<0.05), with the 1.5% showing the highest value. In conclusion, pigs fed Lactobacillus spp. FSP had a higher N digestibility than those fed A. oryzae FSP. The optimal apparent ileal digestibility lysine level in fermented soy protein diets (3550 kcal/kg metabolizable energy) for maximizing growth performance and N utilization in the first 7 days (6.25 kg) was 1.5%. PMID:22574792

  4. Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ferriani Branco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéicos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR, na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta. A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável.The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were evaluated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pepsin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29 had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

  5. Effects of dry heating on the progression of in vitro digestion of egg white proteins: contribution of multifactorial data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechevalier, Valerie; Musikaphun, Nuttinee; Gillard, Angelique; Pasco, Maryvonne; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Husson, Francois; Nau, Francoise

    2015-05-13

    The impact of dry heating on the progression of in vitro digestion of egg white proteins was investigated through application of multiple factor analysis (MFA) to electrophoresis data. Dry heating (from 1 to 10 days between 60 and 90 °C) enhanced protein unfolding and aggregation, thus generating different SDS-PAGE patterns for each sample before digestion. The progression of in vitro digestion was then modified according to the degree of protein unfolding and/or aggregation. In vitro digestion tended to decrease the heterogeneity of sample electrophoretic patterns overall but it occurred either at the very beginning of the gastric stage or throughout the gastric stage or again during the duodenal stage, depending on the heat treatment to which the sample had been subjected. At the end of digestion, three groups of samples were obtained: all samples dry heated at 60 °C and one sample dry heated for 1 day at 70 °C that were more hydrolysed than the control, samples dry heated for more than 2 days at 80 °C or 90 °C that were less hydrolysed than the control, and samples dry heated for more than 2 days at 70 °C or 1 day at 80 or 90 °C that were as hydrolysed as the control. PMID:25848649

  6. Laser-improved protein crystallization screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of laser irradiation on freshly prepared protein drops was explored and found to be a viable tool to induce nucleation. In our experiment, the number of positive crystallization hits during the screening process increased. In some instances the speed of crystal growth, the size of the crystals and the resolution of X-ray diffraction showed a marked improvement after laser exposure. Under optimized laser settings, in no case was the laser detrimental to crystal growth. Screening of proteins for crystallization under laser irradiation was investigated using six proteins: ribonuclease B, glucose dehydrogenase, lysozyme, sorbitol dehydrogenase, fructose dehydrogenase and myoglobin. Shining 532 nm green circularly polarized laser light with a picosecond pulse and 6 mW power for 30 s on newly set-up protein drops showed a marked improvement in the number of screen conditions amenable for crystal growth compared with control drops under identical conditions but without laser exposure. For glucose dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, larger and better quality crystals were formed and the resolution of X-ray diffraction was improved. The speed of crystallization increased in the case of ribonuclease B, lysozyme and sorbitol dehydrogenase. During laser irradiation, the amount of precipitation in the screened drops increased, indicating a transient decrease in protein solubility. At the optimized laser settings, there was no deleterious effect of the laser on crystal growth or on the protein. In the cases of ribonuclease B and lysozyme the crystal packing did not change owing to the laser exposure

  7. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  8. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4?±?2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P??0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P??0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response. PMID:23096766

  9. Effect of sorghum grain variety and reconstitution on site and extent of starch and protein digestion in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, C A; Wagner, D G; Hintz, R L; Griffin, D D

    1985-09-01

    Hetero-yellow (HY), red (RED) and brown (BR, high tannin) sorghums were fed dry-rolled or reconstituted (RED and BR only) to evaluate the effect of variety and reconstitution on the site and extent of starch and protein digestion in steers fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae. Processed grains were incorporated into 88% sorghum (DM basis) diets fed at 2% of body weight in a 5 X 5 Latin square. Ruminal fermentation of organic matter, starch and protein tended to be lower for the dry-rolled RED than for either the dry-rolled HY or BR sorghum. Digestion of organic matter (OM) and starch in the small intestine was very low for dry-rolled sorghums. Total tract starch digestibility was lower for the dry-rolled RED sorghum (86.9%) than the BR (90.8%) and HY (91.4%). Nitrogen (N) digestibility ranged from 53.1% for the dry-rolled BR to 64.5% for the HY. Tannins were extensively (95.2%) degraded in the rumen, which may have enhanced fermentation of the BR sorghum. Reconstitution increased (P less than .05) total-tract starch digestion of the RED and tended to increase starch digestion of the BR as well. Total N flow to the duodenum tended to increase with reconstitution, with most of the increase being due to greater (P less than .05) microbial-N. Reconstitution also increased (P less than .05) total-tract N digestibility of the RED. The response to reconstitution for the RED sorghum appeared to be due primarily to an increase (P less than .10) in the extent of fermentation of organic matter and starch in the rumen. Reconstitution of BR, however, enhanced disappearance of starch from the small intestine. In both cases, most (97.3%) of the digestible starch of the reconstituted sorghums had disappeared before the terminal ileum. In contrast, 14.5% (621 g) of the digestible starch of dry-rolled RED disappeared in the large intestine. Sorghum grain variety and reconstitution appear to alter site and extent of starch and protein digestion, which may result in variable performance of cattle fed sorghum grain diets. PMID:4066530

  10. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg 15N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the 15N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg stringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

  11. Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft

    2013-01-01

    Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require several preparation steps, which prolongs any parallel operation and high-throughput interaction analysis. Gnd-HCl allow the efficient elution and subsequent fast digestion of PPIs to provide a convenient high-throughput methodology for affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. To validate the Gnd-HCl approach, label-free PPI analysis of several GFP-tagged yeast deubiquitinating enzymes was performed. The identification of known interaction partners demonstrates the utility of the optimized Gnd-HCl protocol that is also scalable to the 96 well-plate format.

  12. Immobilized trypsin on hydrophobic cellulose decorated nanoparticles shows good stability and reusability for protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxia; Cai, Xiangdong; Wang, Ren-Qi; Xiao, Jianxi

    2015-05-15

    The preparation of biocatalysts based on immobilized trypsin is of great importance for both proteomic research and industrial applications. Here, we have developed a facile method to immobilize trypsin on hydrophobic cellulose-coated silica nanoparticles by surface adsorption. The immobilization conditions for the trypsin enzyme were optimized. The as-prepared biocatalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. In comparison with free enzyme, the immobilized trypsin exhibited greater resistances against thermal inactivation and denaturants. In addition, the immobilized trypsin showed good durability for multiple recycling. The general applicability of the immobilized trypsin for proteomic studies was confirmed by enzymatic digestion of two widely used protein substrates: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c. The surface adsorption protocols for trypsin immobilization may provide a promising strategy for enzyme immobilization in general, with great potential for a range of applications in proteomic studies. PMID:25700866

  13. Effect of simulated processing on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie

    2015-05-15

    The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p vitro digestion of WP in FJMB was obviously (p 0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility. PMID:25577106

  14. Advantages and limitations of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) as a method for evaluating protein quality in human diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2012-08-01

    PDCAAS is a widely used assay for evaluating protein quality. It is a chemical score, which is derived from the ratio between the first limiting amino acid in a test protein and the corresponding amino acid in a reference amino acid pattern and corrected for true faecal N digestibility. Chemical scores exceeding 100 % are truncated to 100 %. The advantages of the PDCAAS are its simplicity and direct relationship to human protein requirements. The limitations are as follows: the reference pattern is based on the minimum amino acid requirements for tissue growth and maintenance and does not necessarily reflect the optimum intake. Truncated PDCAAS of high-quality proteins do not give any information about the power of these proteins to compensate, as a supplement, for low levels of dietary essential amino acids in low-quality proteins. It is likely that faecal N digestibility does not take into account the loss from the colon of indispensable amino acids that were not absorbed in the ileum. Anti-nutritional factors, such as lectins and trypsin inhibitors, in several plant protein sources can cause heightened endogenous losses of amino acids, an issue which is particularly relevant in animal feedstuffs. The assumption that amino acid supplementation can completely restore biological efficiency of the protein source is incorrect since the kinetics of digestion and absorption between supplemented free amino acids and amino acids present in dietary proteins, are different. PMID:23107546

  15. Protein cleavage strategies for an improved analysis of the membrane proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poetsch Ansgar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins still remain elusive in proteomic studies. This is in part due to the distribution of the amino acids lysine and arginine, which are less frequent in integral membrane proteins and almost absent in transmembrane helices. As these amino acids are cleavage targets for the commonly used protease trypsin, alternative cleavage conditions, which should improve membrane protein analysis, were tested by in silico digestion for the three organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and Corynebacterium glutamicum as hallmarks for eukaryotes, archea and eubacteria. Results For the membrane proteomes from all three analyzed organisms, we identified cleavage conditions that achieve better sequence and proteome coverage than trypsin. Greater improvement was obtained for bacteria than for yeast, which was attributed to differences in protein size and GRAVY. It was demonstrated for bacteriorhodopsin that the in silico predictions agree well with the experimental observations. Conclusion For all three examined organisms, it was found that a combination of chymotrypsin and staphylococcal peptidase I gave significantly better results than trypsin. As some of the improved cleavage conditions are not more elaborate than trypsin digestion and have been proven useful in practice, we suppose that the cleavage at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids should facilitate in general the analysis of membrane proteins for all organisms.

  16. EVALUATION OF APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH AND WITHOUT FISH MEAL FOR LABEO ROHITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. GUL, M. SALIM AND B. RABBANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The apparent digestibility coefficients of three protein levels of reference diets (without fish meal and test diets (with fish meal were estimated for Labeo rohita. Three test diets (test diet-I, test diet-II and test diet-III and three reference diets (reference diet-I, reference diet-II and reference diet-III having 28, 30 and 32% protein levels were prepared. Chromic oxide was used as an internal marker in the experimental diets for the evaluation of digestibility of protein levels. The differences in apparent digestibility for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy of reference and test diets were highly significant (P<0.01. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter were 32.10 ± 0.30 and 35.30 ± 0.30% for reference and test diets -III. The ADCs of crude protein and crude fat were 77.92 ± 0.10, 69.23 ± 0.06 and 75.77 ± 0.05, 70.40 ± 0.22% for reference and test diets-III, respectively. The values of ADCs of gross energy were maximum for reference diet-III (52.28 ± 0.25% and test diet-III (48.65 ± 0.78%. The ADCs of dry matter were 19.80 ± 1.40 and 18.15 ± 0.05% for reference and test diet-I. The ADCs of crude protein and crude fat were 73.93 ± 0.05, 68.43 ± 1.58 and 59.49 ± 1.13, 57.02 ± 2.42% for reference and test diet-I respectively. The ADCs values of gross energy were for reference diet-I (42.43 ± 0.36% and test diet-I (39.09 ± 1.35%. The better ADCs for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy were at 32% protein level.

  17. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, S; Taghizadeh, A

    2013-08-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (pcitrus pulps (pcitrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products. PMID:22703299

  18. Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [?-32P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at Mr 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses

  19. The Prospect of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal as Ruminant Feeds Through Protein Quality Improvement by Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Prayitno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste of the broiler processing (feather is a potential source for animal feed. However the presence of keratins cause limited of feather use. Before using, therefore, feather must be treated to hydrolyze cysteine disulfide bound dominating keratins protein. Enzymatic (biological treatment using microbes will produce specific feather hydrolyzed and does not have negative impact on environment. The research objected to get the microbes which degradated selected keratins, improve protein quality of feather meal and find out the best ration formulation true in vitro the basic information to formulate in vivo ration. The research has been done in Laboratory of Animal Feedstuff Faculty of Animal Science UNSOED for eight months. Fermentation trial was done on liquid media with bath system. In vitro trial used of Tilley and Terry methods with parameter observe was dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, protein degradation, total VFA and solubility in pepsin. Based on all parameter, on fermentation trial with Bacillus licheniformis decides broiler chicken feather had good prospect to be developed on feed protein source. In vitro trial recommended ration with formulation of fermented feather meal concentrate (15 percent, soybeans meal (5 percent, rice bran (20 percent, molasses (4 percent, mineral mix (1 percent, with forage: concentrate ratio 40 : 60 could be used as in vivo ration. (Animal Production 5(1: 19-24 (2003 Key words : Hydrolyze, Feather, Keratin, Digestibility, Ruminant

  20. Improving anaerobic digestion of a cellulosic waste via routine bioaugmentation with cellulolytic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ryals, Ana; Schideman, Lance; Li, Peng; Wilkinson, Henry; Wagner, Richard

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated routine bioaugmentation in the acid-phase of a two-phase anaerobic digestion (AD) process treating a largely cellulosic waste material generated from sweet corn processing. A proprietary cellulolytic bioculture was used for bioaugmentation with the aim of increasing substrate hydrolysis to improve overall methanogenic efficiency. In a sequencing batch experiment routine bioaugmentation achieved significantly greater soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) generation (+25%) and methane production (+15%) compared to one-time bioaugmentation. In a continuous bench-scale system, routine bioaugmentation increased acid-phase sCOD by 29-68% and acetic acid concentrations by 31-34%. This benefit to hydrolysis and acetogenesis subsequently led to sustained increase in methane production (+56%) compared to non-bioaugmentation. A cursory economic analysis indicated that routine bioaugmentation could improve the economics of corn waste AD by $27-$34/dry tonne of waste. Overall, routine bioaugmentation showed significant promise for improving AD of corn waste by achieving sustained increases in substrate hydrolysis and methane production. PMID:25864032

  1. Protein Levels for Heat-Exposed Broilers: Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Energy and Protein Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Emygdio Faria Filho; Daniel Mendes Borges Campos; Karoll Andrea Alfonso-Torres; Bruno Serpa Vieira; Paulo Sergio Rosa; Aiani Maria Vaz; Marcos Macari1; Renato Luis Furlan

    2007-01-01

    Heat stress causes significant economic losses on broilers production due to poorer performance and carcass quality. Considering that protein has the highest heat increment among nutrients, it has been suggested that protein levels should be reduced in diets for heat-exposed broilers. Nevertheless, there are no conclusive results on the benefits of such practice, and further studies should be performed to elucidate some reported discrepancies. Thus, a trial was carried out to evaluate the eff...

  2. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  3. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

    2007-06-15

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  4. Formation of a phorbol ester-binding fragment from protein kinase C by proteolytic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When washed human platelets were disrupted by sonication in the presence of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, both the catalytic and [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu)-binding activities of protein kinase C were recovered in the soluble fraction and were not separable from each other upon several column chromatographies. Platelet protein kinase C required diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid for its activation and showed a molecular weight of about 87,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. However, when platelets were first incubated with 2 microM Ca2+-ionophore A23187 for 5 min at 37 degrees C in the medium containing 3 mM CaCl2 and then disrupted under the same conditions, the catalytic and [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activities were separately recovered in the soluble and particulate fractions, respectively; moreover, the catalytic activity recovered in the soluble fraction became independent of diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid, and showed a molecular weight of about 50,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. The kinetic properties of this Mr 50,000 enzyme were similar to those of the catalytic fragment of rat brain protein kinase C described previously. In a cell-free system, digestion with trypsin of protein kinase C highly purified from rat brain caused the generation of a fragment which had no catalytic activity but showed full [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyr full [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activity. The molecular weight of this fragment was estimated to be about 35,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that protein kinase C consists of at least two functionally different domains, a hydrophobic phorbol ester- or diacylglycerol-binding and hydrophilic catalytic domains

  5. Using protein binding site prediction to improve protein docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingding; Schroeder, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Predicting protein interaction interfaces and protein complexes are two important related problems. For interface prediction, there are a number of tools, such as PPI-Pred, PPISP, PINUP, Promate, and SPPIDER, which predict enzyme-inhibitor interfaces with success rates of 23% to 55% and other interfaces with 10% to 28% on a benchmark dataset of 62 complexes. Here, we develop, metaPPI, a meta server for interface prediction. It significantly improves prediction success rates to 70% for enzyme-inhibitor and 44% for other interfaces. As shown with Promate, predicted interfaces can be used to improve protein docking. Here, we follow this idea using the meta server instead of individual predictions. We confirm that filtering with predicted interfaces significantly improves candidate generation in rigid-body docking based on shape complementarity. Finally, we show that the initial ranking of candidate solutions in rigid-body docking can be further improved for the class of enzyme-inhibitor complexes by a geometrical scoring which rewards deep pockets. A web server of metaPPI is available at scoppi.tu-dresden.de/metappi. The source code of our docking algorithm BDOCK is also available at www.biotec.tu-dresden.de /approximately bhuang/bdock. PMID:18616991

  6. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim SchØn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2013-01-01

    The effects of varying dietary digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) content on performance, nutrient retention efficiency and the de novo lipogenesis of DP origin were examined in triplicate groups of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), fed nine extruded experimental diets. In order to trace the metabolic fate of dietary protein, 1·8% fishmeal was replaced with isotope-labelled whole protein (.98% 13C). The experiment was divided into a growth period lasting 89 d, growing fish from approximately 140 to 350 g, followed by a 3 d period feeding isotope-enriched diets. Isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4% of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3% of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were significantly improved with increasing dietary energy density. The present study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently utilises dietary nutrients over a wide range of DP:DE ratios and energy densities. In addition, they appear to endeavour a certain body energy status rather than maximising growth, which in the present trial was apparent from inherently high de novo lipogenesis originating from DP

  7. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows in a 2×2 factorial design in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Ruminal degradabilities were 14.9 and 18.6%, and intestinal digestibilities were 98.9 and 68.3%, respectively, for CP in blood meal and feather meal. Treatment effects on ruminal digestibilities were small. Protein supplementation increased total N intake by 29%, duodenal AA N flow by 39%, and AA N absorbed by 37%; absorption of Leu and Lys increased 60 and 33%, and absorption of ne and Met increased 11 and 7%, respectively. Measured duodenal AA N flow (Cr2O3 marker) was 33% higher in cows cannulated adjacent to the pylorus compared with cows cannulated 100-cm distal to the pylorus, but only when cows were fed protein-supplemented diets; the estimates from those diets caused calculated microbial protein efficiency to exceed theoretical values. We postulated that blood meal and feather meal segregated near the pylorus, yielding high estimates of duodenal AA N flow. Removal of data for protein-supplemented diets obtained from cows cannulated at the pylorus yielded estimates of microbial protein synthetic efficiency consistent with literature values. Microbial synthesis of AA N was related linearly to ruminal digestion of carbohydrate. Location of intestinal cannulas may influence accuracy of nutrient flow estimates.

  8. Evaluation of the improvement of sonication pre-treatment in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Ángeles; González, Inmaculada; Serrano, Antonio; Siles, José Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a polluting and hazardous waste generated in wastewater treatment plants with severe management problems. The high content in heavy metal, pathogens and micropolluting compounds limit the implementation of the available management methods. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment method, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A sonication pre-treatment at lab scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. Sonication time was optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) at different pre-treatment times. The pre-treatment time was fixed at 45 min under the study conditions given that the solubilisation of organic matter did not increase significantly at lower sonication times, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen increased markedly at higher times. The volatile fatty acids generation rate was also evaluated for the pre-treatment conditions. The anaerobic digestion of untreated and pre-treated sewage sludge was subsequently compared and promising results were obtained for loads of 1.0 g VS/L (VS, total volatile solids). The methane yield coefficient increased from 88 to 172 mLSTP/g VS (STP, 0 °C, 1 atm) after the pre-treatment, while biodegradability was found to be around 81% (in VS). Moreover, the allowed organic loading rate and methane production rate observed for the sewage sludge reached values of up to 4.1 kg VS/m(3)·d and 1270 LSTP/m(3)·d, respectively. PMID:25284801

  9. Environmental sustainability of an energy self-sufficient sewage treatment plant: improvements through DEMON and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Dewulf, Jo; Boeckx, Pascal; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    It is still not proven that treatment of sewage in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is (in every case) environmentally friendly. To address this matter, we have applied a state-of-the-art life cycle assessment (LCA) to an energy self-sufficient WWTP in Strass (Austria), its supply chain and the valorization of its 'products': produced electricity out of biogas from sludge digestion and the associated stabilized digestate, applied as agricultural fertilizer. Prominent aspects of our study are: a holistic environmental impact assessment, measurement of greenhouse gas emissions (including N2O), and accounting for infrastructure, replacement of conventional fertilizers and toxicity of metals present in the stabilized digestate. Additionally, the environmental sustainability improvement by implementing one-stage partial nitritation/anammox (e.g. DEMON(®)) and co-digestion was also assessed. DEMON on the digesters reject water leads to a considerable saving of natural resources compared to nitritiation/denitritation (about 33% of the life cycle resource input), this through the lowering of sludge consumption for N-removal, and thus increasing electricity production via a higher sludge excess. However, its N2O emission could be restrained through further optimization as it represents a large share (30-66%) of the plants' damaging effect on human health, this through climate change. The co-substrate addition to the digester resulted in no significant improvement of the digestion process but induced net electricity generation. If respective amounts of conventional fertilizers are replaced, the land application of the stabilized digestate is environmentally friendly through prevention of natural resource consumption and diversity loss, but possibly not regarding human health impact due the presence of toxic heavy metals, mainly Zn, in the digestate. The outcomes show that the complete life cycle results in a prevention of resource extraction from nature and a potential mitigation of diversity loss (though for some impact categories no quantification of associated diversity loss is possible) but it also leads to a damaging effect on human health, mainly via climate change and heavy metal toxicity. Since it is for now impossible to aggregate the impact to these different aspects in a sound manner, it is not yet possible to consider in this case the studied system as environmentally friendly. Generally, the field of LCA needs further development to present a better and single outcome. PMID:25727156

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with mulched switchgrass for improvement of the methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Jean-Claude; Roy, Caroline; Guiot, Serge R

    2012-03-01

    The owners of farm-scale anaerobic digesters are relying on off-farm wastes or energy crops as a co-digestion feedstock with animal manure in order to increase their production of methane and thus revenues. Switchgrass represents an interesting feedstock for Canadian digesters owners as it is a high-yielding low-maintenance perennial crop, well adapted to northern climate. Methane potential assays in batch tests showed methane production of 19.4 ± 3.6, 28.3 ± 1.7, 37.3 ± 7.1 and 45.7 ± 0.8 L kg(-1), for raw manure, blended manure, manure and mulched switchgrass, manure and pretreated switchgrass, respectively. Two 6-L lab-scale anaerobic digesters were operated for 130 days in order to assess the benefit of co-digesting switchgrass with bovine manure (digester #2), at a 20% wet mass fraction, compared with a manure-only operation (digester #1) The digesters were operated at an hydraulic retention time of 37 ± 6 days and at loads of 2.4 ± 0.6 and 2.6 ± 0.6 kg total volatile solids (TVS) L(-1) day(-1) for digesters #1 (D1) and #2 (D2), respectively. The TVS degradation reached 25 and 39%, which resulted in a methane production of 1.18 ± 0.18 and 2.19 ± 0.31 L day(-1) for D1 and D2, respectively. The addition of 20% on a wet mass ratio of switchgrass to a manure digester increased its methane production by 86%. The co-digestion of switchgrass in a 500 m(3) manure digester could yield up to 10.2 GJ day(-1) of purified methane or 1.1 MWh day(-1) of electricity. PMID:21779889

  11. Comparison of Seven Chemical Pretreatments of Corn Straw for Improving Methane Yield by Anaerobic Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zilin; GaiheYang,; Xiaofeng LIU; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and ...

  12. Thermal wet oxidation improves anaerobic biodegradability of raw and digested biowaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of solid biowaste generally results in relatively low methane yields of 50-60% of the theoretical maximum. Increased methane recovery from organic waste would lead to reduced handling of digested solilds, lower methane emissions to the environment, and higher green energy profits. The objective of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane yields from different biowastes (food waste, yard waste, and digested biowaste already treated in a full-scale biogas plant (DRANCO, Belgium)) by assessing thermal wet oxidation. The biodegradability of the waste was evaluated by using biochemical methane potential assays and continuous 3-L methane reactors. Wet oxidation temperature and oxygen pressure (T, 185-220 degreesC; O-2 pressure, 0-12 bar; t, 15 min) were varied for their effect on total methane yield and digestion kinetics of digested biowaste. Measured methane yields for raw yard waste, wet oxidized yard waste, raw food waste, and wet oxidized food waste were 345, 685, 536, and 571 mL of CH4/g of volatile suspended solids, respectively. Higher oxygen pressure during wet oxidation of digested biowaste considerably increased the total methane yield and digestion kinetics and permitted lignin utilization during a subsequent second digestion. The increase of the specific methane yield for the full-scale biogas plant by applying thermal wet oxidation was 35-40%, showing that there is still a considerable amount of methane that can be harvested from anaerobic digested biowaste.

  13. The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on formation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Anna; Kara?, Monika; Baraniak, Barbara; Pietrzak, Marlena

    2013-12-15

    Pea seeds were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in monoculture under different time and temperature conditions and the fermented products were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal conditions. After fermentation and digestion ACE inhibitory activity was determined. In all samples after fermentation no ACE inhibitory activity was noted. Potentially antihypertensive peptides were released during in vitro digestion. The highest DH (68.62%) were noted for control sample, although the lowest IC50 value (0.19 mg/ml) was determined for product after 7 days fermentation at 22 °C. The hydrolysate characterised by the highest ACE inhibitory activity was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptides fractions were obtained. The highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50=64.04 ?g/ml) for the first fraction was noted. This fraction was separated by HPLC and identified by LC-MS/MS and the sequence of peptide derived from pea proteins was determined as KEDDEEEEQGEEE. PMID:23993548

  14. Transgenic sorghum with altered kafirin synthesis : kafirin solubility, polymerization, and protein digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Laura S.; Taylor, Janet; Taylor, J. R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic sorghum (TG) lines with altered kafirin synthesis, particularly suppression of ?-kafirin synthesis, and improved protein quality have been developed. The proportion of kafirin extracted with 60% tert-butyl alcohol alone was greatly increased in the TG lines. However, the total amount of kafirin remained unchanged. Further, in the TG lines, the kafirin was much less polymerized by disulfide bonding. There was also evidence of compensatory synthesis of other kafirin protein...

  15. Vegetable processing wastes addition to improve swine manure anaerobic digestion: Evaluation in terms of methane yield and SEM characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate for swine manure anaerobic digestion. ? Two hydraulic retention times of 25 and 15 d, respectively. ? SEM characterization of anaerobic sludges to observe microbial composition. ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate increases methane yields up to three times. ? Microbial composition changes after 120 d of digestion. -- Abstract: The effect of adding vegetable waste as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of swine manure was investigated. The study was carried out at laboratory scale using semi-continuous stirred tank reactors working at 37 °C. Organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.4 and 0.6 g VS L?1 d?1 were evaluated, corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 25 and 15 d, respectively. The addition of vegetable wastes (50% dw/dw) resulted in an improvement of 3 and 1.4-fold in methane yields at HRTs of 25 and 15 d, respectively. Changes on microbial morphotypes were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Samples analyzed were sludge used as inoculum and digestate obtained from swine manure anaerobic reactors. SEM pictures demonstrated that lignocellulosic material was not completely degraded. Additionally, microbial composition was found to change to cocci and rods morphotypes after 120 d of anaerobic digestion.

  16. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

  17. / Development of a bench scale system for anaerobic acidogenic digestion of wastewater from isolated soy protein

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.S., Cassini; I.C., Tessaro; L.D.F., Marczak.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Wastewater from isolated soy protein (ISP) production is characterized by high organic load. A complex primary wastewater treatment system has been studied: an anaerobic acidogenic reactor, a tubular reactor and a sedimentation tank. Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process; the control of temp [...] erature, pH, alkalinity, TSS/VSS and COD is fundamental. The objective was to develop and compare the efficiency of a bench scale anaerobic acidogenic reactor, followed by the precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation steps, with an existing industrial ISP wastewater treatment system. The results obtained with bench system (reaction time of 6 h, 48 °C) were very close to the industrial ones: pH reduction of 4.5 to 3.7 (indicating the protein hydrolysis), high VFA accumulation (1,300 and 2,650 mg.L-1 minimum and maximum concentration), no methane production and increase in TSS/VSS. This study gives an insight of the industrial primary wastewater treatment system and can be useful in future researches.

  18. Effect of Undegraded Protein and Energy Level on Intake and Digestibility of Nutrient and Blood Metabolite in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BP Widyobroto

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of undegraded protein and energy level on intake and digestibility of nutrient and glucose and urea blood content in dairy cows. The benefit of the research was to inform about the utilization of undegraded protein and energy level to optimize nutrient utilization in dairy cattle. The experiment was conducted in 4 month in the Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science Gadjah Mada University. The experiment used 4 female rumen fistulated dry cows (Friesian Holstein Crossbreed of 3.0-3.5 years old and 350–400 kg body weight. The treatments of this experiment were T1: 20% of undegraded protein (UDP and 70% energy from requirement; T2: 20% undegraded protein and 120% energy from requirement; T3: 30% undegraded protein and 70% energy from requirement; and T4: 30% undegraded protein and 120% energy from requirement with Latin square design. Variables observed were intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, Acid detergent fiber (ADF, and glucose and urea blood content. Collected data were analyzed by analysis of variances, and further differences were tested by orthogonal contrast. Results of the research showed that the level of UDP in the rations did not affect DM, OM, CP intake, rumen degradable protein (RDP, NDF and ADF; however level of energy had significant affect on DM, OM, CP, RDP and ADF intake. The level of UDP resulted in non significant difference in DM; but significantly different on CP digestibility. Digestibility of DM and OM were significantly influenced by the level of energy, but it did not influence NDF and ADF digestibility. Cattle treated with the high energy rations had higher blood glucose concentration than cattle treated with the low energy rations. Blood urea in cattle fed low UDP rations was higher than cattle fed high UDP rations. (Animal Production 10(2: 96-101 (2008 Key Words: Undegraded protein, nitrogen, energy, blood metabolite

  19. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  20. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  1. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  2. Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

    2013-04-01

    Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant differences among treatments were registered in the above ground maize biomass. Molecular analysis conducted on microbial soil communities suggested that the application of digested residues to soil contributes to substantial modifications of both bacterial and fungal community structure. Soil organic C and total N increased in soils treated with digested residues addition, with no significant differences between the two doses of digestate. Cation exchange capacity did not show significant differences among treatments, remaining stable during the maize vegetative cycle. Differently, some variations occurred in the exchangeable cation pool. In particular, K content increased under digestate treatments, while Na and Mg contents increased with time irrespective of the fertilization treatment. No significant variations were observed in soil microelement levels, except for an increase in Zn content at the highest digestate dose. Moreover, digested residue addition had a positive impact on aggregates stability. From the first results, the absence of negative effects in plant productivity and soil fertility after residues application, at both doses, is a promising indication for the potential use of anaerobic digestate as substitute of mineral fertilizers.

  3. Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?pez-soto, M. A.; Rivera-me?ndez, C. R.; Aguilar-herna?ndez, J. A.; Barreras, A.; Caldero?n-corte?s, J. F.; Plascencia, A.; Da?vila-ramos, H.; Estrada-angulo, A.; Valdes-garci?a, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion ...

  4. Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangrat Chookird

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

  5. Deimination of myelin basic protein. 1. Effect of deimination of arginyl residues of myelin basic protein on its structure and susceptibility to digestion by cathepsin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, L B; Joshi, S; Gowan, J J; Harauz, G; Moscarello, M A

    2000-05-01

    The effect of deimination of arginyl residues in bovine myelin basic protein (MBP) on its susceptibility to digestion by cathepsin D has been studied. Using bovine component 1 (C-1) of MBP, the most unmodified of the components with all 18 arginyl residues intact, we have generated a number of citrullinated forms by treatment of the protein with purified peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) in vitro. We obtained species containing 0-9.9 mol of citrulline/mol of MBP. These various species were digested with cathepsin D, a metalloproteinase which cleaves proteins at Phe-Phe linkages. The rate of digestion compared to component 1 was only slightly affected when 2.7 or 3.8 mol of citrulline/mol of MBP was present. With 7.0 mol of citrulline/mol of MBP, a large increase in the rate of digestion occurred. No further increase was observed with 9.9 mol of citrulline/mol of MBP. The immunodominant peptide 43-88 (bovine sequence) was released slowly when 2.7 and 3.8 mol of citrulline/mol of MBP was present, but it was released rapidly when 7.0 mol of citrulline/mol of MBP was present. The dramatic change in digestion with 7.0 mol of citrulline/mol of MBP or more could be explained by a change in three-dimensional structure. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that increasing the number of citrullinyl residues above 7 mol/mol of MBP generated a more open structure, consistent with experimental observations in the literature. We conclude that PAD, which deiminates arginyl residues in proteins, decreases both the charge and compact structure of MBP. This structural change allows better access of the Phe-Phe linkages to cathepsin D. This scheme represents an effective way of generating the immunodominant peptide which sensitizes T-cells for the autoimmune response in demyelinating disease. PMID:10820008

  6. Digestibility marker and ileal amino acid digestibility in phytase-supplemented soybean or canola meals for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, A; Ragland, D; Vieira, S L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Adeola, O

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments using soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) were conducted to investigate whether the choice of digestibility marker influenced the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N and AA in diets supplemented with phytase. In each experiment, 18 barrows fitted with T-cannulas at the ileocecal junction were assigned to 3 diets consisting of a N-free diet to determine endogenous losses of N and AA, a semipurified diet (SBM in Exp. 1 or CM in Exp. 2), and the semipurified diet supplemented with phytase at 1,000 phytase units/kg. Three digestibility markers including acid-insoluble ash (AIA), chromic oxide (Cr2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to each diet at 3 g/kg. Each diet was fed for 7 d, consisting of a 5-d adjustment and a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. In both studies, basal ileal endogenous losses determined with Cr2O3 as a digestibility marker were lower (PAIA or TiO2 digestibility markers. Using SBM as the protein source in Exp. 1, there was no interaction between phytase and digestibility marker on AID or SID of AA. The AID of N and AA in SBM using AIA as a digestibility marker tended to be lower (PAIA or Cr2O3 digestibility marker tended to be associated with lower (PAIA was used as a digestibility marker. In contrast, there were no clear improvements in AA digestibility from phytase supplementation for SBM. Phytase effects on AID or SID of AA were dependent on the digestibility marker used in diets when CM was used as the protein source but not when SBM was used as the protein source. Therefore, AA digestibility response to phytase supplementation may depend on the protein being evaluated as well as the choice of digestibility marker. PMID:25403199

  7. Paradata for 'Effects of traditional cooking methods on some antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Turkey'

    Science.gov (United States)

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Effects of traditional cooking methods on some antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Turkey'

  8. Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes / True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Ferriani, Branco; Sabrina Marcantonio, Coneglian; Fábio José, Maia; Kátia Cylene, Guimarães.

    1788-17-01

    Full Text Available A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV) com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéi [...] cos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR), na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta). A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável. Abstract in english The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were eva [...] luated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pepsin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29) had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

  9. Optimization of Immobilized Gallium (III) Ion Affinity Chromatography for Selective Binding and Recovery of Phosphopeptides from Protein Digests

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Uma K.; Olson, Douglas J. H.; Ross, Andrew R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Although widely used in proteomics research for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) often suffers from low specificity and differential recovery of peptides carrying different numbers of phosphate groups. By systematically evaluating and optimizing different loading, washing, and elution conditions, we have developed an efficient and highly selective procedure for the enrichment of phosphopeptides using a comme...

  10. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenan Koprucu; Pinar Tatli Seven; Gulizar Tuna

    2004-01-01

    Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), corn (Zea mays) gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida), gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis) and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus) exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. Th...

  11. Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felix Walter, Gutierrez; Máximo, Quispe; Luz, Valenzuela.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

  12. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Improving cell wall digestion and animal performance with fibrolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesogan, A T; Ma, Z X; Romero, J J; Arriola, K G

    2014-04-01

    This paper aimed to summarize published responses to treatment of cattle diets with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE), to discuss reasons for variable EFE efficacy in animal trials, to recommend strategies for improving enzyme testing and EFE efficacy in ruminant diets, and to identify proteomic differences between effective and ineffective EFE. A meta-analysis of 20 dairy cow studies with 30 experiments revealed that only a few increased lactational performance and the response was inconsistent. This variability is attributable to several enzyme, feed, animal, and management factors that were discussed in this paper. The variability reflects our limited understanding of the synergistic and sequential interactions between exogenous glycosyl hydrolases, autochthonous ruminal microbes, and endogenous fibrolytic enzymes that are necessary to optimize ruminal fiber digestion. An added complication is that many of the standard methods of assaying EFE activities may over- or underestimate their potential effects because they are based on pure substrate saccharification and do not simulate ruminal conditions. Our recent evaluation of 18 commercial EFE showed that 78 and 83% of them exhibited optimal endoglucanase and xylanase activities, respectively, at 50 °C, and 77 and 61% had optimal activities at pH 4 to 5, respectively, indicating that most would likely act suboptimally in the rumen. Of the many fibrolytic activities that act synergistically to degrade forage fiber, the few usually assayed, typically endoglucanase and xylanase, cannot hydrolyze the recalcitrant phenolic acid-lignin linkages that are the main constraints to ruminal fiber degradation. These factors highlight the futility of random addition of EFE to diets. This paper discusses reasons for the variable animal responses to dietary addition of fibrolytic enzymes, advances explanations for the inconsistency, suggests a strategy to improve enzyme efficacy in ruminant diets, and describes differences among the proteomes of effective and ineffective EFE. PMID:24663173

  13. Integrated SDS removal and protein digestion by hollow fiber membrane based device for SDS-assisted proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Simin; Yuan, Huiming; Chen, Yuanbo; Liang, Zheng; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-08-15

    In this work, a novel integrated sample preparation device for SDS-assisted proteome analysis was developed, by which proteins dissolved in 4% (w/v) SDS were first diluted by 50% methanol, and then SDS was online removed by a hollow fiber membrane interface (HFMI) with 50mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0) as an exchange buffer, finally digested by an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). To evaluate the performance of such an integrated device, bovine serum albumin dissolved in 4% (w/v) SDS as a model sample was analyzed; it could be found that similar to that obtained by direct analysis of BSA digests without SDS (the sequence coverage of 60.3±1.0%, n=3), with HFMI as an interface for SDS removal, BSA was identified with the sequence coverage of 61.0±1.0% (n=3). However, without SDS removal by HFMI, BSA could not be digested by the IMER and none peptides could be detected. In addition, such an integrated sample preparation device was also applied for the analysis of SDS extracted proteins from rat brain, compared to those obtained by filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), not only the identified protein group and unique peptide number were increased by 12% and 39% respectively, but also the sample pretreatment time was shortened from 24h to 4h. All these results demonstrated that such an integrated sample preparation device would provide an alternative tool for SDS assisted proteome analysis. PMID:25966408

  14. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 ?mol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 ?mol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  15. Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization aown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion. (paper)

  16. Maize silage supplementation to lower quality grass silage improves the intake, apparent digestibility and N retention in wether sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mati?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of interactions between lower quality grass silage (GS dominated by orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. and maize silage (MS (Zea mays L. on ad libitum intake, digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The study consisted of four feeding treatments involving GS and MS alone, and GS and MS mixtures in ratios of 67:33 or 33:67 (DM basis fed twice daily. The GS was harvested at the beginning of flowering of orchardgrass (about 35 % of plants were in flower while the MS used was of lower DM and starch concentration (264 g kg-1 fresh weight and 211 g kg-1 DM respectively. Mean DM content of GS was 408 g kg-1 fresh weight. MS was lower in crude protein (CP (62 g kg-1 DM than the GS (98 g kg-1 DM (P<0.001. GS contained larger quantities of neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P<0.001 than MS. Inclusion of MS in the diet (33 % vs. 67 % had positive linear effects on fresh matter (FM voluntary intake (P<0.05, digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM, digestible OM in the DM (D-value (P<0.05, starch digestibility (P<0.05, N intake (P<0.01, N output in faeces (P<0.05 and absorbed N (P<0.05. A positive associative effect of GS and MS was observed for all intake parameters measured (FM, DM, OM, NDF (quadratic, P<0.05 to P<0.01, digestibility of DM, ADF (quadratic, P<0.05, CP (quadratic, P<0.01, N intake and absorbed N (quadratic, P<0.01. It was concluded that positive interactions of GS and MS were recorded for a limited number of parameters because of the lower quality MS than required for the full benefit of two forages fed together.

  17. New technologies in proteomics: automated excision and digestion of fluorescently stained protein gel spots and identification of proteins by MALDI-QTOF mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is an overview of the techniques and systems we use for large-scale proteomics in plants. This includes a variety of 2D gel electrophoresis methods, and automation of spot-cutting, in-gel digestion, nanoLC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry and SEQUEST based protein identification. Examples and applications of several new technologies will also be shown, including the use of a robotic spot cutter in conjunction with high sensitivity fluorescent protein staining and the identification of proteins by redundant peptide identification in a high-throughput fashion using a hybrid MALDI-Qtof mass spectrometer

  18. Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (P<0.05). EB irradiation was more effective than GR irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA (P<0.05). EB and GR treatments at a dose of 75 kGy increased in vitro digestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM. - Highlights: ? Irradiation was effective on reducing ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal. ? Ionizing radiations, especially electron beam, lessened ruminal degradability of amino acid substantially. ? Irradiation processing could be used as a safe and efficient method in improving nutritional value of cottonseed meal.

  19. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131I, 125I or 82Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14C and 191Y. The use of 57Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131I, 125I and 51Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51Cr

  20. Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: intake, digestibility and microbial protein production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Aparecida Soares, Saraiva; Severino, Gonzaga Neto; Maria Fernanda Soares, Queiroz; Lara Toledo, Henriques; Edilson Paes, Saraiva; Rômulo Pontes de Freitas, Albuquerque; Vinicius de França Carvalho, Fonseca; George Vieira do, Nascimento.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried to evaluate the effect of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay [EGH], corn straw [CS], hay of cassava shoots [HCS], fresh sugarcane bagasse [FSB], and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse [HSB]) on intake, apparent digestibility and macrobiotic protein p [...] roduction of cows. Five cows with 265 kg average body weight, 4.95 kg average daily milk yield and 5.22 kg 4% fat-corrected milk yield were randomly allocated to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals fed cactus associated with CS, EGH and HCS showed higher intake of DM and nutrients. However, regarding the digestibility, diets with sugarcane bagasse showed higher digestibility compared with those with CS and hay. For microbial protein, the excretion of purine derivatives, synthesis of microbial N and microbial protein production were higher in the treatment with CS than in the treatment with sugarcane bagasse. On the other hand, the treatment with EGH and HCS did not have statistical differences compared with the other cases. The mean efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of the experiment was 131 g microbial crude protein/kg of TDN. The treatment with CS showed better efficiency; however, it was statistically superior only compared with FSB. The other treatments did not show statistical difference compared with the other cases. Diets with cactus associated with corn straw, hay of elephant grass or hay of cassava shoots provide higher intake of dry matter and nutrients and better metabolic response compared with diets with cactus associated with sugarcane bagasse for lactating Sindhi cows.

  1. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. IV. Effects of addition of fish meal and a microbial phytase to duckling diets on bird performance and amino acid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E A; Nolan, J V; Nitsan, Z; Farrell, D J

    1998-12-01

    1. Ducklings were given diets with vegetable protein (VP) and 0 or 600 g rice bran/kg; fish meal (60 g/kg) and a phytase (+, -) were added to the diets (VP + AP). An additional 40 g soyabean meal/kg was added to the diet with rice bran (VP ++). Amino acid digestibility and mineral retention were measured in the lower ileum of ducklings killed at 23 d of age. Acid insoluble ash was used as an inert marker. Trypsin and amylase activities were also measured and weights of the pancreas and small intestine recorded at slaughter. 2. Addition of soyabean meal (VP ++) to the diet with rice bran improved growth rate and food intake compared to the diet without (VP) and gave the same food intake and growth rate as the comparable basal diet (VP) without rice bran. Fish meal improved growth rate on the diets without rice bran and improved food intake on this diet (VP + AP). Rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); protein source affected growth rate, food intake and FCR; phytase increased food intake only. There were several interactions. 3. Determined total amino acid composition of the diets appeared to meet the essential amino acid requirements of ducklings. Rice bran depressed the ileal digestibility of virtually all amino acids and phytase had no direct effect, although there were interactions. Fish meal addition to diets with rice bran improved the apparent digestibility of several essential amino acids as well as that of dry matter and crude protein. 4. Ileal retention of some minerals and tibia ash content were reduced by rice bran. Fish meal and phytase inclusion increased P retention and ash in tibia. 5. Higher intestinal trypsin activity and increased pancreas size were seen in ducklings on diets with rice bran compared to those without. Intestinal amylase activity was reduced in ducklings given rice bran, probably because of its low starch content. 6. The stimulating effect of fish meal on duckling performance was probably caused in part by the improvement in the digestibility of some amino acids. The addition of small amounts of minerals in fish meal may have increased mineral retention. Phytase gave benefits anticipated from our previous work, but also improved lysine and threonine digestibility in diets containing vegetable protein only. PMID:9925313

  2. Improving anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by implementation of a hyper-thermophilic prehydrolysis step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jingquan; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on a two-step process for treatment and stabilisation of primary sludge. The process consists of a hyperthermophilic hydrolysis step operated at 70 degrees C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 clays followed by a thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion step at a HRT of 13 days. A one-step anaerobic digester operated at 55 degrees C and 15 days HRT Was used as a reference process. The two-step process was characterized by a 12% higher organic suspended solids removal efficiency and better pathogen reduction effect than the conventional one-step digestion. The microbial community of the digester fed with pre-treated sludge was characterised by it higher activity compared to that of the digester treating raw sludge. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the primary sludge resulted up to 48% increase of the methane potential (20.09 and 13.56 mmol CH4 g(-)VS(-1) with and Without pre-treatment respectively) and up to 115% increase of the methane production rate. Finally it was shown that the extra energy requirements for the operation of a pre-treatment step would be covered by the energy Produced from the extra methane production and in addition there would be it significant energy Surplus of 2.17 kJ d(-1) For the system tested.

  3. Eco-efficient post treatment of digestate from farm and collective biogas plants to improve nutrients (N&P) recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémier, Anne; Béline, Fabrice

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste from agriculture and others sectors is a widely used technology which shows increasing implementation due to its capacity to produce renewable energy and also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. The development of AD is also an opportunity to improve nutrient recycling from organic waste through the development of an eco-effi cient post-treatment system. In this context, LCA was applied to evaluate the sustainability of diff erent raw digestate post-treatment technologies regarding recycling of nutrients from agricultural and organic waste to agricultural soils for decreased resource depletion and climate mitigation. Substitution of the use of N and P mineral fertilizers with recycled soil health improver or organic fertilizers products as function of fi ve diff erent post-treatment technologies and raw digestate characteristics was evaluated. A particular attention was carried to (1) the gaseous emissions (NH3 and N2O) from process (post-treatment) but also after land spreading and (2) the carbon cycle considering the CO2 carbon costs of fertiliser production and the soil carbon sequestration benefit.

  4. / Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nivea Regina de Oliveira, Felisberto; Marcelo Teixeira, Rodrigues; Marco Aurélio Delmondes, Bomfim; Rogério da Silva, Matos; Ana Gabriela Pombo Celles, Cordeiro; Márcia Maria Cândido da, Silva.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 [...] × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

  5. Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Regina de Oliveira Felisberto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

  6. Strategies in protein sequencing and characterization: multi-enzyme digestion coupled with alternate CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen; Natale, Anna; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

    2015-01-01

    A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. PMID:25479873

  7. Quantificação de Polifenóis e Digestibilidade Protéica de Famílias de Feijoeiro Comum Polyphenol quantification and protein digestibility in common bean lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Viviane C. Egg Mendonça

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão é um dos alimentos encontrados em maior quantidade em todo o território nacional e é cultivado em quase todos os Estados. É uma importante fonte protéica na dieta do povo brasileiro, estando presente na alimentação da população rural e urbana. No presente trabalho, quantificaram-se os polifenóis e determinaram-se os níveis de digestibilidade protéica de cem famílias de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. obtidas do cruzamento entre os genótipos Amarelinho e CI 107. Os polifenóis afetam a qualidade do feijão, causando escurecimento, endurecimento e, ainda, podem reduzir a digestibilidade protéica. Pelos resultados obtidos, pôde-se encontrar 13 famílias com teores reduzidos de polifenóis e boa digestibilidade protéica in vitro, as quais poderão ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento dessa importante cultura.Common beans are one of the most important food crops in Brazil and are cultivated in almost all Brazilian states. It is an important protein source for Brazilian people in both rural and urban areas. The present work performed the quantification of phenolic compounds and in vitro protein digestibility of one hundred common bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L. obtained by crossing the genotypes "Amarelinho" and CI 107. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds affected bean cooking traits and quality through darkening and hardening of the seed coat. Phenolic compounds also influenced the in vitro protein digestibility. It was observed that all 13 lines presented low levels of phenolic compounds and good in vitro protein digestibility and, as a result, must be incorporated in the breeding programs for this important crop.

  8. The influence of irradiation treatment on gossypol and protein digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal for Broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effect of gamma irradiation (5-20 kGy) on the chemical composition, soluble protein, available lysine, gossypol, in-vitro and in vivo digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal (CSM) and the performance of broilers fed processed CSM were investigated. Radiation treatment of CSM at dose levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy did not affect moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and NFW content. However, the treatment reduced soluble protein by 4.18, 7.82, 10.91, 13.46%, respectively. Fluorodinitrobenzene-available lysine concentration reduced by 4.48, 8.12, 17.65 and 21.29% respectively. The concentrations of total gossypol decreased by 7.97, 15.78, 19.92 and 25.39% and free gossypol by 3.74, 7.85, 18.43 and 28.01%, respectively. The digestibility of CSM protein was increased by 5.3, 9.0, 16.6 and 17.2%, for in-vitro digestibility and by 4.8, 7.3, 9.4 and 12.9% for in-vivo due to treatment with 5,10, 15 and 20 kGy, respectively. From 7 to 42 days, arbor acres broilers were freely given iso energetic and iso nitrogenous : corn-soy control diet or diets containing 300 g kg-1 raw or irradiated CSM at 4, 15 or 20 kGy. Intake of raw CSM affected growth, feed intake and feed conversion as compared with birds receiving the control diet

  9. Inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 with amyloglucosidase for measuring non-digestible oligosaccharides and proposal for an improvement of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2014-05-15

    We wished to clarify the inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 for the measurement of non-digestible oligosaccharides and to propose an improved method using porcine intestinal enzymes. Amyloglucosidase used in AOAC method 2009.01 scarcely hydrolyses sucrose, palatinose and panose (which are readily digested by intestinal enzymes). Hence, oligosaccharides could not be measured accurately by AOAC method 2009.01. To confirm the inaccuracy of the method, we used porcine intestinal enzymes instead of amyloglucosidase. Using the improved method, fructooligosaccharide and galactooligosaccharide were measured accurately as non-digestible oligosaccharides, but sucrose, palatinose, panose and isomaltooligosaccharide were not. The improved method hydrolysed digestible oligosaccharides into monosaccharides. These results demonstrate that the inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 for oligosaccharide measurement is due to incomplete hydrolysis by amyloglucosidase. We propose that amyloglucosidase should be replaced with porcine intestinal enzymes for such measurements. PMID:24423568

  10. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some dietary protein sources but not others. PMID:24431326

  11. High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K

    2012-01-01

    12Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P <0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P <0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage.

  12. The major yolk protein is synthesized in the digestive tract and secreted into the body cavities in sea urchin larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuma, Tatsuya; Konishi, Kooichi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Matranga, Valeria; Yamano, Keisuke; Ohta, Hiromi; Yokota, Yukio

    2009-02-01

    Major yolk protein (MYP), a transferrin superfamily protein contained in yolk granules of sea urchin eggs, also occurs in the coelomic fluid of male and female adult sea urchins regardless of their reproductive cycle. MYP in the coelomic fluid (CFMYP; 180 kDa) has a zinc-binding capacity and has a higher molecular mass than MYP in eggs (EGMYP; 170 kDa). CFMYP is thought to be synthesized in the digestive tract and secreted into the coelomic fluid where it is involved in the transport of zinc derived from food. To clarify when and where MYP synthesis starts, we investigated the expression of MYP during larval development and growth in Pseudocentrotus depressus. MYP mRNA was detected using RT-PCR in the early 8-arm pluteus stage and its expression persisted until after metamorphosis. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that MYP mRNA increased exponentially from the early 8-arm stage to metamorphosis. Western blotting showed that maternal EGMYP disappeared by the 4-arm stage and that newly synthesized CFMYP was present at and after the mid 8-arm stage. In the late 8-arm larvae, MYP mRNA was detected in the digestive tract using in situ hybridization, and the protein was found in the somatocoel and the blastocoel-derived space between the somatocoel and epidermis using immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that CFMYP is synthesized in the digestive tract and secreted into the body cavities at and after the early 8-arm stage. We assume that in larvae, CFMYP transports zinc derived from food via the body cavities to various tissues, as suggested for adults. PMID:18500722

  13. Effect of different concentrations of protein on the digestive system of juvenile silver catfish Efeito de diferentes concentrações de proteína sobre o sistema digestivo de juvenis de jundiá

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.B. Melo; L.M. Lundstedt; G. MORAES; L.A.K.A. Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of digestion in juvenile silver catfish Rhamdia quelen fed with four levels of protein (20, 27, 34 and 41%) were studied. The studied traits were digestive enzymes (nonspecific proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase) and weight gain. The experiment lasted 60 days; 160 juvenile catfish with initial body weight of 32 grams were transferred to the experimental system of 500L tanks with re-circulated and thermostatized water. The average weight of silver catfish increased wi...

  14. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P?0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P?0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P?0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P?0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P?0.01. Significant (P?0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  15. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance. PMID:25656208

  16. Functional and anti-nutritional properties, in-vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition of dehulled afzelia africana seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of Afzelia africana seed flour showed that the seeds possessed high water absorption capacity (128.31%), good oil absorption capacity (588.49%) and fairly good emulsion property (35.25%). However, it had the Least gelation concentration (6 .00% w/v) and foaming properties ( 8.00%,3 .00%). Anti-nutritional factors were very low, with the highest being phytate (13.59/o) and tannin the least (0.43%). Total amino acid composition was 796.6 mg/g protein. Essentiaal amino acids (48.5%)w ere in high proportion with in-vitro digestibility of 71.5%. (author)

  17. Estimated requirements of net energy, digestible protein and NDF intake of young Chianina bulls from 400 kg liveweight to slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Buccioni; Sara Minieri; Mauro Antongiovanni

    2010-01-01

    Three equations have been elaborated and proposed to predict the requirements of net energy and protein digestible in the intestine and NDF voluntary intake of growing young Chianina bulls, starting from 400 kg live weight. The animals examined in the present study were 100 young Chianina bulls starting from about 400 kg live weight, at 10 months of age, up to the average slaughter weight of 800 kg at 20 months average age. The diet was based on hay and concentrates. The equation for the pred...

  18. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts inhibit carbohydrate digestion and absorption, improving postprandial glucose levels and hyperinsulinemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Lostao, María Pilar; San Román, Belén; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2013-12-11

    Several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. In this study, helichrysum ( Helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. The helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL) than ?-amylase (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). Both extracts reduced maltose digestion in noneverted intestinal sacs (57% with helichrysum and 46% with grapefruit). Likewise, both extracts inhibited SGLT1-mediated methylglucoside uptake in Caco-2 cells in the presence of Na(+) (56% of inhibition with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit). In vivo studies demonstrated that helichrysum decreased blood glucose levels after an oral maltose tolerance test (OMTT), and both extracts reduced postprandial glucose levels after the oral starch tolerance test (OSTT). Finally, both extracts improved hyperinsulinemia (31% with helichrysum and 50% with grapefruit) and HOMA index (47% with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit) in a dietary model of insulin resistance in rats. In summary, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improve postprandial glycemic control in rats, possibly by inhibiting ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzyme activities and decreasing SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. PMID:24261475

  19. Improving cultivation processes for recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprijanov, A; Schaepe, S; Aehle, M; Simutis, R; Lübbert, A

    2012-03-01

    An new cascade control system is presented that reproducibly keeps the cultivation part of recombinant protein production processes on its predetermined track. While the system directly controls carbon dioxide production mass and carbon dioxide production rates along their setpoint profiles in fed-batch cultivation, it simultaneously keeps the specific biomass growth rates and the biomass profiles on their desired paths. The control scheme was designed and tuned using a virtual plant environment based on the industrial process control system SIMATIC PCS 7 (Siemens AG). It is shown by means of validation experiments that the simulations in this straightforward approach directly reflect the experimentally observed controller behaviour. Within the virtual plant environment, it was shown that the cascade control is considerably better than previously used control approaches. The controller significantly improved the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the fermentations. Experimental tests confirmed that it is particularly suited for cultivation processes suffering from long response times and delays. The performance of the new controller is demonstrated during its application in Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivations as well as in animal cell cultures with CHO cells. The technique is a simple and reliable alternative to more sophisticate model-supported controllers. PMID:21779890

  20. Low-cost additive improved silage quality and anaerobic digestion performance of napiergrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianhua, Li; Feng, Zhen; Yongming, Sun; Zhenhong, Yuan; Xiaoying, Kong; Xianyou, Zhou; Hongzhi, Niu

    2014-12-01

    Effects of molasses-alcoholic wastewater on the ensiling quality of napiergrass were investigated at ambient temperature, and its anaerobic digestion performance was assessed at mesophilic temperature. Results showed that the molasses-alcoholic wastewater had positive effect on silage quality and anaerobic digestion performance. Lower pH values of 5.20-5.28, lower NH3-N contents of 32.65-36.60 g/kg and higher lactic acid contents of 56-61 mg/kg FM were obtained for the silage samples with molasses-alcoholic wastewater addition. Higher specific biogas yield of 273 mL/g VS was obtained for the sample with 11% molasses-alcoholic wastewater added. Therefore 11% molasses-alcoholic wastewater addition was recommended. PMID:25443806

  1. [Improvement of disintegration and anaerobic digestion for sewage sludge with ultrasonic generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qun-Fang; Chen, Mao-Zhe; Du, Xue-Juan

    2008-10-01

    Ultrasonic generating trough was applied to study the impact of ultrasonic on conditioning of sewage sludge. There are few ultrasonic generators for sludge treatment specifically, so we designed a double-frequency ultrasonic generating trough which could adjust frequency, energy density and treating time flexibly. In the research characteristics of sewage sludge treated by single-frequency and double-frequency ultrasonic were compared. According to the results, the digestion biogas of the sewage sludge treated by ultrasonic increase obviously, and the digestion biogas increment of the sewage sludge treated by single-frequency is 40.93%, higher than that treated by double-frequency. But the SCOD of the sewage sludge treated by double-frequency is 23.5%, more than that treated by single-frequency. PMID:19143377

  2. Improving bioorthogonal protein ubiquitylation by click reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Daniel; Schneider, Tatjana; Ro?sner, Daniel; Scheffner, Martin; Marx, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins with ubiquitin (ubiquitylation) regulates numerous cellular processes. Besides functioning as a signal for proteasomal degradation, ubiquitylation has also non-proteolytic functions by altering the biochemical properties of the modified protein. To investigate the effect(s) of ubiquitylation on the properties of a protein, sufficient amounts of homogenously and well-defined ubiquitylated proteins are required. Here, we report on the elaboration of a ...

  3. Energy efficiency improvement of wastewater treatment– case study of an autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion process

    OpenAIRE

    Jamniczky-Kaszas, Dora

    2010-01-01

    Environmental and legislative constraints regarding sludge disposal, such as its application on agricultural land, stimulate research in this area. Since municipalities are responsible for sludge disposal and finance it from taxpayers’ money, cost is the major constraint in providing this service. Therefore, research in this area has to provide economically viable solutions. The Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) process is one practical solution that enables the reuse of slu...

  4. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others

  5. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  6. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37±1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9-70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others. PMID:23790673

  7. Improving nutrient fixation and dry matter content of an ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion effluent by struvite formation and clay adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Maria M; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J; Morken, John

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes that contain nitrogen leads to its mineralization, yielding a digestate rich in ammonium (NH(4)(+)), an important fertilizing nutrient. The applicability of AD digestate as fertilizer can be improved by fixating the nutrients and increasing its dry matter content. Methods for the fixation and recovery of the digestate's NH(4)(+) and possible also PO(4)(3-) include struvite precipitation and adsorption in clay materials such as bentonite. These techniques were tested in batch experiments employing the liquid fraction of a digestate originating from the AD of a substrate mix containing lignocellulose, cattle manure and fish industrial waste. The concentration of NH(4)(+)-N in this digestate was 2,300 mg L?¹. Struvite precipitation conditions at a molar ratio of 1.2:1:1 (Mg²?:NH(4)(+):PO(4)(3-)) and pH 9.5 were best in terms of simultaneous removal of NH(4)(+)-N (88%), PO(4)(3-) (60%) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (44%). Bentonite adsorption gave comparably high removal levels for NH(4)(+)-N (82%) and PO(4)(3-) (52%). Analysis of the precipitates' morphology and elemental composition confirmed their struvite and bentonite nature. Dry matter content was increased from 5.8% in the AD digestate to 27% and 22% in the struvite and bentonite sludges, respectively. PMID:25051482

  8. Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwar Rupinder K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC, heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested and digested (Enprocal D selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells. Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80, MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-? and up-regulated IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.

  9. Improvement of protein content in winter wheat with physicochemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation is one of the approaches to improve the protein content of wheat. In present experiments the wheat mutation contained high protein, gluten and lysine were obtained by means of treating dry seeds with different physicochemical mutation. The procedure of breeding for improving the qiality of wheat was found

  10. Principal component analysis and biochemical characterization of protein and starch reveal primary targets for improving sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large variation characterizes the digestibility of protein and starch in sorghum grain. Since the utility of the grain largely depends on its digestibility, numerous in vitro digestion assays have been developed to assess these variations. In this study, we applied multiple techniques to assess the ...

  11. Quantificação de Polifenóis e Digestibilidade Protéica de Famílias de Feijoeiro Comum / Polyphenol quantification and protein digestibility in common bean lineages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Viviane C. Egg, Mendonça; Celeste M. Patto de, Abreu; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Custódio Donizete dos, Santos; Augusto Ramalho de, Morais.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão é um dos alimentos encontrados em maior quantidade em todo o território nacional e é cultivado em quase todos os Estados. É uma importante fonte protéica na dieta do povo brasileiro, estando presente na alimentação da população rural e urbana. No presente trabalho, quantificaram-se os polif [...] enóis e determinaram-se os níveis de digestibilidade protéica de cem famílias de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) obtidas do cruzamento entre os genótipos Amarelinho e CI 107. Os polifenóis afetam a qualidade do feijão, causando escurecimento, endurecimento e, ainda, podem reduzir a digestibilidade protéica. Pelos resultados obtidos, pôde-se encontrar 13 famílias com teores reduzidos de polifenóis e boa digestibilidade protéica in vitro, as quais poderão ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento dessa importante cultura. Abstract in english Common beans are one of the most important food crops in Brazil and are cultivated in almost all Brazilian states. It is an important protein source for Brazilian people in both rural and urban areas. The present work performed the quantification of phenolic compounds and in vitro protein digestibil [...] ity of one hundred common bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) obtained by crossing the genotypes "Amarelinho" and CI 107. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds affected bean cooking traits and quality through darkening and hardening of the seed coat. Phenolic compounds also influenced the in vitro protein digestibility. It was observed that all 13 lines presented low levels of phenolic compounds and good in vitro protein digestibility and, as a result, must be incorporated in the breeding programs for this important crop.

  12. The challenge of on-tissue digestion for MALDI MSI- a comparison of different protocols to improve imaging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Hanna C; Beine, Birte; Elm, Julian; Trede, Dennis; Ahrens, Maike; Eisenacher, Martin; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Henkel, Corinna

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become a powerful and successful tool in the context of biomarker detection especially in recent years. This emerging technique is based on the combination of histological information of a tissue and its corresponding spatial resolved mass spectrometric information. The identification of differentially expressed protein peaks between samples is still the method's bottleneck. Therefore, peptide MSI compared to protein MSI is closer to the final goal of identification since peptides are easier to measure than proteins. Nevertheless, the processing of peptide imaging samples is challenging due to experimental complexity. To address this issue, a method development study for peptide MSI using cryoconserved and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) rat brain tissue is provided. Different digestion times, matrices, and proteases were tested to define an optimal workflow for peptide MSI. All practical experiments were done in triplicates and analyzed by the SCiLS Lab software, using structures derived from myelin basic protein (MBP) peaks, principal component analysis (PCA) and probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) to rate the experiments' quality. Blinded experimental evaluation in case of defining countable structures in the datasets was performed by three individuals. Such an extensive method development for peptide matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging experiments has not been performed so far, and the resulting problems and consequences were analyzed and discussed. PMID:25687681

  13. A comparative study of in-gel digestions using microwave and pressure-accelerated technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Rudy; Tran, Diana; Ching, Bonnie; Phinney, Brett S

    2010-09-01

    One of the most popular methods to prepare tryptic peptides for bottom-up proteomic analysis is in-gel digestion. To date, there have been few studies comparing various digestion methods. In this study, we compare the efficiency of several popular in-gel digestion methods, along with new technologies that may improve digestion efficiency, using a human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysate protein standard. The efficiency of each protocol was based on the average number of proteins identified and their respective sequence coverage and relative quantitation using spectral counting. The importance of this study lies in its comparison of pre-existing in-gel digestion methods with those that use newly developed technologies that may introduce the potential for a more cost-effective digestion, higher protein yield, and an overall reduction in processing time. The following four protocols were compared: an overnight in-gel digestion protocol; an overnight in-gel digestion protocol, in which we remove the vacuum centrifugation steps; in-gel digestion in a barometric pressure cycler; and in-gel digestion in a scientific microwave. Several variables were tested for increased digestion efficiency and decreased keratin contamination. Statistical analysis was performed on replicate samples to determine significant differences between protocols. PMID:20808644

  14. Non Starch Polysaccharidase - A Potent tool in improving fibre digestibility in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancy Mary Issac

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of rumen fermentation by using feed additives has been gaining popularity in ruminant nutrition in recent years. One such approach is the use of fibrolytic enzymes in the treatment of feedstuffs to enhance their digestibility. The better understanding of the production techniques, enzyme activity, mode of enzyme action and application techniques of commercial non starch polysaccharidase enzymes can help the scientific community for competent utilization of these biotechnological products for efficient utilization of the available feed resources. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 142-144

  15. Studies on the digestibility of microbial cell protein in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digestibility of cell wall, cell contents and mixed whole 35S-rumen bacteria and 14C-protozoal cells was determined in buffalo calves. The intact cells as well as their fractions were injected in a single dose into the rumen after treating with formaldehyde to protect degradation in the rumen and radioactivity excreted in the faeces was measured for six consecutive days. The indigestibility of mixed whole rumen bacteria, cell wall and cell contents was observed to be 87.13 +- 0.61, 92.77 +- 0.83 and 83.62 +- 1.10 percent, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of mixed whole rumen protozoa, cell wall, cell content and Holotrics were 90.95 +- 0.39, 94.39 +- 1.08, 89.01 +- 0.97 and 93.16 +- 0.69 percent, respectively. (auth.)

  16. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2010-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple multilayer random crosslinking of the trypsin molecules onto magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while the conventional immobilization of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to t...

  17. Highly stable trypsin-aggregate coatings on polymer nanofibers for repeated protein digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Lee, Sang-Mok; Ahn, Hye-Kyung; Nair, Sujith; Kim, Seong H; Kim, Beom Soo; Petritis, Konstantinos; Camp, David G.; Grate, Jay W.; Smith, Richard D.; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2009-01-01

    A stable and robust trypsin-based biocatalytic system was developed and demonstrated for proteomic applications. The system utilizes polymer nanofibers coated with trypsin aggregates for immobilized protease digestions. After covalently attaching an initial layer of trypsin to the polymer nanofibers, highly concentrated trypsin molecules are crosslinked to the layered trypsin by way of a glutaraldehyde treatment. This process produced a 300-fold increase in trypsin activity compared with a co...

  18. Digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets containing non conventional vegetable proteins fed to pigs of genetic strains suitable for outdoor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate on growing pigs kept in metabolism crates, either belonging to a “traditional” cross-breed (Duroc x Large White – DLW or a local breed (Cinta Senese – CS, the digestibility and the nitrogen balance of non-conventional vegetable protein sources (field beans, pea and sunflower cake when compared to soybean meal. The four diets were formulated so as to supply the same crude protein amount. CS pigs showed lower apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for crude protein (81,38% vs 82,65% and crude fibre (35,97% vs 40,65%. Nitrogen balance was more favourable in DLW pigs (32,12% vs 19,67% which showed a higher nitrogen retention (+69%.With respect to the protein source, no differences were observed for nitrogen balance. Sunflower diet showed the higher ADC for ether extract (+20% compared with soybean diet. Crude fibre digestibility was lowered in sunflower (-33% and field beans (-13% diets. Sunflower and field beans diets showed the lowest gross energy digestibility coefficients. Field pea diet had the highest ADC for crude fibre (+ 12% leading to ADCs for organic matter and gross energy comparable to those of soybean meal. It is concluded that field bean, sunflower cake and field pea could be considered as valuable non-conventional protein sources in swine nutrition.

  19. Bioinsecticidal activity of Talisia esculenta reserve protein on growth and serine digestive enzymes during larval development of Anticarsia gemmatalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Freire, Maria das Graças M; Kubo, Carlos Eduardo G; Parra, José Roberto P

    2011-01-01

    Plants synthesize a variety of molecules to defend themselves against an attack by insects. Talisin is a reserve protein from Talisia esculenta seeds, the first to be characterized from the family Sapindaceae. In this study, the insecticidal activity of Talisin was tested by incorporating the reserve protein into an artificial diet fed to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, the major pest of soybean crops in Brazil. At 1.5% (w/w) of the dietary protein, Talisin affected larval growth, pupal weight, development and mortality, adult fertility and longevity, and produced malformations in pupae and adult insects. Talisin inhibited the trypsin-like activity of larval midgut homogenates. The trypsin activity in Talisin-fed larvae was sensitive to Talisin, indicating that no novel protease-resistant to Talisin was induced in Talisin-fed larvae. Affinity chromatography showed that Talisin bound to midgut proteinases of the insect A. gemmatalis, but was resistant to enzymatic digestion by these larval proteinases. The transformation of genes coding for this reserve protein could be useful for developing insect resistant crops. PMID:20692365

  20. The Effects of Soluble Protein and Sugar Concentration on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Crossbred Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanin Opatpattanakit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of varying the Soluble Protein (SP and sugar concentration in total mixed rations. Four crossbred Thai native steers, 24126 kg BW, fitted with rumen cannulae were arranged in a 4x4 Latin square design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The steers were fed treatment rations with varied SP (60.0 or 80.0% of CP and sugar (11.0 or 22.0% of DM levels. Steers fed a high SP diet tended to exhibit a decrease in their DMI (p3-N, BUN and BG levels were not significantly different after increasing the intake of SP or sugar. Increasing the SP and sugar levels did not affect the total VFA concentration in the rumen however, feeding a high SP diet tended to decrease the acetate concentration (p<0.10; 55.5 and 64.8%. The high SP-level diet decreased the total tract ADF (p<0.05, DM and OM (p<0.10 digestibility. This study indicated that a low SP and sugar level diet had more positive effects on the intake, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in crossbred Thai steers.

  1. Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Igo Gomes, Guimarães; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Rosângela do Nascimento, Fernandes.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and dry matter (DM) and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal) in compou [...] nd diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582), and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

  2. Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igo Gomes Guimarães

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of gross energy and dry matter (DM and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal in compound diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582, and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

  3. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  4. Apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acid in feedstuffs used in Nile Tilapia feed as determined by the technique of dissection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Patrícia de Souza Lima, Cunha; Sylvia Sanae, Takishita; Rafael Alves, Vianna.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal) in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of the Thai strain during the growt [...] h phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time) into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus) using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.

  5. Intake and Digestibility of Cattle’s Ration on Complete Feed Based-On Fermented Ammonization Rice Straw with Different Protein Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ballo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complete feed (CF utilization is expected to have impact on higher productivity due to increased intake and digestibility. The objective of research was to evaluate the effects of different level protein of CF based-on fermented ammonization (amofer rice straw to Simmental offspring intake and digestibility  Twenty males Simmental offspring with average live weight 372.15± 26.64 kg (coefficient of variance 7.16% were used in this study. Feed treatment consisted of BC Nutrifeed 132 concentrate as control feed (T0 and CF based-on amofer rice straw consisted of T1, T2, T3 and T4 which had crude protein content 11, 12, 13 and 14% respectively and also total digestible nutrients (TDN ±  62%. Completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates were designed for this research. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA at 95% significance level. The results showed that different crude protein did not affect the intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and TDN. It was significantly affected the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein (pDoi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.86-91 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, S.,  Christiyanto, M. and Ballo, F. (2013. Intake and Digestibility of Cattle’s Ration On Complete Feed Based-On Fermented Ammonization Rice Straw  With Different Protein Level.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,86-91. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.86-91

  6. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P34 kDa; Pkiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins. PMID:24252432

  7. Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobedo-Lozano, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitated and characterized. 496 g of demineralized exoskeleton were obtained from 1 kg of shrimp shell; out of these, 376 g corresponded to chitin and 120 g corresponded to protein Total protein content was 33.80 ± 0.34 %. The digestible protein fractions were 26.7 g and 92.1 g were insoluble proteins. Of this latter fraction, the largest proportion belonged to the scleroprotein type. The amino acid profile analysis from the recovered proteins indicated that there were present nine amino acids out of the ten essential ones, being leucine the one with the highest proportion. In vitro digestibility was shown to be up to an 83.7 %. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the recovery of digestibleproteins from shrimp exoskeleton may be useful in diet formulation.

  8. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (Pdogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

  9. Evanescent wave-initiated photopolymerisation as a new way to create monolithic open-tubular capillary columns: use as enzymatic microreactor for on-line protein digestion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abele, S.; Smejkal, Petr; Yavorska, O.; Foret, František; Macka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 135, ?. 3 (2010), s. 477-481. ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06023; GA AV ?R KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : photopolymerisation * light- emitting -diode * on-line protein digestion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.913, year: 2010

  10. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres, using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (1): Viscosity measurement and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemejane, C; Wahl, R; Aymard, P; Denis, S; Michon, C

    2015-09-01

    The effects of biscuit composition on the viscosity generated during digestion were investigated. A control biscuit, one with proteins, one with fibres, and one with both proteins and fibres were digested under the same conditions, using the TNO intestinal model (TIM-1). The TIM-1 is a multi-compartmental and dynamic in vitro system, simulating digestion in the upper tract (stomach and small intestine) of healthy adult humans. Digesta were collected at different times, in the different compartments of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and viscosity was measured with a dynamic rheometer. Results showed a marked effect of biscuit composition on chyme viscosity. Highest viscosity was obtained with biscuits containing viscous soluble fibres, followed by those enriched in both proteins and fibres, then by protein-enriched and control biscuits. The viscosity was maintained throughout the gut up to the ileal compartment. A prediction of the evolution of the chyme viscosity in each compartment of the TIM-1 was built, based on model curves describing the evolution of the viscosity as a function of biscuit concentration, and on dilution factors measured by spectrophotometry on a blank digestion. PMID:25842308

  11. Thermophilic and cellulolytic consortium isolated from composting plants improves anaerobic digestion of cellulosic biomass: Toward a microbial resource management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinet, R; Destain, J; Hiligsmann, S; Thonart, P; Delhalle, L; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Delvigne, F

    2015-08-01

    A cellulolytic consortium was isolated from a composting plant in order to boost the initial hydrolysis step encountered in anaerobic digestion. Improvement of the cellulose degradation, as well as biogas production, was observed for the cultures inoculated with the exogenous consortium. Metagenomics analyses pointed out a weak richness (related to the number of OTUs) of the exogenous consortium induced by the selective pressure (cellulose as sole carbon source) met during the initial isolation steps. Main microbial strains determined were strictly anaerobic and belong to the Clostridia class. During cellulose anaerobic degradation, pH drop induced a strong modification of the microbial population. Despite the fact that richness and evenness were very weak, the exogenous consortium was able to adapt and to maintain the cellulolytic degradation potential. This important result point out the fact that simplified microbial communities could be used in order to increase the robustness of mixed cultures involved in environmental biotechnology. PMID:25879181

  12. Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and in Vitro Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suma Pushparaj

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich fraction roasting, boiling, pressure cooking & germination respectively. Processing had little effect on the total dietary fiber (TDF content in both varieties; however the bran rich fraction showed highest TDF content of around 29%. Tannins effectively lowered upon boiling and pressure cooking respectively, but significantly increased (P ? 0.05 upon germination. Although the % IVPD of the millet (45.5 – 49.3 g/100g was low, it significantly increased upon milling (bran rich fraction, roasting and germination respectively.

  13. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bassompierre, M.; Kjar, A.; Ewen McLean

    1997-01-01

    A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro tec...

  14. Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker in digestibility studies with dogs, blue foxes and mink fed diets containing different protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhile, S G; Skrede, A; Ahlstrøm, O; Hove, K

    2007-10-01

    The study evaluated the use of yttrium oxide (Y(2)O(3)) as an inert marker in studies of apparent total tract digestibility in dogs, blue foxes and mink. Comparison was made with total faecal collection, and use of chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) as marker respectively. Four experimental diets were added 0.1 g/kg yttrium oxide and 10 g/kg chromic oxide and fed to four animals of each species. Faecal recovery of yttrium oxide was 94.4% (SEM +/- 1.0), and of chromic oxide 105.8% (SEM +/- 1.5). The digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, starch and total carbohydrates obtained by total collection and yttrium oxide as marker showed close similarity, and in most cases not significant differences, independent of species and diets. In dogs, overall digestibilities of main nutrients with chromic oxide as marker were not significantly different from overall means obtained with yttrium oxide (p > 0.05). Overall digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and total carbohydrates in blue foxes and mink was significantly higher with chromic oxide than with yttrium oxide (p foxes, digestibilities of individual amino acids determined by use of yttrium oxide were not different from values obtained using total collection of faeces, both within diets and for overall mean (p > 0.05). Overall amino acid digestibilities in dogs determined with chromic oxide as marker were similar to corresponding figures for yttrium oxide, whereas use of chromic oxide resulted in significantly higher digestibilites for a number of amino acids compared with yttrium oxide in foxes and mink (p diet and method (p > 0.05). The study showed that yttrium oxide can be used in low concentration in the feed, and allows high accuracy of analyses and thereby precise digestibility determination. It is concluded that yttrium oxide is an alternative inert marker to chromic oxide in the studied species. PMID:17845245

  15. Online deuterium hydrogen exchange and protein digestion coupled with ion mobility spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Arndt, James R; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-05-19

    Online deuterium hydrogen exchange (DHX) and pepsin digestion (PD) is demonstrated using drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS) coupled with linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometry (MS) with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) capabilities. DHX of deuterated ubiquitin, followed by subsequent quenching and digestion, is performed within ?60 s, yielding 100% peptide sequence coverage. The high reproducibility of the IMS separation allows spectral feature matching between two-dimensional IMS-MS datasets (undeuterated and deuterated) without the need for dataset alignment. Extracted ion drift time distributions (XIDTDs) of deuterated peptic peptides are mobility-matched to corresponding XIDTDs of undeuterated peptic peptides that were identified using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Matching XIDTDs allows a straightforward identification and deuterium retention evaluation for labeled peptides. Aside from the mobility separation, the ion trapping capabilities of the LTQ, combined with ETD, are demonstrated to provide single-residue resolution. Deuterium retention for the c- series ions across residues M(1)-L(15) and N(25)-R(42) are in good agreement with the known secondary structural elements within ubiquitin. PMID:25893550

  16. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas práticas com diferentes relações energia: proteína em juvenis de pirarucu / Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Akifumi, Ono; Érica da Silva Santiago, Nunes; Jimmy Carlos Campos, Cedano; Manoel, Pereira Filho; Rodrigo, Roubach.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e energia de dietas para juvenis de pirarucu, Arapaima gigas. Foram testadas oito dietas, contendo quatro relações energia:proteína (11, 10,1, 9, 8 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta) e duas fontes de [...] energia não-protéica (óleo de soja e gordura de aves), em esquema fatorial 4x2, com três repetições. Foram estocados 240 juvenis de pirarucu com peso de 96,8±2,3 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques cilíndricos com fundo cônico, adaptados para a coleta de fezes (sistema Guelph modificado). Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade aparente com as dietas experimentais contendo 0,5% de óxido de cromo, como marcador inerte para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. As dietas com a relação energia:proteína de 9 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta apresentaram os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrativo não nitrogenado. O maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da gordura foi obtido com o uso do óleo de soja. A relação energia:proteína na dieta influencia os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos macronutrientes e energia no pirarucu. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of diets for pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) juveniles. Eight experimental diets containing four energy:protein ratios (11, 10.1, 9, 8 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein) and two non-protein energy [...] sources (soybean oil and poultry fat) were tested in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in triplicates. Two hundred and forty pirarucu juveniles weighting 96.8±2.3 g were distributed in 24 cylindrical-conical fiberglass tanks, adapted for feces collection (modified Guelph system). Fish were fed twice a day to apparent satiation, with experimental diets containing 0.5% of chromium oxide as inert marker in order to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients. Diets containing an energy:protein ratio of 9 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein resulted in significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, crude protein and non-nitrogenous extract. The highest apparent digestibility coefficients for crude fat was obtained with soybean oil. The dietary energy:protein ratio influences the nutrient and energy apparent digestibility coefficients to pirarucu juveniles.

  17. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas práticas com diferentes relações energia: proteína em juvenis de pirarucu Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Akifumi Ono

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e energia de dietas para juvenis de pirarucu, Arapaima gigas. Foram testadas oito dietas, contendo quatro relações energia:proteína (11, 10,1, 9, 8 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta e duas fontes de energia não-protéica (óleo de soja e gordura de aves, em esquema fatorial 4x2, com três repetições. Foram estocados 240 juvenis de pirarucu com peso de 96,8±2,3 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques cilíndricos com fundo cônico, adaptados para a coleta de fezes (sistema Guelph modificado. Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade aparente com as dietas experimentais contendo 0,5% de óxido de cromo, como marcador inerte para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. As dietas com a relação energia:proteína de 9 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta apresentaram os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrativo não nitrogenado. O maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da gordura foi obtido com o uso do óleo de soja. A relação energia:proteína na dieta influencia os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos macronutrientes e energia no pirarucu.The objective of this work was to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of diets for pirarucu (Arapaima gigas juveniles. Eight experimental diets containing four energy:protein ratios (11, 10.1, 9, 8 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein and two non-protein energy sources (soybean oil and poultry fat were tested in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in triplicates. Two hundred and forty pirarucu juveniles weighting 96.8±2.3 g were distributed in 24 cylindrical-conical fiberglass tanks, adapted for feces collection (modified Guelph system. Fish were fed twice a day to apparent satiation, with experimental diets containing 0.5% of chromium oxide as inert marker in order to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients. Diets containing an energy:protein ratio of 9 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein resulted in significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, crude protein and non-nitrogenous extract. The highest apparent digestibility coefficients for crude fat was obtained with soybean oil. The dietary energy:protein ratio influences the nutrient and energy apparent digestibility coefficients to pirarucu juveniles.

  18. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2015-01-01

    Mussels cultured on lines for nine months and harvested in March were boiled to remove shells and processed into a dry meal or a silage acidified by formic acid. Starfish meal was prepared from starfish caught in May, and a starfish juice fraction was obtained by pressing fresh starfish. Commercial fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in the experiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131–162g CP/kg and 5g chromic oxide/kg. Endogenous losses of protein and AA were estimated by feeding an N-free diet. On a dry matter (DM) basis, mussel meal contained 605g, mussel silage 575g, starfish meal 700g, starfish juice 393g, and fish silage 776g CP/kg. The ratio of AA to CP ranged from 0.83 to 0.87. The content of crude fat was high in the mussel products (157–161g/kg DM), and the starfish meal and juice were highin ash (203 and 474g/kg DM) with one-fourth being calcium. The AID of CP was 0.74, 0.81, 0.70, and 0.61 for mussel meal, mussel silage, starfish meal, and fish silage. The SID of CP was 0.83, 0.87, 0.80, and 0.68 for mussel meal, mussel silage, starfish meal, and fish silage. For both CP and AA digestibility, the lowest (P

  19. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  20. Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo para beta (Betta splendens. Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens. Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

  1. Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta / Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio, Zuanon; Hamilton, Hisano; Dario Rocha, Falcon; Fernanda Garcia, Sampaio; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB) e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe) e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo) para beta (Betta splendens). Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários [...] de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário) para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held [...] in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium) for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

  2. [The behavior of visceral proteins in digestive surgery patients undergoing total peripheral parenteral nutrition enriched with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Coracho, P; Bellón Caneiro, J M; García Parreño, J; Pérez Fraguero, R; García González, F

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this study, is to confirm a clear benefit of protein synthesis after administration of branched amino acids in parenteral nutrition solutions. Particularly, on a parenteral total hypocaloric nutrition including lipids. Eighty one digestive surgical patients, were included in this study. Fifty with neoplastic disease and thirty one without. Patients in both study groups received a similar peripheral vein nutritional support regimen one week after surgical treatment. To evaluate the effects of the branched chain amino acid enrichment on total parenteral nutrition, we observed the behavior of short middle life proteins such as transferrin, prealbumin, and retinol binding protein, for their reliability as indexes of protein synthesis. PMID:1768467

  3. HOMOGENIZATION, LYOPHILIZATION OR ACID-EXTRACTION OF MEAT PRODUCTS IMPROVES IRON UPTAKE FROM CEREAL-MEAT PRODUCT COMBINATIONS IN AN IN VITRO DIGESTION/CACO-2 CELL MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to develop improved infant foods (i.e. for infants 6-12 mos. of age), the effect of processing meat (i.e. homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) on iron uptake from meat combined with iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using a simulated digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was coo...

  4. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Dye; David Chesters; Peter Allan; Elaine Howarth; Jenny Walton; Alexa Hoyland; Lawton, Clare L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (

  5. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  6. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  7. Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Rodriguez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das frações solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73% e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%. O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16% e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%. Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado. Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten, com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue.This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. The soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73% and highest intestinal digestibility (98%. Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16% and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously. Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility. Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

  8. Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína / Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.M., Rodriguez; J.F.C., Moreira; P.C.C., Fernandes; C.M., Veloso; E.O.S., Saliba; I., Borges; L.C., Gonçalves; A.L.C.C., Borges.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das fraç [...] ões solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73%) e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%). O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16%) e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%). Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado). Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten), com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. T [...] he soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73%) and highest intestinal digestibility (98%). Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16%) and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously). Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility). Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

  9. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H. Y.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P.; Yi, J. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Li, Q. Y.; Liu, J. D.; Wang, G. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide) replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets rep...

  10. Improvement of protein quality in grain legumes. An overview on mutational improvement of protein quality in pigeon pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain legumes provide an essential part of the diet in developing countries in terms of protein. Besides increasing production also improving the grain quality would be an important objective. The paper discusses the methodology for protein improvement in seeds of pigeon pea. Variety Hy-2 was irradiated with 20, 25, 30 and 35 Kr of gamma radiation and the M2 population was screened for total sulfur content

  11. Optimum ratio of histidine in the piglet ideal protein model and its effects on body metabolism. I. Basal diet formulation based on digestible amino acids according to the ideal protein model for 10 to 20 kg piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J H; Li, D F; Gong, L M; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, D F

    2002-04-01

    A 4 x 4 Latin square design was used to determine ileal apparent digestibility of amino acids (AAs) in corn, soybean meal, feather meal and dried whey in young pigs. The data were then to be used in formulating a basal diet for studies on AA metabolism in young pigs. Eight castrates T-cannulated at terminal ileum (average initial body weight 12.5 +/- 0.62 kg) were divided into 4 groups on the basis of body weight and transferred to individual metabolism crates. They were then fed four experimental diets containing the four feedstuffs to be tested (corn, soybean meal, feather meal and dried whey). The trial lasted 20 days, which included 4 five-day periods for ileal digesta collection. It was found that the digestibility of the AAs was similar to that reported in literature. Based on the findings a basal diet for this research was formulated according to an ideal protein model for the 10 to 20 kg piglet, on the basis of digestible AAs and containing 14.13 MJ/kg digestible energy, 18.22% crude protein, 1.04% digestible lysine and 0.23% digestible histidine. PMID:12389225

  12. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  13. Polyacrylamide gel miniaturization improves protein visualization and autoradiographic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide gels shrink to one-quarter of their original area when soaked in a 50% (w/v) solution of polyethylene glycol. Gel miniaturization improves the contrast of protein bands, with four valuable consequences. (i) A 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity for Coomassie blue is observed. (ii) Gels are more durable; i.e., they resist tearing when wet and they do not crack during drying under vacuum. (iii) Shrunken gels give sharper photographic images and provide better interlane protein band comparisons. (iv) Condensed protein bands lead to an increased sensitivity for detecting low-abundance, radioactively-labeled proteins by fluorography

  14. Effect of Supplementation of Ogi a Pearl Millet Based Nigerian Weaning Food, With Cowpea, on Chemical Composition, Sensory and in vitro Protein Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modu S.H. Zanna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the supplementation of ogi a weaning food produced from different pearl millet varieties with cowpea was carried out. The proximate composition of the ogi/cowpea blends shows that, the moisture content within the ogis blends ranged from 8.48 ± 0.58 for GB 8735 to 9.31 ± 0.35 for Zango, respectively. The crude protein of the ogi/cowpea blends ranged from 8.60 ± 0.36 for GB 8735 to 9.27 ± 0.10 for Gwagwa. GB 8735 ogi blend, an improved variety had the higher carbohydrate content compared to the two local varieties, Gwagwa and Zango, respectively. The digestibility at 2 h ranged from 52.6 ± 1.1 for Gwagwa to 59.4 ± 7.8 for Zango both being local cultivars, with the improved variety GB-8735 recording 53.7 ± 1.5. The same pattern was observed at the 4th h for the three varieties. But at 6th h of incubation, GB-8735 recorded the highest digestibility of 89.0 ± 9.1 followed by Zango 69.8 ± 8.1 and Gwagwa recording 60.0 ± 0.8. The result for the sensory evaluation test for the ogi/cowpea blends revealed that, all the parameters evaluated gave a statistically significant (p<0.05 differences, except for overall acceptability. GB 8735, an improved variety recorded the highest score in colour, taste and overall acceptability, while Gwagwa a local variety recorded highest in texture and is next to GB 8735 in terms of taste. The viscosity characteristics of the cowpea flour and their ogi blends shows that, the pure ogi product recorded higher viscosity values compared to their respective blends. The cowpea blend alone had the least viscosity compared to the pure ogi and their blends. This shows that, ogi from any one of the cereals blends is acceptable and can be use as a weaning complementary food.

  15. [Protein and energy value of spiruline blue algae supplemented by amino acids: digestive and metabolic utilization by the growing rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorel, M; Toullec, G; Dumond, D; Pion, R

    1975-01-01

    Protein and energy value of 6 samples of "Spirulina" was studied on growing rats in 1972 and 1973. Sample RL 1(Spirulina platensis, originating from Tchad) was grown in artifical conditions in a laboratory. Others samples (Spirulina maxima) were grown in the solar evaporator near Mexico, washed and dried either on heated rollers (MR8, MR13) or by spraying (MA 7, MA10). Sample MA10 D corresponds to sample MA10, bleached by ethanol plus acetone (Baron, 1975). Each Spirulina sample was the only protein source of balanced, starch diets. The diets were supplemented in essential amino acids (E.A.A.) according to the requirements of growing rats (table 1). The ratios [(digestible nitrogen/metabolisable energy (EM] of the Spirulina diets were similar to that of the control diets containing herring meal. The diets were fed to groups of 15 to 17 growing rats. Energy and nitrogen balances were established by the comparative slaughter technique. Blood and muscle samples were taken at slaughter for the determination of free amino acids levels. PMID:824996

  16. Protein digestibility of ruminant feeds by the three-step procedure Digestibilidade da proteína de alimentos utilizados na alimentação de ruminantes pelo método das três etapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Mario Rodíguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The three-step procedure was used to evaluate ruminal degradable and undegradable protein of soybean meal (SM, sorghum grain (SG, cottonseed (CT, corn silage (CS and tomato byproduct (TBP. Feeds were initially incubated in rumen of fistulated steers for 16 h. After that, 15mg of nitrogen were submitted to acid pepsin, for one hour, and alkaline pepsin for 24 h. The SM and CT showed 97 and 93% total protein digestibility, which is the major portion available in the rumen (94 and 92% respectively. The SG protein showed the lowest digestibility (73% followed by TBP and CS that had 72 and 73% total protein digestibility. It was concluded that SM and CT showed high protein digestibility, however the most portion was degraded in the rumen and that besides the high lignin proportion, the TBP was the one which supplied more available intestinal protein.Avaliaram-se as proporções de proteína degradável e não-degradável no rúmen do farelo de soja (FS, sorgo grão (SG, caroço de algodão (CA, silagem de milho (SM e do resíduo industrial de tomate (RIT pelo método das três etapas. Os alimentos foram inicialmente incubados por 16h no rúmen de bovinos fistulados. Posteriormente, uma quantidade que continha 15mg de nitrogênio foi submetida à digestão em pepsina ácida por uma hora e em pancreatina alcalina por 24h. O FS e o CA apresentaram 97 e 93% de digestibilidade da PB, estando a maior parte desse nitrogênio disponível no rúmen (94 e 92% respectivamente. A proteína do SG apresentou o menor valor de digestibilidade (64%, sendo seguida pelo RIT e pela SM, que apresentaram 72 e 73% de proteína total digestível. Concluiuse que o FS e o CA apresentaram elevada digestibilidade da proteína, entretanto, a maior parte do desaparecimento ocorreu no rúmen. Apesar da elevada proporção de proteína indigestível, o RIT foi o alimento que mais disponibilizou proteína para ser digerida no intestino.

  17. Effect of Protein to Energy Ratio on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Enzymatic Digestive Activity of Juvenile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus Reared in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Rivas-Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible Protein to Energy ratio (P/E on growth performance, body composition and enzymatic digestive activity of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus reared in seawater. Six diets were evaluated (30, 23, 20, 15, 10 and 8 P/E on the growth, digestibility, body composition and enzymatic digestive activity of juvenile tilapia. The results indicated that the P/E ratios in diets, significantly affects the growth, survival, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, lipid content in the body and enzymatic digestive activity. Maximum body weight was recorded in the treatments with P/E ratios of 30, 23 and 20 (20.6, 23.7 and 25.7 g, respectively and minimum body weight (5.9 g was recorded with P/E ratio of 8. The FCR increased significantly in P/E levels of 15, 10 and 8 mg/kJ. In conclusion, the best P/E ratio to culture juvenile tilapia in seawater was estimated in 27 mg/kJ.

  18. Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by mobile bag incubated with or without pepsin-HCl and three-step techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Paengkoum; S., Traiyakun; S., Paengkoum.

    Full Text Available Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted [...] with permanent rumen and duodenal cannulae. Intestinal digestibility was measured using the mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique with or without incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution, and a three-step in vitro technique. The rate of ruminal disappearances of DM and CP, and the potential degradation of CP from nylon bags of both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than that for leucaena fodder. Potential degradation (A+B) values of CP were 45.6%, 54.2% and 52.8% for leucaena, Madras thorn and moringa fodders, respectively. Average DM and CP digestibility in the intestine and total tract for both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than for leucaena fodder. Average digestibility of DM and CP in the intestine and total tract measured using MNB without pepsin-HCl solution was significantly lower than with pepsin-HCl and with the three-step methods. These data suggest that the results of in vivo and in vitro methods for estimating intestinal digestibility are similar, though in all methods the incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution is necessary.

  19. Digestibility of Nutrients on Broiler Given Various Protein Sources and Two Levels of Quebracho Tannin

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdi

    2006-01-01

    Suatu penelitian telah dilaksanakan yang bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh sumber protein dan kandungan tannin dalam ransum terhadap kecernaan nutrien pada ayam broiler. Sebanyak enampuluh empat ayam telah digunakan dan ditempatkan secara acak dalam faktorial 2x4 sebanyak delapan ulangan. Protein yang digunakan meliputi gelatin, tepung ikan, tepung bulu dan campuran tepung daging dan kedelai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Quebracho Tanin (QT) menekan kecernaan nutrien pada broiler. Su...

  20. Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Oliveira Sant'Ana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to estimate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP, quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS, quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos.

  1. Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility / Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia Oliveira, Sant' Ana; Fabrícia Queiroz, Mendes; Christiano Vieira, Pires; Maria Goreti de Almeida, Oliveira.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento [...] é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS), quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to es [...] timate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP), quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.

  2. Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa / The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Júlia de Miguel, Amistá; Olga Luisa, Tavano.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternati [...] vos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados. Abstract in english Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as t [...] hose suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days) and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

  3. Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia de Miguel Amistá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternativos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados.Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as those suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

  4. A strategy for liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry based quantitation of pegylated protein drugs in plasma using plasma protein precipitation with water-miscible organic solvents and subsequent trypsin digestion to generate surrogate peptides for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Steven T; Ouyang, Zheng; Olah, Timothy V; Jemal, Mohammed

    2011-01-30

    Recently, we have developed liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)-based methods for the quantitation of pegylated therapeutic proteins in plasma. The methods are based on the LC/MS/MS detection of a surrogate peptide generated from trypsin digestion of the therapeutic protein. Various parameters related to the bioanalytical methods were evaluated and optimized, including the preparation of calibration standards and quality control samples, sample extraction, internal standard selection and its stage of addition, trypsin digestion, and non-specific binding. In this paper, we report the development of a method for a specific pegylated therapeutic protein and detail the various optimization steps undertaken. Simple extraction of the pegylated therapeutic protein from plasma was achieved via the precipitation of the endogenous proteins in plasma using acidic isopropanol and the resulting supernatant extract was subjected to trypsin digestion. A unique tryptic peptide arising from the pegylated therapeutic protein was used for LC/MS/MS-based detection and quantitation. A protein and a peptide were used as internal standards, with the former added before the sample extraction and the latter after the sample extraction. The method developed is simple, sensitive, specific and rugged, and has been implemented in a high throughput 96-well format to analyze plasma samples from in vivo studies. A required lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 10 ng/mL, expressed in terms of the concentration of the protein drug, was easily achieved. PMID:21192023

  5. DIGEST MATERIALS FOR IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY. VOLUME 1, BAROQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOORE, JUNE

    PREPARED AS PART OF "PROJECT IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY," THIS VOLUME CONTAINS CURRICULAR MATERIALS REPRESENTING THE BAROQUE PERIOD. A MUSICAL HISTORY OF THE PERIOD IS GIVEN, AS WELL AS HISTORIES OF THE COMPOSERS AND THEIR INDIVIDUAL COMPOSITIONS. THE MATERIALS ARE PREPARED FOR THREE DEGREES OF TECHNICAL…

  6. Improving accuracy of protein-protein interaction prediction by considering the converse problem for sequence representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of genome-sequencing technologies, protein sequences are readily obtained by translating the measured mRNAs. Therefore predicting protein-protein interactions from the sequences is of great demand. The reason lies in the fact that identifying protein-protein interactions is becoming a bottleneck for eventually understanding the functions of proteins, especially for those organisms barely characterized. Although a few methods have been proposed, the converse problem, if the features used extract sufficient and unbiased information from protein sequences, is almost untouched. Results In this study, we interrogate this problem theoretically by an optimization scheme. Motivated by the theoretical investigation, we find novel encoding methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. Our new methods exploit sufficiently the information of protein sequences and reduce artificial bias and computational cost. Thus, it significantly outperforms the available methods regarding sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recall with cross-validation evaluation and reaches ~80% and ~90% accuracy in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively. Our findings here hold important implication for other sequence-based prediction tasks because representation of biological sequence is always the first step in computational biology. Conclusions By considering the converse problem, we propose new representation methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. The results show that our method significantly improves the accuracy of protein-protein interaction predictions.

  7. Improvements in growth performance, bone mineral status and nutrient digestibility in pigs following the dietary inclusion of phytase are accompanied by modifications in intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres; O'Shea, Cormac J; Browne, John A; O'Doherty, John V

    2014-09-14

    Phytase (PHY) improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility and bone structure in pigs; however, little is known about its effects on intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. In the present study, a 44 d experiment was carried out using forty-eight pigs (11·76 (sem 0·75) kg) assigned to one of three dietary treatment groups to measure growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID), coefficient of apparent total tract nutrient digestibility (CATTD) and intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. Dietary treatments during the experimental period were as follows: (1) a high-P (HP) diet containing 3·4 g/kg available P and 7·0 g/kg Ca; (2) a low-P (LP) diet containing 1·9 g/kg available P and 5·9 g/kg Ca; (3) a PHY diet containing LP diet ingredients+1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of PHY. The PHY diet increased the average daily gain (PPHY diet had a higher CAID of gross energy compared with those fed the HP and LP diets (PPHY diet had increased CAID of P (PPHY diet increased the gene expression of the peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1/SLC15A1) (PPHY improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility as well as increases the gene expression of the peptide transporter PEPT1. PMID:24998244

  8. Exigência de treonina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo / Digestible threonine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings using ideal protein concept

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Wagner Azis Garcia de, Araújo.

    2077-20-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações com 1,35% de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos de tilápia, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial d [...] e 1,64 ± 0,03 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições, e doze peixes por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações com diversas relações treonina:lisina digestível (69,0; 74,0; 79,0; 84,0 e 89,0%) e relação metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 70,0% e uma ração com relação treonina:lisina digestível de 84,0% e de metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 75,0%, todas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais, e alimentados à vontade, seis vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a composição corporal, as deposições de proteína e gordura e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. O consumo de ração, o teor de proteína corporal e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com a relação treonina:lisina na ração, contudo, não foram influenciados pelo aumento da relação metionina + cistina:lisina da ração. Os níveis de treonina total ou digestível que proporcionaram os melhores resultados de desempenho em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo foram de 1,11 e 0,99%, enquanto os níveis que promoveram melhor deposição de proteína corporal foram de 1,43 e 1,28%, que correspondem às relações treonina:lisina total de 71,0 e 69,0% e treonina:lisina digestível de 90,0 e 89,0%. Abstract in english The effects of digestible threonine levels, based on ideal protein concept in diets with 1.35% of digestible lysine on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings performance. Four hundred thirty two reverted Nile tilapia, Thailand strain, with initial weight of 1.64 ± 0.03 g, were allotted to [...] completely randomized design, with six diets and six replications with twelve fishes each. The five diets, isoenergetic isoproteic, consisted of various threonine:digestible lysine ratio (69.0, 74.0, 79.0, 84.0, and 89.0%) and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine ratio of 70.0% and one diet with threonine:digestible lysine of 84.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine of 75.0%. The fish were kept in 36 aquariums of 130 L, equipped with water supply, controlled temperature and individual aeration, and ad libitum fed six times a day for 30 days. Performance, body composition, protein and fat depositions and nitrogen retention efficiency of fishes were evaluated. Consumption of feed, body protein content and body protein deposition increased in a linear fashion in accordance to threonine:digestible lysine in the diet, however, was not affected by the increase of dietary methionine + cystine:digestible lysine. Total or digestible threonine levels that provided the best results of performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings were 1.11 and 0.99%, while the levels that promoted better body protein deposition were 1.43 and 1.28%, which correspond to threonine:total lysine ratio of 71.0 and 69.0% and threonine:digestible lysine of 90.0 and 89.0%.

  9. Exigência de treonina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Digestible threonine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings using ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações com 1,35% de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos de tilápia, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial de 1,64 ± 0,03 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições, e doze peixes por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações com diversas relações treonina:lisina digestível (69,0; 74,0; 79,0; 84,0 e 89,0% e relação metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 70,0% e uma ração com relação treonina:lisina digestível de 84,0% e de metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 75,0%, todas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais, e alimentados à vontade, seis vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a composição corporal, as deposições de proteína e gordura e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. O consumo de ração, o teor de proteína corporal e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com a relação treonina:lisina na ração, contudo, não foram influenciados pelo aumento da relação metionina + cistina:lisina da ração. Os níveis de treonina total ou digestível que proporcionaram os melhores resultados de desempenho em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo foram de 1,11 e 0,99%, enquanto os níveis que promoveram melhor deposição de proteína corporal foram de 1,43 e 1,28%, que correspondem às relações treonina:lisina total de 71,0 e 69,0% e treonina:lisina digestível de 90,0 e 89,0%.The effects of digestible threonine levels, based on ideal protein concept in diets with 1.35% of digestible lysine on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings performance. Four hundred thirty two reverted Nile tilapia, Thailand strain, with initial weight of 1.64 ± 0.03 g, were allotted to completely randomized design, with six diets and six replications with twelve fishes each. The five diets, isoenergetic isoproteic, consisted of various threonine:digestible lysine ratio (69.0, 74.0, 79.0, 84.0, and 89.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine ratio of 70.0% and one diet with threonine:digestible lysine of 84.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine of 75.0%. The fish were kept in 36 aquariums of 130 L, equipped with water supply, controlled temperature and individual aeration, and ad libitum fed six times a day for 30 days. Performance, body composition, protein and fat depositions and nitrogen retention efficiency of fishes were evaluated. Consumption of feed, body protein content and body protein deposition increased in a linear fashion in accordance to threonine:digestible lysine in the diet, however, was not affected by the increase of dietary methionine + cystine:digestible lysine. Total or digestible threonine levels that provided the best results of performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings were 1.11 and 0.99%, while the levels that promoted better body protein deposition were 1.43 and 1.28%, which correspond to threonine:total lysine ratio of 71.0 and 69.0% and threonine:digestible lysine of 90.0 and 89.0%.

  10. Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins. PMID:25069136

  11. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO3 or the mixture HNO3/H2O2 and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (II) without H2O2 and with heating to dryness; (III) with H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H2O2 and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agentocedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 ?g g-1

  12. Robust enzyme design: bioinformatic tools for improved protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Voevodin, Vladimir; Švedas, Vytas

    2015-03-01

    The ability of proteins and enzymes to maintain a functionally active conformation under adverse environmental conditions is an important feature of biocatalysts, vaccines, and biopharmaceutical proteins. From an evolutionary perspective, robust stability of proteins improves their biological fitness and allows for further optimization. Viewed from an industrial perspective, enzyme stability is crucial for the practical application of enzymes under the required reaction conditions. In this review, we analyze bioinformatic-driven strategies that are used to predict structural changes that can be applied to wild type proteins in order to produce more stable variants. The most commonly employed techniques can be classified into stochastic approaches, empirical or systematic rational design strategies, and design of chimeric proteins. We conclude that bioinformatic analysis can be efficiently used to study large protein superfamilies systematically as well as to predict particular structural changes which increase enzyme stability. Evolution has created a diversity of protein properties that are encoded in genomic sequences and structural data. Bioinformatics has the power to uncover this evolutionary code and provide a reproducible selection of hotspots - key residues to be mutated in order to produce more stable and functionally diverse proteins and enzymes. Further development of systematic bioinformatic procedures is needed to organize and analyze sequences and structures of proteins within large superfamilies and to link them to function, as well as to provide knowledge-based predictions for experimental evaluation. PMID:25524647

  13. Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage / Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Felipe Antunes, Magalhães; Rilene Ferreira Diniz, Valadares; Lays Débora, Mariz; Edenio, Detmann; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Maria Ignez, Leão.

    1104-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de- [...] açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia/sulfato de amônio para conterem 10% de proteína bruta. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 240 kg ± 15 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 5 × 5. Foram realizadas coletas totais de fezes, abomasal e dois esvaziamentos pela manhã. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho apresentaram maiores digestibilidades ruminal da proteína e intestinal do extrato etéreo, taxas de ingestão, passagem e de digestão da matéria seca, justificando os maiores consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp). As maiores taxas de passagem nos animais alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura justificam os maiores consumos de matéria seca e FDNcp em relação ao observado com o fornecimento de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Animais consumindo dietas contendo silagem de milho apresentam maiores taxas de passagem da matéria seca e digestão da FDNcp. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, armazenada ou não, favorecem o consumo e a taxa de passagem da matéria seca, em relação a dietas com cana ensilada. O uso de cal na ensilagem não melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem a taxa de passagem da dieta. A cana-de-açúcar armazenada por 72 horas possui características digestíveis semelhantes às da cana-de-açúcar in natura. Abstract in english It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment a [...] nd a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap). The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.

  14. Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte / Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica Schaitl, Thon; José Henrique, Stringhini; Roberto de Morais, Jardim Filho; Maria Auxiliadora, Andrade; Marcos Barcellos, Café; Nadja Susana Mogyca, Leandro.

    1105-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte e seus efeitos no desempenho das aves dos 7 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados em [...] esquema fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de arginina digestível (1,363; 1,463; 1,563 e 1,663%) e dois níveis de proteína bruta (20 e 22%), totalizando oito tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de 15 aves. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, o índice de conversão alimentar, a biometria dos órgãos do trato gastrintestinal e a digestibilidade e retenção de matéria seca e nitrogênio. O maior ganho de peso na fase de 1 a 14 dias de idade foi obtido com a ração com 22% de proteína bruta. Os níveis de arginina digestível tiveram efeito quadrático na conversão alimentar na fase de 1 a 10 dias de idade. O peso do esôfago e inglúvio foi maior nas aves alimentadas com a ração com 20% de proteína bruta, no entanto, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina digestível sobre o comprimento do intestino aos 10 dias de idade e sobre o peso do esôfago + inglúvio aos 3 dias de idade. Houve interação entre os níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível para o peso relativo do fígado aos 14 dias, que respondeu de forma quadrática ao nível de 20% de proteína bruta, e para o comprimento de intestino, cujo maior valor foi obtido com os níveis de 22% de proteína bruta e 1,603% de arginina digestível. O balanço e a retenção de nitrogênio foram maiores no nível de 22% de proteína bruta. O nível de 1,363% de arginina digestível atende às exigências nutricionais dos frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to evaluate levels of crude protein and digestible arginine in pre-starter broiler ration and their effects on the performance of the broilers from 7 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangeme [...] nt consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663%) and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22%) with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.

  15. Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Schaitl Thon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte e seus efeitos no desempenho das aves dos 7 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de arginina digestível (1,363; 1,463; 1,563 e 1,663% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (20 e 22%, totalizando oito tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de 15 aves. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, o índice de conversão alimentar, a biometria dos órgãos do trato gastrintestinal e a digestibilidade e retenção de matéria seca e nitrogênio. O maior ganho de peso na fase de 1 a 14 dias de idade foi obtido com a ração com 22% de proteína bruta. Os níveis de arginina digestível tiveram efeito quadrático na conversão alimentar na fase de 1 a 10 dias de idade. O peso do esôfago e inglúvio foi maior nas aves alimentadas com a ração com 20% de proteína bruta, no entanto, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina digestível sobre o comprimento do intestino aos 10 dias de idade e sobre o peso do esôfago + inglúvio aos 3 dias de idade. Houve interação entre os níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível para o peso relativo do fígado aos 14 dias, que respondeu de forma quadrática ao nível de 20% de proteína bruta, e para o comprimento de intestino, cujo maior valor foi obtido com os níveis de 22% de proteína bruta e 1,603% de arginina digestível. O balanço e a retenção de nitrogênio foram maiores no nível de 22% de proteína bruta. O nível de 1,363% de arginina digestível atende às exigências nutricionais dos frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial.This experiment was carried out to evaluate levels of crude protein and digestible arginine in pre-starter broiler ration and their effects on the performance of the broilers from 7 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663% and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22% with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.

  16. AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadchikov V. G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition their transformation in net milk protein, lysine and methionine accordingly amounted to 0.67, 0,83 and 0,82. The most significant changes in the concentration of methionine, proline, glutamate, glutamine, glycine were observed in cows before calving and immediately after birth, stabilization of their level starts with a 24 lactation day, that is connected with the peculiarities of the feeding behavior of the cows and the gradual intensification of the processes of metabolism and milk production. To control the status of protein metabolism we have offered benchmarks compositions of free amino acids in cows’ blood plasma phases: 21-0 days before calving, 0-21 and 22-120 days after calving

  17. Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, atividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados.Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein digestibility. Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima were submitted to the following treatments, which were carried out in quadruplicate: used raw; boiled for 5, 10, and 15 minutes; and steamed for 10 minutes. Next, the seeds were freeze-dried, grinded, and stored at room temperature until the analyses were completed. There was no significant difference among the treatments as for the levels of polyphenols. The raw seeds showed the highest content of cyanide, smallest level of trypsin inhibitor, and smallest protein digestibility. The 10-minute boiling resulted in the lowest content of saponins and greatest protein digestibility. No Hemaglutinin activity was detected in the samples. It can be concluded that the 10-minute boiling was the treatment that produced better results.

  18. Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima) submetidas a diferentes processamentos / Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) submitted to different processing methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana de Paula, Naves; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Custódio Donizete dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, a [...] tividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE) por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados. Abstract in english Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglu [...] tinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein digestibility. Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) were submitted to the following treatments, which were carried out in quadruplicate: used raw; boiled for 5, 10, and 15 minutes; and steamed for 10 minutes. Next, the seeds were freeze-dried, grinded, and stored at room temperature until the analyses were completed. There was no significant difference among the treatments as for the levels of polyphenols. The raw seeds showed the highest content of cyanide, smallest level of trypsin inhibitor, and smallest protein digestibility. The 10-minute boiling resulted in the lowest content of saponins and greatest protein digestibility. No Hemaglutinin activity was detected in the samples. It can be concluded that the 10-minute boiling was the treatment that produced better results.

  19. Proteomics of barley proteins by combination of in-gel digestion and MALDI-TOF MS.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ehulka, Pavel; Chmelík, Josef; Mayrhofer, C.; Allmaier, G.

    Praha : Czech Chemical Society, Chromatography and Electrophoretic Group, 2001, s. 133. ISBN 80-7080-437-8. [International Symposium Separations in the BioSciences SBS 2001 /2./. Praha (CZ), 17.09.2001-20.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA521/99/1576 Grant ostatní: Austrian-Czech Republic Collaboration Grant(AT) II/4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : proteomics * protein identification * barley Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Physicochemical Content, Metabolizable Energy and In-vitro Protein Digestibility of Wheat Screening Diet on Growth Rate of Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Saki, A. A.; Alipana, A.

    2005-01-01

    In competitions by monogastric animal particular in poultry by consumption human food sources, high attempt should be made to find out new sources of feed that is not consumed by human. Wheat screening is one of the these sources of feed which need to be considered. Determination of physicochemical content, metabolizable energy (ME) and protein digestibility may lead to elucidate the quality of this feed as well as arrangement in feed formulation of broiler ration. Physical content of two typ...

  1. Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and <i>in Vitro</i> Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Suma Pushparaj; Asna Urooj

    2011-01-01

    From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra) were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich frac...

  2. Effects of Physical Form and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Steers

    OpenAIRE

    Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS) and urea-treated (3%) rice straw (UTRS), and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: lon...

  3. Effects of Two Halophytic Plants (Kochia and Atriplex) on Digestibility, Fermentation and Protein Synthesis by Ruminal Microbes Maintained in Continuous Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Riasi, A.; Mesgaran, M. Danesh; Stern, M. D.; Ruiz Moreno, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Eight continuous culture fermenters were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate various nutritional values of Kochia (Kochia scoparia) compared with Atriplex (Atriplex dimorphostegia). Dried and pelleted samples (leaves and stems) provided substrate for metabolism by ruminal microbes maintained in a continuous culture fermentation system. Results indicated that there were no differences (p>0.05) in dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) digestibility between the two halophytic pla...

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 ?molGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  5. Optimization of immobilized gallium (III) ion affinity chromatography for selective binding and recovery of phosphopeptides from protein digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Uma K; Olson, Douglas J H; Ross, Andrew R S

    2008-12-01

    Although widely used in proteomics research for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) often suffers from low specificity and differential recovery of peptides carrying different numbers of phosphate groups. By systematically evaluating and optimizing different loading, washing, and elution conditions, we have developed an efficient and highly selective procedure for the enrichment of phosphopeptides using a commercially available gallium(III)-IMAC column (PhosphoProfile, Sigma). Phosphopeptide enrichment using the reagents supplied with the column is incomplete and biased toward the recovery and/or detection of smaller, singly phosphorylated peptides. In contrast, elution with base (0.4 M ammonium hydroxide) gives efficient and balanced recovery of both singly and multiply phosphorylated peptides, while loading peptides in a strong acidic solution (1% trifluoracetic acid) further increases selectivity toward phosphopeptides, with minimal carryover of nonphosphorylated peptides. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, a matrix commonly used when analyzing phosphopeptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was also evaluated as an additive in loading and eluting solvents. Elution with 50% acetonitrile containing 20 mg/mL dihydroxybenzoic acid and 1% phosphoric acid gave results similar to those obtained using ammonium hydroxide as the eluent, although the latter showed the highest specificity for phosphorylated peptides. PMID:19183793

  6. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, U; Singh, U; Rao, P V

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed Indian pulses and soybean. Germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. Fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. Autoclaving and roasting were more effective in reducing phytic acid in chickpea and pigeonpea than in urd bean, mung bean, and soybean. Germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). IVPD was only slightly increased by roasting and autoclaving of all legumes. Germination and fermentation also remarkably decreased the total dietary fiber (TDF) in all legumes. Autoclaving and roasting resulted in slight increases in TDF values. All the processing treatments had little effect on calcium, magnesium and iron contents. PMID:8983057

  7. Estimated requirements of net energy, digestible protein and NDF intake of young Chianina bulls from 400 kg liveweight to slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Buccioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three equations have been elaborated and proposed to predict the requirements of net energy and protein digestible in the intestine and NDF voluntary intake of growing young Chianina bulls, starting from 400 kg live weight. The animals examined in the present study were 100 young Chianina bulls starting from about 400 kg live weight, at 10 months of age, up to the average slaughter weight of 800 kg at 20 months average age. The diet was based on hay and concentrates. The equation for the prediction of net energy fits quite perfectly to another experimental equation formerly proposed by Giorgetti and is characterised by a very high value of the correlation coefficient for the regression comparison between observed and predicted figures (R2=0.90. The statistical reliance degree of the PDIN prediction equation is lower, but still very good (R2=0.75 between observed and predicted values, but that of the estimate of NDF daily intake resulted very poor (R2=0.26 between observed and predicted values, probably due to the non homogeneity of the intake capacity of the 100 examined animals. The correlation between daily gains and the concentration of NDF in the diet DM results good (R2=0.87, showing that young Chianina bulls take advantage of the diet fibre. Further useful indications on the nutritional and dietary requirements of young Chianina bulls are added to the scarce information currently available.

  8. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were composed to investigate the effects of incorporation of potato protein concentrate (PPC) and supplementation of methionine in the diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on feeding rate, digestion, growth, feed utilization and body composition. The control diet contained all Danish L T-fish meal as protein sources. The other experimental diets contained 2.2, 5.6, 8.9 and 11.1% PPC respectively. Diet 6 contained 5.6% PPC and 1.7% methionine. A 4-week trial was conducted at about 12degreeC. The results showed that feeding rate decreased with increased incorporation levels of PPC. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ash increased with increased proportion of dietary PPC, while there was no significant effect on the apparent digestibility of crude fat. The incorporation of 5.6% PPC decreased growth rate and 8.9% PPC decreased both growth and feed efficiency. Supplementation of 1.7% methionine decreased both feeding rateand growth.

  9. Relationships between leucine and the pancreatic exocrine function for improving starch digestibility in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Liu, Y; Liu, S M; Xu, M; Yu, Z P; Wang, X; Cao, Y C; Yao, J H

    2015-04-01

    Four Holstein heifers (215±7kg; means ± SD), fitted with one pancreatic pouch, duodenal re-entrant cannulas, and duodenal infusion catheters, were used in this experiment. In phase 1, the 24-h profile of pancreatic fluid was determined. Pancreatic fluid flow peaked 1h after feeding, but peaks of similar magnitude also occurred before the morning feed, necessitating 24-h collection of pancreatic fluid to estimate daily excretion. In phase 2, the effects of duodenal infusions of 0, 10, 20, or 30g of leucine on pancreatic fluid flow were determined in a 4×4 Latin square design. The leucine was infused for 12h in 2,500mL of the infusate, and samples of pancreatic fluid and jugular blood were collected in 1-h intervals from the beginning of the infusion for 36h. The results showed that the secretion rate of pancreatic fluid (mL/h) was significantly higher in 10-g leucine group than the other groups (mL/h). Protein concentration (mg/mL) in pancreatic fluid was elevated proportional to the amount of leucine infused. Leucine infusions increased both the concentration (U/mL) and secretion rate (U/h) of ?-amylase. Infusion of 10g of leucine also increased the secretion rates (U/h) of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase, but did not change their concentrations. No significant effects of leucine infusions on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were found. The results indicate that leucine could act as a nutrient signal to stimulate ?-amylase production and pancreatic exocrine function in dairy heifers. PMID:25648818

  10. Effect of exogenous cellulase enzyme on feed digestibility in lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous enzyme on digestibility and N retention in lamb. Eight lambs were randomly allocated to 2 experiment group in group comparison design trial. Experimental treatments were: 1) CTL (No enzyme) and 2 50NZ (Mixed enzyme with high cellulase at 50g/100kg.feed). The digestibility study showed that Exogenous enzyme increased (P<0.05) dry matter and crude protein digestibility of treated lamb compared to those of control. A similar trend (P=0.11) was observed for the NDF digestibility. Mean values for dry matter digestibility were 57.86 and 69.83% and for protein digestibility were 64.76 and 73.38%, for CTL and 50NZ, respectively). The N intake was similar among treatment, averaging 22.57g/head/day. Percent N retained of 50 NZ treated lambs was higher (P<.05) than those of CTL group (mean value were 47.74 and 59.07 for CTC and 50NZ, respectively). Feed efficiency or feed conversion ratio was numerically improved for enzyme-treated groups. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence that mixed cellulase enzyme can be used to improver performance of lambs as compare to non-enzyme diet.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of commercially available plant and animal protein sources in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): digestive and metabolic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartviksen, Mali; Bakke, Anne Marie; Vecino, José G; Ringø, Einar; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of various alternative diet ingredients partially replacing fishmeal (FM) on digestive and metabolic parameters in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts (initial body mass 305 ± 69 g) following 12 weeks of feeding. Experimental diets containing 20 % extracted sunflower (ESF), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soy protein concentrate (SPC), feather meal (FeM) and poultry by-product (PBY) were compared to a reference diet containing FM as the main protein source. For the different intestinal compartments trypsin, lipase, bile salts, dry matter and chyme-associated leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were measured from the content and LAP was measured in the tissue. Selected metabolites were measured in plasma samples. In general, use of plant proteins resulted in low C-LAP activity, low plasma cholesterol and high plasma magnesium. The plasma levels of cholesterol and Mg reflecting were most likely reflections of the composition of the diet, while the LAP activity in chyme may indicate lower epithelial cell turnover. Other responses varied depending on the plant protein source. Results from the animal protein substitution also varied both between diets and compartments; however, both materials increased lipase activity in DI. FeM resulted in a significant increase in both total and specific LAP activities suggesting an attempt to increase the digestive capacity in response to low digestibility of the diet while PBY showed very little difference from the FM-fed control fish. The present trial indicates that 20 % PPC, SPC and PBY can partially replace FM in diets for Atlantic salmon. The qualities of ESF and FeM used in this trial show little promise as FM replacement at 20 % inclusion level. PMID:24962539

  12. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol at mesophilic conditions: biogas and digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-04-01

    Crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production is characterized by its high concentration of organic carbon and its solubility in water; properties that make it a suitable co-substrate to improve the efficiency of a manure digester. An increase of about 400% in biogas production was obtained under mesophilic conditions when pig manure was co-digested with 4% of glycerol, on a wet-basis, compared to mono-digestion. The increase in biogas production was mainly a consequence of the increase in organic loading rate. However, the differences could also be related to the synergy between both substrates and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the macro-compounds, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers, showed lower removal efficiencies in the co-digester as the microorganisms obtained nutrients from the soluble carbohydrates provided by the glycerol. The digestate stability, evaluated through a respirometric assay, showed that co-substrate addition does not exert a negative impact on digestate quality. PMID:22341889

  14. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, Cezar A.; Barin, Juliano S.; Garcia, Edivaldo E.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2011-05-01

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO 3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO 3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L - 1 ) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L - 1 HNO 3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L - 1 . Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L - 1 ) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  15. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L-1) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L-1 HNO3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L-1. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L-1) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  16. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  17. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-11-01

    Lemna protein concentrate (LPC; 68.0% CP) is produced by extracting protein from de-oiled and dehydrated biomaterials from plants of the Lemnaceae family and may be used as a protein source for animals. There are, however, no published data on the nutritional value of LPC fed to pigs. Three experiments were, therefore, conducted to determine the concentration of ME, the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in LPC and to compare these values to values for fish meal and soybean meal (SBM). Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the ME of LPC, fish meal, SBM, and corn. Thirty-two barrows (initial BW: 16.8 ± 2.8 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to a randomized complete block design with 4 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 3 diets that contained corn and LPC, fish meal, or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples were analyzed for GE. Results indicated that the concentration of ME was not different among corn, fish meal, and SBM (3,855, 3,904, and 4,184 kcal/kg DM, respectively), but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for a reduced ME in LPC (3,804 kcal/kg DM) compared with SBM. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (initial BW: 12.5 ± 2.5 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 3 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet and used to determine the STTD of P in LPC, fish meal, and SBM. Three diets that each contained 1 of the 3 test ingredients as the sole source of P were formulated. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages, and feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in LPC (72.8%) was not different from the STTD of P in fish meal (65.6%), but tended (P = 0.07) to be greater than in SBM (62.8%). The SID of AA in LPC, SBM, and fish meal was determined in Exp. 3. Eight barrows (initial BW: 21.4 ± 4.0 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. A N-free diet and 3 cornstarch-based diets in which SBM, SBM and LPC or SBM and fish meal were the only sources of AA were formulated. The SID of most indispensable AA was greater (P meal than in LPC, but the overall SID of AA was not different between fish meal and LPC. In conclusion, the ME and the STTD of P are not different between LPC and fish meal, but there is a tendency for greater ME in SBM than in LPC, whereas the STTD of P tends to be greater in LPC than in SBM. The SID of the most indispensable AA is greater in fish meal than in LPC. PMID:25349364

  18. Efeitos da fonte de proteína da dieta sobre a digestão de amido em bovinos Effects of diet protein source on starch digestion in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de três fontes de proteína: uréia (UR, farinha de penas (FPE e farelo de glúten de milho (FGM sobre a digestão ruminal, intestinal e total do amido em bovinos. Utilizaram-se três bovinos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, castrados, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental quadrado latino 3 x 3. Não houve efeito da fonte protéica (P > 0,05 sobre os parâmetros de digestão avaliados com relação à matéria seca, bem como a composição química microbiana e pH ruminal. A dieta UR apresentou maior produção ruminal de amônia seguida pelas dietas FGM e FPE (P The effect of three protein sources, urea (UR, feather meal (FM and corn gluten meal (CGM on ruminal, intestinal and total starch digestion in cattle was evaluated. Three Holstein steers implanted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae, in a 3x3 Latin square design, were used. Protein source (p > 0.05 did not affect dry matter evaluations, chemical microbial composition and ruminal pH. UR diet showed highest ruminal ammonium production, followed by CGM and FM diets (P < 0.05. The apparent and true microbial efficiency was higher in CGM diet (P < 0.05 and identical to UR and FM diets. Protein source did not affect intestinal digestibility starch. Total digestibility coefficient (% of starch failed to show any significant difference, albeit total digestion of starch (g/day was higher (P < 0.05 in UR and FM diets.

  19. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ferreira Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP, total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii, cassava (Manihot esculenta, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and ramie (Boehmeria nivea, and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation. For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  20. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lidia Ferreira, Miranda; Norberto Mario, Rodriguez; Elzânia Sales, Pereira; Augusto César de, Queiroz; Roberto Daniel, Sainz; Patrícia Guimarães, Pimentel; Miguel Marques, Gontijo Neto.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP), total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), cassava (Manihot esculenta), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and rami [...] e (Boehmeria nivea), and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP) and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation). For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  1. Immunoreactivity of hen egg allergens: influence on in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the presence of other egg white proteins and of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Gustavo; López-Fandiño, Rosina; Molina, Elena

    2013-01-15

    Hen egg white comprises of a complex mixture of proteins, which greatly differ in their physicochemical characteristics and relative abundance. We aimed to identify potential undiscovered egg allergens within the egg white proteome and investigated the existence of matrix effects on the proteolytic stability and resultant IgE-binding of the allergenic proteins. In addition to the main egg allergens: ovalbumin (OVA), ovomucoid (OM) and lysozyme (LYS), two minor egg white proteins, tentatively identified as ovoinhibitor and clusterin, were found to react with serum IgE from egg-allergic patients. Egg white exhibited residual immunoreactivity after gastrointestinal digestion due to the presence of intact OVA and LYS, as well as of several IgE-binding peptides derived from OVA. The presence of egg yolk slightly increased the susceptibility to hydrolysis of egg white proteins and abrogated bile salt-induced precipitation of LYS in the duodenal medium. However, the resultant immunoreactivity against IgE of egg white proteins after in vitro digestion was not significantly modified by the presence of yolk components. PMID:23122126

  2. Bayesian Proteoform Modeling Improves Protein Quantification of Global Proteomic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Datta, Susmita; Payne, Samuel H.; Kang, Jiyun; Bramer, Lisa M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Tardiff, Mark F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Pounds, Joel G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2014-12-01

    As the capability of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has matured, tens of thousands of peptides can be measured simultaneously, which has the benefit of offering a systems view of protein expression. However, a major challenge is that with an increase in throughput, protein quantification estimation from the native measured peptides has become a computational task. A limitation to existing computationally-driven protein quantification methods is that most ignore protein variation, such as alternate splicing of the RNA transcript and post-translational modifications or other possible proteoforms, which will affect a significant fraction of the proteome. The consequence of this assumption is that statistical inference at the protein level, and consequently downstream analyses, such as network and pathway modeling, have only limited power for biomarker discovery. Here, we describe a Bayesian model (BP-Quant) that uses statistically derived peptides signatures to identify peptides that are outside the dominant pattern, or the existence of multiple over-expressed patterns to improve relative protein abundance estimates. It is a research-driven approach that utilizes the objectives of the experiment, defined in the context of a standard statistical hypothesis, to identify a set of peptides exhibiting similar statistical behavior relating to a protein. This approach infers that changes in relative protein abundance can be used as a surrogate for changes in function, without necessarily taking into account the effect of differential post-translational modifications, processing, or splicing in altering protein function. We verify the approach using a dilution study from mouse plasma samples and demonstrate that BP-Quant achieves similar accuracy as the current state-of-the-art methods at proteoform identification with significantly better specificity. BP-Quant is available as a MatLab ® and R packages at https://github.com/PNNL-Comp-Mass-Spec/BP-Quant.

  3. Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel Intestinal protein digestibility of by-products from biodiesel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Couto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não degradados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR, proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI.The objective of this research was to determine intestinal protein digestibility (ID of some biodiesel by-products in the form of cakes and the meals. Eight by-products were: cakes and meals of physic nut, turnip, lupine, cotton cake, cottonseed meal. The by-products were incubated in the rumen for 16 hours, were the undegradable rumen residues were submitted to enzymatic digestion with pepsin and pancreatin solution for the determination of ID. In the incubation residues the following was also determined: dry matter degradability (RD, rumen degradable protein (RDP and rumen undegradable protein (RUP. The intestinal protein digestibility of biodiesel by-products ranged from 2.4 to 48.6%. All the by-products evaluated in this study were characterized as high protein sources and were considered high-RDP. The by-products presented low intestinal protein digestibility. The ID protein of biodiesel by-products was higher in the cakes than the meals. The by-products evaluated, the cottonseed cake and meal presented the highest ID coefficients.

  4. Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel / Intestinal protein digestibility of by-products from biodiesel industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.S., Couto; J.C., Silva Filho; A.D., Corrêa; E.A., Silva; R.M.P., Pardo; C., Esteves.

    1216-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI) da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não deg [...] radados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR), proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR). A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine intestinal protein digestibility (ID) of some biodiesel by-products in the form of cakes and the meals. Eight by-products were: cakes and meals of physic nut, turnip, lupine, cotton cake, cottonseed meal. The by-products were incubated in the rumen for [...] 16 hours, were the undegradable rumen residues were submitted to enzymatic digestion with pepsin and pancreatin solution for the determination of ID. In the incubation residues the following was also determined: dry matter degradability (RD), rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP). The intestinal protein digestibility of biodiesel by-products ranged from 2.4 to 48.6%. All the by-products evaluated in this study were characterized as high protein sources and were considered high-RDP. The by-products presented low intestinal protein digestibility. The ID protein of biodiesel by-products was higher in the cakes than the meals. The by-products evaluated, the cottonseed cake and meal presented the highest ID coefficients.

  5. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  6. Protein sources and digestive enzyme activities in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) / Fontes protéicas e atividade de enzimas digestivas em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Lazzari; João, Radünz Neto; Fabio de Araújo, Pedron; Vania Lucia, Loro; Alexandra, Pretto; Carolina Rosa, Gioda.

    Full Text Available As enzimas digestivas influenciam a utilização dos alimentos em peixes, e seu conhecimento é importante para otimizar a formulação de dietas. Este trabalho descreve a atividade de enzimas digestivas em juvenis de jundiá alimentados com fontes protéicas. Os peixes foram alimentados com seis dietas (9 [...] 0 dias): MBY (farinha de carne e ossos + levedura de cana), SY (farelo de soja + levedura de cana), S (farelo de soja), MBS (farinha de carne e ossos + farelo de soja), FY (farinha de peixe + levedura de cana) e FS (farinha de peixe + farelo de soja). A cada 30 dias, foram analisadas as enzimas digestivas (tripsina, quimiotripsina e amilase) no intestino. No estômago, foi mensurada a protease ácida. Foram estimados os índices digestivo e hepato-somático, quociente intestinal, comprimento do trato digestório e ganho em peso. As atividades de tripsina e quimiotripsina foram maiores (p Abstract in english Digestive enzymes activity influence feed utilization by fish, and its understanding is important to optimize diet formulation. This study reports the digestive enzyme activities of jundiá juveniles fed diets with protein sources. Fish were fed six experimental diets for 90 days: MBY (meat and bone [...] meal + sugar cane yeast), SY (soybean meal + sugar cane yeast), S (soybean meal), MBS (meat and bone meal + soybean meal), FY (fish meal + sugar cane yeast) and FS (fish meal + soybean meal), and then sampled every 30 days and assayed in two intestine sections for digestive enzymes - trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase - activities; gastric protease was assayed in the stomach. Digestive and hepatosomatic index, intestinal quotient, digestive tract length and weight gain were also measured. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were higher (p

  7. Differential proteomic analysis using isotope-coded protein-labeling strategies: comparison, improvements and application to simulated microgravity effect on Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Baptiste; Rosier, Caroline; Erculisse, Vanessa; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2010-06-01

    Among differential proteomic methods based on stable isotopic labeling, isotope-coded protein labeling (ICPL) is a recent non-isobaric technique devised to label primary amines found in proteins. ICPL overcomes some of the disadvantages found in other chemical-labeling techniques, such as iTRAQ or ICAT. However, previous analyses revealed that more than 30% of the proteins identified in regular ICPL generally remain unquantified. In this study, we describe a modified version of ICPL, named Post-digest ICPL, that makes it possible to label and thus to quantify all the peptides in a sample (bottom-up approach). Optimization and validation of this Post-digest ICPL approach were performed using a standard protein mixture and complex protein samples. Using this strategy, the number of proteins that were identified and quantified was greatly increased in comparison with regular ICPL and cICAT approaches. The pros and cons of this improvement are discussed. This complementary approach to traditional ICPL was applied to the analysis of modification of protein abundances in the model bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 after cultivation under simulated microgravity. In this context, two different systems - a 2-D clinorotation and 3-D random positioning device - were used and the results were compared and discussed. PMID:20391527

  8. Detecting Protein Complexes by an Improved Affinity Propagation Algorithm in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks is important in understanding cellular processes. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm, named by Overlapped Affinity Propagation (OAP, which is based on Affinity Propagation algorithm (AP to detect protein complexes. First, AP algorithm is adopted to obtain a hard partition of the network. Then the candidate overlapping proteins for each community are identified. Finally, a strategy is constructed with an immediate purpose to filter noise in these detected protein complexes. We apply the OAP to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPI network, and the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can discover protein complexes with high precision by compared with the AP, MCL, CoAch and CPM algorithms. Our proposed method is validated as an effective algorithm in identifying protein complexes and can provide more insights for future biological study.

  9. Desempenho de cordeiros e estimativa da digestibilidade do amido de dietas com diferentes fontes protéicas / Lamb performance and estimation of starch digestibility of diets with different protein sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário Adriano Ávila, Queiroz; Ivanete, Susin; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Clayton Quirino, Mendes; Renato Shinkai, Gentil; Omer Cavalcanti, Almeida; Rafael Camargo do, Amaral; Gerson Barreto, Mourão.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de fontes protéicas sobre desempenho, características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros confinados, e estimar a digestibilidade do amido de rações com alta proporção de grãos. Foram distribuídos 28 cordeiros Santa Inês, em blocos completos ao acaso [...] , de acordo com o peso vivo e a idade, no início do experimento. As fontes protéicas foram os farelos de: soja, amendoim, canola e algodão, em dietas isonitrogenadas com 90% de concentrado e 10% de volumoso (feno de coast-cross). Na determinação da digestibilidade, foram utilizados quatro borregos em delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4, e a digestibilidade do amido foi estimada a partir do teor de amido fecal. Não houve diferenças (p>0,05) quanto ao consumo de matéria seca, ganho de peso vivo médio, conversão alimentar, características da carcaça e da carne, entre as fontes protéicas avaliadas. A digestibilidade do amido apresentou coeficiente de determinação de 93%. Independentemente da fonte protéica utilizada, o teor de amido nas fezes é um indicador eficiente na estimativa da digestibilidade do amido de dietas com alta proporção de concentrado para cordeiros. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of protein sources on feedlot lambs performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and to estimate starch digestibility of high grain diets. Twenty eight Santa Inês ram lambs were selected in a complete randomized block design, according to bo [...] dy weight and age in the beginning of the experiment. Protein sources were the following meals: soybean, peanut, canola, and cottonseed in isonitrogenous diets with 90% concentrate and 10% roughage (coast-cross hay). Four ram lambs (48 kg) were used to determine starch digestibility in a 4x4 latin square design, and starch digestibility was estimated by fecal concentration of starch. There were no differences (p>0.05) for dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed conversion, carcass characteristics and meat quality, among the protein sources evaluated. Determination coefficient for starch digestibility was 93%. Fecal starch content is an accurate indicator of the starch digestibility estimation in lambs feeding high grain diets, independently of the protein source used.

  10. Identifying proper agitation interval to prevent floating layers formation of corn stover and improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Libin; Zou, Dexun; Yuan, Hairong; Wang, Linfeng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiujin

    2015-06-01

    Floating tests were conducted in anaerobic digestion with different OLR of corn stover to investigate formation of floating layers and to find proper agitation interval for preventing floating layer formation. Floating layers were formed in the early stage of no-agitation period. The daily biogas production was decreased by 81.87-87.90% in digesters with no agitation and feeding compared with digesters having agitation. Reduction of biogas production was mainly attributed to poor contact of substrate-microorganisms. Agitation intervals of 10h, 6h, and 2h were found to be proper for eliminating floating layer at OLR of 1.44, 1.78 and 2.11g(TS)L(-1)d(-1), respectively. The proper agitation interval was further validated by anaerobic experiments. It showed that proper agitation interval could not only prevent floating layer formation and achieve high biogas production but also increase energy efficiency of anaerobic digestion. The finding is useful for operating anaerobic digester with corn stover in a cost-effective way. PMID:25795528

  11. Improved mass spectrometric characterization of protein glycosylation reveals unusual glycosylation of maize-derived bovine trypsin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao; Huang, Richard Y-C.; Jalili, Pegah R.; Irungu, Janet W.; Nicol, Gordon R.; Ray, Kevin B.; Rohrs, Henry W; Gross, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Although bottom-up proteomics using tryptic digests is widely used to locate posttranslational modifications (PTM) in proteins, there are cases where the protein has several potential modification sites within a tryptic fragment, and MS2 strategies fail to pinpoint the location. We report here a method using two proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and pepsin, in combination followed by tandem mass spectrometric analysis to provide fragments that allow one to locate the modification sites. We used th...

  12. A densely overlapping gene fragmentation approach improves yeast two-hybrid screens for Plasmodium falciparum proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Hakeenah F.; WANG, LING; Khadka, Sudip; Fields, Stanley; LaCount, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    Use of the yeast two-hybrid assay to study Plasmodium falciparum protein-protein interactions is limited by poor expression of P. falciparum genes in yeast and lack of easily implemented assays to confirm the results. We report here two methods to create gene fragments – random fragmentation by partial DNAse I digestion and generation of densely overlapping fragments by PCR – that enable most portions of P. falciparum genes to be expressed and screened in the yeast two-hybrid assay. The P...

  13. Improving the Performance of an HMM for Protein Family Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hamza El-Sayed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hidden Markov model for protein modelling consists of sub-models for alpha-helix, beta-sheets, coil and possibly more. It is described how to estimate the model parameters as a whole from labeled sequences instead of estimating the parameters from the individual parts independently from subsequences. It is argued that the standard maximum likelihood ML estimation is not the optimal for training such model. In this study a new method is used where instead of estimating the parameters of model that maximizing the probability of the protein sequences (ML, we maximize the probability of the correct labels prediction, such a criterion is called conditional maximum likelihood CML. The advantage of this method is to optimize recognition of model. We tested our method on some of protein families such as L-asparagines, we noted that the performance of HMM is improved in prediction process.

  14. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Weurding, R. E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W. A. G.; Aar, P. J.; Verstegen, M. W. A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vitro method that mimics digestive processes in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. An experiment was designed to use this method for predicting site, rate and extent of starch digestion i...

  15. Effect of different dietary crude protein levels on performance, N digestibility and some blood parameters in Kivircik lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keser Onur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 45 weaned Kivircik male lambs with an average initial body weight ŠBW¹ of 26.23 kg were randomly assigned to five experimental groups (G10, G12, G14, G16, G18 fed 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 % crude protein (CP, respectively. It was observed that G16 had higher BW than the first three groups (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences between G16 and G18. G16 had higher daily body weight gain ŠBWG¹ than other groups. During the study, when compared with first three groups, G16 had significantly higher BWG (p<0.05, but no significant difference was observed between G16 and G18. The lowest DMI was observed in G10 (p<0.05, however, there were no differences between G14, G16 and G18. The best and the lowest feed efficiency were observed in G16 and G10, respectively. When the analysis results of faeces samples were compared, the lowest nitrogen (N excretion was detected in G10 and G12, and the highest N excretion was detected in G18 (p<0.05. However, there were no significant differences between G14 and G16. Percentages of N digestibility's of G16 and G18 were higher than those of other groups (p<0.05. There were no significant differences between G16 and G18, and between G10, G12 and G14. The analysis results of serum samples obtained from experimental groups showed that, except for serum urea and albumin levels, there were no significant differences between the level of other metabolites. G10 had lowest serum albumin level (p<0.05, and there were no significant differences between the other groups. Serum urea levels of G14, G16, G18 were similar and higher than those of G10 and G12 (p<0.05. The lowest serum urea level was determined in G10 (p<0.05. Consequently, when it was considered that feeding Kivircik lambs with higher protein level than 16 % had no advantage for performance and would be cause of economic loss, it can be said that 16 % CP was optimal.

  16. Seed protein improvement in wheat by mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several nutritional surveys conducted in different areas in Pakistan have shown the prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition, especially among young children. However, there is no evidence of overall deficiency of protein resources in the country on a national basis. The available data are entirely inadequate to draw a definite conclusion about the extent of malnutrition in the country, and to plan a strategy for improving the diet of vulnerable groups. The common meal of the low income groups consists of Dal-Roti, which is a spiced pulse soup and pan bread. It is therefore essential to improve the protein content of the pulses and wheat in order to overcome malnutrition. The average yield per acre of pulses in Pakistan is very low, and it is particularly important to evolve high yielding, improved grain quality varieties of the popular pulses which have been hitherto largely neglected. Studies on the improvement of various local and exotic varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mung (Phaseolus aureus), through induced mutation, have yielded several high yielding and high protein mutants. These mutant lines are being further investigated for the confirmation of their variant traits. Single plant selections of mung bean made from the M2 generation on the basis of their plant type, habit of growth, maturity time, grain yield and disease resistance are under critical observation. Other pulses, e.g. Cicer arietinum, Lens esculenta and Phaseolus mungo havem, Lens esculenta and Phaseolus mungo have also been included in the programme; however the breeding work on these crops is still in the preliminary stages. (author)

  17. Trypsin coatings on electrospun and alcohol-dispersed polymer nanofibers for trypsin digestion column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Seung-Hyun; Chang, Mun Seock; Kim, Byoung Chan; An, Hyo Jin; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D.; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Jungbae

    2010-09-15

    The construction of a trypsin reactor in a chromatography column for rapid and efficient protein digestion in proteomics is described. Electrospun and alcohol-dispersed polymer nanofibers were used for the fabrication of highly stable trypsin coating, which was prepared by a two-step process of covalent attachment and enzyme crosslinking. In a comparative study with the trypsin coatings on asspun and non-dispersed nanofibers, it has been observed that a simple step of alcohol dispersion improved not only the enzyme loading but also the performance of protein digestion. In-column digestion of enolase was successfully performed in less than twenty minutes. By applying the alcohol dispersion of polymer nanofibers, the bypass of samples was reduced by filling up the column with well-dispersed nanofibers, and subsequently, interactions between the protein and the enzymes were improved yielding more complete and reproducible digestions. Regardless of alcohol-dispersion or not, trypsin coating showed better digestion performance and improved performance stability under recycled uses than covalently-attached trypsin. The combination of highly stable trypsin coating and alcoholdispersion of polymer nanofibers has opened up a new potential to develop a trypsin column for on-line and automated protein digestion.

  18. Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics: AN AUTOMATABLE ALTERNATIVE TO TRYPSIN FOR INTEGRATED TOP-DOWN BOTTOM-UP PROTEOMICS*

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?pez-ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-won; Tolic?, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Pas?a-tolic?, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic ...

  19. An improved method for scoring protein-protein interactions using semantic similarity within the gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Shobhit

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semantic similarity measures are useful to assess the physiological relevance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs. They quantify similarity between proteins based on their function using annotation systems like the Gene Ontology (GO. Proteins that interact in the cell are likely to be in similar locations or involved in similar biological processes compared to proteins that do not interact. Thus the more semantically similar the gene function annotations are among the interacting proteins, more likely the interaction is physiologically relevant. However, most semantic similarity measures used for PPI confidence assessment do not consider the unequal depth of term hierarchies in different classes of cellular location, molecular function, and biological process ontologies of GO and thus may over-or under-estimate similarity. Results We describe an improved algorithm, Topological Clustering Semantic Similarity (TCSS, to compute semantic similarity between GO terms annotated to proteins in interaction datasets. Our algorithm, considers unequal depth of biological knowledge representation in different branches of the GO graph. The central idea is to divide the GO graph into sub-graphs and score PPIs higher if participating proteins belong to the same sub-graph as compared to if they belong to different sub-graphs. Conclusions The TCSS algorithm performs better than other semantic similarity measurement techniques that we evaluated in terms of their performance on distinguishing true from false protein interactions, and correlation with gene expression and protein families. We show an average improvement of 4.6 times the F1 score over Resnik, the next best method, on our Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPI dataset and 2 times on our Homo sapiens PPI dataset using cellular component, biological process and molecular function GO annotations.

  20. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Karla, Silva; Viviane de Souza, Morita; Isabel Cristina, Boleli.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks [...] , distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1) with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  1. Níveis de proteína digestível e energia digestível em dietas para tilápias-do-nilo formuladas com base no conceito de proteína ideal / Level of digestible protein and digestible energy in diets for Nile tilapia formulated based on the concept of ideal protein

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovani Sampaio, Gonçalves; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Hamilton, Hisano; Maria Julia Santa, Rosa.

    2289-22-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação energia digestível/proteína digestível em rações formuladas com base em aminoácidos digestíveis e aplicando-se do conceito de proteína ideal para juvenis (30,0 ± 4,21 g) de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram formuladas 12 rações [...] com 22,0; 26,0; 30,0 ou 34,0% de proteína digestível e 3.000, 3.300 ou 3.600 kcal/kg de energia digestível, com relação proteína digestível/energia digestível variando entre 8,94 e 15,19 kcal/g. Foram utilizadas 324 tilápias, distribuídas aleatoriamente em 36 aquários circulares com volume de 250 litros, em densidade de 9 peixes/aquário, perfazendo 12 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Ao final de 60 dias, não foi observada diferença no ganho de peso, no ganho de peso diário e na conversão alimentar entre as relações energia/proteína avaliadas. Entretanto, observou-se aumento linear do rendimento de filé com o aumento dos níveis de proteína digestível. O custo de ração por kg de ganho de peso foi menor nos peixes alimentados com a ração com 30,0% PD e 3.000 kcal/kg ED, os quais apresentaram também melhor índice de eficiência econômica. A energia digestível não influenciou o desempenho produtivo, portanto, é possível a utilização de níveis inferiores a 34,0% proteína digestível em rações com base no conceito de proteína ideal para juvenis de tilápia. Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the best digestible energy and digestible protein ratio in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles 30.0 ± 4.21 g) based on digestible amino acids and the ideal protein concept). Twelve rations were formulated with protein levels 22.0; 26.0; 30 [...] .0 and 34.0% of digestible protein and levels 3,000, 3,300 and 3,600 kcal/kg digestible energy. The digestible energy/digestible protein ratio was between 8.94 and 15.19 kcal/g. Three hundred and twenty four tilapias were randomly distributed in thirty six 250 L circular tanks at a density of 9 fish/tank, a total of 12 treatments with three replications. After 60 days, there was no significant difference in weight gain, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the studied treatments. A linear increase was observed in fillet yield with increasing digestible protein. With respect to feed cost/kg weight gain, the treatment with 30.0% DP and 3,000 kcal/kg DE presented low cost and better cost effectiveness index. Therefore, it was concluded that digestible energy did not influence the productive performance parameters and that effective feeds can be formulated with DP levels lower than 34% when feeding juvenile tilapias. The ration should be formulated based on the concept of ideal protein.

  2. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, als (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed proteins are providing the basis for future plant breeding strategies. The Symposium concluded with reviews of the possible use of cell cultures and genetic transformations for seed protein improvement and a consideration of prospects for future developments of food and feed materials. Increased scientific knowledge and the application of molecular biology and genetic engineering techniques will have an undoubted influence upon the course and speed of future progress. However, the solution of the immediate nutritional problems of the poor and the hungry is very much dependent upon the vigorous and intelligent application of existing knowledge and techniques to produce and promote the use of plant genotypes with improved nutritional value. Until there is a market value for nutritional quality such varieties will have to be at least equal in yield and all other characteristics to the varieties commonly grown. (author)

  3. Sustainable energy development strategies in the rural Thailand: The case of the improved cooking stove and the small biogas digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmeechokchai, Bundit [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22 Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Chawana, Saichit [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents the strategies to overcome barriers to the adoption of improved cooking stove (ICS) and small biogas digester (SBD) technologies in Thailand. Firstly, to obtain the appropriate strategies to implement the ICS and the SBD, a pattern of energy consumption in the residential sector is investigated. Then the potential of reduction of energy consumption and corresponding emissions by the ICS and the SBD is assessed. The identification and ranking of barriers to the adoption of the ICS and the SBD technologies are also investigated. In this study the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used to assess the energy consumption and the corresponding emissions reduction. Then, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is used to identify and rank the barriers. Results from the LEAP model show that the cumulative total energy consumption and corresponding emissions reductions during the period 2002-2030 by the ICS are 27,887.7 ktoe and 10,041.0 thousand tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent, respectively. An average emissions reduction cost per tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent per year is US$ 0.95 for a fuel wood cooking stove and US$ 0.35 for a charcoal cooking stove. Regarding the SBD, the cumulative total liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption reduction and CO{sub 2} mitigation are 5780.9ktoe and 1548.8 thousand tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent during the period 2002-2030, respectively. Results from AHP analysis of ranking of barriers show that the three most important barriers in the adoption of the ICS are (i) high investment cost, (ii) lack of information, and (iii) lack of financial sources. For the SBD, the three most important barriers are (i) high investment cost, (ii) lack of financial sources, and (iii) lack of experts and skilled manpower. The sustainable energy triangle strategy (SETS) is implemented to overcome barriers in the adoption of the ICS. Results show that the traditional cooking stoves are successfully replaced (more than 20% per year). Regarding the SBD, the biogas pool project (BPP) is implemented to resolve the over supply of biogas. Results also show that the BPP is a proper strategy. (author)

  4. Degradação ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína bruta de alimentos para bovinos / Rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in feeds for cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Inácio, Marcondes; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Edenio, Detmann; Rilene Ferreira Diniz, Valadares; Luiz Fernando Costa e, Silva; Mozart Alves, Fonseca.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com os objetivos de determinar as frações A e B e a taxa de degradação ruminal (Kd) da matéria seca (MS) e da proteína bruta (PB) de 27 alimentos e avaliar a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína nãodegradada no rúmen pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três está [...] gios. Os alimentos avaliados foram farelos de arroz, babaçu, gérmen de milho e trigo; milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, milho desintegrado com sabugo, milho, polpa cítrica, sorgo, amireia, farelos de algodão com 28, 38 e 46% de PB, farelos de amendoim, girassol e soja; feijão-bandinha, glúten de milho, grão de soja, levedura, promil, refinazil, cascas de cacau, café e soja e silagens de capim-elefante e milho. Para obtenção da degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB dos alimentos, utilizaram-se sacos de náilon de 10 × 20 cm e os tempos de incubação de 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 e 72 horas. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os dados de degradação ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína bruta, em sua maioria, estão de acordo com a literatura. A técnica dos três estágios não estimou de forma satisfatória a digestibilidade interstinal de todos os alimentos estudados em conjunto, mas foi adequada para os alimentos proteicos. A maioria dos alimentos possui aproximadamente 90% de digestibilidade da PB, com exceção das cascas de soja, café e cacau e das silagens de milho e capimelefante. A técnica de três estágios estimou corretamente a digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos proteicos, mas recomenda-se a utilização da equação DIPB (%) = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X para corrigir a digestibilidade obtida pela técnica dos três estágios para alimentos não-proteicos. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to determine the A and B fractions and the rumen degradation rate (Kd) of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) in 27 feeds and determine the intestinal digestibility of non-degraded rumen protein by the three steps and mobile nylon bag techniques. Rice meal, [...] babassu meal, wheat and corn germ, ground corn cobs and straw, ground corn cobs, corn, citrus pulp, sorghum, starea and cottonseed meal with 28, 38 and 46% CP, peanut meal, sunflower meal, soybean meal, bean byproduct, corn gluten, soybean grain, dry yeast, corn gluten meal, cacao hulls, coffee hulls, soybean hulls, elephant-grass silage and corn silage were sampled. To obtain the ruminal degradation of DM and CP, 10 × 20 cm nylon bags with incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours were used. The intestinal digestibility was determined by the three steps and the mobile nylon bag techniques. The ruminal degradation data of the dry matter and crude protein were similar to the literature. The three step technique did not estimate properly the intestinal digestibility of all the feeds evaluated, excepted for the protein feeds. Most feeds had total CP digestibility close to 90%, excepted for soybean, coffee and cacao hulls and elephant-grass and corn silage. The three step technique correctly estimated the intestinal digestibility of the protein feeds, but the equation IDCP (%) = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X is recommended to correct the digestibility obtained by the three steps technique for non-protein feeds.

  5. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable protein in diets of Holstein cows: 1. Feed intake, digestibility and milk production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Afzalzadeh; H., Rafiee; A.A., Khadem; A., Asadi.

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) on lactation responses, digestion and dry matter intake (DMI), nine multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows, averaging 171 ± 17 days in milk and 24.1 ± 3.3 kg of milk/d were assigned to a 3 [...] × 3 Latin square design. The total mixed rations (TMR) included 45% forage on a dry matter (DM) basis and 55% concentrates. The RDP (g/kg of DM) and NFC : RDP ratios of diets were respectively: 1) 98 and 4.10 (LRDP), 2) 108 and 3.71 (MRDP), 3) 118 and 3.34 (HRDP). Ratios were achieved through altering the RDP content of the diets while the NFC was held constant at 401 g/kg of DM. Urea was supplemented as a source of RDP to decrease the ratio. DMI and organic matter intake (OMI) were affected by treatment and tended to decrease linearly from LRDP to HRDP. Crude protein intake (CPI) increased linearly as the amount of RDP in the diets increased. Apparent organic matter digestion in the total tract decreased significantly in the HRDP diet. Percentage of protein and solid non-fat (SNF) and concentration of milk urea-nitrogen (MUN) in milk increased linearly when cows were fed diets with the higher amounts of RDP. Results showed that low producing cows are less likely to respond to altering NFC : RDP ratios than high producing cows, but digestibility in the MRDP treatment was higher and RDP level equal to 108 (g/kg of DM). A NFC : RDP ratio equal to 3.71 was useful and recommendable for mid-lactation dairy cow.

  6. The Effect of Soybean Hulls Substitution Levels to Corn in The Ration on Energy and Protein Digestibility and on Sheep Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Iriyanti

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean hulls levels substitution in to corn as ration in twenty seven rams. The animal had a mean of live weight of 12.86 ± 1.94 kg. Levels of substitution were 0, 50, and 100% or 0, 25, and 50% ration dry matter basis and rations were iso-nitrogeneous. Analysis of variance were conducted for completely randomized design and polynomial orthogonal test were applied for the statistical analysis. Inclusion of soybean hulls in 50% ration dry matter had no effect on daily gain (99.71 ± 22.97 g, and digestible crude protein (62.43 ± 6.56 %. However, dry matter consumption tended to increase linearly and as soybean hulls level increase in the ration (P<0.01. The digestible energy significantly decrease linearly (P<0.01, whereas intake of the energy had same was 1.27 ± 0.33, 1.44 ± 0.17, and 1.23 ± 0.19 Mcal/day for ration containing 0, 25, 50% of soybean hulls, respectively. It was concluded that the soybean hulls may be substituted for corn. (Animal Production 2(2: 98-103 (2000 Key words : soybean hulls, corn, digestibility, daily gain.

  7. Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. These countries experience serious shortages of animal feeds and fodders of the conventional type. Natural forages are very variable both in quality and quantity, conventional agro-industrial by-products are scarce and vary seasonal, and grains are required almost exclusively for human consumption. The small farmers in developing countries have limited resources available to them for feeding their ruminant livestock. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Providing adequate good-quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Recent advances in ration balancing include manipulation of feed to increase the quantity and quality of protein and energy delivered to the small intestine. Selection of feeds based on high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with the high dry matter digestibility, and development of feeding strategies based on high efficiency as well as high microbial protein synthesis in the rumen will lead to higher supply of protein post-ruminally. The strategy for improving production has therefore been to maximize the efficiency of utilization of available feed resources in the rumen by pavailable feed resources in the rumen by providing optimum conditions for microbial growth and thereby supplementing dietary nutrients to complement and balance the products of rumen digestion to the animal's requirement

  8. Digestibilidade aparente de alimentos proteicos e energéticos para Trichogaster leeri / Apparent digestibility of protein and energy sources for "Trichogaster leeri"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William Cristiane Teles, Tonini; Marcelo Fanttini, Polese; Matheus Lima da Costa, Abreu; Douglas da Cruz, Matos; Manuel Vazquez, Vidal Júnior; Dalcio Ricardo, Andrade.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para determinar digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da matéria seca (MS), energia bruta (EB) e proteína bruta (PB) da farinha de peixe (FP), farinha de carne e ossos (FCO), farelo de soja (FS), farelo de milho (FM) e farelo de trigo (FT) pelo Trichogaster leeri. Foram utilizad [...] os 20 peixes por aquário. Os aquários eram cilíndricos, fundo cônico, com 100 litros cada. A determinação dos CD foi feita por intermédio da metodologia de coleta total de fezes. As médias de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e pH durante o período experimental foram de 25,0 ± 1,13 oC; 3,91 ± 0,91mg/L e 5,22 ± 0,87, respectivamente. Os CD da MS, PB e EB foram respectivamente de 68,63, 89,25 e 87,30 para FP; 54,90, 65,95 e 80,62 para FCO; 60,13, 82,19 e 85,46 para FS; 39,30, 89,87 e 89,74 para FM; 22,5,17,45 e 19,54 para FT. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted to determine the apparent digestibility (CAD) the dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) for fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), soybean meal (SM), corn meal (CM) and wheat bran (WB) for Trichogaster leeri. It used 20 fish/tank of cylindrical sha [...] pe with conical bottom, of 100 liters. CDA analysis was done through the method of total collection of feces. Average water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 25,0 ± 1,13 oC; 3,91 ± 0,91mg/L e 5,22 ± 0,87, respectively. CAD of CP, GE and DM were 68,63, 89,25 and 87,30 for FM; 54,90, 65,95 and 80,62 for MBM; 60,13, 82,19 and 85,46 for SM; 39,30, 89,87 and 89,74 for CM; 22,5,17,45 and 19,54 for WB, respectively.

  9. Approaches to improving the nutritional quality of barley seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poor nutritional quality of barley grain is determined by the low level of lysine in the prolamin storage proteins (hordein). These account for between 35 to 50% of the total grain nitrogen, depending on the nutritional status of the plant. There is a reduced proportion of hordein in mutant high lysine lines but these also have reduced synthesis of storage carbohydrates and hence low yields. Three strategies for improvement are discussed. Increases in the lysine content of hordein may be difficult to achieve because of the presence of complex families of structural genes. It would also be necessary to insert a large number of additional lysine residues. Two more promising approaches are to increase the level of expression of genes coding for lysine-rich globulin storage proteins and to increase the pool of free lysine by selecting mutant lines with relaxed feedback regulation of lysine synthesis. (author)

  10. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BangsØ Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria of the genus Caldicellusiruptor and Dictyoglomus. In a reactor experiment inoculation of a 68°C pretreatment reactor with Caldicellusiruptor resulted in a 93% increase in the methane yield of the pre-treatment reactor for a period of 18 days, but gave only a slight increase in the overall methane yield of the two-stage setup.

  11. Improved green fluorescent protein by molecular evolution using DNA shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, A; Whitehorn, E A; Tate, E; Stemmer, W P

    1996-03-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has rapidly become a widely used reporter of gene regulation. However, for many organisms, particularly eukaryotes, a stronger whole cell fluorescence signal is desirable. We constructed a synthetic GFP gene with improved codon usage and performed recursive cycles of DNA shuffling followed by screening for the brightest E. coli colonies. A visual screen using UV light, rather than FACS selection, was used to avoid red-shifting the excitation maximum. After 3 cycles of DNA shuffling, a mutant was obtained with a whole cell fluorescence signal that was 45-fold greater than a standard, the commercially available Clontech plasmid pGFP. The expression level in E. coli was unaltered at about 75% of total protein. The emission and excitation maxima were also unchanged. Whereas in E. coli most of the wildtype GFP ends up in inclusion bodies, unable to activate its chromophore, most of the mutant protein is soluble and active. Three amino acid mutations appear to guide the mutant protein into the native folding pathway rather than toward aggregation. Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, this shuffled GFP mutant showed a 42-fold improvement over wildtype GFP sequence, and is easily detected with UV light in a wide range of assays. The results demonstrate how molecular evolution can solve a complex practical problem without needing to first identify which process is limiting. DNA shuffling can be combined with screening of a moderate number of mutants. We envision that the combination of DNA shuffling and high throughput screening will be a powerful tool for the optimization of many commercially important enzymes for which selections do not exist. PMID:9630892

  12. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester. PMID:21975301

  13. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  14. Microbial community related to lysozyme digestion process for boosting waste activated sludge biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiao-Dong; He, Jun-Guo; Qiu, Wei; Tang, Jian; Liu, Tian-Tian

    2014-10-18

    Waste activated sludge from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was used to investigate the potential relation of microbial community with lysozyme digestion process for sludge solubilization. The results showed the microbial community shifted conspicuously as sludge suffered lysozyme digestion. Soluble protein and polysaccharide kept an increasing trend in solution followed with succession of microbial community. The rise of lysozyme dosage augmented the dissimilarity among communities in various digested sludge. A negative relationship presented between community diversity and lysozyme digestion process under various lysozyme/TS from 0 to 240min (correlation coefficient R(2) exceeded 0.9). Pareto-Lorenz curves demonstrated that microbial community tended to be even with sludge disintegration process by lysozyme. Finally, with diversity (H) decrease and community distribution getting even, the SCOD/TCOD increased steadily in solution which suggested the sludge with high community diversity and uneven population distribution might have tremendous potential for improving their biodegradability by lysozyme digestion. PMID:25459811

  15. Intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silage with additives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emilyn Midori, Maeda; Lucia Maria, Zeoula; Clóves Cabreira, Jobim; Ulysses, Cecato; Luiz Paulo, Rigolon; Ricardo, Kazama; Guido, Jacobi; Acir Felipe Grolli, Carvalho.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intake and total and ruminal digestibility, ruminal characteristics and microbial synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silages treated with microbial additive Lactobacillus buchneri (inoculate) and the addition of: cassava byproduct meal at 250 g/kg; soybean hulls at 250 g/kg; [...] and urea at 33 g/kg, in natural matter were evaluated. The forage:concentrate ratio was 600:400 g/kg. Bubaline body weight (BW) was 403±49 kg and bovine BW was 492±10 kg. The experimental design consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The average DM intake did not differ between species, and the diet with urea showed lowest intake (13 g/kg BW). Among the diets, the one with soybean hulls addition increased the total digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), while addition of urea reduced the DM, OM and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) total digestibility in both species. Bovines have higher ruminal digestibility of NFC in the diet with addition of inoculate, inoculate + soybean meal and inoculate + urea diets than bubaline. Ruminal liquid pH was higher for bubaline (6.61) than bovines (6.48). Diets with addition of cassava byproduct and soybean hulls presented higher ruminal short chain fatty acids concentrations. Ruminal ammonia concentration (N-NH3) did not differ between species and the treatment with urea presented the highest value of N-NH3 (17.25 mg/100 mL). Liquid passage rate was higher for bubaline (12.9%/h) than bovines (9.9%/h). Bubaline has higher microbial synthesis efficiency than bovine: 35.1 vs 24.6 g of N-microbial/kg OM of the total rumen digestibility, regardless of the diet.

  16. Intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silage with additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilyn Midori Maeda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intake and total and ruminal digestibility, ruminal characteristics and microbial synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silages treated with microbial additive Lactobacillus buchneri (inoculate and the addition of: cassava byproduct meal at 250 g/kg; soybean hulls at 250 g/kg; and urea at 33 g/kg, in natural matter were evaluated. The forage:concentrate ratio was 600:400 g/kg. Bubaline body weight (BW was 403±49 kg and bovine BW was 492±10 kg. The experimental design consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The average DM intake did not differ between species, and the diet with urea showed lowest intake (13 g/kg BW. Among the diets, the one with soybean hulls addition increased the total digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, while addition of urea reduced the DM, OM and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC total digestibility in both species. Bovines have higher ruminal digestibility of NFC in the diet with addition of inoculate, inoculate + soybean meal and inoculate + urea diets than bubaline. Ruminal liquid pH was higher for bubaline (6.61 than bovines (6.48. Diets with addition of cassava byproduct and soybean hulls presented higher ruminal short chain fatty acids concentrations. Ruminal ammonia concentration (N-NH3 did not differ between species and the treatment with urea presented the highest value of N-NH3 (17.25 mg/100 mL. Liquid passage rate was higher for bubaline (12.9%/h than bovines (9.9%/h. Bubaline has higher microbial synthesis efficiency than bovine: 35.1 vs 24.6 g of N-microbial/kg OM of the total rumen digestibility, regardless of the diet.

  17. Characterization and Comparison of Protein and Peptide Profiles and their Biological Activities of Improved Common Bean Cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mexico and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-06-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and complex carbohydrates. The objective was to compare protein profile, including anti-nutrient proteins, and potential bioactive peptides of improved common bean cultivars grown in Mexico and Brazil. Bean protein isolates (BPI) were prepared from 15 common bean cultivars and hydrolyzed using pepsin/pancreatin. Thirteen proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE and protein in-gel tryptic-digestion-LC/MS. Protein profile was similar among common bean cultivars with high concentrations of defense-related proteins. Major identified proteins were phaseolin, lectin, protease and ?-amylase inhibitors. Lectin (159.2 to 357.9 mg lectin/g BPI), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (inh) (4.3 to 75.5 mg trypsin inh/g BPI), Bowman-Birk inhibitor (5.4 to 14.3 ?g trypsin-chymotrypsin inh/g BPI) and ?-amylase inhibitor activity (2.5 to 14.9 % inhibition relative to acarbose/mg BPI) were higher in Mexican beans compared to Brazilian beans. Abundant peptides were identified by HPLC-MS/MS with molecular masses ranging from 300 to 1500 Da and significant sequences were SGAM, DSSG, LLAH, YVAT, EPTE and KPKL. Potential bioactivities of sequenced peptides were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE), dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) and antioxidant capacity. Peptides from common bean proteins presented potential biological activities related to control of hypertension and type-2 diabetes. PMID:25764244

  18. VOLUNTARY INTAKE, APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY AND DIGESTA KINETICS OF THREE PROTEIN-LEVEL FORAGES FED TO SHEEP CONSUMO VOLUNTÁRIO, DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE E CINÉTICA DIGESTIVA DE TRÊS FORRAGEIRAS EM OVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibe Luiz Abdalla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the voluntary intake, apparent digestibility and digesta kinetics of three protein-level forages fed to Santa Inês sheep. Six sheep (LW = 40 ± 5.7 kg fitted with rumen cannulas were used. Lucerne (LUC, signalgrass (SIG and Tifton-85 grass (TIF hays were chosen due to their crude protein (CP content (respectively, 191, 29 and 75 g kg-1 DM. Treatments and animals were fitted in a double Latin square (3 treatments, 3 periods, 6 animals. To measure the voluntary intake, animals were kept in individual stall with free access to water and food, during the first phase of each period. The feed consisted exclusively of LUC, SIG or TIF and mineral supplementation. Apparent digestibility was determined by total faeces collection. Digesta kinetics was estimated using Co-EDTA and Cr mordant fibre as markers to liquid and solid phases, respectively. Means were compared by Tukey test. Dry matter voluntary intake of treatment LUC was higher (P < 0.05 than treatments SIG and TIF and it reflected the strong relationship between intake and protein content in the diet. Dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficients were superior (P < 0.05 for LUC. Crude protein apparent digestibility showed differences (P < 0.05 between the three treatments, being LUC (0.694 the highest observed followed by TIF (0.500. Crude protein apparent digestibility of SIG was practically null (0.001, indicating intense protein deficit. Dry matter voluntary intake and digestibility of tested feeds were influenced by chemical composition and digestion kinetics. Low protein feeds had a prejudicial effect in nutrient apparent digestibi-lity, decreasing until nullity for protein of treatment SIG.

    Key-words: Lucerne, marker, nutrition, ruminant, signalgrass, Tifton.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo voluntário, a digestibilidade aparente e a cinética diges-tiva de três forragens, com teores protéicos distintos, em ovinos. Utilizaram-se  seis ovinos da raça Santa Inês (PV = 40 ± 5,7 kg, machos adultos, castrados e providos de cânulas ruminais. Optou-se pelo uso de fenos de alfafa (ALF, de braquiária (BRA e de capim Tifton-85 (TIF pelos seus teores de proteína bruta (PB, respectivamente, 191, 29 e 75 g kg-1 MS. Alocaram-se os tratamentos e os animais em delineamento de dois quadrados latinos (três tratamentos, três períodos e seis animais. As dietas consistiam exclusivamente de ALF, BRA ou TIF e mistura mineral, oferecida separadamente. O ensaio de consumo voluntário foi realizado em baias individuais e os de digestibilidade e cinética digestiva, em gaiolas de metabolismo. Determinou-se a digestibilidade aparente por coleta total de fezes. Estimou-se a cinética digestiva mediante o uso de Co-EDTA e fibra Cr-mordantada como marcadores das fases líquida e sólida, respectivamente. Compararam-se as médias por teste de Tukey. O consumo voluntário de MS do tratamento ALF foi maior (P < 0,05 que os tratamentos BRA e TIF, o que refletiu a forte relação entre consumo e teor de proteína na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS e da MO também foram superiores (P < 0,05 para ALF. A digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta mostrou diferenças (P < 0,05 entre os três tratamentos, sendo ALF (0,694 a mais alta que se observou, seguida por TIF (0,500. Para o tratamento BRA, essa variável foi praticamente nula (0,001, indicando déficit protéico intenso. O consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente dos alimentos testados receberam influência da composição química e da cinética digestiva. Alimentos com baixo teor protéico prejudicaram a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes, diminuindo, próximo à nulidade, para a proteína do tratamento BRA.

    Palavras-chaves:  Alfafa, braquiária, marcadores, nutrição, ruminantes, Tifton.

  19. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, leading to the conclusion, that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitising capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. However, this dependents on the given allergen. In conclusion, reviewing existing digestibility data shows that no absolute correlation between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential exist. Therefore stability to digestion may not necessarily be a good parameter for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins. Even very small peptides from food allergens may retain both IgE-binding, eliciting and sensitising capacity. As a consequence immunological studies should be performed when evaluating the digestibility of protein allergens.

  20. Protein sources and digestive enzyme activities in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Fontes protéicas e atividade de enzimas digestivas em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lazzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestive enzymes activity influence feed utilization by fish, and its understanding is important to optimize diet formulation. This study reports the digestive enzyme activities of jundiá juveniles fed diets with protein sources. Fish were fed six experimental diets for 90 days: MBY (meat and bone meal + sugar cane yeast, SY (soybean meal + sugar cane yeast, S (soybean meal, MBS (meat and bone meal + soybean meal, FY (fish meal + sugar cane yeast and FS (fish meal + soybean meal, and then sampled every 30 days and assayed in two intestine sections for digestive enzymes - trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase - activities; gastric protease was assayed in the stomach. Digestive and hepatosomatic index, intestinal quotient, digestive tract length and weight gain were also measured. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were higher (p As enzimas digestivas influenciam a utilização dos alimentos em peixes, e seu conhecimento é importante para otimizar a formulação de dietas. Este trabalho descreve a atividade de enzimas digestivas em juvenis de jundiá alimentados com fontes protéicas. Os peixes foram alimentados com seis dietas (90 dias: MBY (farinha de carne e ossos + levedura de cana, SY (farelo de soja + levedura de cana, S (farelo de soja, MBS (farinha de carne e ossos + farelo de soja, FY (farinha de peixe + levedura de cana e FS (farinha de peixe + farelo de soja. A cada 30 dias, foram analisadas as enzimas digestivas (tripsina, quimiotripsina e amilase no intestino. No estômago, foi mensurada a protease ácida. Foram estimados os índices digestivo e hepato-somático, quociente intestinal, comprimento do trato digestório e ganho em peso. As atividades de tripsina e quimiotripsina foram maiores (p < 0,0001 nos peixes alimentados com as dietas com fontes de origem animal (MBY, MBS, FY e FS. As proteases alcalinas foram afetadas negativamente pelo farelo de soja nas dietas. A atividade de amilase apresentou grandes variações. Os peixes alimentados com as dietas MBY e MBS apresentaram maior atividade de protease ácida (p < 0,0001. Os ganhos em peso foram maiores nos peixes alimentados com as dietas MBS e FS (p < 0,05. Os maiores valores (p < 0,05 de comprimento do trato digestório foram verificados nos peixes alimentados com as dietas MBS e FY. A composição da dieta influencia na atividade de enzimas digestivas do jundiá.

  1. Biogas production improvement and C/N control by natural clinoptilolite addition into anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lieyu; Xi, Beidou; Sun, Wenjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Zhu, Chaowei; He, Xiaosong; Li, Mingxiao; Yang, Tianxue; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhonglei

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (A co-D) performance of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste with addition of clinoptilolite (one main kind of zeolite) was investigated to evaluate the improvement of biogas/methane production and internal mechanism of nitrogen and organics control. A better biogas/methane production was observed by 10% clinoptilolite (v/v) than bentonite and diatomite, with the shortest lag phase of 0.070d(-1), the max rate of 15.89L/(kgVSday) and ultimate biogas production of 308.2L/kgVS as the modified Gompertz equation predicted. Accordingly, the content of methane in the biogas was increased from 44.10% to 65.30%. Furthermore, the clinoptilolite inhibited the acidification of digestion liquid (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and enhanced the VFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) destruction. Moreover, 10% of clinoptilolite optimally enhanced the microbial utilization of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), controlled the C/N ratio, and improved the biogas production as well as NH3-N/NO3-N inhibition efficiency. PMID:25603527

  2. Chapter 11. Digestive tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration of the digestive tube by radioactive tracers relates mainly to the functional study of certain digestion or absorption troubles. The tracer absorbed by the digestibe system was followed by counting of the stools, successive measurements of the plasma radioactivity, measurements of urinary elimination or uptake on a storage organ such as the liver in the case of vitamin B12, measurement of whole-body radioactivity for vitamin B12 and iron. The different isotopic techniques used to study intestinal absorption of lipids, proteins and aminoacids, vitamin B 12 and iron were described and their contribution to the detection of exudative enteropathies and digestive haemorrhage was shown. It was pointed out that the stomach is one of the organs most accessible to standard exploration techniques. The role of sup(99m)Tc in both the morphological exploration of stomach and the study of gastric secretion, of 51Cr and 129Cs in the study of gastric evacuation were demonstrated

  3. Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and of gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gianini Abimorad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus, é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão, Guelph e Guelph modificado, e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por intermédio do coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína bruta de uma dieta-referência para o pacu. Não houve diferença entre os métodos de coleta de fezes; já os intervalos de tempo das coletas apresentaram diferenças, podendo interferir nos resultados de digestibilidade da proteína. Em uma segunda etapa, para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da proteína e da energia de cinco concentrados protéicos de origem animal, cinco de origem vegetal e quatro energéticos, foram utilizadas rações elaboradas com 69,5% de uma dieta-referência, 30% do ingrediente teste e 0,5% de Cr2O3, utilizando o método de extrusão manual para a coleta de fezes. Os valores de digestibilidade da proteína da maioria dos alimentos apresentaram-se altos e não variaram estatisticamente, de 93,89 a 75,73% para o farelo de trigo e a farinha de penas, respectivamente. Entretanto, a farinha de sangue e a levedura apresentaram valores de digestibilidade da fração protéica significativamente inferiores (57,72 e 68,86%, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da energia dos alimentos variaram consideravelmente, apresentando altos valores (acima de 90% para o sorgo, o farelo de arroz e as sojas crua e tostada, e baixos valores (menores que 70% para as farinhas de vísceras e de sangue, os farelos de soja e de algodão e a levedura. Quanto aos métodos de coleta de fezes, conclui-se que qualquer um pode ser adotado para a determinação de digestibilidade, desde que sejam rigorosamente aplicados. De maneira geral, a maioria dos concentrados protéicos pode ser utilizada como ótimas fontes de proteína, com exceção da farinha de sangue e a levedura, enquanto os alimentos energéticos confirmaram-se como excelentes fontes de energia em dietas para o pacu.To improve the pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus feeding in the growth phase, it's necessary to know the digestibility of the ingredients used in his diets. Initially, four fecal collection methods were analyzed (dissection, stripping, Guelph and modified Guelph, based on precision and versatility and also the most efficient time among fecal collection of the Guelph sedimentation systems, through crude protein digestibility coefficient of pacu basic diet. There was no difference among the fecal collection methods while the intervals of time among the collections were significantly different, which may interfere in the protein digestibility results. In a second stage, five proteins concentrated of animal origin, five of vegetable origin and four energetic were studied for estimating protein and energy digestibility coefficients using the stripping method. The rations contained 69.5% of a reference diet, 30.0% of the ingredient test and 0.5% of Cr2O3. In a general way, crude protein digestibility coefficients were high and did not differ from the wheat meal (93.89% and feather flour (75.73%, respectively. However, blood and yeast showed lower crude protein digestibility (57.72% and 68.86%, respectively. Gross energy digestibility coefficients varied considerably among the feedstuffs, showing high values (above 90% for the sorghum, rice meal and raw and toasted soy and lower values (smaller than 70% for poultry by-product and blood meal, soybean meal, cotton and yeast. However, with regard to the fecal collection methods, the results showed that anyone can be adopted with safety for digestibility determination, if used accurately. In a general way, most of protein concentrate can be used as a very good protein source, except for blood meal and the yeast. The energy concentrate revealed to be a source of energy in pacu diets.

  4. Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) / Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and of gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Gianini, Abimorad; Dalton José, Carneiro.

    1101-11-01

    Full Text Available Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus), é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão [...] , Guelph e Guelph modificado), e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por intermédio do coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína bruta de uma dieta-referência para o pacu. Não houve diferença entre os métodos de coleta de fezes; já os intervalos de tempo das coletas apresentaram diferenças, podendo interferir nos resultados de digestibilidade da proteína. Em uma segunda etapa, para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da proteína e da energia de cinco concentrados protéicos de origem animal, cinco de origem vegetal e quatro energéticos, foram utilizadas rações elaboradas com 69,5% de uma dieta-referência, 30% do ingrediente teste e 0,5% de Cr2O3, utilizando o método de extrusão manual para a coleta de fezes. Os valores de digestibilidade da proteína da maioria dos alimentos apresentaram-se altos e não variaram estatisticamente, de 93,89 a 75,73% para o farelo de trigo e a farinha de penas, respectivamente. Entretanto, a farinha de sangue e a levedura apresentaram valores de digestibilidade da fração protéica significativamente inferiores (57,72 e 68,86%, respectivamente). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da energia dos alimentos variaram consideravelmente, apresentando altos valores (acima de 90%) para o sorgo, o farelo de arroz e as sojas crua e tostada, e baixos valores (menores que 70%) para as farinhas de vísceras e de sangue, os farelos de soja e de algodão e a levedura. Quanto aos métodos de coleta de fezes, conclui-se que qualquer um pode ser adotado para a determinação de digestibilidade, desde que sejam rigorosamente aplicados. De maneira geral, a maioria dos concentrados protéicos pode ser utilizada como ótimas fontes de proteína, com exceção da farinha de sangue e a levedura, enquanto os alimentos energéticos confirmaram-se como excelentes fontes de energia em dietas para o pacu. Abstract in english To improve the pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus) feeding in the growth phase, it's necessary to know the digestibility of the ingredients used in his diets. Initially, four fecal collection methods were analyzed (dissection, stripping, Guelph and modified Guelph), based on precision and versatility an [...] d also the most efficient time among fecal collection of the Guelph sedimentation systems, through crude protein digestibility coefficient of pacu basic diet. There was no difference among the fecal collection methods while the intervals of time among the collections were significantly different, which may interfere in the protein digestibility results. In a second stage, five proteins concentrated of animal origin, five of vegetable origin and four energetic were studied for estimating protein and energy digestibility coefficients using the stripping method. The rations contained 69.5% of a reference diet, 30.0% of the ingredient test and 0.5% of Cr2O3. In a general way, crude protein digestibility coefficients were high and did not differ from the wheat meal (93.89%) and feather flour (75.73%), respectively. However, blood and yeast showed lower crude protein digestibility (57.72% and 68.86%), respectively. Gross energy digestibility coefficients varied considerably among the feedstuffs, showing high values (above 90%) for the sorghum, rice meal and raw and toasted soy and lower values (smaller than 70%) for poultry by-product and blood meal, soybean meal, cotton and yeast. However, with regard to the fecal collection methods, the results showed that anyone can be adopted with safety for digestibility determination, if used accurately. In a general way, most of protein concentrate can be used as a very good protein source, except for blood meal and the yeast. The energy concentrate revealed to be a source of

  5. Direct Analysis of Reversed-Phase HPTLC Separated Tryptic Protein Digests using a Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe/ESI-MS System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emory, Joshua F [ORNL; Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Minarik, susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

    2010-01-01

    The sampling, ionization and detection of tryptic peptides separated in one-dimension on reversed phase HPTLC plates was performed using liquid microjunction surface sampling probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Tryptic digests of five proteins (cytochrome c., myoglobin, beta-casein, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin) were spotted on reversed phase HPTLC RP-8 F254s and HPTLC RP-18 F254s plates. The plates were then developed using 70/30 methanol/water with 0.1 M ammonium acetate. A dual purpose extraction/electrospray solution containing 70/30/0.1 water/methanol/formic acid was infused through the sampling probe during analysis of the developed lanes. Both full scan mass spectra and data dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired for each development lane to detect and verify the peptide distributions. Data dependent tandem mass spectra provided both protein identification and sequence coverage information. Highest sequence coverages were achieved for cytochrome c. and myoglobin (62.5% and 58.3%, respectively) on reversed phase RP-8 plates. While the tryptic peptides were separated enough for identification, the peptide bands did show some overlap with most peptides located in the lower half of the development lane. Proteins whose peptides were more separated gave higher sequence coverage. Larger proteins such as beta-casein and BSA which were spotted in lower relative amounts gave much lower sequence coverage than the smaller proteins.

  6. Preparation of shrimp waste as aqua feedstuff: a study of physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Thongprajukeaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different preparation methods (boiling, microwave irradiation, oven-drying, soaking, and sun-drying for improving the protein quality of shrimp waste (SW when used as aqua feedstuff were observed. The findings from this study indicate that microwave irradiation maintained both the chemical composition and total carotenoid concentration of the SW. This method controlled the appropriate physicochemical characteristics thus promoting proteolytic digestion, as indicated by measurement of changes in pH, water solubility, microstructures, and thermal transition. The protein digestibility based on the use of digestive enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus also increased after preparation with microwave irradiation. Based on this study, improvement in the protein quality in SW may be achieved by microwave irradiation and this method may be used as an alternative method for preparing aqua feedstuff.

  7. Use of the mobile nylon bag technique for determination of apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U

    2011-01-01

    Three digestibility experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of determination of apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) by the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) using 21 feedstuffs and three mixed diets. In two conventional digestibility experiments (Exp. 1 and 2), AID were determined using in total 10 barrows (BW 35 kg) fitted with simple T-cannulas at the terminal ileum. For the MNBT studies, four pigs were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the proximal duodenum and a Post-Valve T-Caecum (PVTC) cannula at the terminal ileum. The MNBT studies included the feedstuffs (n = 10) from Exp. 1 and 2 as well as 14 further feedstuffs and mixed diets in which AID coefficients had been determined in previous trials. For each feedstuff 60 nylon bags were used. In vitro digestion of the bags was carried out in pepsin-HCl solution with 450 IU pepsin/l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from the nylon bags during the in vitro and in vivo phase. In comparison with AID determined by the conventional method, AID of CP was on average 2.4% lower, whereas AID of lysine was on average 8.5% higher when determined by the MNBT. There was no significant (P > 0.05) correlation between AID coefficients of CP and AA determined by the conventional method and the MNBT, when all feedstuffs were taken into account. However, in cereals (n = 11), the correlation between AID coefficients determined by both methods was significant (P < 0.05) for CP (r = 0.61) and some AA (r ranging between 0.62 and 0.72). In conclusion, the potential of the MNBT to determine AID of CP and AA is rather limited. Differences in coefficients of AID of CP and AA were attributed to several factors such as diffusion of sample particles or endogenous protein through the nylon bags as well as to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (e.g. in legume seeds and oilseed meals).

  8. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. ? Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. ? Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. ? Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. ? It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also aion with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  9. Effect of different concentrations of protein on the digestive system of juvenile silver catfish / Efeito de diferentes concentrações de proteína sobre o sistema digestivo de juvenis de jundiá

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.F.B., Melo; L.M., Lundstedt; G., Moraes; L.A.K.A., Inoue.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados aspectos digestivos de juvenis de jundiá Rhamdia quelen alimentados com quatro níveis de proteína (20, 27, 34 e 41 %). As características estudadas foram enzimas digestivas (proteases inespecíficas, tripsina, quimiotripsina, amilase e lipase) e ganho de peso. O período experimental f [...] oi de 60 dias; 160 juvenis de jundiá com peso médio inicial de 32 gramas foram transferidos para um sistema experimental de tanques de 500L, com recirculação de água termostatizada. O peso médio dos jundiás aumentou com o teor de proteínas da dieta até 41% de proteína bruta (PB), valor esse considerado o melhor. A atividade de protease gástrica aumentou com o nível de PB. A protease alcalina intestinal atingiu o pico em 27% de PB e as maiores atividades foram observadas na secção anterior do intestino (SA). O pico de tripsina foi observado com 34% de PB na SA e na secção média do intestino (SM). As atividades de amilase e lipase foram inversas ao teor de PB, e os valores mais elevados foram observados na SA. Em conclusão, as enzimas digestivas de jundiá são responsivas ao nível de proteína da dieta. O teor mais alto de PB da dieta necessário ao maior ganho de peso em juvenis de jundiá é 41%. Abstract in english Aspects of digestion in juvenile silver catfish Rhamdia quelen fed with four levels of protein (20, 27, 34 and 41%) were studied. The studied traits were digestive enzymes (nonspecific proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase) and weight gain. The experiment lasted 60 days; 160 juvenile [...] catfish with initial body weight of 32 grams were transferred to the experimental system of 500L tanks with re-circulated and thermostatized water. The average weight of silver catfish increased with dietary protein and 41% of crude protein (CP) was accepted as the best one. Gastric protease activity increases with the CP level. The intestinal alkaline protease reached the peak at 27% CP and the highest activities were observed in the anterior section of the gut (AS). The trypsin peak was observed at 34% CP in the AS and medium section of the gut (MS). Amylase and lipase activities were inverse to the dietary CP and the highest values were observed in AS. In conclusion, the digestive enzymes of catfishes are responsive to the dietary protein level. The dietary CP required for highest weight gain of juvenile silver catfish is 41%.

  10. Effect of different concentrations of protein on the digestive system of juvenile silver catfish Efeito de diferentes concentrações de proteína sobre o sistema digestivo de juvenis de jundiá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.B. Melo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of digestion in juvenile silver catfish Rhamdia quelen fed with four levels of protein (20, 27, 34 and 41% were studied. The studied traits were digestive enzymes (nonspecific proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase and weight gain. The experiment lasted 60 days; 160 juvenile catfish with initial body weight of 32 grams were transferred to the experimental system of 500L tanks with re-circulated and thermostatized water. The average weight of silver catfish increased with dietary protein and 41% of crude protein (CP was accepted as the best one. Gastric protease activity increases with the CP level. The intestinal alkaline protease reached the peak at 27% CP and the highest activities were observed in the anterior section of the gut (AS. The trypsin peak was observed at 34% CP in the AS and medium section of the gut (MS. Amylase and lipase activities were inverse to the dietary CP and the highest values were observed in AS. In conclusion, the digestive enzymes of catfishes are responsive to the dietary protein level. The dietary CP required for highest weight gain of juvenile silver catfish is 41%.Foram estudados aspectos digestivos de juvenis de jundiá Rhamdia quelen alimentados com quatro níveis de proteína (20, 27, 34 e 41 %. As características estudadas foram enzimas digestivas (proteases inespecíficas, tripsina, quimiotripsina, amilase e lipase e ganho de peso. O período experimental foi de 60 dias; 160 juvenis de jundiá com peso médio inicial de 32 gramas foram transferidos para um sistema experimental de tanques de 500L, com recirculação de água termostatizada. O peso médio dos jundiás aumentou com o teor de proteínas da dieta até 41% de proteína bruta (PB, valor esse considerado o melhor. A atividade de protease gástrica aumentou com o nível de PB. A protease alcalina intestinal atingiu o pico em 27% de PB e as maiores atividades foram observadas na secção anterior do intestino (SA. O pico de tripsina foi observado com 34% de PB na SA e na secção média do intestino (SM. As atividades de amilase e lipase foram inversas ao teor de PB, e os valores mais elevados foram observados na SA. Em conclusão, as enzimas digestivas de jundiá são responsivas ao nível de proteína da dieta. O teor mais alto de PB da dieta necessário ao maior ganho de peso em juvenis de jundiá é 41%.

  11. EFECTO DEL SEXO DE LA RATA (Sprague Dawley SOBRE LA DIGESTIBILIDAD Y RAZÓN NETA DE PROTEÍNA EN ALIMENTOS DE DISTINTA CALIDAD PROTEICA EFFECT OF RAT (Sprague Dawley SEX ON DIGESTIBILITY AND NET PROTEIN RATIO IN FOODS OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Falcón-Villa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del agrupamiento por sexo de las ratas Sprague Dawley fue evaluada al determinar la calidad proteica en tres alimentos. Los bioensayos realizados fueron digestibilidad de materia seca (DMsec, digestibilidad de nitrógeno aparente y verdadera (DNap y DNver y razón neta de proteína (NPR. Las muestras empleadas fueron alimentos de distinta calidad proteica: leche en polvo, soya texturizada y cereal, obtenidas del comercio local y caseína como control. Se utilizó un diseño experimental por grupos: mixto, hembras y machos. Se colectaron datos cada tercer día: alimento consumido, el total de heces y el incremento en peso de cada individuo. Se concluye de manera general, que el agrupamiento por sexo de la rata no tiene efecto significativo sobre la respuesta de estos bioensayos evaluados en los alimentos probados, a excepción del cereal que presentó diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro de DNver, sugiriendo que es factible utilizar ratas de diferente sexo en estas evaluaciones de calidad proteicaThe effect of grouping by sex Sprague Dawley rats on protein quality evaluation of three foods was studied. Bioassays performed were dry matter digestibility (DMD, apparent and true nitrogen digestibility (AND y TND and net protein ratio (NPR. Foods of different protein quality used were dry whole milk, texturized soybean and high fiber breakfast cereal obtained from the local market. Casein was used as control. An experimental block design where the blocks were the groups of rats classified as mixed, female and male was used. Data of consumed diet, total feces and weight gain of each rat was recorded every third day. It was concluded that with the exception of the high fiber breakfast cereal, which showed significant differences between males and females in the true nitrogen digestibility parameter, in general grouping by sex did not have a significant effect on dry matter, AND, TND and NPR responses. These results suggest the possibility of using rats from either sex in these protein quality evaluation tests

  12. Níveis de proteína na dieta de novilhas da raça Pantaneira: desempenho e digestibilidade aparente / Increasing levels of protein in the diet of heifers of Pantaneira Breed: performance and digestibility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L., Teodoro; M.V.M., Oliveira; F.M., Vargas Junior; R.S., Juliano; M.L., Longo; L.O., Seno; C.A.L., Oliveira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a influência de níveis crescentes de proteína dietética sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade aparente e concentrações de uréia plasmática e urinária, em bovinos da raça Pantaneira. Os dados foram obtidos de 15 novilhas, com 18 meses de idade e peso corporal in [...] icial de 146 kg, recebendo dietas com 11; 13; 15 e 17 % de proteína bruta (PB). Os animais permaneceram confinados por 114 dias e em intervalos de 28 dias foram pesados e realizadas coletas de sangue, de fezes na ampola retal e de urina na forma spot. O aumento do teor de PB não influenciou o consumo de matéria seca (MS) e o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD); porém melhorou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, elevou os níveis de nitrogênio no sangue e promoveu maior excreção de uréia urinária. Observou-se, em média, consumos de 5,13 kg MS/animal/dia; GMD de 570 g; coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de 40,9; 59,6; 39,2; 41,3 e 34,0 % para MS, PB, carboidrato total (CT), fibra detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), respectivamente; concentração de uréia plasmática de 49,6 mg/dL; e perda de uréia urinária de 110,0 g/animal/dia. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to verify the influence of increasing levels of dietary protein on performance, apparent digestibility and plasma and urinary urea in Pantaneira breed. The data were obtained from 15 heifers, 18 months old and 146 kg initial body weight, fed diets containing 11, [...] 13, 15 and 17 % of crude protein (CP). The animals were confined for 114 days. At intervals of 28 days they were weighed and blood samples and spot samples of feces from the rectum and of urine were taken. The increase in dietary CP content did not influenced dry matter (DM) intake and average daily weight gain (ADG), but improved nutrient digestibility, increased blood nitrogen levels and increased excretion of urinary urea. A mean intake of 5.13 kg DM/animal/day and an ADG of 570 g were observed. Apparent digestibility values of 40.9, 59.6, 39.2, 41.3 and 34,0 % for DM, CP, total carbohydrate, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, respectively, were found. Plasma urea concentration was 49.6 mg/dL; and an urinary urea loss of 110,0 g/animal/day was observed.

  13. Fermentation of Sugarcane Sludge to Improve Dry- and and Organic Matters Digestibility and Rumen Parameters In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Widodo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the utilization of fungi and yeast on sugarcane sludge fermentation. The treatments of the first experiment were P0= sugarcane sludge without fermentation; P1= fermentation by Saccharomyces cereviceae; P2 = fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae; P3 = fermentation by Aspergillus niger; P4= fermentation by Rhizopus orryzae. Treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomised Design. The treatments of the second experiments were R0 = basic rations, R1 = R0 + 5% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R2 = R0 + 10% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R3 = R0 + 15% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R4 = R0 + 20% fermented of sugarcane sludge. Treatments have significant effects (P<0.05 on VFA and NH3 parameters. Based on these parameters, fermentation of sugarcane sludge using Saccharomyces cereviceae had better results compared to others. The treatments had significant effect (P<0.05 on NH3, and based on polynomial orthogonal test the treatments had linear curve of Y= 4,035 +0,237X. However, treatments had no significant effects on VFA and organic matters digestibility. The dry matters digestibility parameters were significantly affected (P<0.05, and the curve response was linear with equation of Y=45,964 - 0,294X. (Animal Production 10(1: 30-33 (2008 Key Words: Sugarcane sludge processing, fungi, yeast, in vitro

  14. Adaptation of digestive enzymes to dietary protein, carbohydrate and fibre levels and influence of protein and carbohydrate quality in Penaeus vannamei larvae (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moullac, Gilles; Wormhoudt, Alain

    1994-01-01

    L'activité des enzymes digestives (trypsine, chymotrypsine et amylase) au cours des premiers stades larvaires de Penaeus vannamei est étudiée en relation avec l'alimentation. Les microparticules à base de caséine diminuent le contenu protéique soluble et les activités enzymatiques. L'activité spécifique de la trypsine est corrélée (p

  15. Directed evolution methods for improving polypeptide folding and solubility and superfolder fluorescent proteins generated thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-09-18

    The current invention provides methods of improving folding of polypeptides using a poorly folding domain as a component of a fusion protein comprising the poorly folding domain and a polypeptide of interest to be improved. The invention also provides novel green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and red fluorescent proteins that have enhanced folding properties.

  16. Resolution Improvement in Multidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with both liquid-state and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Most of this work is devoted to the investigation by solid-state NMR of C13-enriched compounds with the principal aim of presenting techniques devised for further improving the spectral resolution in multidimensional NMR of microcrystalline proteins. In fully C13-labelled compounds, the J-coupling induces a broadening of the carbon lineshapes. We show that spin-state-selective technique called IPAP can be successfully combined with standard polarisation transfer schemes in order to remove the J-broadening in multidimensional solid-state NMR correlation experiments of fully C13-enriched proteins. We present subsequently two techniques tailored for liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. The carbon directly detected techniques provide chemical shift information for all backbone hetero-nuclei. They are very attracting for the study of large bio-molecular systems or for the investigation of paramagnetic proteins. In the last part of this thesis, we study the spin-echo J-modulation for homonuclear two-spin 1/2 systems. Under magic-angle spinning, the theory of J-induced spin-echo modulation allows to derive a set of modulation regimes which give a spin-echo modulation exactly equal to the J-coupling. We show that the chemical-shift anisotropy and the dipolar interaction tend to stabilize the spin-echo J-modulation. The theoretical conclusions are supported by numerical simulations and experimental results obtained for three representative samples containing C13 spin pairs. (author)

  17. Effects of supplementary urea-minerals lick block on the kinetics of fibre digestion, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization of low quality roughages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-ming; Hu, Wei-lian; Liu, Jian-xin

    2005-08-01

    Three yearling lambs with a rumen cannula were used to investigate the effects of supplementation with an urea-minerals lick block (ULB) on the kinetics of ruminal fibre digestion, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen (N) utilization of rice straw (RS), ammonia bicarbonate (AB)treated RS (ABRS) and hay prepared from natural pasture. The digestibility of dry matter and organic matter of RS increased by 13.1% and 12.7% (Pdigestibility of RS is similar to that of AB treatment. The digestibility of ABRS was slightly improved by the ULB feeding. Nitrogen retention was highest in lambs fed on ABRS alone, followed by hay with ULB, and was lowest in animals fed on RS with ULB. However, both the amount and proportion of N retention to N intake were enhanced by ULB supplementation to lambs fed on hay. The proportion of N retained to N digested decreased due to ULB supplementation to lambs fed on RS or ABRS. Supplementing ULB did not greatly influence the rumen degradation of either dry matter or crude protein in each of the three diets. RS and hay had similar values in the potential extent of digestion (PED) and digestion rate of PED (kd) of fibrous materials, but the discrete lag time for RS was lower than that for hay. The AB treatment significantly increased the PED (Pdigestion of fibre in the rumen of lambs fed on low quality roughage. It is inferred that while ULB is effective in increasing nutrient digestibility of low quality roughages by improving ruminal fibre digestion. A synchronized supply of N and energy to rumen microbes should be considered to improve the efficiency of N utilization when the basal diet is ammoniated straw. PMID:16052713

  18. Composição, digestibilidade protéica e desaminação em cultivares brasileiras de soja submetidas à radiação gama / Composition, protein digestibility and deamidation in Brazilian soy cultivars subjected to gamma radiation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taís Carolina Franqueira de, Toledo; Solange Guidolin Canniatti, Brazaca; Valter, Arthur; Sônia Maria de Stefano, Piedade.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A soja é reconhecidamente um alimento rico em proteínas e lipídios e sua inclusão na alimentação humana no Brasil tem se tornado cada vez maior. Devido à importância comercial e nutricional da soja, possíveis alterações promovidas por métodos de conservação aplicados a ela devem ser estudadas. O pre [...] sente trabalho visa avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas e a porcentagem de desaminação de grãos de cinco diferentes cultivares de soja (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, BRS 231 e E48) submetidas à irradiação (doses de 2, 4 e 8 kGy). Dentro da composição química foram encontrados valores para cinza que variaram de 4,90 a 6,08%, para proteína de 21,23 a 36,99%, para lipídeos de 19,22 a 24,84%, para fibras solúveis de 1,37 a 4,03% e para fibras insolúveis de 15,97 a 18,87%. A porcentagem de desaminação nas diferentes amostras variou de 17,34 a 57,79% e a digestibilidade in vitro de 84,45 a 89,11%. O tratamento de irradiação nas doses utilizadas não promoveu alterações na composição centesimal e na digestibilidade, mas promoveu aumento na porcentagem de desaminação das amostras conforme aumento das doses. Abstract in english Soy is known to be rich in proteins and lipids and its inclusion in the diet of Brazil's population is increasing. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soy, possible alterations resulting from the methods of conservation to which they are subjected must be studied. The present work ev [...] aluated the chemical composition, the in vitro digestibility of proteins and the percentage of deamidation of grains of five different soy cultivars (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48) subjected to irradiation (doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy). The chemical composition showed ashes varying from 4.90 to 6.08%, proteins from 21.23 to 36.99%, lipids from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble fibers from 1.37 to 4.03%, and insoluble fibers from 15.97 to 18.87%. The percentage of deamidation in the various samples varied from 17.34 to 57.79% and the in vitro digestibility from 84.45 to 89.11%. Irradiation treatment in the doses applied here did not change the chemical composition or digestibility, but increased the percentage of deamidation of the samples as the dosage increased.

  19. Determination of hidden hazelnut oil proteins in extra virgin olive oil by cold acetone precipitation followed by in-solution tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    Adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HO) is an illegal practice that could have severe health consequences for consumers due to the possible exposure to hidden hazelnut allergens. Here, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used as a rapid and sensitive technique for the detection of a low concentration of hazelnut proteins in oil samples. Different protocols were tested for protein extraction, and the most efficient (cold acetone) was applied to HO and EVOO adulterated with HO. The subsequent in-solution tryptic digestion of protein extracts and MALDI-MS analysis, using ?-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid as matrix, allowed the detection of stable hazelnut peptide markers (i.e., the m/z ions 1002.52, 1356.71, 1394.70, 1440.81, 1453.85, 1555.76, 1629.83, 1363.73, and 1528.67) attributable to the main hazelnut proteins Cor a 9, Cor a 11, and Cor a 1. Thus, the approach might allow the direct detection of specific hazelnut allergens in EVOO at low concentration without time-consuming pretreatments. PMID:25209075

  20. Improved phosphate biosorption by bacterial surface display of phosphate-binding protein utilizing ice nucleation protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianqian; Yu, Ziniu; Shao, Xiaohu; He, Jin; Li, Lin

    2009-10-01

    The conventional enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system often deteriorates at low chemical oxygen demand (COD) or under aeration conditions. A new approach that incorporates phosphate-eutrophic wastewater remediation was introduced through immobilization of an intracellular phosphate-binding protein (PBP) onto the surface of Pseudomonas putida or Escherichia coli, using the N-terminal anchor (InaQ-N) of a newly identified ice nucleation protein from Pseudomonas syringae. A green fluorescent protein-fusion protein was expressed and used to confirm surface localization. The PBP was then targeted to the surface of E. coli JM109 and P. putida AB92019. The engineered P. putida and E. coli microorganisms were capable of absolute biosorption of total phosphates at rates of 60 and 80 mg L(-1), respectively, over 5 h. In the recombinant P. putida cells, a surface-immobilized PBP fusion that had three tandemly repeated InaQ-Ns exhibited the maximum increment in phosphate biosorption, at sixfold compared with the control strain. Even heat-killed recombinant cells of either P. putida or E. coli retained substantial biosorptive activities. The current study demonstrates that the bacterial surface display of PBP should be considered as a strong contender for generating organisms capable of functioning in EBPR systems under low COD, resulting in improved removal of eutrophic phosphorus from wastewaters. PMID:19686343

  1. Post-polymerization photografting on methacrylate-based monoliths for separation of intact proteins and protein digests with comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography hyphenated with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Rudy J; Wouters, Sam; Barcaru, Andrei; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; de Koning, Leo J; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Post-polymerization photografting is a versatile tool to alter the surface chemistry of organic-based monoliths so as to obtain desired stationary phase properties. In this study, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid was grafted to a hydrophobic poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith to create a strong cation exchange stationary phase. Both single-step and two-step photografting were addressed, and the effects of grafting conditions were assessed. An experimental design has been applied in an attempt to optimize three of the key parameters of the two-step photografting chemistry, i.e. the grafting time of the initiator, the monomer concentration and the monomer irradiation time. The photografted columns were implemented in a comprehensive two-dimensional column liquid chromatography ( (t) LC?×? (t) LC) workflow and applied for the separation of intact proteins and peptides. A baseline separation of 11 intact proteins was obtained within 20 min by implementing a gradient across a limited RP composition window in the second dimension. (t) LC?×? (t) LC with UV detection was used for the separation of cytochrome c digest, bovine serum insulin digest and a digest of a complex protein mixture. A semi-quantitative estimation of the occupation of separation space, the orthogonality, of the (t) LC?×? (t) LC system yielded 75 %. The (t) LC?×? (t) LC setup was hyphenated to a high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer instrument to identify the bovine serum insulin tryptic peptides and to demonstrate the compatibility with MS analysis. PMID:25801383

  2. Digestible tryptophan levels in diets for pigs weighing 15 to 30 kg

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lourdes Romão, Apolônio; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Rita Flávia Miranda de, Oliveira; Alysson, Saraiva; Francisco Carlos de Oliveira, Silva; Aloízio Soares, Ferreira; Anderson Lazarini, Lima; João Luís, Kill.

    1706-17-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary tryptophan levels on performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs, a total of 60 crossbred castrated male pigs, with average initial and final body weights of 15.50 ± 1.15 and 30.60 ± 1.35 kg were used. Pigs were allotted in a complet [...] ely randomized block design, with five dietary treatments (0.149, 0.158, 0.168, 0.177, and 0.187% digestible tryptophan, corresponding to digestible tryptophan:lysine relations of 16.0, 17.0, 18.0, 19.0, and 20.0%), six replicates, and two animals per experimental unit, which was represented by the pen. Experimental diets and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The average maximum and minimum temperatures inside the rooms were of 21.5 ± 1.12°C and 26.4 ± 1.91°C, respectively. There was no effect of digestible tryptophan on daily feed intake or protein deposition of pigs. Body weight gain increased quadratically with increasing digestible tryptophan in the diets up to 0.175% maximum response. Increasing digestible tryptophan in the diets linearly improved feed conversion of pigs. The greatest weight gain of 15 to 30 kg castrated male pigs is obtained at 0.175% digestible tryptophan, corresponding to a digestible tryptophan:lysine relation of 18.82% and an estimated daily intake of 2.32 grams of digestible tryptophan.

  3. Effect of Different Processing Methods, on Nutrient Composition, Antinutrional Factors, and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Dolichos Lablab Bean [Lablab purpuresus (L) Sweet

    OpenAIRE

    Magdi A. Osman

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different traditional processing methods, soaking, cooking roasting, autoclaving and germination on the nutrient composition antinutritional factor, and in-vitro digestibility in Dolichos lablab seeds were investigated. Germination significantly increased the protein and moisture content, whereas roasting and autoclaving decreased their contents. Crude lipid content, was significantly reduced by various processing. Ash content varied significantly between raw and processe...

  4. Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276 l(N) kg VS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286 l(N) kg VS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140°C and a retention time of 60 min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process. PMID:25549903

  5. Hoover Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Started in 1996, the Hoover Digest is a quarterly publication that features writing on politics, economics, and history from the minds of scholars and researchers affiliated with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Visitors to the Digest's homepage will find an illustration of the current issue's cover, flanked on one side by a listing of the featured articles. Further down on the site, users will find a list of the "Most Viewed" articles, along with links to the "Most Printed", "Most Emailed", and "Most Saved" pieces. Along the right-side of the homepage, visitors can elect to browse by topic, date, or author. The topic list is exhaustive, and it includes areas such as "Flat Tax", "Constitution", "Law Enforcement", and "Arms Control". Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive a free print copy of the Digest.

  6. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytharopoulou, S.; Kournoutou, G.G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Leotsinidis, M. [Laboratory of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Georgiou, C.D. [Department of Biology, Section of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kalpaxis, D.L., E-mail: dimkal@med.upatras.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd{sup 2+}, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 ?g/L Cu{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+}. Both metals, in particular Cd{sup 2+}, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu{sup 2+} also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd{sup 2+} for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd{sup 2+}-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms.

  7. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cu2+-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd2+-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd2+, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 ?g/L Cu2+ or Cd2+. Both metals, in particular Cd2+, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu2+ also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd2+ for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd2+-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd2+ and Cu2+ affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms

  8. DETERMINATION OF ROMANIAN ALFALFA CRUDE PROTEIN AND CRUDE FIBER CONTENTS AS WELL AS IN VITRO ORGANIC MATTER DIGESTIBILITY BY NIR SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. DALE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a high quality forage which has been used worldwide. The superiority of alfalfa lies in its high yield, high protein content and high digestibility. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, fast and non­destructive method, named Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to determinate alfalfa quality. To realize this study, alfalfa samples were obtained from Manaútur Experimental Station – Farm Cojocna in 2008–2009, in one experiment carried out using randomization blocks design with two experimental factors (mineral fertilization and period of harvest. Alfalfa quality was first determinated on 48 samples by classical analyses: crude protein CP (AOAC, 1990, crude fiber CF (Fiber Cap, FOSS, DK and in vitro organic matter digestibility OMDrt (DeBoever, 1986. Then the samples were scanned by NIRS. Calibration models were performed by PerkinElmer Spectrum Quant + 4.21 program (USA on the 48 samples determinated by classical analysis. The results showed fully confirmed by acceptable coefficients of determination and standard error of cross-validation (R2=0.96 for CP, 0.94 for CF, 0.98 for OMDrt and SECV=0.77 for CP, 1.35 for CF, 1.13 for OMDrt. Successful results for prediction of other 176 alfalfa samples were then obtained using these calibration models: SEP=0.869 for CP, 1.058 for CF, 1.058 for OMDrt. The highest CP and OMDrt values of alfalfa were obtained in bud stage (22.0% and 66.0% respectively. While for CF, the highest content was registered in the seed formation stage (46.0%. The NIRS technique offers us the possibility to determinate rapidly and easily Romanian alfalfa important parameters, but the system could also be used for the determination of other constituents.

  9. Protein fraction, degradability and digestibility of pearl millet silage at different cutting ages / Fracionamento de proteína, degradabilidade e digestibilidade da silagem de milheto em diferentes idades de corte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia Cylene, Guimarães; Kátia Aparecida de Pinho, Costa; Alexsandra, Paludo; Nayara Fernandes dos, Santos; Robson Marcelo, Rossi; Welma Santos, Cruvinel.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As determinações das frações proteicas e características de fermentação ruminal de genótipos de milheto são de fundamental importância, pois geram informações relativas ao valor nutritivo do alimento e direcionam os programas de melhoramento genético a serem utilizadas na dieta de ruminantes. Diante [...] disso, objetivou-se determinar as taxas de digestão das frações de proteína, degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca e digestibilidade "in vitro" da matéria seca das silagens dos genótipos de milheto produzidas em diferentes épocas de corte. O experimento foi conduzido no Campus da Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade de Rio Verde e Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus Rio Verde. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo, cinco cultivares de milheto: ARD 500, ADR 7010, LAB 0730, LAB 0731 e LAB 0732 e três idades de cortes: 57, 65 e 73 dias após a semeadura (DAS). Os resultados mostraram que as silagens produzidas por milheto, independente do genótipo, podem ser consideradas de boa qualidade. Por se tratar de materiais precoces a melhor idade que proporcionou melhor qualidade da silagem desses materiais, foi quando os materiais foram colhidos aos 57 DAS, em que proporcionaram maiores frações A, menores frações C e elevadas degradabilidade e digestibilidade. Abstract in english The determination of protein fraction and rumen fermentation characteristics of pearl millet genotypes is important, since generate information about food nutritional value and also guide the breeding programs of genotypes to be used in diets of ruminants. The objective of this research was to deter [...] mine the digestion rates of protein fractions, dry matter degradability and in vitro dry matter digestibility of silages from pearl millet genotypes produced at different cutting ages. The experiment was carried out on the Agronomy campus of the Rio Verde University and on the Rio Verde campus of Goiano Federal Institute. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, with five genotypes of millet: ARD 500, ADR 7010, LAB 0730, LAB 0731 and LAB 0732 and three cutting ages: 57, 65 and 73 days after sowing (DAS). The silage produced from pearl millet, regardless of genotype can be considered of good quality. The evaluated genotypes are considered early, so that the age that provided the best silage quality was 57 DAS. This age provided higher fractions A, lower fraction C and high degradability and digestibility.

  10. Relação lisina digestível: proteína bruta em dietas para frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Desempenho e metabolismo / Digestible lysine: crude protein ratios on initial broiler diets - performance and metabolism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kênia Ferreira, Rodrigues; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Antonio Gilberto, Bertechini; Luiz Fernando Teixeira, Albino; Édison José, Fassani.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste experimento testar diferentes relações lisina digestível:proteína bruta (PB) em dietas para frangos de corte na fase inicial de criação. Utilizou-se um lote misto de 1.800 aves da linhagem Cobb, com um dia de idade. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com um modelo de clas [...] sificação hierárquica com três níveis de PB e quatro relações lisina digestível:PB. No ensaio de desempenho, as rações foram fornecidas a 30 aves em cada uma das cinco repetições. Aos 21 dias de idade, avaliaram-se consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. Não houve efeito significativo das diferentes relações dentro dos três níveis de PB. Observou-se comportamento linear do ganho de peso nas relações de lisina dentro dos níveis de 18,5 e 21,5% de PB. A conversão alimentar melhorou linearmente segundo as relações de lisina dentro dos três níveis de PB estudados. O rendimento de carcaça elevou-se linearmente com o aumento das relações no nível de 15,5% de PB, não sendo significativo nos demais níveis. No ensaio de metabolismo, as relações lisina digestível:proteína bruta apresentaram efeito linear sobre a EMAn (21,5% de PB) e excreção de nitrogênio (18,5% de PB) e efeito quadrático sobre a EMAn (15,5 e 18,5% de PB) e o coeficiente de retenção de N (15,5% de PB). Considerando os resultados de ganho de peso, a relação ideal de lisina digestível:proteína bruta na fase inicial foi de 6,8% (18,5% de PB) e 5,9% (21,5% de PB) ou 1,26 e 1,27% de lisina digestível. Os teores de PB das rações para frangos de corte na fase inicial podem ser reduzidos para 18,5%, sem afetar o desempenho das aves, mas reduzindo a excreção de nitrogênio em 24%, desde que as rações sejam suplementadas com aminoácidos sintéticos. Abstract in english The experiment aimed to test different ratios digestible lysine:crude protein (CP) in diets for broiler until 21 days. One thousand and eight hundred 1-d birds of Cobb strain were allotted to a completely randomized design with a hierarchical rank model with three levels of CP and four ratios digest [...] ible lysine:CP was used. In the performance trial, the diets were fed to 30 birds in each of the five replicates. At 21 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated. A linear increase on weight gain was observed in the 18.5 and 21.5% of CP levels. Feed conversion improved linearly according to the ratios of lysine within the three levels of CP studied. Carcass yield increased linearly with increasing rations at the level of 15.5% of CP, it not being significant at the other levels of CP studied. In the metabolism trial, the ratios digestible lysine:CP showed linear effect on EMAn (21.5% of CP) and nitrogen excretion (18.5% of CP), quadratic effect on EMAn (15.5 and 18.5% of CP) and N retention coefficient (15.5% of CP). Based on the results of weight gain, the ideal digestible lysine:CP ratio in the initial phase was of 6.8% (18.5% of CP) and 5.9% (21.5% of CP), or 1.26 and 1.27% of digestible lysine. The dietary CP contents fed to broilers in the initial phase can be reduced to 18.5%, with no effect on bird performance, but by decreasing nitrogen excretion to 24%, since the diets are supplemented with synthetic aminoacids.

  11. Effect of Soaking, Sprouting and Cooking on Chemical Composition, Bioavailability of Minerals and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Abu El Gasim A. Yagoub; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Asma A. Abu Baker

    2008-01-01

    Chemical composition, bioavailability of minerals and in vitro digestibility of proteins in karkade seed (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) as affected by soaking, sprouting and cooking were studied. The different methods showed varied deviation of nutrients and antinutrients from the raw seeds. Sprouting and cooking significantly increased protein content and decreased starch and soluble carbohydrates levels. K, Na and all the trace elements studied were decreased by processing methods. Cooking...

  12. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula to estimate the accuracy of predicted conformations (or decoys. This scoring function, called the density score function, evaluates decoy conformations by performing an all-against-all C? RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation calculation in a given decoy set. We tested the density score function on 83 decoy sets grouped by their generation methods (4state_reduced, fisa, fisa_casp3, lmds, lattice_ssfit, semfold and Rosetta. The density scores have correlations as high as 0.9 with the C? RMSDs of the decoy conformations, measured relative to the experimental conformation for each decoy. We previously developed a residue-specific all-atom probability discriminatory function (RAPDF, which compiles statistics from a database of experimentally determined conformations, to aid in structure selection. Here, we present a decoy-dependent discriminatory function called self-RAPDF, where we compiled the atom-atom contact probabilities from all the conformations in a decoy set instead of using an ensemble of native conformations, with a weighting scheme based on the density scores. The self-RAPDF has a higher correlation with C? RMSD than RAPDF for 76/83 decoy sets, and selects better near-native conformations for 62/83 decoy sets. Self-RAPDF may be useful not only for selecting near-native conformations from decoy sets, but also for fold simulations and protein structure refinement. Conclusions Both the density score and the self-RAPDF functions are decoy-dependent scoring functions for improved protein structure selection. Their success indicates that information from the ensemble of decoy conformations can be used to derive statistical probabilities and facilitate the identification of near-native structures.

  13. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. PMID:25244259

  14. Níveis de energia digestível e proteína bruta em rações para alevinos de lambari tambiú / Dietary levels of digestible energy and crude protein for lambari tambiú fingerlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Luiz Vieira, Cotan; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Moacyr Antonio, Serafini.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os níveis de energia digestível (ED) em função do nível de proteína bruta (PB) da ração para alevinos de lambari tambiú (Astyanax bimaculatus), foram utilizados 600 peixes com 1,30 ± 0,01 g, distribuídos em 40 aquários de 100 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, com temp [...] eratura controlada e sistema de aeração individual. O experimento foi realizado em um esquema fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco níveis de ED: 2.900, 3.000, 3.100, 3.200 e 3.300 kcal/kg combinados com dois níveis de PB: 32,0 e 38,0%), em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições e 15 peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram submetidos à alimentação controlada com base no consumo diário médio dos peixes dos tratamentos com rações contendo nível mais alto de energia (3.300 kcal/kg) para cada nível protéico, corrigido diariamente, durante 49 dias. Foi avaliado o ganho de peso, a taxa de crescimento específico, os consumos de ração, de PB e de ED, a conversão alimentar, a taxa de eficiência protéica, o rendimento de carcaça, a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio e os teores de umidade, proteína e gordura corporais. Com o nível de 32% de PB, foram obtidos maiores consumos de ração e de ED, mais altas taxas de eficiência protéica e de retenção de nitrogênio, menores consumo de PB e rendimento de carcaça, além de reduzida umidade corporal. Com níveis crescentes de ED nas rações com 32% de PB, os peixes apresentaram menor taxa de crescimento específico, mais baixa taxa de eficiência protéica e maior conversão alimentar, enquanto com as rações com 38% de PB apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça. A exigência de ED para lambari tambiú é de 2.900 kcal/kg para rações com 32 e 38% de PB. Abstract in english Six hundred lambari tambiú (Astyanax bimaculatus) averaging initial weight of 1.30 ± 0.01 g, placed in 40 aquariums (100 L) with water renewal, controlled temperature and individual aeration, were used to determine the digestible energy (DE) requirements, according to the dietary crude protein (CP) [...] levels. The experiment was analyzed as a 5 x 2 factorial scheme (five levels of DE: 2,900, 3,000, 3,100, 3,200, and 3,300 kcal/kg, combined with two levels of CP: 32 and 38%), in a completely randomized design with four replicates and fifteen fishes per experimental unit. The fish were submitted to the feeding controlled based on the average daily intake of the treatments with the highest energy level (3,300 kcal/kg) for each daily corrected protein level, during 49 days. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake, crude protein intake, digestible energy intake, apparent feed:gain ratio, protein efficiency rate, carcass yield, nitrogen retention efficiency, and contents of body humidity, fat and protein were evaluated. Fishes fed diets with 32% of CP showed smaller specific growth rate and protein efficiency rate and higher feed:gain ratio. Fishes fed diets with 38% of CP showed greater carcass yield. The requirement of digestible energy for lambari tambiú is of 2,900 kcal/kg for diets with 32 and 38% of CP.

  15. Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. in anaerobic digestion wastewater for improved nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhou, Yuguang; Pang, Aiping; Ning, Li; Rodgers, Kibet; Liu, Ying; Dong, Renjie

    2015-05-01

    Desmodesmus sp. was used in anaerobically digested wastewater (ADW) for nutrients removal and the biodiesel production was measured and compared using fed-batch cultivation was investigated and compared with batch cultivation. The Desmodesmus sp. was able to remove 236.143, 268.238 and 6.427 mg/L of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P respectively after 40 d of fed-batch cultivation, while in batch cultivation the quantities of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P removed were 33.331, 37.227 and 1.323 mg/L. Biomass production of Desmodesmus sp. was also enhanced in fed-batch cultivation, when ADW loading was carried out every 2 days; the biomass concentration peaked at 1.039 g/L, which was three times higher than that obtained in batch cultivation (0.385 g/L). The highest lipid production (261.8 mg/L) was also recorded in fed-batch cultivation as compared to batch cultivation (83.3 mg/L). Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. could provide effective control of nutrients limitation and/or ammonia inhibition on microalgae cultivation. PMID:25451775

  16. Junkyard Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Diana E Hill (Putnam City High School Science)

    2003-05-22

    A hands-on exploration of the digestive system organs and their functions for high school students. Grades 10 and up. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  17. Microspectrophotometric evaluation of digestibility of pollen grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, G G; Franchi, G; Corti, P; Pompella, A

    1997-01-01

    Digestibility of pollen grains of poppy (Papaver rhoeas) and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) subjected to a human-like in vitro digestion with pancreatic enzymes was evaluated. Pollens showed different types of walls. Digestibility was determined for total protein and insoluble carbohydrate contents by means of a new application of microspectrophotometry. Results demonstrated that pollen grains of both species were only partly digested; after 24 h treatment, only 26% of carbohydrates and 48% of proteins were digested in poppy and only 3% and 59% in hazelnut. This is probably due to the difficulty of enzymes to penetrate the intine of pollen grains. The degree of digestion of insoluble carbohydrates varied in the studied species according to their chemical nature and their storage sites. PMID:9201746

  18. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly, little has been done to determine which processes serve as rate-limiting steps for protein accumulation. In other expression systems, as Escherichia coli, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and insect cells, recombinant protein accumulation can be hampered by cell's inability to fold the target polypeptide into the native state, resulting in aggregation and degradation. To determine if chloroplasts' ability to oxidize proteins that require disulfide bonds into a stable conformation is a rate-limiting step of protein accumulation, three recombinant strains, each expressing a different recombinant protein, were analyzed. These recombinant proteins included fluorescent GFP, a reporter containing no disulfide bonds; Gaussia princeps luciferase, a luminescent reporter containing disulfide bonds; and an immunotoxin, an antibody-fusion protein containing disulfide bonds. Each strain was analyzed for its ability to accumulate proteins when supplemented with selenocystamine, a small molecule capable of catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds. Selenocystamine supplementation led to an increase in luciferase and immunotoxin but not GFP accumulation. These results demonstrated that selenocystamine can increase the accumulation of proteins containing disulfide bonds and suggests that a rate-limiting step in chloroplast protein accumulation is the disulfide bonds formation in recombinant proteins native structure. PMID:26137911

  19. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experimenof treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive. Microbial N supply was not affected by wood ash treatment. It is concluded that wood ash treatment is a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in acacia leaves, although additional energy is needed to ensure utilisation of the available N. (author)

  20. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive. Microbial N supply was not affected by wood ash treatment. It is concluded that wood ash treatment is a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in acacia leaves, although additional energy is needed to ensure utilisation of the available N. (author)

  1. Practice on improving fattening local cattle production in Vietnam by increasing crude protein level in concentrate and concentrate level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dung, Dinh; Ba, Nguyen Xuan; Van, Nguyen Huu; Phung, Le Dinh; Ngoan, Le Duc; Cuong, Vu Chi; Yao, Wen

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of crude protein (CP) level in concentrate (experiment 1) and concentrate level (experiment 2) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) retention, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentration and average daily gain (ADG) of Vietnamese local fattening cattle. Animals (24 cattle, initial live weight (LW) 150.3 ± 11.8 kg in experiment 1 and 145.1 ± 9.8 kg in experiment 2) were allotted based on LW to one of four treatments in a randomised complete block design. In experiment 1, concentrate with four levels of CP (10, 13, 16 and 19 %) was fed at 1.5 % of LW. In experiment 2, concentrate was fed at 1.0, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.2 % of LW. In both experiments, roughage was 5 kg/day native grass and ad libitum rice straw (fresh basis). Results showed that the CP level in concentrate significantly affected dry matter (DM) intake (P digestibility (P > 0.05), whereas CP digestibility increased (P digestibility were not significantly affected by concentrate intake (P > 0.05). OM digestibility and NH3-N concentration increased linearly (P digestibility and ruminal pH declined linearly with increased concentrate consumption (P < 0.01). These results indicate that 16 % CP in concentrate and feeding concentrate at the rate of 2.2 % of LW are recommendable for fattening local cattle in Vietnam. PMID:23619780

  2. Addition of unsaturated fatty acids improves digestion of mid lactating dairy cows / Adição de ácidos graxos insaturados melhora os processos digestivos de vacas leiteiras no terço médio de lactação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.E., Freitas Júnior; F.P., Rennó; J.R., Gandra; L.N., Rennó; A.C., Rego; M. V., Santos; M.D.S., Oliveira; C.S., Takiya.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o uso de fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados nas rações de vacas leiteiras sobre o balanco de nutrientes e o perfil de ácidos graxos do leite. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas Holandesas no terco médio de lactação (média de 128 dias) e (580 kg de peso corpóreo) com produçã [...] o média de leite de 25 kg/ dia distribuidas aleatoriamente em três quadrados latinos balanceados 4x4 alimentadas com as seguintes dietas: 1) controle (CO); 2) óleo de soja refinado; (SO); 3) grão de soja integral (WS) e; 4) sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos insaturados (CSFA). A produção de leite obtida foi de 26,6; 26,4; 24,1 e 25,7 kg/dia para as dietas CO, SO, WS e CSFA respectivamente. As vacas alimentadas com as dietas OS, GS e SCAG apresentaram menores consumos diários de MS, MO, PB, EE, CT, CNF e NDT em relação às vacas do tratamento CO. Os animais alimentados com as dietas contendo ácidos graxos apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS e EE em relação a dieta CO. A suplementação de ácidos graxos aumentou os valores de pH e as concentrações de N-NH3 no rúmen. As excreções de alantoína, ácido úrico, alatoína do leite, derivados totais de purinas, total de purinas absorvidas, nitrogênio microbiano, e eficiência microbiana não diferiram entre as dietas experimentais. O uso de ácidos graxos insaturados na dieta de vacas leiteiras altera a eficiência digestiva da dieta dependendo da forma suplementada. Abstract in english The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of different unsaturated fatty acids supplementation sources on digestive metabolism, including nutrient intake and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Twelve Holst [...] ein mid lactating cows (580±20 kg of body weight; mean±SD, with average of 128 days in milk, and milk yield of 25 kg/d), were assigned randomly into three 4x4 Latin squares, fed the following diets: 1) control (CO); 2) refined soybean oil (SO); 3) whole raw soybean (WS) and; 4) calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA). Milk yields were 26.6; 26.4; 24.1 and 25.7 for cows fed CO, SO, WS and CSFA, respectively. Cows fed SO, WS and CSFA had lesser intake of DM, OM, CP, EE, TC, NFC and TDN than cows fed CO. Animals fed unsaturated fatty acids supplementation had higher DM and EE digestibility, when compared to cows fed CO. Fatty acids supplementation increased ruminal pH and decreased NH3-N concentrations, when compared to animals fed CO. Daily allantoin excretion, uric acid, milk allantoin, total purine derivatives, absorbed purines, microbial nitrogen, and microbial efficiency did not differ among cows fed different experimental diets. Diets with whole raw soybeans and soybean oil improved digestive metabolism and increased the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in milk.

  3. Development of an analytical strategy for the identification of potential bioactive peptides generated by in vitro tryptic digestion of fish muscle proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, food proteins and peptides are attracting great attention because of the emergence of a new field, that of food-derived bioactive peptides. This paper presents a comparison and evaluation of four different experiments for the identification of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fish peptides. This study is aimed at the development of a simple and fast method for the identification of peptides that could arise from fish meat if trypsin was the only digestive enzyme acting on fish meat proteins. In particular, we tested the use of ultrafiltration membranes with a molecular weight cutoff of 3,000 Da. Data analysis has shown that the experiment in which there is neither precipitation nor an ultrafiltration step performed better and allowed the identification of a larger number of peptides and potential antimicrobial peptides (AMPs); this workflow provided 473 and 398 total identified peptides and 44 and 18 AMPs for sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar extracts, respectively. This protocol is found to be faster and more straightforward than the other three tested workflows. The developed strategy could be also useful for other food matrices and could provide information about food quality and safety control. PMID:25168116

  4. Improved PSO in the Application of the Protein Structure Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Shigang Wang; Fangfang Zhou; Fengjuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure prediction occupies an important position on bioinformatics science. In this study, basic theory of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and some theory models of protein folding study are introduced. Using modified particle swarm optimization, the protein structure prediction is predicted and good performance of algorithm is verified by testing results of Fibonacci sequence. From the experimental results it can be seen that PSO-SA algorithm accurately obtain the optimal soluti...

  5. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

  6. Proteína degradável no rúmen na dieta de bovinos: digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais Rumen degradable protein on bovine diet: total and partial nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Ferreira Caldas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa (450 kg portadores de cânula ruminal e duodenal, recebendo dietas com níveis de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR de 50, 60, 65 e 70%, associadas a uma fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal (farinha de varredura de mandioca, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 × 4 para se avaliarem as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes, a concentração de amônia e o pH ruminal. Foi utilizada, como indicador do fluxo duodenal e fecal, a cinza insolúvel em ácido. Não foi observado efeito do nível de PDR sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade total, digestibilidade ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não-estruturais e energia bruta. O aumento do nível de PDR na dieta elevou o coeficiente de digestibilidade total e ruminal da proteína bruta e reduziu a digestibilidade intestinal desse nutriente como porcentagem do digerido. Não houve efeito dos níveis de PDR no pH ruminal, no entanto, maior concentração ruminal de amônia foi observada para as dietas com maior teor de PDR. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o aumento no teor de PDR acarretou maior produção de nitrogênio na forma de amônia, independentemente da presença da fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal, contudo, o aporte de proteína intestinal foi semelhante para todas as dietas.Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein steers (450 kg were fed diets with rumen degradable protein (RDP levels of 50.0 60.0 65.0 and 70.0% associated with a high ruminal degradability starch (cassava by-product meal were allotted to a 4 × 4 Latin square design for the evaluation of total and partial digestibility of the nutrients, ruminal ammonia concentration and pH. The acid insoluble ash was used as a marker of the duodenal and fecal flow. No effects were observed on the level of RDP on total digestibility coefficient, ruminal digestibility and intestinal digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, non structural carbohydrates and gross energy. The increase of the RDP levels in the diet increased the coefficients of total and ruminal digestibility of crude protein and reduced the intestinal digestibility of this nutrient as a percentage of the digested. There was no effect of RDP levels on the ruminal pH, however, higher ammonia concentration was observed for the diets with higher level of RDP. The results indicated that the increase in the level of PDR cause a higher production of nitrogen in the ammonia form, independently of the presence of the source of high ruminal degradability starch, however the contribution of intestinal protein was similar for all the diets.

  7. Proteínas do feijão preto sem casca: digestibilidade em animais convencionais e isentos de germes (germ-free Proteins of dehulled black beans: digestibility in conventional and germ-free animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Angelina dos Santos PEREIRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. é uma leguminosa de grande importância para a dieta da população brasileira. No entanto, um de seus maiores problemas é representado pelo baixo valor nutricional de suas proteínas, decorrente, por um lado, da sua baixa digestibilidade e, de outro, do teor e biodisponibilidade reduzidos de aminoácidos sulfurados. Com o objetivo de avaliar a digestibilidade das proteínas albumina e globulina do feijão preto sem casca, foram realizados ensaios biológicos com camundongos isentos de germes e convencionais e com ratos (Wistar, recém-desmamados, com idade de 21 a 25 dias. Avaliou-se ainda o Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína. A digestibilidade verdadeira no experimento com camundongos isentos de germes foi de 90,21 e 90,00%, no teste com camundongos convencionais foi de 85,53 e 86,73%, e no experimento com ratos foi de 82,62 e 68,53%, para albumina e globulina, respectivamente. O Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína foi de 61,00% para a albumina e 51,00% para a globulina. A digestibilidade determinada em animais isentos de germes foi superior aos valores encontrados em animais convencionais, sugerindo que a flora intestinal esteja contribuindo para elevar o teor de nitrogênio nas fezes dos animais convencionais, e, portanto, esteja sendo subestimada a digestibilidade verdadeira do feijão.The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. is a legume of great importance in the Brazilian typical diet. Nevertheless, it presents a low protein quality due to its poor digestibility and low levels and bioavailability of its sulfur aminoacids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility of albumin and globulin protein fractions of dehulled black beans in conventional and germ-free mice and also in weaning rats (Wistar of 21 to 25 days of age. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score was also determined. True digestibility values in germ-free mice were 90.21 and 90.00%, in conventional mice were 85.53 and 86.73%, and in rats were 82.62 and 68.53%, for albumin and globulin respectively. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score was 61.00% for albumin and 51.00% for globulin. True digestibility values in germ-free mice were higher than those obtained with conventional animals. This fact suggests that intestinal flora is contributing to increase fecal nitrogen output in conventional animals, and, therefore, true digestibility of beans is being underestimated.

  8. Improving protein function prediction methods with integrated literature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabow Aaron P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the function of uncharacterized proteins is a major challenge in the post-genomic era due to the problem's complexity and scale. Identifying a protein's function contributes to an understanding of its role in the involved pathways, its suitability as a drug target, and its potential for protein modifications. Several graph-theoretic approaches predict unidentified functions of proteins by using the functional annotations of better-characterized proteins in protein-protein interaction networks. We systematically consider the use of literature co-occurrence data, introduce a new method for quantifying the reliability of co-occurrence and test how performance differs across species. We also quantify changes in performance as the prediction algorithms annotate with increased specificity. Results We find that including information on the co-occurrence of proteins within an abstract greatly boosts performance in the Functional Flow graph-theoretic function prediction algorithm in yeast, fly and worm. This increase in performance is not simply due to the presence of additional edges since supplementing protein-protein interactions with co-occurrence data outperforms supplementing with a comparably-sized genetic interaction dataset. Through the combination of protein-protein interactions and co-occurrence data, the neighborhood around unknown proteins is quickly connected to well-characterized nodes which global prediction algorithms can exploit. Our method for quantifying co-occurrence reliability shows superior performance to the other methods, particularly at threshold values around 10% which yield the best trade off between coverage and accuracy. In contrast, the traditional way of asserting co-occurrence when at least one abstract mentions both proteins proves to be the worst method for generating co-occurrence data, introducing too many false positives. Annotating the functions with greater specificity is harder, but co-occurrence data still proves beneficial. Conclusion Co-occurrence data is a valuable supplemental source for graph-theoretic function prediction algorithms. A rapidly growing literature corpus ensures that co-occurrence data is a readily-available resource for nearly every studied organism, particularly those with small protein interaction databases. Though arguably biased toward known genes, co-occurrence data provides critical additional links to well-studied regions in the interaction network that graph-theoretic function prediction algorithms can exploit.

  9. Gold nanoparticle-protein arrays improve resolution for cryo-electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Minghui; Qian, Luping; Briñas, Raymond P.; Lymar, Elena S.; Kuznetsova, Larisa; Hainfeld, James F

    2007-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy single particle analysis shows limited resolution due to poor alignment precision of noisy images taken under low electron exposure. Certain advantages can be obtained by assembling proteins into two-dimensional (2D) arrays since protein particles are locked into repetitive orientations, thus improving alignment precision. We present a labeling method to prepare protein 2D arrays using gold nanoparticles (NPs) interconnecting genetic tag sites on proteins. As an examp...

  10. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone Brumano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de 12 alimentos protéicos para aves. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos Leghorne adultos cecectomizados, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os alimentos estudados foram: farelo de glúten de milho 22%, farelo de glúten de milho 60%, concentrado protéico de soja, soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada, farinha de carne e ossos 36%, farinha de carne e ossos 45%, farinha de peixe, farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura, farinha de penas, plasma sangüíneo 70%, plasma sangüíneo 78% e hemácias. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, foram, respectivamente, 83,32 e 87,20 para o farelo de glúten de milho 22%; 92,90 e 94,86 para o farelo de glúten de milho 60%; 91,10 e 90,19 para o concentrado protéico de soja; 88,90 e 88,91 para a soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada; 88,63 e 85,94 para a farinha de carne e ossos 36%; 87,80 e 85,00 para a farinha de carne e ossos 45%; 89,39 e 87,32 para a farinha de peixe; 79,22 e 74,36 para a farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura; 85,89 e 82,32 para a farinha de penas; 87,22 e 87,78 para o plasma sangüíneo 70%; 90,42 e 91,40 para o plasma sangüíneo 78%; e 95,25 e 94,31 para as hemácias.The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid digestibility of 12 protein meals were determined in Leghorn cecectomized roosters by the "forced feed" method. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with 12 treatments, six replicates and one rooster per experimental unit. The studied feedstuffs were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, corn gluten meal 60%, soybean protein concentrate, partially defatted extruded whole soybean, meat and bone meal 36%, meat and bone meal 45%, fish meal, full fat poultry by-product meal, feather meal, spray-dried plasma 70%, spray-dried plasma 78% and erythrocytes. The average values of essential and non essential true amino acids digestibility coefficients, in percentage, were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, 83.32 and 87.20; corn gluten meal 60%, 92.90 and 94.86; soybean protein concentrate, 91.10 and 90.19; partially defatted extruded whole soybean: 88.90 and 88.91, meat and bone meal, 36%, 88.63 and 85.94; meat and bone meal 45%, 87.80 and 85.00; fish meal, 89.39 and 87.32; full fat poultry by-product meal, 79.22 and 74.36; feather meal, 85.89 and 82.32; spray-dried plasma 70%, 87.22 and 87.78; spray-dried plasma 78%, 90.42 and 91.40; and erythrocytes, 95.25 and 94.31.

  11. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados / True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladstone, Brumano; Paulo Cezar, Gomes; Horacio Santiago, Rostagno; Luiz Fernando Teixeira, Albino; Marlene, Schmidt; Rafaela Antônia Ramos, Generoso.

    2290-22-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de 12 alimentos protéicos para aves. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos Leghorne adultos cecectomizados, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 [...] tratamentos, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os alimentos estudados foram: farelo de glúten de milho 22%, farelo de glúten de milho 60%, concentrado protéico de soja, soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada, farinha de carne e ossos 36%, farinha de carne e ossos 45%, farinha de peixe, farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura, farinha de penas, plasma sangüíneo 70%, plasma sangüíneo 78% e hemácias. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, foram, respectivamente, 83,32 e 87,20 para o farelo de glúten de milho 22%; 92,90 e 94,86 para o farelo de glúten de milho 60%; 91,10 e 90,19 para o concentrado protéico de soja; 88,90 e 88,91 para a soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada; 88,63 e 85,94 para a farinha de carne e ossos 36%; 87,80 e 85,00 para a farinha de carne e ossos 45%; 89,39 e 87,32 para a farinha de peixe; 79,22 e 74,36 para a farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura; 85,89 e 82,32 para a farinha de penas; 87,22 e 87,78 para o plasma sangüíneo 70%; 90,42 e 91,40 para o plasma sangüíneo 78%; e 95,25 e 94,31 para as hemácias. Abstract in english The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid digestibility of 12 protein meals were determined in Leghorn cecectomized roosters by the "forced feed" method. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with 12 treatments, six replicates and one rooster per exp [...] erimental unit. The studied feedstuffs were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, corn gluten meal 60%, soybean protein concentrate, partially defatted extruded whole soybean, meat and bone meal 36%, meat and bone meal 45%, fish meal, full fat poultry by-product meal, feather meal, spray-dried plasma 70%, spray-dried plasma 78% and erythrocytes. The average values of essential and non essential true amino acids digestibility coefficients, in percentage, were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, 83.32 and 87.20; corn gluten meal 60%, 92.90 and 94.86; soybean protein concentrate, 91.10 and 90.19; partially defatted extruded whole soybean: 88.90 and 88.91, meat and bone meal, 36%, 88.63 and 85.94; meat and bone meal 45%, 87.80 and 85.00; fish meal, 89.39 and 87.32; full fat poultry by-product meal, 79.22 and 74.36; feather meal, 85.89 and 82.32; spray-dried plasma 70%, 87.22 and 87.78; spray-dried plasma 78%, 90.42 and 91.40; and erythrocytes, 95.25 and 94.31.

  12. Digestibilidade total e parcial e balanço nitrogenado em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementos com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Total and partial digestibility and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein and, or true protein nitrogen during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes relações entre proteína verdadeira e nitrogênio não-proteico sobre a digestibilidade, a síntese de proteína microbiana e o balanço de compostos nitrogenados em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês × Zebu, castrados, com peso vivo inicial de 335±35 kg fistulados no rúmen e no abomaso. Os tratamentos foram: controle (somente pasto; e suplementos com ureia; com 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; com 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; e com albumina. Foram fornecidos 200 g/dia de proteína bruta (PB a partir dos suplementos. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 5 × 5, com cinco períodos experimentais, cada um de 15 dias. A suplementação não afetou os coeficientes de digestibilidade total nem o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais da dieta; elevou as estimativas do coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente ruminal da PB, que migraram de negativa, no tratamento controle, para positivas, porém não diferentes de zero, nos tratamentos envolvendo suplementação. O fornecimento de suplementos elevou a concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal. O balanço de compostos nitrogenados aumentou com a suplementação. A substituição de ureia por albumina influenciou de forma cúbica o balanço de compostos nitrogenados, cuja estimativa foi maior para o suplemento com 1/3 de PB oriunda da ureia. A eficiência de síntese microbiana no rúmen não foi influenciada pelo fornecimento ou pela composição dos suplementos. A suplementação de bovinos em pastejo com fontes de compostos nitrogenados degradáveis durante o período das águas amplia a eficiência de uso do pasto, principalmente por ampliar a retenção de compostos nitrogenados no organismo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different true protein:non-protein nitrogen ratios in supplements on digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body weight and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullae were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams of crude protein (CP were daily supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. Supplementation did not affect the total digestibility coefficients or the diet content of total digestible nutrients. Supplementation increased ruminal apparent digestibility coefficient of CP, which moved from negative for the control treatment to positive, but not different from zero, for treatments involving supplementation. Supplementation increased the rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration. Nitrogen balance was enhanced by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin caused a cubic effect on the nitrogen balance, with the higher value obtained at 1/3 of supplemental CP as urea. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not influenced by supplementation or supplement composition. Supplementation with ruminal degradable nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during the rainy season increases the efficiency of use of pasture mainly by improving the body nitrogenous compounds retention.

  13. Digestibilidade total e parcial e balanço nitrogenado em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementos com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira / Total and partial digestibility and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein and, or true protein nitrogen during the rainy season

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli, Costa; Edenio, Detmann; Mário Fonseca, Paulino; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Lara Toledo, Henriques; Isabela Pena Carvalho de, Carvalho.

    2815-28-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes relações entre proteína verdadeira e nitrogênio não-proteico sobre a digestibilidade, a síntese de proteína microbiana e o balanço de compostos nitrogenados em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandê [...] s × Zebu, castrados, com peso vivo inicial de 335±35 kg fistulados no rúmen e no abomaso. Os tratamentos foram: controle (somente pasto); e suplementos com ureia; com 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; com 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; e com albumina. Foram fornecidos 200 g/dia de proteína bruta (PB) a partir dos suplementos. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 5 × 5, com cinco períodos experimentais, cada um de 15 dias. A suplementação não afetou os coeficientes de digestibilidade total nem o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais da dieta; elevou as estimativas do coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente ruminal da PB, que migraram de negativa, no tratamento controle, para positivas, porém não diferentes de zero, nos tratamentos envolvendo suplementação. O fornecimento de suplementos elevou a concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal. O balanço de compostos nitrogenados aumentou com a suplementação. A substituição de ureia por albumina influenciou de forma cúbica o balanço de compostos nitrogenados, cuja estimativa foi maior para o suplemento com 1/3 de PB oriunda da ureia. A eficiência de síntese microbiana no rúmen não foi influenciada pelo fornecimento ou pela composição dos suplementos. A suplementação de bovinos em pastejo com fontes de compostos nitrogenados degradáveis durante o período das águas amplia a eficiência de uso do pasto, principalmente por ampliar a retenção de compostos nitrogenados no organismo. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different true protein:non-protein nitrogen ratios in supplements on digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body wei [...] ght and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullae were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture), and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams of crude protein (CP) were daily supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. Supplementation did not affect the total digestibility coefficients or the diet content of total digestible nutrients. Supplementation increased ruminal apparent digestibility coefficient of CP, which moved from negative for the control treatment to positive, but not different from zero, for treatments involving supplementation. Supplementation increased the rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration. Nitrogen balance was enhanced by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin caused a cubic effect on the nitrogen balance, with the higher value obtained at 1/3 of supplemental CP as urea. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not influenced by supplementation or supplement composition. Supplementation with ruminal degradable nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during the rainy season increases the efficiency of use of pasture mainly by improving the body nitrogenous compounds retention.

  14. Pressurized pepsin digestion in proteomics: an automatable alternative to trypsin for integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W; Hixson, Kim K; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Toli?, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K; Belov, Mikhail E; Smith, Richard D; Pasa-Toli?, Ljiljana

    2011-02-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

  15. Dramatic improvement of proteomic analysis of zebrafish liver tumor by effective protein extraction with sodium deoxycholate and heat denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Lee, Yew Mun; Li, Caixia; Li, Ping; Li, Zhen; Lim, Teck Kwang; Gong, Zhiyuan; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Majority of the proteomic studies on tissue samples involve the use of gel-based approach for profiling and digestion. The laborious gel-based approach is slowly being replaced by the advancing in-solution digestion approach. However, there are still several difficulties such as difficult-to-solubilize proteins, poor proteomic analysis in complex tissue samples, and the presence of sample impurities. Henceforth, there is a great demand to formulate a highly efficient protein extraction buffer with high protein extraction efficiency from tissue samples, high compatibility with in-solution digestion, reduced number of sample handling steps to reduce sample loss, low time consumption, low cost, and ease of usage. Here, we evaluated various existing protein extraction buffers with zebrafish liver tumor samples and found that sodium deoxycholate- (DOC-) based extraction buffer with heat denaturation was the most effective approach for highly efficient extraction of proteins from complex tissues such as the zebrafish liver tumor. A total of 4,790 proteins have been identified using shotgun proteomics approach with 2D LC, which to our knowledge is the most comprehensive study for zebrafish liver tumor proteome. PMID:25873971

  16. Effect of Fermentation, Malt-Pretreatment and Cooking on Antinutritional Factors and Protein Digestibility of Sorghum Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Wedad Wedad; Abdelhaleem, H.; El Tinay, Abdullahi H.; Mustafa, Abdelmoneim I.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2008-01-01

    Two sorghum cultivars namely, Mugud (low tannin) and Karamaka (high tannin) were used in this study. The flour of the seeds of both cultivars was mixed with 5% malt. Then the flour with or without malt was fermented for 16 h. Samples were taken every 2 h during fermentation to study changes in pH, total acidity, crude protein and dry matter. Fermentation of the flour with or without malt resulted in an increase in crude protein content and total acidity for both cultivars. Moreover, the ferme...

  17. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariela Werneck de, Carvalho; Dorina Isabel Gomes, Natal; Cassiano Oliveira da, Silva; Maria Inês de Souza, Dantas; Everaldo Gonçalves de, Barros; Sônia Machado Rocha, Ribeiro; Neuza Maria Brunoro, Costa; Hércia Stampini Duarte, Martino.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVT [...] N 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER) values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR) did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD) of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS) was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  18. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  19. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments with colostomized broiler hens apparent digestibility of the crude nutrients of the ration after straw meal supplements of 20, 30 and 40 g per animal was determined. In addition, the 15N digestibility of straw meal and wheat was ascertained on the basis of straw meal supplements. The digestibility of the crude nutrients of the rations decreased significantly (P 15N excess (15N') of the wheat was, at 86 +- 1%, largely independent of the straw meal intake. The apparent digestibility of the straw 15N excess in broiler hens of 42 +- 8 to 55 +- 2% is surprisingly high. (author)

  20. Improved PSO in the Application of the Protein Structure Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein structure prediction occupies an important position on bioinformatics science. In this study, basic theory of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and some theory models of protein folding study are introduced. Using modified particle swarm optimization, the protein structure prediction is predicted and good performance of algorithm is verified by testing results of Fibonacci sequence. From the experimental results it can be seen that PSO-SA algorithm accurately obtain the optimal solution of the lowest energy value. The algorithm can jump out of local optima and has good convergence performance. The experimental result is very satisfactory.

  1. Seed protein improvement in wheat and pulses through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma rays and chemical mutagens (sodium azide and ethyl methane sulphonate) were used separately to induce mutations in wheat, triticale and mungbean. An increased variation in yield and protein content, determined by dye-binding capacity and the micro-Kjeldahl method, was observed in the M3 and M4 generations as compared with controls. In fertilizer trials an increase in grain yield and protein percentage was found invariably in all the treatments given at different stages in split applications. The genetic diversity was observed in the collections from northern areas of Pakistan regarding the protein content and morphological and physiological characters. (author)

  2. Allerginicity of wheat proteins: the effect of thermal processing (baking and cooking), high pressure treatment and enzymatic digestion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kitanovi?ová, Andrea; Janatková, I.; Houska, M.; Tu?ková, Ludmila

    Latina : Allergy data laboratories, 2007, s. 43-43. [International Symposium on Molecular Allergology /2./. Roma (IT), 22.04.2007-24.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA310/05/2245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food allergy * wheat proteins * thermal processing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Third-generation electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray interface with improved stability and sensitivity for automated capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry analysis of complex proteome digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Zhang, Zhenbin; Mou, Si; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-05-01

    We have reported a set of electrokinetically pumped sheath flow nanoelectrospray interfaces to couple capillary zone electrophoresis with mass spectrometry. A separation capillary is threaded through a cross into a glass emitter. A side arm provides fluidic contact with a sheath buffer reservoir that is connected to a power supply. The potential applied to the sheath buffer drives electro-osmosis in the emitter to pump the sheath fluid at nanoliter per minute rates. Our first-generation interface placed a flat-tipped capillary in the emitter. Sensitivity was inversely related to orifice size and to the distance from the capillary tip to the emitter orifice. A second-generation interface used a capillary with an etched tip that allowed the capillary exit to approach within a few hundred micrometers of the emitter orifice, resulting in a significant increase in sensitivity. In both the first- and second-generation interfaces, the emitter diameter was typically 8 ?m; these narrow orifices were susceptible to plugging and tended to have limited lifetime. We now report a third-generation interface that employs a larger diameter emitter orifice with very short distance between the capillary tip and the emitter orifice. This modified interface is much more robust and produces much longer lifetime than our previous designs with no loss in sensitivity. We evaluated the third-generation interface for a 5000 min (127 runs, 3.5 days) repetitive analysis of bovine serum albumin digest using an uncoated capillary. We observed a 10% relative standard deviation in peak area, an average of 160?000 theoretical plates, and very low carry-over (much less than 1%). We employed a linear-polyacrylamide (LPA)-coated capillary for single-shot, bottom-up proteomic analysis of 300 ng of Xenopus laevis fertilized egg proteome digest and identified 1249 protein groups and 4038 peptides in a 110 min separation using an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; peak capacity was ?330. The proteome data set using this third-generation interface-based CZE-MS/MS is similar in size to that generated using a commercial ultraperformance liquid chromatographic analysis of the same sample with the same mass spectrometer and similar analysis time. PMID:25786131

  4. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  5. Protein folding: Can high-performance computing improve our understanding?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins are complex physical systems of great biological and pharmaceutical interest. Computer simulations can be useful to understand how they fold to their biologically active conformation, but have to face two problems, namely the roughness of the energy landscape and the wide range of time scales associated with the folding process. Models at atomic detail are able to describe the protein with a high degree of realism, but are computationally very demanding and their results usually are difficult to analyse. Models with simplified degrees of freedom are less accurate but are good at highlighting the basic physical mechanism which controls protein dynamics. A combination of the two can be the right solution to the protein folding problem.

  6. Composição centesimal, lisina disponível e digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de fórmulas para nutrição oral ou enteral Proximate composition, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of proteins in formulae for oral or enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma M. Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultimamente tem-se verificado aumento do uso de nutrição enteral (NE em domicílio, objetivando reduzir custos e melhorar a qualidade de vida. Contudo, é importante monitorar o valor nutricional das dietas. Nesse estudo foram avaliadas as formulações F1 e F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999 contendo carne bovina, ovo (F1, chicória, cenoura, fubá de milho, extrato hidrossolúvel de soja, óleo de soja, Nidex® e sal, para uso em NE ou oral domiciliar, objetivando obter dados mais confiáveis e seguros. Foram determinadas: composição centesimal, digestibilidade in vitro e lisina disponível. As composições centesimais (base seca foram as seguintes: F1: calorias 454,69, umidade 79,29±0,07, proteína 17,04±0,06, lipídios 14,85±0,11, carboidratos 63,22, fibra alimentar solúvel 0,67±0,66 e insolúvel 1,65±0,73, cinzas 2,57±0,01; F2: calorias 463,92, umidade 78,96±0,09, proteína 16,56±0,09, lipídios 15,12±0,20, fibra alimentar solúvel 1,09±0,11 e insolúvel 1,84±0,09, carboidratos 65,40 e cinzas 2,63±0,08. A distribuição calórica mostrou-se adequada. Os teores de lisina eram 80 mg/g de proteína para F1 e 139 para F2. A digestibilidade (% das proteínas foi 95 para F1 e 93 para F2. As formulações são factíveis de preparo em domicílio, possuem fontes de proteína de boa qualidade, baixo custo, podendo atender às necessidades nutricionais de indivíduos em terapia nutricional domiciliar e promover a recuperação nutricional.Recently the use of home enteral nutrition (EN has increased, aimed at reducing costs and improving the quality of life. Monitoring the nutritional value of these diets is therefore important. In this study the formulations F1 and F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999 containing beef, egg (F1, chicory, carrot, corn grits, ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex® and salt, ere evaluated for use in home EN, aiming at obtaining more reliable, safer data. The follo ing ere determined: proximate composition, in vitro digestibility and available lysine. The proximate compositions (d b of the formulations ere: F1: 454.69Kcal, moisture 79.29±0.07, protein 17.04±0.06, lipids 14.85±0.11, carbohydrates 63.22, soluble 0.67±0.66 and insoluble 1.65±0.73 fiber and ash 2.57±0.01; F2: 463.92Kcal, moisture 78.96±0.09, protein 16.56±0.09, lipids 15.12±0.20, soluble 1.09±0.11 and insoluble 1.84±0.09 fiber, carbohydrates 65.40 and ash 2.63±0.08. The caloric distribution as sho n to be adequate. The lysine contents in mg/g of protein ere 80 for F1 and 139 for F2 and % protein digestibility as 95% for F1 and 93% for F2. The formulations ere adequate for domestic preparation and contained good quality, lo cost protein sources, capable of attending the nutritional requirements of individuals using home EN, promoting nutritional recovery.

  7. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  8. Comparative nutrient digestibility of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on Svalbard and farm-raised blue foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Fuglei, Eva; Mydland, Liv Torunn

    2003-01-01

    Arctic foxes from Svalbard (n=4) and farmed blue foxes (n=4) was used in a digestibility experiment with a high-carbohydrate feed to add more information to the nutritional physiology of the arctic fox, and to compare its digestive capacity with that of the farmed blue fox. The arctic fox has a diet containing mainly protein and fat from mammals and birds, while farmed blue foxes have been exposed to an omnivorous dietary regime for more than 80 generations. The experiment showed in general no difference in digestive capacity for protein and fat between the foxes (P>0.05), but for carbohydrates, including starch and glucose, the blue fox revealed higher digestibility values. The superior digestive capacity for carbohydrates in blue fox might be a result of a long-term selection of animals digesting dietary carbohydrates more efficiently, or that an early age exposition to dietary carbohydrates has given permanent improvement of the carbohydrate digestion in the gut. PMID:12507608

  9. Digestibilidade aparente de alguns alimentos protéicos pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent digestibility of some protein sources for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um ensaio de digestibilidade para determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CD da matéria seca (MS, energia bruta (EB e proteína bruta (PB da farinha de peixe (FP, farinha de vísceras de aves (FV, glúten de milho (GM e levedura de álcool spray dried (LS pela tilápia do Nilo, da linhagem tailandesa. Foram utilizados 100 peixes revertidos sexualmente, (peso médio de 37,6 ± 5,0 g acondicionados em dois tanques de alimentação de 500 L e duas cubas cilíndricas com fundo cônico, de 150 L, para coleta de fezes. A determinação dos CD foi feita por intermédio da metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 0,1% de óxido crômico (Cr2O3, como indicador. As médias de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica durante o período experimental foram de 25,8 ± 1,0ºC; 3,2 ± 1,4 mg/L; 6,8 ± 0,1; e 205,7 ± 16,6 µS/cm, respectivamente. Os CD da PB, EB e MS foram respectivamente de 90,66; 89,53 e 87,63 para FP; 82,03; 72,09 e 62,21 para FV; 97,61; 93,52 e 91,01 para GM; 77,39; 62,77 e 58,68 para LS. Os valores de proteína (% e energia (kcal/kg digestíveis, na matéria natural, de 53,01 e 3568,0 para FP; 47,65 e 3650,9 para FV; 65,34 e 5036,7 para GM e 32,19 e 2706,9 para LS.A digestibility trial was carried out to determine the dry matter (MS, gross energy (EB and crude protein (PB apparent digestibility coefficients (CD for fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, gluten meal (GM and alchool spray dried yeast (LV for Thai Nile tilapia fingerlings. A hundred sexually reverted fishes (average weight 37.6 ± 5.0 g were assigned to two 500-L feeding tanks and two 150-L cylindrical tanks with conical bottom, to feces collection . CD analysis was performed by the indirect method, using 0.1% chromic oxide (Cr2O3, as marker. Average water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were 25.8 ± 1.0ºC; 3.2 ± 1.4 mg/L; 6.8 ± 0.1; and 205.7 ± 16.5 µS/cm, respectively. CD of PB, EB and MS were 90.66, 89.53 and 87.63 for FP; 82.03, 72.09 and 62.21 for FV; 97.61, 93.52 and 91.01 for GM; 77.39, 62.77 and 58.68 for LS, respectively. The digestible values of protein (% and energy (kcal/kg, as fed basis, were 53.01 and 3568.0 for FP; 47.65 and 3650.9 for FV; 65.34 and 5036.7 for GM; and 32.19 and 2706.9 for LS.

  10. Digestibilidade aparente de alguns alimentos protéicos pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Apparent digestibility of some protein sources for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio, Meurer; Carmino, Hayashi; Wilson Rogério, Boscolo.

    1801-18-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um ensaio de digestibilidade para determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CD) da matéria seca (MS), energia bruta (EB) e proteína bruta (PB) da farinha de peixe (FP), farinha de vísceras de aves (FV), glúten de milho (GM) e levedura de álcool spray dried (LS) pela tiláp [...] ia do Nilo, da linhagem tailandesa. Foram utilizados 100 peixes revertidos sexualmente, (peso médio de 37,6 ± 5,0 g) acondicionados em dois tanques de alimentação de 500 L e duas cubas cilíndricas com fundo cônico, de 150 L, para coleta de fezes. A determinação dos CD foi feita por intermédio da metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 0,1% de óxido crômico (Cr2O3), como indicador. As médias de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica durante o período experimental foram de 25,8 ± 1,0ºC; 3,2 ± 1,4 mg/L; 6,8 ± 0,1; e 205,7 ± 16,6 µS/cm, respectivamente. Os CD da PB, EB e MS foram respectivamente de 90,66; 89,53 e 87,63 para FP; 82,03; 72,09 e 62,21 para FV; 97,61; 93,52 e 91,01 para GM; 77,39; 62,77 e 58,68 para LS. Os valores de proteína (%) e energia (kcal/kg) digestíveis, na matéria natural, de 53,01 e 3568,0 para FP; 47,65 e 3650,9 para FV; 65,34 e 5036,7 para GM e 32,19 e 2706,9 para LS. Abstract in english A digestibility trial was carried out to determine the dry matter (MS), gross energy (EB) and crude protein (PB) apparent digestibility coefficients (CD) for fish meal (FP), poultry by-products meal (FV), gluten meal (GM) and alchool spray dried yeast (LV) for Thai Nile tilapia fingerlings. A hundre [...] d sexually reverted fishes (average weight 37.6 ± 5.0 g) were assigned to two 500-L feeding tanks and two 150-L cylindrical tanks with conical bottom, to feces collection . CD analysis was performed by the indirect method, using 0.1% chromic oxide (Cr2O3), as marker. Average water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were 25.8 ± 1.0ºC; 3.2 ± 1.4 mg/L; 6.8 ± 0.1; and 205.7 ± 16.5 µS/cm, respectively. CD of PB, EB and MS were 90.66, 89.53 and 87.63 for FP; 82.03, 72.09 and 62.21 for FV; 97.61, 93.52 and 91.01 for GM; 77.39, 62.77 and 58.68 for LS, respectively. The digestible values of protein (%) and energy (kcal/kg), as fed basis, were 53.01 and 3568.0 for FP; 47.65 and 3650.9 for FV; 65.34 and 5036.7 for GM; and 32.19 and 2706.9 for LS.

  11. Effect of salseed-meal tannins on protein synthesis, 35S incorporation and cellulose digestibility by rumen microbes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannins from seed-meal of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) were fractionated after treatments into ethyl acetate (EA) and lead acetate (LA) fractions. In trial 1, incorporation of 35S from (NH4)235SO4 into microbial protein declined due to the effect of both 2% EA and LA fractions as compared to control. Microbial protein synthesis was depressed significantly (P 35S incorporation and cellulolysis at all levels of both the tannin fractions. It may be inferred that both the tannin fractions from salseed-meal showed antimicrobial activity and LA fraction seems to be more deleterious than EA fraction for rumen metabolism. The experiments were conducted in vitro using rumen liquor of a non-pregnant dry cow having permanent rumen fistula. (auth.)

  12. Surfactant-Aided Precipitation/on-Pellet-Digestion (SOD) Procedure Provides Robust and Rapid Sample Preparation for Reproducible, Accurate and Sensitive LC/MS Quantification of Therapeutic Protein in Plasma and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Zhang, Ming; Johnson, Robert W; Qu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    For targeted protein quantification by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS), an optimal approach for efficient, robust and hi-throughput sample preparation is critical, but often remains elusive. Here we describe a straightforward surfactant-aided-precipitation/on-pellet-digestion (SOD) strategy that provides effective sample cleanup and enables high and constant peptide yields in various matrices, allowing reproducible, accurate and sensitive protein quantification. This strategy was developed using quantification of monocolnocal antibody in tissues and plasma as the model system. Surfactant treatment before precipitation substantially increased peptide recovery and reproducibility from plasma/tissue, likely because surfactant permits extensive denaturation/reduction/alkylation of proteins and inactivation of endogenous protease inhibitors, and facilitates removal of matrix components. The subsequent precipitation procedure effectively eliminates the surfactant and nonprotein matrix components, and the thorough denaturation by both surfactant and precipitation enabled very rapid on-pellet-digestion (45 min at 37 °C) with high peptide recovery. The performance of SOD was systematically compared against in-solution-digestion, in-gel-digestion and filter-aided-sample-preparation (FASP) in plasma/tissues, and then examined in a full pharmacokinetic study in rats. SOD achieved the best peptide recovery (?21.0-700% higher than the other three methods across various matrices), reproducibility (3.75-10.9%) and sensitivity (28-30 ng/g across plasma and tissue matrices), and its performance was independent of matrix types. Finally, in validation and pharmacokinetic studies in rats, SOD outperformed other methods and provided highly accurate and precise quantification in all plasma samples without using stable isotope labeled (SIL)-protein internal standard (I.S.). In summary, the SOD method has proven to be highly robust, efficient and rapid, making it readily adaptable to large-scale clinical and pharmaceutical quantification of biomarkers or biotherapeutics. PMID:25746131

  13. Application potential of ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy in animal nutrition: revelation of protein molecular structures of canola meal and presscake, as affected by heat-processing methods, in relationship with their protein digestive behavior and utilization for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-06-12

    Protein quality relies not only on total protein but also on protein inherent structures. The most commonly occurring protein secondary structures (?-helix and ?-sheet) may influence protein quality, nutrient utilization, and digestive behavior. The objectives of this study were to reveal the protein molecular structures of canola meal (yellow and brown) and presscake as affected by the heat-processing methods and to investigate the relationship between structure changes and protein rumen degradations kinetics, estimated protein intestinal digestibility, degraded protein balance, and metabolizable protein. Heat-processing conditions resulted in a higher value for ?-helix and ?-sheet for brown canola presscake compared to brown canola meal. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (PCA, CLA) showed that there were significant molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and II fingerprint region (ca. 1700-1480 cm(-1)) between the brown canola meal and presscake. The in situ degradation parameters, amide I and II, and ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio (R_a_?) were positively correlated with the degradable fraction and the degradation rate. Modeling results showed that ?-helix was positively correlated with the truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine when using both the Dutch DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model. Concerning the protein profiles, R_a_? was a better predictor for crude protein (79%) and for neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (68%). In conclusion, ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy may be used to rapidly characterize feed structures at the molecular level and also as a potential predictor of feed functionality, digestive behavior, and nutrient utilization of canola feed. PMID:23683050

  14. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DDSCOD), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (khyd), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate methane yield (fd), demonstrating that increased solubilization of WAS from a pretreatment does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency

  15. Limited Proteolysis Via Millisecond Digestions in Protease-Modified Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yu-jing; Wang, Wei-han; Zheng, Yi; Dong, Jinlan; Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica; Garavito, R. Michael; Reid, Gavin E.; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2012-01-01

    Sequential adsorption of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and proteases in porous nylon yields enzymatic membrane reactors for limited protein digestion. Although a high local enzyme density (~30 mg/cm3) and small pore diameters in the membrane lead to digestion in < 1 s, the low membrane thickness (170 ?m) affords control over residence times at the ms level to limit digestion. Apomyoglobin digestion demonstrates that peptide lengths increase as the residence time in the membrane decreases. Mo...

  16. Improved Feed Protein Fractional Schemes for Formulating Rations With the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate predictions of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) supplies are necessary to optimize performance while minimizing losses of excess nitrogen (N). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the original Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) protei...

  17. Use of wheat and maize protein mutants in breeding for improved protein quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected offspring progenies (50 mutant lines) originating from mutation experiments with hexaploid wheat (cv. Bezostaya 1) were analysed for induced heritable variation in protein content, lysine content, grain yield and protein and lysine yields. Ten of these mutant lines were crossed with 11 local varieties. The protein and lysine contents were measured in the progenies of these crossings. The data showed better correlations of grain yield with protein and lysine yields than the protein and lysine contents with their corresponding yields. F1 seeds showed higher lysine and protein contents than local varieties. Data with maize showed that: (1) the total endosperm protein content of modified opaque-2 types increases with an increase in the degree of normalization; (2) the lysine content in dry matter and protein in normalized o2 kernels usually decreases with the increasing degree of normalization; (3) the lysine content in protein of modified o2 kernels, is, in general, satisfactory up to the normalization of about 50% of endosperm. A desirable modification of o2 endosperm within line A632o2 was selected and crossed with o2 lines. Most of the tested hybrids had a good protein quality, but endosperm modification was not evident in all hybrids. The o2 gene was incorporated into high protein backgrounds. Besides a high protein content and quality, some of the hybrids tested had a comparable or of the hybrids tested had a comparable or higher yield than the o2 check. (author)

  18. Assessing the Accuracy and Precision of Inorganic Geochemical Data Produced through Flux Fusion and Acid Digestions: Multiple (60+) Comprehensive Analyses of BHVO-2 and the Development of Improved "Accepted" Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, T. J.; Scudder, R.; Dunlea, A. G.; Anderson, C. H.; Murray, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The use of geological standard reference materials (SRMs) to assess both the accuracy and the reproducibility of geochemical data is a vital consideration in determining the major and trace element abundances of geologic, oceanographic, and environmental samples. Calibration curves commonly are generated that are predicated on accurate analyses of these SRMs. As a means to verify the robustness of these calibration curves, a SRM can also be run as an unknown item (i.e., not included as a data point in the calibration). The experimentally derived composition of the SRM can thus be compared to the certified (or otherwise accepted) value. This comparison gives a direct measure of the accuracy of the method used. Similarly, if the same SRM is analyzed as an unknown over multiple analytical sessions, the external reproducibility of the method can be evaluated. Two common bulk digestion methods used in geochemical analysis are flux fusion and acid digestion. The flux fusion technique is excellent at ensuring complete digestion of a variety of sample types, is quick, and does not involve much use of hazardous acids. However, this technique is hampered by a high amount of total dissolved solids and may be accompanied by an increased analytical blank for certain trace elements. On the other hand, acid digestion (using a cocktail of concentrated nitric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) provides an exceptionally clean digestion with very low analytical blanks. However, this technique results in a loss of Si from the system and may compromise results for a few other elements (e.g., Ge). Our lab uses flux fusion for the determination of major elements and a few key trace elements by ICP-ES, while acid digestion is used for Ti and trace element analyses by ICP-MS. Here we present major and trace element data for BHVO-2, a frequently used SRM derived from a Hawaiian basalt, gathered over a period of over two years (30+ analyses by each technique). We show that both digestion techniques are well suited to our applications and that it is possible to achieve a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility using a combination of these methods. For elements analyzed by both digestions and instruments, agreement is strong. Lastly, we recommend new and improved elemental concentrations for BHVO-2 based on our analyses and literature/database values.

  19. The Effects of Soluble Protein and Sugar Concentration on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Crossbred Steers

    OpenAIRE

    Yanin Opatpattanakit; Monchai Duangjinda; Froetshel, Mark A.; Virote Pattarajinda; Sirirat Buaphan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of varying the Soluble Protein (SP) and sugar concentration in total mixed rations. Four crossbred Thai native steers, 24126 kg BW, fitted with rumen cannulae were arranged in a 4x4 Latin square design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The steers were fed treatment rations with varied SP (60.0 or 80.0% of CP) and sugar (11.0 or 22.0% of DM) levels. Steers fed a high SP diet tended to exhibit a decrease in their DMI (p

  20. Open-tubular capillary electrochromatography with bare gold nanoparticles-based stationary phase applied to separation of trypsin digested proteins.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Lacinová, Kate?ina; Zmatlíková, Zde?ka; Sedláková, Pavla; Král, V.; Sýkora, D.; ?ezanka, P.; Kaši?ka, Václav

    Olomouc : Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 2012 - (Maier, V.; Šev?ík, J.), s. 16-17 ISBN 978-80-244-3115-4. ISSN 0232-0061. [International Symposium Advances in Chromatography and Electrophoresis and Chiranal. Olomouc (CZ), 11.06.2012-14.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/0675; GA ?R(CZ) GAP206/12/0453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : open-tubular capillary electrochromatography * gold nanoparticles * glycation of proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  1. Ingredient classification according to the digestible amino acid profile: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 to classify ingredients according to the digestible amino acid (AA profile; 2 to determine ingredients with AA profile closer to the ideal for broiler chickens; and 3 to compare digestible AA profiles from simulated diets with the ideal protein profile. The digestible AA levels of 30 ingredients were compiled from the literature and presented as percentages of lysine according to the ideal protein concept. Cluster and principal component analyses (exploratory analyses were used to compose and describe groups of ingredients according to AA profiles. Four ingredient groups were identified by cluster analysis, and the classification of the ingredients within each of these groups was obtained from a principal component analysis, showing 11 classes of ingredients with similar digestible AA profiles. The ingredients with AA profiles closer to the ideal protein were meat and bone meal 45, fish meal 60 and wheat germ meal, all of them constituting Class 1; the ingredients from the other classes gradually diverged from the ideal protein. Soybean meal, which is the main protein source for poultry, showed good AA balance since it was included in Class 3. On the contrary, corn, which is the main energy source in poultry diets, was classified in Class 8. Dietary AA profiles were improved when corn and/or soybean meal were partially or totally replaced in the simulations by ingredients with better AA balance.

  2. Advances in improving mammalian cells metabolism for recombinant protein production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Altamirano; Julio, Berrios; Mauricio, Vergara; Silvana, Becerra.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: The production of recombinant proteins for therapeutic use represents a great impact on the biotechnology industry. In this context, established mammalian cell lines, especially CHO cells, have become a standard system for the production of such proteins. Their ability to properly config [...] ure and excrete proteins in functional form is an enormous advantage which should be contrasted with their inherent technological limitations. These cell systems exhibit a metabolic behaviour associated with elevated cell proliferation which involves a high consumption of glucose and glutamine, resulting in the rapid depletion of these nutrients in the medium and the accumulation of ammonium and lactate. Both phenomena contribute to the limitation of cell growth, the triggering of apoptotic processes and the loss of quality of the recombinant protein. Results: In this review, the use of alternative substrates and genetic modifications (host cell engineering) are analyzed as tools to overcome those limitations. In general, the results obtained are promising. However, metabolic and physiological phenomena involved in CHO cells are still barely understood. Thus, most of publications are focused on specific modifications rather than giving a systemic perspective. Conclusions: A deeper insight in the integrated understanding of metabolism and cell mechanisms is required in order to define complementary strategies at these two levels, so providing effective means to control nutrients consumption, reduce by-products and increase process productivity.

  3. Latest improvements in CIEF: From proteins to microorganisms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Ji?í; Kubesová, Anna; Horká, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 12, 19-20 (2012), s. 2927-2936. ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : CIEF * proteins * microbiology Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.132, year: 2012

  4. Genetic improvement of soybean seed proteins by ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although soybeans have the highest protein content among seed crops, the protein quality is poor due to the low content of the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Soybean 7S globulin and 11S globulin are the two major protein components, accounting for about 70% of the total seed protein. The 11S globulin contains three to four times more methionine and cysteine per unit protein than that of the 7S globulin. Furthermore, the two globulins show considerable differences in food processing properties such as gel-making ability and emulsifying capacity. The 7S globulin is composed of three kinds of polypeptides, designated as ?, ?' and ? subunits. A variety of soybean cv. Keburi, which lacks ?' subunit was identified in a germplasm collection. An induced mutant line which lacks both ? and ?' subunits, was recently identified in the progeny of ?-ray-irradiated seeds from a line lacking ?' subunit. On the other hand, the 11S globulin is composed of the A1aB2, A1bB1b, A2B1a, A3B4 and A4A5B3 subunits. It has become possible to breed soybeans with markedly modified protein composition from extremely high to extremely low 7S : 11S ratios using mutant genes for the subunits of the two globulins. Lipoxygenase catalyzes the hydroperoxydation of unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated lipids. Soybean seeds contain three lipoxygenasan seeds contain three lipoxygenase isozymes, called L-1, L-2 and L-3, which are responsible for the generation of grassy-beany and bitter tastes, limiting the use of whole soybeans and soy proteins in certain food products. In the early 1980s, three types of spontaneous mutant soybean varieties lacking L-1, L-2 or L-3 were detected. Soybean cultivars having the lipoxygenase-null traits could become economically valuable for the manufacture of soy products such as soy milk due to their low levels of beany taste and their enhanced storage stability. (J.P.N.)

  5. Digestibilidade e retenção de nitrogênio de alimentos para papagaios verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva) / Digestibility and protein retention of foods for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado, Saad; Walter Motta, Ferreira; Flávia Maria de Oliveira, Borges; Leonardo Boscoli, Lara.

    1500-15-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 34 papagaios verdadeiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas e distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em 17 tratamentos (T1 - ração referência, T2 - semente de girassol, T3 - aveia, T4 - gema de ovo, T5 - ovo integral, T6 - clara de ovo, T7 - germe de trigo, T8 - farelo de trigo, T9 - milho mo [...] ído, T10 - milho gelatinizado, T11- farelo de girassol, T12 - levedura, T13 - polpa cítrica, T14 - mamão, T15 - banana, T16 - farelo de soja, T17 - soja micronizada), durante três períodos de colheita, totalizando seis repetições (102 unidades experimentais). Para avaliação dos alimentos utilizou-se a técnica de substituição. Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS) e matéria orgânica (MO) e a retenção de nitrogênio dos alimentos, comparando os tratamentos dois a 17, sendo que o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 16 tratamentos, três períodos experimentais e seis repetições. O tratamento um (ração referência) foi utilizado apenas para os cálculos de substituição, não fazendo parte das análises estatísticas. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Scott-Knott. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1 - Os papagaios apresentaram alta digestibilidade da MS e MO para os alimentos: milho gelatinizado, gema de ovo, semente de girassol, aveia, ovo integral, milho moído, mamão e banana, podendo ser considerados como boas opções de escolha para a composição de uma dieta completa; 2 - alimentos como a polpa cítrica e o farelo de girassol apresentaram baixas digestibilidades aparente e verdadeira da MS e MO, e devem ser utilizados em níveis baixos e com moderação na formulação de rações para estas aves; 3 - a retenção de nitrogênio verdadeiro foi positiva para todas as aves, sugerindo que ainda estejam em anabolismo, entretanto, devido ao alto coeficiente de variação, esta medida parece não ser adequada para expressar o coeficiente real de retenção de nitrogênio para papagaios. Abstract in english Were used 34 blue fronted parrot, distributed in blocks with 17 treatments (T1 - reference diet, T2 - sunflower seed, T3 - oat, T4 - egg yolk, T5 - integral egg, T6 - egg white, T7 - wheat germen, T8 - wheat bran, T9 - triturated corn, T10 - jellied corn, T11 - sunflower bran, T12 - yeast, T13 - cit [...] ric pulp, T14 - papaya, T15 - banana, T16 - soy bran, T17 - extruded soy) during three periods, totaling six repetitions (102 experimental units). For foods evaluation the substitution methodology was used. They were appraised the digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) and the protein retention of the evaluated foods. Were compared the treatments two to 17. The treatment 1 (reference diet) it was just used for the substitution calculations, not being part of the statistical analyses. The averages were compared by the test Scott-Knott. The obtained results allowed to conclude that: 1 - foods as the jellied corn, the egg yolk and the sunflower seed, as well as the oat, integral egg, triturated corn, papaya and banana, they possess high DM and OM digestibility for parrots, could be considered as good choice options for the composition of a complete diet; 2 - foods as the citric pulp and the sunflower bran presented low apparent and true digestibility of the DM and OM and they should be used in low levels and with moderation in the formulation of rations for these birds; 3 - the true nitrogen retention was positive for all the birds, what suggests that the same ones can be depositing still tissues, however, due to the high variation coefficient, this measured it seems not to be adapted to express the real nitrogen retention coefficient for parrots.

  6. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    OpenAIRE

    Yust, María del Mar; Pedroche, Joaquín; Megías, Cristina; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaíz Barragán, Manuel; Millán, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v) alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 8...

  7. Improving the accuracy of protein secondary structure prediction using structural alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Gallin Warren J; Sundararaj Shan; Montgomerie Scott; Wishart David S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The accuracy of protein secondary structure prediction has steadily improved over the past 30 years. Now many secondary structure prediction methods routinely achieve an accuracy (Q3) of about 75%. We believe this accuracy could be further improved by including structure (as opposed to sequence) database comparisons as part of the prediction process. Indeed, given the large size of the Protein Data Bank (>35,000 sequences), the probability of a newly identified sequence ha...

  8. Marked improvement of PAC and BAC cloning is achieved using electroelution of pulsed-field gel-separated partial digests of genomic DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, S. J.; Ohta, Y.; Litman, G. W.; Amemiya, C T

    1997-01-01

    We describe a simple electroelution method for purifying large, gel-fractionated DNA molecules that alleviates the need for melting of the agarose and subsequent enzymatic agarose digestion. The method yields DNA that is visibly more intact than that purified from a standard agarose-digestion protocol and is more amenable to large-fragment cloning with PAC and BAC vectors. These findings are notable in that PAC and BAC library construction is a very labor-intensive and costly procedure, such ...

  9. Determinação das perdas endógenas e da digestibilidade ileal da proteína e dos aminoácidos em suínos utilizando-se duas técnicas Use of different techniques to determine endogenous losses and ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidimara Feregueti Costa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira da proteína e dos aminoácidos digestíveis de um extrato protéico de levedura utilizando-se duas técnicas - dieta isenta de proteína (DIP e dieta com caseína hidrolisada enzimaticamente (CHE - para determinação das perdas endógenas de proteína, aminoácidos e nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio de 35 kg, submetidos previamente a cirurgia para implantação da cânula T simples. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (dieta com CHE; dieta isenta de proteína (DIP; e dieta com 23% do extrato protéico de levedura - ingrediente teste, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. As perdas endógenas de ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, lisina, arginina e serina diferiram entre as dietas; os maiores valores foram obtidos nos animais que receberam a dieta com CHE. O maior valor de perda endógena do aminoácido glicina foi determinado nos animais alimentados com a dieta DIP. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de metionina, treonina, triptofano e serina determinados pelas perdas endógenas utilizando-se a dieta CHE foram superiores àqueles determinados utilizando a dieta DIP. As quantidades das secreções protéicas e de aminoácidos obtidas pela técnica da CHE foram maiores que as determinadas pela técnica da DIP. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira da proteína foram menores e os dos aminoácidos, maiores, quando determinados pela técnica CHE.The objective of this study was to determine the true ileal digestibility coefficients of the protein and digestible amino acid of a yeast protein extract using two techniques - diet without protein (DIP and diet with enzime-hydrolysed casein (CHE - for the determination of protein amino acid and nitrogen losses. Twelve half-breed barrows were used, with average weight of 35 kg, previously submitted to a surgery for "T" simple cannula implantation. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments, four replications and one animal per experimental unit was used. The treatments diets with CHE, DIP diet with 23% CP were constituted by yeast protein extract. Endogenous losses of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, arginine and serine differ among diets, the higher values were observed for animals consumed CHE diet. The higher endogenous losses values observed for glycine was determined in the animals fed DIP diet. The true ileal digestibility coefficients of methionine, threonine, tryptophan and serine determined with the endogenous losses using CHE diet were higher than those determined using DIP diet. The amounts of protein and amino acids secretions obtained by using CHE technique were higher than those obtained by the DIP technique. True protein digestibility coefficients of protein were lower and amino acid higher when determined by CHE technique.

  10. Determinação das perdas endógenas e da digestibilidade ileal da proteína e dos aminoácidos em suínos utilizando-se duas técnicas / Use of different techniques to determine endogenous losses and ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids for swine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leidimara Feregueti, Costa; Darci Clementino, Lopes; Letícia Silva de, Freitas; Melissa Izabel, Hannas; Júlio Maria Ribeiro, Pupa; Anderson, Corassa.

    1243-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira da proteína e dos aminoácidos digestíveis de um extrato protéico de levedura utilizando-se duas técnicas - dieta isenta de proteína (DIP) e dieta com caseína hidrolisada enzimaticamente (CHE) - para determinação [...] das perdas endógenas de proteína, aminoácidos e nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio de 35 kg, submetidos previamente a cirurgia para implantação da cânula T simples. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (dieta com CHE; dieta isenta de proteína (DIP); e dieta com 23% do extrato protéico de levedura - ingrediente teste), quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. As perdas endógenas de ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, lisina, arginina e serina diferiram entre as dietas; os maiores valores foram obtidos nos animais que receberam a dieta com CHE. O maior valor de perda endógena do aminoácido glicina foi determinado nos animais alimentados com a dieta DIP. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de metionina, treonina, triptofano e serina determinados pelas perdas endógenas utilizando-se a dieta CHE foram superiores àqueles determinados utilizando a dieta DIP. As quantidades das secreções protéicas e de aminoácidos obtidas pela técnica da CHE foram maiores que as determinadas pela técnica da DIP. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira da proteína foram menores e os dos aminoácidos, maiores, quando determinados pela técnica CHE. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the true ileal digestibility coefficients of the protein and digestible amino acid of a yeast protein extract using two techniques - diet without protein (DIP) and diet with enzime-hydrolysed casein (CHE) - for the determination of protein amino acid and [...] nitrogen losses. Twelve half-breed barrows were used, with average weight of 35 kg, previously submitted to a surgery for "T" simple cannula implantation. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments, four replications and one animal per experimental unit was used. The treatments diets with CHE, DIP diet with 23% CP were constituted by yeast protein extract. Endogenous losses of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, arginine and serine differ among diets, the higher values were observed for animals consumed CHE diet. The higher endogenous losses values observed for glycine was determined in the animals fed DIP diet. The true ileal digestibility coefficients of methionine, threonine, tryptophan and serine determined with the endogenous losses using CHE diet were higher than those determined using DIP diet. The amounts of protein and amino acids secretions obtained by using CHE technique were higher than those obtained by the DIP technique. True protein digestibility coefficients of protein were lower and amino acid higher when determined by CHE technique.

  11. Effect of mineral source and mannan oligosaccharide supplements on zinc and copper digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Alexandre; Matte, J Jacques; Guay, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of organic (proteinate) and inorganic (sulphate) copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) supplements, in presence or absence of a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplement, on mineral solubility and digestibility in pigs. Twenty-eight barrows (25 ± 4 kg) assigned randomly to four treatment groups were f