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Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Therefore, irradiation could serve as a possible processing method for protein utilization improvement in defatted Jatropha curcas seeds before using as a protein supplement in animal feed

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Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

Tuross, N.

2013-12-01

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Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite for being able to devise better alternatives. Hence, for 7 d we treated pigs, weaned at 24 d of age, with a combination of amoxicillin (25 mg/kg feed and injection of 8·75 mg/kg body weight per 12 h) and ZnO (2·5 g/kg feed). The pigs treated with antimicrobials (n 11) showed no signs of gut malfunction at any time, whereas untreated weaned controls (n 11) developed clinical diarrhoea. The antimicrobial treatment resulted in a higher daily weight gain compared with weaned controls (101 v. - 44 g/d, P < 0·0001), whereas both groups had a similar degree of villous atrophy compared with unweaned 24-d-old controls (n 8; P < 0·05). The antimicrobial treatment gave a dramatic reduction in small intestinal microbial diversity, and specifically prevented tissue colonization with Escherichia coli compared with weaned controls. Further, the antimicrobial treatment improved amylase, trypsin and small intestinal aminopeptidase A and N activities (all P < 0·05). Specifically for the colon, the antimicrobial treatment was associated with reduced tissue weight ( - 23 %, P < 0·05), reduced concentration of SCFA (P < 0·05), and increased mucosal goblet cell area (P < 0·0001) compared with weaned controls. We conclude that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacterial load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density.

Thyman, T; SØrensen, K U

2007-01-01

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Multiple enzymatic digestions and ion mobility separation improve quantification of bacterial ribosomal proteins by data independent acquisition liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass spectrometry-based quantification of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) associated with mature ribosomes and ribosome assembly complexes is typically accomplished by relative quantification strategies. These strategies provide information on the relative stoichiometry of proteins within the complex compared to a wild-type strain. Here we have evaluated the applicability of a label-free approach, enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)), for absolute "ribosome-centric" quantification of r-proteins in Escherichia coli mature ribosomes. Because the information obtained in this experiment is related to the number of peptides identified per protein, experimental conditions that allow accurate and reproducible quantification of r-proteins were found. Using an additional dimension of gas-phase separation through ion mobility and the use of multiple endoproteinase digestion significantly improved quantification of proteins associated with mature ribosomes. The actively translating ribosomes (polysomes) contain amounts of proteins consistent with their known stoichiometry within the complex. These measurements exhibited technical and biological reproducibilities at %CV less than 15% and 35%, respectively. The improved LC-MS(E) approach described here can be used to characterize in vivo ribosome assembly complexes captured during ribosome biogenesis and assembly under different perturbations (e.g., antibiotics, deletion mutants of assembly factors, oxidative stress, nutrient deprivation). Quantitative analysis of these captured complexes will provide information relating to the interplay and dynamics of how these perturbations interfere with the assembly process. PMID:24738621

Dator, Romel P; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

2014-05-01

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Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

2003-07-01

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Kafirinas, proteínas clave para conferir digestibilidad y calidad proteica al grano de sorgo / Kafirins, key proteins to improve digestibility and proteic quality of sorghum grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El sorgo es un alimento básico en varios países de África y Asia. Sin embargo, su grano es deficiente en lisina y su calidad proteica disminuye cuando se cocina. Los intentos para conferir calidad proteica al grano de sorgo, no han satisfecho los requerimientos nutricionales, y las alternativas biot [...] ecnológicas se han enfocado a la expresión heteróloga de proteínas, sin prestar atención a incrementar la digestibilidad proteica. El incremento del contenido de lisina en maíz QPM y el silenciamiento génico de las ?-zeínas en maíz, sugieren que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas, una familia de prolaminas del sorgo homólogas a las zeínas de maíz, permite incrementar el contenido de lisina y la digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. En esta revisión se discuten aspectos básicos de la clasificación de las kafirinas, su homología con las zeínas de maíz, y su contribución en la calidad y digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. El objetivo es sustentar la hipótesis de que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas mediante silenciamiento génico es una estrategia clave para mejorar el valor nutritivo del grano del sorgo, el estudio se llevó a cabo durante 2009 y 2010. Abstract in english Sorghum is a basic food in several countries of Africa and Asia. However, its grain is deficient in lysine and its proteic quality diminishes when is cooked. Attempts to confer proteic quality to sorghum grain have not satisfed the nutritional requirements, and biotechnical alternatives have been fo [...] cused to proteins' heterologous expression, without taking into account to increase proteic digestibility. Increment of lysine content in QPM corn and gene silencing of ?-zeins in corn, suggest that modification of expression of kafirins, a prolamin family of sorghum homologous to corn zeins, allows to increase lysin content and the proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. In this revision basic issues of kafirins classification are discussed, their homology with corn zeins, and their contribution in quality and proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. The objective of this work is to support the hypothesis that modification of kafirins expression by means of gene silencing is key strategy to improve nutritious value in sorghum grain, study was carried out during 2009 and 2010.

Elizabeth, Chiquito-Almanza; Gabriel, Cobielles-Castrejón; Noé, Montes-García; Víctor, Pecina-Quintero; José Luis, Anaya-López.

2011-04-01

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Kafirinas, proteínas clave para conferir digestibilidad y calidad proteica al grano de sorgo Kafirins, key proteins to improve digestibility and proteic quality of sorghum grain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El sorgo es un alimento básico en varios países de África y Asia. Sin embargo, su grano es deficiente en lisina y su calidad proteica disminuye cuando se cocina. Los intentos para conferir calidad proteica al grano de sorgo, no han satisfecho los requerimientos nutricionales, y las alternativas biotecnológicas se han enfocado a la expresión heteróloga de proteínas, sin prestar atención a incrementar la digestibilidad proteica. El incremento del contenido de lisina en maíz QPM y el silenciamiento génico de las ?-zeínas en maíz, sugieren que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas, una familia de prolaminas del sorgo homólogas a las zeínas de maíz, permite incrementar el contenido de lisina y la digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. En esta revisión se discuten aspectos básicos de la clasificación de las kafirinas, su homología con las zeínas de maíz, y su contribución en la calidad y digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. El objetivo es sustentar la hipótesis de que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas mediante silenciamiento génico es una estrategia clave para mejorar el valor nutritivo del grano del sorgo, el estudio se llevó a cabo durante 2009 y 2010.Sorghum is a basic food in several countries of Africa and Asia. However, its grain is deficient in lysine and its proteic quality diminishes when is cooked. Attempts to confer proteic quality to sorghum grain have not satisfed the nutritional requirements, and biotechnical alternatives have been focused to proteins' heterologous expression, without taking into account to increase proteic digestibility. Increment of lysine content in QPM corn and gene silencing of ?-zeins in corn, suggest that modification of expression of kafirins, a prolamin family of sorghum homologous to corn zeins, allows to increase lysin content and the proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. In this revision basic issues of kafirins classification are discussed, their homology with corn zeins, and their contribution in quality and proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. The objective of this work is to support the hypothesis that modification of kafirins expression by means of gene silencing is key strategy to improve nutritious value in sorghum grain, study was carried out during 2009 and 2010.

Elizabeth Chiquito-Almanza

2011-04-01

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Improved digestibility of ?-lactoglobulin by pulsed light processing: a dilatational and shear study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modifying the protein conformation appears to improve the digestibility of proteins in the battle against allergies. However, it is important not to lose the protein functionality in the process. Light pulse technology has been recently tested as an efficient non-thermal process which alters the conformation of proteins while improving their functionality as stabilizers. Also, in order to rationally design emulsion based food products with specific digestion profiles, we need to understand how interfacial composition influences the digestion of coated interfaces. This study has been designed to investigate the effects of pulsed light (PL) treatment on the gastrointestinal digestion of protein covered interfaces. We have used a combination of dilatational and shear rheology which highlights inter and intra-molecular interactions providing new molecular details on protein digestibility. The in vitro digestion model analyses sequentially pepsinolysis, trypsinolysis and lipolysis of ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) and pulsed light treated ?-lactoglobulin (PL-BLG). The results show that the PL-treatment seems to facilitate digestibility of the protein network, especially regarding trypsinolysis. Firstly, PL treatment just barely enhances the enzymatic degradation of BLG by pepsin, which dilutes and weakens the interfacial layer, due to increased hydrophobicity of the protein owing to PL-treatment. Secondly, PL treatment importantly modifies the susceptibility of BLG to trypsin hydrolysis. While it dilutes the interfacial layer in all cases, it strengthens the BLG and weakens the PL-BLG interfacial layer. Finally, this weakening appears to slightly facilitate lipolysis as evidenced by the results obtained upon addition of lipase and bile salts (BS). This research allows identification of the interfacial mechanisms affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins and lipolysis, which demonstrates an improved digestibility of PL-BLG. The fact that PL treatment did not affect the functionality of the protein makes it a valuable alternative for tailoring novel food matrices with improved functional properties such as decreased digestibility, controlled energy intake and low allergenicity. PMID:25358648

Del Castillo-Santaella, Teresa; Sanmartín, Esther; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel Angel; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia

2014-11-19

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Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated with the fibre content in decortification fractions of Bomi and the high-lysine mutant Risø 1508. The digestibility was positively correlated with the hordein concentration for the Bomi fractions, but not for the 1508 fractions.

Buchmann, N. B.

1979-01-01

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Rapid and efficient protein enzymatic digestion: an experimental comparison.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major objective of proteomics is to identify and examine the large numbers of proteins extracted from complex biological systems. This is generally achieved by combining various techniques of protein separation with a mass spectrometric analysis of proteins that are digested enzymatically. Recently, several alternatives to this standard protocol have been developed for efficient and fast protein digestion. One option is the use of modified trypsin instead of native trypsin for the in-gel digestion of proteins. Microwave, ultrasonic-assisted protein enzymatic digestion and proteolysis accelerated by infrared radiation are other suitable alternatives. The application of the variable performance of the fast enzymatic digestion of proteins by using different techniques is reported here. The advantage of these methods is to have the ability to detect proteins in a shorter span of time. For example, using alternative protein digestion takes only minutes, in contrast to the several hours required by conventional methods. To demonstrate the suitability of this fast procedure, the digestion of carbonic anhydrase, bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and proteins extracted from plants (Hordeum vulgare, Arabidopsis thaliana) were used. Considering that the required reaction time for the conventional method is much longer, these applied methodic approaches tend to give in-gel digestion a much higher efficiency rating. This study examines the fast, efficient and low-cost proteolytic strategies for the digestion process, and for protein identification based on the use of ultrasound and infrared technology. In addition, comparisons of the applied techniques were studied. Several differences were found, suggesting the potential use of proteolysis accelerated by infrared radiation. PMID:22170586

Dycka, Filip; Bobal, Pavel; Mazanec, Karel; Bobalova, Janette

2012-01-01

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Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

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Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

1346-13-01

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Digestion  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students learn about digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.k8science.org/.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

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Effect of simulated gastric and intestinal digestion on temporal stability and immunoreactivity of peanut, almond, and pine nut protein allergens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current models of digestibility utilize pepsin stability to assess the safety of allergenic versus nonallergenic food proteins. Dietary protein digestion in vivo, however, requires acid denaturation and protease cleavage by pepsin, trypsin, and/or chymotrypsin. The ability of this approach to identify food protein stability in the mammalian gut may be limited. We determined the temporal stability and immunoreactivity of almond, pine nut, and peanut allergenic proteins under simulated physiologic gastric and intestinal digestive conditions in vitro. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses were used to determine protein stability and immunoreactivity, respectively. Peanut, almond, and pine nut proteins were pepsin- and pancreatin-stable and immunoreactive for up to 1 h after initiation of digestion. Moreover, successive acid denaturation and pepsin and pancreatin cleavage were necessary to hydrolyze these allergenic proteins and reduce their IgG- and IgE-binding capacity, which suggests that digestibility models must be improved for more accurate safety assessment of food allergens. PMID:23742710

Toomer, Ondulla T; Do, Andrew; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina

2013-06-19

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Probiotic fermentation: effect on antinutrients and digestibility of starch and protein of indigenously developed food mixture.  

Science.gov (United States)

An indigenously developed food mixture which contained huskless barley flour, green gram dhal flour, skimmed milk powder and tomato pulp ("BGMT" mixture) was autoclaved, cooled and fermented with L. acidophilus at 37 degrees C for 24 h at a dosage of 100,000 cells/ml. This process markedly reduced the phytic acid and polyphenol content and significantly improved the in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. Starch digestibility almost doubled in the fermented mixture. A significant negative relationship was obtained between the contents of antinutrients and digestibility. PMID:9131698

Binita, R; Khetarpaul, N

1997-01-01

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In Mesopore Protein Digestion: A New Forthcoming Strategy in Proteomics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conventional protocols for in solution or in gel protein digestion require many steps and long reaction times. The use of trypsin immobilized onto solid supports has recently captured the attention of many research groups, because these systems can speed-up protein digestion significantly. The utilization of new materials such as mesoporous silica as supports, in which enzyme and substrate are dramatically concentrated and confined in the nanospace, offers new opportunities to reduce the complexity of proteomics workflows. An overview of the procedures for in situ proteolysis of single proteins or complex protein mixtures is reported, with a special focus on porous materials used as catalysts. The challenging efforts for designing such systems aimed at mimicking the biochemistry of living cells are reviewed. Potentials, limitations and challenges of this branch of enzyme catalysis, which we indicate as in mesopore digestion, are discussed, in relation to its suitability for high-speed and high-throughput proteomics.

Rosa Terracciano

2011-07-01

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The on-bead digestion of protein corona on nanoparticles by trypsin immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteins interacting with nanoparticles would form the protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles in biological systems, which would critically impact the biological identities of nanoparticles and/or result in the physiological and pathological consequences. The enzymatic digestion of protein corona was the primary step to achieve the identification of protein components of the protein corona for the bottom-up proteomic approaches. In this study, the investigation on the tryptic digestion of protein corona by the immobilized trypsin on a magnetic nanoparticle was carried out for the first time. As a comparison with the usual overnight long-time digestion and the severe self-digestion of free trypsin, the on-bead digestion of protein corona by the immobilized trypsin could be accomplished within 1h, along with the significantly reduced self-digestion of trypsin and the improved reproducibility on the identification of proteins by the mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. It showed that the number of identified bovine serum (BS) proteins on the commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles was increased by 13% for the immobilized trypsin with 1h digestion as compared to that of using free trypsin with even overnight digestion. In addition, the on-bead digestion of using the immobilized trypsin was further applied on the identification of human plasma protein corona on the commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which leads the efficient digestion of the human plasma proteins and the identification of 149 human plasma proteins corresponding to putative critical pathways and biological processes. PMID:24572545

Hu, Zhengyan; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

2014-03-21

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Phytase studies in pigs and poultry: effect on protein digestion and energy utilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytase is applied for improving digestibility of phosphorus in pig and poultry diets. Indepen-dently, phytase also improves animal performance. The mechanisms to explain this effect were investigated and quantified. Protein can be complexed with phytate, especially under the acid conditions that occurs in the stomach of animals. Dietary phytase supplementation pre-vents formation of such complexes or, if such complexes are formed, helps to release protein faster and to a larger extent from p...

Kies, A. K.

2005-01-01

19

Bi-compartmental elderly or adult dynamic digestion models applied to interrogate protein digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The world's population is inevitably ageing thanks to modern progress; however, the development of food and oral formulations tailored to the needs of the elderly is still in its infancy. In vitro digestion models offer high throughput, robust and practically ethics free evaluation of the digestive fate of ingested products. To date, no data have been made publicly available to facilitate the development or application of an in vitro model mirroring the physicochemical conditions of the elderly gastrointestinal system. This study reports the development of a novel and highly bio-relevant in vitro model based on two serially connected bioreactors recreating the dynamic conditions of the adult or elderly alimentary canal. This report and its supplementary material describe in detail the set-up of the system, the applied physicochemical parameters and the development of the controlling software. These are intended to openly depict a versatile platform, which could assist future efforts to develop age-tailored oral formulations. SDS-PAGE analyses of samples collected from the in vitro digestion of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-lactalbumin and lactoferrin suggest the bioaccessibility of "slow digesting" and "fast digesting" proteins identified in adult models do not necessarily maintain this trait under elderly gastro-intestinal conditions. Overall, this study brings forward a new generic yet advanced model that could facilitate age-tailoring the digestive fate of liquid formulations. PMID:25131440

Levi, Carmit Shani; Lesmes, Uri

2014-10-24

20

Ostrich (Strutio camelus meat protein quality and digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-free diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein ratio (NPR, net protein utilization (NPU, and true digestibility (TD. There were differences (p<0.05 among treatment groups for all evaluated biological parameters. Mean true digestibility values were 92.12% and 75.77% for casein and ostrich meat, respectively.

LS Reis

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
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INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in vitro digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio.

Buchmann, N. B.

1979-01-01

22

Ostrich (Strutio camelus) meat protein quality and digestibility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-fr [...] ee diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR), net protein utilization (NPU), and true digestibility (TD). There were differences (p

LS, Reis; TC, Oliveira.

2008-09-01

23

Effect of Processing Treatments Followed by Fermentation on Protein Content and Digestibility of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two pearl millet cultivars namely Gadarif and Gazeera were used in this study. The effect of soaking, debranning, dry heating and germination of the grains before and after fermentation on protein content and digestibility was investigated. The effect of processing treatments on the protein content was fluctuated and varied between the cultivars. For both cultivars germination of the grains increased the protein content and digestibility (except course ground grains. For both cultivars fermentation of the germinated and course ground grains increased the protein content while fermentation of other treated grains fluctuated between the cultivars. The protein digestibility of the treated grains after fermentation was greatly improved. For both cultivars fermentation of the germinated grains gave higher protein digestibility (> 90% compared to all other treatments.

Amro B. Hassan

2006-01-01

24

Multiplex comparison of the digestibility of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins in rice grains by in vitro digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the digestibility of rice allergenic and nonallergenic proteins under the influence of the rice grain matrix, rice powder was subjected to in vitro digestion by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Rice proteins were extracted from the liquid and the solid phases and analysed by SDS-PAGE, and rice allergenic proteins were detected by a multiplex immunodetection method. The digestion of soluble proteins was carried out in both liquid and solid phases, while that of insoluble proteins only occurred in the solid phase. In SGF digestion, rice proteins were more quickly digested at pH 1.2 than at pH 2.0 or 2.5. Moreover, the digestibility of five kinds of rice allergenic proteins was influenced by pH level, heat processing, starch matrix, solubility, and protein properties, on a case-by-case basis. On the other hand, all detected rice allergenic proteins and non-allergenic proteins were rapidly digested in SIF. PMID:25172754

Lang, Gang-hua; Kagiya, Yukari; Kitta, Kazumi

2015-02-01

25

Toxoplasma gondii Ingests and Digests Host Cytosolic Proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides within a nonfusogenic vacuole during intracellular replication. Although the limiting membrane of this vacuole provides a protective barrier to acidification and degradation by lysosomal hydrolases, it also physically segregates the parasite from the host cytosol. Accordingly, it has been suggested that T. gondii acquires material from the host via membrane channels or transporters. The ability of the parasite to internalize macromolecules via endocytosis during intracellular replication has not been tested. Here, we show that Toxoplasma ingests host cytosolic proteins and digests them using cathepsin L and other proteases within its endolysosomal system. Ingestion was reduced in mutant parasites lacking an intravacuolar network of tubular membranes, implicating this apparatus as a possible conduit for trafficking to the parasite. Genetic ablation of proteins involved in the pathway is associated with diminished parasite replication and virulence attenuation. We show that both virulent type I and avirulent type II strain parasites ingest and digest host-derived protein, indicating that the pathway is not restricted to highly virulent strains. The findings provide the first definitive evidence that T. gondii internalizes proteins from the host during intracellular residence and suggest that protein digestion within the endolysosomal system of the parasite contributes to toxoplasmosis. PMID:25028423

Dou, Zhicheng; McGovern, Olivia L.; Di Cristina, Manlio

2014-01-01

26

Microbial Delignification with White Rot Fungi Improves Forage Digestibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three wild-type white rot fungi and two cellulase-less mutants developed from Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3 (formerly Sporotrichum pulverulentum) were tested for their ability to delignify grass cell walls and improve biodegradation by rumen microorganisms. Fungal-treated and control stems of Bermuda grass were analyzed for their content of ester- and ether-linked aromatics by using alkali extraction and gas chromatography, for in vitro dry weight digestion and production of volatile fatty ...

Akin, D. E.; Sethuraman, A.; Morrison, W. H.; Martin, S. A.; Eriksson, K. -e L.

1993-01-01

27

Reduction of hexavalent chromium by digested oat bran proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is associated with an increase in oxidative stress, such as DNA, lipid and protein oxidations. This study investigated, for the first time, the ability of digested food proteins to reduce Cr(VI) and scavenge free radicals. Protamex, an endopeptidase was used to digest oat bran protein isolates for 1, 2, 3, and 4h. The hydrolysates (1mg/ml) showed a maximum Cr(VI)-reducing activity of 5.4 ± 0.4% and 44.6% at pH 7.4 and 3.0, respectively. The difference might be due to charge or conformation changes depending on the pH. The 2h hydrolysate possessed the highest O2(-) inhibition activity (57.4 ± 5.1%), while the 1h hydrolysate had the highest HO inhibition (11.6 ± 0.6%). A correlation (R(2)=0.82) was observed between the O2(-) scavenging activities of hydrolysates and their Cr(VI)-reducing activities at pH 3.0 only. Further investigations of the digested oat bran proteins are required to determine their ability to reduce Cr(VI) oxidative stress damage in vivo. PMID:24491717

Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Gao, Qing; Baakdah, Morooj M

2014-06-15

28

Effect of protein oxidation on the in vitro digestibility of soy protein isolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soy protein isolate (SPI) was modified by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) oxidation pretreatment, and the in vitro digestibility of oxidised SPI was investigated. Results indicated that oxidation induced amino acid modification. The amount of most amino acids decreased, accompanied by decreasing digestive proteolysis susceptibility. Peptide size distribution implied that oxidation generated protein aggregates that could not be degraded by pepsin, but could be digested by pancreatin. Oxidation induced a maximum of 16.6% and 14.6% loss, respectively, for free essential and free total amino acid in the digests of oxidised SPI. Antioxidant activities evaluation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value and DPPH scavenging activity showed that oxidation deteriorated the antioxidant activities of the digests from oxidised SPI. PMID:23871081

Chen, Nannan; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng

2013-12-01

29

Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis : Quantitative assessment of protein digestion protocols  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The majority of mass spectrometry-based protein quantification studies uses peptide-centric analytical methods and thus strongly relies on efficient and unbiased protein digestion protocols for sample preparation. We present a novel objective approach to assess protein digestion efficiency using a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein fractions. We evaluated nine trypsin-based digestion protocols, based on standard in-solution or on spin filter-aided digestion, including new optimized protocols. We investigated various reagents for protein solubilization and denaturation (dodecyl sulfate, deoxycholate, urea), several trypsin digestion conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows for efficient, unbiased generation and recovery of peptides from all protein classes, including membrane proteins. This deoxycholate-assisted protocol was also optimal for spin filter-aided digestions as compared to existing methods.

Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit

2013-01-01

30

Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (P<0.05) among the seven protein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. PMID:23567135

Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

2013-07-01

31

Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in t...

Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

2009-01-01

32

Ruminal fermentation and digestion in lactating cows fed grass silage with protein and energy supplements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 5 incomplete Latin square design to study the effects of different dietary sources of energy and protein on digestion, ruminal fermentation, and degradability in cows fed high moisture grass silage. The five treatments were an all silage diet (control); silage and concentrate containing soybean meal fed with corn, beet pulp, or a mixture (50:50 on a DM basis) of oats and barley; and fish meal fed with beet pulp. Concentrates were fed between .70 and .76% of BW to give similar CP and NEL intakes. Total DMI and milk production were lower for unsupplemented than for supplemented cows, but digestion and ruminal fermentation did not differ. Digestibility of fiber and concentration of total VFA were higher for cows fed corn than for those fed the mixture of oats and barley, but starch source had no effect on total DMI or milk production and composition. Energy source had no effect on total DMI or milk production and composition. Digestibility of DM and NDF was higher, and ruminal concentration of NH3 N and degradability of silage N tended to be lower, for cows fed beet pulp than for those fed starch, suggesting an improvement in the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen when beet pulp was fed instead of starch. PMID:7745154

Petit, H V; Tremblay, G F

1995-02-01

33

In Vitro Determination of Wheat Dry Matter Solubility and Protein Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the in vitro dry matter (DM solubility and protein digestibility (PD of wheat grains. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, samples were incubated for different time periods with pepsin, simulating gastric digestion, and in experiment 2, samples were digested following an in vitrotwo-step procedure, simulating gastric and small intestine digestion. DM solubility in gastric digestion showed an increase with the incubation time. DM solubility of wheat ranged in experiment 1 from 0.1532 g/g at 30 minutes digestion time, to 0.1714 g/g at 120 minutes digestion time. Samples showed higher DM solubility and PD after small intestine incubation than after gastric incubation. DM solubility increased with 16.67% and PD increased with 24.87% when gastric digestion was followed by 240 minutes intestinal digestion.

Rodica C?pri??

2012-10-01

34

Digestion and absorption of protein along ovine gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digestion and absorption of protein were determined in ovine gastrointestinal tract with cerium-141 as an unabsorbed reference substance. Nitrogen flows changed little in rumen and reticulum, but in the proximal small intestine flows increased because of secretion of .9 g nitrogen per day per kg body weight. This secretion included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidases A and B; maximal activity was in proximal segments of the small intestine and decreased with distance from the pylorus. Activity of chymotrypsin decreased more rapidly than that of trypsin. Amino acid flows reflected the influx of protein in the duodenum; absorption was approximately 55% in the terminal ileum. No major changes of proportions of individual amino acids were observed. Overall nitrogen absorption was 72.6% of which 6% was in the large intestine. The major soluble protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract consisted of peptides with molecular weight 7,000 to 14,000 daltons. Soluble high molecular weight protein was observed only in rumen and duodenum. Low molecular weight peptides and amino acids accumulated only in the proximal small intestine. Solubilization of protein and breakdown of peptides of 7,000 to 14,000 molecular weight appear to be rate limiting for protein absorption in sheep

35

Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart.) is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional [...] factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein), tests (bacuri almond flours) and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV), (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds) when compared to the control group (92.3%). The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

Magalli Costa Barbosa, Lima e Silva; Priscila Aiko, Hiane; José Antônio, Braga Neto; Maria Ligia Rodrigues, Macedo.

36

Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart.) is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional [...] factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein), tests (bacuri almond flours) and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV), (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds) when compared to the control group (92.3%). The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

Magalli Costa Barbosa, Lima e Silva; Priscila Aiko, Hiane; José Antônio, Braga Neto; Maria Ligia Rodrigues, Macedo.

2014-03-01

37

Growth of Nile tilapia post-larvae from broodstock fed diet with different levels of digestible protein and digestible energy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different levels of digestible energy and digestible protein in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock on offspring growth during sex reversal stage. A total of 2,700 post-larvae (8.2±0.001 mg) derived from breeders fed nine d [...] iets with distinct levels of digestible protein (28, 34 and 40% DP) and digestible energy (2,800; 3,400; and 4,000 kcal DE.kg-1) were stored in twenty-seven 70 L tanks. After 30 days of growth, their average final weight (AFW, g), average weight gain (AWG, g), final standard length (SL, cm), condition factor (CF), specific growth rate (SGR, %/day), stock uniformity (UNI, %), survival (SUR, %) and sex reversal rate (SRR, %) were measured. Although female nutrition is thought to influence the performance or quality of progeny during early life stages, no influence of diets supplied to broodstock was detected on any parameter. Nonetheless, the offspring presented commercially satisfactory growth rates. Thus, diets containing 28% of digestible protein and 2,800 kcal of digestible energy.kg of diet-1 can be used to feed Nile tilapia broodstock without jeopardizing offspring performance during the sex reversal phase.

Silia Maria de Negreiros, Sousa; André, Freccia; Lilian Dena dos, Santos; Fábio, Meurer; Lucélia, Tessaro; Robie Allan, Bombardelli.

38

Growth of Nile tilapia post-larvae from broodstock fed diet with different levels of digestible protein and digestible energy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different levels of digestible energy and digestible protein in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock on offspring growth during sex reversal stage. A total of 2,700 post-larvae (8.2±0.001 mg) derived from breeders fed nine d [...] iets with distinct levels of digestible protein (28, 34 and 40% DP) and digestible energy (2,800; 3,400; and 4,000 kcal DE.kg-1) were stored in twenty-seven 70 L tanks. After 30 days of growth, their average final weight (AFW, g), average weight gain (AWG, g), final standard length (SL, cm), condition factor (CF), specific growth rate (SGR, %/day), stock uniformity (UNI, %), survival (SUR, %) and sex reversal rate (SRR, %) were measured. Although female nutrition is thought to influence the performance or quality of progeny during early life stages, no influence of diets supplied to broodstock was detected on any parameter. Nonetheless, the offspring presented commercially satisfactory growth rates. Thus, diets containing 28% of digestible protein and 2,800 kcal of digestible energy.kg of diet-1 can be used to feed Nile tilapia broodstock without jeopardizing offspring performance during the sex reversal phase.

Silia Maria de Negreiros, Sousa; André, Freccia; Lilian Dena dos, Santos; Fábio, Meurer; Lucélia, Tessaro; Robie Allan, Bombardelli.

2013-08-01

39

Relação lisina digestível: proteína digestível em rações para tilápias-do-nilo / Digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio in diets for Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação lisina digestível:proteína digestível em rações para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo. As tilápias (11,0 ± 0,43 g) foram distribuídas em 36 aquários (250 litros) numa densidade de seis peixes/aquário. Foram formuladas 12 rações com 22,0; 26,0 ou 3 [...] 0,0% de proteína digestível, com base na composição em aminoácidos digestíveis, e 4,5; 6,0; 7,5 ou 9,0% de lisina, em relação à proteína digestível, fornecidas à vontade durante 60 dias. Houve interação significativa dos fatores lisina digestível/proteína digestível para o ganho de peso, uma vez que o aumento dos níveis de lisina em rações com 26,0 e 30,0% de proteína digestível promoveu aumento linear desse parâmetro. Os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com os níveis de 26,0 e 30,0% proteína digestível, que determinaram aumento do consumo diário de proteína digestível. O nível de lisina promoveu redução linear da conversão alimentar e aumento linear da taxa de eficiência proteica. O nível de 26,0% de proteína digestível pode ser utilizado em rações para juvenis de tilápiado-nilo, entretanto essas rações devem ser formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis e relação lisina digestível/proteína digestível de 6,0%. Quando utilizados níveis superiores a 26,0% de proteína digestível, o nível máximo de 7,5% de lisina digestível em relação à proteína digestível melhora o ganho de peso na espécie. Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the best digestible protein/digestible lysine ratio that should be present in feed fed to Nile tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen tilapias (11.0 ± 0.43g) were distributed in 36 fish tanks (205 L) at a density of 6 fish/tank. Twelve feeds were formulated with th [...] ree different digestible protein (DP) levels 22.0; 26.0 and 30.0% (based on digestible amino acids) and four different lysine percentages of 4.5; 6.0; 7.5 or 9.0% in relation to digestible protein. The fish were fed ad libtum during a 60-day period. There was significant effect of the digestible protein and digestible lysine ratio on weight gain, because the increase in lysine levels in feeds with 26 and 30% DP promoted linear increase in this parameter. The best values for feed conversion were obtained at the levels 26 and 30% DP that increased the daily consumption of digestible protein. The lysine level caused a linear reduction in feed conversion and linear increase in the protein efficiency rate. The results suggested that the 26% DP level might be used in ration to feed Nile tilapia juveniles; however, these should contain digestible amino acids and the digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio should be 6.0%. However, for levels higher than 26% DP, a maximum digestible lysine level of 7.5% DP improved weight gain for the species.

Giovani Sampaio, Gonçalves; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Leonardo, Tachibana; Maria Julia Santa, Rosa; Igo Gomes, Guimarães.

40

Nutrient digestibilities, microbial populations, and protein catabolites as affected by fructan supplementation of dog diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fructans are fermentable carbohydrates and include short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), inulin, and hydrolyzed inulin (oligofructose, OF). Two studies with dogs were designed to examine the effects of low concentrations of fructans on nutrient digestibilities, fecal microbial populations, and endproducts of protein fermentation, and fecal characteristics. In Exp. 1, 11 adult male beagles were fed corn-based, kibbled diets supplemented with or without OF to provide 1.9 +/- 0.6 g/d. Dietary inclusion of OF decreased (P scFOS treatments (0, 1, 2, or 3 g/d) in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ileal nutrient digestibilities tended to increase (P scFOS. On a DMI basis, fecal output tended to decrease linearly (P scFOS supplementation, whereas fecal score tended to exhibit a quadratic response (P = 0.12). In general, fecal concentrations of SCFA, BCFA, ammonia, phenols, and indoles were not altered by supplemental scFOS. Supplementation of scFOS increased fecal concentrations of total aerobes (P < 0.05) and decreased concentrations of Clostridium perfringens (P < 0.05). From these data, it seems that low levels of supplemental fructans have divergent effects on nutrient digestibility and fermentative endproducts, but do not adversely affect nutrient digestibility or fecal characteristics and may improve colonic microbial ecology in dogs. PMID:12926783

Flickinger, E A; Schreijen, E M W C; Patil, A R; Hussein, H S; Grieshop, C M; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

2003-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Peptic digestibility of raw and heat-coagulated hen's egg white proteins at acidic pH range.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergenicity in food proteins is generally dependent on their heat stability and resistance to digestive enzymes together with the presence of IgE-recognizing epitopes on the molecules. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, we assessed peptic digestibility of raw and heat-coagulated hen's egg white proteins at acidic pH range (1.5-4.0). Ovalbumin in raw egg white was slightly digested by pepsin at pH 1.5 and pH 2.0, and was almost resistant to the enzyme at pH 2.5 and over, which was altered in heat-coagulated egg white at the pH range from 1.5 to 2.5 where the protein was well digestive against the enzyme. Peptic digestibility of ovomucoid in raw egg white was good at the pH range from 1.5 to 2.5, but almost non-existent at pH 3.0 and over where the improvement of the digestibility of the protein was not found even in heat-coagulated egg white. As the stomach in new born infants shows a low amount of secretary pepsin and an out of optimum pH of peptic activity, low digestibility of ovalbumin and ovomucoid in raw and heat-coagulated egg white at over pH 3.0 is supposed to be responsible for their allergenicity and delayed outgrowth from hen's egg allergy in patients with delayed maturation of stomach functions. PMID:16019308

Yoshino, Kenji; Sakai, Kentaro; Mizuha, Yoko; Shimizuike, Ayako; Yamamoto, Shigeru

2004-12-01

42

The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the Venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested to assimilate nutrients as the plants grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about its prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition.

Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse

2012-01-01

43

Functionality, in Vitro Digestibility and Physicochemical Properties of Two Varieties of Defatted Foxtail Millet Protein Concentrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two varieties of foxtail millet protein concentrates (white and yellow) were characterized for in vitro trypsin digestibility, functional and physicochemical properties. Millet protein concentrate was easily digested by trypsin in vitro. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU) for humans. Yellow millet protein concentrate (YMPC) possessed the highest differential scanning calorimetry result (peak te...

Huiming Zhou; Tarawalie Fatmata; Amadou Issoufou; Tabita Kamara Mohamed; Kexue Zhu

2009-01-01

44

Improvement of dairy manufacture effluent anaerobic digestion with biological waste addition using a Chinese dome digester.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manufacture effluent (DME) and biological waste (BW) was investigated at various DME/BW ratios using laboratory batch digesters. The biogas yield ranged 0.34-0.88l biogas g(-1) volatile solids (VS) removed. The highest VS reductions of 58% and 62% were obtained for DME/BW ratios of 60:40% and 80:20%, respectively. Results were used to operate a pilot-scale digester of 5m(3). The highest biogas yield of 0.48lg(-1) VS removed was obtained at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.64gVSl(-1)d(-1) corresponding to a DME/BW ratio of 80:20%. This could be mainly attributed to the higher biodegradability of DME and the correction of the C:N ratio by the addition of the BW. The N, P and K contents were increased significantly in the TS of the digestate to be around 6.8%, 0.64% and 1.26%, respectively. PMID:20089397

Jihen, Toumi; Hassib, Bouallagui; Moktar, Hamdi; Said, Nouira

2010-05-01

45

Protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis: metabolic studies in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nutritional quality of lupins (Lupinus mutabilis) for infants and children was evaluated in two sets of balance studies. In the first the digestibility and protein quality of diets based on lupin flour, with and without methionine supplementation, were compared with those of a control diet consisting of casein, sucrose and vegetable oil. Apparent nitrogen absorption from lupin flour (81.8 and 84.3% of intake) was slightly but significantly less than that during casein control periods (87.2 and 86.8% of intake, P less than 0.05 and less than 0.001). Apparent nitrogen retention from unsupplemented lupin (15.6 +/- 5.8% of intake) was significantly less than that from casein in the corresponding control periods (29.8 +/- 4.9%, P less than 0.001); a small but significant (P less than 0.05) increase in nitrogen retention was observed during the control period following the lupin diet when compared with that preceding it. Methionine supplementation of lupin produced a marked improvement in apparent nitrogen retention (to 22.2 +/- 6.9%, P less than 0.05). In the second set of studies the digestibility of lupin oil was compared with that of a blend of soybean and cottonseed oils (50:50). Excretion of fecal fat (9.8 +/- 3.0% of intake) and fecal energy (6.7 +/- 1.2% of intake) with the diet containing lupin oil were similar to those observed with the control diet. Both the protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis are very similar to those from soybeans processed in a similar manner. For certain countries the lupin could be a valuable source of protein and edible oil for human consumption. PMID:6834148

Lopez de Romaãna, G; Graham, G G; Morales, E; Massa, E; MacLean, W C

1983-04-01

46

Integrative effects of feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance and digestibility in broilers: promotion muscle protein metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA + FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15 d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% FOS, and combined of 0.05% AA and 0.05% FOS. Results from measurement of growth performance and digestibility revealed a significant increase in the body weight gain with improved feed conversion rate in the experimental groups. Interestingly, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude protein utilization (CPU) were improved. In addition, plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, while plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by feeding AA, FOS, and AA + FOS. Expressions of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were increased in experimental groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of either Aspergillus awamori or fructooligosaccharide or both improves digestibility and growth performance probably by promoting skeletal muscle protein metabolism. PMID:24895630

Saleh, Ahmed A; Amber, Khairy; El-Magd, Mohammed A; Atta, Mostafa S; Mohammed, Ahmed A; Ragab, Mohamed M; Abd El-Kader, Hanaa

2014-01-01

47

Protein digestibility of sorghum and maize flours and porridges as affected by gamma-irradiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sorghum foods contribute significantly to the protein intake of millions of people in developing countries. One limitation to sorghums use as a protein source is that its proteins become less digestible on wet cooking, primarily through the formation of disulphide-linked enzymatically resistant protein polymers. Irradiation of foods can modify bonds involved in stabilizing protein structure, resulting in changes in the protein. The effects of irradiating sorghum cultivars BR...

Fombang, Edith Nig

2005-01-01

48

Improving methodology in open vessel digestion with a graphite heating block (T7)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Open block digestion systems have been very popular in environmental analysis over the past decades, but have consistently suffered from the major drawback of their sensitivity against corrosion and the subsequent risk of contamination. Therefore block digestion systems have not been considered state-of-the-art technology in trace and ultra trace sample preparation. Graphite block digestion systems are well established in North America and are recently becoming more frequently considered in Europe. These systems overcome the deficiencies of the traditional systems, made from stainless steel or aluminum, because the block is manufactured from graphite and typically coated with a fluoro-polymer to present the possibility metallic contamination from the surface of the system during the handling of the samples. Graphite block systems present an alternative to the current mainstream technology of open and closed vessel microwave assisted digestion systems, as they allow large numbers of samples to be digested simultaneously, thus overcoming one of the major weaknesses of closed vessel systems. More recently a number of improvements in the technology has been developed for graphite block digestion systems and studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of such improvements. The paper presented will deal with the technological improvements: monitoring and control of sample temperature vs. monitoring of block temperature, elimination of cross contamination effects during open vessel block digestion, evaporation of samples for pre-concentration or multiple digestion steps, addressing the needs of various labs and applications for block digesters. The effects of those developments will be discussed; application examples and finally an outlook into possible future trends for graphite block digestion systems will be given. (author)

49

Influence of heat and shear induced protein aggregation on the in vitro digestion rate of whey proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein intake is essential for growth and repair of body cells, the normal functioning of muscles, and health related immune functions. Most food proteins are consumed after undergoing various degrees of processing. Changes in protein structure and assembly as a result of processing impact the digestibility of proteins. Research in understanding to what extent the protein structure impacts the rate of proteolysis under human physiological conditions has gained considerable interest. In this work, four whey protein gels were prepared using heat processing at two different pH values, 6.8 and 4.6, with and without applied shear. The gels showed different protein network microstructures due to heat induced unfolding (at pH 6.8) or lack of unfolding, thus resulting in fine stranded protein networks. When shear was applied during heating, particulate protein networks were formed. The differences in the gel microstructures resulted in considerable differences in their rheological properties. An in vitro gastric and intestinal model was used to investigate the resulting effects of these different gel structures on whey protein digestion. In addition, the rate of digestion was monitored by taking samples at various time points throughout the in vitro digestion process. The peptides in the digesta were profiled using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed-phase-HPLC and LC-MS. Under simulated gastric conditions, whey proteins in structured gels were hydrolysed faster than native proteins in solution. The rate of peptides released during in vitro digestion differed depending on the structure of the gels and extent of protein aggregation. The outcomes of this work highlighted that changes in the network structure of the protein can influence the rate and pattern of its proteolysis under gastrointestinal conditions. Such knowledge could assist the food industry in designing novel food formulations to control the digestion kinetics and the release of biologically active peptides for desired health outcome. PMID:25205335

Singh, Tanoj K; Oiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Day, Li

2014-10-22

50

Comparative study about some physical properties, in vitro digestibility and immunoreactivity of soybean protein isolate for infant formula.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine molecular weight subunit distributions of soy protein isolate (SPI) by SDS-PAGE and gel size exclusion chromatography, and further to investigate the differences of thixotropy, viscosity, in vitro digestibility and immunoreactivity of SPI for infant formula produced in Chinese domestic companies and world famous SPI manufacturers such as Dupont and Fuji. The molecular subunit distributions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel size exclusion chromatography, indicating that Solae and Fuji were hydrolyzed by proteolytic enzymes. The thixotropy of Fuji and Solae significantly reduced around by 95 %, compared with those of Mantianxue and Dupont Zhengzhou. The allergen contents of Fuji and Solae strikingly decreased by 60 and 84 % respectively, in contrast to that of Mantianxue. The in vitro protein digestibility of Solae at the end of pepsin and trypsin digestion markedly increased by 11.7 and 11.3 %, respectively, in comparison to those of Mantianxue. Suitable enzymatic hydrolyzed SPIs showed lower thixotropy, viscosity, immunoreactivity and higher in vitro protein digestibility than those from the other SPIs. The lower thixotropy indicates low difficulty or shear stress in swallowing for infants. The lower immunoreactivity will improve the safety of SPI for cow milk allergic babies. PMID:23649294

Li, Huijing; Zhu, Kexue; Zhou, Huiming; Peng, Wei; Guo, Xiaona

2013-06-01

51

Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the renewable energy potential whilst retaining organic matter and nutrients for soil replenishment. Co-digestion allowed higher organic loadings and gave a more stable process. A high ammonia inoculum acclimated more readily to cattle slurry than card packaging, probably through supplementation by trace elements and micro-organisms. Long-term operation at a 75-litre scale showed a characteristic pattern of volatile fatty acid accumulation in mono-digestion of food waste, and allowed performance parameters to be determined for the co-digestion substrates. PMID:22472639

Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia

2012-06-01

52

Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TSadded was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TSadded and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TSadded were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

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Improving conversion of Spartina alterniflora into biogas by co-digestion with cow feces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic mono-digestion of Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) at initial volatile solid loading (VSL) of 4.0%, 6.0% and 8.0% as well as co-digestion of S. alterniflora and cow feces at cow feces proportions from 12.5% to 87.5% of volatile solid (VS) were investigated. A maximum methane yield of 0.19 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} from mono-digestion of S. alterniflora was obtained at initial VSL of 6.0% and the average methane content was 63.29%. Furthermore, co-digestion of S. alterniflora and cow feces in varying proportions was investigated at constant initial VSL of 7.0%. The addition of cow feces decreased the carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio from 21.82 to 14.19 in the feedstock. Co-digestion improved the biodegradability of S. alterniflora, and thus increased the methane yield by 7.09-44.26%, leading to a lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration of less than 800 mg/L (only about one third of S. alterniflora digested alone) in the solution and higher pH value in comparison to S. alterniflora digested alone. Although the VFA concentration was lower than S. alterniflora digested alone, the biogas yield was increased and the biogas yield peak was advanced for about 15 days. (author)

Chen, Guangyin; Fang, Caixia; Zou, Xingxing; Zhang, Jibiao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zheng, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, Shiguan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Engineering Laboratory of Biomass Power Generation Equipment, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

2010-11-15

54

Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by exogenous fibrolytic enzymes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), crude protein (CP) and on the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in sheep of a milled substrate consisting of a 50 : 50 mixture of l [...] ucerne hay (LH) and wheat straw (WS). Four cannulated Döhne-Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two groups in a 2 x 2 cross-over experiment. Additional to the in situ study, the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled LH and WS were determined. The substrate was pre-treated with distilled water (control) or EFE (treatment) 12 hours prior to incubation to allow interaction between the substrate and enzyme. Adding EFE significantly improved the in vitro cumulative gas production (GP), but it did not affect the in vitro MPS measured as purine derivates of the GP residues. The enzyme significantly increased the in vitro DM and NDF disappearances after 36 hours. However, the in situ disappearances of DM, NDF and CP of the roughage mixture were not affected by the EFE. Further, the in situ MPS was increased significantly with the EFE treatment of the mixed substrate. It is concluded that the improved ruminal digestion of DM, NDF and CP is not only due to direct enzyme hydrolysis, but also due to the improvement of MPS.

W.F.J., van de Vyver; B.A., Useni.

55

Digestive proteinases of Brycon orbignyanus (Characidae, Teleostei): characteristics and effects of protein quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, in the wild consume protein from both plant and animal sources. Digestion of protein in piracanjuba begins in the stomach with pepsin, at low pH, and is followed by hydrolysis at alkaline pH in the lumen of the intestine. The digestive system in piracanjuba was evaluated to characterize the enzymes responsible for the digestion of feed protein and their composition. The gastric tissue synthesizes pepsin and the intestine tissues trypsin and chymotrypsin. Operational variables were evaluated and defined for future studies of the digestive system physiology. The enzymatic activity in the intestine and the relative concentration of enzymes were heavily influenced by the composition of the feed and the feeding regime, as detected by substrate-SDS-PAGE. Piracanjuba possess a mechanism of enzyme adaptation responding to food quality and regime, by varying the amount and composition of digestive proteases. This is a requisite study to determine the enzymes digesting protein in food and their characteristics and to gain some clues about the possible regulation mechanisms of enzyme synthesis in piracanjuba. PMID:12031459

García-Carreño, Fernando L; Albuquerque-Cavalcanti, Cristiane; Navarrete del Toro, M Angeles; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

2002-06-01

56

Protein digestibility evaluations of meat and fish substrates using laboratory, avian, and ileally cannulated dog assays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meat and fish serve as important protein sources in the companion animal diet; however, limited protein digestibility data are available for assessing protein digestibility differences among good-quality protein sources. Beef loin, pork loin, chicken breast, pollock fillet, and salmon fillet were evaluated for composition, protein digestibility, and AA bioavailability using the immobilized digestive enzyme assay, cecectomized rooster assay, and ileally cannulated dog assay. Pollock contained the greatest amount of CP, total essential AA (TEAA), and total nonessential AA (TNEAA; DM basis; 96.9, 38.6, and 50.3%, respectively). Salmon contained the next greatest amounts (92.8, 36.4, and 44.6%), followed by chicken (90.3, 36.1, 43.2%). Beef had the least CP content (82.7%), but had slightly greater TEAA and TNEAA concentrations (33.9, 42.0%) compared with pork (86.2, 33.6, 41.3%). Immobilized digestive enzyme assay values were greatest for pollock fillet (0.71) and least for chicken breast (0.52). Beef loin, pork loin, and salmon fillet were similar (0.63, 0.62, and 0.64, respectively). Standardized TEAA and TNEAA digestibility coefficients, evaluated using the cecectomized rooster assay, were greatest (P 0.05) were found in ileal digestibility of protein. Values ranged from 88.9% for chicken to 90.5% for pork loin and pollock fillet. Ileal TEAA and TNEAA coefficients were not different among test substrates, with values between 91.7 and 92.7%, and 88.8 and 90.4%, respectively. Total tract CP apparent digestibility values ranged from 94.4 to 94.8%, with no differences noted among treatments. Despite marked differences in composition and predicted and standardized digestibility values, when the protein sources were added to diets at a concentration of approximately 30% (25% of total energy intake), no differences in test protein substrates were noted in either ileal or total tract nutrient digestibility. PMID:20023140

Faber, T A; Bechtel, P J; Hernot, D C; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S; Smiley, S; Fahey, G C

2010-04-01

57

Effects of energy density and protein source on diet digestibility and performance of calves after arrival at the feedlot.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty Angus crossbred steers (initial BW, 237 kg) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment to determine the effects of energy density and protein source in receiving diets on steers performance and total tract nutrient digestion. The factors compared were energy density (1.80 vs 1.48 Mcal/kg of NEm, referred to as high-energy and low-energy, respectively) and protein source (ring-dried blood meal [BM] vs soybean meal [SBM]). Diets containing BM resulted in a 10.6% greater (P NDFD), and CP digestibility (CPD) were exceptionally high during wk 1, when DMI was approximately 1.5 kg/d. Nutrient digestibility declined during wk 2 and 3, as intake increased, before stabilizing between wk 4 and 6. Additionally, NDFD was not consistently lower (P > .10) during this study for high-energy diets than for low-energy diets. The results of the overall performance data indicate that, compared to SBM, feeding BM may improve ADG and feed efficiency during the receiving period when dietary CP is approximately 13%. Additionally, DMD, NDFD, and CPD were higher on d 7 than at any other time, indicating that by d 7 ruminal function was not adversely affected. Therefore, it seems that the reduced feed intake and growth rate normally seen during the first 2 wk in the feedlot is not caused by a reduction in diet digestibility. PMID:8071188

Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Smith, F E

1994-06-01

58

Effect of ?-mannanase on the digestibility of diets with different protein sources in dogs determined by different methodologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of including the enzyme, ?-mannanase, in dog (Canis lupus familiaris) diets based on either poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) by-product meal (PBM) or soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Meal (SBM). The second objective was to evaluate 3 methods for determining energy and nutrient digestibility values in diets fed to dogs: total fecal collection (TFC) and use of aia or crude fiber (CF) as a marker. Eight dogs were allotted to a replicated latin square (4 by 4) design. There were 2 diets based on PBM as the major protein source and 2 diets based on SBM as the major protein source. Within each protein source, 1 diet contained no ?-mannanase and 1 diet contained 0.01% ?-mannanase. Diets were fed for an adaptation period of 5 d followed by 5 d of TFC. Fecal score (1 = watery feces to 5 = dry, hard pellets), pH, DM, and fecal volume were determined. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, CP, ether extract (EE), N-free extract (NFE), and GE, and ME content were calculated using the methods of TFC, AIA, and CF. Data were analyzed as a 2 by 2 by 3 split-split-plot design (?-mannanase, protein source, and digestibility calculation procedure). There were interactions between protein source and ?-mannanase (P digestibility calculation procedure and protein source (P digestibility values estimated based on TFC and CF were not different. Dogs fed diets containing SBM produced more feces with greater moisture content and lower pH compared with dogs fed the PBM diet (P digestibility and ME content of the diets containing SBM, but did not improve (P > 0.05) fecal texture. Results indicated that values for ATTD of energy and nutrients in diets containing sbm are not different if they are calculated based on TFC, AIA, or CF, but use of AIA may result in an overestimation of values for ATTD of energy and nutrients in diets containing PBM. PMID:22585789

Félix, A P; Gabeloni, L R; Brito, C B M; Oliveira, S G; Silva, A V F; Maiorka, A

2012-09-01

59

Investigation of protein digestibility and amino acid absorption in different segments of porcine digestive tract. 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 4 pigs (live weight 63 kg) with re-entrance cannulae in the duodenum as well as in the ileocecal region intake, excretion and flow rate of protein, methionine and 35S were measured after supplementary oral application of 35S-methionine to a wheat-wheat gluten-lysine diet and a protein-free diet, respectively, over a period of 7 days. For both the N and the methionine metabolism patterns were outlined according to the measured values and with the aid of a compartment model. The endogenous and exogenous levels of proteins and methionine in the duodenum, ileum and feces were estimated

60

Improved design of anaerobic digesters for household biogas production in indonesia: one cow, one digester, and one hour of cooking per day.  

Science.gov (United States)

A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ? 1 h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor proved to be a major drawback. Here, we improved the digester configuration to remedy clogging while maintaining system performance. Controlled experiments were performed using four 9-L laboratory-scale digesters operated at a temperature of 27 ± 1 °C, a volatile solids loading rate of 2.0 g VS · L(-1) · day(-1), and a 21-day hydraulic retention time. Two of the digesters were replicates of the original design (control digesters), while the other two digesters included internal mixing or effluent recycle (experimental digesters). The performance of each digester was compared based on methane yields, VS removal efficiencies, and steady-state solids concentrations during an operating period of 311 days. Statistical analyses revealed that internal mixing and effluent recycling resulted in reduced solids accumulation compared to the controls without diminishing methane yields or solids removal efficiencies. PMID:24715809

Usack, Joseph G; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Levels of digestible protein to surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp. reared in net cages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pseudoplatystoma sp. is species of carnivorous fish that require special attention in the diet offered. This work had the objective to determine the digestible protein requirement of juvenile the Pseudoplatystoma sp. reared in net cages. The test consisted of four isoenergetic diets (2606.69 ± 39.16 kcal kg-1 of digestible energy containing increasing levels of digestible protein (23, 24, 26 and 28%PD provided to juveniles of surubim (157.35±11.23g for five months. The parameters of growth, fillet composition, metabolic liver enzymes and morphometry of the intestine and liver were analyzed in completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates. An increase of protein in the diet provided better weight gain. The metabolic liver enzymes increased in fish fed 24PD. The histopathological changes were not observed in the liver of the fish. The bowel histology showed adaptation to increased protein in the diet until the 26 level PD. juveniles of Pseudoplatystoma sp. Were demanding in digestible protein, showing the best results of production performance and nutrient use efficiency with the diet containing 28%PD.

Claucia Aparecida Honorato

2014-10-01

62

Digestive enzymes and metabolic profile of Labeo rohita fingerlings fed diets with different crude protein levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Labeo rohita, commonly called rohu is one of the most important fish species for aquaculture in India. Digestive enzyme response and metabolic profile of fingerling L. rohita to different dietary crude protein (CP) levels (viz. 25, 30, 35 and 40%) were studied in an attempt to optimize a practical diet formulation for this species. After 45 days of feeding, activity of digestive enzymes and metabolite concentrations were assayed. Amylase, lipase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were not influenced by the dietary protein, but proteolytic and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities varied (Prohita fingerlings. Considering the cost effectiveness of the diet, and based on liver and plasma free amino acid levels and plasma protein fractions, 30% crude protein is recommended as the optimal dietary protein for L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:17112756

Debnath, D; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Yengkokpam, S; Baruah, K; Choudhury, D; Venkateshwarlu, G

2007-01-01

63

Improved method for identification of low abundance proteins using 2D-gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF and TOF/TOF  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Differential protein expression studies have been routinely performed in our laboratory to determine the health effects of environmentally-important chemicals. In this abstract, improvements in the in-gel protein digestion, MALDI plate spotting and data acquisition...

64

Protein and Digestible Threonine Levels in Pre Starter Diets for Broiler Chicks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental poultry facilities of University of Goias to estimate digestible threonine (Thr requirement for broiler from 1 to 21 days of age. 384 AgRoss-508 broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, with two protein levels (205 and 221 g/kg and four digestible threonine levels (6.1, 7.1, 8.1 and 9.1 g/kg with four replications of 12 birds each. The performance, nutrient digestibility and morfometrical index were evaluated. The polynomial regression and linear response plateau (LRP model was used to estimate digestible, had been the Minimum Square of Deviations (MSD utilized for choice criterion. Used polynomial regression, the results showed that a quadratic effect (p2/21 days - Y = 510.08 + 508.91x - 324.61x2 which estimates a 7.9 and 7.1 g/kg of digestible Thr, but LRP model showed low MSD and smaller estimates for digestible Thr levels (7.7 and 6.7 g/kg in seven and 21 days, respectively. The results showed a tendency if lower levels of digestible Thr (below to 7.1 g/kg reduced intestinal length. The digestible Thr levels recommended for pre-starter phase vary from 7.7 at 6.7 g/kg, estimated by LRP model and 7.9 at 7.1 g/kg estimated by polynomial regression for mean body weight at seven and 21 days of age, respectively, but the LRP values presented smaller minimum square of deviations.

Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

2013-01-01

65

Examination of the protein digestibility in the rat intestines by isotope dilution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test rats were labelled with 15N over a period of 7 days and killed on the 12. day. 220 minutes before they were killed the diet was changed (wheat diet ? whole egg diet) and they were injected with 14C-leucine. The 15N labelling of the digesta proved to be suitable for the determination of the digestibility of feed proteins in the individual sections of the intestines. If the atom-% 15N excess of the TCA-soluble fraction of the digesta is = 100 %, the resulting digestibility of the protein fraction (TCA-precipitable fraction) corresponds to the 15N dilution of the unlabelled feed protein. The digestibility values were in the stomach, the 1., 2., and 3. third of the small intestine 9%, 66%, 70%, and 91%, resp., for whole egg and 3%, 56%, 59%, and 72%, resp., for wheat. As to the large intestine the calculation method applied proved to be unsuitable because of the microbial activity. 14C labelling was also insufficient for the determination of protein digestibility

66

Effects of dietary digestible lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in the carcass of broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in the diets of male and female broilers on protein and fat deposition. A total of 2160 Avian Farms broilers. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, and treatments consisted of the effects of three digestible lysine levels nested within each sex, with 12 replicates and 30 birds per experimental unit. The adopted digestible lysine levels corresponded to 92.5, 100.0, and 107.5% of the nutritional requirements of phases 1 to 21 days, 22 to 42 days, and 43 to 56 days of age, respectively. In each phase, the experimental diets contained similar calorie and protein levels within each sex. No significant effects of lysine levels were found on dry matter and fat percentages in the carcass of birds during the evaluated periods. Also, there were no significant effects of lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in males or females. However, males presented higher protein deposition and lower fat deposition than females during the total experimental period. Gompertz equations showed that females deposit more fat and less protein than males, and that this affected the fall in the curve of protein deposition, when the curve of fat deposition was still rising. Therefore, it was concluded that the older the broilers at slaughter, the higher their body fat content and the lower their body protein content, particularly in females.

F de C Tavernari

2009-06-01

67

Enrichment and desalting of tryptic protein digests and the protein depletion using boron nitride.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in modern bioanalysis and the interest in new efficient solid phase extraction (SPE) materials still remains high. In this work, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is introduced as a new SPE material for the isolation and enrichment of peptides. The h-BN is isoelectronic and structurally similar to graphite. It has remarkable properties including good thermal conductivity, excellent thermal and chemical stability and a better oxidation resistance than graphite. BN attracts increasing interest because of its wide range of applicability. In the present work, the great potential of h-BN, as a new SPE-material, on the enrichment, preconcentration and desalting of tryptic digest of model proteins is demonstrated. A special attention was dedicated to the efficient enrichment of hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Two elution protocols were developed for the enrichment of peptides compatible for subsequent MALDI-MS and ESI-MS analysis. In addition, the recoveries of 5 peptides and 3 phosphopeptides with wide range of pI values utilizing h-BN materials with different surface areas were investigated. 84-106% recovery rate could be achieved using h-BN materials. The results were compared with those obtained using graphite and silica C18 under the same elution conditions, and lower recoveries were obtained. In addition, h-BN was found to have a capability of protein depletion, which is requisite for the peptide profiling. PMID:24746352

Fischnaller, Martin; Köck, Rainer; Bakry, Rania; Bonn, Günther K

2014-05-01

68

Absolute quantitation of protein therapeutics in biological matrices by enzymatic digestion and LC-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The advancement of biotechnology has led to an increase in biotherapeutic drugs, especially recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies. Ligand-binding assays or immunoassays are the standard methods of choice in pharmacokinetic studies in support of drug discovery and development for protein therapeutics. LC-MS-based methodologies are increasingly used as alternatives to immunoassays for absolute protein quantitation in biological samples. We review recent advancements in absolute quantitation of protein therapeutics in biological matrices by enzymatic digestion and LC-MS. PMID:22074286

Li, Fumin; Fast, Douglas; Michael, Steve

2011-11-01

69

Does digestibility of meat protein help explain large bowel cancer risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

An association between meat eating and large bowel cancer risk has been shown in a variety of epidemiologic studies. One reason could be that meat is less well digested than other protein foods and leads to greater amounts of protein entering the large bowel and being metabolized by colonic bacteria to potential carcinogens. To test this hypothesis, five subjects with ileostomies were fed, for five days, a basal diet to which were added test meals of cheese, a small or a large fried beef steak, and a large steak with resistant starch (RS). Ileal true nitrogen digestibility was similar for all five diets: control, 86.3%; cheese, 89.4%; low beef, 88.6%; high beef, 89.6%; and high beef + RS, 88.7%. Beef, at both low and high intake levels, was as well digested as cheese, suggesting that poor digestibility of meat does not explain the association between meat intake and large bowel cancer risk. Ileal starch output on the high beef + RS diet was 27% greater than expected on the basis of the measurement of dietary RS in vitro (p = 0.005 for linear trend), and this was confirmed by a meta analysis with eight other published studies. The relation between meat and large bowel cancer may reflect higher protein intakes in meat eaters or may be explained by other mechanisms. PMID:8610047

Silvester, K R; Cummings, J H

1995-01-01

70

Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

2011-01-01

71

Microwave-enhanced enzyme reaction for protein mapping by mass spectrometry: a new approach to protein digestion in minutes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accelerated proteolytic cleavage of proteins under controlled microwave irradiation has been achieved. Selective peptide fragmentation by endoproteases trypsin or lysine C led to smaller peptides that were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) or liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI) techniques. The efficacy of this technique for protein mapping was demonstrated by the mass spectral analyses of the peptide fragmentation of several biologically active proteins, including cytochrome c, ubiquitin, lysozyme, myoglobin, and interferon alpha-2b. Most important, using this novel approach digestion of proteins occurs in minutes, in contrast to the hours required by conventional methods. PMID:12381849

Pramanik, Birendra N; Mirza, Urooj A; Ing, Yao Hain; Liu, Yan-Hui; Bartner, Peter L; Weber, Patricia C; Bose, Ajay K

2002-11-01

72

Effects of malondialdehyde modification on the in vitro digestibility of soy protein isolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soy protein isolate (SPI) was modified by lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), and the in vitro digestibility of modified SPI was investigated. Results indicated that incubation with increasing MDA concentration resulted in significant carbonyl group generation and loss of free amino groups of SPI. Fluorescence loss of natural tryptophan and formation of Schiff base were observed. Noncovalent interaction between molecules was enhanced and became the main force that led to the solubility reduction of MDA-modified SPI. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated that SPI had higher thermal stability and lower total calorimetric enthalpy after MDA pretreatment. Electrophoresis showed that ?-conglycinin was more sensitive to MDA modification. In vitro digestion indicated that MDA could induce non-disulfide covalent polymer of SPI, which could not be digested by pepsin and pancreatin. ? subunits of ?-conglycinin became more resistant to digestion with increasing MDA concentration. Evaluation of the free amino acid profile in the digests indicated that MDA-modified SPI had deteriorating nutritive quality. PMID:24236702

Chen, Nannan; Zhao, Qiangzhong; Sun, Weizheng; Zhao, Mouming

2013-12-11

73

In vitro digestibility of individual amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein: the modified three-step procedure and the immobilized digestive enzyme assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three soybean meal, 3 SoyPlus (West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA), 5 distillers dried grains with solubles, and 5 fish meal samples were used to evaluate the modified 3-step in vitro procedure (TSP) and the in vitro immobilized digestive enzyme assay (IDEA; Novus International Inc., St. Louis, MO) for estimating digestibility of AA in rumen-undegraded protein (RUP-AA). In a previous experiment, each sample was ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h, and in vivo digestibility of AA in the intact samples and in the rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) was obtained for all samples using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. For the modified TSP, 5 g of RUR was weighed into polyester bags, which were then heat-sealed and placed into Daisy(II) incubator bottles. Samples were incubated in a pepsin/HCl solution followed by incubation in a pancreatin solution. After this incubation, residues remaining in the bags were analyzed for AA, and digestibility of RUP-AA was calculated based on disappearance from the bags. In vitro RUP-AA digestibility estimates obtained with this procedure were highly correlated to in vivo estimates. Corresponding intact feeds were also analyzed via the pepsin/pancreatin steps of the modified TSP. In vitro estimates of AA digestibility of the feeds were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility, which suggests that the feeds may not need to be ruminally incubated before determining RUP-AA digestibility in vitro. The RUR were also analyzed via the IDEA kits. The IDEA values of the RUR were good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in soybean meal, SoyPlus, and distillers dried grains with solubles, but the IDEA values were not as good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in fish meal. However, the IDEA values of intact feed samples were also determined and were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility for all feed types, suggesting that the IDEA value of intact feeds may be a better predictor of RUP-AA digestibility than the IDEA value of the RUR. In conclusion, the modified TSP and IDEA kits are good approaches for estimating RUP-AA digestibility in soybean meal products, distillers dried grains with solubles, and fish meal samples. PMID:19620677

Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stern, M D; Moreno, M Ruiz; Vázquez-Añón, M; Schwab, C G

2009-08-01

74

Anaerobic digestion of carbohydrate and protein-based wastewaters in fluidized bed bioreactors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The present work is focused on evaluating the anaerobic digestion of complex substrates (proteins and carbohydrates) in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs). In a previous paper, an AFBR model was adjusted using only the experimental data obtained during the acclimatization stage (glucose and ac [...] etate-based feeding) of two mesophilic bioreactors. Here, the sensitivity of that model to represent the digestion processes of proteins such as gelatin and albumin, and sucrose as a carbohydrate, is analyzed. Some kinetic expressions and parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis processes need to be modified to represent the real behavior of bioreactors. Under the analyzed operating conditions, a hydraulic retention time higher than 1 day is suggested to ensure good system efficiency.

M., Fuentes; N. J., Scenna; P. A., Aguirre; M. C., Mussati.

75

Anaerobic digestion of carbohydrate and protein-based wastewaters in fluidized bed bioreactors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The present work is focused on evaluating the anaerobic digestion of complex substrates (proteins and carbohydrates) in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs). In a previous paper, an AFBR model was adjusted using only the experimental data obtained during the acclimatization stage (glucose and ac [...] etate-based feeding) of two mesophilic bioreactors. Here, the sensitivity of that model to represent the digestion processes of proteins such as gelatin and albumin, and sucrose as a carbohydrate, is analyzed. Some kinetic expressions and parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis processes need to be modified to represent the real behavior of bioreactors. Under the analyzed operating conditions, a hydraulic retention time higher than 1 day is suggested to ensure good system efficiency.

M., Fuentes; N. J., Scenna; P. A., Aguirre; M. C., Mussati.

2007-12-01

76

Digestibility and structural properties of thermal and high hydrostatic pressure treated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the effects of thermal (40, 60, 80, 100 and 127 °C) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 200, 400 and 600 MPa) treatments on the in vitro digestibility and structural properties of sweet potato protein (SPP). The results showed that the in vitro digestibility of SPP increased significantly with increasing heating temperature and heating time (0-60 min), while HHP treatment had little or no effect. Native SPP denaturation temperature (T d ) and enthalpy change (?H) were 89.0 °C and 9.6 J/g, respectively. Thermal and HHP treated SPP had T d of 84.6-88.9 °C and 86.4-87.6 °C, respectively. ?H of thermal treated SPP was 3.6-6.4 J/g, while that of HHP treated SPP was 5.9-7.8 J/g. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that HHP and thermal treatments both significantly reduced SPP thermodynamic stability. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that native SPP contains ?-helixes, ?-sheets and random coils (4.3, 48.0 and 47.7%, respectively). After thermal treatment at 127 °C for 20 min, the content of ?-helixes and turns increased significantly (13.2 and 27.6%, respectively), whereas the content of ?-sheets decreased significantly (12.3%). In contrast, HHP treatment increased the content of ?-sheets, but decreased the content of random coils. This study suggested that the SPP structure changes might be the main reason affecting the in vitro digestibility of SPP, and thermal treatment was more effective at changing SPP secondary structures and improving in vitro SPP digestibility than HHP treatment. PMID:24913513

Sun, Minjie; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao

2014-09-01

77

Effect of predigestion factors on the apparent digestibility of protein for swine determined by the Mobile Nylon Bag Technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five Yorkshire x Lacombe barrows (45 kg initial wt) fitted with duodenal cannulas approximately 10 cm from the pyloric sphincter were used to determine the influence of the pH of the predigestion solution (pH 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5), pepsin activity (189 vs 377 IU/liter) and duration of predigestion (0, 1.5, 2.5 or 4.0 h) on the apparent digestibility of the protein in soybean meal (SBM), meal and bone meal (MBM) or canola meal (CM) determined with the Mobile Nylon Bag Technique (MNBT). An additional six barrows were used to determine protein digestibility by conventional methods. Protein digestibilities determined using conventional digestibility techniques were 93.1 +/- .7, 79.1 +/- 1.8 and 79.3 +/- 1.4% for the SBM, MBM and CM diets, respectively. Protein digestibilities determined with the MNBT were highest at pH 2.0 for all three protein sources. Increasing pepsin activity from 189 to 377 IU/liter resulted in a slight increase in the digestibility of SBM and CM, but not of MBM. The absence of predigestion (0 h) resulted in a dramatic reduction in protein digestibility; predigestion times of 1.5 or 2.5 h usually resulted in lower protein digestibilities than did a predigestion time of 4.0 h. The closest agreement between results obtained by the MNBT and conventional digestibility studies occurred with a pH of 2.0, a predigestion time of 4.0 h and a pepsin activity of 377 IU/liter. PMID:3209504

Cherian, G; Sauer, W C; Thacker, P A

1988-08-01

78

Amino acid composition, available lysine content and in vitro protein digestibility of selected tropical crop seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the search for alternative sources of food to alleviate hunger continues, this study was undertaken to determine nitrogen and amino acid content, chemical score, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of 8 lesser known, wild tropical seeds, gathered in Nigeria. Results were contrasted with a tropical soybean variety (Glycine max, TGX 1660-15F). The investigated seeds were Millettia thonningii, Gliricidia sepium, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Albizia zygia, Daneillia ogea and Afzella bella from the family of Leguminosae, Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) and Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae). The crude protein content, based on nitrogen determination, was found to be lower in the wild seeds compared to soybean, which was partly due to the relatively high content of non-protein nitrogen. With reference to amino acid requirement and digestibility in most seed samples, lysine, followed by sulphur amino acids and threonine, were the limiting amino acids. It was concluded, that these less familiar wild seed plants may be used as valuable food or feed complements. However, further investigation is necessary to elucidate potential toxic and antinutritional factors. PMID:9201749

Petzke, K J; Ezeagu, I E; Proll, J; Akinsoyinu, A O; Metges, C C

1997-01-01

79

Effects of dietary crude protein levels on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of Thai indigenous male goats  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of Thai indigenous male goats fed different levels of crude protein (CP in total mixed rations (TMR. Twenty goats, average body weight of 15.84±2.35 kg were used. The four dietary treatments were randomly allocated into 5 blocks of the animals stratified on their initial body weight. Dietary treatments contained 8, 10, 12 and 14% CP (% of DM with a concentrate: roughage ratio of 85: 15. The feeding trial lasted for 120 days. At the end of feeding trial, digestion trial was conducted by total collection method for a 7-day period. Increasing levels of CP contents (8, 10, 12 and 14% significantly lead to increasing amount of crude protein intake (CPI, from 47.00 to 84.81 g/d and digestible crude protein intake, from 2.89 to 6.28 g/BW0.75/d (p<0.05. Increasing CP levels in TMR resulted in linearly increased goat’s final body weight (23.10, 23.42, 24.10 and 27.42 kg, respectively, weight gain(6.84, 7.37, 7.60 and 11.06 kg, respectively and average daily gain (ADG (56.97, 61.42, 63.30 and 92.13 g/d, respectively(p<0.01. Crude protein digestibility (62.05, 67.39, 71.23 and 74.89%, respectively was increased linearly (p<0.05 with increasing levels of CP levels in TMR. The results of the regression of CPI (g/BW0.75/d on ADG (g/BW0.75/d showed thatthe goats needed 3.57 g/BW0.75/d to maintain their body weight. The estimation of CP requirement for goat BW gain (g/g gain was 0.49. It can be concluded that increasing levels of CP content in TMR not only improved CPI but also enhanced CP digestibility and promoted growth performance of Thai indigenous goats. According to Thai indigenous goat response linearly to levels of CP in TMR so that more research study is needed to evaluate whether feeding greater levels CP wouldimprove the growth performance.

Kabuan Intharak

2010-01-01

80

Ruminally undegradable protein content and digestibility for forages using the mobile bag in situ technique.  

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Four experiments were conducted to evaluate RUP content and digestibility for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, upland native range, and warm-season grasses. Samples were collected from esophageally cannulated cows or ruminally cannulated steers. Forages were ruminally incubated in in situ bags for durations of time based on 75% of total mean retention time, which was based on IVDMD and rate of passage calculations. One-half of the bags were duodenally incubated and excreted in the feces, and NDIN was analyzed on all bags for RUP calculations. Crude protein was numerically greater early in the growing cycle for grasses compared with later as grasses matured (P ? 0.32). The RUP was 13.3%, 13.3%, and 19.7% of CP for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. These values tended to be lower early in the growth cycle and increased (linear P ? 0.13) as forages matured for warm-season grasses and subirrigated meadows. Because both CP and RUP content change throughout the growing season, expressing RUP as a percentage of DM gives more consistent averages compared with RUP as a percentage of CP. Coefficient of variation values for RUP as a percentage of DM averaged 0.21 over all 4 experiments compared with 0.26 for RUP as a percentage of CP. Average RUP as a percentage of DM was 2.03%, 1.53%, and 1.94% for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. Total tract indigestible protein (TTIDP) linearly increased with maturity for subirrigated meadow samples (P warm-season grass samples. Digestibility of RUP varied considerably, ranging from 25% to 60%. Subirrigated meadow, native range, and smooth bromegrass samples tended to have linear decreases (P ? 0.11) in RUP digestibility throughout the growing season. The amount of digested RUP was fairly consistent across experiments and averages for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range were 0.92%, 0.64%, and 0.49% of DM, respectively. Warm-season grasses in Exp. 2 had greater RUP (4.31% of DM) and amount of RUP digested (2.26% of DM), possibly because of cattle selecting for leadplant that contains more CP than the grasses. Forages can vary in CP, RUP, TTIDP, and RUP digestibility depending on the forage type, year, and time within year, but RUP digestibility is likely less than what previous sources have reported. PMID:23478833

Buckner, C D; Klopfenstein, T J; Rolfe, K M; Griffin, W A; Lamothe, M J; Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Schacht, W H; Schroeder, P

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Protein improvement in crop plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

82

The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve anaerobic digestion of activated sludge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracellular and extracellular components are set free and are immediately availabl [...] e for biological degradation which leads to an improvement of the subsequent anaerobic process. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge results in organic matter and a polymer transfer from the solid phase to the liquid phase, and an increase in COD value of 284 mg??-1 was observed, i.e. from 42 mg??-1 to 326 mg??-1. In addition the degree of disintegration changed from 14% after 15 min disintegration to 54% after 90 min of disintegration. A disruption of bacterial cells by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. The cells of the activated sludge micro-organisms rupture and addition to the digestion process leads to increased biogas production. The hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge leads to a higher degree of degradation and higher biogas production. Adding the disintegrated sludge (10%, 20% and 30% of volume) to fermentation processes resulted in an improvement in biogas production of about 22%, 95% and 131% respectively.

A, Machnicka; K, Gr& #369; bel; J, Suschka.

2009-01-01

83

Gastro-jejunal digestion of soya-bean-milk protein in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine how soya-bean proteins are digested and metabolized in the human intestine before colonic bacterial fermentation and to estimate their true digestibility, the gastro-jejunal behaviour of soya-bean proteins in water and in two other forms (a concentrated soya-bean-protein solution (isolate) and a drink composed of crude soya-bean proteins (soymilk)) was studied in humans. Experiments were carried out in eight healthy volunteers using a double-lumen steady-state intestinal perfusion method with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) as a non-absorbable volume marker. Gastric emptying and N and electrolyte contents of the jejunal digesta were analysed. Gastric half-emptying time (min) of the liquid phase after water ingestion (12.59 (SE 0.12)) was shorter (P < 0.05) than those for soymilk (37.74 (SE 11.57)) and isolate (36.52 (SE 11.23)). Electrolytic balances showed that for all meals, Na+, Cl- and K+ were secreted when Ca2+ was efficiently absorbed from the jejunal lumen. Gastro-jejunal N absorption for isolate and soymilk were 63 and 49% respectively, and were not significantly different from one another; after water ingestion, endogenous N was estimated to be 21 mmol. An estimate of the exogenous:endogenous values for the effluents was obtained from the amino acid compositions of soymilk and effluents after water or soymilk ingestion, indicating that 70% of the total N was exogenous and 30% endogenous. Under these conditions the endogenous fraction represented 31 mmol after soymilk ingestion and the gastro-jejunal N balance indicated that 54% of the soymilk was absorbed. This finding indicates that the true gastrojejunal digestibility of soya-bean proteins is similar to that of milk proteins. PMID:7986784

Baglieri, A; Mahe, S; Zidi, S; Huneau, J F; Thuillier, F; Marteau, P; Tome, D

1994-10-01

84

Preliminary results on the effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed condensed tannins on in vitro intestinal digestibility of the lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seed protein fraction in small ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Condensed tannins (CT) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) were added to complex the protein fraction of Lupinus angustifolius seeds. Three CT/protein ratios were used: 96 mg/g (T(1)), 180 mg/g (T(2)) and 0 mg/g (T(0)). The CP losses in the rumen were assessed by the nylon-bag technique and CP intestinal digestibility (CPID) was estimated using an in vitro assay applying a three-step procedure: samples were subject to rumen degradation (in situ, 16 h) and the remaining residues were subject to the digestive enzymes of the abomasum and pancreas in vitro. A positive effect (p 0.05) by the presence of CT. These findings suggest that the use of grape seed CT might have the potential to improve the efficiency of utilisation of the protein fraction from lupin seeds. PMID:21039934

Bruno-Soares, A M; Soares-Pereira, A L; Matos, T J S; Ricardo-da-Silva, J M

2011-08-01

85

Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

86

Technical note: a modified three-step in vitro procedure to determine intestinal digestion of proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

An in vitro, batch incubator (Daisy(II)) was used to simplify the 3-step, in vitro procedure (TSP) to reduce the cost and labor involved in the determination of intestinal digestion of proteins. Four tests were conducted to study the effects of the type of pepsin (P-7012 and P-7000; Sigma, St. Louis, MO), the type of bags used for the incubation of samples (R510 and F57; Ankom Technology, Fairport, NY), the amount of sample per bag (0.5, 1, 2, or 5 g), and the number of bags per incubation bottle (5, 15, 20, or 30 bags) on the estimated intestinal digestion of proteins. A soybean meal sample heated at 170 degrees C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 h was used in all preliminary tests to determine the optimum conditions of the technique. The intestinal digestion of 12 protein supplements was determined using the Daisy(II) as well as the proposed TSP techniques. Results using the 2 types of pepsin were highly correlated: P-7012 = (0.99 +/- 0.04 x P-7000) -0.29 +/- 2.33 (r2 = 0.99, P bags: Daisy(R510) = (1.37 +/- 0.06 x TSP) -15.45 +/- 3.85 (r2 = 0.98, P bags: Daisy(F57) = (1.33 +/- 0.06 x TSP) -15.76 +/- 3.87 (r2 = 0.98, P technique with the Ankom R510 bags, the data were highly correlated: (0.93 +/- 0.12 x TSP) + 6.78 +/- 9.09 (r2 = 0.84, P bag and the number of bags per incubation bottle did not affect the estimates of intestinal digestion of proteins. These results indicate that the use of up to 30 nylon bags (Ankom R510) with 5 g of sample in each Daisy(II) incubation bottle could be used to estimate intestinal digestion of proteins in ruminants. PMID:16864878

Gargallo, S; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A

2006-08-01

87

The effect of physiological conditions on the surface structure of proteins: Setting the scene for human digestion of emulsions  

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Understanding and manipulating the interfacial mechanisms that control human digestion of food emulsions is a crucial step towards improved control of dietary intake. This article reports initial studies on the effects of the physiological conditions within the stomach on the properties of the film formed by the milk protein ( ? -lactoglobulin) at the air-water interface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface tension and surface rheology techniques were used to visualize and examine the effect of gastric conditions on the network structure. The effects of changes in temperature, pH and ionic strength on a pre-formed interfacial structure were characterized in order to simulate the actual digestion process. Changes in ionic strength had little effect on the surface properties. In isolation, acidification reduced both the dilatational and the surface shear modulus, mainly due to strong repulsive electrostatic interactions within the surface layer and raising the temperature to body temperature accelerated the rearrangements within the surface layer, resulting in a decrease of the dilatational response and an increase of surface pressure. Together pH and temperature display an unexpected synergism, independent of the ionic strength. Thus, exposure of a pre-formed interfacial ? -lactoglobulin film to simulated gastric conditions reduced the surface dilatational modulus and surface shear moduli. This is attributed to a weakening of the surface network in which the surface rearrangements of the protein prior to exposure to gastric conditions might play a crucial role.

Maldonado-Valderrama, J.; Gunning, A. P.; Ridout, M. J.; Wilde, P. J.; Morris, V. J.

2009-10-01

88

Improvement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of agri-food waste by addition of glycerol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic co-digestion is a promising alternative to manage agri-food waste rather than landfilling, composting or incineration. But improvement of methane yield and biodegradability is often required to optimize its economic viability. Biomethanization of agri-food solid waste presents the disadvantage of a slow hydrolytic phase, which might be enhanced by adding a readily digestible substrate such as glycerol. In this study, strawberry extrudate, fish waste and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing are mixed at a proportion of 54:5:41, in VS (VS, total volatile solids), respectively. The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion at lab-scale of the mixture was stable at loads lower than 1.85 g VS/L, reaching a methane yield coefficient of 308 L CH4/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm) and a biodegradability of 96.7%, in VS. Moreover, the treatment capacity of strawberry and fish waste was increased 16% at adding the crude glycerol. An economic assessment was also carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed process. Even in a pessimistic scenario, the net balance was found to be positive. The glycerol adding implied a net saving in a range from 25.5 to 42.1 €/t if compared to landfill disposal. PMID:24726968

Serrano, Antonio; Siles, Jose A; Chica, Arturo F; Martin, M Angeles

2014-07-01

89

Determination of undegradable intake protein digestibility of forages using the mobile nylon bag technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted using 2 ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers to determine the digestibility of undegradable intake protein (UIP) of smooth bromegrass (Bromis inermis), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus coniculatus L.), and heat-treated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using the mobile nylon bag technique. Undegradable intake protein was determined using neutral detergent insoluble CP at a single in situ incubation time point based on 75% of the total mean retention time estimated from IVDMD plus a 10-h passage lag. In Exp. 1, UIP (% DM) of smooth bromegrass in June and July were 1.82 and 1.71, respectively (P = 0.11). Undegradable intake protein (% DM) of birdsfoot trefoil increased from 1.30 in June to 1.94 in July (P < 0.01). Total tract indigestible protein of smooth brome-grass and birdsfoot trefoil increased in July (P < 0.05). Digestibility of UIP decreased in July for smooth brome-grass (P < 0.01) but tended to increase for birdsfoot trefoil (P = 0.07). In Exp. 2, alfalfa from plots fertilized with low (66 kg of N/ha) or high (200 kg of N/ha) amounts of N were dried to simulate 3 preservation methods: dehydrated (100 degrees C, 10 h), sun-cured (50 degrees C, 15 h), and lyophilized (-50 degrees C, 72 h) alfalfa. Undegradable intake protein (% DM) was estimated as in Exp. 1 and was 3.13, 2.10, and 1.84 for dehydrated, sun-cured, and lyophilized alfalfa, respectively. Total tract indigestible protein (% DM) was increased (P < 0.05) for dehydrated alfalfa (1.66) compared with sun-cured (1.54) or lyophilized (1.57) alfalfa. As a result of greater UIP flow to the lower tract, digestibility (%) of UIP was greater (P < 0.01) for dehydrated (46.4) than for sun-cured (25.6) or lyophilized (14.7) alfalfa. Heat-treated alfalfa samples increased net UIP absorption in the lower tract because 1.47, 0.56, and 0.27 percentage units of UIP (% DM) of dehydrated, sun-cured, and lyophilized alfalfa, respectively, disappeared. Overall, the digestibility of the UIP of these forages was low in the lower tract. PMID:16543566

Haugen, H L; Ivan, S K; MacDonald, J C; Klopfenstein, T J

2006-04-01

90

The Compare Improvement of Ultrasonic Treatment to Dewatering and Digestion in Aerobic and Anaerobic Stabilization  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Backgrounds and Objectives: Large quantities of sludge are produced in biological wastewater treatment. Because this sludge is highly rotten, it should be stabilized before its disposal. Aerobic and anaerobic digestion is widely considered as stabilization techniques. Because of high retention time and sludge dewatering difficulties, reduction in retention time, operation and maintenance should be given into consideration. Ultrasonic process increases the enzymatic activity, so decreases the hydrolysis time, a limiting factor in digestion process, and contributes to the decrease of the detention time. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of ultrasound in improving dewatering and stabilization of aerobic and anaerobic digested sludge. In addition, the impact of ultrasonic treatment on improvement of sludge dewatering and aerobic and anaerobic digestion is compared.Materials and Methods: In this survey, samples of aerobic and anaerobic digestion were collected from local full-scale Garb Town and Tehran South wastewater treatment plant, respectively. The grab samples were collected for 4 month from July to October 2010. Total numbers of 20 samples were collected biweekly for each type of digestion. Each sample was sonicated for 15, 30, 60, and 90 min under 35 and 131 kHz frequencies separately. Total solids, volatile solids , pH, temperature , total COD, dissolved COD and settle able solids were measured. Ultrasound bath of the solution in a 300 mL glass reactor was performed as a bath reactor with power of 500 W.Result: The results showed that the application of ultrasonic wave increased dissolved COD and temperature and decreased volatile solid, pH and settle able solids. Application of ultrasonic wave with frequency of 131 kHz decreased the VS and increased the dewatering of sludge more effective than the 35 kHz frequency and the highest performance was at 15 min of time and 131 kHz of frequency. Also sonication method showed better efficiency for anaerobic sludge samples compared to the aerobic sludge samples.                 Conclusion: The results obtained showed that digestion and dewatering properties of sludge improved by ultrasonic application. Therefore it can be used as an alternative method for the sludge treatment. st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

Mahdi Kargar

2012-04-01

91

Engineering cells to improve protein expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellular engineering of bacteria, fungi, insect cells and mammalian cells is a promising methodology to improve recombinant protein production for structural, biochemical, and commercial applications. Increased understanding of the host organism biology has suggested engineering strategies targeting bottlenecks in transcription, translation, protein processing and secretory pathways, as well as cell growth and survival. A combination of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology has been used to improve the properties of cells for protein production, which has resulted in enhanced yields of multiple protein classes. PMID:24704806

Xiao, Su; Shiloach, Joseph; Betenbaugh, Michael J

2014-06-01

92

Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP Enzyme Improves the Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Piglet Fed a Cottonseed Meal-Based Diets  

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Full Text Available NSP is the major factor introducing a low digestibility of cottonseed meal in piglets. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of NSP enzyme on the nutrient digestibility of weaned piglets fed a cottonseed meal-based diets. About 15 weaned piglets (14±1.4 kg were selected and ileal fistula surgery was done to determine the DE, CP, DM and NSP’s apparent digestibility. The results indicated that NSP enzyme improved piglet’s apparent digestibility (p<0.05 in varying degrees; pectinase resulted in obvious degradation of the cell wall and increased piglets’ DE (26.69% and CP of ileal digesta (20.33% and compound enzyme was better in improving cottonseed meal based diets than single enzyme.

Xiaosong Wu

2012-01-01

93

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758  

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Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

Kenan Koprucu

2004-01-01

94

In situ identification of the synthrophic protein fermentative Coprothermobacter spp. involved in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic bacteria have recently attracted great attention because of their potential application in improving different biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion of various substrates, wastewater treatment or hydrogen production. In this study we report on the design of a specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe for detecting members of Coprothermobacter genus characterized by a strong protease activity to degrade proteins and peptides. The newly designed CTH485 probe and helper probes hCTH429 and hCTH439 were optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on thermophilic anaerobic sludge samples. In situ probing revealed that thermo-adaptive mechanisms shaping the 16S rRNA gene may affect the identification of thermophilic microorganisms. The novel developed FISH probe extends the possibility to study the widespread thermophilic syntrophic interaction of Coprothermobacter spp. with hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea, whose establishment is a great benefit for the whole anaerobic system. PMID:25041640

Gagliano, Maria Cristina; Braguglia, Camilla Maria; Rossetti, Simona

2014-09-01

95

Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa  

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Full Text Available Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed.

Li-Fen Huang

2013-04-01

96

Feed transit and apparent protein, phosphorus and energy digestibility of practical feed ingredients by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)  

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A study was conducted with Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of protein, phosphorus and energy in practical feed ingredients. The digestible energy (DE) content was also evaluated. Test ingredients were anchovy fishmeal, solvent-extracted soybean meal, corn gluten and wheat meal. Due to their low cohesion, sole faeces were collected directly in posterior intestine by dissection. The feed transit time along the gastrointestinal tra...

Dias, Jorge; Yu?fera, Manuel; Valente, Luisa M. P.; Rema, Paulo

2010-01-01

97

EVALUATION OF APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH AND WITHOUT FISH MEAL FOR LABEO ROHITA  

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The apparent digestibility coefficients of three protein levels of reference diets (without fish meal) and test diets (with fish meal) were estimated for Labeo rohita. Three test diets (test diet-I, test diet-II and test diet-III) and three reference diets (reference diet-I, reference diet-II and reference diet-III) having 28, 30 and 32% protein levels were prepared. Chromic oxide was used as an internal marker in the experimental diets for the evaluation of digestibility of protein levels. T...

Y Gul, M. Salim And B. Rabbani

2007-01-01

98

Comparison of Chemical Composition and Protein Digestibility, Carotenoids, Tanins and Alkaloids Content of Wild Lupinus Varieties Flour  

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Proximate composition, carotenoids, tannins, quinolizidine alkaloids and in vitro protein digestibility were determined in flours of two wild lupines seeds recollected at central region of Mexico. Varieties identified as Lupinus barkeri and Lupinus montanus were compared with a domesticated cultivated Lupinus albus crop. Although total protein content resulted significantly (pL. barkeri and L. montanus, no significantly (p...

Jorge Yanez-Fernandez; Hernandez-chavez, Juan F.; Jorge Martinez-Herrera; Norma Guemes-Vera; Alfonso Totosaus

2012-01-01

99

Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in treated soybean meal products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four lactating dairy cows equipped with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to determine the impact of different methods of treating soybean meal (SBM) on the ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein and AA. Solvent-extracted SBM (SE), expeller SBM (EP), lignosulfonate SBM (LS), and heat and soyhulls SBM (HS) were incubated in the rumen in nylon bags for 48, 24, 16, 8, 4, 2, and 0 h according to National Research Council (2001) guidelines. Additional samples of each SBM product were also incubated for 16 h in the rumen; the residues from these bags were transferred to mobile bags, soaked in pepsin HCl, and then used for determination of intestinal digestibility in situ or in vitro. Treatment of SBM (EP, LS, HS) protected the crude protein and AA from ruminal degradation, increasing rumen undegradable protein from 42% in SE to 68% in EP. Kinetic analysis of crude protein and AA degradation in the rumen revealed that, compared with LS and HS, EP exhibited slower rates of degradation but a shorter lag phase and a higher proportion of soluble protein. For all SBM products, the pattern of ruminal degradation, at 16 h of incubation, was characterized by extensive degradation of Lys and His, whereas Met and the branched-chain AA were degraded to the least extent. Estimates of intestinal digestibility of AA and crude protein were lower when measured in vitro than in situ; the magnitude of the difference between the 2 methods was greater (25%) with treated SBM products than with SE (10%). The availability of essential and nonessential AA was consistently greater (30%) with treated SBM than with SE. Among the treated SBM products, 4 essential AA (Ile, Leu, Phe, and Val) showed differences in availability, with values consistently lower for HS than for LS. This study showed that, based on in situ measures, heat and chemical treatment of SBM enhanced AA availability, and that compared with HS, EP and LS had a higher potential to enhance the AA supply to the small intestine of high-producing dairy cows. PMID:17235158

Borucki Castro, S I; Phillip, L E; Lapierre, H; Jardon, P W; Berthiaume, R

2007-02-01

100

Estimation of the True Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Dietary Protein in the Small Intestine of Ruminants by the Mobile Bag Technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed. The results showed that increased degradability of the protein in the rumen decreased the intestinal digestibility, which shows that feedstuffs contain a protein fraction which is both undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the intestine. The results thus indicate that it is possible to calculate the intestinal digestibility from information on the intestinal digestibility of the protein in the intact feed at any degradability estimated. The results clearly show that intestinal digestibility of undegraded dietary protein cannot be considered as a constant value as used in most protein evaluation systems introduced in recent years.

Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ponceau 4R: A Novel Staining Agent for Resolve Food Proteins on PAGE and Its Impact on Digestibility  

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Full Text Available Ponceaue 4R interaction with protein, Nisin and BSA was concentration dependent and may be used for protein assay. As the dye binds with almost all the proteins and current methodology may be used for the estimation of proteins in various food systems. During the course of present work staining with ponceau 4R of resolved proteins on PAGE (poly acryl amide gel electrophorosis was comparable with Coommassie Brilliant Blue R250. The Ponceaue 4R was highly sensitive, rapid and produced sharp red bands on the gel on 0.2% concentration. The effects of pH, concentration of proteins and dye were also investigated in various conditions which would help food processors to use a calculated amount of dye. The impact of tryptic digestibility on Ponceaue 4R -Protein Complexes (PPC has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect on the digestion of PPC.

Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed

2012-10-01

102

Changes in nitrogenous and other chemical constituents, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of germinating fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed.  

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The effect of 7 days of germination on levels of nitrogenous and other nutrition related parameters, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed was studied. The non-protein nitrogen gradually increased and the protein nitrogen content decreased during germination. Albumin and globulin fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of fluted pumpkin seeds, constituting about 58.6% of the total protein of the ungerminated (raw) seeds. The protein fractions, albumin and glutelin, were observed to increase by 61.5% and 57.0%, respectively, while a 54.6% decrease was noted in the prolamine fraction. The globulin fraction increased at the beginning of germination but decreased at the end. Germination significantly (p< or =0.05) increased the crude protein, nitrogen solubility and in vitro protein digestibility but decreased the fat, phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the seeds. PMID:10540985

Giami, S Y; Chibor, B S; Edebiri, K E; Achinewhu, S C

1999-01-01

103

Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins.  

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The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:23799542

Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

2013-09-01

104

Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation had influence on in vitro protein digestibility and minerals availability of peanut. • Total mineral and protein content of peanut were not changed after treatments. • The treatment decreased the in vitro protein digestibility of peanut. • The irradiation of peanut resulted in increment of its minerals availability

105

Release of flavonoids from lupin globulin proteins during digestion in a model system.  

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Lupin seed globulin proteins form complexes with flavonoids, predominantly apigenin C-glycosides. Enzymes typical for the gastrointestinal tract were used to hydrolyze lupin seed globulins. Release of native flavonoids as a result of the proteolysis reaction was observed. Different analytical methods such as size exclusion chromatography, HPLC-MS, and fluorescence spectroscopy (steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes) were used for a detailed characterization of this phenomenon. Flavonoids liberated from lupin globulin proteins as a result of pancreatin-catalyzed digestion were bound by ?-conglutin resistant to this enzyme. Two possible mechanisms of this interaction may be suggested: hydrogen bonding between oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins and the sugar moieties of the flavonoid glycosides or electrostatic attraction between positively charged ?-conglutin and flavonoids partially ionized at pH 7.5. PMID:22264085

Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Kachlicki, Piotr; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora; Nogala-Kalucka, Malgorzata

2012-02-22

106

Histochemical studies on enzyme-digested protein plugs of patients with chronic pancreatitis: a preliminary report.  

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Full Text Available Sulfated acidic mucopolysaccharides have been found to be significant components of "protein plugs" in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The precise identification of the mucopolysaccharides and their distribution within the protein plugs may clarify the pathogenesis of the plugs. Pure pancreatic juice from five patients with chronic pancreatitis was obtained by endoscopic retrograde catheterization of the papilla of Vater. Enzymes for digestion of the plugs included hyaluronidase of the bovine testes and streptomyces hyalurolyticus, chondroitinase ABC and AC, and sialidase (neuraminidase. Our study indicated that: I Sialic acid is distributed throughout the plugs and may be a major component, followed by a lesser amount of chondroitin sulfate B. 2 Chondroitin sulfate A, C, D and E and chondroitin may be minor components. 3 Hyaluronic acid is negligible in the plugs.

Harada,Hideo

1983-06-01

107

Characterization of digestates: do they fit with soil improvers or fertilisers standards?  

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Management of digestates could be a key issue for the future development of the anaerobic digestion market. Actually, a clear definition of their status and quality is necessary to secure valorization opportunities for all of the treated organic matter. In this study, three digestion plants have been followed for one year. Raw, solid and liquid digestate were sampled and characterized five times along the year in order to state on their quality and to compare it to the existing standards for ...

Tre?mier, A.; Buffet, J.; Daumoin, M.; Saint Cast, P.; Picard, S.; Berger, S.

2013-01-01

108

Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in high-protein feedstuffs commonly used in dairy diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and AA, and AA composition of the rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) from 3 sources of blood meal (BM1, BM2, and BM3), canola meal (CM), low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LFDG), soybean meal (SBM), and expeller soybean meal (ESBM). Two Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and proximal duodenal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of 16h and for the mobile bag technique. To correct for bacterial contamination of the RUP, 2 methods were used: purines and DNA as bacterial markers. Ruminal degradations of CP were 85.3, 29.8, 40.7, 75.7, 76.9, 68.8, and 37.0 ± 3.93% for BM1, BM2, BM3, CM, LFDG, SBM, and ESBM, respectively. Ruminal degradation of both total essential AA and nonessential AA followed a similar pattern to that of CP across feedstuffs. Based on the ratio of AA concentration in the RUP to AA concentration in the original feedstuff, ruminal incubation decreased (ratio 1) the concentrations of Ile and Met across feedstuffs. Compared with purines, the use of DNA as bacterial marker resulted in a higher estimate of bacterial CP contamination for CM and lower estimates for LFDG and ESBM. Intestinal digestibility of RUP could not be estimated for BM1, BM3, and SBM due to insufficient recovery of residue. For the remaining feedstuffs, intestinal digestibility of RUP was highest for ESBM, followed by BM2 and LFDG, and lowest for CM: 98.8, 87.9, 89.7, and 72.4 ± 1.40%, respectively. Intestinal absorbable dietary protein was higher for BM2 compared with CM and LFDG, at 61.7, 17.9, and 20.7 ± 2.73% CP, respectively. As prices fluctuate, intestinal absorbable protein or AA may be used as a tool to aid in the selection among feedstuffs with different protein quality. PMID:25108871

Paz, H A; Klopfenstein, T J; Hostetler, D; Fernando, S C; Castillo-Lopez, E; Kononoff, P J

2014-10-01

109

Effects of Mangosteen Peel (Garcinia mangostana Supplementation on Rumen Ecology, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Digestibility and Voluntary Feed Intake in Cattle  

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Full Text Available Four, rumen fistulated cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experiment was to study effects of crude saponins and condensed tannins in mangosteen peel on rumen microorganisms and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in cattle. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = Control (without Mangosteen peel supplementation, MSP; T2 = 50 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T3 = 100 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T4 = 150 g DM of MSP/hd/d with urea-treated rice straw (UTS fed ad libitum. Roughage dry matter intakes in terms of kg/d and %BW were slightly higher in 100 gDM/hd/d supplemented cattle. Apparent digestibilities (% of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were similar among treatments. The values of ruminal temperature, pH, NH 3-N and BUN were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation. However, MSP supplementation increased bacterial population, and was highest at 150 gDM /hd /d supplementation. The protozoal population was significantly decreased while fungal zoospore populations were not changed, and were highest at the 100 gDM/hd/d supplementation group. However, lower values of TVFAs and C2/C3, and higher proportions of C3 were found at 100 gDM/hd/d of MSP supplemented than in the control group. In addition, microbial nitrogen supply, efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis and P /E ratio tended to be higher in MSP supplemented groups and were highest at 100 gDM /hd /d MSP supplementation. These results suggest that MSP supplementation at 100-150 gDM/hd/d could be used as a dietary source to manipulate rumen ecology thus improving rumen fermentation and potential productivity in cattle.

A. Ngamsaeng

2006-01-01

110

Amaranth-protein interaction in food system and its impact on tryptic digestibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amaranth, a food color, is used in variety of food products to attract consumers, especially children. The purpose of the present study was to identify the component present in the food system which acts as a carrier of color and its distribution. The protein is the most possible candidate for color-conjugates and this was first explored by staining the resolved food proteins on PAGE simultaneously and separately with Amaranth as well as by Coomassie brilliant blue R250. It is the most widely used dye for protein assay. The color intensity of the Amaranth-protein complexes was slightly less than those of Coomassie brilliant blue R250, although the bands stained by Amaranth were very sharp, clearly separated and distinct. The staining procedure followed for Amaranth was quick. The impact of tryptic digestibility on amaranth-protein complexes has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect. The possible moode of conjugation between amino acid and azo-bond is also discussed. (author)

111

Breeding for improved protein in barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerted efforts to improve the nutritional value of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through increased levels of grain protein and/or lysine have been ongoing since the mid-1970s at Washington State University. Progress has been made in transferring the high protein and high lysine traits of 'Hiproly' and the high lysine trait of Risoe 7 into agronomically acceptable genotypes. Compromises were made in lysine, protein and yield levels in crossbred selections relative to the mutants used and the best local cultivars 'Advance' and 'Steptoe'. The highest stable protein, lysine in the protein and lysine in the grain levels in advanced breeding lines were about 14, 4 and 0.6%, respectively. The highest stable yields of these lines were about 98 and 92% of Advance, the best malting cultivar, and Steptoe, the best feed cultivar, respectively. No cultivar has been released, but improved protein parents and several promising lines have emerged. Measurable improvement in the nutritional value based on chick bioassays was demonstrated in several advanced lines compared with normal cultivars. Cautious optimism prevails as breeding efforts continue with a broadened germplasm base. (author)

112

Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Origin on the Redox Status in the Digestive Tract of Mice  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of high protein (soybean protein or casein on the balance between production of free radicals and antioxidant level in digestive organs of mice. For this purpose, male (C57BL/6J mice were adapted to experimental diets containing soybean protein or casein with 20% (normal protein diets, NPDs or 60% (high protein diets, HPDs, and HPDs supplemented with 0.06g/kg cysteamine. After two weeks of feeding, oxidative and antioxidative parameters in duodenum, liver and pancreas were measured. The results show that ingestion of high protein markedly increased contents of superoxide anion and malondialdehyde (MDA, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and Na+ K+-ATPase, and content of reduced glutathione (GSH in digestive organs of mice (P<0.05. Levels of oxidative parameters were lower and antioxidant capacity of both enzyme and non-enzyme was higher in mice fed with soybean protein than those fed with casein. In groups fed HPDs supplemented with cysteamine, oxidative stress was mitigated. However, oxidative parameter levels were still higher than those of NPD-fed groups. The present study indicates that ingestion of high protein diets could result in an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant, and thus induce oxidative stress in digestive organs of mice. The oxidative damage was smaller in mice fed with high level of soy protein in comparison with casein.

Guowei Le

2008-04-01

113

Enhanced protein digestion through the confinement of nanozeolite-assembled microchip reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

An on-chip microreactor was proposed toward the acceleration of protein digestion through the construction of a nanozeolite-assembled network. The nanozeolite microstructure was assembled using a layer-by-layer technique based on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and zeolite nanocrystals. The adsorption of trypsin in the nanozeolite network was theoretically studied based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. It was found that the controlled trypsin-containing nanozeolite networks assembled within a microchannel could act as a stationary phase with a large surface-to-volume ratio for the highly efficient proteolysis of both proteins at low levels and with complex extracts. The maximum proteolytic rate of the adsorbed trypsin was measured to be 350 mM min-1 microg-1, much faster than that in solution. Moreover, due the large surface-to-volume ratio and biocompatible microenvironment provided by the nanozeolite-assembled films as well as the microfluidic confinement effect, the low-level proteins down to 16 fmol per analysis were confidently identified using the as-prepared microreactor within a very short residence time coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The on-chip approach was further demonstrated in the identification of the complex extracts from mouse macrophages integrated with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. This microchip reactor is promising for the development of a facile means for protein identification. PMID:18321132

Ji, Ji; Zhang, Yahong; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Kong, Jilie; Tang, Yi; Liu, Baohong

2008-04-01

114

Application of solid-phase extraction for the concentration of chromophores, fluorophores, and photosensitizers from lens protein digests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid-phase extraction was applied for the separation of protein digests obtained from aged human lenses, cataractous human lenses, calf lens proteins in vitro glycated with dehydroascorbic acid and native calf lens proteins. Four fractions were collected after stepwise elution with different solvents. The first fraction contained about 80% of the digested material possessing free amino groups. At the same time, the third and the fourth fractions were enriched in chromophores, fluorophores, and photosensitizing structures that originate mainly from advanced protein glycation. The comparison between the total digest and the fourth fraction based on their UV absorption at 330 nm, intensity of fluorescence (excitation/emission 350/450 nm), and production of singlet oxygen upon UVA irradiation argues that the solid-phase extraction was capable of concentrating the advanced glycation end-products about a hundredfold. Thus, this technique is a useful step for separation and concentration of fluorophores, chromophores, and photosensitizers from aged and glycated lens protein digests. PMID:25143146

Argirov, Ognyan K; Hubenova, Yolina; Argirova, Mariana D

2014-11-01

115

Effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of two indigenous varieties of Indian tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens Var. utilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and starch fractions and in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of white and black varieties of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis was studied. Cooking or autoclaving of both raw seeds and presoaked seeds in different solutions (water, tamarind extract, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid) significantly (p germination processes (24 and 48 h) were also effective in the reduction of various antinutrients, although this reduction appeared to be more pronounced in a prolonged period of germination (72 h). Water soaking followed by dehusking was found to be ineffective in the reduction of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities in both varieties. All of the treatments were effective in significantly (p germination and dry heat treatment. Moreover, among the different processing techniques, soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution followed by cooking (29.6-34.8%) or autoclaving (33.0-37.2%) seemed to be the best method for improving starch digestibility. PMID:11410009

Siddhuraju, P; Becker, K

2001-06-01

116

Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen  

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Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

2014-02-01

117

Duodenal supply of glutamate and casein both improve intestinal starch digestion in cattle but by apparently different mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater postruminal flows of protein increase small intestinal starch digestion in cattle. Our objective was to determine if small intestinal starch digestion is increased by duodenal supplementation of AA. We fed 5 duodenally and ileally cannulated steers a low-starch soybean hull-based diet in 5 × 5 Latin square designs and provided continuous duodenal infusion of raw cornstarch in combination with AA or casein and measured small intestinal starch digestion. In Exp. 1 treatments were continuous duodenal infusion of 1) no supplement (control), 2) casein (400 g/d), 3) crystalline AA similar in amount and AA composition to the casein (CASAA), 4) crystalline nonessential AA similar to those provided by casein, or 5) crystalline essential AA similar to those provided by casein. In Exp. 2 treatments were continuous duodenal infusion of 1) no supplement (control), 2) casein (400 g/d), 3) Glu (133 g/d), 4) Phe and Trp plus Met (30.4, 6.5, and 17.5 g/d, respectively; PTM), or 5) a combination of Glu and PTM. Duodenal infusion of casein increased (P ? 0.05) small intestinal starch digestion. When CASAA was infused, small intestinal starch digestion was similar (P = 0.30) to casein infusion. Infusion of only nonessential AA tended to increase (P = 0.14) small intestinal starch digestion relative to the control, but infusion of essential AA alone did not affect (P = 0.84) small intestinal starch digestion. In addition, infusion of casein or CASAA increased ileal flows of ethanol-soluble starch (small-chain ?-glycosides), but nonessential AA alone were not different than the control. Duodenal infusion of Glu increased (P ? 0.05) small intestinal starch digestion, whereas PTM did not. Neither Glu nor PTM increased ileal flow of ethanol-soluble starch, but Glu and PTM provided together tended (P = 0.07) to increase ileal flows of small chain ?-glycosides. Our data suggest that Glu alone can increase small intestinal starch digestion in cattle similar to casein, but increases in small intestinal starch digestion in response to Glu are not associated with an increase in ileal flows of small chain ?-glycosides. PMID:25057031

Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Anderson, D E

2014-09-01

118

Simulated gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation and plasma protein interaction of white, green, and black tea polyphenols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation, and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from a single tea cultivar at different stages of processing (white, green, and black teas) were simulated. The salivary phase contained 74.8-99.5% of native polyphenols, suggesting potential bioavailability of significant amounts of antioxidants through the oral mucosal epithelium that might be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. White tea had the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability for catechins. Since most of native catechins were not absorbed, they were expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular glucose and cholesterol uptake was assumed. The permeated catechins (approximately, 2-15% of intestinal levels) significantly bound (about 37%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. White tea and its potential nutraceuticals could be effective in the regulation of plasma glucose and cholesterol levels. PMID:25236233

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

2015-02-15

119

Influence of nonhistone chromatin protein HMG-1 on the enzymatic digestion of purified DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of chicken erythrocyte High Mobility Group protein 1 (HMG-1) on the enzymatic hydrolysis of purified double-stranded and single-stranded bacteriophage lambda DNA was studied. HMG-1 was found to inhibit the digestion of single- and double-stranded DNA by S1 nuclease and DNase I, respectively. HMG-I increased the rate of hydrolysis of double-stranded DNA by micrococcal nuclease, particularly at low HMG-1/DNA ratios, and had little effect on the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by micrococcal nucleases, even at high HMG-1 DNA ratios. We also present a semi-quantitative estimate that HMG-1 and HMG-2 occur in chromatin from rapidly dividing, cultured rat hepatoma cells at about 8 times the level that they occur in adult rat liver chromatin. PMID:6291002

Shastri, K; Isackson, P J; Fishback, J L; Land, M D; Reeck, G R

1982-08-25

120

In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg 15N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the 15N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg stringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: karalue@bigpond.net.au

2005-08-19

122

Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.  

Science.gov (United States)

New fractionation and fermentation technologies in the ethanol industry have resulted in the production of different forms of distillers grains (DG). Such products are reduced-fat, high-protein, and "modified" wet feeds. Characterization of protein fractions of these co-products and other commonly used feedstuffs is important for the formulation of dairy cattle diets. In situ and in vitro techniques were conducted to compare crude protein (CP) availability in 4 DG products with commonly used soybean proteins. Soybean protein products included solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM; 44% CP), expeller soybean meal (ESBM), and extruded soybeans (ES). The DG products were conventional distillers dried grains with solubles, reduced-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (RFDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains, and modified wet distillers grains with solubles (MWDGS). Nylon bags containing 5 g of each feed were incubated in the rumen of 3 cannulated lactating cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. The rapidly degradable CP fraction varied from 8.1 to 37.2% for SBM and MWDGS, respectively. The slowly degradable CP fraction was greatest for SBM, ES, and high-protein distillers dried grains (88.0%+/-3.7), followed by ESBM, distillers dried grains with solubles, and RFDGS (76.8+/-4.1%). The MWDGS had the lowest slowly degradable CP fraction (61.1%). The rate of degradation of the slowly degradable CP fraction ranged from 11.8 for SBM to 2.7%/h for RFDGS. Rumen-undegradable protein varied widely (32.3 to 60.4%), with RFDGS having the greatest and SBM the lowest concentrations. Intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (IDP) was estimated by pepsin-pancreatin digestion of ruminally preincubated (16 h) samples. The IDP was greatest for SBM, ESBM, and ES (97.7%+/-0.75), whereas IDP of DG products was 92.4%+/-0.87. Similarly, total digestible protein was greatest (99.0%) for soybean products, whereas DG products had a total digestible protein of 96.0%. Intestinal digestibility of most AA in DG products exceeded 92% and was slightly lower than for soybean products, except for Lys, where the digestibility was 84.6% for DG compared with 97.3% for soybean products. Absorbable Lys was lower for DG (7.0 g/kg of CP) compared with ESBM and ES (average of 23.8 g/kg of CP). Dried DG, ESBM, and ES provided more absorbable AA compared with SBM and MWDGS. These results suggest that the AA availability from DG products is comparable with that from soybean products. PMID:20723689

Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

2010-09-01

123

Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4?±?2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P??0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P??0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response. PMID:23096766

Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

2013-03-01

124

Thermal wet oxidation improves anaerobic biodegradability of raw and digested biowaste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion of solid biowaste generally results in relatively low methane yields of 50-60% of the theoretical maximum. Increased methane recovery from organic waste would lead to reduced handling of digested solilds, lower methane emissions to the environment, and higher green energy profits. The objective of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane yields from different biowastes (food waste, yard waste, and digested biowaste already treated in a full-scale biogas plant (DRANCO, Belgium)) by assessing thermal wet oxidation. The biodegradability of the waste was evaluated by using biochemical methane potential assays and continuous 3-L methane reactors. Wet oxidation temperature and oxygen pressure (T, 185-220 degreesC; O-2 pressure, 0-12 bar; t, 15 min) were varied for their effect on total methane yield and digestion kinetics of digested biowaste. Measured methane yields for raw yard waste, wet oxidized yard waste, raw food waste, and wet oxidized food waste were 345, 685, 536, and 571 mL of CH4/g of volatile suspended solids, respectively. Higher oxygen pressure during wet oxidation of digested biowaste considerably increased the total methane yield and digestion kinetics and permitted lignin utilization during a subsequent second digestion. The increase of the specific methane yield for the full-scale biogas plant by applying thermal wet oxidation was 35-40%, showing that there is still a considerable amount of methane that can be harvested from anaerobic digested biowaste.

Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

2004-01-01

125

Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require several preparation steps, which prolongs any parallel operation and high-throughput interaction analysis. Gnd-HCl allow the efficient elution and subsequent fast digestion of PPIs to provide a convenient high-throughput methodology for affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. To validate the Gnd-HCl approach, label-free PPI analysis of several GFP-tagged yeast deubiquitinating enzymes was performed. The identification of known interaction partners demonstrates the utility of the optimized Gnd-HCl protocol that is also scalable to the 96 well-plate format.

Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft

2013-01-01

126

Identification of a low digestibility ?-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

2013-01-01

127

Identification of a Low Digestibility ?-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernandez, Adrian; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Ivan J.

2013-01-01

128

Formation of a phorbol ester-binding fragment from protein kinase C by proteolytic digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When washed human platelets were disrupted by sonication in the presence of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, both the catalytic and [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu)-binding activities of protein kinase C were recovered in the soluble fraction and were not separable from each other upon several column chromatographies. Platelet protein kinase C required diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid for its activation and showed a molecular weight of about 87,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. However, when platelets were first incubated with 2 microM Ca2+-ionophore A23187 for 5 min at 37 degrees C in the medium containing 3 mM CaCl2 and then disrupted under the same conditions, the catalytic and [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activities were separately recovered in the soluble and particulate fractions, respectively; moreover, the catalytic activity recovered in the soluble fraction became independent of diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid, and showed a molecular weight of about 50,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. The kinetic properties of this Mr 50,000 enzyme were similar to those of the catalytic fragment of rat brain protein kinase C described previously. In a cell-free system, digestion with trypsin of protein kinase C highly purified from rat brain caused the generation of a fragment which had no catalytic activity but showed full [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyr full [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activity. The molecular weight of this fragment was estimated to be about 35,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that protein kinase C consists of at least two functionally different domains, a hydrophobic phorbol ester- or diacylglycerol-binding and hydrophilic catalytic domains

129

Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

2012-01-01

130

EVALUATION OF APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH AND WITHOUT FISH MEAL FOR LABEO ROHITA  

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Full Text Available The apparent digestibility coefficients of three protein levels of reference diets (without fish meal and test diets (with fish meal were estimated for Labeo rohita. Three test diets (test diet-I, test diet-II and test diet-III and three reference diets (reference diet-I, reference diet-II and reference diet-III having 28, 30 and 32% protein levels were prepared. Chromic oxide was used as an internal marker in the experimental diets for the evaluation of digestibility of protein levels. The differences in apparent digestibility for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy of reference and test diets were highly significant (P<0.01. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter were 32.10 ± 0.30 and 35.30 ± 0.30% for reference and test diets -III. The ADCs of crude protein and crude fat were 77.92 ± 0.10, 69.23 ± 0.06 and 75.77 ± 0.05, 70.40 ± 0.22% for reference and test diets-III, respectively. The values of ADCs of gross energy were maximum for reference diet-III (52.28 ± 0.25% and test diet-III (48.65 ± 0.78%. The ADCs of dry matter were 19.80 ± 1.40 and 18.15 ± 0.05% for reference and test diet-I. The ADCs of crude protein and crude fat were 73.93 ± 0.05, 68.43 ± 1.58 and 59.49 ± 1.13, 57.02 ± 2.42% for reference and test diet-I respectively. The ADCs values of gross energy were for reference diet-I (42.43 ± 0.36% and test diet-I (39.09 ± 1.35%. The better ADCs for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy were at 32% protein level.

Y. GUL, M. SALIM AND B. RABBANI

2007-07-01

131

Milk protein fractions moderately extend the duration of satiety compared with carbohydrates independently of their digestive kinetics in overweight subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digestive kinetics are believed to modulate satiety through the modulation of nutrient delivery. We hypothesised that the duration of satiety could be extended by modulating the kinetics of dietary amino acid delivery in overweight subjects, using snacks containing casein and whey protein. In the present study, eighty-two subjects underwent a first satiety test where they received a control snack containing 60 g maltodextrin. For the next 5 d, the subjects consumed a liquid protein snack containing 30 g carbohydrates and 30 g proteins (casein, whey protein or an equal mix of the two; n 26-28 per group). The subjects then underwent a second satiety test after ingesting the protein snack. The time period elapsing between the snack and request for lunch, food intake at lunch and satiety scores were recorded. A subgroup of twenty-four subjects underwent a digestive and metabolic investigation after ingesting their protein snack. Gastric emptying times were 2·5, 4 and 6 h for whey protein, mix and casein, respectively, displaying different kinetics of appearance of dietary N in plasma but without affecting pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones. Compared with the control snack, proteins extended the duration of satiety (+17 min, P= 0·02), with no difference between the protein groups. The satiating effect of proteins was greater in subjects who ate their lunch early after the snack (below the median value, i.e. 2 h) at the control test (+32 min, P= 0·001). Energy intake at lunch was not modulated by proteins. The satiating effect of proteins is efficient in overweight subjects, especially when the duration of satiety is short, but independently of their digestive and plasma amino acid kinetics. PMID:24968280

Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Fromentin, Gilles; Airinei, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Camilla; Léonil, Joëlle; Piedcoq, Julien; Rémond, Didier; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

2014-08-28

132

Vegetable processing wastes addition to improve swine manure anaerobic digestion: Evaluation in terms of methane yield and SEM characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate for swine manure anaerobic digestion. ? Two hydraulic retention times of 25 and 15 d, respectively. ? SEM characterization of anaerobic sludges to observe microbial composition. ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate increases methane yields up to three times. ? Microbial composition changes after 120 d of digestion. -- Abstract: The effect of adding vegetable waste as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of swine manure was investigated. The study was carried out at laboratory scale using semi-continuous stirred tank reactors working at 37 °C. Organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.4 and 0.6 g VS L?1 d?1 were evaluated, corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 25 and 15 d, respectively. The addition of vegetable wastes (50% dw/dw) resulted in an improvement of 3 and 1.4-fold in methane yields at HRTs of 25 and 15 d, respectively. Changes on microbial morphotypes were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Samples analyzed were sludge used as inoculum and digestate obtained from swine manure anaerobic reactors. SEM pictures demonstrated that lignocellulosic material was not completely degraded. Additionally, microbial composition was found to change to cocci and rods morphotypes after 120 d of anaerobic digestion.

133

IMPROVED MICROBIAL, VOLATILE SOLIDS, AND COD (CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND) REDUCTIONS IN AN AUTOHEATED AEROBIC DIGESTER  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is a summary of some of the work performed by Cornell University in which modifications to an aerobic digester permitted the digester to comply with PSRP requirements in cold climates. The modifications included addition of an insulated cover to prevent escape of the h...

134

Staphylococcus aureus Typing by Digestion of Protein A Coding Gene Using Bsp143I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Protein A is the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus rolling in its pathogenesis, and its gene is used for typing. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP with different enzymes has been used for this action. Objectives: In this study, we used Bsp143I enzyme for digestion of the gene, coding protein A (spa gene in S. aureus. The bacteria were isolated from patients and healthy carriers in Gorgan, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: DNAs of 128 S. aureus subjects (53 from healthy carriers and 75 from patients were extracted and amplified using specific primers of the spa gene. The product was digested by Bsp143I enzyme and its pattern was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Results: There were seven spa types among the tested S. aureus samples, among which six types differed in the repeated X region of the spa gene, but the seventh type had a deletion on one of BSP143I restriction sites. The frequency of spa types among isolated S. aureus samples as well as healthy carriers was six and five, respectively. S. aureus isolated from wounds showed the most diverse spa types (five among clinical samples. Types 1, 2 and 4 were observed in all clinical samples, while only one case of type 3 was identified among patients, whereas this type constituted over 32% of the isolates among carriers. We found seven and four spa types among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA isolates, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed that typing the spa gene using PCR-RFLP using Bsp143I was an acceptable method for typing S. aureus. Furthermore, this survey showed that the types in healthy carriers and MSSA were more variable than patient and MRSA isolates, respectively. We used the Bsp143I enzyme, which was not used in any previous studies on the spa gene. The results of this study suggested that we can use PCR-RFLP of spa gene by Bsp143I for molecular typing and sequencing of S. aureus, instead of relatively expensive methods. This method is relatively rapid and inexpensive, and can be accomplished in centers with conventional molecular facilities. Keywords: Staphylococcal Protein A; Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Fatemeh Shakeri

2014-06-01

135

/ Development of a bench scale system for anaerobic acidogenic digestion of wastewater from isolated soy protein  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Wastewater from isolated soy protein (ISP) production is characterized by high organic load. A complex primary wastewater treatment system has been studied: an anaerobic acidogenic reactor, a tubular reactor and a sedimentation tank. Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process; the control of temp [...] erature, pH, alkalinity, TSS/VSS and COD is fundamental. The objective was to develop and compare the efficiency of a bench scale anaerobic acidogenic reactor, followed by the precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation steps, with an existing industrial ISP wastewater treatment system. The results obtained with bench system (reaction time of 6 h, 48 °C) were very close to the industrial ones: pH reduction of 4.5 to 3.7 (indicating the protein hydrolysis), high VFA accumulation (1,300 and 2,650 mg.L-1 minimum and maximum concentration), no methane production and increase in TSS/VSS. This study gives an insight of the industrial primary wastewater treatment system and can be useful in future researches.

A.S., Cassini; I.C., Tessaro; L.D.F., Marczak.

2010-07-01

136

Protein cleavage strategies for an improved analysis of the membrane proteome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins still remain elusive in proteomic studies. This is in part due to the distribution of the amino acids lysine and arginine, which are less frequent in integral membrane proteins and almost absent in transmembrane helices. As these amino acids are cleavage targets for the commonly used protease trypsin, alternative cleavage conditions, which should improve membrane protein analysis, were tested by in silico digestion for the three organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and Corynebacterium glutamicum as hallmarks for eukaryotes, archea and eubacteria. Results For the membrane proteomes from all three analyzed organisms, we identified cleavage conditions that achieve better sequence and proteome coverage than trypsin. Greater improvement was obtained for bacteria than for yeast, which was attributed to differences in protein size and GRAVY. It was demonstrated for bacteriorhodopsin that the in silico predictions agree well with the experimental observations. Conclusion For all three examined organisms, it was found that a combination of chymotrypsin and staphylococcal peptidase I gave significantly better results than trypsin. As some of the improved cleavage conditions are not more elaborate than trypsin digestion and have been proven useful in practice, we suppose that the cleavage at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids should facilitate in general the analysis of membrane proteins for all organisms.

Poetsch Ansgar

2006-03-01

137

The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on formation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from pea proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pea seeds were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in monoculture under different time and temperature conditions and the fermented products were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal conditions. After fermentation and digestion ACE inhibitory activity was determined. In all samples after fermentation no ACE inhibitory activity was noted. Potentially antihypertensive peptides were released during in vitro digestion. The highest DH (68.62%) were noted for control sample, although the lowest IC50 value (0.19 mg/ml) was determined for product after 7 days fermentation at 22 °C. The hydrolysate characterised by the highest ACE inhibitory activity was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptides fractions were obtained. The highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50=64.04 ?g/ml) for the first fraction was noted. This fraction was separated by HPLC and identified by LC-MS/MS and the sequence of peptide derived from pea proteins was determined as KEDDEEEEQGEEE. PMID:23993548

Jakubczyk, Anna; Kara?, Monika; Baraniak, Barbara; Pietrzak, Marlena

2013-12-15

138

Effects of N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt on apparent digestibility, vitamin E absorption, and serum proteins in broiler chickens fed a high- or low-fat diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of supplementation with sodium salt of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG-Na) on apparent digestibility (AD) in broiler chickens fed low- and high-fat diets. Twenty-eight 1-d-old broiler chickens were fed one of the dietary treatments: a low-fat diet (LF) or a high-fat diet (HF) supplemented with or without 1,000 mg/kg of DMG-Na. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded at 14 and 35 d of age. Average daily growth, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The AD of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, total fat (TF), and ?-tocopheryl-acetate were assessed by 2 digestibility trials (at 18-21 and 32-35 d, respectively). Serum protein and plasma ?-tocopherol concentrations were assessed at 35 d of age. Final BW, feed intake, carcass, breast, and spleen weight were higher in groups fed LF than HF diets (P = 0.048, P = 0.002, P = 0.039, P < 0.001, P = 0.007, respectively). Liver weight was increased in DMG-Na-unsupplemented groups (P = 0.011) for both fat levels. During the first digestibility trial (18-21 d), the AD of DM (P = 0.023), OM (P = 0.033), CP (P = 0.030), and ?-tocopheryl-acetate (P = 0.036) was higher in the DMG-Na-supplemented group than control. Digestibility of total fat was increased by DMG-Na supplementation in the LF groups (P = 0.038). A trend for improvement of digestibility was observed during the second digestibility trial (32-35 d) for DM (P = 0.089), OM (P = 0.051), and CP (P = 0.063) in DMG-Na groups. Total serum proteins (and relative fractions) were positively influenced by DMG-Na supplementation both in LF and HF diets (P = 0.029). Plasma ?-tocopherol concentration was higher in groups fed LF than HF diets (P < 0.001). PMID:23571331

Prola, L; Nery, J; Lauwaerts, A; Bianchi, C; Sterpone, L; De Marco, M; Pozzo, L; Schiavone, A

2013-05-01

139

Effect of dietary Enterolobium cyclocarpum on microbial protein flow and nutrient digestibility in sheep maintained fauna-free, with total mixed fauna or with Entodinium caudatum monofauna.  

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Three groups of five wethers with ruminal and duodenal cannulas and maintained as either fauna-free (FF) or inoculated with total mixed fauna (TF) or Entodinium caudatum as a single-species monofauna (EN) were used in an experiment with two 28 d periods. In the first period, the sheep were fed a control barley-based diet (40:60 concentrate to silage DM) and in the second period the diet was supplemented with 187 g DM of Enterolobium cyclocarpum for the last 12 d of the period. The diets of period 1 and 2 were isonitrogenous. There was no effect of fauna on apparent ruminal and total tract organic matter and fibre digestion, but bacterial and microbial N flow and efficiency were improved in FF sheep compared to TF sheep. In period 2, protozoal numbers were reduced between 31 and 88 % 2 h after feeding E. cyclocarpum for the third to twelfth day of supplementation and by an average of 25 % in samples collected over the 24 h feeding cycle. Supplementation of the diet with E. cyclocarpum and the consequent protozoal reduction in TF and EN sheep improved the flow of non-ammonia N and bacterial N to the small intestine and the efficiency of microbial synthesis. However, E. cyclocarpum reduced ruminal organic matter digestion, especially in faunated sheep, and total tract organic matter, N and fibre digestion. Thus, a reduction in the protozoal cell numbers of 25 % was sufficient to achieve the beneficial effects of reduced fauna on the bacterial protein supply, but diet digestibility was reduced. PMID:17459191

Koenig, K M; Ivan, M; Teferedegne, B T; Morgavi, D P; Rode, L M; Ibrahim, I M; Newbold, C J

2007-09-01

140

Comparison of metabolic rates and feed nutrient digestibility in conventional, genetically improved (GIFT) and genetically male (GMNT) Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Various aspects of energy metabolism and feed digestibility were evaluated in two reportedly improved strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) namely GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) and GMNT (genetically male Nile tilapia) and compared with those of CNT (conventional Nile tilapia). Fish were stocked individually in a computer-controlled respirometer system at 27+/-0.1 degrees C for 10 weeks. Metabolic rates were measured at three different feeding levels: starved, maintenance (3.0 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) and growth (7.5 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) using a fishmeal based feed containing TiO2 marker (41% crude protein, 9% crude lipid and 19 kJ (g DM)(-1) gross energy). The standard metabolic rate (SMR), measured at the beginning of the experiment (45.4+/-4.6, 52.4+/-7.7 and 46.8+/-4.6 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1) respectively for GIFT, GMNT and CNT), did not differ significantly between the groups (ptilapia groups also did not differ significantly. Therefore, we concluded that the genetic improvement or modification in the GIFT or GMNT might not upgrade the inherent physiological potential compared to CNT as far as energy metabolism and digestion efficiencies are concerned. PMID:17555997

Mamun, Shamsuddin Mohammed; Focken, Ulfert; Becker, Klaus

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

142

Effect of Soaking, Sprouting and Cooking on Chemical Composition, Bioavailability of Minerals and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed  

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Full Text Available Chemical composition, bioavailability of minerals and in vitro digestibility of proteins in karkade seed (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as affected by soaking, sprouting and cooking were studied. The different methods showed varied deviation of nutrients and antinutrients from the raw seeds. Sprouting and cooking significantly increased protein content and decreased starch and soluble carbohydrates levels. K, Na and all the trace elements studied were decreased by processing methods. Cooking was more effective in improving bioavailability of minerals studied than soaking or sprouting. Total polyphenols reduced more by cooking, while phytic acid did not change significantly by processing. In vitro protein digestibility was significantly reduced by all processing methods, with soaking gave the highest percentage of reduction and cooking the lowest percentage. The results also indicated that domestic processing methods changed total acidity and fat acidity as well as N solubility in water and 1 M NaCl. Amino acid profile of the karkade seed indicated that sulfur amino acids and threonine are the limiting amino acids. With respect to FAO pattern, considerable proportion of the essential amino acids were retained on processing, except for lysine on soaking and sprouting and sulfur acids on sprouting and cooking.

Abu El Gasim A. Yagoub

2008-01-01

143

Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system. PMID:22465955

Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

2012-06-01

144

Multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography--capillary electrophoresis separation of a protein digest: an update.  

Science.gov (United States)

The trypsin digest of a mixture of two proteins, namely cytochrome c and myoglobin, was first separated in the first dimension by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractions from the HPLC were collected every 30s with the aid of a fraction collector into a 96-well microtiter plate. After concentration, all the collected fractions were analyzed simultaneaosly in the second dimension by a 96-array capillary electrophoresis system. The labeled peptides were detected by laser-induced fluorescence. An internal standard, allura red, was added to all the fractions, prior to capillary electrophoretic analysis. The internal standard serves two functions, migration time correction and signal intensity correction. The data are presented in two different formats, as an electropherogram of all the fractions and in a two-dimensional (2-D) format. The 2-D plot of the data shows the density of each spot, which corresponds to the concentration of the migrating peptides. The total experimental time for the HPLC and capillary electrophoretic analyses ist less than 1 h, which ist much faster than using 2-D slab-gel electrophoresis or single-capillary capillary electrophoresis. PMID:11358138

Issaq, H J; Chan, K C; Liu, C S; Li, Q

2001-04-01

145

Maize silage supplementation to lower quality grass silage improves the intake, apparent digestibility and N retention in wether sheep  

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Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of interactions between lower quality grass silage (GS dominated by orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. and maize silage (MS (Zea mays L. on ad libitum intake, digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The study consisted of four feeding treatments involving GS and MS alone, and GS and MS mixtures in ratios of 67:33 or 33:67 (DM basis fed twice daily. The GS was harvested at the beginning of flowering of orchardgrass (about 35 % of plants were in flower while the MS used was of lower DM and starch concentration (264 g kg-1 fresh weight and 211 g kg-1 DM respectively. Mean DM content of GS was 408 g kg-1 fresh weight. MS was lower in crude protein (CP (62 g kg-1 DM than the GS (98 g kg-1 DM (P<0.001. GS contained larger quantities of neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P<0.001 than MS. Inclusion of MS in the diet (33 % vs. 67 % had positive linear effects on fresh matter (FM voluntary intake (P<0.05, digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM, digestible OM in the DM (D-value (P<0.05, starch digestibility (P<0.05, N intake (P<0.01, N output in faeces (P<0.05 and absorbed N (P<0.05. A positive associative effect of GS and MS was observed for all intake parameters measured (FM, DM, OM, NDF (quadratic, P<0.05 to P<0.01, digestibility of DM, ADF (quadratic, P<0.05, CP (quadratic, P<0.01, N intake and absorbed N (quadratic, P<0.01. It was concluded that positive interactions of GS and MS were recorded for a limited number of parameters because of the lower quality MS than required for the full benefit of two forages fed together.

Ivana Mati?

2009-12-01

146

Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei  

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Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

Duangrat Chookird

2010-05-01

147

Effects of pH variation and NaCl on in vitro digestibility of cow's milk proteins in commercially available infant formulas.  

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Allergenicity and antigenicity of food proteins are generally dependent on their heat-stability and resistance to digestive enzymes. Using the methods of SDS-PAGE and immunoblots, we assessed peptic-digestibility of major milk proteins (casein, beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin) in commercially available infant formulas in acidic pH range (pH 1.5 to 4.0), and we also investigated the effect of NaCl on peptic-digestibility of cow's milk proteins at pH 2.0. The profile of peptic-digestion of casein was similar at pH range from 1.5 to 3.5 where the intact protein of casein rapidly disappeared, whereas slow digestibility of the protein was found at pH 4.0. Beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin were digested at pH range from 1.5 to 2.5 and were almost entirely resistant to peptic digestion at over pH 3.0. In the presence of NaCl at pH 2.0, casein showed a good digestibility by pepsin similar to that in the absence of NaCl, in contrast to beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin both having their peptic-digestibility decreased in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. As the state of the stomach in new born infants shows low amounts of secretary pepsin and out of optimum pH of peptic activity, low digestibility of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin in cow's milk based infant formulas at over pH 3.0 is supposed to be responsible for their allergenicity. PMID:11227806

Sakai, K; Yoshino, K; Satter, M A; Ota, F; Nii, Y; Fukuta, K; Ueda, N; Shimizu, Y; Yamamoto, S

2000-12-01

148

Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization aown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion. (paper)

149

Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion.

Pe?ová, M.; Šebela, M.; Marková, Z.; Poláková, K.; ?uda, J.; Šafá?ová, K.; Zbo?il, R.

2013-03-01

150

Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean  

Science.gov (United States)

Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 ?mol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 ?mol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics. PMID:22312252

Grajales-García, Eva M.; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Goñi, Isabel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.

2012-01-01

151

In situ ruminal degradability and intestinal digestion of raw and extruded legume seeds and soya bean meal protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of extrusion and carbohydrate addition on rumen degradation and intestinal digestion of raw legume seeds and solvent extracted soya bean meal (SBM) protein. Whole soya beans (WSB) without or with maize added (75:25) (WSB-M), peas, lupins and SBM were extruded at 140 degrees C. Protein rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of unprocessed and extruded protein sources were measured by in sacco and mobile bag procedures, respectively, in two dairy cows cannulated in rumen and duodenum. Between 12 and 15 polyester bags with 4 g of each protein source were incubated in rumen for 12 h and the residues, pooled by feed, were introduced into the duodenum in small nylon bags after pre-incubation in a pepsin solution, and recovered from faeces the day after. Extrusion significantly (p < 0.001) reduced N degradation of all protein sources, from 98.1%, 91.6%, 90.5% and 64.8% to 53.1%, 73.8%, 70.3% and 44.2% for peas, lupins, WSB and SBM respectively. The addition of maize to WSB strengthened the effect of extrusion on rumen N degradation, from 88.2% to 52.6%. Residues from rumen incubation of extruded feeds showed a higher (p < 0.001) intestinal N digestibility except for SBM (87.0%, 82.9%, 66.3%, 85.0% and 97.2%, and 99.1%, 95.8%, 96.8%, 97.8% and 98.7%, respectively, for non-extruded and extruded, peas, lupins, WSB, WSB-M and SBM). In conclusion, the extrusion of studied legume seeds and SBM promotes a clear and significant increase of their metabolizable protein value, particularly in peas, and the inclusion of a source of carbohydrates before extrusion increase this response. PMID:15787989

Solanas, E; Castrillo, C; Balcells, J; Guada, J A

2005-01-01

152

Eco-efficient post treatment of digestate from farm and collective biogas plants to improve nutrients (N&P) recycling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste from agriculture and others sectors is a widely used technology which shows increasing implementation due to its capacity to produce renewable energy and also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. The development of AD is also an opportunity to improve nutrient recycling from organic waste through the development of an eco-effi cient post-treatment system. In this context, LCA was applied to evaluate the sustainability of diff erent raw digestate post-treatment technologies regarding recycling of nutrients from agricultural and organic waste to agricultural soils for decreased resource depletion and climate mitigation. Substitution of the use of N and P mineral fertilizers with recycled soil health improver or organic fertilizers products as function of fi ve diff erent post-treatment technologies and raw digestate characteristics was evaluated. A particular attention was carried to (1) the gaseous emissions (NH3 and N2O) from process (post-treatment) but also after land spreading and (2) the carbon cycle considering the CO2 carbon costs of fertiliser production and the soil carbon sequestration benefit.

Trémier, Anne; Béline, Fabrice

153

Comparison of Chemical Composition and Protein Digestibility, Carotenoids, Tanins and Alkaloids Content of Wild Lupinus Varieties Flour  

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Full Text Available Proximate composition, carotenoids, tannins, quinolizidine alkaloids and in vitro protein digestibility were determined in flours of two wild lupines seeds recollected at central region of Mexico. Varieties identified as Lupinus barkeri and Lupinus montanus were compared with a domesticated cultivated Lupinus albus crop. Although total protein content resulted significantly (pL. barkeri and L. montanus, no significantly (p>0.05 difference were found in in vitro protein digestibility. Ash and crude fiber contents were significantly (p L. barkeri and L. montanus ether extract was significantly (pLupinus species. Wild varieties of Lupinus could represent a viable alternative looking for new protein resources, from the techno-functional and nutritional point of view. Lupin flour is a good source of minerals and functional compounds, like carotenoids as antioxidant or dietary fiber, with health-promoting properties. Antinutritional factors associated to lupin can be minimized or eliminated by processing (soaking, dehulling and cooking. These characteristics of wild Lupinus varieties result in a revalorization of these crops as a protein and other healthy promoting compounds for human or animal consumption.

Jorge Yanez-Fernandez

2012-01-01

154

Development and validation of a spectroscopic method to predict wheat protein digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The CP digestibility is traditionally measured by chemical analyses of CP and marker concentration in digesta and diets. Potentially, CP digestibility can also be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of digesta and diet. Spectroscopy is a rapid, nondestructive method to ascertain qualitative and quantitative chemical information. Based on Beer's law, a spectroscopic method was developed to predict in vivo CP digestibility. To validate, samples of digesta and diet of wheat grain with predetermined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP were scanned on a Fourier transform midinfrared (FTIR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflectance attachment. The AID of CP was calculated from peak intensities of spectra and measured marker concentrations in digesta and diet and then compared with in vivo AID of CP. The AID of CP of a wheat-based diet was predicted accurately with a deviation of 0.68 ± 0.86% from in vivo AID of CP ranging from 60.4 to 87.8%. Functional group digestibility based on the peak at 1,643 cm(-1) or the Amide I region was strongly correlated (r ? 0.99; P < 0.001) with in vivo AID of CP. In conclusion, instead of predictions based on calibrations, CP digestibility can also be potentially predicted directly from FTIR spectra. PMID:23365397

Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

2012-12-01

155

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

2012-12-01

156

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

12Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P <0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P <0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage.

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K

2012-01-01

157

The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources  

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Full Text Available Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef; Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa; Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay, 200 g fishmeal. The concentrations of the amino-acids threonine, iso-leucine, leucine and arginine were increased in the total ration when lucerne hay replaced the tef hay while fishmeal supplementation increased the methionine and lysine contents, which provided a wide range of concentrations of digestible amino-acids in each of the 4 rations.

F.E. Van Niekerk

2012-07-01

158

Improving the prediction of yeast protein function using weighted protein-protein interactions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics can be used to predict protein function, leading to an understanding of cellular activities, and equally-weighted protein-protein interactions (PPI are normally used to predict such protein functions. The present study provides a weighting strategy for PPI to improve the prediction of protein functions. The weights are dependent on the local and global network topologies and the number of experimental verification methods. The proposed methods were applied to the yeast proteome and integrated with the neighbour counting method to predict the functions of unknown proteins. Results A new technique to weight interactions in the yeast proteome is presented. The weights are related to the network topology (local and global and the number of identified methods, and the results revealed improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of prediction in terms of cellular role and cellular locations. This method (new weights was compared with a method that utilises interactions with the same weight and it was shown to be superior. Conclusions A new method for weighting the interactions in protein-protein interaction networks is presented. Experimental results concerning yeast proteins demonstrated that weighting interactions integrated with the neighbor counting method improved the sensitivity and specificity of prediction in terms of two functional categories: cellular role and cell locations.

Saloma Nahed H

2011-04-01

159

Cathepsin A protein from the accessory sex gland of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) plays a key role in spermatophore digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accessory sex gland (ASG) secretory proteins of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) can effectively digest the spermatophore wall. In order to identify which proteins participate in spermatophore wall digestion, a 50-kDa protein secreted from the ASG was purified to homogeneity by a series of isolation steps, including ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-25 S gel-filtration, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sephacel column and Sephacryl S-200 gel-filtration. The purified protein was effective in spermatophore wall rupture, and the subsequent HPLC-ESI-MS/MS shotgun analysis showed the digestive protein to be cathepsin A (cathA). This finding was also confirmed by Western blot analysis and a cathA inhibitor digestion experiment. ELISA analysis showed that cathA enzymatic activity from ASG secretions increased during its purification process. Furthermore, enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the mating period of E. sinensis parallel to the latest developmental stage of the gland. Moreover, analysis from a cathA inhibitor that inhibits spermatophore wall digestion showed that cathA is the main enzyme involved. Hence, we first report the characterization of cathA from the ASG, which might play a key role in digesting the spermatophore wall of E. sinensis. PMID:23871752

Wang, Juan; Fang, Di-An; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yuan-Li; Cheng, Lin; He, Lin; Wang, Qun

2013-09-01

160

Inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 with amyloglucosidase for measuring non-digestible oligosaccharides and proposal for an improvement of the method.  

Science.gov (United States)

We wished to clarify the inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 for the measurement of non-digestible oligosaccharides and to propose an improved method using porcine intestinal enzymes. Amyloglucosidase used in AOAC method 2009.01 scarcely hydrolyses sucrose, palatinose and panose (which are readily digested by intestinal enzymes). Hence, oligosaccharides could not be measured accurately by AOAC method 2009.01. To confirm the inaccuracy of the method, we used porcine intestinal enzymes instead of amyloglucosidase. Using the improved method, fructooligosaccharide and galactooligosaccharide were measured accurately as non-digestible oligosaccharides, but sucrose, palatinose, panose and isomaltooligosaccharide were not. The improved method hydrolysed digestible oligosaccharides into monosaccharides. These results demonstrate that the inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 for oligosaccharide measurement is due to incomplete hydrolysis by amyloglucosidase. We propose that amyloglucosidase should be replaced with porcine intestinal enzymes for such measurements. PMID:24423568

Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2014-05-15

 
 
 
 
161

The influence of irradiation treatment on gossypol and protein digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal for Broiler chicks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Effect of gamma irradiation (5-20 kGy) on the chemical composition, soluble protein, available lysine, gossypol, in-vitro and in vivo digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal (CSM) and the performance of broilers fed processed CSM were investigated. Radiation treatment of CSM at dose levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy did not affect moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and NFW content. However, the treatment reduced soluble protein by 4.18, 7.82, 10.91, 13.46%, respectively. Fluorodinitrobenzene-available lysine concentration reduced by 4.48, 8.12, 17.65 and 21.29% respectively. The concentrations of total gossypol decreased by 7.97, 15.78, 19.92 and 25.39% and free gossypol by 3.74, 7.85, 18.43 and 28.01%, respectively. The digestibility of CSM protein was increased by 5.3, 9.0, 16.6 and 17.2%, for in-vitro digestibility and by 4.8, 7.3, 9.4 and 12.9% for in-vivo due to treatment with 5,10, 15 and 20 kGy, respectively. From 7 to 42 days, arbor acres broilers were freely given iso energetic and iso nitrogenous : corn-soy control diet or diets containing 300 g kg-1 raw or irradiated CSM at 4, 15 or 20 kGy. Intake of raw CSM affected growth, feed intake and feed conversion as compared with birds receiving the control diet

162

/ Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 [...] × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

Nivea Regina de Oliveira, Felisberto; Marcelo Teixeira, Rodrigues; Marco Aurélio Delmondes, Bomfim; Rogério da Silva, Matos; Ana Gabriela Pombo Celles, Cordeiro; Márcia Maria Cândido da, Silva.

2228-22-01

163

Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

Felix Walter, Gutierrez; Máximo, Quispe; Luz, Valenzuela.

164

Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

Felix Walter, Gutierrez; Máximo, Quispe; Luz, Valenzuela.

2013-12-01

165

Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts inhibit carbohydrate digestion and absorption, improving postprandial glucose levels and hyperinsulinemia in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. In this study, helichrysum ( Helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. The helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL) than ?-amylase (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). Both extracts reduced maltose digestion in noneverted intestinal sacs (57% with helichrysum and 46% with grapefruit). Likewise, both extracts inhibited SGLT1-mediated methylglucoside uptake in Caco-2 cells in the presence of Na(+) (56% of inhibition with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit). In vivo studies demonstrated that helichrysum decreased blood glucose levels after an oral maltose tolerance test (OMTT), and both extracts reduced postprandial glucose levels after the oral starch tolerance test (OSTT). Finally, both extracts improved hyperinsulinemia (31% with helichrysum and 50% with grapefruit) and HOMA index (47% with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit) in a dietary model of insulin resistance in rats. In summary, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improve postprandial glycemic control in rats, possibly by inhibiting ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzyme activities and decreasing SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. PMID:24261475

de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Lostao, María Pilar; San Román, Belén; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

2013-12-11

166

Effects of milk proteins on release properties and particle morphology of ?-carotene emulsions during in vitro digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, ?-lactoglobulin, sodium caseinate, lactalbumin and lactoferrin were used to prepare ?-carotene emulsions. The milk protein-stabilized emulsions were explored using an in vitro release model to elucidate the effects of different milk proteins on ?-carotene release properties in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine, respectively. Notable changes in the droplet size and size distribution were observed among these four oil-in-water (O/W) milk protein emulsions. In the gastric environment, the highest ?-carotene release rate (2.9%) was achieved in ?-lactoglobulin emulsion with a remarkable change in the particle size. In the simulated intestine, the best ?-carotene micellarization potency (92%) was observed in ?-lactoglobulin emulsion and its droplet diameter moderately increased from 215 nm to 471 nm. Moreover, substantial release of ?-carotene was found in the small intestine for the four types of emulsions. It was concluded that ?-carotene release in different digestive stages was characterized by the emulsion interfacial composition. PMID:25215854

Liu, Yuwei; Lei, Fei; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

2014-10-22

167

Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

1992-12-01

168

Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

1992-01-01

169

Ileal and faecal protein digestibility measurement in humans and other non-ruminants - a comparative species view.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative non-ruminant species view of the contribution of the large intestinal metabolism to inaccuracies in nitrogen and amino acid absorption measurements is provided to assess potential implications for the determination of crude protein/amino acid digestibility in adult humans consuming lower digestible protein sources. Most of the amino acids in the hindgut are constituents of the microorganisms and significant microbial metabolism of dietary and endogenous amino acids occurs. Bacterial metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds leads to a significant disappearance of nitrogen in the large intestine. Literature data show that some 79 % of the nitrogen entering the large intestine of the horse is absorbed. For dogs, sows, and growing pigs these estimates are 49, 34 and 16 %, respectively. The coefficient of gut differentiation of humans compares closely to that of dogs while the coefficient of fermentation in humans is the lowest of all non-ruminant species and closest to that of cats and dogs. Large intestinal digesta transit times of humans compare closest to adult dogs. Significant amino acid metabolism has been shown to occur in the large intestine of the adult dog. Use of the growing pig as an animal model is likely to underestimate the fermentation of amino acids in the human large intestine. Based on the significant degree of fermentation of nitrogen-containing components in the large intestine of several non-ruminant species, it can be expected that determination of amino acid digestibility at a faecal level in humans consuming low quality proteins would not provide accurate estimates of the amino acids absorbed by the intestine. PMID:23107535

Hendriks, Wouter H; van Baal, Jürgen; Bosch, Guido

2012-08-01

170

Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. Results In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual data in some model systems. Conclusion The data suggest that the peptides bind to the plastic substratum in more than one conformation and that, once bound, the peptide displays different affinities for the antibody, depending on how it has bound to the plate

Pace Umberto

2006-05-01

171

Processing Effects on Some Antinutritional Factors and In vitro Multienzyme Protein Digestibility (IVPD of Three Tropical Seeds: Breadnut (Artocarpus altilis, Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale and Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis  

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Full Text Available Mature seeds of breadnut, cashewnut and fluted pumpkin were processed in the laboratory into the raw dried, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds. Differently processed seeds were dried at 50°C, ground and sieved through 500?m sieves. The seed flours were evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activity, tannin, phosphorus compounds and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD. The results show that processing significantly (P = 0.05 affected the antinutritional factors in the seed flours. Breadnut flours contain 2.8-5.3g/kg phytic acid, 5.8-9.2g/kg tannin and 0.9-8.1mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Cashewnut flours contain 6.0-9.9g/kg phytic acid, 5.1-13.3g/kg tannin and 0.8-2.5mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fluted pumpkin seed flours contain 2.8-13.8g/kg phytic acid, 7.5-19.1g/kg tannin and 0.0-11.0mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fermentation is the most effective processing method to reduce phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity while boiling is most effective in reducing the tannin content. The result of IVPD of the seeds generally show that the boiled samples are the most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw dried/germinated samples are the least. The order of digestibility of the three seeds is fluted pumpkin (72.0 - 86.0% > cashewnut (74.3 - 82.9% > Breadnut flour (71.3 - 78.3%. Processing techniques used reduced the antinutritional factors in the seeds and improve its IVPD when compared with the raw dried seed flours.

T.N. Fagbemi

2005-01-01

172

In situ intestinal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of cereal grains and rapeseed in sheep  

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The ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility (ID) of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of different feed samples were measured in two trials by using nylon bag and rumen outflow rate techniques in three wethers cannulated in the rumen and in the duodenum. In trial 1, three samples of grains of wheat, barley, and corn treated by cooking (TW, TB, and TC, respectively) were studied together with a sample of untreated corn grains (CG) of different origin. In trial 2, these studies we...

Gonza?lez, Javier; Fari?a-ma?rmol, Jesu?s; Matesanz, Ba?rbara; Rodri?guez, Carlos; Alvir, Mari?a

2003-01-01

173

Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improves gastrointestinal well-being and digestive symptoms in women reporting minor digestive symptoms: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of probiotics to improve bowel habits or transit time has been shown in healthy populations. Additional data are required to support the use of specific probiotics to improve gastrointestinal (GI) well-being. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of consuming fermented milk (FM) on GI well-being, digestive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) amongst women without diagnosed GI disorders. In this double-blind, controlled, parallel-design study, subjects were randomised to ingest daily either 2 x 125 g FM containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 and yoghurt strains or a control non-fermented dairy product for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week wash-out period. GI well-being and digestive symptoms were assessed weekly. HRQoL was measured every 4 weeks. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, correcting for baseline values on the full analysis set population of 197 women (aged 18-60 years). The percentage of women reporting an improvement in their GI well-being was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the FM group v. the control group (OR 1.69; 95 % CI 1.17, 2.45). A significantly (P < 0.05) more pronounced decrease in the composite score of digestive symptoms was observed in the FM group when comparing with the control group (least squares mean - 0.57; 95 % CI - 1.12, - 0.02). Among HRQoL dimensions, the digestive comfort score was significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the FM group compared with the control group. The present study showed that the daily consumption of a specific FM is able to improve GI well-being and digestive symptoms in adult women without GI disorders. PMID:19622191

Guyonnet, Denis; Schlumberger, Armelle; Mhamdi, Leila; Jakob, Stefan; Chassany, Olivier

2009-12-01

174

Investigation on the effects of various protein levels with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P?0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P?0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P?0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P?0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P?0.01. Significant (P?0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

Seyed N. Mousavi

2013-01-01

175

Ileal apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities and endogenous nitrogen losses in pigs fed soybean and rapeseed products.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of various protein sources on the apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of CP and amino acids (AA) and on the recoveries of ileal endogenous nitrogen (N) in pigs. Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured using the 15N-isotope dilution method. Thirteen pigs (BW of 13 to 20 kg) were fitted with a post-valve-T-cecal cannula and two indwelling blood catheters. They were fed twice daily at a level of 2.6 times ME for maintenance. Cornstarch-based diets contained a soy concentrate (SC; 180.5 g/kg), soybean meal (SBM; 295 g/kg), or a mixture of toasted and untoasted soybean meal (mSBM; 330.4 g/kg) in Trial I or three rapeseed cakes, dehulled-toasted (RC1; 395 g/kg), non-dehulled-toasted (RC2; 458 g/kg), and dehulled-untoasted (RC3; 390 g/kg) in Trial II. The protein sources provided diets with similar levels of apparent ileal digestible CP (108 g/kg as-fed diet) and Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, and Trp. The AID of CP was greater (P .05; 2.24, 3.03, and 2.89 for RC1, RC2, and RC3, respectively) among diets in Trial II. We concluded that AID of CP of the soybean diets were associated with endogenous and dietary N losses. For these diets, increased ENL and dietary N losses were associated with a higher dietary trypsin inhibitor activity. For the rapeseed diets, dehulling increased AID of CP and AA, due to reduced ENL (P = .08) and dietary N losses (P rapeseed cake did not affect the AID of CP and AA (P > .05) while reducing the true ileal CP digestibility (P < .05). PMID:9498366

Grala, W; Verstegen, M W; Jansman, A J; Huisman, J; van Leeusen, P

1998-02-01

176

Improving nutrient fixation and dry matter content of an ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion effluent by struvite formation and clay adsorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes that contain nitrogen leads to its mineralization, yielding a digestate rich in ammonium (NH(4)(+)), an important fertilizing nutrient. The applicability of AD digestate as fertilizer can be improved by fixating the nutrients and increasing its dry matter content. Methods for the fixation and recovery of the digestate's NH(4)(+) and possible also PO(4)(3-) include struvite precipitation and adsorption in clay materials such as bentonite. These techniques were tested in batch experiments employing the liquid fraction of a digestate originating from the AD of a substrate mix containing lignocellulose, cattle manure and fish industrial waste. The concentration of NH(4)(+)-N in this digestate was 2,300 mg L?¹. Struvite precipitation conditions at a molar ratio of 1.2:1:1 (Mg²?:NH(4)(+):PO(4)(3-)) and pH 9.5 were best in terms of simultaneous removal of NH(4)(+)-N (88%), PO(4)(3-) (60%) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (44%). Bentonite adsorption gave comparably high removal levels for NH(4)(+)-N (82%) and PO(4)(3-) (52%). Analysis of the precipitates' morphology and elemental composition confirmed their struvite and bentonite nature. Dry matter content was increased from 5.8% in the AD digestate to 27% and 22% in the struvite and bentonite sludges, respectively. PMID:25051482

Estevez, Maria M; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J; Morken, John

2014-01-01

177

Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P phytase linearly enhanced (P 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca. PMID:23365327

Kühn, I; Partanen, K

2012-12-01

178

In situ intestinal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of cereal grains and rapeseed in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility (ID) of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of different feed samples were measured in two trials by using nylon bag and rumen outflow rate techniques in three wethers cannulated in the rumen and in the duodenum. In trial 1, three samples of grains of wheat, barley, and corn treated by cooking (TW, TB, and TC, respectively) were studied together with a sample of untreated corn grains (CG) of different origin. In trial 2, these studies were carried out on a sample of rapeseed (RS) and on a mix of this same sample and rapeseed meal (in proportions 70:30) treated by cooking (TR). In both trials, the animals were fed at the same intake level (40 g DM x kg(-1) LW0.75) with 2:1 (DM basis) forage to concentrate diets. Rumen degradation rates of DM were high in the treated cereals (between 11.0 and 14.2% x h(-1)) and low in the CG (6.35% x h(-1)), whereas for CP these rates were low in all cereals. For DM, in all cereals, ID decreased linearly as the ruminal incubation time increased. The values of intestinal effective digestibility (IED), calculated from these functions and from the rumen outflow, were respectively: 86.4, 62.1, 51.5, and 67.9%. For CP, ID was unaffected by the ruminal incubation time in corn samples, whereas in TW and TB a reduction of these values was only observed for the time of 48 h. The values of IED of CP for CG, TW, TB and TC were: 82.6, 88.9,82.5, and 91.6%, respectively. Rumen degradation rates of the RS and TR samples were 8.35 and 8.23% x h(-1) for DM and 12.0 and 9.59% x h(-1) for CP. In RS, the ID of DM and CP showed a downward trend with an increase of the ruminal incubation time, as modelled according to an exponential function. This same trend was observed for TR after a lag period estimated at 7.53 and 6.51 h for DM and CP, respectively. The values of IED of RS and TR were respectively 56.5 and 50.8% for DM and 71.9 and 80.1% for CP. These same results were also determined by a simplified method using a sample pooled to be representative of the rumen outflow of undegraded feed. The respective values for RS and TR were 54.8 and 51.6 for DM and 65.8 and 78.9% for CP. This method seems to be a promising technique to estimate IED, although more studies are needed to improve its accuracy. PMID:12785448

González, Javier; Faría-Mármol, Jesús; Matesanz, Bárbara; Rodríguez, Carlos Alberto; Alvir, María Remedios

2003-01-01

179

Protein switches identified from diverse insertion libraries created using S1 nuclease digestion of supercoiled-form plasmid DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate that S1 nuclease converts supercoiled plasmid DNA to unit-length, linear dsDNA through the creation of a single, double-stranded break in a plasmid molecule. These double-stranded breaks occur not only in the origin of replication near inverted repeats but also at a wide variety of locations throughout the plasmid. S1 nuclease exhibits this activity under conditions typically employed for the nuclease's single-stranded nuclease activity. Thus, S1 nuclease digestion of plasmid DNA, unlike analogous digestion with DNaseI, effectively halts after the first double-stranded break. This property makes easier the construction of large domain insertion libraries in which the goal is to insert linear DNA at a variety of locations throughout a plasmid. We used this property to create a library in which a circularly permuted TEM1 ?-lactamase gene was inserted throughout a plasmid containing the gene encoding Escherichia coli ribose binding protein. Gene fusions that encode allosteric switch proteins in which ribose modulates ?-lactamase catalytic activity were isolated from this library using a combination of a genetic selection and a screen. PMID:21618478

Tullman, Jennifer; Guntas, Gurkan; Dumont, Matthew; Ostermeier, Marc

2011-11-01

180

Incubated protein reduction and digestion on an EWOD digital microfluidic chip for MALDI-MS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Localized heating of droplets on an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) chip has been implemented and shown to accelerate trypsin digestion reaction rates, sample drying, and matrix crystallization for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Achieving this involved extending the functionality of previous EWOD droplet-based techniques by developing a multifunctional electrode with closed-loop temperature control, while minimizing overall system complexity, and...

Nelson, Wyatt C.; Peng, Ivory; Lee, Geun-an; Loo, Joseph A.; Garrell, Robin L.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

On the digestibility and utilization of labelled protein of feeds and foods rich in dietary fibres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Labelled straw meal as model substance and broiler hens as experimental animals, which take in 25% of ration dry matter as straw were used. Since the digestibility of high-polymeric carbohydrate is considerably increased by ?-rays in ruminants untreated and irradiated straw were included. The hens were given a ration which also contained labelled wheat and which was supplemented with straw meal in order to find the origin of the additional N excretion by the fibre. (author)

182

Improvement of protein content in winter wheat with physicochemical mutagens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation is one of the approaches to improve the protein content of wheat. In present experiments the wheat mutation contained high protein, gluten and lysine were obtained by means of treating dry seeds with different physicochemical mutation. The procedure of breeding for improving the qiality of wheat was found

183

The effect of level of crude protein and available lysine on finishing pig performance, nitrogen balance and nutrient digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of decreasing the crude protein (CP) content of diets for finishing pigs containing two levels of available lysine on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and production performance. Ten finishing diets containing five levels of CP (on average 144, 155, 168, 182 and 193 g/kg fresh basis) and two levels of available lysine (6.9 and 8.2 g/kg fresh basis) were formulated. The diets were offered to pigs on a performance trial (n = 800 Large White (LW)×Landrace (LR) pigs) from 10 wk of age until finish at 21 wks+5 d of age. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. In addition, a digestibility/N balance trial was conducted using pigs (n = 80 LW×LR) housed in metabolism crates. Digestibility of dry matter (DM), CP, oil, fibre and energy was determined. N balance values were determined through analysis of N content of urine and faeces ('as determined'). N balance values were also calculated using ADG values and assuming that 16% of growth is protein deposition ("as calculated"). Pig performance was poor between 10 and 13 wk of age which indicated that the dietary treatments were nutritionally inadequate for pigs less than 40 kg. There was a significant (pfinish which indicated that 6.9 g/kg available lysine was not adequate for finishing pigs. Energy digestibility decreased with decreasing CP level of diets containing 6.9 g/kg available lysine which may be attributed to the higher fibre content of the lower CP diets. Nitrogen excretion (g/d) was lowered when dietary CP was reduced regardless of whether the values were determined through balance or calculated using ADG. Calculated N excretion decreased linearly (pwean to finish) offered a 169 g/kg CP, 8.2 g/kg available lysine diet (2.39 kg vs 3.41 kg (Northern Ireland) and 2.93 kg (England)). PMID:25049824

Ball, M E E; Magowan, E; McCracken, K J; Beattie, V E; Bradford, R; Gordon, F J; Robinson, M J; Smyth, S; Henry, W

2013-04-01

184

Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pmel-1 mice were vaccinated with DNA encoding HSP70i. On the bottom, mice are shown six months ... building blocks. They then administered the mutated protein (HSP70i) as a vaccine to mice that were genetically ...

185

Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC, heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested and digested (Enprocal D selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells. Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80, MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-? and up-regulated IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.

Kanwar Rupinder K

2009-01-01

186

Characterization of Tannin and Study of in vitro Protein Digestibility and Mineral Profile of Sudanese and Indian Sorghum Cultivars  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, mineral profile, tannin content, and effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility , and separation and identification of free and bound phenolic acids of Sudanese sorghum cultivar (namely feterita and Indian sorghum cultivar (namely CSH5. Chemical composition of the two sorghum cultivars was determined. Sudanese cultivar showed significantly (p<0.05 high moisture, ash, protein, and fat while Indian cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in fiber and carbohydrate contents. Cupper, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium were determined for the two cultivars. Results revealed that, Sudanese cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in cupper, calcium, iron, and sodium while Indian cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in phosphorus and potassium content. Tannin content in Sudanese cultivar was significantly (P<0.05 higher compared to Indian cultivar. Effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility revealed that cooking significantly (P<0.05 reduced the in vitro protein digestibility of the two sorghum cultivars. The phenolic acids (PAs as free and bound form content were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the two sorghum cultivars. Syringic, p-coummaric, ferulic acid were detected as free form of phenolic acids of Indian cultivar while gallic , protocatechuic, gentisic, caffeic, p-coummaric , and ferulic acids were detected in free form of Sudanese cultivar. Gallic, protocatechuic , gentisic, and p-coummaric were not detected in free form in Indian cultivar while syringic acid was not detected in Sudanese cultivar in free form. Indian cultivar contained high caffeic and ferulic acid in free form compared to Sudanese cultivar. Syringic , caffeic, p- coummaric and ferulic acids were detected in bound form in Indian cultivar while gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coummaric and ferulic acid were detected in bound form in Sudanese cultivar. Gallic, protocatechuic and gentisic acids were not detected in free and bound form in Indian cultivar while p-coummaric acid was only detected in bound form in Indian cultivar. Syringic, caffeic, p-coummaric and ferulic acids content in bound form were high in Indian cultivar than Sudanese cultivar. Generally phenolic acids of the two cultivars exist mostly in bound form.

Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem

2009-01-01

187

Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.  

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The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction that is both undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine. Indigestibility values of RUR were lower than in intact feeds, suggesting that the feed ingredients used in this experiment contain a protein fraction that is indigestible in the intestine but partly degradable in the rumen or digestible in the intestine after rumen incubation, or both. PMID:19923609

Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

2009-12-01

188

An improved SUMO fusion protein system for effective production of native proteins  

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Expression of recombinant proteins as fusions with SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) protein has significantly increased the yield of difficult-to-express proteins in Escherichia coli. The benefit of this technique is further enhanced by the availability of naturally occurring SUMO proteases, which remove SUMO from the fusion protein. Here we have improved the exiting SUMO fusion protein approach for effective production of native proteins. First, a sticky-end PCR strategy was applied t...

Lee, Chien-der; Sun, Hui-chien; Hu, Su-ming; Chiu, Ching-feng; Homhuan, Atthachai; Liang, Shu-mei; Leng, Chih-hsiang; Wang, Ting-fang

2008-01-01

189

Dewaterability of thermophilically digested biosolids: effects of temperature and cellular polymeric substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermophilic processes digest sludge at high temperatures to produce Class A biosolids.Recent research work revealed that digestion temperature is the predominant factor affecting dewaterability of thermophilic biosolids. This paper presents findings of a laboratory study that investigated how various digestion temperatures affect dewaterability of digested biosolids, studied the phase partition of the substances affecting dewaterability in digested biosolids, and tested the role of cellular polymeric substances in affecting dewaterability.Secondary sludges were digested at 40-70oC or 22oC for up to 12 days. Centrate from thermophilically digested biosolids were treated with protease and boiling. This study found that, during the first few hours of digestion, higher temperatures resulted in more rapid and more significant deterioration in dewaterability than lower digestion temperatures. Continued digestion resulted in either improved (60oC or 70oC), or unchanged (40oC or 50oC), or gradually deteriorated dewaterability (22oC). The substances affecting dewaterability were primarily located in the liquid phase of thermophilically digested biosolids. Boiling treatment did not result in significant changes in dewaterability. Protease treatment of the liquid phase of thermophilic biosolids improved dewaterability by 13-19%. Such an improvement confirmed the role of proteins in affecting dewaterabie role of proteins in affecting dewaterability. (author)

190

Elastase Digests  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite many advances in membrane proteomics during the last decade the fundamental problem of accessing the transmembrane regions itself has only been addressed to some extent. The present study establishes a method for the nano-LC-based analysis of complex membrane proteomes on the basis of a methanolic porcine pancreatic elastase digest to increase transmembrane coverage. Halobacterium salinarium purple and Corynebacterium glutamicum membranes were successfully analyzed by using the new protocol. We demonstrated that elastase digests yield a large proportion of transmembrane peptides, facilitating membrane protein identification. The potential for characterization of a membrane protein through full sequence coverage using elastase is there but is restricted to the higher abundance protein components. Compatibility of the work flow with the two most common mass spectrometric ionization techniques, ESI and MALDI, was shown. Currently better results are obtained using ESI mainly because of the low response of MALDI for strictly neutral peptides. New findings concerning elastase specificity in complex protein mixtures reveal a new prospect beyond the application in shotgun experiments. Furthermore peptide mass fingerprinting with less specific enzymes might be done in the near future but requires an adaptation of current search algorithms to the new proteases. PMID:19116210

Rietschel, Benjamin; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Meyer, Bjoern; Bornemann, Sandra; Schuerken, Malte; Karas, Michael; Poetsch, Ansgar

2009-01-01

191

Strong-cation-exchange sulfoethyl aspartamide chromatography for peptide mapping of Staphylococcus aureus V8 protein digests.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two recent reports (D. L. Crimmins, J. Gorka, R. S. Thoma, and B. D. Schwartz (1988) J. Chromatogr. 443, 63-71; A. J. Alpert and P. C. Andrews (1988) J. Chromatogr. 443, 85-96) a sulfoethyl aspartamide column was shown to efficiently analyze peptides less than 25 residues in length which differ in the number of nominal positive charges at pH 3.0. In particular, the elution order for a series of distinct peptides ranging in nominal charge from +1 to +7 was found to be monotonic in nature indicating that separation was primarily via a cation-exchange mechanism. The present study employs this chromatographic system to isolate and characterize major fragments of proteolytic digests. Six commercially available proteins of known sequence (myoglobin, beta-casein, concanavalin A, carbonic anhydrase, lentil lectin, and enolase) were digested with Staphylococcus aureus V8 to generate peptide fragments. The resulting mixture was chromatographed on a sulfoethyl aspartamide column to isolate major fragments which were then subjected to amino acid analysis and N-terminal sequencing. With complete proteolysis (i.e., peptide fragments terminating in either an aspartic or a glutamic acid) separation of the fragments should result from the sum of histidine, lysine, and arginine residues contained in each fragment. Most of the peptide fragments eluted at the expected time on the sulfoethyl aspartamide column. Those fragments with anomalous behavior resulted from incomplete cleavage or cleavage at nonacidic residues or were greater than 35 residues in length. Each proteolytic digest was also analyzed by standard reverse-phase C4 chromatography to compare the peptide maps for these two distinct chromatographic modes. PMID:2545105

Crimmins, D L; Thoma, R S; McCourt, D W; Schwartz, B D

1989-02-01

192

Improved cyclopropene reporters for probing protein glycosylation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclopropenes have emerged as a new class of bioorthogonal chemical reporters. These strained rings can be metabolically introduced into target biomolecules and covalently modified via mild cycloaddition chemistries. While versatile, existing cyclopropene scaffolds are inefficient reporters of protein glycosylation, owing to their branched structures and sluggish rates of reactivity. Here we describe a set of cyclopropenes for the robust detection of glycans on cell surfaces and isolated proteins. These scaffolds comprise carbamate linkages that are compatible with cellular biosynthetic pathways and exhibit rapid cycloaddition rates. Furthermore, these probes can be used in tandem with other classic bioorthogonal motifs-including azides and alkynes-to examine multiple biomolecules in tandem. PMID:24623192

Patterson, David M; Jones, Krysten A; Prescher, Jennifer A

2014-07-01

193

Compositions and methods for improved protein production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Steve Sungjin

2014-06-03

194

Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen undegradable protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: I. Soybean meal and SoyPlus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in rumen undegradable protein (RUP-AA) in soybean meal (SBM) and expeller SBM (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA; SP) and to determine if these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Three samples of SBM and 3 samples of SP were obtained from the Feed Analysis Consortium Inc. (Savoy, IL). To obtain the RUP fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of AA in the intact feeds and RUP-AA. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x [(100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)]/100]. Results indicated that standardized digestibility of feed-AA was similar to standardized digestibility of RUP-AA for SBM and SP samples and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differed within samples. Standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were lowest for Lys and Cys and highest for Trp and Met. Results also indicated that SBM and SP did not contain a constant protein fraction that was both undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine. Indigestibility values of RUR were lower than in intact feeds, suggesting that SBM and SP contain a protein fraction that is indigestible in the intestine but partly degradable in the rumen, digestible in the intestine after ruminal incubation, or both. PMID:19700710

Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

2009-09-01

195

Physicochemical Content, Metabolizable Energy and In-vitro Protein Digestibility of Wheat Screening Diet on Growth Rate of Broiler  

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Full Text Available In competitions by monogastric animal particular in poultry by consumption human food sources, high attempt should be made to find out new sources of feed that is not consumed by human. Wheat screening is one of the these sources of feed which need to be considered. Determination of physicochemical content, metabolizable energy (ME and protein digestibility may lead to elucidate the quality of this feed as well as arrangement in feed formulation of broiler ration. Physical content of two types of wheat screening (W. S. were tested by seed sorting system (grad 1 and 2, lots of straw, sand, dust, soil and none cereal seed were observed in wheat screening grads 2 compared with wheat screening grade 1. In addition 80% of wheat screening includes wheat screening grads 1 which content less Straw, soil, sand and none cereal seed. Otherwise metabolizable energy which was estimated by Sibbaled method was significantly higher (P<0.05, In W. S. grad 1 (2992.51 kcal/kg than grad 2 (2212.72 kcal/kg. Based on these finding wheat screening grads 1 was selected for broiler feeding. Crude protein and crude fibre (11.4 and 4.14% respectively in chemical composition of wheat screening grad 1 were determined by AOAC method. In-vitro protein digestibility 81.7% and digestible energy 2352.73 kcal/kg in wheat screening grad 1 were quiet desirable which evaluated by Fuller method. The effect of wheat screening grad 1 on growth rate of broiler, was examined by carried out an experiment which includes 320 day old unsexed Ross broiler chicken with (0, 10, 20 and 30% W. S.. No significantly differences were found in daily feed intake (DFI, daily growth rate (DGR, uniformity (UF and production index (PI in concern to different levels of wheat screening. The result of this study have shown that, it is possible to use wheat screening grad 1 in broiler ration, but the exact amount of this unconvencial feed source need to be clarify by further investigation.

A.A. Saki

2005-01-01

196

Homeobox leucine zipper proteins and cotton improvement  

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Transcription factors play key roles in plant development and stress responses through their interaction with cis-elements and/or other transcription factors. Homeodomain associated leucine zipper proteins (HD-Zip) constitute a family of transcription factors that are characterized by the presence of a DNA-binding domain closely linked with leucine zipper motif functioning in dimer formation. This type of a...

Muzna Zahur; Muhammad Ahsan Asif; Nadia Zeeshan; Sajid Mehmood; Muhammad Faheem Malik; Asif, Abdul R.

2013-01-01

197

Reducing agitation energy-consumption by improving rheological properties of corn stover substrate in anaerobic digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rheological properties of corn stover substrate were investigated to explore agitation energy reduction potential for different total solid (TS) in anaerobic digestion. The effects of particle size and temperature on rheological properties and corresponding energy reduction were studied. The results indicated that corn stover slurry exhibited pseudo-plastic flow behavior at TS of 4.23-7.32%, and was well described by Power-law model. At TS of 4.23%, rheological properties were not obviously affected by particle size and temperature. However, when TS was increased to 7.32%, there was 10.37% shear stress reduction by size-reduction from 20 to 80-mesh, and 11.73% shear stress reduction by temperature-increase from 25 to 55 °C. PTS was advanced as variations of power consumption by TS-increase from 4.23% to 7.32%. There was 9.2% PTS-reduction by size-reduction from 20 to 80-mesh at 35 °C. Moreover, PTS-reduction of 10.3%/10 °C was achieved at 20-mesh compared with 9.0%/10 °C at 80-mesh. PMID:24690465

Tian, Libin; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

2014-09-01

198

Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of gross energy and dry matter (DM and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal in compound diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582, and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

Igo Gomes Guimarães

2012-08-01

199

Effect of different drying methods on the myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile profile of squid fillets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (AD), and heat pump drying (HPD) on myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile compounds of squid (Todarodes pacificus) fillets were evaluated. Freeze-dried squids showed similar amino acid composition to that of raw squids, but differed from that of AD and HPD samples. The percentage of in vitro digestibility followed the order of FD (76.81%)>HPD (70.51%)>raw (67.99%)>AD (61.47%) samples. AD caused more damage to squid myosin structure than HPD, while FD effectively retained the myosin integrity. Drying decreased total number of volatile compounds, but increased the content of total volatile compounds based on GC×GC-TOFMS results. HPD and AD samples had the highest and lowest total numbers and contents of volatiles, respectively. In general, FD provided squids with the best quality, followed by HPD. Considering the production cost and product quality, HPD demonstrated the potential for industrial application. PMID:25308657

Deng, Yun; Luo, Yali; Wang, Yuegang; Zhao, Yanyun

2015-03-15

200

Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and dry matter (DM) and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal) in compou [...] nd diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582), and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

Igo Gomes, Guimarães; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Rosângela do Nascimento, Fernandes.

1801-18-01

 
 
 
 
201

Incubated protein reduction and digestion on an EWOD digital microfluidic chip for MALDI-MS  

Science.gov (United States)

Localized heating of droplets on an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) chip has been implemented and shown to accelerate trypsin digestion reaction rates, sample drying, and matrix crystallization for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Achieving this involved extending the functionality of previous EWOD droplet-based techniques by developing a multifunctional electrode with closed-loop temperature control, while minimizing overall system complexity, and addressing challenges associated with rapid evaporation. For the EWOD chip design, we discuss the performance of multifunctional surface electrodes for actuation, localized Joule heating, and thermistic temperature sensing. Furthermore, a hydrophilic pattern is formed in the multifunctional electrode to control the location of an evaporating droplet on the electrode. To demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of this technique, we performed three experiments and measured the results using MALDI-MS: (i) insulin disulfide reductions in DTT over a range of heater temperatures (22 to 70 °C) to show how reaction rates can be affected by thermal control, (ii) insulin disulfide reductions at 130 °C in DMSO to demonstrate a reaction in a high boiling point solvent, and (iii) tryptic digestions of cytochrome c at 22 and 40 °C to show that heated droplets can yield reasonably higher peptide sequence coverage than unheated droplets. Although they do not decouple the effects of changing temperatures and concentrations, these experiments verified that thermal cycling by EWOD electrodes accelerates reaction rates in liquid droplets in air. PMID:21058643

Nelson, Wyatt C.; Peng, Ivory; Lee, Geun-An; Loo, Joseph A.; Garrell, Robin L.; Kim, Chang-Jin "CJ"

2010-01-01

202

The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (plupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. PMID:22540870

Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

2013-08-01

203

The challenge of breeding for improved protein crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the traditional crops with seeds high in protein content belong to legumes and oilseeds. Nevertheless, cereals supply more than half the protein consumed by people. Breeding for better protein thus also means working with 'non-protein' crops. Moreover, the improvement of plant protein characteristics must be well fitted into complex, long-lasting breeding programmes. High grain yields as such may already contribute considerably to increased protein production per hectare, which is the more important as grains rich in protein generally show negative correlations to yield. In addition, realization of such genetic potentials requires high-level crop management. In view of rising costs and limited availability of nitrogen fertilizers more attention must be paid to biological nitrogen fixation, which recent data show to be very promising. Within the plant the metabolic pathway of the nitrogenous compounds is still widely unknown. Since it is also rather complex, plant breeders are not provided with simple selection criteria for the general improvement of seed protein storage. Nevertheless, apparent morphological changes or altered proportions of seed protein fractions have been detected. Utilization of such mono or oligogenic mutants has, however, frequently been hindered by negative pleiotropy. Thus the question must be asked whether these major protein variants widely used today are really the most promising sources for genetic protein improvement or what other menetic protein improvement or what other measures should be taken by plant breeders. Though chances for further and rapid progress are readily given, selection for improved protein will only be successful if the efforts are supported by the advice and competence of nutritionists. Finally a reasonable pricing policy must stimulate the agronomic realization of the new cultivars. (author)

204

Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers (213±4 kg) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to examine the combination of Optigen and U in a finishing diet containing different starch:acid detergent fibre ratios (S:F) on the characteristics of digestive function. Three S:F ratios (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0) were tested using a combination of U (0.80%) and Optigen (1.0%). Additionally, a treatment of 4.5 S:F ratio with urea (0.80% in ration) as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used to compare the effect of urea combination at same S:F ratio. The S:F ratio of the diet was manipulated by replacing the corn grain by dried distillers grain with solubles and roughage. Urea combination did not affect ruminal pH. The S:F ratio did not affect ruminal pH at 0 and 2 h post-feeding but, at 4 and 6 h, the ruminal pH decreased as the S:F ratio increased (linear, pOptigen resulted in positive effects on the MN flow and DE of the diet, but apparently these advantages are observed only when there is a certain proportion of starch:ADF in the diet. PMID:25049942

López-Soto, M A; Rivera-Méndez, C R; Aguilar-Hernández, J A; Barreras, A; Calderón-Cortés, J F; Plascencia, A; Dávila-Ramos, H; Estrada-Angulo, A; Valdes-García, Y S

2014-02-01

205

The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

206

Mass Spectrometry Characterization of the Thermal Decomposition/Digestion (TDD) at Cysteine in Peptides and Proteins in the Condensed Phase  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) of a rapid, reagentless and site-specific cleavage at the N-terminus of the amino acid cysteine (C) in peptides and proteins induced by the thermal decomposition at 220-250 °C for 10 s in solid samples. This thermally induced cleavage at C occurs under the same conditions and simultaneously to our previously reported thermally induced site-specific cleavage at the C-terminus of aspartic acid (D) (Zhang, S.; Basile, F. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 6, (5), 1700-1704). The C cleavage proceeds through cleavage of the nitrogen and ?-carbon bond (N-terminus) of cysteine and produces modifications at the cleavage site with an amidation (-1 Da) of the N-terminal thermal decomposition product and a -32 Da mass change of the C-terminal thermal decomposition product, the latter yielding either an alanine or ?-alanine residue at the N-terminus site. These modifications were confirmed by off-line thermal decomposition electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS) analyses and accurate mass measurements of standard peptides. Molecular oxygen was found to be required for the thermal decomposition and cleavage at C as it induced an initial cysteine thiol side chain oxidation to sulfinic acid. Similar to the thermally induced D cleavage, missed cleavages at C were also observed. The combined thermally induced digestion process at D and C, termed thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD), was observed on several model proteins tested under ambient conditions and the site-specificity of the method confirmed by MS/MS.

Basile, Franco; Zhang, Shaofeng; Kandar, Sujit Kumar; Lu, Liang

2011-11-01

207

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta / Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB) e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe) e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo) para beta (Betta splendens). Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários [...] de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário) para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held [...] in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium) for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Jener Alexandre Sampaio, Zuanon; Hamilton, Hisano; Dario Rocha, Falcon; Fernanda Garcia, Sampaio; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

208

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo para beta (Betta splendens. Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens. Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

2007-08-01

209

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta / Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB) e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe) e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo) para beta (Betta splendens). Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários [...] de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário) para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held [...] in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium) for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Jener Alexandre Sampaio, Zuanon; Hamilton, Hisano; Dario Rocha, Falcon; Fernanda Garcia, Sampaio; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

2007-08-01

210

Apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acid in feedstuffs used in Nile Tilapia feed as determined by the technique of dissection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal) in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of the Thai strain during the growt [...] h phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time) into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus) using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.

Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Patrícia de Souza Lima, Cunha; Sylvia Sanae, Takishita; Rafael Alves, Vianna.

1075-10-01

211

Apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acid in feedstuffs used in Nile Tilapia feed as determined by the technique of dissection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal) in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of the Thai strain during the growt [...] h phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time) into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus) using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.

Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Patrícia de Souza Lima, Cunha; Sylvia Sanae, Takishita; Rafael Alves, Vianna.

212

Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitated and characterized. 496 g of demineralized exoskeleton were obtained from 1 kg of shrimp shell; out of these, 376 g corresponded to chitin and 120 g corresponded to protein Total protein content was 33.80 ± 0.34 %. The digestible protein fractions were 26.7 g and 92.1 g were insoluble proteins. Of this latter fraction, the largest proportion belonged to the scleroprotein type. The amino acid profile analysis from the recovered proteins indicated that there were present nine amino acids out of the ten essential ones, being leucine the one with the highest proportion. In vitro digestibility was shown to be up to an 83.7 %. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the recovery of digestibleproteins from shrimp exoskeleton may be useful in diet formulation.

Escobedo-Lozano, A.Y.

2014-01-01

213

The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (Pdogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

2006-11-01

214

Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties  

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Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

2012-01-01

215

Digestibilidade aparente de dietas práticas com diferentes relações energia: proteína em juvenis de pirarucu / Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e energia de dietas para juvenis de pirarucu, Arapaima gigas. Foram testadas oito dietas, contendo quatro relações energia:proteína (11, 10,1, 9, 8 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta) e duas fontes de [...] energia não-protéica (óleo de soja e gordura de aves), em esquema fatorial 4x2, com três repetições. Foram estocados 240 juvenis de pirarucu com peso de 96,8±2,3 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques cilíndricos com fundo cônico, adaptados para a coleta de fezes (sistema Guelph modificado). Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade aparente com as dietas experimentais contendo 0,5% de óxido de cromo, como marcador inerte para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. As dietas com a relação energia:proteína de 9 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta apresentaram os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrativo não nitrogenado. O maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da gordura foi obtido com o uso do óleo de soja. A relação energia:proteína na dieta influencia os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos macronutrientes e energia no pirarucu. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of diets for pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) juveniles. Eight experimental diets containing four energy:protein ratios (11, 10.1, 9, 8 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein) and two non-protein energy [...] sources (soybean oil and poultry fat) were tested in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in triplicates. Two hundred and forty pirarucu juveniles weighting 96.8±2.3 g were distributed in 24 cylindrical-conical fiberglass tanks, adapted for feces collection (modified Guelph system). Fish were fed twice a day to apparent satiation, with experimental diets containing 0.5% of chromium oxide as inert marker in order to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients. Diets containing an energy:protein ratio of 9 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein resulted in significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, crude protein and non-nitrogenous extract. The highest apparent digestibility coefficients for crude fat was obtained with soybean oil. The dietary energy:protein ratio influences the nutrient and energy apparent digestibility coefficients to pirarucu juveniles.

Eduardo Akifumi, Ono; Érica da Silva Santiago, Nunes; Jimmy Carlos Campos, Cedano; Manoel, Pereira Filho; Rodrigo, Roubach.

2008-02-01

216

Improving protein secondary structure prediction with aligned homologous sequences.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most recent protein secondary structure prediction methods use sequence alignments to improve the prediction quality. We investigate the relationship between the location of secondary structural elements, gaps, and variable residue positions in multiple sequence alignments. We further investigate how these relationships compare with those found in structurally aligned protein families. We show how such associations may be used to improve the quality of prediction of the secondary structure el...

Di Francesco, V.; Garnier, J.; Munson, P. J.

1996-01-01

217

Improvement of seed protein in rice through mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mutants selected from an M4 generation on the basis of high yield potential and high grain protein content were grown in a preliminary yield trial. The two parent varieties, Faya Theresa and Kihogo Red, were grown as controls. Thirteen mutants originating from Faya Theresa and three mutants derived from Kihogo Red were found to be equal or superior in yield to the controls. The best improvement in protein content through mutagen treatment was 44% increase in a Faya Theresa mutant and 35% increase in a Kihogo Red mutant. The protein values obtained for the same mutants in the M3, M4 and M5 generations were found to be consistently higher than in the check varieties. Correlations between grain yield and yield attributes including seed protein per cent and protein per grain showed that these were mutagen-dependent. Grain yield showed negative correlations with protein per cent and protein per grain. However, a few mutants were found which combined high grain yield and high protein per cent. The correlation between protein per cent and protein per grain was positive and very highly significant. It was concluded that despite the high negative correlations between grain protein per cent and grain yield screening for high protein per cent in high-yielding mutants provides a great scope for the identification of the correlation breakers which combine high grain yield potential and high protein content. (author)in content. (author)

218

Identification of synergistic impacts during anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely investigated, but there is limited analysis of interaction between substrates. The objective of this work was to assess the role of carbohydrates, protein and lipids in co-digestion behaviour separately, and together. Two sets of batch tests were done, each set consisting of the mono-digestion of three substrates, and the co-digestion of seven mixtures. The first was done with pure substrates--cellulose, casein and olive oil--while in the second slaughterhouse waste--paunch, blood and fat--were used as carbohydrate, protein and lipid sources, respectively. Synergistic effects were mainly improvement of process kinetics without a significant change in biodegradability. Kinetics improvement was linked to the mitigation of inhibitory compounds, particularly fats dilution. The exception was co-digestion of paunch with lipids, which resulted in an improved final yield with model based analysis indicating the presence of paunch improved degradability of the fatty feed. PMID:25079207

Astals, S; Batstone, D J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Jensen, P D

2014-10-01

219

Characterization of Tannin and Study of in vitro Protein Digestibility and Mineral Profile of Sudanese and Indian Sorghum Cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, mineral profile, tannin content, and effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility , and separation and identification of free and bound phenolic acids of Sudanese sorghum cultivar (namely feterita) and Indian sorghum cultivar (namely CSH5). Chemical composition of the two sorghum cultivars was determined. Sudanese cultivar showed significantly (p<0.05) high moisture, ash, protein, and fat while Indian cultiva...

Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem; Muralikrishna, G.; El Tinay, A. H.; Mustafa, A. I.

2009-01-01

220

Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitat...

Escobedo-lozano, A. Y.; Me?ndez Go?mez, E.; Va?zquez-olivares, A. E.; Marti?nez-sa?nchez, H. F.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Improved understanding of pathogenesis from protein interactions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensive mapping and analysis of protein-protein interactions provide not only systematic approaches for dissecting the infection and survival mechanisms of pathogens but also clues for discovering new antibacterial drug targets. Protein interaction data on Mycobacterium tuberculosis have rapidly accumulated over the past several years. This review summarizes the current progress of protein interaction studies on M. tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. These efforts improve our knowledge on the stress response, signaling regulation, protein secretion and drug resistance of the bacteria. M. tuberculosis-host protein interaction studies, although still limited, have recently opened a new door for investigating the pathogenesis of the bacteria. Finally, this review discusses the importance of protein interaction data on identifying and screening new anti-tuberculosis targets and drugs, respectively. PMID:25327725

Cui, Tao; He, Zheng-Guo

2014-12-01

222

Quality Improvement Awards and Vocational Education Assessment. ERIC Digest No. 182.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality system awards offer blueprints for assessing quality in vocational education as well as in business and industry. The three most prestigious awards recognizing quality improvement in business and industry are the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award, Deming Application Prize, and ISO 9000 Registration. When comparing standards for the quality…

Brown, Bettina Lankard

223

Proteomic strategy for identifying mollusc shell proteins using mild chemical degradation and trypsin digestion of insoluble organic shell matrix: a pilot study on Haliotis tuberculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

A successful strategy for the identification of shell proteins is based on proteomic analyses where soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from organic shell matrix are digested with trypsin with the aim of generating peptides, which are used to identify novel shell proteins contained in databases. However, using trypsin as a sole degradative agent is limited by the enzyme's cleavage specificity and is dependent upon the occurrence of lysine and arginine in the shell protein sequence. To bypass this limitation, we investigated the ability of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a low-specificity chemical degradative agent, to generate clusters of analyzable peptides from organic shell matrix, suitable for database annotation. Acetic acid-insoluble fractions from Haliotis tuberculata shell were processed by trypsin followed by TFA digestion. The hydrolysates were used to annotate an expressed sequence tag library constructed from the mantle tissue of Haliotis asinina, a tropical abalone species. The characterization of sequences with repeat motifs featured in some of the shell matrix proteins benefited from TFA-induced serial cutting, which can result in peptide ladder series. Using the degradative specificities of TFA and trypsin, we were able to identify five novel shell proteins. This pilot study indicates that a mild chemical digestion of organic shell matrix combined with trypsin generates peptides suitable for proteomic analysis for better characterization of mollusc shell matrix proteins. PMID:22160345

Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Benjamin; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Marin, Frédéric; Milet, Christian

2012-08-01

224

Ambient DESI and LESA-MS Analysis of Proteins Adsorbed to a Biomaterial Surface Using In-Situ Surface Tryptic Digestion  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection and identification of proteins adsorbed onto biomaterial surfaces under ambient conditions has significant experimental advantages but has proven to be difficult to achieve with conventional measuring technologies. In this study, we present an adaptation of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with in-situ surface tryptic digestion to identify protein species from a biomaterial surface. Cytochrome c, myoglobin, and BSA in a combination of single and mixture spots were printed in an array format onto Permanox slides, followed by in-situ surface digestion and detection via MS. Automated tandem MS performed on surface peptides was able to identify the proteins via MASCOT. Limits of detection were determined for DESI-MS and a comparison of DESI and LESA-MS peptide spectra characteristics and sensitivity was made. DESI-MS images of the arrays were produced and analyzed with imaging multivariate analysis to automatically separate peptide peaks for each of the proteins within a mixture into distinct components. This is the first time that DESI and LESA-MS have been used for the in-situ detection of surface digested proteins on biomaterial surfaces and presents a promising proof of concept for the use of ambient MS in the rapid and automated analysis of surface proteins.

Rao, Wei; Celiz, Adam D.; Scurr, David J.; Alexander, Morgan R.; Barrett, David A.

2013-12-01

225

Influence of Strain of Chickens on Ileal Amino Acids Digestibility of Different Protein Sources  

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The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four protein sources (soyabean meal, fish silage, sardine fish and fishmeal) using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated; representing four different proteins sources and was evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-...

Kadim, I. T.; Al-marzooqi, W.; Mahgoub, O.

2011-01-01

226

Improvement of protein quality in grain legumes. An overview on mutational improvement of protein quality in pigeon pea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grain legumes provide an essential part of the diet in developing countries in terms of protein. Besides increasing production also improving the grain quality would be an important objective. The paper discusses the methodology for protein improvement in seeds of pigeon pea. Variety Hy-2 was irradiated with 20, 25, 30 and 35 Kr of gamma radiation and the M2 population was screened for total sulfur content

227

Kinetic analysis of the psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the production of proteins from extracted sunflower flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

A kinetic analysis of the anaerobic digestion process of wastewater derived from the production of protein isolates from extracted sunflower flour was carried out. The digestion was conducted in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor with saponite (magnesium silicate) as support for the mediating bacteria at psychrophilic temperature (15-19 degrees C). Soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD(s)) removal efficiencies in the range of 95.9-69.0% were achieved in the reactor at organic loading rates (OLR) of between 0.57 and 2.49 g total COD (COD(t))/L d, hydraulic retention times (HRT) of between 20.0 and 4.5 days, and average feed total COD concentration of 11.3 g/L. The yield coefficient of methane production was 0.32 L of methane (at STP) per gram of COD(t) removed. The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) levels and the TVFA/alkalinity ratio were lower than the suggested limits for digester failure for OLR and HRT up to 2.26 g COD(t)/L d and 5.0 days, respectively. The specific rate of substrate uptake, r (g COD(s)/g VSS d), correlated with the concentration of biodegradable substrate, S (g COD(s)/L), through an equation of the Michaelis-Menten type. The maximum substrate utilization rate, k, and the Michaelis constant, K(s)(), were found to be 0.125 g COD(s)/g VSS d and 124 mg COD(s)/L, respectively. This proposed model predicted the behavior of the reactor very accurately showing deviations lower than 10% between the experimental and theoretical values of substrate uptake rates. A mass (COD(t)) balance around the reactor allowed the COD equivalent of methane volume (W(CH)4) to be obtained, which gave a value of 2.89 g COD(t)/L CH(4), which was virtually coincident with the theoretical value of 2.86 g COD(t)/L CH(4). PMID:12137487

Borja, Rafael; González, Esther; Raposo, Francisco; Millán, Francisco; Martín, Antonio

2002-07-31

228

Effect of supplementation of mustard oil cake on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis of cattle in a straw-based diet in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of different levels of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis by supplementing mustard oil cake (MOC) on rice straw-based diet of cattle (Bos indicus) in Bangladesh. A 4 × 4 Latin square design was applied. Four diets having constant energy (7.0 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM)) with varying levels of RDP (M(0) = 4.1 g/MJ (control), M(1) = 6.3 g/MJ, M(2) = 8.3 g/MJ and M(3) = 12.4 g/MJ of metabolizable energy (ME)) were received by each animal for a period of 28 days. A metabolism trial was conducted for 7 days. Results indicate that with increasing levels of RDP, crude protein (CP) and RDP intake increased significantly (P < 0.01). The significant (P < 0.01) increase in digestibility values are obtained for DM, organic matter, CP and digestible organic matter in the rumen. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre was also increased significantly (P < 0.05). The total nitrogen (N), ammonia-N and total volatile fatty acids increase significantly (P < 0.01) while the rumen pH increased from M(0) to M(2) and decreased thereafter. The efficiency microbial N intake increased significantly (P < 0.01) but showed a curvilinear response with higher RDP level (12.40 g/RDP/MJ ME). This study concludes that supplementation of RDP from MOC enhances the intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis which ultimately increases utilization of low-quality feed resources that can be used for developing cost-effective feeding systems on a straw-based diet in tropical regions. PMID:21915618

Khandaker, Zahirul Haque; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Sultana, Nadira; Peters, Kurt J

2012-04-01

229

Effect of Protein to Energy Ratio on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Enzymatic Digestive Activity of Juvenile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus Reared in Seawater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible Protein to Energy ratio (P/E on growth performance, body composition and enzymatic digestive activity of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus reared in seawater. Six diets were evaluated (30, 23, 20, 15, 10 and 8 P/E on the growth, digestibility, body composition and enzymatic digestive activity of juvenile tilapia. The results indicated that the P/E ratios in diets, significantly affects the growth, survival, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, lipid content in the body and enzymatic digestive activity. Maximum body weight was recorded in the treatments with P/E ratios of 30, 23 and 20 (20.6, 23.7 and 25.7 g, respectively and minimum body weight (5.9 g was recorded with P/E ratio of 8. The FCR increased significantly in P/E levels of 15, 10 and 8 mg/kJ. In conclusion, the best P/E ratio to culture juvenile tilapia in seawater was estimated in 27 mg/kJ.

M.E. Rivas-Vega

2013-01-01

230

Facilitating protein disulfide mapping by a combination of pepsin digestion, electron transfer higher energy dissociation (EThcD), and a dedicated search algorithm SlinkS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disulfide bond identification is important for a detailed understanding of protein structures, which directly affect their biological functions. Here we describe an integrated workflow for the fast and accurate identification of authentic protein disulfide bridges. This novel workflow incorporates acidic proteolytic digestion using pepsin to eliminate undesirable disulfide reshuffling during sample preparation and a novel search engine, SlinkS, to directly identify disulfide-bridged peptides isolated via electron transfer higher energy dissociation (EThcD). In EThcD fragmentation of disulfide-bridged peptides, electron transfer dissociation preferentially leads to the cleavage of the S-S bonds, generating two intense disulfide-cleaved peptides as primary fragment ions. Subsequently, higher energy collision dissociation primarily targets unreacted and charge-reduced precursor ions, inducing peptide backbone fragmentation. SlinkS is able to provide the accurate monoisotopic precursor masses of the two disulfide-cleaved peptides and the sequence of each linked peptide by matching the remaining EThcD product ions against a linear peptide database. The workflow was validated using a protein mixture containing six proteins rich in natural disulfide bridges. Using this pepsin-based workflow, we were able to efficiently and confidently identify a total of 31 unique Cys-Cys bonds (out of 43 disulfide bridges present), with no disulfide reshuffling products detected. Pepsin digestion not only outperformed trypsin digestion in terms of the number of detected authentic Cys-Cys bonds, but, more important, prevented the formation of artificially reshuffled disulfide bridges due to protein digestion under neutral pH. Our new workflow therefore provides a precise and generic approach for disulfide bridge mapping, which can be used to study protein folding, structure, and stability. PMID:24980484

Liu, Fan; van Breukelen, Bas; Heck, Albert J R

2014-10-01

231

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properti...

Aleksandra Zambrowicz; Marta Pokora; Ewelina Eckert; Marek Szo?tysik; Anna D?browska; Józefa Chrzanowska; Tadeusz Trziszka

2012-01-01

232

Improvement of sewage sludge quality: Combination of ozone and anaerobic digestion processes for the removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH5) present in sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land application of sewage sludge is a choice disposal route for sustainable development. However, sludge quality has to be controlled in order to limit potential risks owing to the accumulation in agricultural soil of trace metals or trace organic pollutants. Amongst these organic compounds, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are particularly monitored because of their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Previous results have shown the partial removal of PAHs (50%) during anaerobic sludge stabilisation. The aim of this study was to optimize PAHs removal by combining anaerobic digestion with ozonation. Ozonation of anaerobically digested sludge improved the PAHs removal rate (61%). An additional enhancement of the PAHs removal rate was obtained by the addition of hydrogen peroxide during ozonation process. Similar performances (up to 81%) ware achieved by the use of surfactants which improved PAHs solubility in the aqueous phase. Finally, in order to evaluate the feasibility of the combination of the anaerobic digestion with ozonation, the biodegradability of the digested sludge ozonized in presence of surfactants and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was measured. (author)

Bernal-Martinez, A.; Carrere, H.; Patureau, D.; Delgenes, J.P.

2003-07-01

233

Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility / Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento [...] é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS), quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to es [...] timate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP), quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.

Rita de Cássia Oliveira, Sant' Ana; Fabrícia Queiroz, Mendes; Christiano Vieira, Pires; Maria Goreti de Almeida, Oliveira.

2011-08-01

234

Characterizing the range of extracellular protein post-translational modifications in a cellulose-degrading bacteria using a multiple proteolyic digestion/peptide fragmentation approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to play a significant role in many biological functions. The focus of this study is to optimize an integrated experimental/informatics approach to more confidently characterize the range of post-translational modifications of the cellulosome protein complex used by the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum to better understand how this protein machine is tuned for enzymatic cellulose solubilization. To enhance comprehensive characterization, the extracellular cellulosome proteins were analyzed using multiple proteolytic digests (trypsin, Lys-C, Glu-C) and multiple fragmentation techniques (collisionally activated dissociation, electron transfer dissociation, decision tree). As expected, peptide and protein identifications were increased by utilizing alternate proteases and fragmentation methods, in addition to the increase in protein sequence coverage. The complementarity of these experiments also allowed for a global exploration of PTMs associated with the cellulosome based upon a set of defined PTMs that included methylation, oxidation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and signal peptide cleavage. In these experiments, 85 modified peptides corresponding to 28 cellulosome proteins were identified. Many of these modifications were located in active cellulolytic or structural domains of the cellulosome proteins, suggesting a level of possible regulatory control of protein function in various cellulotyic conditions. The use of complementary proteolytic digestion/peptide fragmentation processes allowed for independent verification of PTMs in different experiments, thus leading to increased confidence in PTM identifications. PMID:23406086

Dykstra, Andrew B; Rodriguez, Miguel; Raman, Babu; Cook, Kelsey D; Hettich, Robert L

2013-03-19

235

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 ?molGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

Aleksandra Zambrowicz

2012-12-01

236

Latex proteins from the plant Calotropis procera are partially digested upon in vitro enzymatic action and are not immunologically detected in fecal material.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soluble proteins from the latex of Calotropis procera (LP) were investigated in vitro and in vivo for digestibility as the latex has previously been shown to produce considerable toxic effects on animals. The latex is also an important biologically active compound that displays antiinflammatory and antidiarrhea properties. The proteins were digested by the action of trypsin, pepsin or chemotrypsin as revealed by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE analysis. Furthermore, the full LP digestion was easily achieved by protease treatment. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against LP failed to detect cross-reactive molecules in fecal material of experimental rats following 35 consecutive days of LP consumption in water. Similar patterns of electrophoresis were observed for the negligible amounts of protein observed in the fecal extracts of control and test animals. No death or toxic effects were observed among animals. Taken together these results suggest that harmful and toxic effects on animals of the latex from C. procera are present in its rubber and low molecular weight fractions rather than its protein content. PMID:16581200

Ramos, Márcio V; Aguiar, Valéria C; da Silva Xavier, Ana A; Lima, Michael W; Bandeira, Glaís P; Etchells, J Peter; Nogueira, Nádia A P; Alencar, Nylane M N

2006-06-01

237

Exigência de treonina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo / Digestible threonine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings using ideal protein concept  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações com 1,35% de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos de tilápia, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial d [...] e 1,64 ± 0,03 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições, e doze peixes por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações com diversas relações treonina:lisina digestível (69,0; 74,0; 79,0; 84,0 e 89,0%) e relação metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 70,0% e uma ração com relação treonina:lisina digestível de 84,0% e de metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 75,0%, todas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais, e alimentados à vontade, seis vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a composição corporal, as deposições de proteína e gordura e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. O consumo de ração, o teor de proteína corporal e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com a relação treonina:lisina na ração, contudo, não foram influenciados pelo aumento da relação metionina + cistina:lisina da ração. Os níveis de treonina total ou digestível que proporcionaram os melhores resultados de desempenho em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo foram de 1,11 e 0,99%, enquanto os níveis que promoveram melhor deposição de proteína corporal foram de 1,43 e 1,28%, que correspondem às relações treonina:lisina total de 71,0 e 69,0% e treonina:lisina digestível de 90,0 e 89,0%. Abstract in english The effects of digestible threonine levels, based on ideal protein concept in diets with 1.35% of digestible lysine on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings performance. Four hundred thirty two reverted Nile tilapia, Thailand strain, with initial weight of 1.64 ± 0.03 g, were allotted to [...] completely randomized design, with six diets and six replications with twelve fishes each. The five diets, isoenergetic isoproteic, consisted of various threonine:digestible lysine ratio (69.0, 74.0, 79.0, 84.0, and 89.0%) and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine ratio of 70.0% and one diet with threonine:digestible lysine of 84.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine of 75.0%. The fish were kept in 36 aquariums of 130 L, equipped with water supply, controlled temperature and individual aeration, and ad libitum fed six times a day for 30 days. Performance, body composition, protein and fat depositions and nitrogen retention efficiency of fishes were evaluated. Consumption of feed, body protein content and body protein deposition increased in a linear fashion in accordance to threonine:digestible lysine in the diet, however, was not affected by the increase of dietary methionine + cystine:digestible lysine. Total or digestible threonine levels that provided the best results of performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings were 1.11 and 0.99%, while the levels that promoted better body protein deposition were 1.43 and 1.28%, which correspond to threonine:total lysine ratio of 71.0 and 69.0% and threonine:digestible lysine of 90.0 and 89.0%.

Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Wagner Azis Garcia de, Araújo.

238

Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins. PMID:25069136

Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

2014-07-01

239

An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization for Protein Folding Prediction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we combine particle swarm optimization (PSO and levy flight to solve the problem of protein folding prediction, which is based on 3D AB off-lattice model. PSO has slow convergence speed and low precision in its late period, so we introduce levy flight into it to improve the precision and enhance the capability of jumping out of the local optima through particle mutation mechanism. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is turned to be an effective way to analyze protein structure.

Xin Chen

2011-02-01

240

Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. These countries experience serious shortages of animal feeds and fodders of the conventional type. Natural forages are very variable both in quality and quantity, conventional agro-industrial by-products are scarce and vary seasonal, and grains are required almost exclusively for human consumption. The small farmers in developing countries have limited resources available to them for feeding their ruminant livestock. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Providing adequate good-quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Recent advances in ration balancing include manipulation of feed to increase the quantity and quality of protein and energy delivered to the small intestine. Selection of feeds based on high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with the high dry matter digestibility, and development of feeding strategies based on high efficiency as well as high microbial protein synthesis in the rumen will lead to higher supply of protein post-ruminally. The strategy for improving production has therefore been to maximize the efficiency of utilization of available feed resources in the rumen by providing optimum conditions for microbial growth and thereby supplementing dietary nutrients to complement and balance the products of rumen digestion to the animal's requirement

 
 
 
 
241

Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa / The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternati [...] vos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados. Abstract in english Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as t [...] hose suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days) and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

Maria Júlia de Miguel, Amistá; Olga Luisa, Tavano.

2013-03-01

242

Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2011-05-15

243

Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of using diluted HNO 3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO 3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L - 1 ) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L - 1 HNO 3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L - 1 . Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L - 1 ) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

Bizzi, Cezar A.; Barin, Juliano S.; Garcia, Edivaldo E.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Flores, Erico M. M.

2011-05-01

244

Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of using diluted HNO3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L-1) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L-1 HNO3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L-1. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L-1) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

245

Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein (CP) after passing the rumen, the intestines and the total gastro-intestinal (GI) tract in grass and grass silages were determined with the two-step mobile nylon bag technique and a two-step in vitro...

Cone, J. W.; Gelder, A. H.; Mathijssen-kamman, A. A.; Hindle, V. A.

2006-01-01

246

Estimated requirements of net energy, digestible protein and NDF intake of young Chianina bulls from 400 kg liveweight to slaughter  

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Full Text Available Three equations have been elaborated and proposed to predict the requirements of net energy and protein digestible in the intestine and NDF voluntary intake of growing young Chianina bulls, starting from 400 kg live weight. The animals examined in the present study were 100 young Chianina bulls starting from about 400 kg live weight, at 10 months of age, up to the average slaughter weight of 800 kg at 20 months average age. The diet was based on hay and concentrates. The equation for the prediction of net energy fits quite perfectly to another experimental equation formerly proposed by Giorgetti and is characterised by a very high value of the correlation coefficient for the regression comparison between observed and predicted figures (R2=0.90. The statistical reliance degree of the PDIN prediction equation is lower, but still very good (R2=0.75 between observed and predicted values, but that of the estimate of NDF daily intake resulted very poor (R2=0.26 between observed and predicted values, probably due to the non homogeneity of the intake capacity of the 100 examined animals. The correlation between daily gains and the concentration of NDF in the diet DM results good (R2=0.87, showing that young Chianina bulls take advantage of the diet fibre. Further useful indications on the nutritional and dietary requirements of young Chianina bulls are added to the scarce information currently available.

Arianna Buccioni

2010-01-01

247

Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein  

Science.gov (United States)

It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

2011-09-01

248

AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS  

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Full Text Available Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition their transformation in net milk protein, lysine and methionine accordingly amounted to 0.67, 0,83 and 0,82. The most significant changes in the concentration of methionine, proline, glutamate, glutamine, glycine were observed in cows before calving and immediately after birth, stabilization of their level starts with a 24 lactation day, that is connected with the peculiarities of the feeding behavior of the cows and the gradual intensification of the processes of metabolism and milk production. To control the status of protein metabolism we have offered benchmarks compositions of free amino acids in cows’ blood plasma phases: 21-0 days before calving, 0-21 and 22-120 days after calving

Ryadchikov V. G.

2014-02-01

249

Purification and antioxidant properties of octapeptide from salmon byproduct protein hydrolysate by gastrointestinal digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pectoral fin protein from salmon processing byproduct was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Neutrase, pepsin, Protamex, and trypsin, and the peptic hydrolysate showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant peptide was purified using consecutive chromatography. The purified antioxidant peptide was identified to be Phe-Leu-Asn-Glu-Phe-Leu-His-Val with molecular weight of 1018.48 Da by time of flight-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) analysis. The IC50 values against DPPH and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation radical scavenging activity were 486 and 152 ?M, respectively, and the octapeptide showed strong ferric reducing power. In addition, the octapeptide showed significant (p<0.05) protection ability against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage and hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatic damage in Chang liver cells. Taken together, the pectoral fin protein hydrolysate and/or its active peptides may be useful ingredients in functional food. PMID:24206688

Ahn, Chang-Bum; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Je, Jae-Young

2014-03-15

250

Improvements in growth performance, bone mineral status and nutrient digestibility in pigs following the dietary inclusion of phytase are accompanied by modifications in intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytase (PHY) improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility and bone structure in pigs; however, little is known about its effects on intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. In the present study, a 44 d experiment was carried out using forty-eight pigs (11·76 (sem 0·75) kg) assigned to one of three dietary treatment groups to measure growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID), coefficient of apparent total tract nutrient digestibility (CATTD) and intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. Dietary treatments during the experimental period were as follows: (1) a high-P (HP) diet containing 3·4 g/kg available P and 7·0 g/kg Ca; (2) a low-P (LP) diet containing 1·9 g/kg available P and 5·9 g/kg Ca; (3) a PHY diet containing LP diet ingredients+1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of PHY. The PHY diet increased the average daily gain (Pgrowth performance and nutrient digestibility as well as increases the gene expression of the peptide transporter PEPT1. PMID:24998244

Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres; O'Shea, Cormac J; Browne, John A; O'Doherty, John V

2014-09-14

251

Physicochemical Content, Metabolizable Energy and In-vitro Protein Digestibility of Wheat Screening Diet on Growth Rate of Broiler  

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In competitions by monogastric animal particular in poultry by consumption human food sources, high attempt should be made to find out new sources of feed that is not consumed by human. Wheat screening is one of the these sources of feed which need to be considered. Determination of physicochemical content, metabolizable energy (ME) and protein digestibility may lead to elucidate the quality of this feed as well as arrangement in feed formulation of broiler ration. Physical content of two typ...

Saki, A. A.; Alipana, A.

2005-01-01

252

Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and <i>in Vitro</i> Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra) were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich frac...

Florence Suma Pushparaj; Asna Urooj

2011-01-01

253

Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment and a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap. The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de-açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia/sulfato de amônio para conterem 10% de proteína bruta. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 240 kg ± 15 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 5 × 5. Foram realizadas coletas totais de fezes, abomasal e dois esvaziamentos pela manhã. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho apresentaram maiores digestibilidades ruminal da proteína e intestinal do extrato etéreo, taxas de ingestão, passagem e de digestão da matéria seca, justificando os maiores consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp. As maiores taxas de passagem nos animais alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura justificam os maiores consumos de matéria seca e FDNcp em relação ao observado com o fornecimento de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Animais consumindo dietas contendo silagem de milho apresentam maiores taxas de passagem da matéria seca e digestão da FDNcp. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, armazenada ou não, favorecem o consumo e a taxa de passagem da matéria seca, em relação a dietas com cana ensilada. O uso de cal na ensilagem não melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem a taxa de passagem da dieta. A cana-de-açúcar armazenada por 72 horas possui características digestíveis semelhantes às da cana-de-açúcar in natura.

Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes

2011-05-01

254

Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage / Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de- [...] açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia/sulfato de amônio para conterem 10% de proteína bruta. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 240 kg ± 15 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 5 × 5. Foram realizadas coletas totais de fezes, abomasal e dois esvaziamentos pela manhã. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho apresentaram maiores digestibilidades ruminal da proteína e intestinal do extrato etéreo, taxas de ingestão, passagem e de digestão da matéria seca, justificando os maiores consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp). As maiores taxas de passagem nos animais alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura justificam os maiores consumos de matéria seca e FDNcp em relação ao observado com o fornecimento de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Animais consumindo dietas contendo silagem de milho apresentam maiores taxas de passagem da matéria seca e digestão da FDNcp. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, armazenada ou não, favorecem o consumo e a taxa de passagem da matéria seca, em relação a dietas com cana ensilada. O uso de cal na ensilagem não melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem a taxa de passagem da dieta. A cana-de-açúcar armazenada por 72 horas possui características digestíveis semelhantes às da cana-de-açúcar in natura. Abstract in english It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment a [...] nd a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap). The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.

Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Felipe Antunes, Magalhães; Rilene Ferreira Diniz, Valadares; Lays Débora, Mariz; Edenio, Detmann; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Maria Ignez, Leão.

1104-11-01

255

Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lemna protein concentrate (LPC; 68.0% CP) is produced by extracting protein from de-oiled and dehydrated biomaterials from plants of the Lemnaceae family and may be used as a protein source for animals. There are, however, no published data on the nutritional value of LPC fed to pigs. Three experiments were, therefore, conducted to determine the concentration of ME, the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in LPC and to compare these values to values for fish meal and soybean meal (SBM). Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the ME of LPC, fish meal, SBM, and corn. Thirty-two barrows (initial BW: 16.8 ± 2.8 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to a randomized complete block design with 4 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 3 diets that contained corn and LPC, fish meal, or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples were analyzed for GE. Results indicated that the concentration of ME was not different among corn, fish meal, and SBM (3,855, 3,904, and 4,184 kcal/kg DM, respectively), but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for a reduced ME in LPC (3,804 kcal/kg DM) compared with SBM. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (initial BW: 12.5 ± 2.5 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 3 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet and used to determine the STTD of P in LPC, fish meal, and SBM. Three diets that each contained 1 of the 3 test ingredients as the sole source of P were formulated. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages, and feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in LPC (72.8%) was not different from the STTD of P in fish meal (65.6%), but tended (P = 0.07) to be greater than in SBM (62.8%). The SID of AA in LPC, SBM, and fish meal was determined in Exp. 3. Eight barrows (initial BW: 21.4 ± 4.0 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. A N-free diet and 3 cornstarch-based diets in which SBM, SBM and LPC or SBM and fish meal were the only sources of AA were formulated. The SID of most indispensable AA was greater (P < 0.05) in fish meal than in LPC, but the overall SID of AA was not different between fish meal and LPC. In conclusion, the ME and the STTD of P are not different between LPC and fish meal, but there is a tendency for greater ME in SBM than in LPC, whereas the STTD of P tends to be greater in LPC than in SBM. The SID of the most indispensable AA is greater in fish meal than in LPC. PMID:25349364

Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

2014-11-01

256

Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously.

Nielsen, Jens

2013-01-01

257

Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processing methods  

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Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, atividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados.Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein digestibility. Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima were submitted to the following treatments, which were carried out in quadruplicate: used raw; boiled for 5, 10, and 15 minutes; and steamed for 10 minutes. Next, the seeds were freeze-dried, grinded, and stored at room temperature until the analyses were completed. There was no significant difference among the treatments as for the levels of polyphenols. The raw seeds showed the highest content of cyanide, smallest level of trypsin inhibitor, and smallest protein digestibility. The 10-minute boiling resulted in the lowest content of saponins and greatest protein digestibility. No Hemaglutinin activity was detected in the samples. It can be concluded that the 10-minute boiling was the treatment that produced better results.

Luciana de Paula Naves

2010-05-01

258

Prey envenomation does not improve digestive performance in Taiwanese pit vipers (Trimeresurus gracilis and T. stejnegeri stejnegeri).  

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It has been a common belief that snake venom may help in the digestion of its prey, although direct examples and supporting evidence have not been sufficient. To address this, the present study examined whether preinjecting natural amounts of pit viper venom into experimental mice may accelerate their digestion by the snakes or gain energy benefit as compared to the control without the envenomation. Live adults of two Asian pit viper species Trimeresurus gracilis and T. stejnegeri stejnegeri, which inhabit the cold and warm environment respectively, were the subjects studied herein. A natural dose of 1.2 mg of each of the pit viper venom in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected into the mouse (about 10% of the snake mass) before it was being fed to the same species of vipers, while the pit vipers in control group were given mouse injected with sterile PBS. The snakes were kept at 14 degrees C or 24 degrees C, and parameters of gut passage time, costs of digestion, and/or digestive efficiency were measured. The results did not support the hypotheses that envenomation facilitates prey digestion. The venom in fact caused longer first defecation time and lower assimilation energy at 14 degrees C. Besides, the time to reach the oxygen consumption peak, and the first defecation time of T. s. stejnegeri were longer than that of T. gracilis. PMID:19256079

Chu, Chia-Wei; Tsai, Tein-Shun; Tsai, Inn-Ho; Lin, Yao-Sung; Tu, Ming-Chung

2009-04-01

259

Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP), total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), cassava (Manihot esculenta), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and rami [...] e (Boehmeria nivea), and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP) and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation). For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

Lidia Ferreira, Miranda; Norberto Mario, Rodriguez; Elzânia Sales, Pereira; Augusto César de, Queiroz; Roberto Daniel, Sainz; Patrícia Guimarães, Pimentel; Miguel Marques, Gontijo Neto.

260

Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP), total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), cassava (Manihot esculenta), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and rami [...] e (Boehmeria nivea), and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP) and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation). For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

Lidia Ferreira, Miranda; Norberto Mario, Rodriguez; Elzânia Sales, Pereira; Augusto César de, Queiroz; Roberto Daniel, Sainz; Patrícia Guimarães, Pimentel; Miguel Marques, Gontijo Neto.

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Detecting Protein Complexes by an Improved Affinity Propagation Algorithm in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks  

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Full Text Available Identification of protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks is important in understanding cellular processes. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm, named by Overlapped Affinity Propagation (OAP, which is based on Affinity Propagation algorithm (AP to detect protein complexes. First, AP algorithm is adopted to obtain a hard partition of the network. Then the candidate overlapping proteins for each community are identified. Finally, a strategy is constructed with an immediate purpose to filter noise in these detected protein complexes. We apply the OAP to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPI network, and the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can discover protein complexes with high precision by compared with the AP, MCL, CoAch and CPM algorithms. Our proposed method is validated as an effective algorithm in identifying protein complexes and can provide more insights for future biological study.

Yu Wang

2012-07-01

262

Can understanding the packing of side chains improve the design of protein-protein interactions?  

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With the long-term goal to improve the design of protein-protein interactions, we have begun extensive computational studies to understand how side-chains of key residues of binding partners geometrically fit together at protein-peptide interfaces, e.g. the tetratrico-peptide repeat protein and its cognate peptide). We describe simple atomic-scale models of hydrophobic dipeptides, which include hard-core repulsion, bond length and angle constraints, and Van der Waals attraction. By completely enumerating all minimal energy structures in these systems, we are able to reproduce important features of the probability distributions of side chain dihedral angles of hydrophic residues in the protein data bank. These results are the crucial first step in developing computational models that can predict the side chain conformations of residues at protein-peptide interfaces.

Zhou, Alice; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

2011-03-01

263

IMPROVEMENT OF COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGY OF TABLETS WITH SUNFLOWER PROTEIN  

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Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the improvement of composition and technology of tablets with plant proteins. As objects of research were chosen natural compounds: sunflower protein and immunomodulator (mix-factor. The manufacturing of tablets has been performed with preliminary wet granulation. Substitution of moisturizer from purified water to mixfactor. During the studies the new composition of immunomodulatory tablets has been developed, which meets SPU requirements, water substitution to mixfactor as a moisturizer has been justified, the optimum parameters of technological process have been determined, on the basis of experimental data it has been set that the granules are tablettable with addition of a binder.

Mansky A. A.

2014-01-01

264

Prolonged ingestion of prehydrolyzed whey protein induces little or no change in digestive enzymes, but decreases glutaminase activity in exercising rats.  

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Because consumption of whey protein hydrolysates is on the increase, the possibility that prolonged ingestion of whey protein hydrolysates affect the digestive system of mammals has prompted us to evaluate the enzymatic activities of pepsin, leucine-aminopeptidase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and glutaminase in male Wistar rats fed diets containing either a commercial whey isolate or a whey protein hydrolysate with medium degree of hydrolysis and to compare the results with those produced by physical training (sedentary, sedentary-exhausted, trained, and trained-exhausted) in the treadmill for 4 weeks. The enzymatic activities were determined by classical procedures in all groups. No effect due to the form of the whey protein in the diet was seen in the activities of pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and leucine-aminopeptidase. Training tended to increase the activity of glutaminase, but exhaustion promoted a decrease in the trained animals, and consumption of the hydrolysate decreased it even further. The results are consistent with the conclusion that chronic consumption of a whey protein hydrolysate brings little or no modification of the proteolytic digestive system and that the lowering of glutaminase activity may be associated with an antistress effect, counteracting the effect induced by training in the rat. PMID:20482282

Nery-Diez, Ana Cláudia C; Carvalho, Iara R; Amaya-Farfán, Jaime; Abecia-Soria, Maria Inés; Miyasaka, Célio K; Ferreira, Clécio da S

2010-08-01

265

Using gross energy improves metabolizable energy predictive equations for pet foods whereas undigested protein and fiber content predict stool quality.  

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Because animal studies are labor intensive, predictive equations are used extensively for calculating metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations of dog and cat pet foods. The objective of this retrospective review of digestibility studies, which were conducted over a 7-year period and based upon Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) feeding protocols, was to compare the accuracy and precision of equations developed from these animal feeding studies to commonly used predictive equations. Feeding studies in dogs and cats (331 and 227 studies, respectively) showed that equations using modified Atwater factors accurately predict ME concentrations in dog and cat pet foods (r²=?0.97 and 0.98, respectively). The National Research Council (NRC) equations also accurately predicted ME concentrations in pet foods (r²?=?0.97 for dog and cat foods). For dogs, these equations resulted in an average estimate of ME within 0.16% and 2.24% of the actual ME measured (equations using modified Atwater factors and NRC equations, respectively); for cats these equations resulted in an average estimate of ME within 1.57% and 1.80% of the actual ME measured. However, better predictions of dietary ME in dog and cat pet foods were achieved using equations based on analysis of gross energy (GE) and new factors for moisture, protein, fat and fiber. When this was done there was less than 0.01% difference between the measured ME and the average predicted ME (r²?=?0.99 and 1.00 in dogs and cats, respectively) whereas the absolute value of the difference between measured and predicted was reduced by approximately 50% in dogs and 60% in cats. Stool quality, which was measured by stool score, was influenced positively when dietary protein digestibility was high and fiber digestibility was low. In conclusion, using GE improves predictive equations for ME content of dog and cat pet foods. Nondigestible protein and fiber content of diets predicts stool quality. PMID:23342151

Hall, Jean A; Melendez, Lynda D; Jewell, Dennis E

2013-01-01

266

In situ ruminal degradation of amino acids and in vitro protein digestibility of undegraded CP of dried distillers' grains with solubles from European ethanol plants.  

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The objectives of this study were to compare the in situ ruminal degradation of CP and amino acids (AAs) of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), and to estimate intestinal digestibility (ID) of undegradable crude protein (UDP) with the in vitro pepsin-pancreatin solubility of CP (PPS), using either DDGS samples (DDGS-s) or DDGS residues (DDGS-r) obtained after 16 h ruminal incubation. Thirteen samples originating from wheat, corn, barley and blends were studied. Lysine and methionine content of DDGS-s varied from 1.4 to 4.0 and 1.3 to 2.0 g/16 g N, respectively. The milk protein score (MPS) of DDGS-s was low and ranged from 0.36 to 0.51, and lysine and isoleucine were estimated to be the most limiting AAs in DDGS-s and DDGS-r. DDGS-r contained slightly more essential AAs (EAAs) than did the DDGS-s. Rumen degradation after 16 h varied from 44% to 94% for CP, from 39% to 90% for lysine and from 35% to 92% for methionine. Linear regressions showed that the ruminal degradation of individual AAs can be predicted from CP degradation. The PPS of DDGS-s was higher than that of DDGS-r and it varied from 70% to 89% and from 47% to 81%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the PPS of DDGS-s and PPS of DDGS-r (R 2=0.31). The estimated intestinally absorbable dietary protein (IADP) averaged 21%. Moderate correlation was found between the crude fibre (CF) content and PPS of DDGS-r (R 2=0.43). This study suggests an overestimation of the contribution of UDP of DDGS to digestible protein supply in the duodenum in some currently used protein evaluation systems. More research is required and recommended to assess the intestinal digestibility of AAs from DDGS. PMID:24237671

Westreicher-Kristen, E; Steingass, H; Rodehutscord, M

2013-12-01

267

[The use of the mobile bag technique in swine. Determination of the apparent crude protein digestibility and amino acid absorption of feed and rations].  

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The mobile bag technique (MBT) was used in two ileorectostomized and two intact pigs with duodenal cannulae, in order to estimate the precaecal and total crude protein digestibility and amino acid (lysine, methionine, cystine, threonine, tryptophan) absorption of ten single feedstuffs (field bean, lupin, rapeseed meal, fish meal, barley, wheat) and three diets. For each feed 36 bags were applied per animal. After a peptic predigestion in vitro, application of the bags through the duodenal cannula into the intestine and their passage through the gut, the residues remaining in the bags were pooled to collective samples and just as the original feed material analysed on dry matter, nitrogen and amino acids. The directly determined MBT-digestibilities (BV) and the values obtained by regressive calculations (BVb) have been compared with apparent digestibilities (sV) conducted from conventional digestion experiments. 74 per cent of all BV data was higher than the corresponding sV values. Similarities of BV with sV showed in 58 per cent, those of BVb with sV only in 17 per cent. In all cases differences of > +/- 4 digestibility units showed. Checking additivity of diet-BV by means of calculations from the BV of their single ingredients did not generally lead to the same results as the directly estimated diet-BV; in some cases the results were contrary. Therefore the use of MBT for mixed feed diets has to be further investigated. For single feedstuffs the MBT can be used successfully as a rapid and simple technique when regressive calculations are employed. PMID:1296552

Borgmann, E; Wünsche, J; Souffrant, W B; Schadereit, R

1992-01-01

268

Protein sources and digestive enzyme activities in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) / Fontes protéicas e atividade de enzimas digestivas em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As enzimas digestivas influenciam a utilização dos alimentos em peixes, e seu conhecimento é importante para otimizar a formulação de dietas. Este trabalho descreve a atividade de enzimas digestivas em juvenis de jundiá alimentados com fontes protéicas. Os peixes foram alimentados com seis dietas (9 [...] 0 dias): MBY (farinha de carne e ossos + levedura de cana), SY (farelo de soja + levedura de cana), S (farelo de soja), MBS (farinha de carne e ossos + farelo de soja), FY (farinha de peixe + levedura de cana) e FS (farinha de peixe + farelo de soja). A cada 30 dias, foram analisadas as enzimas digestivas (tripsina, quimiotripsina e amilase) no intestino. No estômago, foi mensurada a protease ácida. Foram estimados os índices digestivo e hepato-somático, quociente intestinal, comprimento do trato digestório e ganho em peso. As atividades de tripsina e quimiotripsina foram maiores (p Abstract in english Digestive enzymes activity influence feed utilization by fish, and its understanding is important to optimize diet formulation. This study reports the digestive enzyme activities of jundiá juveniles fed diets with protein sources. Fish were fed six experimental diets for 90 days: MBY (meat and bone [...] meal + sugar cane yeast), SY (soybean meal + sugar cane yeast), S (soybean meal), MBS (meat and bone meal + soybean meal), FY (fish meal + sugar cane yeast) and FS (fish meal + soybean meal), and then sampled every 30 days and assayed in two intestine sections for digestive enzymes - trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase - activities; gastric protease was assayed in the stomach. Digestive and hepatosomatic index, intestinal quotient, digestive tract length and weight gain were also measured. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were higher (p

Rafael, Lazzari; João, Radünz Neto; Fabio de Araújo, Pedron; Vania Lucia, Loro; Alexandra, Pretto; Carolina Rosa, Gioda.

269

Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel / Intestinal protein digestibility of by-products from biodiesel industry  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI) da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não deg [...] radados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR), proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR). A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine intestinal protein digestibility (ID) of some biodiesel by-products in the form of cakes and the meals. Eight by-products were: cakes and meals of physic nut, turnip, lupine, cotton cake, cottonseed meal. The by-products were incubated in the rumen for [...] 16 hours, were the undegradable rumen residues were submitted to enzymatic digestion with pepsin and pancreatin solution for the determination of ID. In the incubation residues the following was also determined: dry matter degradability (RD), rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP). The intestinal protein digestibility of biodiesel by-products ranged from 2.4 to 48.6%. All the by-products evaluated in this study were characterized as high protein sources and were considered high-RDP. The by-products presented low intestinal protein digestibility. The ID protein of biodiesel by-products was higher in the cakes than the meals. The by-products evaluated, the cottonseed cake and meal presented the highest ID coefficients.

G.S., Couto; J.C., Silva Filho; A.D., Corrêa; E.A., Silva; R.M.P., Pardo; C., Esteves.

270

Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel Intestinal protein digestibility of by-products from biodiesel industry  

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Full Text Available Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não degradados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR, proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI.The objective of this research was to determine intestinal protein digestibility (ID of some biodiesel by-products in the form of cakes and the meals. Eight by-products were: cakes and meals of physic nut, turnip, lupine, cotton cake, cottonseed meal. The by-products were incubated in the rumen for 16 hours, were the undegradable rumen residues were submitted to enzymatic digestion with pepsin and pancreatin solution for the determination of ID. In the incubation residues the following was also determined: dry matter degradability (RD, rumen degradable protein (RDP and rumen undegradable protein (RUP. The intestinal protein digestibility of biodiesel by-products ranged from 2.4 to 48.6%. All the by-products evaluated in this study were characterized as high protein sources and were considered high-RDP. The by-products presented low intestinal protein digestibility. The ID protein of biodiesel by-products was higher in the cakes than the meals. The by-products evaluated, the cottonseed cake and meal presented the highest ID coefficients.

G.S. Couto

2012-10-01

271

Emulsification of algal oil with soy lecithin improved DHA bioaccessibility but did not change overall in vitro digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil emulsification facilitates digestive lipolysis and subsequent lipid bioaccessibility. This study aimed to understand the effects of emulsification on DHA-rich algal oil digestion and bioaccessibility. An oil/water emulsion (50?:?44?:?6 oil-water-soy lecithin) was subjected to an in vitro digestion model with gastric pH 1.6 or 4.0 and particle size distributions, duodenal stage lipolysis and DHA bioaccessibility were determined. The emulsion was destabilized at gastric pH 1.6, with subsequent slow duodenal lipolysis. With gastric pH 4.0, the emulsion structure remained intact, initial lipolysis proceeded rapidly and DHA bioaccessibility was higher than for bulk oil, a mixture of oil, water and soy lecithin, and the gastric pH 1.6 destabilized emulsion (p < 0.05). However, the extent of lipolysis was not affected by emulsification or gastric pH. Therefore, the presence of an intact emulsion at the start of duodenal digestion, while not impacting the extent of lipolysis, did impact the initial lipolysis and DHA bioaccessibility. PMID:25208938

Lin, Xinjie; Wang, Qi; Li, Weili; Wright, Amanda J

2014-10-22

272

Sustainable energy development strategies in the rural Thailand: The case of the improved cooking stove and the small biogas digester  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the strategies to overcome barriers to the adoption of improved cooking stove (ICS) and small biogas digester (SBD) technologies in Thailand. Firstly, to obtain the appropriate strategies to implement the ICS and the SBD, a pattern of energy consumption in the residential sector is investigated. Then the potential of reduction of energy consumption and corresponding emissions by the ICS and the SBD is assessed. The identification and ranking of barriers to the adoption of the ICS and the SBD technologies are also investigated. In this study the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used to assess the energy consumption and the corresponding emissions reduction. Then, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is used to identify and rank the barriers. Results from the LEAP model show that the cumulative total energy consumption and corresponding emissions reductions during the period 2002-2030 by the ICS are 27,887.7 ktoe and 10,041.0 thousand tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent, respectively. An average emissions reduction cost per tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent per year is US$ 0.95 for a fuel wood cooking stove and US$ 0.35 for a charcoal cooking stove. Regarding the SBD, the cumulative total liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption reduction and CO{sub 2} mitigation are 5780.9ktoe and 1548.8 thousand tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent during the period 2002-2030, respectively. Results from AHP analysis of ranking of barriers show that the three most important barriers in the adoption of the ICS are (i) high investment cost, (ii) lack of information, and (iii) lack of financial sources. For the SBD, the three most important barriers are (i) high investment cost, (ii) lack of financial sources, and (iii) lack of experts and skilled manpower. The sustainable energy triangle strategy (SETS) is implemented to overcome barriers in the adoption of the ICS. Results show that the traditional cooking stoves are successfully replaced (more than 20% per year). Regarding the SBD, the biogas pool project (BPP) is implemented to resolve the over supply of biogas. Results also show that the BPP is a proper strategy. (author)

Limmeechokchai, Bundit [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22 Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Chawana, Saichit [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2007-06-15

273

Improving the Performance of an HMM for Protein Family Modelling  

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Full Text Available A hidden Markov model for protein modelling consists of sub-models for alpha-helix, beta-sheets, coil and possibly more. It is described how to estimate the model parameters as a whole from labeled sequences instead of estimating the parameters from the individual parts independently from subsequences. It is argued that the standard maximum likelihood ML estimation is not the optimal for training such model. In this study a new method is used where instead of estimating the parameters of model that maximizing the probability of the protein sequences (ML, we maximize the probability of the correct labels prediction, such a criterion is called conditional maximum likelihood CML. The advantage of this method is to optimize recognition of model. We tested our method on some of protein families such as L-asparagines, we noted that the performance of HMM is improved in prediction process.

Mohamed Hamza El-Sayed

2007-01-01

274

Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55°C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and/or free NH3) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3)d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm(3)/kg VS(fed). On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500-680 dm(3)/kg VS(fed)). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials. PMID:25002371

Bayr, S; Ojanperä, M; Kaparaju, P; Rintala, J

2014-10-01

275

Effect of exogenous cellulase enzyme on feed digestibility in lamb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous enzyme on digestibility and N retention in lamb. Eight lambs were randomly allocated to 2 experiment group in group comparison design trial. Experimental treatments were: 1) CTL (No enzyme) and 2 50NZ (Mixed enzyme with high cellulase at 50g/100kg.feed). The digestibility study showed that Exogenous enzyme increased (P<0.05) dry matter and crude protein digestibility of treated lamb compared to those of control. A similar trend (P=0.11) was observed for the NDF digestibility. Mean values for dry matter digestibility were 57.86 and 69.83% and for protein digestibility were 64.76 and 73.38%, for CTL and 50NZ, respectively). The N intake was similar among treatment, averaging 22.57g/head/day. Percent N retained of 50 NZ treated lambs was higher (P<.05) than those of CTL group (mean value were 47.74 and 59.07 for CTC and 50NZ, respectively). Feed efficiency or feed conversion ratio was numerically improved for enzyme-treated groups. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence that mixed cellulase enzyme can be used to improver performance of lambs as compare to non-enzyme diet.

276

Seed protein improvement in wheat by mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several nutritional surveys conducted in different areas in Pakistan have shown the prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition, especially among young children. However, there is no evidence of overall deficiency of protein resources in the country on a national basis. The available data are entirely inadequate to draw a definite conclusion about the extent of malnutrition in the country, and to plan a strategy for improving the diet of vulnerable groups. The common meal of the low income groups consists of Dal-Roti, which is a spiced pulse soup and pan bread. It is therefore essential to improve the protein content of the pulses and wheat in order to overcome malnutrition. The average yield per acre of pulses in Pakistan is very low, and it is particularly important to evolve high yielding, improved grain quality varieties of the popular pulses which have been hitherto largely neglected. Studies on the improvement of various local and exotic varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mung (Phaseolus aureus), through induced mutation, have yielded several high yielding and high protein mutants. These mutant lines are being further investigated for the confirmation of their variant traits. Single plant selections of mung bean made from the M2 generation on the basis of their plant type, habit of growth, maturity time, grain yield and disease resistance are under critical observation. Other pulses, e.g. Cicer arietinum, Lens esculenta and Phaseolus mungo havem, Lens esculenta and Phaseolus mungo have also been included in the programme; however the breeding work on these crops is still in the preliminary stages. (author)

277

Breeding for improved plant architecture and high protein yields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been increasingly recognized that the problem of protein malnutrition in many developing countries is closely correlated with inadequate intake of calories. Breeding for higher grain yields, therefore, continues to be a major objective of agricultural research in these countries. It follows that studies on nutritional improvement of foodgrains must also be planned with the objective of harvesting more protein per hectare combined with high grain yields. As far as cereal crops like wheat and rice are concerned, significant advances have been made in recent years in developing high yielding cultivars, which show an improved plant type marked by resistance to lodging and a high harvest index. Experimental approaches that can be used to increase the protein content of grains in these varieties are reviewed. The position in the case of grain legumes is quite different. The foremost requirement in their case is to develop high-yielding varieties similar to those of the cereal crops and the possibilities that exist in this regard are very great. The concept of improved plant type is even more relevant for increasing their yields. The existing cultivars of these crops have been selected more for adaptation to stress conditions rather than for high yields and in this process they have acquired a bushy, spreading and indeterminate growth habit combined with late maturity. A major requirement is to reconstruct the plant type to improve the grain-straw ratio, generate response to higher plant populations per unit area, and to fit these crops into multiple and inter-cropping patterns. Using these concepts it has been possible to evolve new ideotypes and improve the yields of several species of grain legumes both through hybridization and induced mutations. Some of these results are reviewed. (author)

278

Binding affinity between dietary polyphenols and ?-lactoglobulin negatively correlates with the protein susceptibility to digestion and total antioxidant activity of complexes formed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-covalent interactions between ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) and polyphenol extracts of teas, coffee and cocoa were studied by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy at pH values of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The biological implications of non-covalent binding of polyphenols to BLG were investigated by in vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestibility assay and ABTS radical scavenging activity of complexes formed. The polyphenol-BLG systems were stable at pH values of the GIT. The most profound effect of pH on binding affinity was observed for polyphenol extracts rich in phenolic acids. Stronger non-covalent interactions delayed pepsin and pancreatin digestion of BLG and induced ?-sheet to ?-helix transition at neutral pH. All polyphenols tested protected protein secondary structure at an extremely acidic pH of 1.2. A positive correlation was found between the strength of protein-polyphenol interactions and (a) half time of protein decay in gastric conditions (R(2)=0.85), (b) masking of total antioxidant capacity of protein-polyphenol complexes (R(2)=0.95). PMID:23194522

Stojadinovic, Marija; Radosavljevic, Jelena; Ognjenovic, Jana; Vesic, Jelena; Prodic, Ivana; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

2013-02-15

279

Glycosylation: impact, control and improvement during therapeutic protein production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The emergence of the biopharmaceutical industry represented a major revolution for modern medicine, through the development of recombinant therapeutic proteins that brought new hope for many patients with previously untreatable diseases. There is a ever-growing demand for these therapeutics that forces a constant technological evolution to increase product yields while simultaneously reducing costs. However, the process changes made for this purpose may also affect the quality of the product, a factor that was initially overlooked but which is now a major focus of concern. Of the many properties determining product quality, glycosylation is regarded as one of the most important, influencing, for example, the biological activity, serum half-life and immunogenicity of the protein. Consequently, monitoring and control of glycosylation is now critical in biopharmaceutical manufacturing and a requirement of regulatory agencies. A rapid evolution is being observed in this context, concerning the influence of glycosylation in the efficacy of different therapeutic proteins, the impact on glycosylation of a diversity of parameters/processes involved in therapeutic protein production, the analytical methodologies employed for glycosylation monitoring and control, as well as strategies that are being explored to use this property to improve therapeutic protein efficacy (glycoengineering). This work reviews the main findings on these subjects, providing an up-to-date source of information to support further studies. PMID:23919242

Costa, Ana Rita; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

2014-12-01

280

An improved method for scoring protein-protein interactions using semantic similarity within the gene ontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Semantic similarity measures are useful to assess the physiological relevance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs. They quantify similarity between proteins based on their function using annotation systems like the Gene Ontology (GO. Proteins that interact in the cell are likely to be in similar locations or involved in similar biological processes compared to proteins that do not interact. Thus the more semantically similar the gene function annotations are among the interacting proteins, more likely the interaction is physiologically relevant. However, most semantic similarity measures used for PPI confidence assessment do not consider the unequal depth of term hierarchies in different classes of cellular location, molecular function, and biological process ontologies of GO and thus may over-or under-estimate similarity. Results We describe an improved algorithm, Topological Clustering Semantic Similarity (TCSS, to compute semantic similarity between GO terms annotated to proteins in interaction datasets. Our algorithm, considers unequal depth of biological knowledge representation in different branches of the GO graph. The central idea is to divide the GO graph into sub-graphs and score PPIs higher if participating proteins belong to the same sub-graph as compared to if they belong to different sub-graphs. Conclusions The TCSS algorithm performs better than other semantic similarity measurement techniques that we evaluated in terms of their performance on distinguishing true from false protein interactions, and correlation with gene expression and protein families. We show an average improvement of 4.6 times the F1 score over Resnik, the next best method, on our Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPI dataset and 2 times on our Homo sapiens PPI dataset using cellular component, biological process and molecular function GO annotations.

Jain Shobhit

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Effect of physical treatment of rapeseed expeller, wheat, corn and corn gluten feed on the degradability in the rumen and the enzymatic in vitro digestibility of nondegraded crude proteins].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of physical treatment-expansion and flaking-on crude proteins degradability in the rumen was studied in maize, maize-gluten feed, rape extracted meal and in the expanded one at 120 degrees C and 150 degrees C, rape cake, wheat and flaked wheat by in sacco method. The enzymatic digestibility of crude protein in the rumen undegraded residues of the above mentioned feeds was determined by an enzymatically in vitro method. The treatment of feed decreased significantly the original solubility and theoretical degradability of crude proteins, and the amount of undegraded crude proteins was increased. Positive influence on the amount of enzymatically digested crude protein was determined in rape expanded at 120 degrees C and 150 degrees C (60, 61 and/or 68%). Flaking of wheat had a similar effect. Enzymatic digestibility at undegraded rests where increased by 8-10% after the heat treatment and it remained almost unchanged in expanded maize-gluten feed. PMID:7717847

Sommer, A; Chrenková, M; Ceresnaková, Z; Peisker, M

1994-01-01

282

Níveis de proteína digestível e energia digestível em dietas para tilápias-do-nilo formuladas com base no conceito de proteína ideal Level of digestible protein and digestible energy in diets for Nile tilapia formulated based on the concept of ideal protein  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação energia digestível/proteína digestível em rações formuladas com base em aminoácidos digestíveis e aplicando-se do conceito de proteína ideal para juvenis (30,0 ± 4,21 g de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram formuladas 12 rações com 22,0; 26,0; 30,0 ou 34,0% de proteína digestível e 3.000, 3.300 ou 3.600 kcal/kg de energia digestível, com relação proteína digestível/energia digestível variando entre 8,94 e 15,19 kcal/g. Foram utilizadas 324 tilápias, distribuídas aleatoriamente em 36 aquários circulares com volume de 250 litros, em densidade de 9 peixes/aquário, perfazendo 12 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Ao final de 60 dias, não foi observada diferença no ganho de peso, no ganho de peso diário e na conversão alimentar entre as relações energia/proteína avaliadas. Entretanto, observou-se aumento linear do rendimento de filé com o aumento dos níveis de proteína digestível. O custo de ração por kg de ganho de peso foi menor nos peixes alimentados com a ração com 30,0% PD e 3.000 kcal/kg ED, os quais apresentaram também melhor índice de eficiência econômica. A energia digestível não influenciou o desempenho produtivo, portanto, é possível a utilização de níveis inferiores a 34,0% proteína digestível em rações com base no conceito de proteína ideal para juvenis de tilápia.This study was carried out to determine the best digestible energy and digestible protein ratio in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus juveniles 30.0 ± 4.21 g based on digestible amino acids and the ideal protein concept. Twelve rations were formulated with protein levels 22.0; 26.0; 30.0 and 34.0% of digestible protein and levels 3,000, 3,300 and 3,600 kcal/kg digestible energy. The digestible energy/digestible protein ratio was between 8.94 and 15.19 kcal/g. Three hundred and twenty four tilapias were randomly distributed in thirty six 250 L circular tanks at a density of 9 fish/tank, a total of 12 treatments with three replications. After 60 days, there was no significant difference in weight gain, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the studied treatments. A linear increase was observed in fillet yield with increasing digestible protein. With respect to feed cost/kg weight gain, the treatment with 30.0% DP and 3,000 kcal/kg DE presented low cost and better cost effectiveness index. Therefore, it was concluded that digestible energy did not influence the productive performance parameters and that effective feeds can be formulated with DP levels lower than 34% when feeding juvenile tilapias. The ration should be formulated based on the concept of ideal protein.

Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves

2009-12-01

283

Differential proteomic analysis using isotope-coded protein-labeling strategies: comparison, improvements and application to simulated microgravity effect on Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among differential proteomic methods based on stable isotopic labeling, isotope-coded protein labeling (ICPL) is a recent non-isobaric technique devised to label primary amines found in proteins. ICPL overcomes some of the disadvantages found in other chemical-labeling techniques, such as iTRAQ or ICAT. However, previous analyses revealed that more than 30% of the proteins identified in regular ICPL generally remain unquantified. In this study, we describe a modified version of ICPL, named Post-digest ICPL, that makes it possible to label and thus to quantify all the peptides in a sample (bottom-up approach). Optimization and validation of this Post-digest ICPL approach were performed using a standard protein mixture and complex protein samples. Using this strategy, the number of proteins that were identified and quantified was greatly increased in comparison with regular ICPL and cICAT approaches. The pros and cons of this improvement are discussed. This complementary approach to traditional ICPL was applied to the analysis of modification of protein abundances in the model bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 after cultivation under simulated microgravity. In this context, two different systems - a 2-D clinorotation and 3-D random positioning device - were used and the results were compared and discussed. PMID:20391527

Leroy, Baptiste; Rosier, Caroline; Erculisse, Vanessa; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max; Wattiez, Ruddy

2010-06-01

284

Digestibilidade aparente de alimentos proteicos e energéticos para Trichogaster leeri / Apparent digestibility of protein and energy sources for "Trichogaster leeri"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido para determinar digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da matéria seca (MS), energia bruta (EB) e proteína bruta (PB) da farinha de peixe (FP), farinha de carne e ossos (FCO), farelo de soja (FS), farelo de milho (FM) e farelo de trigo (FT) pelo Trichogaster leeri. Foram utilizad [...] os 20 peixes por aquário. Os aquários eram cilíndricos, fundo cônico, com 100 litros cada. A determinação dos CD foi feita por intermédio da metodologia de coleta total de fezes. As médias de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e pH durante o período experimental foram de 25,0 ± 1,13 oC; 3,91 ± 0,91mg/L e 5,22 ± 0,87, respectivamente. Os CD da MS, PB e EB foram respectivamente de 68,63, 89,25 e 87,30 para FP; 54,90, 65,95 e 80,62 para FCO; 60,13, 82,19 e 85,46 para FS; 39,30, 89,87 e 89,74 para FM; 22,5,17,45 e 19,54 para FT. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted to determine the apparent digestibility (CAD) the dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) for fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), soybean meal (SM), corn meal (CM) and wheat bran (WB) for Trichogaster leeri. It used 20 fish/tank of cylindrical sha [...] pe with conical bottom, of 100 liters. CDA analysis was done through the method of total collection of feces. Average water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 25,0 ± 1,13 oC; 3,91 ± 0,91mg/L e 5,22 ± 0,87, respectively. CAD of CP, GE and DM were 68,63, 89,25 and 87,30 for FM; 54,90, 65,95 and 80,62 for MBM; 60,13, 82,19 and 85,46 for SM; 39,30, 89,87 and 89,74 for CM; 22,5,17,45 and 19,54 for WB, respectively.

William Cristiane Teles, Tonini; Marcelo Fanttini, Polese; Matheus Lima da Costa, Abreu; Douglas da Cruz, Matos; Manuel Vazquez, Vidal Júnior; Dalcio Ricardo, Andrade.

285

Digestibilidade aparente de alimentos proteicos e energéticos para Trichogaster leeri / Apparent digestibility of protein and energy sources for "Trichogaster leeri"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido para determinar digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da matéria seca (MS), energia bruta (EB) e proteína bruta (PB) da farinha de peixe (FP), farinha de carne e ossos (FCO), farelo de soja (FS), farelo de milho (FM) e farelo de trigo (FT) pelo Trichogaster leeri. Foram utilizad [...] os 20 peixes por aquário. Os aquários eram cilíndricos, fundo cônico, com 100 litros cada. A determinação dos CD foi feita por intermédio da metodologia de coleta total de fezes. As médias de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e pH durante o período experimental foram de 25,0 ± 1,13 oC; 3,91 ± 0,91mg/L e 5,22 ± 0,87, respectivamente. Os CD da MS, PB e EB foram respectivamente de 68,63, 89,25 e 87,30 para FP; 54,90, 65,95 e 80,62 para FCO; 60,13, 82,19 e 85,46 para FS; 39,30, 89,87 e 89,74 para FM; 22,5,17,45 e 19,54 para FT. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted to determine the apparent digestibility (CAD) the dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) for fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), soybean meal (SM), corn meal (CM) and wheat bran (WB) for Trichogaster leeri. It used 20 fish/tank of cylindrical sha [...] pe with conical bottom, of 100 liters. CDA analysis was done through the method of total collection of feces. Average water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 25,0 ± 1,13 oC; 3,91 ± 0,91mg/L e 5,22 ± 0,87, respectively. CAD of CP, GE and DM were 68,63, 89,25 and 87,30 for FM; 54,90, 65,95 and 80,62 for MBM; 60,13, 82,19 and 85,46 for SM; 39,30, 89,87 and 89,74 for CM; 22,5,17,45 and 19,54 for WB, respectively.

William Cristiane Teles, Tonini; Marcelo Fanttini, Polese; Matheus Lima da Costa, Abreu; Douglas da Cruz, Matos; Manuel Vazquez, Vidal Júnior; Dalcio Ricardo, Andrade.

2012-06-01

286

Characterizing the Range of Extracellular Protein Post-Translational Modifications in a Cellulose-Degrading Bacteria Using a Multiple Proteolyic Digestion/Peptide Fragmentation Approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to play a significant role in many biological functions. The focus of this study is to characterize the post-translational modifications of the cellulosome protein complex used by the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum to better understand how this protein machine is tuned for enzymatic cellulose solubilization. To enhance comprehensive characterization, the extracellular cellulosome proteins were analyzed using multiple proteolytic digests (trypsin, Lys-C, Glu-C) and multiple fragmentation techniques (collisionally-activated dissociation, electron transfer dissociation, decision tree). As expected, peptide and protein identifications were increased by utilizing alternate proteases and fragmentation methods, in addition to the increase in protein sequence coverage. The complementarity of these experiments also allowed for a global exploration of PTMs associated with the cellulosome based upon a set of defined PTMs that included methylation, oxidation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and signal peptide cleavage. In these experiments, 85 modified peptides corresponding to 28 cellulosome proteins were identified. Many of these modifications were located in active cellulolytic or structural domains of the cellulosome proteins, suggesting a level of possible regulatory control of protein function in various cellulotyic conditions. The use of multiple enzymes and fragmentation technologies allowed for independent verification of PTMs in different experiments, thus leading to increased confidence in PTM identifications.

Dykstra, Andrew B [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Cook, Kelsey [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

2013-01-01

287

Degradação ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína bruta de alimentos para bovinos / Rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in feeds for cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi conduzido com os objetivos de determinar as frações A e B e a taxa de degradação ruminal (Kd) da matéria seca (MS) e da proteína bruta (PB) de 27 alimentos e avaliar a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína nãodegradada no rúmen pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três está [...] gios. Os alimentos avaliados foram farelos de arroz, babaçu, gérmen de milho e trigo; milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, milho desintegrado com sabugo, milho, polpa cítrica, sorgo, amireia, farelos de algodão com 28, 38 e 46% de PB, farelos de amendoim, girassol e soja; feijão-bandinha, glúten de milho, grão de soja, levedura, promil, refinazil, cascas de cacau, café e soja e silagens de capim-elefante e milho. Para obtenção da degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB dos alimentos, utilizaram-se sacos de náilon de 10 × 20 cm e os tempos de incubação de 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 e 72 horas. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os dados de degradação ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína bruta, em sua maioria, estão de acordo com a literatura. A técnica dos três estágios não estimou de forma satisfatória a digestibilidade interstinal de todos os alimentos estudados em conjunto, mas foi adequada para os alimentos proteicos. A maioria dos alimentos possui aproximadamente 90% de digestibilidade da PB, com exceção das cascas de soja, café e cacau e das silagens de milho e capimelefante. A técnica de três estágios estimou corretamente a digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos proteicos, mas recomenda-se a utilização da equação DIPB (%) = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X para corrigir a digestibilidade obtida pela técnica dos três estágios para alimentos não-proteicos. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to determine the A and B fractions and the rumen degradation rate (Kd) of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) in 27 feeds and determine the intestinal digestibility of non-degraded rumen protein by the three steps and mobile nylon bag techniques. Rice meal, [...] babassu meal, wheat and corn germ, ground corn cobs and straw, ground corn cobs, corn, citrus pulp, sorghum, starea and cottonseed meal with 28, 38 and 46% CP, peanut meal, sunflower meal, soybean meal, bean byproduct, corn gluten, soybean grain, dry yeast, corn gluten meal, cacao hulls, coffee hulls, soybean hulls, elephant-grass silage and corn silage were sampled. To obtain the ruminal degradation of DM and CP, 10 × 20 cm nylon bags with incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours were used. The intestinal digestibility was determined by the three steps and the mobile nylon bag techniques. The ruminal degradation data of the dry matter and crude protein were similar to the literature. The three step technique did not estimate properly the intestinal digestibility of all the feeds evaluated, excepted for the protein feeds. Most feeds had total CP digestibility close to 90%, excepted for soybean, coffee and cacao hulls and elephant-grass and corn silage. The three step technique correctly estimated the intestinal digestibility of the protein feeds, but the equation IDCP (%) = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X is recommended to correct the digestibility obtained by the three steps technique for non-protein feeds.

Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares, Rilene Ferreira Diniz; Silva, Luiz Fernando Costa e; Fonseca, Mozart Alves.

288

Degradação ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína bruta de alimentos para bovinos Rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in feeds for cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com os objetivos de determinar as frações A e B e a taxa de degradação ruminal (Kd da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB de 27 alimentos e avaliar a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína nãodegradada no rúmen pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os alimentos avaliados foram farelos de arroz, babaçu, gérmen de milho e trigo; milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, milho desintegrado com sabugo, milho, polpa cítrica, sorgo, amireia, farelos de algodão com 28, 38 e 46% de PB, farelos de amendoim, girassol e soja; feijão-bandinha, glúten de milho, grão de soja, levedura, promil, refinazil, cascas de cacau, café e soja e silagens de capim-elefante e milho. Para obtenção da degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB dos alimentos, utilizaram-se sacos de náilon de 10 × 20 cm e os tempos de incubação de 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 e 72 horas. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os dados de degradação ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína bruta, em sua maioria, estão de acordo com a literatura. A técnica dos três estágios não estimou de forma satisfatória a digestibilidade interstinal de todos os alimentos estudados em conjunto, mas foi adequada para os alimentos proteicos. A maioria dos alimentos possui aproximadamente 90% de digestibilidade da PB, com exceção das cascas de soja, café e cacau e das silagens de milho e capimelefante. A técnica de três estágios estimou corretamente a digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos proteicos, mas recomenda-se a utilização da equação DIPB (% = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X para corrigir a digestibilidade obtida pela técnica dos três estágios para alimentos não-proteicos.The objective of the present study was to determine the A and B fractions and the rumen degradation rate (Kd of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP in 27 feeds and determine the intestinal digestibility of non-degraded rumen protein by the three steps and mobile nylon bag techniques. Rice meal, babassu meal, wheat and corn germ, ground corn cobs and straw, ground corn cobs, corn, citrus pulp, sorghum, starea and cottonseed meal with 28, 38 and 46% CP, peanut meal, sunflower meal, soybean meal, bean byproduct, corn gluten, soybean grain, dry yeast, corn gluten meal, cacao hulls, coffee hulls, soybean hulls, elephant-grass silage and corn silage were sampled. To obtain the ruminal degradation of DM and CP, 10 × 20 cm nylon bags with incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours were used. The intestinal digestibility was determined by the three steps and the mobile nylon bag techniques. The ruminal degradation data of the dry matter and crude protein were similar to the literature. The three step technique did not estimate properly the intestinal digestibility of all the feeds evaluated, excepted for the protein feeds. Most feeds had total CP digestibility close to 90%, excepted for soybean, coffee and cacao hulls and elephant-grass and corn silage. The three step technique correctly estimated the intestinal digestibility of the protein feeds, but the equation IDCP (% = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X is recommended to correct the digestibility obtained by the three steps technique for non-protein feeds.

Marcos Inácio Marcondes

2009-11-01

289

Degradação ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína bruta de alimentos para bovinos / Rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in feeds for cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi conduzido com os objetivos de determinar as frações A e B e a taxa de degradação ruminal (Kd) da matéria seca (MS) e da proteína bruta (PB) de 27 alimentos e avaliar a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína nãodegradada no rúmen pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três está [...] gios. Os alimentos avaliados foram farelos de arroz, babaçu, gérmen de milho e trigo; milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, milho desintegrado com sabugo, milho, polpa cítrica, sorgo, amireia, farelos de algodão com 28, 38 e 46% de PB, farelos de amendoim, girassol e soja; feijão-bandinha, glúten de milho, grão de soja, levedura, promil, refinazil, cascas de cacau, café e soja e silagens de capim-elefante e milho. Para obtenção da degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB dos alimentos, utilizaram-se sacos de náilon de 10 × 20 cm e os tempos de incubação de 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 e 72 horas. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os dados de degradação ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína bruta, em sua maioria, estão de acordo com a literatura. A técnica dos três estágios não estimou de forma satisfatória a digestibilidade interstinal de todos os alimentos estudados em conjunto, mas foi adequada para os alimentos proteicos. A maioria dos alimentos possui aproximadamente 90% de digestibilidade da PB, com exceção das cascas de soja, café e cacau e das silagens de milho e capimelefante. A técnica de três estágios estimou corretamente a digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos proteicos, mas recomenda-se a utilização da equação DIPB (%) = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X para corrigir a digestibilidade obtida pela técnica dos três estágios para alimentos não-proteicos. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to determine the A and B fractions and the rumen degradation rate (Kd) of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) in 27 feeds and determine the intestinal digestibility of non-degraded rumen protein by the three steps and mobile nylon bag techniques. Rice meal, [...] babassu meal, wheat and corn germ, ground corn cobs and straw, ground corn cobs, corn, citrus pulp, sorghum, starea and cottonseed meal with 28, 38 and 46% CP, peanut meal, sunflower meal, soybean meal, bean byproduct, corn gluten, soybean grain, dry yeast, corn gluten meal, cacao hulls, coffee hulls, soybean hulls, elephant-grass silage and corn silage were sampled. To obtain the ruminal degradation of DM and CP, 10 × 20 cm nylon bags with incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours were used. The intestinal digestibility was determined by the three steps and the mobile nylon bag techniques. The ruminal degradation data of the dry matter and crude protein were similar to the literature. The three step technique did not estimate properly the intestinal digestibility of all the feeds evaluated, excepted for the protein feeds. Most feeds had total CP digestibility close to 90%, excepted for soybean, coffee and cacao hulls and elephant-grass and corn silage. The three step technique correctly estimated the intestinal digestibility of the protein feeds, but the equation IDCP (%) = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X is recommended to correct the digestibility obtained by the three steps technique for non-protein feeds.

Marcos Inácio, Marcondes; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Edenio, Detmann; Rilene Ferreira Diniz, Valadares; Luiz Fernando Costa e, Silva; Mozart Alves, Fonseca.

2247-22-01

290

Digestibility marker and ileal amino acid digestibility in phytase-supplemented soybean or canola meals for growing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments using soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) were conducted to investigate whether the choice of digestibility marker influenced the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N and AA in diets supplemented with phytase. In each experiment, 18 barrows fitted with T-cannulas at the ileocecal junction were assigned to 3 diets consisting of a N-free diet to determine endogenous losses of N and AA, a semipurified diet (SBM in Exp. 1 or CM in Exp. 2), and the semipurified diet supplemented with phytase at 1,000 phytase units/kg. Three digestibility markers including acid-insoluble ash (AIA), chromic oxide (Cr2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to each diet at 3 g/kg. Each diet was fed for 7 d, consisting of a 5-d adjustment and a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. In both studies, basal ileal endogenous losses determined with Cr2O3 as a digestibility marker were lower (P < 0.01) than with those determined with AIA or TiO2 digestibility markers. Using SBM as the protein source in Exp. 1, there was no interaction between phytase and digestibility marker on AID or SID of AA. The AID of N and AA in SBM using AIA as a digestibility marker tended to be lower (P < 0.1) compared with Cr2O3 or TiO2 digestibility markers. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.001) the AID of Ca and P. The use of AIA or Cr2O3 digestibility marker tended to be associated with lower (P < 0.1) SID values compared with TiO2. Phytase did not affect the SID of N or any AA in SBM except for Met, for which there was an increase (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Using CM as the protein source in Exp. 2, there were significant interactions between digestibility marker and phytase. Phytase supplementation had effects (P < 0.01) on AID or SID when Cr2O3 or TiO2 was used as the digestibility marker. With Cr2O3 or TiO2 as the digestibility marker in the CM diets, phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the SID of N and all AA (except Trp). There was no SID of N or AA response to phytase supplementation of CM when AIA was used as a digestibility marker. In contrast, there were no clear improvements in AA digestibility from phytase supplementation for SBM. Phytase effects on AID or SID of AA were dependent on the digestibility marker used in diets when CM was used as the protein source but not when SBM was used as the protein source. Therefore, AA digestibility response to phytase supplementation may depend on the protein being evaluated as well as the choice of digestibility marker. PMID:25403199

Favero, A; Ragland, D; Vieira, S L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Adeola, O

2014-12-01

291

Improving classification in protein structure databases using text mining  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The classification of protein domains in the CATH resource is primarily based on structural comparisons, sequence similarity and manual analysis. One of the main bottlenecks in the processing of new entries is the evaluation of 'borderline' cases by human curators with reference to the literature, and better tools for helping both expert and non-expert users quickly identify relevant functional information from text are urgently needed. A text based method for protein classification is presented, which complements the existing sequence and structure-based approaches, especially in cases exhibiting low similarity to existing members and requiring manual intervention. The method is based on the assumption that textual similarity between sets of documents relating to proteins reflects biological function similarities and can be exploited to make classification decisions. Results An optimal strategy for the text comparisons was identified by using an established gold standard enzyme dataset. Filtering of the abstracts using a machine learning approach to discriminate sentences containing functional, structural and classification information that are relevant to the protein classification task improved performance. Testing this classification scheme on a dataset of 'borderline' protein domains that lack significant sequence or structure similarity to classified proteins showed that although, as expected, the structural similarity classifiers perform better on average, there is a significant benefit in incorporating text similarity in logistic regression models, indicating significant orthogonality in this additional information. Coverage was significantly increased especially at low error rates, which is important for routine classification tasks: 15.3% for the combined structure and text classifier compared to 10% for the structural classifier alone, at 10-3 error rate. Finally when only the highest scoring predictions were used to infer classification, an extra 4.2% of correct decisions were made by the combined classifier. Conclusion We have described a simple text based method to classify protein domains that demonstrates an improvement over existing methods. The method is unique in incorporating structural and text based classifiers directly and is particularly useful in cases where inconclusive evidence from sequence or structure similarity requires laborious manual classification.

Jones David T

2009-05-01

292

The Effect of Soybean Hulls Substitution Levels to Corn in The Ration on Energy and Protein Digestibility and on Sheep Performance  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean hulls levels substitution in to corn as ration in twenty seven rams. The animal had a mean of live weight of 12.86 ± 1.94 kg. Levels of substitution were 0, 50, and 100% or 0, 25, and 50% ration dry matter basis and rations were iso-nitrogeneous. Analysis of variance were conducted for completely randomized design and polynomial orthogonal test were applied for the statistical analysis. Inclusion of soybean hulls in 50% ration dry matter had no effect on daily gain (99.71 ± 22.97 g, and digestible crude protein (62.43 ± 6.56 %. However, dry matter consumption tended to increase linearly and as soybean hulls level increase in the ration (P<0.01. The digestible energy significantly decrease linearly (P<0.01, whereas intake of the energy had same was 1.27 ± 0.33, 1.44 ± 0.17, and 1.23 ± 0.19 Mcal/day for ration containing 0, 25, 50% of soybean hulls, respectively. It was concluded that the soybean hulls may be substituted for corn. (Animal Production 2(2: 98-103 (2000 Key words : soybean hulls, corn, digestibility, daily gain.

Ning Iriyanti

2000-05-01

293

Effects of Mangosteen Peel (Garcinia mangostana) Supplementation on Rumen Ecology, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Digestibility and Voluntary Feed Intake in Cattle  

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Four, rumen fistulated cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experiment was to study effects of crude saponins and condensed tannins in mangosteen peel on rumen microorganisms and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in cattle. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = Control (without Mangosteen peel supplementation, MSP); T2 = 50 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T3 = 100 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T4 = 150 g DM of MSP/hd/d with urea-tr...

Ngamsaeng, A.; Wanapat, M.; Khampa, S.

2006-01-01

294

Using correlated parameters for improved ranking of protein-protein docking decoys.  

Science.gov (United States)

A successful protein-protein docking study culminates in identification of decoys at top ranks with near-native quaternary structures. However, this task remains enigmatic because no generalized scoring functions exist that effectively infer decoys according to the similarity to near-native quaternary structures. Difficulties arise because of the highly irregular nature of the protein surface and the significant variation of the nonbonding and solvation energies based on the chemical composition of the protein-protein interface. In this work, we describe a novel method combining an interface-size filter, a regression model for geometric compatibility (based on two correlated surface and packing parameters), and normalized interaction energy (calculated from correlated nonbonded and solvation energies), to effectively rank decoys from a set of 10,000 decoys. Tests on 30 unbound binary protein-protein complexes show that in 16 cases we can identify at least one decoy in top three ranks having ?10 Å backbone root mean square deviation from true binding geometry. Comparisons with other state-of-art methods confirm the improved ranking power of our method without the use of any experiment-guided restraints, evolutionary information, statistical propensities, or modified interaction energy equations. Tests on 118 less-difficult bound binary protein-protein complexes with ?35% sequence redundancy at the interface showed that in 77% cases, at least 1 in 10,000 decoys were identified with ?5Å backbone root mean square deviation from true geometry at first rank. The work will promote the use of new concepts where correlations among parameters provide more robust scoring models. It will facilitate studies involving molecular interactions, including modeling of large macromolecular assemblies and protein structure prediction. PMID:20941737

Mitra, Pralay; Pal, Debnath

2011-04-15

295

SHIFTX2: significantly improved protein chemical shift prediction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

arning techniques, by incorporating many more features (?2 and ?3 angles, solvent accessibility, H-bond geometry, pH, temperature), and by combining sequence-based with structure-based chemical shift prediction techniques. With this substantial improvement in accuracy we believe that SHIFTX2 will open the door to many long-anticipated applications of chemical shift prediction to protein structure determination, refinement and validation. SHIFTX2 is available both as a standalone program and as a web server (http://www.shiftx2.cahttp://www.shiftx2.ca).

296

Intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silage with additives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Intake and total and ruminal digestibility, ruminal characteristics and microbial synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silages treated with microbial additive Lactobacillus buchneri (inoculate) and the addition of: cassava byproduct meal at 250 g/kg; soybean hulls at 250 g/kg; [...] and urea at 33 g/kg, in natural matter were evaluated. The forage:concentrate ratio was 600:400 g/kg. Bubaline body weight (BW) was 403±49 kg and bovine BW was 492±10 kg. The experimental design consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The average DM intake did not differ between species, and the diet with urea showed lowest intake (13 g/kg BW). Among the diets, the one with soybean hulls addition increased the total digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), while addition of urea reduced the DM, OM and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) total digestibility in both species. Bovines have higher ruminal digestibility of NFC in the diet with addition of inoculate, inoculate + soybean meal and inoculate + urea diets than bubaline. Ruminal liquid pH was higher for bubaline (6.61) than bovines (6.48). Diets with addition of cassava byproduct and soybean hulls presented higher ruminal short chain fatty acids concentrations. Ruminal ammonia concentration (N-NH3) did not differ between species and the treatment with urea presented the highest value of N-NH3 (17.25 mg/100 mL). Liquid passage rate was higher for bubaline (12.9%/h) than bovines (9.9%/h). Bubaline has higher microbial synthesis efficiency than bovine: 35.1 vs 24.6 g of N-microbial/kg OM of the total rumen digestibility, regardless of the diet.

Emilyn Midori, Maeda; Lucia Maria, Zeoula; Clóves Cabreira, Jobim; Ulysses, Cecato; Luiz Paulo, Rigolon; Ricardo, Kazama; Guido, Jacobi; Acir Felipe Grolli, Carvalho.

297

Intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silage with additives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Intake and total and ruminal digestibility, ruminal characteristics and microbial synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silages treated with microbial additive Lactobacillus buchneri (inoculate) and the addition of: cassava byproduct meal at 250 g/kg; soybean hulls at 250 g/kg; [...] and urea at 33 g/kg, in natural matter were evaluated. The forage:concentrate ratio was 600:400 g/kg. Bubaline body weight (BW) was 403±49 kg and bovine BW was 492±10 kg. The experimental design consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The average DM intake did not differ between species, and the diet with urea showed lowest intake (13 g/kg BW). Among the diets, the one with soybean hulls addition increased the total digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), while addition of urea reduced the DM, OM and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) total digestibility in both species. Bovines have higher ruminal digestibility of NFC in the diet with addition of inoculate, inoculate + soybean meal and inoculate + urea diets than bubaline. Ruminal liquid pH was higher for bubaline (6.61) than bovines (6.48). Diets with addition of cassava byproduct and soybean hulls presented higher ruminal short chain fatty acids concentrations. Ruminal ammonia concentration (N-NH3) did not differ between species and the treatment with urea presented the highest value of N-NH3 (17.25 mg/100 mL). Liquid passage rate was higher for bubaline (12.9%/h) than bovines (9.9%/h). Bubaline has higher microbial synthesis efficiency than bovine: 35.1 vs 24.6 g of N-microbial/kg OM of the total rumen digestibility, regardless of the diet.

Emilyn Midori, Maeda; Lucia Maria, Zeoula; Clóves Cabreira, Jobim; Ulysses, Cecato; Luiz Paulo, Rigolon; Ricardo, Kazama; Guido, Jacobi; Acir Felipe Grolli, Carvalho.

2012-03-01

298

Intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silage with additives  

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Full Text Available Intake and total and ruminal digestibility, ruminal characteristics and microbial synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silages treated with microbial additive Lactobacillus buchneri (inoculate and the addition of: cassava byproduct meal at 250 g/kg; soybean hulls at 250 g/kg; and urea at 33 g/kg, in natural matter were evaluated. The forage:concentrate ratio was 600:400 g/kg. Bubaline body weight (BW was 403±49 kg and bovine BW was 492±10 kg. The experimental design consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The average DM intake did not differ between species, and the diet with urea showed lowest intake (13 g/kg BW. Among the diets, the one with soybean hulls addition increased the total digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, while addition of urea reduced the DM, OM and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC total digestibility in both species. Bovines have higher ruminal digestibility of NFC in the diet with addition of inoculate, inoculate + soybean meal and inoculate + urea diets than bubaline. Ruminal liquid pH was higher for bubaline (6.61 than bovines (6.48. Diets with addition of cassava byproduct and soybean hulls presented higher ruminal short chain fatty acids concentrations. Ruminal ammonia concentration (N-NH3 did not differ between species and the treatment with urea presented the highest value of N-NH3 (17.25 mg/100 mL. Liquid passage rate was higher for bubaline (12.9%/h than bovines (9.9%/h. Bubaline has higher microbial synthesis efficiency than bovine: 35.1 vs 24.6 g of N-microbial/kg OM of the total rumen digestibility, regardless of the diet.

Emilyn Midori Maeda

2012-03-01

299

Desempenho zootécnico de girinos de rã-touro com diferentes níveis de proteína e energia digestíveis / Zootechnical performance of bullfrog tadpoles under different levels of digestible protein and energy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir dos valores de digestibilidade de alguns ingredientes foram propostas dietas, com diferentes níveis de proteína e energia digestíveis, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, destinadas a girinos de rã-touro para avaliar o desempenho zootécnico. O experimento, com duração de 60 dias, foi conduzido com 8 [...] 10 girinos, oriundos da mesma desova, distribuídos em 27 caixas de polipropileno, em uma densidade de 1girino/L. O delineamento experimental foi um esquema fatorial com três níveis de proteína digestível (27; 31 e 35%) e três níveis de energia digestível (2.700; 2.800 e 2.900kcal/kg) com três réplicas. Os parâmetros avaliados aos 60 dias foram ganho de peso, consumo da dieta, consumo em proteína da dieta, conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência proteica e índice de sobrevivência. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Duncan (95% de precisão). Os resultados encontrados não apresentaram interação entre proteína e energia digestível para nenhum parâmetro avaliado. Em relação à proteína digestível, foram verificadas diferenças nos parâmetros consumo em proteína da dieta e taxa de eficiência proteica (TEP), o que demonstra ineficiência das dietas com altos valores proteicos. Deve-se oferecer aos girinos de rã-touro dietas com 27% de proteína digestível, por apresentarem melhor resultado para taxa de eficiência proteica e para consumo em proteína da dieta. Abstract in english From the digestibility values of some ingredients, it was proposed diets with different levels of digestible protein and energy, in a 3x3 factorial design for bullfrog tadpoles, aiming at evaluate the zootechnical performance. The experiment was conducted during 60 days with 810 tadpoles from the sa [...] me spawning distributed into 27 polypropylene boxes at a density of 1 tadpole/L. The experimental design consisted of a factorial arrangement with three levels of digestible protein (27; 31 and 35%) and three levels of digestible energy (2700; 2800 and 2900kcal/kg) with three repetitions. Parameters evaluated at 60 days were weight gain, feed intake, dietary protein intake, feed conversion, protein efficiency rate and survival rate. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (95% accuracy), and presented no interaction between digestible protein and digestible energy for any parameter evaluated. As for the digestible protein, significant differences were detected in the dietary protein intake, and protein efficiency rate, evidencing inefficiency of diets with high protein values. Bullfrog tadpoles should be given diets with 27% digestible protein by having the best result for the protein efficiency rate and for the dietary protein intake, with the lowest value and similar to other levels among evaluated parameters.

José Teixeira de, Seixas Filho; Rodrigo Diana, Navarro; Marcelo Maia, Pereira; Sílvia Conceição Reis Pereira, Mello; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Jorge Luiz Pereira, Lima.

300

Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties  

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Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

Millán, Francisco

2005-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

als (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed proteins are providing the basis for future plant breeding strategies. The Symposium concluded with reviews of the possible use of cell cultures and genetic transformations for seed protein improvement and a consideration of prospects for future developments of food and feed materials. Increased scientific knowledge and the application of molecular biology and genetic engineering techniques will have an undoubted influence upon the course and speed of future progress. However, the solution of the immediate nutritional problems of the poor and the hungry is very much dependent upon the vigorous and intelligent application of existing knowledge and techniques to produce and promote the use of plant genotypes with improved nutritional value. Until there is a market value for nutritional quality such varieties will have to be at least equal in yield and all other characteristics to the varieties commonly grown. (author)

302

Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks [...] , distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1) with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

Vanessa Karla, Silva; Viviane de Souza, Morita; Isabel Cristina, Boleli.

2013-08-01

303

Impacts of microalgae pre-treatments for improved anaerobic digestion: Thermal treatment, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. Adoption of pre-treatments such as thermal, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to remove these inhibitory compounds and enhance biogas yields by degrading the cell wall, and releasing the intracellular algogenic organic matter (AOM). This work investigated the effect of four pre-treatments on three microalgae species, and their impact on the quantity of soluble biomass released in the media and thus on the digestion process yields. The analysis of the composition of the soluble COD released and of the TEM images of the cells showed two main degradation actions associated with the processes: (1) cell wall damage with the release of intracellular AOM (thermal, thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound) and (2) degradation of the cell wall constituents with the release of intracellular AOM and the solubilisation of the cell wall biopolymers (enzymatic hydrolysis). As a result of this, enzymatic hydrolysis showed the greatest biogas yield increments (>270%) followed by thermal hydrolysis (60-100%) and ultrasounds (30-60%). PMID:25150520

Ometto, Francesco; Quiroga, Gerardo; Pšeni?ka, Pavel; Whitton, Rachel; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

2014-11-15

304

Improving protein coreference resolution by simple semantic classification  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research has shown that major difficulties in event extraction for the biomedical domain are traceable to coreference. Therefore, coreference resolution is believed to be useful for improving event extraction. To address coreference resolution in molecular biology literature, the Protein Coreference (COREF task was arranged in the BioNLP Shared Task (BioNLP-ST, hereafter 2011, as a supporting task. However, the shared task results indicated that transferring coreference resolution methods developed for other domains to the biological domain was not a straight-forward task, due to the domain differences in the coreference phenomena. Results We analyzed the contribution of domain-specific information, including the information that indicates the protein type, in a rule-based protein coreference resolution system. In particular, the domain-specific information is encoded into semantic classification modules for which the output is used in different components of the coreference resolution. We compared our system with the top four systems in the BioNLP-ST 2011; surprisingly, we found that the minimal configuration had outperformed the best system in the BioNLP-ST 2011. Analysis of the experimental results revealed that semantic classification, using protein information, has contributed to an increase in performance by 2.3% on the test data, and 4.0% on the development data, in F-score. Conclusions The use of domain-specific information in semantic classification is important for effective coreference resolution. Since it is difficult to transfer domain-specific information across different domains, we need to continue seek for methods to utilize such information in coreference resolution.

Nguyen Ngan

2012-11-01

305

Protein sources and digestive enzyme activities in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Fontes protéicas e atividade de enzimas digestivas em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen  

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Full Text Available Digestive enzymes activity influence feed utilization by fish, and its understanding is important to optimize diet formulation. This study reports the digestive enzyme activities of jundiá juveniles fed diets with protein sources. Fish were fed six experimental diets for 90 days: MBY (meat and bone meal + sugar cane yeast, SY (soybean meal + sugar cane yeast, S (soybean meal, MBS (meat and bone meal + soybean meal, FY (fish meal + sugar cane yeast and FS (fish meal + soybean meal, and then sampled every 30 days and assayed in two intestine sections for digestive enzymes - trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase - activities; gastric protease was assayed in the stomach. Digestive and hepatosomatic index, intestinal quotient, digestive tract length and weight gain were also measured. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were higher (p As enzimas digestivas influenciam a utilização dos alimentos em peixes, e seu conhecimento é importante para otimizar a formulação de dietas. Este trabalho descreve a atividade de enzimas digestivas em juvenis de jundiá alimentados com fontes protéicas. Os peixes foram alimentados com seis dietas (90 dias: MBY (farinha de carne e ossos + levedura de cana, SY (farelo de soja + levedura de cana, S (farelo de soja, MBS (farinha de carne e ossos + farelo de soja, FY (farinha de peixe + levedura de cana e FS (farinha de peixe + farelo de soja. A cada 30 dias, foram analisadas as enzimas digestivas (tripsina, quimiotripsina e amilase no intestino. No estômago, foi mensurada a protease ácida. Foram estimados os índices digestivo e hepato-somático, quociente intestinal, comprimento do trato digestório e ganho em peso. As atividades de tripsina e quimiotripsina foram maiores (p < 0,0001 nos peixes alimentados com as dietas com fontes de origem animal (MBY, MBS, FY e FS. As proteases alcalinas foram afetadas negativamente pelo farelo de soja nas dietas. A atividade de amilase apresentou grandes variações. Os peixes alimentados com as dietas MBY e MBS apresentaram maior atividade de protease ácida (p < 0,0001. Os ganhos em peso foram maiores nos peixes alimentados com as dietas MBS e FS (p < 0,05. Os maiores valores (p < 0,05 de comprimento do trato digestório foram verificados nos peixes alimentados com as dietas MBS e FY. A composição da dieta influencia na atividade de enzimas digestivas do jundiá.

Rafael Lazzari

2010-01-01

306

Evaluation of mobile nylon bag technique for determining apparent ileal digestibilities of protein and amino acids in growing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) may offer a simple, rapid means for assessing ileal AA digestibility of pig feed ingredients. In the present study, the effects of washing bags recovered from digesta, the amount and fineness of feeds, and feed trypsin inhibitor activity on apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of CP and AA were determined with the MNBT. Twenty-four ileorectal anastomosed pigs (Yorkshire x Chinese Black barrows, 30 kg initial BW), of which 12 were fitted with duodenal T-cannulas, were used. Not washing the bags recovered from ileal digesta resulted in a reduction (P grinding also affected (P feed was ground through screens with a mesh size of more than 1.0 mm. The closest agreement between results obtained by MNBT and a conventional ileal digestibility assay occurred when 0.75 g of feed ground through a 1.0-mm mesh screen was used per bag and bags were washed for 2 min after retrieval from digesta. Further studies are warranted to investigate the use of the mobile nylon bag technique for predicting the ileal digestibilty of AA for feeds containing antinutritional factors. PMID:11883430

Yin, Y L; Huang, R L; Zhong, H Y; Li, T J; Souffrant, W B; de Lange, C F M

2002-02-01

307

Chapter 11. Digestive tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploration of the digestive tube by radioactive tracers relates mainly to the functional study of certain digestion or absorption troubles. The tracer absorbed by the digestibe system was followed by counting of the stools, successive measurements of the plasma radioactivity, measurements of urinary elimination or uptake on a storage organ such as the liver in the case of vitamin B12, measurement of whole-body radioactivity for vitamin B12 and iron. The different isotopic techniques used to study intestinal absorption of lipids, proteins and aminoacids, vitamin B 12 and iron were described and their contribution to the detection of exudative enteropathies and digestive haemorrhage was shown. It was pointed out that the stomach is one of the organs most accessible to standard exploration techniques. The role of sup(99m)Tc in both the morphological exploration of stomach and the study of gastric secretion, of 51Cr and 129Cs in the study of gastric evacuation were demonstrated

308

Improving the performance of protein kinase identification via high dimensional protein-protein interactions and substrate structure data.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a crucial post-translational modification, protein phosphorylation regulates almost all basic cellular processes. Recently, thousands of phosphorylation sites have been discovered by large-scale phospho-proteomics studies, but only about 20% of them have information regarding catalytic kinases, which brings a great challenge for correct identification of the protein kinases responsible for experimentally verified phosphorylation sites. In most existing identification tools, only a local sequence was selected to construct predictive models, and information regarding protein-protein interaction (PPI) was adopted for further filtering. However, the limited information utilized by these tools is not sufficient to identify protein kinases responsible for phosphorylated proteins. In this work, a novel computational approach that fully incorporates PPI and substrate structure information is proposed to improve the performance of human protein kinase identification. To handle the issue of high-dimensional PPI and structure data, a two-step feature selection algorithm that incorporates a support vector machine (SVM), is designed to detect information useful in discriminating the corresponding kinase of phosphorylation sites. Benchmark datasets for kinase identification are constructed using human protein phosphorylation data extracted from the latest Phospho.ELM database. With the selected PPI and structure features, the performance of kinase identification is significantly enhanced as compared with that obtained by using only sequence information. To further verify our method, we compared it with the state-of-the-art tools NetworKIN and IGPS at two stringency levels with medium (>90.0%) and high (>99.0%) specificity. The results show that our method outperforms existing tools in identifying protein kinases. Further evaluation demonstrates that our method also has superior performance on different hierarchical levels including kinase, subfamily, family and group. PMID:24448631

Xu, Xiaoyi; Li, Ao; Zou, Liang; Shen, Yi; Fan, Wenwen; Wang, Minghui

2014-03-01

309

Digestibilidad aparente de proteína cruda y lípidos en la brótola, Urophycis brasiliensis (Kamp, 1858) (Pisces: Gadiformes), alimentada con reemplazos parciales de harina de soja y harina de carne / Apparent digestibility of crude protein and lipids in Brazilian codling, Urophycis brasiliensis (Kamp, 1858) (Pisces: Gadiformes), fed with partial replacements of soybean meal and meat meal diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la digestibilidad aparente de dietas (proteína cruda y lípidos) formuladas para brótola. Se investigaron tres dietas (43% proteína cruda): una control con harina de pescado como la principal fuente protéica y otras dos con reemplazo parcial de este ingredie [...] nte por harina de soja desgrasada y harina de carne. Los peces se alimentaron diariamente hasta la saciedad y no hubo mortalidades durante los 14 días que duró el experimento. En los días 7 y 14, los peces fueron anestesiados y se extrajeron las heces por masaje abdominal. La digestibilidad de proteína cruda, al séptimo día, fue significativamente diferente al comparar el grupo control con los grupos donde se reemplazó la harina de pescado. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la digestibilidad de lípidos entre el grupo alimentado con harina de soja y el grupo alimentado con harina de carne durante todo el experimento. Los valores de digestibilidad más altos y los menores porcentajes de humedad en las heces se encontraron en el grupo control, sugiriendo una mejor digestión de esta dieta. En las dietas con reemplazos, la digestibilidad aparente se incrementó de la primera a la segunda semana. Se puede concluir que esta especie puede ser alimentada con dietas con reemplazos de hasta un 30% de harina de pescado utilizando harina de soja desgrasada o de carne; el tiempo necesario para la adaptación enzimática de los peces a esta dieta es de alrededor de dos semanas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine apparent digestibility of crude protein and lipid in Brazilian codling. Three diets (43% crude protein) were tested: a control diet with fish meal as the main protein source, and two others with partial replacement of fish meal by defatted soybean and mea [...] t meal. Fishes were fed daily to satiation, and no mortality was observed during the 14 day-experiment. On days 7 and 14, fish were anesthetized and faeces were obtained by stripping. Apparent crude protein digestibility at day 7 was significantly different between the control group and the groups in which fish meal was replaced. Lipid digestibility showed significant differences between soybean group and meat meal group throughout the trial. The highest digestibility values and the lowest moisture percentages in faeces were found in the control group, suggesting an improved digestion of this diet. Apparent digestibility increased from first to second week in diets with replacements. Brazilian codling can be reared on diets in which up to 30% replacement of the fish meal protein can be replaced by defatted soybean or meat meal. Fish need about two weeks for enzymatic adaptation to these diets.

Sergio N, Bolasina; Jorge L, Fenucci.

310

Microbial community structure reveals how microaeration improves fermentation during anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of microaeration on the fermentation process during anaerobic co-digestion of brown water (BW) and food waste (FW). This was achieved by daily monitoring of reactor performance and the determination of its bacterial consortium towards the end of the study. Molecular cloning and sequencing results revealed that bacteria within phyla Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes represented the dominant phylogenetic group. As compared to anaerobic conditions, the fermentation of BW and FW under microaeration conditions gave rise to a significantly more diverse bacterial population and higher proportion of bacterial clones affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The acidogenic reactor was therefore able to metabolize a greater variety of substrates leading to higher hydrolysis rates as compared to the anaerobic reactor. Other than enhanced fermentation, microaeration also led to a shift in fermentation production pattern where acetic acid was metabolized for the synthesis of butyric acid. PMID:25194261

Lim, Jun Wei; Chiam, Jun An; Wang, Jing-Yuan

2014-11-01

311

Direct Analysis of Reversed-Phase HPTLC Separated Tryptic Protein Digests using a Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe/ESI-MS System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sampling, ionization and detection of tryptic peptides separated in one-dimension on reversed phase HPTLC plates was performed using liquid microjunction surface sampling probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Tryptic digests of five proteins (cytochrome c., myoglobin, beta-casein, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin) were spotted on reversed phase HPTLC RP-8 F254s and HPTLC RP-18 F254s plates. The plates were then developed using 70/30 methanol/water with 0.1 M ammonium acetate. A dual purpose extraction/electrospray solution containing 70/30/0.1 water/methanol/formic acid was infused through the sampling probe during analysis of the developed lanes. Both full scan mass spectra and data dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired for each development lane to detect and verify the peptide distributions. Data dependent tandem mass spectra provided both protein identification and sequence coverage information. Highest sequence coverages were achieved for cytochrome c. and myoglobin (62.5% and 58.3%, respectively) on reversed phase RP-8 plates. While the tryptic peptides were separated enough for identification, the peptide bands did show some overlap with most peptides located in the lower half of the development lane. Proteins whose peptides were more separated gave higher sequence coverage. Larger proteins such as beta-casein and BSA which were spotted in lower relative amounts gave much lower sequence coverage than the smaller proteins.

Emory, Joshua F [ORNL; Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Minarik, susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

2010-01-01

312

Strategies and computational tools for improving randomized protein libraries.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decade, directed evolution has become a routine approach for engineering proteins with novel or altered properties. Concurrently, a trend away from purely 'blind' randomization strategies and towards more 'semi-rational' approaches has also become apparent. In this review, we discuss ways in which structural information and predictive computational tools are playing an increasingly important role in guiding the design of randomized libraries: web servers such as ConSurf-HSSP and SCHEMA allow the prediction of sites to target for producing functional variants, while algorithms such as GLUE, PEDEL and DRIVeR are useful for estimating library completeness and diversity. In addition, we review recent methodological developments that facilitate the construction of unbiased libraries, which are inherently more diverse than biased libraries and therefore more likely to yield improved variants. PMID:16095966

Patrick, Wayne M; Firth, Andrew E

2005-10-01

313

Career Transitions: ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some intervention programs have responded to the magnitude of the difficulties that career transitions present for adults. This digest examines one program which aims to improve the career adaptability of adults seeking employment. The interventional procedures outlined here are intended to accelerate vocational development by helping people…

Riverin-Simard, Danielle

314

Improvement of fungal strain by repeated and sequential mutagenesis and optimization of solid state fermentation for the hyper-production of raw-starch-digesting enzyme.  

Science.gov (United States)

A selected fungal strain, for production of the raw-starchdigesting enzyme by solid-state fermentation, was improved by two repeated sequential exposures to gamma-irradiation of Co60, ultraviolet, and four repeated treatments with Nmethyl- N'-nitrosoguanidine. The mutant strain Aspergillus sp. XN15 was chosen after a rigorous screening process, with its production of the raw-starch-digesting enzyme being twice that of usual wild varieties cultured under preoptimized conditions and in an unsupplemented medium. After 17 successive subculturings, the enzyme production of the mutant was stable. Optimal conditions for the production of the enzyme by solid-state fermentation, using wheat bran as the substrate, were accomplished for the mutant Aspergillus sp. XN15. With the optimal fermentation conditions, and a solid medium supplemented with nitrogen sources of 1% urea and 1% NH4NO3, 2.5 mM CoSO4, 0.05% (v/w) Tween 80, and 1% glucose, the mutant Aspergillus sp. XN15 produced the raw-starch-digesting enzyme in quantities 19.4 times greater than a typical wild variety. Finally, XN15, through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of a raw rice corn starch slurry, produced a high level of ethanol with Yp/s of 0.47 g/g. PMID:20467244

Vu, Van Hanh; Pham, Tuan Anh; Kim, Keun

2010-04-01

315

The potential of oxygen to improve the stability of anaerobic reactors during unbalanced conditions: results from a pilot-scale digester treating sewage sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

A well-functioning pilot reactor treating sewage sludge at approximately 4.4 NL/m(3)/d of oxygen supply and 18d of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was subjected to a hydraulic overload to investigate whether oxygen benefits successful operation in stressful circumstances. Only a mild imbalance was caused, which was overcome without deterioration in the digestion performance. Volatile solids (VS) removal was 45% and 43% at 18 and 14 d of HRT, respectively. Biogas productivity remained around 546 NmL/gVS, but it was slightly higher during the period of imbalance. Thereafter, similar performances were achieved. Under anaerobic conditions, VS removal and biogas productivity were respectively 41% and 525 NmL/gVS, hydrogen partial pressure rose, and acetic acid formation became less favourable. Oxygen seemed to form a more stable digestion system, which meant increased ability to deal successfully with overloads. Additionally, it improved the biogas quality; methane concentration was negligibly lower, while hydrogen sulphide and oxygen remained around 0.02 and 0.03%v/v, respectively. PMID:23672942

Ramos, I; Fdz-Polanco, M

2013-07-01

316

Improved protein quality in transgenic soybean expressing a de novo synthetic protein, MB-16.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed nutritional quality, a synthetic gene, MB-16 was introduced into the soybean genome to boost seed methionine content. MB-16, an 11 kDa de novo protein enriched in the essential amino acids (EAAs) methionine, threonine, lysine and leucine, was originally developed for expression in rumen bacteria. For efficient seed expression, constructs were designed using the soybean codon bias, with and without the KDEL ER retention sequence, and ?-conglycinin or cruciferin seed specific protein storage promoters. Homozygous lines, with single locus integrations, were identified for several transgenic events. Transgene transmission and MB-16 protein expression were confirmed to the T5 and T7 generations, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of developing seed showed that the transcript peaked in growing seed, 5-6 mm long, remained at this peak level to the full-sized green seed and then was significantly reduced in maturing yellow seed. Transformed events carrying constructs with the rumen bacteria codon preference showed the same transcription pattern as those with the soybean codon preference, but the transcript levels were lower at each developmental stage. MB-16 protein levels, as determined by immunoblots, were highest in full-sized green seed but the protein virtually disappeared in mature seed. However, amino acid analysis of mature seed, in the best transgenic line, showed a significant increase of 16.2 and 65.9 % in methionine and cysteine, respectively, as compared to the parent. This indicates that MB-16 elevated the sulfur amino acids, improved the EAA seed profile and confirms that a de novo synthetic gene can enhance the nutritional quality of soybean. PMID:24435987

Zhang, Yunfang; Schernthaner, Johann; Labbé, Natalie; Hefford, Mary A; Zhao, Jiping; Simmonds, Daina H

2014-06-01

317

Níveis de proteína na dieta de novilhas da raça Pantaneira: desempenho e digestibilidade aparente / Increasing levels of protein in the diet of heifers of Pantaneira Breed: performance and digestibility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a influência de níveis crescentes de proteína dietética sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade aparente e concentrações de uréia plasmática e urinária, em bovinos da raça Pantaneira. Os dados foram obtidos de 15 novilhas, com 18 meses de idade e peso corporal in [...] icial de 146 kg, recebendo dietas com 11; 13; 15 e 17 % de proteína bruta (PB). Os animais permaneceram confinados por 114 dias e em intervalos de 28 dias foram pesados e realizadas coletas de sangue, de fezes na ampola retal e de urina na forma spot. O aumento do teor de PB não influenciou o consumo de matéria seca (MS) e o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD); porém melhorou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, elevou os níveis de nitrogênio no sangue e promoveu maior excreção de uréia urinária. Observou-se, em média, consumos de 5,13 kg MS/animal/dia; GMD de 570 g; coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de 40,9; 59,6; 39,2; 41,3 e 34,0 % para MS, PB, carboidrato total (CT), fibra detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), respectivamente; concentração de uréia plasmática de 49,6 mg/dL; e perda de uréia urinária de 110,0 g/animal/dia. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to verify the influence of increasing levels of dietary protein on performance, apparent digestibility and plasma and urinary urea in Pantaneira breed. The data were obtained from 15 heifers, 18 months old and 146 kg initial body weight, fed diets containing 11, [...] 13, 15 and 17 % of crude protein (CP). The animals were confined for 114 days. At intervals of 28 days they were weighed and blood samples and spot samples of feces from the rectum and of urine were taken. The increase in dietary CP content did not influenced dry matter (DM) intake and average daily weight gain (ADG), but improved nutrient digestibility, increased blood nitrogen levels and increased excretion of urinary urea. A mean intake of 5.13 kg DM/animal/day and an ADG of 570 g were observed. Apparent digestibility values of 40.9, 59.6, 39.2, 41.3 and 34,0 % for DM, CP, total carbohydrate, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, respectively, were found. Plasma urea concentration was 49.6 mg/dL; and an urinary urea loss of 110,0 g/animal/day was observed.

A.L., Teodoro; M.V.M., Oliveira; F.M., Vargas Junior; R.S., Juliano; M.L., Longo; L.O., Seno; C.A.L., Oliveira.

2013-09-01

318

SHIFTX2: significantly improved protein chemical shift prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new computer program, called SHIFTX2, is described which is capable of rapidly and accurately calculating diamagnetic {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N chemical shifts from protein coordinate data. Compared to its predecessor (SHIFTX) and to other existing protein chemical shift prediction programs, SHIFTX2 is substantially more accurate (up to 26% better by correlation coefficient with an RMS error that is up to 3.3 Multiplication-Sign smaller) than the next best performing program. It also provides significantly more coverage (up to 10% more), is significantly faster (up to 8.5 Multiplication-Sign ) and capable of calculating a wider variety of backbone and side chain chemical shifts (up to 6 Multiplication-Sign ) than many other shift predictors. In particular, SHIFTX2 is able to attain correlation coefficients between experimentally observed and predicted backbone chemical shifts of 0.9800 ({sup 15}N), 0.9959 ({sup 13}C{alpha}), 0.9992 ({sup 13}C{beta}), 0.9676 ({sup 13}C Prime ), 0.9714 ({sup 1}HN), 0.9744 ({sup 1}H{alpha}) and RMS errors of 1.1169, 0.4412, 0.5163, 0.5330, 0.1711, and 0.1231 ppm, respectively. The correlation between SHIFTX2's predicted and observed side chain chemical shifts is 0.9787 ({sup 13}C) and 0.9482 ({sup 1}H) with RMS errors of 0.9754 and 0.1723 ppm, respectively. SHIFTX2 is able to achieve such a high level of accuracy by using a large, high quality database of training proteins (>190), by utilizing advanced machine learning techniques, by incorporating many more features ({chi}{sub 2} and {chi}{sub 3} angles, solvent accessibility, H-bond geometry, pH, temperature), and by combining sequence-based with structure-based chemical shift prediction techniques. With this substantial improvement in accuracy we believe that SHIFTX2 will open the door to many long-anticipated applications of chemical shift prediction to protein structure determination, refinement and validation. SHIFTX2 is available both as a standalone program and as a web server (http://www.shiftx2.cahttp://www.shiftx2.ca).

Han, Beomsoo; Liu Yifeng [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science (Canada); Ginzinger, Simon W. [Center of Applied Molecular Engineering, University of Salzburg, Department of Molecular Biology, Division of Bioinformatics (Austria); Wishart, David S., E-mail: david.wishart@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science (Canada)

2011-05-15

319

Composição, digestibilidade protéica e desaminação em cultivares brasileiras de soja submetidas à radiação gama / Composition, protein digestibility and deamidation in Brazilian soy cultivars subjected to gamma radiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A soja é reconhecidamente um alimento rico em proteínas e lipídios e sua inclusão na alimentação humana no Brasil tem se tornado cada vez maior. Devido à importância comercial e nutricional da soja, possíveis alterações promovidas por métodos de conservação aplicados a ela devem ser estudadas. O pre [...] sente trabalho visa avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas e a porcentagem de desaminação de grãos de cinco diferentes cultivares de soja (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, BRS 231 e E48) submetidas à irradiação (doses de 2, 4 e 8 kGy). Dentro da composição química foram encontrados valores para cinza que variaram de 4,90 a 6,08%, para proteína de 21,23 a 36,99%, para lipídeos de 19,22 a 24,84%, para fibras solúveis de 1,37 a 4,03% e para fibras insolúveis de 15,97 a 18,87%. A porcentagem de desaminação nas diferentes amostras variou de 17,34 a 57,79% e a digestibilidade in vitro de 84,45 a 89,11%. O tratamento de irradiação nas doses utilizadas não promoveu alterações na composição centesimal e na digestibilidade, mas promoveu aumento na porcentagem de desaminação das amostras conforme aumento das doses. Abstract in english Soy is known to be rich in proteins and lipids and its inclusion in the diet of Brazil's population is increasing. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soy, possible alterations resulting from the methods of conservation to which they are subjected must be studied. The present work ev [...] aluated the chemical composition, the in vitro digestibility of proteins and the percentage of deamidation of grains of five different soy cultivars (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48) subjected to irradiation (doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy). The chemical composition showed ashes varying from 4.90 to 6.08%, proteins from 21.23 to 36.99%, lipids from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble fibers from 1.37 to 4.03%, and insoluble fibers from 15.97 to 18.87%. The percentage of deamidation in the various samples varied from 17.34 to 57.79% and the in vitro digestibility from 84.45 to 89.11%. Irradiation treatment in the doses applied here did not change the chemical composition or digestibility, but increased the percentage of deamidation of the samples as the dosage increased.

Taís Carolina Franqueira de, Toledo; Solange Guidolin Canniatti, Brazaca; Valter, Arthur; Sônia Maria de Stefano, Piedade.

2007-12-01

320

Composição, digestibilidade protéica e desaminação em cultivares brasileiras de soja submetidas à radiação gama / Composition, protein digestibility and deamidation in Brazilian soy cultivars subjected to gamma radiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A soja é reconhecidamente um alimento rico em proteínas e lipídios e sua inclusão na alimentação humana no Brasil tem se tornado cada vez maior. Devido à importância comercial e nutricional da soja, possíveis alterações promovidas por métodos de conservação aplicados a ela devem ser estudadas. O pre [...] sente trabalho visa avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas e a porcentagem de desaminação de grãos de cinco diferentes cultivares de soja (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, BRS 231 e E48) submetidas à irradiação (doses de 2, 4 e 8 kGy). Dentro da composição química foram encontrados valores para cinza que variaram de 4,90 a 6,08%, para proteína de 21,23 a 36,99%, para lipídeos de 19,22 a 24,84%, para fibras solúveis de 1,37 a 4,03% e para fibras insolúveis de 15,97 a 18,87%. A porcentagem de desaminação nas diferentes amostras variou de 17,34 a 57,79% e a digestibilidade in vitro de 84,45 a 89,11%. O tratamento de irradiação nas doses utilizadas não promoveu alterações na composição centesimal e na digestibilidade, mas promoveu aumento na porcentagem de desaminação das amostras conforme aumento das doses. Abstract in english Soy is known to be rich in proteins and lipids and its inclusion in the diet of Brazil's population is increasing. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soy, possible alterations resulting from the methods of conservation to which they are subjected must be studied. The present work ev [...] aluated the chemical composition, the in vitro digestibility of proteins and the percentage of deamidation of grains of five different soy cultivars (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48) subjected to irradiation (doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy). The chemical composition showed ashes varying from 4.90 to 6.08%, proteins from 21.23 to 36.99%, lipids from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble fibers from 1.37 to 4.03%, and insoluble fibers from 15.97 to 18.87%. The percentage of deamidation in the various samples varied from 17.34 to 57.79% and the in vitro digestibility from 84.45 to 89.11%. Irradiation treatment in the doses applied here did not change the chemical composition or digestibility, but increased the percentage of deamidation of the samples as the dosage increased.

Taís Carolina Franqueira de, Toledo; Solange Guidolin Canniatti, Brazaca; Valter, Arthur; Sônia Maria de Stefano, Piedade.

 
 
 
 
321

Composição, digestibilidade protéica e desaminação em cultivares brasileiras de soja submetidas à radiação gama Composition, protein digestibility and deamidation in Brazilian soy cultivars subjected to gamma radiation  

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Full Text Available A soja é reconhecidamente um alimento rico em proteínas e lipídios e sua inclusão na alimentação humana no Brasil tem se tornado cada vez maior. Devido à importância comercial e nutricional da soja, possíveis alterações promovidas por métodos de conservação aplicados a ela devem ser estudadas. O presente trabalho visa avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas e a porcentagem de desaminação de grãos de cinco diferentes cultivares de soja (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, BRS 231 e E48 submetidas à irradiação (doses de 2, 4 e 8 kGy. Dentro da composição química foram encontrados valores para cinza que variaram de 4,90 a 6,08%, para proteína de 21,23 a 36,99%, para lipídeos de 19,22 a 24,84%, para fibras solúveis de 1,37 a 4,03% e para fibras insolúveis de 15,97 a 18,87%. A porcentagem de desaminação nas diferentes amostras variou de 17,34 a 57,79% e a digestibilidade in vitro de 84,45 a 89,11%. O tratamento de irradiação nas doses utilizadas não promoveu alterações na composição centesimal e na digestibilidade, mas promoveu aumento na porcentagem de desaminação das amostras conforme aumento das doses.Soy is known to be rich in proteins and lipids and its inclusion in the diet of Brazil's population is increasing. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soy, possible alterations resulting from the methods of conservation to which they are subjected must be studied. The present work evaluated the chemical composition, the in vitro digestibility of proteins and the percentage of deamidation of grains of five different soy cultivars (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48 subjected to irradiation (doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy. The chemical composition showed ashes varying from 4.90 to 6.08%, proteins from 21.23 to 36.99%, lipids from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble fibers from 1.37 to 4.03%, and insoluble fibers from 15.97 to 18.87%. The percentage of deamidation in the various samples varied from 17.34 to 57.79% and the in vitro digestibility from 84.45 to 89.11%. Irradiation treatment in the doses applied here did not change the chemical composition or digestibility, but increased the percentage of deamidation of the samples as the dosage increased.

Taís Carolina Franqueira de Toledo

2007-12-01

322

Effects of supplemental energy and/or degradable intake protein on performance, grazing behavior, intake, digestibility, and fecal and blood indices by beef steers grazed on dormant native tallgrass prairie.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effects of balancing total diet degradable intake protein with dietary total digestible nutrients (TDN), we conducted two studies during 2 yr with 100 (302 +/- 8 kg initial BW) mixed-breed yearling steers and 12 ruminally cannulated steers (526 +/- 28 kg). Steers individually received one of four supplements 5 d/wk while grazing dormant native tallgrass prairie. Supplements included: 1) corn and soybean meal, balanced for total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN (CRSBM), 2) corn and soybean hulls, equal in supplemental TDN to CRSBM (CORN), 3) soybean meal, equal in supplemental degradable intake protein to CRSBM (SBM), or 4) a cottonseed hull-based control supplement (CONT). At each feeding (5 d/wk), steers consumed 13.6, 13.6, or 4.2 g of dry matter/kg of body weight, or 178 g of DM, respectively, of supplement. Steers fed CRSBM had greater (P daily gain than cattle fed CORN or SBM. Feeding soybean meal (CRSBM, SBM) resulted in improved (P soybean meal (CRSBM and SBM) had greater (P soybean meal (CORN, CONT). Supplemented steers grazing dormant tallgrass prairie had a greater rate of gain, with the greatest response in animal performance occurring when grain supplements were balanced for total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN. These results lead us to suggest that grain-supplemented cattle grazing dormant tallgrass prairie require a balance of total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN to optimize animal performance. PMID:12597402

Bodine, T N; Purvis, H T

2003-01-01

323

Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and of gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887  

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Full Text Available Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus, é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão, Guelph e Guelph modificado, e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por intermédio do coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína bruta de uma dieta-referência para o pacu. Não houve diferença entre os métodos de coleta de fezes; já os intervalos de tempo das coletas apresentaram diferenças, podendo interferir nos resultados de digestibilidade da proteína. Em uma segunda etapa, para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da proteína e da energia de cinco concentrados protéicos de origem animal, cinco de origem vegetal e quatro energéticos, foram utilizadas rações elaboradas com 69,5% de uma dieta-referência, 30% do ingrediente teste e 0,5% de Cr2O3, utilizando o método de extrusão manual para a coleta de fezes. Os valores de digestibilidade da proteína da maioria dos alimentos apresentaram-se altos e não variaram estatisticamente, de 93,89 a 75,73% para o farelo de trigo e a farinha de penas, respectivamente. Entretanto, a farinha de sangue e a levedura apresentaram valores de digestibilidade da fração protéica significativamente inferiores (57,72 e 68,86%, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da energia dos alimentos variaram consideravelmente, apresentando altos valores (acima de 90% para o sorgo, o farelo de arroz e as sojas crua e tostada, e baixos valores (menores que 70% para as farinhas de vísceras e de sangue, os farelos de soja e de algodão e a levedura. Quanto aos métodos de coleta de fezes, conclui-se que qualquer um pode ser adotado para a determinação de digestibilidade, desde que sejam rigorosamente aplicados. De maneira geral, a maioria dos concentrados protéicos pode ser utilizada como ótimas fontes de proteína, com exceção da farinha de sangue e a levedura, enquanto os alimentos energéticos confirmaram-se como excelentes fontes de energia em dietas para o pacu.To improve the pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus feeding in the growth phase, it's necessary to know the digestibility of the ingredients used in his diets. Initially, four fecal collection methods were analyzed (dissection, stripping, Guelph and modified Guelph, based on precision and versatility and also the most efficient time among fecal collection of the Guelph sedimentation systems, through crude protein digestibility coefficient of pacu basic diet. There was no difference among the fecal collection methods while the intervals of time among the collections were significantly different, which may interfere in the protein digestibility results. In a second stage, five proteins concentrated of animal origin, five of vegetable origin and four energetic were studied for estimating protein and energy digestibility coefficients using the stripping method. The rations contained 69.5% of a reference diet, 30.0% of the ingredient test and 0.5% of Cr2O3. In a general way, crude protein digestibility coefficients were high and did not differ from the wheat meal (93.89% and feather flour (75.73%, respectively. However, blood and yeast showed lower crude protein digestibility (57.72% and 68.86%, respectively. Gross energy digestibility coefficients varied considerably among the feedstuffs, showing high values (above 90% for the sorghum, rice meal and raw and toasted soy and lower values (smaller than 70% for poultry by-product and blood meal, soybean meal, cotton and yeast. However, with regard to the fecal collection methods, the results showed that anyone can be adopted with safety for digestibility determination, if used accurately. In a general way, most of protein concentrate can be used as a very good protein source, except for blood meal and the yeast. The energy concentrate revealed to be a source of energy in pacu diets.

Eduardo Gianini Abimorad

2004-10-01

324

Determination of Hidden Hazelnut Oil Proteins in Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Cold Acetone Precipitation Followed by In-Solution Tryptic Digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HO) is an illegal practice that could have severe health consequences for consumers due to the possible exposure to hidden hazelnut allergens. Here, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used as a rapid and sensitive technique for the detection of a low concentration of hazelnut proteins in oil samples. Different protocols were tested for protein extraction, and the most efficient (cold acetone) was applied to HO and EVOO adulterated with HO. The subsequent in-solution tryptic digestion of protein extracts and MALDI-MS analysis, using ?-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid as matrix, allowed the detection of stable hazelnut peptide markers (i.e., the m/z ions 1002.52, 1356.71, 1394.70, 1440.81, 1453.85, 1555.76, 1629.83, 1363.73, and 1528.67) attributable to the main hazelnut proteins Cor a 9, Cor a 11, and Cor a 1. Thus, the approach might allow the direct detection of specific hazelnut allergens in EVOO at low concentration without time-consuming pretreatments. PMID:25209075

De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio

2014-10-01

325

Incubated protein reduction and digestion on an electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidic chip for MALDI-MS.  

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Localized heating of droplets on an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) chip has been implemented and shown to accelerate trypsin digestion reaction rates, sample drying, and matrix crystallization for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Achieving this involved extending the functionality of previous EWOD droplet-based techniques by developing a multifunctional electrode with closed-loop temperature control, while minimizing overall system complexity and addressing challenges associated with rapid evaporation. For the EWOD chip design, we discuss the performance of multifunctional surface electrodes for actuation, localized Joule heating, and thermistic temperature sensing. Furthermore, a hydrophilic pattern is formed in the multifunctional electrode to control the location of an evaporating droplet on the electrode. To demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of this technique, we performed three experiments and measured the results using MALDI-MS: (i) insulin disulfide reductions in dithiothreitol (DTT) over a range of heater temperatures (22-70 °C) to show how reaction rates can be affected by thermal control, (ii) insulin disulfide reductions at 130 °C in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to demonstrate a reaction in a high boiling point solvent, and (iii) tryptic digestions of cytochrome c at 22 and 40 °C to show that heated droplets can yield reasonably higher peptide sequence coverage than unheated droplets. Although they do not decouple the effects of changing temperatures and concentrations, these experiments verified that thermal cycling by EWOD electrodes accelerates reaction rates in liquid droplets in air. PMID:21058643

Nelson, Wyatt C; Peng, Ivory; Lee, Geun-An; Loo, Joseph A; Garrell, Robin L; Kim, Chang-Jin C J

2010-12-01

326

Anaerobic Digestion  

...established, with the support of a major environmental investment fund, to develop waste to energy, through the use of proven and established technologies,...developing a portfolio of agricultural anaerobic digestion plants, which, using farm based waste and by-products, will generate renewable electricity that can be sold ... The focus will be on agricultural AD, using bio-waste feedstock such as slurry, chicken litter and vegetable crop waste, in ...the anaerobic digestion plant can also assist in the disposal of food waste etc. from restaurants and shops. Using proven technology, ...

327

Directed evolution methods for improving polypeptide folding and solubility and superfolder fluorescent proteins generated thereby  

Science.gov (United States)

The current invention provides methods of improving folding of polypeptides using a poorly folding domain as a component of a fusion protein comprising the poorly folding domain and a polypeptide of interest to be improved. The invention also provides novel green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and red fluorescent proteins that have enhanced folding properties.

Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-09-18

328

Qualidade da carne de peito de frangos de corte recebendo rações com diferentes relações lisina digestível: proteína bruta / Breast muscle meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with different digestible lysine: crude protein ratios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes relações lisina digestível/proteína bruta (LD:PB) sobre as características químicas e físicas do músculo do peito de frangos de corte, machos, da linhagem Cobb, aos 42 dias de idade. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, segundo um modelo com dois critérios d [...] e classificação hierárquica. As aves foram criadas até 21 dias de idade recebendo ração padrão para esta fase e, dos 22 aos 42 dias, alimentas com dietas formuladas com dois níveis de PB (17,0 e 19,5%) e cinco relações LD:PB, correspondendo a 5,9; 6,4; 6,9; 7,4 e 7,9% em relação à ração com 17% de PB e 5,3; 5,7; 6,1; 6,5 e 6,9% em relação à ração com 19,5% de PB, totalizando 10 tratamentos com seis repetições. Aos 42 dias de idade, duas aves de cada repetição foram abatidas para coleta de amostras do músculo peitoral. Não foram encontrados efeitos significativos dos tratamentos sobre as características físicas da carne. Nas características químicas, observou-se efeito significativo no nível de 19,5% de PB, de modo que a PB da carne do peito elevou-se linearmente com o aumento das relações, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas para as demais características avaliadas. A melhor relação para o nível de 17,0% de PB foi de 5,9%, ou 1,34% de lisina digestível, enquanto, no nível de 19,5% de PB, a relação de 5,3% com nível de 1,03% de lisina digestível apresentou a pior deposição de proteína no músculo do peito. Porém, como as demais variáveis não foram afetadas, a opção de aumentar o teor de lisina digestível para melhorar a PB da carne dependerá do custo desta operação. O nível de proteína na dieta de frangos em crescimento pode ser reduzido até 17,0% de PB, sem afetar a qualidade da carne do peito, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal. Abstract in english One hundred Cobb male broiler chickens with 42 days old were used to study the effect of different digestible lysine and crude proteins ratios on chemical composition and physical composition of the breast muscle meat. A completely randomized design and two hierarquic criteries of classification was [...] used. The birds were raised and fed a basal diet until 21 days old and, from 22 to 42 days, they were fed a diet formulated with two crude protein (CP) levels (17.0 and 19.5%) and five digestible lysine and CP ratios, 5.9, 6.4, 6.9, 7.4 and 7.9% for ration with 17.0% CP and 5.3, 5.7, 6.1, 6.5, and 6.9% for ration with 19.5% CP, totaling 10 treatments with six replications. At 42 age days, two birds of each replicate were slaughtered for breast muscle meat sample collections. No effects were observed on breast muscle meat for the physical characteristics. In the chemical characteristics, effect in the 19.5% CP level was observed, in a way that the protein of the breast meat meat llinearly increased as the digestible lysine and CP ratio increases, not being evidenced differences for the others evaluated characteristic. The best ratio for protein deposition in the breast muscle meat in the 17.0% CP level was 5.9% (1.34% digestible lysine), and the worse in the 19.5% CP level was 5.3% (1.03% digestible lysine). However, as the others characteristic was not affected, the option to increase the digestible lysine content to improve the breast muscle meat protein deposition will depend on the cost of this operation. The protein level in the diet of broiler chickens in growth phase can be reduced up to 17.0% CP, with no effect on breast muscle meat quality of broiler chickens, by using an ideal protein concept.

Kênia Ferreira, Rodrigues; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Maria Cristina, Bressan; Adriano Kaneo, Nagata; José Humberto Vilar da, Silva; Edson Lindolfo da, Silva.

1023-10-01

329

Improving Biocatalyst Performance by Integrating Statistical Methods into Protein Engineering ?  

Science.gov (United States)

Directed evolution and rational design were used to generate active variants of toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) on 2-phenylethanol (PEA), with the aim of producing hydroxytyrosol, a potent antioxidant. Due to the complexity of the enzymatic system—four proteins encoded by six genes—mutagenesis is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, the statistical model of Nov and Wein (J. Comput. Biol. 12:247-282) was used to reduce the number of variants produced and evaluated in a lab. From an initial data set of 24 variants, with mutations at nine positions, seven double or triple mutants were identified through statistical analysis. The average activity of these mutants was 4.6-fold higher than the average activity of the initial data set. In an attempt to further improve the enzyme activity to obtain PEA hydroxylation, a second round of statistical analysis was performed. Nine variants were considered, with 3, 4, and 5 point mutations. The average activity of the variants obtained in the second statistical round was 1.6-fold higher than in the first round and 7.3-fold higher than that of the initial data set. The best variant discovered, TmoA I100A E214G D285Q, exhibited an initial oxidation rate of 4.4 ± 0.3 nmol/min/mg protein, which is 190-fold higher than the rate obtained by the wild type. This rate was also 2.6-fold higher than the activity of the wild type on the natural substrate toluene. By considering only 16 preselected mutants (out of ?13,000 possible combinations), a highly active variant was discovered with minimum time and effort. PMID:20709845

Brouk, Moran; Nov, Yuval; Fishman, Ayelet

2010-01-01

330

Influence of crude protein content, ingredient complexity, feed form, and duration of feeding of the Phase I diets on productive performance and nutrient digestibility of Iberian pigs.  

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The influence of CP content and ingredient complexity, feed form, and duration of feeding of the Phase I diets on growth performance and total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of energy and nutrients was studied in Iberian pigs weaned at 28 d of age. There were 12 dietary treatments with 2 type of feeds (high-quality, HQ; and low-quality, LQ), 2 feed forms (pellets vs. mash), and 3 durations (7, 14, and 21 d) of supply of the Phase I diets. From d 7, 14, or 21 (depending on treatment) to d 35, all pigs received a common diet in mash form. Each treatment was replicated 3 times (6 pigs/pen). For the entire experiment, ADG (P 0.10) by feed quality, but feeding pellets or increasing the duration of feeding the Phase I diets improved G:F (P < 0.01). Also, in this period, PWD was greater with pellets than with mash and for pigs fed the Phase I diets for 14 or 21 d than for pigs fed the diet for only 7 d (P < 0.01). From d 21 to 35, pigs previously fed the LQ diet had greater ADG than pigs fed the HQ Phase I diets (P < 0.001). Also, pigs fed the Phase I diets for 21 d had decreased ADG (P < 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.001) and reduced G:F (P < 0.05) than pigs fed these diets for 7 or 14 d. Organic matter digestibility was greater for pigs fed the HQ Phase I diets than pigs fed the LQ Phase I diets (P < 0.05). Pelleting improved TTAD of all nutrients (P < 0.01). It is concluded that HQ Phase I diets increased TTAD of nutrients but not feed efficiency of Iberian pigs from d 0 to 35. Also, pelleting improved energy and nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency. Increasing the duration of supply of the Phase I diets from 7 to 21 d improved feed efficiency but reduced ADG. Therefore, the use of LQ Phase I diets in pellet form for no more than 7 d after weaning is recommended in Iberian pigs. PMID:23307842

Berrocoso, J D; Saldaña, B; Serrano, M P; Cámara, L; Ibáñez, M A; Mateos, G G

2013-03-01

331

Improved solubilization of surface proteins from Listeria monocytogenes for 2-DE.  

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Solubilization of bacterial surface (cell wall and membrane-associated) proteins for 2-DE is challenging, particularly in the case of Gram-positive bacteria. This is primarily due to strong protein association with the cell wall peptidoglycan and protein hydrophobicity. We solubilized surface proteins for 2-DE from the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes using mutanolysin, which digests cell wall peptidoglycan, and one of three different mixtures of zwitterionic detergent and chaotropes: (i) CHAPS/urea, (ii) amidosulfobetaine-14 (ASB-14)/urea/thiourea (iii) N-decyl-N,N'-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate/urea/thiourea. Cell lysis with mutanolysin followed by solubilization with ASB-14/urea/thiourea gave the highest overall protein yield with the best 2-DE resolution. Protein spot identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis revealed 29 characterized surface proteins of L. monocytogenes, 17 of which have not previously been reported on the surface proteome map. This is the first report describing the successful solubilization and 2-DE of L. monocytogenes proteins bound to the cell surface via an LPXTG motif or by a hydrophobic tail. The increase in surface proteome coverage obtained by mutanolysin and ASB-14/urea/thiourea solubilization suggests the utility of this method for future analytical and comparative studies of surface proteins from Listeria, and possibly other Gram-positive bacteria, using 2-DE proteomic analysis. An updated 2-DE reference map of L. monocytogenes surface proteins is presented. PMID:17922522

Mujahid, Sana; Pechan, Tibor; Wang, Chinling

2007-11-01

332

Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula to estimate the accuracy of predicted conformations (or decoys. This scoring function, called the density score function, evaluates decoy conformations by performing an all-against-all C? RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation calculation in a given decoy set. We tested the density score function on 83 decoy sets grouped by their generation methods (4state_reduced, fisa, fisa_casp3, lmds, lattice_ssfit, semfold and Rosetta. The density scores have correlations as high as 0.9 with the C? RMSDs of the decoy conformations, measured relative to the experimental conformation for each decoy. We previously developed a residue-specific all-atom probability discriminatory function (RAPDF, which compiles statistics from a database of experimentally determined conformations, to aid in structure selection. Here, we present a decoy-dependent discriminatory function called self-RAPDF, where we compiled the atom-atom contact probabilities from all the conformations in a decoy set instead of using an ensemble of native conformations, with a weighting scheme based on the density scores. The self-RAPDF has a higher correlation with C? RMSD than RAPDF for 76/83 decoy sets, and selects better near-native conformations for 62/83 decoy sets. Self-RAPDF may be useful not only for selecting near-native conformations from decoy sets, but also for fold simulations and protein structure refinement. Conclusions Both the density score and the self-RAPDF functions are decoy-dependent scoring functions for improved protein structure selection. Their success indicates that information from the ensemble of decoy conformations can be used to derive statistical probabilities and facilitate the identification of near-native structures.

Levitt Michael

2004-06-01

333

The use of agricultural substrates to improve methane yield in anaerobic co-digestion with pig slurry: effect of substrate type and inclusion level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry with four agricultural substrates (tomato, pepper, persimmon and peach) was investigated. Each agricultural substrate was tested in co-digestion with pig slurry at four inclusion levels: 0%, 15%, 30% and 50%. Inclusion levels consisted in the replacement of the volatile solids (VS) from the pig slurry with the VS from the agricultural substrate. The effect of substrate type and inclusion level on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) was evaluated in a batch assay performed at 35 °C for 100 days. Agricultural substrate's chemical composition was also analyzed and related with BMP. Additionally, Bacteria and Archaea domains together with the four main methanogenic archaeal orders were quantified using quantitative real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at the end of the experiment to determine the influence of agricultural substrate on sludge's microbial composition. Results showed that vegetable substrates (pepper and tomato) had higher lipid and protein content and lower carbohydrates than fruit substrates (persimmon and peach). Among substrates, vegetable substrates showed higher BMP than fruit substrates. Higher BMP values were obtained with increasing addition of agricultural substrate. The replacement of 50% of VS from pig slurry by tomato and pepper increased BMP in 41% and 44%, respectively compared with pig slurry only. Lower increments in BMP were achieved with lower inclusion levels. Results from qPCR showed that total bacteria and total archaea gene concentrations were similar in all combinations tested. Methanomicrobiales gene concentrations dominated over the rest of individual archaeal orders. PMID:24238994

Ferrer, Pablo; Cambra-López, María; Cerisuelo, Alba; Peñaranda, David S; Moset, Verónica

2014-01-01

334

Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Cu2+-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd2+-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd2+, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 ?g/L Cu2+ or Cd2+. Both metals, in particular Cd2+, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status o