WorldWideScience
1

Improving the in vitro Protein Digestibility of Sorghum with Reducing Agents  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown in previous reports that cooked sorghum protein is less digestible than other cooked cereal proteins. The pepsin-indigestible proteins in sorghum were found to be mainly prolamin proteins. Cooking sorghum in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol increased protein digestibility (in vitro with pepsin or trypsin/chymotrypsin) to a level comparable with other cereals. At a concentration of 100 mM, other reducing agents (dithiothreitol, sodium bisulfite, and L-cysteine) were equally effective in improving sorghum digestibility. When maize was cooked in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, protein digestibility increased 5% compared to 25% for sorghum. Cooking barley, rice, and wheat with 2-mercaptoethanol had no significant effect on protein digestibility. The addition of reducing agents appears to prevent the formation of protein polymers linked by disulfide bonds.

Hamaker, B. R.; Kirleis, A. W.; Butler, L. G.; Axtell, J. D.; Mertz, E. T.

1987-02-01

2

Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Therefore, irradiation could serve as a possible processing method for protein utilization improvement in defatted Jatropha curcas seeds before using as a protein supplement in animal feed

3

Improving the in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum with reducing agents  

OpenAIRE

We have shown in previous reports that cooked sorghum protein is less digestible than other cooked cereal proteins. The pepsin-indigestible proteins in sorghum were found to be mainly prolamin proteins. Cooking sorghum in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol increased protein digestibility (in vitro with pepsin or trypsin/chymotrypsin) to a level comparable with other cereals. At a concentration of 100 mM, other reducing agents (dithiothreitol, sodium bisulfite, and L-cysteine) were equally effe...

Hamaker, B. R.; Kirleis, A. W.; Butler, L. G.; Axtell, J. D.; Mertz, E. T.

1987-01-01

4

Analysis of integral membrane proteins by heat gel-embedment combined with improved in-gel digestions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) presents a special challenge because of their hydrophobic nature and low abundance. Here, a new method was developed, which involved heat gel-embedment and improved in-gel digestion of the proteins. Membrane protein lysate containing detergents was mixed with acrylamide solution and the proteins were embedded when the gel polymerized. For comparison, the protein embedment was made at different temperatures (25, 35 or 45 degrees C), and the in-gel digestions were performed in the presence of 0.1% RapiGest reagent (ALS), 0.1% sodium deoxycholate and 10% ACN, respectively. The resultant peptides were extracted and analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with that at 25 degrees C, gel-embedment at 45 degrees C improved the protein embedment and thus protein identification, with the identified IMPs increased by 27%. 0.1% sodium deoxycholate was more efficient than 0.1% ALS and 10% ACN in terms of improving the digestion and tryptic digest recovery of the gel-embedded proteins particularly the hydrophobic IMPs. Out of the 326 IMPs identified by heat gel-embedment combined with improved in-gel digestion strategies, 149 (46%) proteins had at least two mapped transmembrane domains. These results indicate that our newly developed protocol could facilitate the high throughput analysis of integral membrane proteome. PMID:19960474

Zhou, Jian; Huang, Sha; Bi, Deng; Zhang, Hai; Li, Jianglin; Lin, Yong; Chen, Ping; Wang, Xianchun; Liang, Songping

2009-12-01

5

An improved in-gel digestion method for efficient identification of protein and glycosylation analysis of glycoproteins using guanidine hydrochloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

In-gel digestion followed by LC/MS/MS is widely used for the identification of trace amounts of proteins and for the site-specific glycosylation analysis of glycoproteins in cells and tissues. A major limitation of this technique is the difficulty in acquiring reliable mass spectra for peptides present in minute quantities and glycopeptides with high heterogeneity and poor hydrophobicity. It is considered that the SDS used in electrophoresis can interact with proteins noncovalently and impede the ionization of peptides/glycopeptides. In this study, we report an improved in-gel digestion method to acquire reliable mass spectra of a trace amount of peptides/glycopeptides. A key innovation of our improved method is the use of guanidine hydrochloride, which forms complexes with the residual SDS molecules in the sample. The precipitation and removal of SDS by addition of the guanidine hydrochloride was successful in improving the S/N of peptides/glycopeptides in mass spectra and acquiring a more comprehensive MS/MS data set for the various glycoforms of each glycopeptide. PMID:24272977

Takakura, Daisuke; Hashii, Noritaka; Kawasaki, Nana

2014-02-01

6

Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite for being able to devise better alternatives. Hence, for 7 d we treated pigs, weaned at 24 d of age, with a combination of amoxicillin (25 mg/kg feed and injection of 8·75 mg/kg body weight per 12 h) and ZnO (2·5 g/kg feed). The pigs treated with antimicrobials (n 11) showed no signs of gut malfunction at any time, whereas untreated weaned controls (n 11) developed clinical diarrhoea. The antimicrobial treatment resulted in a higher daily weight gain compared with weaned controls (101 v. - 44 g/d, P < 0·0001), whereas both groups had a similar degree of villous atrophy compared with unweaned 24-d-old controls (n 8; P < 0·05). The antimicrobial treatment gave a dramatic reduction in small intestinal microbial diversity, and specifically prevented tissue colonization with Escherichia coli compared with weaned controls. Further, the antimicrobial treatment improved amylase, trypsin and small intestinal aminopeptidase A and N activities (all P < 0·05). Specifically for the colon, the antimicrobial treatment was associated with reduced tissue weight ( - 23 %, P < 0·05), reduced concentration of SCFA (P < 0·05), and increased mucosal goblet cell area (P < 0·0001) compared with weaned controls. We conclude that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacterial load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density.

Thyman, T; SØrensen, K U

2007-01-01

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Influence of kiwifruit on protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green kiwifruit consumption has long been thought to assist in the digestion of food proteins due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin. This chapter reviews the recent findings of both in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of green kiwifruit (which contain the enzyme actinidin) on the gastro- and small-intestinal digestion of a range of common food proteins and protein-rich foods including milk, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, and cereal proteins. Clear evidence is provided that green kiwifruit, and the enzyme actinidin itself, can provide enhanced upper-tract digestion (particularly gastric) of a variety of food proteins, which lends support to a role for dietary kiwifruit as a digestive aid. Kiwifruit influences the digestion patterns of food proteins to varying extents. For some protein sources, digestion in the presence of green kiwifruit resulted in a substantially greater digestion of intact protein, and different peptide patterns were produced compared with those seen after digestion with mammalian digestive enzymes alone. Kiwifruit extract alone (in the absence of other digestive enzymes) has been observed to be capable of digesting some proteins present in foods, particularly those in yoghurt, cheese, fish, and raw eggs. An in vivo (pig) study including a positive control of added actinidin and a negative control where the actinidin in green kiwifruit had been inactivated showed conclusively that actinidin is responsible for the enhanced gastric hydrolysis of food proteins. PMID:23394986

Kaur, Lovedeep; Boland, Mike

2013-01-01

8

Digestion  

Science.gov (United States)

In this food science activity, learners explore digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. This lesson guide includes background information about digestion, enzymes, and proteins.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2011-01-01

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Kafirinas, proteínas clave para conferir digestibilidad y calidad proteica al grano de sorgo / Kafirins, key proteins to improve digestibility and proteic quality of sorghum grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El sorgo es un alimento básico en varios países de África y Asia. Sin embargo, su grano es deficiente en lisina y su calidad proteica disminuye cuando se cocina. Los intentos para conferir calidad proteica al grano de sorgo, no han satisfecho los requerimientos nutricionales, y las alternativas biot [...] ecnológicas se han enfocado a la expresión heteróloga de proteínas, sin prestar atención a incrementar la digestibilidad proteica. El incremento del contenido de lisina en maíz QPM y el silenciamiento génico de las ?-zeínas en maíz, sugieren que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas, una familia de prolaminas del sorgo homólogas a las zeínas de maíz, permite incrementar el contenido de lisina y la digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. En esta revisión se discuten aspectos básicos de la clasificación de las kafirinas, su homología con las zeínas de maíz, y su contribución en la calidad y digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. El objetivo es sustentar la hipótesis de que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas mediante silenciamiento génico es una estrategia clave para mejorar el valor nutritivo del grano del sorgo, el estudio se llevó a cabo durante 2009 y 2010. Abstract in english Sorghum is a basic food in several countries of Africa and Asia. However, its grain is deficient in lysine and its proteic quality diminishes when is cooked. Attempts to confer proteic quality to sorghum grain have not satisfed the nutritional requirements, and biotechnical alternatives have been fo [...] cused to proteins' heterologous expression, without taking into account to increase proteic digestibility. Increment of lysine content in QPM corn and gene silencing of ?-zeins in corn, suggest that modification of expression of kafirins, a prolamin family of sorghum homologous to corn zeins, allows to increase lysin content and the proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. In this revision basic issues of kafirins classification are discussed, their homology with corn zeins, and their contribution in quality and proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. The objective of this work is to support the hypothesis that modification of kafirins expression by means of gene silencing is key strategy to improve nutritious value in sorghum grain, study was carried out during 2009 and 2010.

Elizabeth, Chiquito-Almanza; Gabriel, Cobielles-Castrejón; Noé, Montes-García; Víctor, Pecina-Quintero; José Luis, Anaya-López.

2011-04-01

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IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS  

OpenAIRE

In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of t...

Želmíra Balážová; Milan Ch?apek; Eva Palen?árová; Zdenka Gálová

2012-01-01

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Protein digestibility and relevance to allergenicity.  

OpenAIRE

In January 2001 a Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Consultation Committee on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology published a report outlining in detail an approach for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins. One component of this decision tree is a determination of whether the protein of interest is resistant to proteolytic digestion. Although these (Italic)in vitro(/Italic) methodologies have been usefu...

Bannon, Gary; Fu, Tong-jen; Kimber, Ian; Hinton, Dennis M.

2003-01-01

12

Digestibility of proteins and starch (in vitro) of amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of different domestic processing and cooking methods on starch digestibility (in vitro) and protein digestibility (in vitro) of four strains of amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean) were investigated. An increase of 35 to 48% and 22 to 25% was observed in starch digestibility and protein digestibility, respectively, when the seed of amphidiploids were soaked for 18 h. Cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds) and germination improved significantly the starch digestibility and protein digestibility of all the varieties. PMID:1374184

Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

1992-04-01

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Improved digestibility of ?-lactoglobulin by pulsed light processing: a dilatational and shear study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modifying the protein conformation appears to improve the digestibility of proteins in the battle against allergies. However, it is important not to lose the protein functionality in the process. Light pulse technology has been recently tested as an efficient non-thermal process which alters the conformation of proteins while improving their functionality as stabilizers. Also, in order to rationally design emulsion based food products with specific digestion profiles, we need to understand how interfacial composition influences the digestion of coated interfaces. This study has been designed to investigate the effects of pulsed light (PL) treatment on the gastrointestinal digestion of protein covered interfaces. We have used a combination of dilatational and shear rheology which highlights inter and intra-molecular interactions providing new molecular details on protein digestibility. The in vitro digestion model analyses sequentially pepsinolysis, trypsinolysis and lipolysis of ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) and pulsed light treated ?-lactoglobulin (PL-BLG). The results show that the PL-treatment seems to facilitate digestibility of the protein network, especially regarding trypsinolysis. Firstly, PL treatment just barely enhances the enzymatic degradation of BLG by pepsin, which dilutes and weakens the interfacial layer, due to increased hydrophobicity of the protein owing to PL-treatment. Secondly, PL treatment importantly modifies the susceptibility of BLG to trypsin hydrolysis. While it dilutes the interfacial layer in all cases, it strengthens the BLG and weakens the PL-BLG interfacial layer. Finally, this weakening appears to slightly facilitate lipolysis as evidenced by the results obtained upon addition of lipase and bile salts (BS). This research allows identification of the interfacial mechanisms affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins and lipolysis, which demonstrates an improved digestibility of PL-BLG. The fact that PL treatment did not affect the functionality of the protein makes it a valuable alternative for tailoring novel food matrices with improved functional properties such as decreased digestibility, controlled energy intake and low allergenicity. PMID:25358648

del Castillo-Santaella, Teresa; Sanmartín, Esther; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel Angel; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia

2014-12-28

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Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus(L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g on the weight gain (WG, food conversion FC, retained protein (PR, retained energy (ER and protein efficiency ratio (PER in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” (Oreochromis niloticus. Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between the experimental diets. In diets with 30% proteins, the increase of digestible energy significantly enhances WG, FC, PR, ER and PER, where the level of 3.7 kcal/g had the best performance. With 35% protein, the increase of digestible energy had not significant influence on the GP, CA, PR, ER and PER, however the growth of sex reversal Nile Tilapia was improved with the level of 3.3 kcal/g. When were compared both diets, were not find significant differences. Considering the protein cost, it can be concluded that best response was obtained with a diet containing 30 % of protein and 3.7 kcal/g of digestible energy and optimum digestible energy/ digestible protein ratio of 13.75 kcal/g protein.

Felix Walter Gutierrez

2014-03-01

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IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of the parent proteins remaining after gastric digestion, whose majority disappeared after complete gastro-duodenal digestion. Despite the fact that the most of proteins were broken down by gastro-duodenal digestion into low molecular weight peptides, these molecules retain an allergenic potential.

Želmíra Balážová

2012-02-01

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Pepsin digestibility of proteins in sorghum and other major cereals  

OpenAIRE

We have shown previously that sorghum is highly digestible in the rat. However, other workers have shown that sorghum is much less digestible than wheat, maize, and rice in young children. Because the rat does not show these digestibility differences, we developed an empirical pepsin digestion method, first reported in 1981, which simulates the digestion values found in children. In this report the method has been improved and used to analyze wheat, maize, rice, millet, and sorghum and certai...

Mertz, Edwin T.; Hassen, Mohamed M.; Cairns-whittern, Carleen; Kirleis, Allen W.; Tu, Lichuan; Axtell, John D.

1984-01-01

17

Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated with the fibre content in decortification fractions of Bomi and the high-lysine mutant Risø 1508. The digestibility was positively correlated with the hordein concentration for the Bomi fractions, but not for the 1508 fractions.

Buchmann, N. B.

1979-01-01

18

Improving digestibility of feather meal by steam flash explosion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poultry feathers are available in large quantities. However, natural feathers have poor digestibility and are often considered as solid wastes. To improve the digestibility of poultry feathers, steam flash explosion (SFE) was applied to duck feathers at different pressures ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 MPa for 1 min. The pepsin digestibility, disulfide bond content, and major secondary structure component (?-sheets) of duck feathers before and after the process were examined. The results showed that SFE could effectively increase pepsin digestibility of feather meal. Under the optimal conditions (1.8 MPa for 1 min), the pepsin digestibility of exploded feather meal achieved approximately 91%, which was about 9 times higher than that of the original feathers. The pepsin digestibility was highly correlated with the degree of reduction of disulfide bonds (R(2) = 0.98) and slightly negatively correlated with ?-sheet structure. SFE is an effective method to improve the bio-utilization of feather meal. PMID:24617674

Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei

2014-04-01

19

Pepsin Digestibility of Proteins in Sorghum and Other Major Cereals  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown previously that sorghum is highly digestible in the rat. However, other workers have shown that sorghum is much less digestible than wheat, maize, and rice in young children. Because the rat does not show these digestibility differences, we developed an empirical pepsin digestion method, first reported in 1981, which simulates the digestion values found in children. In this report the method has been improved and used to analyze wheat, maize, rice, millet, and sorghum and certain processed samples of millet and sorghum. The pepsin digestion values parallel those found in children for wheat, maize, rice, and sorghum. In addition, a processed sorghum product that gave a high digestion value in children also gave a high value with the in vitro pepsin method.

Mertz, Edwin T.; Hassen, Mohamed M.; Cairns-Whittern, Carleen; Kirleis, Allen W.; Tu, Lichuan; Axtell, John D.

1984-01-01

20

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

1346-13-01

21

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

2012-06-01

22

Effects of Different Industrial Heating Processes of Milk on Site-Specific Protein Modifications and Their Relationship to in Vitro and in Vivo Digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heating processes are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. However, how differences in "industrial" thermal treatments affect protein digestibility is still equivocal. In this study, raw milk was subjected to pasteurization, three kinds of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment, and in-can sterilization and was investigated by in vitro and in vivo digestion and proteomic methods. In-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples, showed a rapid decrease in protein bands during the course of digestion. However, protein digestibility determined by a Kjeldahl procedure showed insignificant differences. Proteomic analysis revealed that lactulosyllysine, which reflects a decrease in protein digestibility, in ?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, and caseins was higher in in-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples. Thus, industrial heating may improve the digestibility of milk proteins by denaturation, but the improvement is likely to be offset by heat-derived modifications involved in decreased protein digestibility. PMID:24720734

Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

2014-04-24

23

Phytase studies in pigs and poultry: effect on protein digestion and energy utilization  

OpenAIRE

Phytase is applied for improving digestibility of phosphorus in pig and poultry diets. Indepen-dently, phytase also improves animal performance. The mechanisms to explain this effect were investigated and quantified. Protein can be complexed with phytate, especially under the acid conditions that occurs in the stomach of animals. Dietary phytase supplementation pre-vents formation of such complexes or, if such complexes are formed, helps to release protein faster and to a larger extent from p...

Kies, A. K.

2005-01-01

24

In Mesopore Protein Digestion: A New Forthcoming Strategy in Proteomics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conventional protocols for in solution or in gel protein digestion require many steps and long reaction times. The use of trypsin immobilized onto solid supports has recently captured the attention of many research groups, because these systems can speed-up protein digestion significantly. The utilization of new materials such as mesoporous silica as supports, in which enzyme and substrate are dramatically concentrated and confined in the nanospace, offers new opportunities to reduce the complexity of proteomics workflows. An overview of the procedures for in situ proteolysis of single proteins or complex protein mixtures is reported, with a special focus on porous materials used as catalysts. The challenging efforts for designing such systems aimed at mimicking the biochemistry of living cells are reviewed. Potentials, limitations and challenges of this branch of enzyme catalysis, which we indicate as in mesopore digestion, are discussed, in relation to its suitability for high-speed and high-throughput proteomics.

Rosa Terracciano

2011-07-01

25

Effects of protein level and digestibility on the growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein level and protein digestibility on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers from 1 to 35 d of age. Broiler chickens (n = 320) were fed 4 different ideal protein-balanced, isocaloric diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of protein [high protein (HiPro; 20 and 18% or 200 and 180 g/kg) and low protein (LoPro; 18 and 16% or 180 and 160 g/kg) on d 1 to 14 and d 15 to 35, respectively] and 2 levels of protein digestibility [high digestibility (HiDig) and low digestibility (LoDig); approximately 85% and 80% CP digestibility, respectively]. The HiDig diets were formulated using soybean meal and fishmeal, whereas the LoDig diets used wheat distillers dried grains with solubles and meat and bone meal as the primary protein sources. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of the wheat distillers dried grains with solubles and meat and bone meal (56.5 and 72.0% SID for lysine, respectively) were measured before the experiment to improve the accuracy of the diet formulations. During the starter phase, the interaction was significant for ADG; birds fed the LoPro-LoDig diet grew slower than birds fed the other 3 diets (P < 0.05). During the grower phase, the interaction was significant for ADFI; birds fed the LoPro-LoDig diet had the lowest ADFI compared with those fed the other 3 diets. The interaction between protein level and digestibility was significant for the SID of most of the AA and was significantly higher for birds fed the HiPro-HiDig diet compared with those fed the other 3 diets. Total breast meat yield was significantly higher in birds fed the HiPro diets than in those fed the LoPro diets, whereas birds fed the HiDig diets had significantly more abdominal fat than those fed the LoDig diets. The results suggest that low-protein diets can support growth performance equal to high-protein diets when highly digestible ingredients are used. However, maximum breast meat yield requires a high-protein diet and is not affected by ingredient digestibility. PMID:21325230

Widyaratne, G P; Drew, M D

2011-03-01

26

Ostrich (Strutio camelus meat protein quality and digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-free diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein ratio (NPR, net protein utilization (NPU, and true digestibility (TD. There were differences (p<0.05 among treatment groups for all evaluated biological parameters. Mean true digestibility values were 92.12% and 75.77% for casein and ostrich meat, respectively.

LS Reis

2008-09-01

27

INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in vitro digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio.

Buchmann, N. B.

1979-01-01

28

Ostrich (Strutio camelus) meat protein quality and digestibility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-fr [...] ee diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR), net protein utilization (NPU), and true digestibility (TD). There were differences (p

LS, Reis; TC, Oliveira.

2008-09-01

29

Protein Solubility, Digestibility and Fractionation after Germination of Sorghum Varieties  

OpenAIRE

The changes in crude protein, free amino acids, amino acid composition, protein solubility, protein fractionation and protein digestibility after germination of sorghum were investigated. Sorghum varieties (Dorado, Shandaweel-6, Giza-15) were soaked for 20 h followed by germination for 72 h; the results revealed that crude protein and free amino acids in raw sorghum varieties ranged from 10.62 to 12.46% and 0.66 to 1.03 mg/g, respectively. Shandaweel-6 was the highest variety in crude protein...

Afify, Abd El-moneim M. R.; El-beltagi, Hossam S.; Abd El-salam, Samiha M.; Omran, Azza A.

2012-01-01

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Multiplex comparison of the digestibility of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins in rice grains by in vitro digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the digestibility of rice allergenic and nonallergenic proteins under the influence of the rice grain matrix, rice powder was subjected to in vitro digestion by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Rice proteins were extracted from the liquid and the solid phases and analysed by SDS-PAGE, and rice allergenic proteins were detected by a multiplex immunodetection method. The digestion of soluble proteins was carried out in both liquid and solid phases, while that of insoluble proteins only occurred in the solid phase. In SGF digestion, rice proteins were more quickly digested at pH 1.2 than at pH 2.0 or 2.5. Moreover, the digestibility of five kinds of rice allergenic proteins was influenced by pH level, heat processing, starch matrix, solubility, and protein properties, on a case-by-case basis. On the other hand, all detected rice allergenic proteins and non-allergenic proteins were rapidly digested in SIF. PMID:25172754

Lang, Gang-hua; Kagiya, Yukari; Kitta, Kazumi

2015-02-01

31

Intragastric gelation of whey protein-pectin alters the digestibility of whey protein during in vitro pepsin digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of pectin on in vitro digestion of whey protein. Digestion of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and pectin solutions (WPI-pectin) as influenced by pectin concentration and pH was studied under simulated gastric conditions. Electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, colorimetric measurements, and gel microstructures were used to study the digestion pattern. At low pectin concentration (0.25% w/w), pectin did not significantly influence the degradation of whey protein. Increasing the pectin concentration to 1% led to extensive intragastric gelation immediately after mixing with simulated gastric fluid. The microstructure of intragastric gel from WPI-pectin at pH 6.0 showed a more interconnected and denser gel network than that at pH 7.0. More protein and pectin were involved in the gelation at pH 6.0 than pH 7.0. The digesta of samples at pH 6.0 was mainly composed of peptides, while that at pH 7.0 mostly consisted of aggregates and crosslinked peptides. This study suggests that WPI-pectin at high biopolymer ratio formed intragastric gel in simulated gastric models, which could delay protein digestion and potentially slow gastric emptying and promote satiety. PMID:24284478

Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

2014-01-01

32

Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of the cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop the mathematical description based on a master-equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome specie, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation ...

Goldobin, Denis S

2014-01-01

33

Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop a mathematical description based on a master equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome species, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation rates

34

The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been adopted by FAO/WHO as the preferred method for the measurement of the protein value in human nutrition. The method is based on comparison of the concentration of the first limiting essential amino acid in the test protein with the concentration of that amino acid in a reference (scoring) pattern. This scoring pattern is derived from the essential amino acid requirements of the preschool-age child. The chemical score obtained in this way is corrected for true fecal digestibility of the test protein. PDCAAS values higher than 100% are not accepted as such but are truncated to 100%. Although the principle of the PDCAAS method has been widely accepted, critical questions have been raised in the scientific community about a number of issues. These questions relate to 1) the validity of the preschool-age child amino acid requirement values, 2) the validity of correction for fecal instead of ileal digestibility and 3) the truncation of PDCAAS values to 100%. At the time of the adoption of the PDCAAS method, only a few studies had been performed on the amino acid requirements of the preschool-age child, and there is still a need for validation of the scoring pattern. Also, the scoring pattern does not include conditionally indispensable amino acids. These amino acids also contribute to the nutrition value of a protein. There is strong evidence that ileal, and not fecal, digestibility is the right parameter for correction of the amino acid score. The use of fecal digestibility overestimates the nutritional value of a protein, because amino acid nitrogen entering the colon is lost for protein synthesis in the body and is, at least in part, excreted in urine as ammonia. The truncation of PDCAAS values to 100% can be defended only for the limited number of situations in which the protein is to be used as the sole source of protein in the diet. For evaluation of the nutritional significance of proteins as part of mixed diets, the truncated value should not be used. In those cases, a more detailed evaluation of the contribution of the protein to the amino acid composition of the mixed diet is required. From such an evaluation, it appears that milk proteins are superior to plant proteins in cereal-based diets. PMID:10867064

Schaafsma, G

2000-07-01

35

ENZYME DIGEST AND ACID HYDROLYZED INDEX OF PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pancreatopeptidase (Elastase digest index was devised for a rapid and accurate estimation of protein quality. This index was calculated on the basis of all the amino acids released by an in-vitro Elastase digestion, acid hydrolyses of same sample and the residue of enzyme hydrolyzed. The amino acids were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography. Samples used were cooked white kidneybeans, cooked and over-heated soybean powder, and skimmed milk powder. Good correlation was observed between elastase index value and their biological values reported in the literature from feeding trials. The pattern of aminoacids released by acid and by enzyme hydrolysis was about the same.

H.Mohammadiha P. Mostafavi

1984-08-01

36

Effect of Phytase Supplementation on the Digestibility of Crude Protein, Amino Acids and Phosphorus of Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata in Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea contains phytate-P and other nutrients like amino acids which are poorly digested in broilers. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve digestibility of these nutrients. In 2 experiments the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein, amino acids and P of cowpea in broilers were investigated. Experiment One, had 6 diets in which 0, 150 or 300 g kg-1 cowpea replaced maize starch and 0 or 500 units of phytase enzyme (Natuphos, in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement to determine P digestibility and performance of the birds. Experiment Two, had similar diets as in experiment 1 with the objective to determine digestibility of CP and AAs. TiO2 was added as an indigestible marker in the diets and in each of the experiments a total of 288 1-day-old broiler chicks (Ross strain were used. Phytase supplementation increased (p<0.05 digestibility of P from 55-67% and improved performance of the birds. Cowpea and its interaction with phytase had no significant effect on P digestibility, CP and AAs, except for arginine, glutamic acid and phenylalanine which were reduced (p<0.05. Phytase increased (p<0.05 digestibility of CP and cystine and reduced CP and AA losses on the basal level at zero intakes of CP and AAs. Results suggest that supplementation of cowpea based diets with microbial phytase improved the precaecal digestibility of P, CP and amino acids in broilers.

Eustace A. Iyayi

2013-01-01

37

Microbial Delignification with White Rot Fungi Improves Forage Digestibility  

OpenAIRE

Three wild-type white rot fungi and two cellulase-less mutants developed from Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3 (formerly Sporotrichum pulverulentum) were tested for their ability to delignify grass cell walls and improve biodegradation by rumen microorganisms. Fungal-treated and control stems of Bermuda grass were analyzed for their content of ester- and ether-linked aromatics by using alkali extraction and gas chromatography, for in vitro dry weight digestion and production of volatile fatty ...

Akin, D. E.; Sethuraman, A.; Morrison, W. H.; Martin, S. A.; Eriksson, K. -e L.

1993-01-01

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Reduction of hexavalent chromium by digested oat bran proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is associated with an increase in oxidative stress, such as DNA, lipid and protein oxidations. This study investigated, for the first time, the ability of digested food proteins to reduce Cr(VI) and scavenge free radicals. Protamex, an endopeptidase was used to digest oat bran protein isolates for 1, 2, 3, and 4h. The hydrolysates (1mg/ml) showed a maximum Cr(VI)-reducing activity of 5.4 ± 0.4% and 44.6% at pH 7.4 and 3.0, respectively. The difference might be due to charge or conformation changes depending on the pH. The 2h hydrolysate possessed the highest O2(-) inhibition activity (57.4 ± 5.1%), while the 1h hydrolysate had the highest HO inhibition (11.6 ± 0.6%). A correlation (R(2)=0.82) was observed between the O2(-) scavenging activities of hydrolysates and their Cr(VI)-reducing activities at pH 3.0 only. Further investigations of the digested oat bran proteins are required to determine their ability to reduce Cr(VI) oxidative stress damage in vivo. PMID:24491717

Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Gao, Qing; Baakdah, Morooj M

2014-06-15

39

QTL Mapping of a High Protein Digestibility Trait in Sorghum bicolor  

OpenAIRE

Compared with other cereal grains, Sorghum bicolor shows lower protein digestibility. The low digestibility is thought to result from disulfide cross linking in the ?- and ?-kafirins. In contrast, the single recessive high digestibility/high lysine content (HD) mutation which confers greater grain digestibility exists in sorghum that is thought to result from reduced accumulation of ?-kafirin that allows greater access to the high digestible ?-kafarin fraction. In ...

Winn, Jennifer A.; Esten Mason, R.; Robbins, Adriana L.; Rooney, William L.; Hays, Dirk B.

2009-01-01

40

Role of grain organisational structure in sorghum protein digestibility  

OpenAIRE

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2000 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Duodu KG, 2000, Role of grain organisational structure in sorghum protein digestibility, P...

Duodu, Kwaku Gyebi

2001-01-01

41

Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis : Quantitative assessment of protein digestion protocols  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The majority of mass spectrometry-based protein quantification studies uses peptide-centric analytical methods and thus strongly relies on efficient and unbiased protein digestion protocols for sample preparation. We present a novel objective approach to assess protein digestion efficiency using a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein fractions. We evaluated nine trypsin-based digestion protocols, based on standard in-solution or on spin filter-aided digestion, including new optimized protocols. We investigated various reagents for protein solubilization and denaturation (dodecyl sulfate, deoxycholate, urea), several trypsin digestion conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows for efficient, unbiased generation and recovery of peptides from all protein classes, including membrane proteins. This deoxycholate-assisted protocol was also optimal for spin filter-aided digestions as compared to existing methods.

Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit

2013-01-01

42

Amine modification of digested peptide at C-terminal end during protein digestion by protease.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently reported that C-terminal polyamine modification occurs when proteins are digested with trypsin in the presence of polyamine [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 356, 159-162 (2007)]. In the present study, the characteristics of this C-terminal modification in the presence of protease and amine were investigated. When hemoglobin (HB) was digested with trypsin in the presence of N-(2-pyridyl)-1,4-diaminobutane (Py4), formation of the modified peptide was dependent on time and on HB or Py4 concentration. When synthetic peptide was treated with trypsin in the presence of Py4, ca. 0.1% of the peptide was modified with Py4. When HB or cytochrome C was treated with a range of serine proteases in the presence of various amines (Py4, N-(2-pyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, tranexamic acid, isonicotinic acid hydrazide and ampicillin), the modified peptide was detected in all cases tested, thus suggesting that amine modification widely accompanies digestion by proteases. PMID:17917247

Ito, Toshiyuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Takao, Koichi; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Shirahata, Akira

2007-10-01

43

Microwave-assisted Protein Digestion on Various Locations of a Microplate  

OpenAIRE

The effectiveness of microwave-assisted protein digestion in different well positions of a 96-well microplate wasinvestigated where microwave-assisted protein digestion of bovine serum albumin was performed in 10 different wells of a 96-wellmicroplate in a microwave oven. Similarly increased sequence coverages (~70%) were generally observed for the 10 microwaveassistedprotein digestion samples compared to conventional overnight digestion (63%), which is possibly due to higher miscleavageratio...

Jeongkwon Kim*; Jangmi Hong; Kyu Hwan Park; Hyun Sik Kim; Ji-hye Lee; Sehwan Park; Sunyoung Lee

2011-01-01

44

Influence of high protein digestibility sorghums on free amino nitrogen (FAN) production during malting and mashing  

OpenAIRE

In sorghum brewing, obtaining sufficient Free Amino Nitrogen (FAN) for rapid and complete fermentation remains a problem due to the high proportions of unmalted sorghum used and the poor digestibility of wet-heat treated sorghum protein. Sorghum mutant lines with high protein digestibility have been developed through breeding. These high protein digestibility sorghums (HPDS) have protein bodies with villi-like borders that apparently facilitate protease access. This work ...

Mugode, Luke; Portillo, Ostilio R.; Hays, Dirk B.; Rooney, Lloyd W.; Taylor, J. R. N.

2011-01-01

45

The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method overestimates quality of proteins containing antinutritional factors and of poorly digestible proteins supplemented with limiting amino acids in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The validity of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) method in predicting the quality of fourteen protein products was compared with the commonly used protein quality methods, protein efficiency ratio (RER) and net protein ratio (NPR). A rat growth and balance study was conducted to determine protein digestibility and quality of the animal and vegetable protein products by the PER and NPR methods. Amino acid compositions of the products were also determined, and PDCAAS were calculated using a rat and a human pattern of amino acid requirements. Compared to the biological methods, the scoring method overestimated protein quality of mustard flour [PDCAAS of 84-92% vs. relative PER (RPER) or relative NPR (RNPR) of 0], raw black beans (PDCAAS of 45-72% vs. RPER or RNPR of 0), alkaline-treated lactalbumin and soybean protein isolate (PDCAAS of 44-67% vs. RPER or RNPR of 0) and heated skim milk (PDCAAS of 29-31% vs. RPER and RNPR of 0-5%). The scoring method also overestimated the protein quality of zein (true protein digestibility of 63%) supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr and Trp (PDCAAS of 63-71% vs. RPER and RNPR of 3-44%). These data demonstrate that the PDCAAS method is inappropriate for predicting protein quality of those protein sources which may contain naturally occurring growth-depressing factors or antinutritional factors formed during alkaline and/or heat processing. PMID:9164998

Sarwar, G

1997-05-01

46

Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala, and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94%). The presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fiber, and high concentrations of antinutritional factors in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, are responsible for poor digestibility of protein. The effects of the presence of some of the important antinutritional factors on protein and amino digestibilities of food and feed products are reviewed in this chapter. Food and feed products may contain a number of antinutritional factors that may adversely affect protein digestibility and amino acid availability. Antinutritional factors may occur naturally, such as glucosinolates in mustard and rapeseed protein products, trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, phytates in cereals and oilseeds, and gossypol in cottonseed protein products. Antinutritional factors may also be formed during heat/alkaline processing of protein products, yielding Maillard compounds, oxidized forms of sulfur amino acids, D-amino acids, and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural amino acid derivative). The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soybeans, kidney beans, or other grain legumes can cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 50%) in rats and pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in cereals, such as sorghum, and grain legumes, such as fababean (Vicia faba L.), can result in significantly reduced protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 23%) in rats, poultry, and pigs. Studies involving phytase supplementation of production rations for swine or poultry have provided indirect evidence that normally encountered levels of phytates in cereals and legumes can reduce protein and amino acid digestibilities by up to 10%. D-amino acids and LAL formed during alkaline/heat treatment of proteins such as casein, lactalbumin, soy protein isolate, or wheat proteins are poorly digestible (less than 40%), and their presence can reduce protein digestibility by up to 28% in rats and pigs. A comparison of the protein digestibility determination in young (5-week) versus old (20-month) rats suggests greater susceptibility to the adverse effects of antinutritional factors in old rats than in young rats. Therefore, the inclusion of protein digestibility data obtained with young rats, as the recommended animal model, in the calculation of PDCAAS (Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score) may overestimate protein digestibility and quality of products, especially those containing antinutritional factors, for the elderly. For products specifically intended for the elderly, protein digestibility should be determined using more mature rats. PMID:16001874

Gilani, G Sarwar; Cockell, Kevin A; Sepehr, Estatira

2005-01-01

47

Effect of Phytase Supplementation on the Digestibility of Crude Protein, Amino Acids and Phosphorus of Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata) in Broilers  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea contains phytate-P and other nutrients like amino acids which are poorly digested in broilers. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve digestibility of these nutrients. In 2 experiments the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein, amino acids and P of cowpea in broilers were investigated. Experiment One, had 6 diets in which 0, 150 or 300 g kg-1 cowpea replaced maize starch and 0 or 500 units of phytase enzy...

Iyayi, Eustace A.

2013-01-01

48

Protein Digestibility of Different Animal and Plant Protein Sources for Labeo rohita Fingerlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A laboratory trial was conducted on the protein digestibility of rohu (Labeo rohita fingerlings in a static indoor fish rearing water system of glass made aquaria (90 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm for a period of 75 days. Each treatment had two replicates containing 12 fingerlings. Five experimental diets A, B, C, D and E were prepared from different combination of five major sources of protein viz., fish meal, protein concentrate, meat & bone meal, mix of animal protein sources and mix of plant protein sources each containing 33% dietary protein level. The apparent protein digestibility (APD values of the above mentioned diets were 81.70, 78.66, 75.53, 72.53 and 69.96%.

P. K. Sarker

2000-01-01

49

Effect of suppressing the synthesis of different kafirin subclasses on grain endosperm texture, protein body structure and protein nutritional quality in improved sorghum lines  

OpenAIRE

To improve sorghum grain protein nutritional quality, improved sorghum lines were transformed to suppress the synthesis of different kafirin sub-classes, or backcrossed into transgenic lines with improved protein quality. Co-suppression of the alpha-, gamma- and delta-kafirin sub-classes and removal of the tannin trait resulted in transgenic sorghum lines with high cooked protein digestibility ( 80%), improved Amino Acid Score (0.8) and Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid S...

Da Silva, Laura S.; Jung, Rudolf; Zhao, Zuo-yo; Glassman, Kimberly; Taylor, Janet; Taylor, J. R. N.

2011-01-01

50

In Vitro Determination of Wheat Dry Matter Solubility and Protein Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the in vitro dry matter (DM solubility and protein digestibility (PD of wheat grains. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, samples were incubated for different time periods with pepsin, simulating gastric digestion, and in experiment 2, samples were digested following an in vitrotwo-step procedure, simulating gastric and small intestine digestion. DM solubility in gastric digestion showed an increase with the incubation time. DM solubility of wheat ranged in experiment 1 from 0.1532 g/g at 30 minutes digestion time, to 0.1714 g/g at 120 minutes digestion time. Samples showed higher DM solubility and PD after small intestine incubation than after gastric incubation. DM solubility increased with 16.67% and PD increased with 24.87% when gastric digestion was followed by 240 minutes intestinal digestion.

Rodica C?pri??

2012-10-01

51

Relação lisina digestível: proteína digestível em rações para tilápias-do-nilo Digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio in diets for Nile tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação lisina digestível:proteína digestível em rações para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo. As tilápias (11,0 ± 0,43 g foram distribuídas em 36 aquários (250 litros numa densidade de seis peixes/aquário. Foram formuladas 12 rações com 22,0; 26,0 ou 30,0% de proteína digestível, com base na composição em aminoácidos digestíveis, e 4,5; 6,0; 7,5 ou 9,0% de lisina, em relação à proteína digestível, fornecidas à vontade durante 60 dias. Houve interação significativa dos fatores lisina digestível/proteína digestível para o ganho de peso, uma vez que o aumento dos níveis de lisina em rações com 26,0 e 30,0% de proteína digestível promoveu aumento linear desse parâmetro. Os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com os níveis de 26,0 e 30,0% proteína digestível, que determinaram aumento do consumo diário de proteína digestível. O nível de lisina promoveu redução linear da conversão alimentar e aumento linear da taxa de eficiência proteica. O nível de 26,0% de proteína digestível pode ser utilizado em rações para juvenis de tilápiado-nilo, entretanto essas rações devem ser formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis e relação lisina digestível/proteína digestível de 6,0%. Quando utilizados níveis superiores a 26,0% de proteína digestível, o nível máximo de 7,5% de lisina digestível em relação à proteína digestível melhora o ganho de peso na espécie.This study was carried out to determine the best digestible protein/digestible lysine ratio that should be present in feed fed to Nile tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen tilapias (11.0 ± 0.43g were distributed in 36 fish tanks (205 L at a density of 6 fish/tank. Twelve feeds were formulated with three different digestible protein (DP levels 22.0; 26.0 and 30.0% (based on digestible amino acids and four different lysine percentages of 4.5; 6.0; 7.5 or 9.0% in relation to digestible protein. The fish were fed ad libtum during a 60-day period. There was significant effect of the digestible protein and digestible lysine ratio on weight gain, because the increase in lysine levels in feeds with 26 and 30% DP promoted linear increase in this parameter. The best values for feed conversion were obtained at the levels 26 and 30% DP that increased the daily consumption of digestible protein. The lysine level caused a linear reduction in feed conversion and linear increase in the protein efficiency rate. The results suggested that the 26% DP level might be used in ration to feed Nile tilapia juveniles; however, these should contain digestible amino acids and the digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio should be 6.0%. However, for levels higher than 26% DP, a maximum digestible lysine level of 7.5% DP improved weight gain for the species.

Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves

2009-12-01

52

The Determining of Digestible Energy and Digestibility Coefficients of Protein, Calcium and Phosphorus of Malt (Germinated Barley) in Broilers  

OpenAIRE

This experiment was conducted to determinate digestible energy and digestibility coefficients of protein, calcium and phosphorus of malt (germinated barley) and barley in broilers nutrition. Four dietary treatments included barley diet (96.24% of diet) and three other diets which malt was replacing with barley as 32.08, 64.16 and 96.24% (malt diet) were fed from 18-25 days of age. Experimental data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results of experiment indicated that digestibl...

Amin Sabet Moghaddam; Mahdieh Mehdipour; Behrouz Dastar

2009-01-01

53

The foodomics approach for the evaluation of protein bioaccessibility in processed meat upon in vitro digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work describes a foodomics protocol coupling an in vitro static simulation of digestion to a combination of omics techniques, to grant an overview of the protein digestibility of a meat-based food, namely Bresaola. The proteolytic activity mediated by the digestive enzymes is evaluated through Bradford and SDS-PAGE assays, combined to NMR relaxometry and spectroscopy, to obtain information ranging from the microscopic to the molecular level, respectively. The simple proteomics tool adopted here points out that a clear increase of bioaccessible proteins occurs in the gastric phase, rapidly disappearing during the following duodenal digestion. However, SDS-PAGE and the Bradford assay cannot follow the fate of the digested proteins when the products are sized digestion process. Time domain NMR relaxometry, finally, detects the swelling phenomenon occurring during the gastric phase, when the digestion fluid enters the meat matrix. PMID:24436037

Bordoni, Alessandra; Laghi, Luca; Babini, Elena; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Picone, Gianfranco; Ciampa, Alessandra; Valli, Veronica; Danesi, Francesca; Capozzi, Francesco

2014-06-01

54

Growth of Nile tilapia post-larvae from broodstock fed diet with different levels of digestible protein and digestible energy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different levels of digestible energy and digestible protein in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock on offspring growth during sex reversal stage. A total of 2,700 post-larvae (8.2±0.001 mg) derived from breeders fed nine d [...] iets with distinct levels of digestible protein (28, 34 and 40% DP) and digestible energy (2,800; 3,400; and 4,000 kcal DE.kg-1) were stored in twenty-seven 70 L tanks. After 30 days of growth, their average final weight (AFW, g), average weight gain (AWG, g), final standard length (SL, cm), condition factor (CF), specific growth rate (SGR, %/day), stock uniformity (UNI, %), survival (SUR, %) and sex reversal rate (SRR, %) were measured. Although female nutrition is thought to influence the performance or quality of progeny during early life stages, no influence of diets supplied to broodstock was detected on any parameter. Nonetheless, the offspring presented commercially satisfactory growth rates. Thus, diets containing 28% of digestible protein and 2,800 kcal of digestible energy.kg of diet-1 can be used to feed Nile tilapia broodstock without jeopardizing offspring performance during the sex reversal phase.

Silia Maria de Negreiros, Sousa; André, Freccia; Lilian Dena dos, Santos; Fábio, Meurer; Lucélia, Tessaro; Robie Allan, Bombardelli.

2013-08-01

55

Digestion and absorption of protein along ovine gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digestion and absorption of protein were determined in ovine gastrointestinal tract with cerium-141 as an unabsorbed reference substance. Nitrogen flows changed little in rumen and reticulum, but in the proximal small intestine flows increased because of secretion of .9 g nitrogen per day per kg body weight. This secretion included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidases A and B; maximal activity was in proximal segments of the small intestine and decreased with distance from the pylorus. Activity of chymotrypsin decreased more rapidly than that of trypsin. Amino acid flows reflected the influx of protein in the duodenum; absorption was approximately 55% in the terminal ileum. No major changes of proportions of individual amino acids were observed. Overall nitrogen absorption was 72.6% of which 6% was in the large intestine. The major soluble protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract consisted of peptides with molecular weight 7,000 to 14,000 daltons. Soluble high molecular weight protein was observed only in rumen and duodenum. Low molecular weight peptides and amino acids accumulated only in the proximal small intestine. Solubilization of protein and breakdown of peptides of 7,000 to 14,000 molecular weight appear to be rate limiting for protein absorption in sheep

56

Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart.) is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional [...] factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein), tests (bacuri almond flours) and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV), (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds) when compared to the control group (92.3%). The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

Magalli Costa Barbosa, Lima e Silva; Priscila Aiko, Hiane; José Antônio, Braga Neto; Maria Ligia Rodrigues, Macedo.

2014-03-01

57

Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P digestibility. Although DG or FD exhibited moderate effects on intestinal brush border protease activities and mRNA levels of duodenal transporters Pept1, Lat1, and Cat1, both substantially enhanced (P protein synthesis key regulator S6 ribosomal protein (S6) and the ratio of phospho-S6 to S6 in the liver of hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived. PMID:25568377

Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

2015-01-01

58

A highly digestible sorghum mutant cultivar exhibits a unique folded structure of endosperm protein bodies  

OpenAIRE

The endosperm of a sorghum mutant cultivar, with high in vitro uncooked and cooked protein digestibilities, was examined by transmission electron microscopy and ?-, ?-, and ?-kafirins (storage proteins) were localized within its protein bodies. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed that these protein bodies had a unique microstructure related to high protein digestibility. They were irregular in shape and had numerous invaginations, often reaching to the central area of the...

Oria, Maria P.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Axtell, John D.; Huang, Chia-ping

2000-01-01

59

Changes in Total Protein Digestibility, Fractions Content and Structure During Cooking of Lentil Cultivars  

OpenAIRE

The effect of cooking on total protein digestibility and fractions content and structure of lentil cultivars was investigated. Cooking significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the protein digestibility using pepsin and/or pancreatin. Pepsin digestibility of raw seeds ranged from 44.6 to 52.1% and that of both pepsin and pancreatin ranged from 81.8 to 99.9%. Cooking reduced the protein digestibility of the cultivars and was found to be range from 22.3 to 19.7% when pepsin was used and ranged from 77.1...

Sulieman, Mashair A.; Hassan, Amro B.; Osman, Gamaa A.; El Tyeb, Mohamed M.; El Khalil, Elhadi A. I.; El Tinay, Abdullahi H.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

2008-01-01

60

The role of protein digestibility and antacids on food allergy outcomes  

OpenAIRE

Digestion assays with simulated gastric fluid have been introduced for characterization of food proteins to imitate the effect of stomach proteolysis on dietary compounds in vitro. By using these tests, dietary proteins can be categorized as digestion-resistant class 1 (true allergens triggering direct oral sensitization) or as labile class 2 allergens (nonsensitizing elicitors). Thus the results of these digestion assays mirror situations of intact gastric proteolysis. Alterations in the gas...

Untersmayr, Eva; Jensen-jarolim, Erika

2008-01-01

61

On-Membrane Tryptic Digestion of Proteins for Mass Spectrometry Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Identification of proteins and characterization of posttranslational modifications are crucial steps for many biological, biochemical, and biomedical studies, and mass spectrometry has become the method of choice for these analyses. Here we describe two methods for the on-membrane digestion of proteins electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes prior to analysis by mass spectrometry. These on-membrane methods take approximately half the time of in-gel digestion and provide better digestion ...

Luque-garcia, Jose L.; Neubert, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

62

Protein Levels for Heat-Exposed Broilers: Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Energy and Protein Metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat stress causes significant economic losses on broilers production due to poorer performance and carcass quality. Considering that protein has the highest heat increment among nutrients, it has been suggested that protein levels should be reduced in diets for heat-exposed broilers. Nevertheless, there are no conclusive results on the benefits of such practice, and further studies should be performed to elucidate some reported discrepancies. Thus, a trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels (17, 20 and 23% and environmental temperature (22 and 32°C on the performance, nutrients digestibility, and energy and protein metabolism of broiler chickens from 21 to 42 days of age. Nutrients digestibility was determined by total excreta collection, and energy and protein metabolism was evaluated by comparative slaughter method. It was concluded that (1 heat exposure impairs broilers performance and increases nitrogen excretion, but do not change nutrients digestibility; (2 high-protein diets are technically feasible and promotes lower heat production for broilers reared under thermoneutral or hot environments, however, high-protein diets increases nitrogen excretion.

Daniel Emygdio de Faria Filho

2007-01-01

63

Unconventional anaerobic digester designs for improving methane yields from sea kelp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies were performed as part of an ongoing comprehensive research program to develop and optimize the anaerobic digestion process for producing methane from sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Laboratory-scale studies focused on digester design and operating techniques applicable toward the goal of increasing methane yields and production rates over those observed in previous studies using conventional stirred tank reactors (STR). Two unconventional anaerobic digesters, an upflow solids reactor and a baffle flow reactor, were used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of kelp; both digesters permit solids retention times that are longer than the hydraulic retention times. The performance of the unconventional digesters was compared with that of the STR on the basis of methane yield and process stability. These studies demonstrated that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp variability, the methane yield in both unconventional digesters exceeded 70% of the theoretical yield and was substantialy higher than that of the STR. Utilization of simple digester designs that promoted long solids retention times improved the anaerobic digester performance significantly over that observed in conventional anaerobic digestion processes.

Fannin, K.F.; Srivastava, V.J.; Chynoweth, D.P.

1982-01-01

64

Effects of Malting and Fermentation on Anti-Nutrient Reduction and Protein Digestibility of Red Sorghum, White Sorghum and Pearl Millet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorghum and millet and their products require specialized treatment in order to improve their nutritive value, organoleptic properties and shelf-life. They contain anti-nutrients which are the major phytochemicals which negatively affects their nutritive values. The phytochemicals of concern include tannins and phytates, which interfere with mineral absorption, palatability and protein digestibility. Malting and fermentation treatments were applied to reduce the anti-nutrients, improve protein digestibility, and acidity to increase the products shelf life. The effects of malting and fermentation on the cereals nutritive value and anti-nutrient reduction were studied and evaluated for a period of 8 days. A treatment combining malting for 3 days and fermentation for 2 days respectively both at room temperatures (25°C was employed. Tannins and phytates were significantly reduced (p ? 0.05 by malting and fermentation. Protein digestibility was significantly (p ? 0.05 improved by malting and fermentation treatments; malted cereals digestibility ranged between 34.5-68.1% while the fermented flours protein digestibility range was 97.4-98.3%. The pH values were lowered to below 4.0, a level at which they could effectively inhibit spoilage microorganisms at the end of the fermentation period. A combination of optimum time treatments of malting and fermentation for 3 days and 2 days respectively were effective in reducing tannins and phytates and improving protein digestibility of the cereals.

C. A. Onyango

2012-11-01

65

The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the Venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested to assimilate nutrients as the plants grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about its prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition.

Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse

2012-01-01

66

MALDI-target integrated platform for affinity-captured protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

To address immunocapture of proteins in large cohorts of clinical samples high throughput sample processing is required. Here a method using the proteomic sample platform, ISET (integrated selective enrichment target) that integrates highly specific immunoaffinity capture of protein biomarker, digestion and sample cleanup with a direct interface to mass spectrometry is presented. The robustness of the on-ISET protein digestion protocol was validated by MALDI MS analysis of model proteins, ranging from 40 fmol to 1 pmol per nanovial. On-ISET digestion and MALDI MS/MS analysis of immunoaffinity captured disease-associated biomarker PSA (prostate specific antigen) from human seminal plasma are presented. PMID:24356215

Ahmad-Tajudin, Asilah; Adler, Belinda; Ekström, Simon; Marko-Varga, György; Malm, Johan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

2014-01-01

67

High efficiency and quantitatively reproducible protein digestion by trypsin-immobilized magnetic microspheres  

OpenAIRE

Aldehyde- and NHS-activated magnetic microspheres were used to immobilize trypsin (CHO-trypsin and NHS-trypsin), and their performance for protein digestion was evaluated by reversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos instrument. NHS-trypsin provided greater sequence coverage and identified more peptides for the digestion of bovine serum albumin. A one-minute digestion at room temperature using the immobilized trypsin also ...

Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Yang, Ping; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J.

2012-01-01

68

Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet potato proteins were incubated with pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin and protein breakdown was visualized with SDS-PAGE. After pepsin digestion, samples were assayed for amylase inhibitory activity. Sporamin, the major storage protein in sweet potatoes, which functions as a trypsin inhibitor as well, exhibited resistance to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Sporamin from blanched peel of orange sweet potatoes was less resistant to pepsin digestion than sporamin from outer peel and from extract of the white-skinned Caiapo sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitory activity remained after simulated gastric digestion, with the Caiapo potato protein and peel samples exhibiting higher inhibitory activity compared to the blanched peel sample. Amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was not present in any of the samples after digestion. PMID:25473492

Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C

2014-07-01

69

Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores for bean and bean-rice infant weaning food products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetable proteins are an integral part of infant weaning diets in Latin America. Protein quality in plant-based products, however, is constrained by amino acid composition and intrinsically present antinutritional factors. The goal of this study was to improve bean protein quality by utilizing fermentation and germination processing. The objectives were to determine if protein quality, as measured by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) approved True Protein Digestibility (TPD) and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores (PDCAAS), of formulated bean-based weaning products could be improved upon fermentation and germination and if protein quality could be further improved when processed beans were combined with cooked rice. Results showed that the highest TPD and PDCAAS values were obtained for cooked germinated beans combined with rice. The TPD values for products ranged from 80 to 91%, and the PDCAAS values were 0.38-0.51. There was no significant increase (P PDCAAS values upon fermentation. Germination increased TPD of cooked bean products; this increase was not, however, accompanied by an increase in PDCAAS. When combined with rice, the PDCAAS values for all bean products improved significantly, thus supporting the concept of cereal-legume complementation. In conclusion, this study showed the range of PDCAAS in processed black bean and bean-rice infant weaning food products. The potential for incorporation of these products into the diets of weaning age Latin American children would, however, be confirmed only after validation with growth or metabolic balance studies in human infants. PMID:11600068

Kannan, S; Nielsen, S S; Mason, A C

2001-10-01

70

In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO) and fish oil (FO) and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digest...

Hartati, L.; Agus, A.; Bp, Widyobroto; Lm, Yusiati

2012-01-01

71

In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula.Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro

L Hartati

2012-01-01

72

Rice Protein Extracted by Different Methods Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats Due to Its Lower Digestibility  

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Full Text Available To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A and ?-amylase (RP-E on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS. The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significant cholesterol-lowering effects were observed in rats fed by RP-A and RP-E. Fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by RP-E, but not by RP-A. The apparent cholesterol absorption was more effectively inhibited by RP-E than RP-A because more fecal neutral sterols were excreted in rats fed RP-E. There was a significant correlation between protein digestibility and cholesterol absorption (r = 0.8662, P < 0.01, resulting in a significant correlation between protein digestibility and plasma cholesterol level (r = 0.7357, P < 0.01 in this study. The present study demonstrates that the digestibility of rice protein affected by extraction method plays a major role in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action induced by rice protein with lower digestibility primarily contribute to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption.

Hongbo Liu

2011-11-01

73

Integrative effects of feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance and digestibility in broilers: promotion muscle protein metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA + FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15 d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% FOS, and combined of 0.05% AA and 0.05% FOS. Results from measurement of growth performance and digestibility revealed a significant increase in the body weight gain with improved feed conversion rate in the experimental groups. Interestingly, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude protein utilization (CPU) were improved. In addition, plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, while plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by feeding AA, FOS, and AA + FOS. Expressions of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were increased in experimental groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of either Aspergillus awamori or fructooligosaccharide or both improves digestibility and growth performance probably by promoting skeletal muscle protein metabolism. PMID:24895630

Saleh, Ahmed A; Amber, Khairy; El-Magd, Mohammed A; Atta, Mostafa S; Mohammed, Ahmed A; Ragab, Mohamed M; Abd El-Kader, Hanaa

2014-01-01

74

Influence of Non-fibrous Carbohydrate and Degradable Intake protein and Ruminal Fermentation ,Nutrien Digestion and performance of Local Sheep  

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Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate the impact dietary non-fibrous carbohydrate ( NFC and ruminally degradable intake protein (DIP concentration have on ruminal fermentation , nutrient digestion and performance of local sheep. The animal had a mean of liveweight 19.80 ±1.55 kg. four diets ,arranged in a 2x2 factorial ,were formulated to contain either 40 or 50 % NFC and 50 or 60 % of dietary crude protein as DIP .dietary DM contained 25 % Indonesian field grass and 75 % concentrate. Solvent –extracted or formaldehyd 2 % -treated soybean meal were used to alter DIP and corn or soybean hulls to alter NFC level. Percentage of energy and NDF digestion was similar ( p<0,01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. The soybean hulls was fermentable and total VFA concentration in the rumen increased ( p<0.01, but N-NH3 concentration was decreased ( p<0.01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. Daily live weight gain ( 146.29±25.84 g and body composition ( fat, water , protein and mineral was similar ( p<0.05 among diets. The preponderance ruminal fermentation ,nutrient digestion and performance of local sheeps did not be improved by sincronization of energy and nitrogen release but may more likely be limited by either energy or nitrogen alone. (Animal Production 3(2: 53-61 (2001Key Word : Carbohydrate, protein, rumen fermentation, nutrients digestion and performance

Efka AR

2001-05-01

75

Impact of Microbial Enzymes on Growth Performance, Micronutrient Digestibility, Tissue Protein Contents and Endogenous Enzyme Activities of Broiler Chickens Fed on Vegetable Protein Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein sources and microbial enzyme supplementation on amino acid and mineral digestibility, tissue protein contents and endogenous enzyme activities of broiler chickens. Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks (n = 160 were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments, each replicated five times, eight chicks per replicate, in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Two basal diets were formulated with soybean (SBM and canola (CM meals at a ratio of 75:25, respectively, along with basal grains and fed to the birds as such or supplemented with enzymes from 1 to 35 days. Enzymes had a positive effect on the gross responses (feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio of the broiler chickens at 35 days. However, feed intake was significantly different (p0.05 body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR between 1 and 35 days. Tissue protein contents and endogenous enzyme activities at 21 days (except for maltase were unaffected by dietary sources and microbial enzyme supplementation. The activity of maltase was higher (p0.05 on mineral digestibility of broilers over the test period. The digestibility of Cu, Zn and Mg was increased (p<0.05 on CM diet, whereas Ca digestibility was higher on SBM diet at 35 days. It can be concluded that the improved growth of the birds might be a result of increased digestibility of amino acids and increase in feed consumption.

M.A. Hossain

2014-01-01

76

Histology-Directed Microwave Assisted Enzymatic Protein Digestion for MALDI MS Analysis of Mammalian Tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents on-tissue proteolytic digestion using a microwave irradiation and peptide extraction method for in situ analysis of proteins from spatially defined regions of a tissue section. The methodology utilizes hydrogel discs (1 mm diameter) embedded with trypsin solution. The enzyme-laced hydrogel discs are applied to a tissue section, directing enzymatic digestion to a spatially confined area of the tissue. By applying microwave radiation, protein digestion is performed in 2 min on-tissue, and the extracted peptides are then analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The reliability and reproducibility of the microwave assisted hydrogel mediated on-tissue digestion is demonstrated by the comparison with other on-tissue digestion strategies, including comparisons with conventional heating and in-solution digestion. LC-MS/MS data were evaluated considering the number of identified proteins as well as the number of protein groups and distinct peptides. The results of this study demonstrate that rapid and reliable protein digestion can be performed on a single thin tissue section while preserving the relationship between the molecular information obtained and the tissue architecture, and the resulting peptides can be extracted in sufficient abundance to permit analysis using LC-MS/MS. This approach will be most useful for samples that have limited availability but are needed for multiple analyses, especially for the correlation of proteomics data with histology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:25427280

Taverna, Domenico; Norris, Jeremy L; Caprioli, Richard M

2014-12-01

77

Improving methodology in open vessel digestion with a graphite heating block (T7)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Open block digestion systems have been very popular in environmental analysis over the past decades, but have consistently suffered from the major drawback of their sensitivity against corrosion and the subsequent risk of contamination. Therefore block digestion systems have not been considered state-of-the-art technology in trace and ultra trace sample preparation. Graphite block digestion systems are well established in North America and are recently becoming more frequently considered in Europe. These systems overcome the deficiencies of the traditional systems, made from stainless steel or aluminum, because the block is manufactured from graphite and typically coated with a fluoro-polymer to present the possibility metallic contamination from the surface of the system during the handling of the samples. Graphite block systems present an alternative to the current mainstream technology of open and closed vessel microwave assisted digestion systems, as they allow large numbers of samples to be digested simultaneously, thus overcoming one of the major weaknesses of closed vessel systems. More recently a number of improvements in the technology has been developed for graphite block digestion systems and studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of such improvements. The paper presented will deal with the technological improvements: monitoring and control of sample temperature vs. monitoring of block temperature, elimination of cross contamination effects during open vessel block digestion, evaporation of samples for pre-concentration or multiple digestion steps, addressing the needs of various labs and applications for block digesters. The effects of those developments will be discussed; application examples and finally an outlook into possible future trends for graphite block digestion systems will be given. (author)

78

Protein digestibility of sorghum and maize flours and porridges as affected by gamma-irradiation  

OpenAIRE

Sorghum foods contribute significantly to the protein intake of millions of people in developing countries. One limitation to sorghums use as a protein source is that its proteins become less digestible on wet cooking, primarily through the formation of disulphide-linked enzymatically resistant protein polymers. Irradiation of foods can modify bonds involved in stabilizing protein structure, resulting in changes in the protein. The effects of irradiating sorghum cultivars BR...

Fombang, Edith Nig

2005-01-01

79

Rice Protein Extracted by Different Methods Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats Due to Its Lower Digestibility  

OpenAIRE

To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS). The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significa...

Hongbo Liu; Lanwei Zhang; Fuping Xu; Yan Zhang; Wei Qiu; Tong Xu; Jiahou Chen; Lin Yang

2011-01-01

80

Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TSadded was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TSadded and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TSadded were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

81

Influence of protein type on oxidation and digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions: Gliadin, caseinate, and whey protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of three surface-active proteins on the oxidative stability and lipase digestibility of emulsified ?-3 oils was examined: deamidated wheat gliadin (gliadin); sodium caseinate (CN); whey protein isolate (WPI). Gliadin and WPI were more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation (hydroperoxides and TBARS) of fish oil-in-water emulsions than CN. Protein oxidation during storage was determined by measuring the loss of tryptophan fluorescence. The CN-emulsions exhibited the highest loss of tryptophan fluorescence during aging, as well as the highest amount of lipid oxidation. Potential reasons for the differences in oxidative stability of the emulsions with different proteins include differences in interfacial film thickness, protein chelating ability, and antioxidant amino acids profiles. During in vitro digestion, gliadin-stabilized emulsions had the lowest digestion rate of the three proteins. These results have important implications for using proteins to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for ?-3 oils. PMID:25577077

Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

2015-05-15

82

Influence of heat and shear induced protein aggregation on the in vitro digestion rate of whey proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein intake is essential for growth and repair of body cells, the normal functioning of muscles, and health related immune functions. Most food proteins are consumed after undergoing various degrees of processing. Changes in protein structure and assembly as a result of processing impact the digestibility of proteins. Research in understanding to what extent the protein structure impacts the rate of proteolysis under human physiological conditions has gained considerable interest. In this work, four whey protein gels were prepared using heat processing at two different pH values, 6.8 and 4.6, with and without applied shear. The gels showed different protein network microstructures due to heat induced unfolding (at pH 6.8) or lack of unfolding, thus resulting in fine stranded protein networks. When shear was applied during heating, particulate protein networks were formed. The differences in the gel microstructures resulted in considerable differences in their rheological properties. An in vitro gastric and intestinal model was used to investigate the resulting effects of these different gel structures on whey protein digestion. In addition, the rate of digestion was monitored by taking samples at various time points throughout the in vitro digestion process. The peptides in the digesta were profiled using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed-phase-HPLC and LC-MS. Under simulated gastric conditions, whey proteins in structured gels were hydrolysed faster than native proteins in solution. The rate of peptides released during in vitro digestion differed depending on the structure of the gels and extent of protein aggregation. The outcomes of this work highlighted that changes in the network structure of the protein can influence the rate and pattern of its proteolysis under gastrointestinal conditions. Such knowledge could assist the food industry in designing novel food formulations to control the digestion kinetics and the release of biologically active peptides for desired health outcome. PMID:25205335

Singh, Tanoj K; Øiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Day, Li

2014-11-01

83

Computational analysis of the relationship between allergenicity and digestibility of allergenic proteins in simulated gastric fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified (GM food, with regard to allergenic potential of transgene-encoded xenoproteins, typically involves several different methods, evaluation by digestibility being one thereof. However, there are still debates about whether the allergenicity of food allergens is related to their resistance to digestion by the gastric fluid. The disagreements may in part stem from classification of allergens only by their sources, which we believe is inadequate, and the difficulties in achieving identical experimental conditions for studying digestion by simulated gastric fluid (SGF so that results can be compared. Here, we reclassify allergenic food allergens into alimentary canal-sensitized (ACS and non-alimentary canal-sensitized (NACS allergens and use a computational model that simulates gastric fluid digestion to analyze the digestibilities of these two types. Results The model presented in this paper is as effective as SGF digestion experiments, but more stable and reproducible. On the basis of this model, food allergens are satisfactorily classified as ACS and NACS types by their pathways for sensitization; the former are relatively resistant to gastric fluid digestion while the later are relatively labile. Conclusion The results suggest that it is better to classify allergens into ACS and NACS types when understanding the relationship between their digestibility and allergenicity and the digestibility of a target foreign protein is a parameter for evaluating its allergenicity during safety assessments of GM food.

Ni Ting

2007-10-01

84

An Improved Cartilage Digestion Method for Research and Clinical Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzymatic isolation of chondrocytes from a cartilage biopsy is the first step to establish in vitro models of chondrogenesis or to generate cell-based grafts for cartilage repair. Such process is based on manually operated procedures and typically results in yields lower than 20% of the total available cells. In this study, we hypothesized that, as compared to conventionally used protocols, the enzymatic digestion of human articular cartilage in the presence of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AscA2P) or of sodium chloride (NaCl), in combination with the use of a perfusion bioreactor system, leads to a higher and more reproducible yield of cell populations with high proliferation and chondrogenic capacity. The addition of AscA2P within the enzymatic digestion medium did not significantly increase the cell yield, but resulted in a significant decrease of the intradonor variability in cell yield (-17.8%±10.7%, p=0.0247) and in a significant increase of the proliferation rate of the isolated chondrocytes (+19.0%±1.4%, p<0.05) with respect to the control group. The addition of NaCl during cartilage digestion did not modulate cell yield. When the cartilage digestion was further performed under direct perfusion flow, beneficial synergistic effects were achieved, with an overall increase of 34.7%±6.8% (p<0.001) in the cell yield and an average decrease of 57.8%±11.2% (p<0.01) in the coefficient of variation with respect to the control group. Importantly, by implementing this strategy it was possible to retrieve clonal subpopulations more efficiently capable of undergoing chondrogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings bear relevance for the preparation of human chondrocytes for laboratory investigations, and in the perspective of efficient and streamlined manufacturing of cell/tissue grafts for articular cartilage repair. PMID:25226356

Centola, Matteo; Tonnarelli, Beatrice; Hendriks, Jeanine; van den Doel, Mirella; Feliciano, Sandra; Papadimitropolous, Adam; Piccinini, Elia; Geurts, Jeroen; Martin, Ivan; Barbero, Andrea

2014-10-17

85

Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by exogenous fibrolytic enzymes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), crude protein (CP) and on the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in sheep of a milled substrate consisting of a 50 : 50 mixture of l [...] ucerne hay (LH) and wheat straw (WS). Four cannulated Döhne-Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two groups in a 2 x 2 cross-over experiment. Additional to the in situ study, the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled LH and WS were determined. The substrate was pre-treated with distilled water (control) or EFE (treatment) 12 hours prior to incubation to allow interaction between the substrate and enzyme. Adding EFE significantly improved the in vitro cumulative gas production (GP), but it did not affect the in vitro MPS measured as purine derivates of the GP residues. The enzyme significantly increased the in vitro DM and NDF disappearances after 36 hours. However, the in situ disappearances of DM, NDF and CP of the roughage mixture were not affected by the EFE. Further, the in situ MPS was increased significantly with the EFE treatment of the mixed substrate. It is concluded that the improved ruminal digestion of DM, NDF and CP is not only due to direct enzyme hydrolysis, but also due to the improvement of MPS.

W.F.J., van de Vyver; B.A., Useni.

86

Digestible fibre to starch ratio and protein level in diets for growing rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of digestible fibre (DF to starch ratio (0.8, 1.5, and 2.8 and protein level (15% and 16% on health status, digestive physiology, growth performance, and carcass traits, 246 rabbits weaned at 33 d were fed until slaughter (75 d six diets formulated according to a bi-factorial arrangement (3 DF to starch ratios by 2 protein levels. Growth performance and carcass quality at slaughter were not af- fected by treatments. Increasing DF to starch ratio did not modify dry matter digestibility (62.0% on average, while increased (P<0.001 DF digestibility (52.3 to 68.1%, stimulated caecal fermentation (total VFA: 56.0 vs 67.8 and 67.2 mmol/l; P=0.02 and changed VFA molar proportions. Increasing dietary protein increased digestibility of dry matter (P=0.02, crude protein (P<0.001 and digestible fibre (P<0.001 and increased cae- cal VFA production (P<0.01. The highest mortality (17.1% vs 1.5% average mortality of the other groups, P<0.001 was found in rabbits fed the diet with the lowest DF to starch ratio and the highest protein level.

Gerolamo Xiccato

2010-01-01

87

Influence of whey protein-beet pectin conjugate on the properties and digestibility of ?-carotene emulsion during in vitro digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of a whey protein isolate (WPI)-beet pectin (BP) conjugate (formed by dry-heating) on the physical properties and digestibilities of ?-carotene and carrier oil in oil-in-water emulsions was studied when they passed through a model gastrointestinal system. ?-Carotene emulsions were stabilized by WPI, unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP, separately. The emulsions were then passed through an in vitro digestion model and the mean droplet size, droplet distribution, zeta-potential, free fatty acids and ?-carotene released were measured. The stability to droplet flocculation and coalescence during digestion was increased for the WPI-BP conjugate stabilized emulsion. Addition of BP onto the WPI stabilized emulsions could inhibit the releases of carrier oil (MCT) and ?-carotene. The releases of free fatty acids and ?-carotene did not differ greatly between the unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP stabilized emulsions. These results have important implications for protein-polysaccharide stabilized emulsions and conjugates used for the protection and delivery of bioactive compounds. PMID:24629983

Xu, Duoxia; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang; Panya, Atikorn; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

2014-08-01

88

Dietary protein digestion and absorption are impaired during acute postexercise recovery in young men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we demonstrated that exercise can cause small intestinal injury, leading to loss of gut barrier function. The functional consequences of such exercise-induced intestinal injury on subsequent food digestion and absorption are unclear. The present study determined the impact of resistance-type exercise on small intestinal integrity and in vivo dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Twenty-four young males ingested 20 g specifically produced intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled protein at rest or after performing a single bout of resistance-type exercise. Continuous intravenous infusions with l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine were employed, and blood samples were collected regularly to assess in vivo protein digestion and absorption kinetics and to quantify plasma levels of intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP) as a measure of small intestinal injury. Plasma I-FABP levels were increased after exercise by 35%, reaching peak values of 344 ± 53 pg/ml compared with baseline 254 ± 31 pg/ml (P < 0.05). In resting conditions, I-FABP levels remained unchanged. Dietary protein digestion and absorption rates were reduced during postexercise recovery when compared with resting conditions (P < 0.001), with average peak exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates of 0.18 ± 0.04 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03 mmol phenylalanine·kg lean body mass(-1)·min(-1), respectively. Plasma I-FABP levels correlated with in vivo rates of dietary protein digestion and absorption (rS = -0.57, P < 0.01). Resistance-type exercise induces small intestinal injury in healthy, young men, causing impairments in dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics during the acute postexercise recovery phase. To the best of our knowledge, this is first evidence that shows that exercise attenuates dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics during acute postexercise recovery. PMID:23283940

van Wijck, Kim; Pennings, Bart; van Bijnen, Annemarie A; Senden, Joan M G; Buurman, Wim A; Dejong, Cornelis H C; van Loon, Luc J C; Lenaerts, Kaatje

2013-03-01

89

Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility. PMID:24835962

Alstrup, L; Weisbjerg, M R; Hymøller, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Nielsen, M O

2014-07-01

90

Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3 d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility

Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

2014-01-01

91

Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses. PMID:20977230

House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

2010-11-24

92

Nanospray FAIMS Fractionation Provides Significant Increases in Proteome Coverage of Unfractionated Complex Protein Digests*  

Science.gov (United States)

High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that can be used to reduce sample complexity and increase dynamic range in tandem mass spectrometry experiments. FAIMS fractionates ions in the gas-phase according to characteristic differences in mobilities in electric fields of different strengths. Undesired ion species such as solvated clusters and singly charged chemical background ions can be prevented from reaching the mass analyzer, thus decreasing chemical noise. To date, there has been limited success using the commercially available Thermo Fisher FAIMS device with both standard ESI and nanoLC-MS. We have modified a Thermo Fisher electrospray source to accommodate a fused silica pulled tip capillary column for nanospray ionization, which will enable standard laboratories access to FAIMS technology. Our modified source allows easily obtainable stable spray at flow rates of 300 nL/min when coupled with FAIMS. The modified electrospray source allows the use of sheath gas, which provides a fivefold increase in signal obtained when nanoLC is coupled to FAIMS. In this work, nanoLC-FAIMS-MS and nanoLC-MS were compared by analyzing a tryptic digest of a 1:1 mixture of SILAC-labeled haploid and diploid yeast to demonstrate the performance of nanoLC-FAIMS-MS, at different compensation voltages, for post-column fractionation of complex protein digests. The effective dynamic range more than doubled when FAIMS was used. In total, 10,377 unique stripped peptides and 1649 unique proteins with SILAC ratios were identified from the combined nanoLC-FAIMS-MS experiments, compared with 6908 unique stripped peptides and 1003 unique proteins with SILAC ratios identified from the combined nanoLC-MS experiments. This work demonstrates how a commercially available FAIMS device can be combined with nanoLC to improve proteome coverage in shotgun and targeted type proteomics experiments. PMID:22186714

Swearingen, Kristian E.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Johnson, Richard S.; Saleem, Ramsey A.; Aitchison, John D.; Moritz, Robert L.

2012-01-01

93

Nanospray FAIMS fractionation provides significant increases in proteome coverage of unfractionated complex protein digests.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that can be used to reduce sample complexity and increase dynamic range in tandem mass spectrometry experiments. FAIMS fractionates ions in the gas-phase according to characteristic differences in mobilities in electric fields of different strengths. Undesired ion species such as solvated clusters and singly charged chemical background ions can be prevented from reaching the mass analyzer, thus decreasing chemical noise. To date, there has been limited success using the commercially available Thermo Fisher FAIMS device with both standard ESI and nanoLC-MS. We have modified a Thermo Fisher electrospray source to accommodate a fused silica pulled tip capillary column for nanospray ionization, which will enable standard laboratories access to FAIMS technology. Our modified source allows easily obtainable stable spray at flow rates of 300 nL/min when coupled with FAIMS. The modified electrospray source allows the use of sheath gas, which provides a fivefold increase in signal obtained when nanoLC is coupled to FAIMS. In this work, nanoLC-FAIMS-MS and nanoLC-MS were compared by analyzing a tryptic digest of a 1:1 mixture of SILAC-labeled haploid and diploid yeast to demonstrate the performance of nanoLC-FAIMS-MS, at different compensation voltages, for post-column fractionation of complex protein digests. The effective dynamic range more than doubled when FAIMS was used. In total, 10,377 unique stripped peptides and 1649 unique proteins with SILAC ratios were identified from the combined nanoLC-FAIMS-MS experiments, compared with 6908 unique stripped peptides and 1003 unique proteins with SILAC ratios identified from the combined nanoLC-MS experiments. This work demonstrates how a commercially available FAIMS device can be combined with nanoLC to improve proteome coverage in shotgun and targeted type proteomics experiments. PMID:22186714

Swearingen, Kristian E; Hoopmann, Michael R; Johnson, Richard S; Saleem, Ramsey A; Aitchison, John D; Moritz, Robert L

2012-04-01

94

Relationship between dietary proteins, their in vitro digestion products, and serum cholesterol in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

A relationship was assessed between the amino acid composition of 9 protein sources or of their in vitro digestion products and total serum cholesterol in rats. Three animal proteins (casein, beef, fish) and 6 vegetable proteins (soy, pea, peanut meal, rapeseed, oatmeal, wheat gluten) were tested. The intact protein sources were submitted to an enzymatic proteolysis according to a new in vitro digestion method. Each protein source was hydrolyzed for 30 min with pepsin at pH 1.9, then with 10 mg pancreatin at basic pH in a dialysis cell. The digestion products diffused through the dialysis membrane of the cell and were collected by a circulating sodium phosphate buffer over a 6-h period. They were likely to correspond to end products luminal in vivo digestion. The aromatic and the basic amino acids were present in higher proportions in the digestion products than in the intact protein sources, reflecting the specificity of the proteolytic enzymes. Total serum cholesterol was measured on male Sprague-Dawley rats fed cholesterol-free or cholesterol-enriched (1% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid) semipurified diets containing protein sources. Total serum cholesterol ranged from 70 mg/dl with the pea diet to 98 mg/dl with the peanut meal diet in rats fed cholesterol-free diets and from 163 mg/dl with the wheat gluten diet to 313 mg/dl with the casein diet in rats fed the cholesterol-enriched diets. These results suggested no specific effect of protein from animal or vegetable origin on total serum cholesterol in rats. In rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets, significant correlations were observed between total serum cholesterol and tyrosine content or leucine/isoleucine ratio of digestion products. These correlations were stronger than those observed with intact protein sources. PMID:3092837

Jacques, H; Deshaies, Y; Savoie, L

1986-08-01

95

Centrifugal Methods and Devices for Rapid In-Gel Digestion of Proteins  

OpenAIRE

Modern proteomic research frequently relies upon separation of proteins in a polyacrylamide gel matrix followed by in-gel enzymatic digestion and extraction of peptides for subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry. In this work, we propose a novel semi-automated method of mechanical processing of gel bands by passing these bands through a specially designed centrifugal device termed a Gel Shredder prior to digestion and extraction of peptides. Such a device allows integrated washing, destaini...

Lazarev, Alexander V.; Rejtar, Tomas; Dai, Shujia; Karger, Barry L.

2009-01-01

96

Kernel Composition, Starch Structure, and Enzyme Digestibility of Opaque-2 Maize and Quality Protein Maize  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives of this study were to understand how opaque-2 (o2) mutation and quality protein maize (QPM) affect maize kernel composition and starch structure, property, and enzyme digestibility. Kernels of o2 maize contained less protein (9.6−12.5%) than those of the wild-type (WT) counterparts (12...

97

Protein digestibility and quality in products containing antinutritional factors are adversely affected by old age in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been recommended to be the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by FAO/WHO. The PDCAAS method includes the use of young rats for predicting protein digestibility of foods for all ages including the elderly. To assess the usefulness of protein digestibility in old rats in the calculation of PDCAAS for the elderly, the influence of age on the digestibility of protein in 5-wk-old and 20-mo-old rats by the balance method was studied. Fifteen protein products were tested. Each protein product was fed as the sole source of 10% dietary protein. A protein-free diet was also included to obtain an estimate of metabolic fecal protein. Protein digestibility values (corrected for metabolic fecal protein loss) in old rats were significantly (P PDCAAS may overestimate protein digestibility and quality of these products for the elderly. For products specifically intended for the elderly, protein digestibility should be determined using old rats. PMID:12514294

Gilani, G Sarwar; Sepehr, Estatira

2003-01-01

98

Changes in Total Protein Digestibility, Fractions Content and Structure During Cooking of Lentil Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of cooking on total protein digestibility and fractions content and structure of lentil cultivars was investigated. Cooking significantly (P = 0.05 reduced the protein digestibility using pepsin and/or pancreatin. Pepsin digestibility of raw seeds ranged from 44.6 to 52.1% and that of both pepsin and pancreatin ranged from 81.8 to 99.9%. Cooking reduced the protein digestibility of the cultivars and was found to be range from 22.3 to 19.7% when pepsin was used and ranged from 77.1 to 88.2% when both pepsin and pancreatin were used. The major protein in lentil was albumin followed by globulin. Cooking significantly (P = 0.05 decreased the albumin content. The decrease was accompanied by significant increment in the glutelin fractions. SDS-PAGE of cooked lentil protein fractions showed that lentil protein was altered quantitatively and qualitatively due to cooking. The number of subunits of total protein in lentil cultivars before cooking was found to range from 17 to 19 bands. However, after cooking they decreased and ranged from 13 to 16 bands. The effect of cooking was most pronounced in the prolamins fractions and its subunits were reduced from 4 to 2 with a higher molecular weight of 56.0kDa.

Mashair A. Sulieman

2008-01-01

99

Ostrich (Strutio camelus) meat protein quality and digestibility  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-free diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR), net protein utili...

Ls, Reis; Tc, Oliveira

2008-01-01

100

Simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduces the allergic reactivity of shrimp extract proteins and tropomyosin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shrimp are highly allergenic foods. Current management are limited to the avoidance of foods. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a safe and effective therapy using modified allergens. This study focuses on assessing the potential for modification of the allergenicity of shrimp proteins following heat treatment or simulated gastric digestion. Shrimp proteins do not reduce their IgE reactivity after heat treatment but it is reduced by simulated gastric digestion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tropomyosin in shrimp extract is worse digested than purified tropomyosin. After 60min of 10U/?g pepsin digestion, a strong inhibition was produced in the in vivo skin reactivity of shrimp extracts and in activation of basophils from allergic patients. Immunisation experiments performed in rabbits demonstrated that digested boiled shrimp extract is able to induce IgG antibodies that block the IgE binding to the untreated boiled shrimp extract in shrimp-allergic patients. Building on our observations, digestion treatment could be an effective method for reducing shrimp allergenicity while maintaining the immunogenicity. PMID:25466048

Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, Ma Paz; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, Ma Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; Del Pozo, Victoria

2015-04-15

101

Determination of standardized ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibilities in protein supplements for piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to determine standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in six ingredients commonly used in weanling pigs diets. The ingredients consisted of extruded soybeans (SBe), high-protein soybean meal (SBMhp), soy protein concentrate (SPC), hydrolyzed wheat gluten (WGh), conventional fish meal 1 (FM1) and extracted fish meal 2 (FM2e). Each assay feed ingredient was added to a purified cornstarch-based basal diet supplemented with casein and crystalline AA, and SID of CP and AA of assay ingredients were estimated using the difference method. A total of 12 3-week-old barrows were surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum. The piglets were allocated to four simultaneous 3 × 3 Latin-square designs with three animals and three periods each, resulting in six observations per assay diet. After 3 to 5 days recovery from surgery, each assay diet was fed at a level of 30 g/kg body weight. Each experimental period consisted of 5 days for adaptation to the assay diets and 2 days for ileal digesta collection. The SID of CP, Lys, Met, Thr and Trp were 73%, 78%, 76%, 66% and 71% in SBe; 80%, 84%, 87%, 75% and 81% in SBMhp; 86%, 89%, 89%, 78% and 83% in SPC; 87%, 60%, 88%, 76% and 79% in WGh; 87%, 92%, 94%, 86% and 86% in FM1; and 79%, 86%, 89%, 80% and 74% in FM2e, respectively. The greatest SID of indispensable AA were observed for FM1 and SPC (SID 85% for most indispensable AA), followed by WGh, FM2e and SBMhp (SID 80% for most indispensable AA) and the smallest SID were obtained for SBe (SID < 80% for most indispensable AA). The SID of CP and indispensable AA in both types of fish meal, SBMhp and WGh were similar to SPC (P = 0.063 to 0.855), except for Arg (P = 0.010) and Lys (P = 0.001) in WGh, and Phe (P = 0.044) and Trp (P = 0.037) in FM2e. The SID of CP and indispensable AA were smaller in SBe compared with SPC (P < 0.001 to P = 0.017), except for Lys (P = 0.136). The SID of CP and indispensable AA were consistently smaller in FM2e compared with FM1 with significant differences for CP (P = 0.035), Phe (P = 0.028) and Trp (P = 0.008). Digestibility values measured in the present study can be used to formulate diets for piglets based on standardized ileal digestible contents of CP and AA. PMID:22443554

Urbaityte, R; Mosenthin, R; Eklund, M; Piepho, H-P; Rademacher, M

2009-12-01

102

In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)  

OpenAIRE

This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate) and plant (soybean meal) ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with th...

Analía Verónica Fernández Gimenez; Ana Cristina Díaz; Susana María Velurtas; Jorge Lino Fenucci

2009-01-01

103

Comparison of Digestion Protocols for Microgram Quantities of Enriched Protein Samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Standard biochemical techniques that are used for protein enrichments, such as affinity isolation and density gradient centrifugation, frequently yield high nanogram to low microgram quantities at a significant expenditure of resources and time. The characterization of selected protein enrichments by the "shotgun" mass spectrometry approach is often compromised by the lack of effective and efficient in-solution proteolysis protocols specifically tailored for these small quantities of proteins. This study compares the results of five different digestion protocols that were applied to 2.5 g portions of protein isolates from two disparate sources: Rhodopseudomonas palustris 70S ribosomal proteins, and Bos taurus microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Proteolytic peptides produced according to each protocol in each type of protein isolate were analyzed by one-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effectiveness of each digestion protocol was assessed on the basis of three parameters: number of peptide identifications, number of protein identifications, and sequence coverage. The two protocols using a solvent containing 80% acetonitrile (CH3CN) for trypsin digestions performed as well as, and in some instances better than, protocols employing other solvents and chaotropes in both types of protein isolates. A primary advantage of the 80% CH3CN protocol is that it requires fewer sample manipulation steps.

Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Strader, Michael B [ORNL; Strader, Michael Brad [National Institutes of Health; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

2007-01-01

104

Comparison of digestion protocols for microgram quantities of enriched protein samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard biochemical techniques that are used for protein enrichments, such as affinity isolation and density gradient centrifugation, frequently yield high-nanogram to low-microgram quantities at a significant expenditure of resources and time. The characterization of selected protein enrichments by the "shotgun" mass spectrometry approach is often compromised by the lack of effective and efficient in-solution proteolysis protocols specifically tailored for these small quantities of proteins. This study compares the results of five different digestion protocols that were applied to 2.5 mug portions of protein isolates from two disparate sources: Rhodopseudomonas palustris 70S ribosomal proteins, and Bos taurus microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Proteolytic peptides produced according to each protocol in each type of protein isolate were analyzed by one-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effectiveness of each digestion protocol was assessed on the basis of three parameters: number of peptide identifications, number of protein identifications, and sequence coverage. The two protocols using a solvent containing 80% acetonitrile (CH3CN) for trypsin digestions performed as well as, and in some instances better than, protocols employing other solvents and chaotropes in both types of protein isolates. A primary advantage of the 80% CH3CN protocol is that it requires fewer sample manipulation steps. PMID:17616116

Hervey, W Judson; Strader, Michael Brad; Hurst, Gregory B

2007-08-01

105

Benchmarking in Higher Education: Adapting Best Practices To Improve Quality. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

This digest discusses the use of benchmarking as a strategy for assessing and improving efficiency and productivity of administrative processes and instructional models in colleges and universities. Benchmarking, developed by the Xerox Corporation in the 1980s, is defined as an ongoing, systematic process for measuring and comparing the work…

Alstete, Jeffrey W.

106

Investigation of protein digestibility and amino acid absorption in different segments of porcine digestive tract. 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 4 pigs (live weight 63 kg) with re-entrance cannulae in the duodenum as well as in the ileocecal region intake, excretion and flow rate of protein, methionine and 35S were measured after supplementary oral application of 35S-methionine to a wheat-wheat gluten-lysine diet and a protein-free diet, respectively, over a period of 7 days. For both the N and the methionine metabolism patterns were outlined according to the measured values and with the aid of a compartment model. The endogenous and exogenous levels of proteins and methionine in the duodenum, ileum and feces were estimated

107

Use of self assembled magnetic beads for on-chip protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of grafted trypsin magnetic beads in a microchip for performing protein digestion is described. The PDMS device uses strong magnets to create a magnetic field parallel to the flow with a strong gradient pointing through the center of the chip channel. This allows for the formation of a low-hydrodynamic resistance plug of magnetic trypsin beads that serves as a matrix for protein digestion. This device represents an inexpensive way of fabricating a multi open-tubular-like column with an appropriate pore size for proteins. Kinetics studies of the hydrolysis of a model peptide show a 100-fold increase in digestion speed obtained by the microsystem when compared to a batch wise system. This system also offers the great advantage of easy replacement, as the bead matrix is easily washed out and replaced. High performance and reproducibility for digesting recombinant human growth hormone are confirmed by analysing the digest products in both CE and MALDI-TOF MS. Similar sequence coverage (of about 44%) is obtained from MS analysis of products after 10 minutes on-chip and 4 h with soluble trypsin in bulk. PMID:16100577

Slovakova, Marcela; Minc, Nicolas; Bilkova, Zuzana; Smadja, Claire; Faigle, Wolfgang; Fütterer, Claus; Taverna, Myriam; Viovy, Jean-Louis

2005-09-01

108

Quantifying raft proteins in neonatal mouse brain by 'tube-gel' protein digestion label-free shotgun proteomics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The low concentration and highly hydrophobic nature of proteins in lipid raft samples present significant challenges for the sensitive and accurate proteomic analyses of lipid raft proteins. Elimination of highly enriched lipids and interfering substances from raft samples is generally required before mass spectrometric analyses can be performed, but these procedures often lead to excessive protein loss and increased sample variability. For accurate analyses of the raft proteome, simplified protocols are needed to avoid excessive sample handling and purification steps. Results We have devised a simple protocol using a 'tube-gel' protein digestion that, when combined with mass spectrometry, can be used to obtain comprehensive and reproducible identification and quantitation of the lipid raft proteome prepared from neonatal mouse brain. Lipid rafts (detergent-resistant membranes using Triton X-100 extraction prepared from neonatal mouse brain were directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide tube-gel matrix without prior protein separation. After in-gel digestion of proteins, nanospray LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the extracted peptides, and the resulting spectra were searched to identify the proteins present in the sample. Using the standard 'label-free' proteomics approach, the total number of MS/MS spectra for the identified proteins was used to provide a measure of relative protein abundances. This approach was successfully applied to lipid rafts prepared from neonatal mouse brain. A total of 216 proteins were identified: 127 proteins (58.8% were predicted to be membrane proteins, or membrane-associated proteins and 175 proteins (~80% showed less than a 2-fold variation in the relative abundance in replicate samples. Conclusion The tube-gel protein digestion protocol coupled with nanospray LC-MS/MS (TubeGeLC-MS/MS offers a simple and reproducible method for identifying and quantifying the changes of relative abundances in lipid raft proteins from neonatal mouse brain and could become a useful approach for studying lipid raft proteins from various tissues.

Tint G Stephen

2007-09-01

109

Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the strongest inhibitor. Mercuric chloride was also administered to rats in vivo for 5 to 8 months. Renal lysosomal enzymes from these animals also had a decreased ability to digest the two substrate proteins. Furthermore, the digestion of lysozyme intravenously injected into mercury-intoxicated rats was decreased in renal cortical slices incubated in vitro. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that intravenously injected labeled lysozyme was located primarily over lysosomes in proximal tubule cells 1 hour after injection in both control animals and mercury-intoxicated rats. These results suggest a decreased catabolism of low molecular weight proteins in the kidney during chronic mercury intoxication

110

Effects of soy protein and calcium levels on mineral bioaccessibility and protein digestibility from enteral formulas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enteral formulas (EF) are complex food systems which have all the nutrients in their matrix for the complete human nourishment. However, there are components in EF which can interact with minerals, reducing their absorption, and thereof the EF nutritional quality. The effect of soy protein (SP) and Ca content on Fe, Zn, and Ca bioaccessibility and protein digestibility (%DP) was assessed using a response surface design in EF. Tested SP levels were 2.5-5.0 g/100 mL of total protein. Ca levels were adjusted with Ca citrate within a range between 50 and 100 mg/100 mL. SP content negatively influenced %DP and Fe, Zn and Ca bioaccessibility. As SP content increased, mineral bioaccessibility and %DP decreased, probably due to the increased levels of phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors from SP. Ca content only affected %DCa, which had a direct relationship with Ca levels, while did not affect Fe and Zn bioaccessibility or %DP. Since Ca citrate did not impair Fe and Zn bioaccessibility, it could be an appropriate Ca source for EF fortification. PMID:25079612

Galán, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa

2014-09-01

111

Improvement of raw starch digestibility by ion-beam mutation of Aspergillus awamori  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspergillus awamori possess the ability to express raw starch digestibility. For the effective utilization of starchy crops produced in South-Asian countries, it is important to achieve the digestion of raw starchs for industrial fermentation process. In this study, higher ratio of mutant strains of Aspergillus awamori IFO4033 were isolated by irradiation of C5+ ion-beam on freeze dried spores with improvement of enzyme production for two-to threefold in the extracellular ?-amylase compared with gamma-irradiation. The digestibility of raw starch from cassava, sago and sukun increased remarkably about two-to threefold by some mutant strains obtained from irradiation of C5+ ion-beam. (author)

112

Improvement of raw starch digestibility by ion-beam mutation of Aspergillus awamori  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aspergillus awamori possess the ability to express raw starch digestibility. For the effective utilization of starchy crops produced in South-Asian countries, it is important to achieve the digestion of raw starchs for industrial fermentation process. In this study, higher ratio of mutant strains of Aspergillus awamori IFO4033 were isolated by irradiation of C{sup 5+} ion-beam on freeze dried spores with improvement of enzyme production for two-to threefold in the extracellular {alpha}-amylase compared with gamma-irradiation. The digestibility of raw starch from cassava, sago and sukun increased remarkably about two-to threefold by some mutant strains obtained from irradiation of C{sup 5+} ion-beam. (author)

Amsal, Aryanti [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Takigami, Machiko; Ito, Hitoshi

1998-09-01

113

Recycling of waste oyster shell for improvement in digested sludge dewaterability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purposes of this study were to examine applicability of waste oyster shells as conditioning agent, to determine the optimum conditions for improving digested sludge dewaterability and to compare with CaCO{sub 3}. If waste oyster shells were used as conditioning agent for dewatering digested sludge, it estimated that the optimum conditions were dosage 30 g/L, particle size 10 mesh, temp. 30 degree C, pH 7 and dewatering pressure 2.66 * 10{sup 4} N/m{sup 2}. On teh basis of induced optimum conditions, its specific resistance was 1.33 * 10{sup 12} m/kg of addomg waste oyster shells in digested sludge and was low about 2.8 times than raw digested sludge 3.74 * 101{sup 2} m/kg. But, it was almost similar to 1.24 * 10{sup 12} m/kg, if adding CaCO{sub 3} in digested sludge. Therefore, in view of waste recycling, it seemed that we could utilize waste containing analogy composition with waste oyster shells. 20 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Kim, Eun Ho; Shim, Eun Gi; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kwak, Chul; Park, In Soo; Hwang, Young Gi [Division of Fine Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea)

2000-04-01

114

Development of an open-tubular trypsin reactor for on-line digestion of proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was initiated to construct a micro-reactor for protein digestion based on trypsin-coated fused-silica capillaries. Initially, surface plasmon resonance was used both for optimization of the surface chemistry applied in the preparation and for monitoring the amount of enzyme that was immobilized. The highest amount of trypsin was immobilized on dextran-coated SPR surfaces which allowed the covalent coupling of 11 ng mm(-2) trypsin. Fused-silica capillaries were modified in a similar manner and the resulting open-tubular trypsin-reactors having a pH optimum of pH 8.5, display a high activity when operated at 37 degrees C and are stable for at least two weeks when used continuously. Trypsin auto-digestion fragments, sample carry-over, and loss of signal due to adsorption of the protein were not observed. On-line digestion without prior protein denaturation, followed by micro-LC separation and photodiode array detection, was tested with horse-heart cytochrome C and horse skeletal-muscle myoglobin. The complete digestion of 20 pmol microL(-1) horse cytochrome C was observed when the average residence time of the protein sample in a 140 cm x 50 microm capillary immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) was 165 s. Mass spectrometric identification of the injected protein on the basis of the tryptic peptides proved possible. Protein digestion was favorable with respect to reaction time and fragments formed when compared with other on-line and off-line procedures. These results and the easy preparation of this micro-reactor provide possibilities for miniaturized enzyme-reactors for on-line peptide mapping and inhibitor screening. PMID:17899035

Stigter, E C A; de Jong, G J; van Bennekom, W P

2007-11-01

115

Protein and Digestible Threonine Levels in Pre Starter Diets for Broiler Chicks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental poultry facilities of University of Goias to estimate digestible threonine (Thr requirement for broiler from 1 to 21 days of age. 384 AgRoss-508 broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, with two protein levels (205 and 221 g/kg and four digestible threonine levels (6.1, 7.1, 8.1 and 9.1 g/kg with four replications of 12 birds each. The performance, nutrient digestibility and morfometrical index were evaluated. The polynomial regression and linear response plateau (LRP model was used to estimate digestible, had been the Minimum Square of Deviations (MSD utilized for choice criterion. Used polynomial regression, the results showed that a quadratic effect (p2/21 days - Y = 510.08 + 508.91x - 324.61x2 which estimates a 7.9 and 7.1 g/kg of digestible Thr, but LRP model showed low MSD and smaller estimates for digestible Thr levels (7.7 and 6.7 g/kg in seven and 21 days, respectively. The results showed a tendency if lower levels of digestible Thr (below to 7.1 g/kg reduced intestinal length. The digestible Thr levels recommended for pre-starter phase vary from 7.7 at 6.7 g/kg, estimated by LRP model and 7.9 at 7.1 g/kg estimated by polynomial regression for mean body weight at seven and 21 days of age, respectively, but the LRP values presented smaller minimum square of deviations.

Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

2013-01-01

116

PconsFold: improved contact predictions improve protein models  

OpenAIRE

Motivation: Recently it has been shown that the quality of protein contact prediction from evolutionary information can be improved significantly if direct and indirect information is separated. Given sufficiently large protein families, the contact predictions contain sufficient information to predict the structure of many protein families. However, since the first studies contact prediction methods have improved. Here, we ask how much the final models are improved if improved contact predic...

Michel, Mirco; Hayat, Sikander; Skwark, Marcin J.; Sander, Chris; Marks, Debora S.; Elofsson, Arne

2014-01-01

117

Effects of Malting and Fermentation on Anti-Nutrient Reduction and Protein Digestibility of Red Sorghum, White Sorghum and Pearl Millet  

OpenAIRE

Sorghum and millet and their products require specialized treatment in order to improve their nutritive value, organoleptic properties and shelf-life. They contain anti-nutrients which are the major phytochemicals which negatively affects their nutritive values. The phytochemicals of concern include tannins and phytates, which interfere with mineral absorption, palatability and protein digestibility. Malting and fermentation treatments were applied to reduce the anti-nutrients, improve pro...

Onyango, C. A.; Ochanda, S. O.; Mwasaru, M. A.; Ochieng, J. K.; Mathooko, F. M.; Kinyuru, J. N.

2012-01-01

118

Integration of cell lysis, protein extraction, and digestion into one step for ultrafast sample preparation for phosphoproteome analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional sample preparation protocols for phosphoproteome analysis require multiple time-consuming and labor-intensive steps, including cell lysis, protein extraction, protein digestion, and phosphopeptide enrichment. In this study, we found that the presence of a large amount of trypsin in the sample did not interfere with phosphopeptide enrichment and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis. Taking advantage of fast digestion achieved with high trypsin-to-protein ratio, we developed a novel concurrent lysis-digestion method for phosphoproteome analysis. In this method, the harvested cells were first placed in a lysis buffer containing a huge amount of trypsin. After ultrasonication, the cells were lysed and the proteins were efficiently digested into peptides within one step. Thereafter, tryptic digest was subjected to phosphopeptide enrichment, in which unphosphorylated peptides, trypsin, and other components incompatible with LC-MS/MS analysis were removed. Compared with conventional methods, better phosphoproteome coverage was achieved in this new one-step method. Because protein solubilization and cell lysis were facilitated by fast protein digestion, the complete transformation of cell pellets into the peptide mixture could be finished within 25 min, while it would take at least 16 h for conventional methods. Hence, our method, which integrated cell lysis, protein extraction, and protein digestion into one step, is rapid and convenient. It is expected to have broad applications in phosphoproteomics analysis. PMID:24958348

Liu, Fangjie; Ye, Mingliang; Pan, Yanbo; Zhang, Yi; Bian, Yangyang; Sun, Zhen; Zhu, Jun; Cheng, Kai; Zou, Hanfa

2014-07-15

119

Yield and protein quality of thermophilic Bacillus spp. biomass related to thermophilic aerobic digestion of agricultural wastes for animal feed supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacillus spp. responsible for thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) of agricultural wastes were studied for their growth rate, yield and protein quality (amino acid profile) under conditions that approximate full-scale waste digestion as pointers to the capacity of TAD to achieve protein enrichment of wastes for reuse in animal feeding. Specific growth rates of the thermophiles varied with temperature and aeration rates. For Bacillus coagulans, the highest specific growth rate was 1.98 muh(-1); for Bacillus licheniformis 2.56 muh(-1) and for Bacillus stearothermophilus 2.63 muh(-1). Molar yield of B. stearothermophilus on glucose increased with temperature to a peak of 0.404 g g(-1) at 50 degrees C before declining. Peak concentration of overflow metabolite (acetate) increased from 10 mmol at 45 degrees C to 34 mmol at 65 degrees C before declining. Accumulation of biomass in all three isolates decreased with increase in temperature while protein content of biomass increased. Highest biomass protein (79%) was obtained in B. stearothermophilus at 70 degrees C. Content of most essential amino acids of the biomass improved with temperature. Amino acid profile of the biomass was comparable to or superior to the FAO standard for SCP intended for use in animal feeding. Culture condition (waste digestion condition) may be manipulated to optimize protein yield and quality of waste digested by TAD for recycling in animal feed. PMID:17664065

Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

2008-05-01

120

Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

2011-01-01

121

Protein evaluation of dog food using mink (Neovison vison) as a model for ileal protein digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris)  

OpenAIRE

Dog owners pay lot of attention on providing proper nutrition to their dog that will support longevity and good health. Great effort is therefore made by feed producers concerning information about nutritional quality of dog food ingredients and at to what extent they cover the nutritional requirement of dogs at different life stages. Protein and amino acid content and utilization is of great importance in the evaluation of pet food ingredients. A key factor in protein utilization is digest...

Badina, Abudurasak Ige

2012-01-01

122

SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

M Bassompierre

1997-10-01

123

Protein Digestibility of Different Animal and Plant Protein Sources for Labeo rohita Fingerlings  

OpenAIRE

A laboratory trial was conducted on the protein digestibility of rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings in a static indoor fish rearing water system of glass made aquaria (90 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm) for a period of 75 days. Each treatment had two replicates containing 12 fingerlings. Five experimental diets A, B, C, D and E were prepared from different combination of five major sources of protein viz., fish meal, protein concentrate, meat & bone meal, mix of animal protein sources and mix of ...

Sarker, P. K.; Rahman, S.; Rahman, M. M.; Chakraborty, S. C.; Islam, M. N.

2000-01-01

124

Effects of pressure toasting on in situ degradability and intestinal protein and protein-free organic matter digestibility of rapeseed  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Rapeseed is a protein supplement that contains up to 40% crude protein (CP) on a dry matter (DM) basis, but a large part of its protein can be easily degraded in the rumen. Therefore, before inclusion in ruminant's diet, the extent of its protein degradation in the rumen must be reduced without altering its intestinal digestibility. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of pressure toasting (T, 130 °C) at two residence times (1.5 and 10min) alone or in combination with...

Azarfar, A.; Ferreira, C.; Goelema, J. O.; Poel, A. F. B.

2008-01-01

125

Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.

126

Relationship between in vitro assays and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of animal protein meals in broilers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two identical trials were conducted to determine the relationship of a novel digestive enzyme assay, Poultry Complete IDEA (PC IDEA), and the pepsin digestibility assay with standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 20 animal protein meals (APM) fed to broilers from 25 to 30 d of age. Animal protein meals included 10 meat and bone meals (MBM) consisting of bovine, porcine, or mixed bovine and porcine raw materials (BP), and 10 animal protein blends containing animal proteins from various species. Treatments consisted of 20 semi-purified diets containing 1 APM as the sole source of dietary amino acids (AA), and 1 N-free diet to determine endogenous ileal AA flow. With the exception of the N-free diet, diets were formulated to contain 20% CP. In each trial, 756 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were housed in battery cages and randomly assigned to 21 dietary treatments on d 25 (12 birds per cage; 3 replicate cages), and ileal digesta were collected on d 30 for determination of SIAAD. Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were determined for APM samples from each experimental diet (3 replicates per trial; 6 total replicates). Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were both correlated (P < 0.001) with SIAAD for each AA. Multiple linear regression of PC IDEA and pepsin digestibility on SIAAD resulted in the following equations: % Lys SIAAD = [-9.65 + (0.38 × % PC IDEA predicted Lys digestibility) + (0.69 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Met SIAAD = [-35.95 + (0.62 × % PC IDEA predicted Met digestibility) + (0.75 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Thr SIAAD = [-77.5 + (0.39 × % PC IDEA predicted Thr digestibility) + (1.37 × % pepsin digestibility)]. Values of R(2) were 0.46, 0.47, and 0.55 for Lys, Met, and Thr, respectively. The relatively low R(2) values may have been due to the limited range in SIAAD observed for the 20 APM, and additional data on APM varying in SIAAD are needed. PMID:23243243

Rochell, S J; Kuhlers, D L; Dozier, W A

2013-01-01

127

Digestion pattern of reovirus outer capsid protein ?3 determined by mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reovirus is an enteric virus comprising eight structural proteins that form a double-layered capsid. During reovirus entry into cells, the outermost capsid layer (composed of proteins ?3 and ?1C) is proteolytically processed to generate an infectious subviral particle (ISVP) that is subsequently uncoated to produce the transcriptionally active core particle. Kinetic studies suggest that protein ?3 is rapidly removed from virus particles and then protein ?1C is cleaved. Initial cleavage of ?1C has been well described and generates an amino (N)-terminal ? peptide and a carboxyl (C)-terminal phi peptide. However, cleavage and removal of ?3 is an extremely rapid event that has not been well defined. We have treated purified reovirus serotype 1 Lang virions with a variety of endoproteases. Time-course digestions with chymotrypsin, Glu-C, pepsin, and trypsin resulted in the initial generation of two peptides that were resolved in SDS-PAGE and analyzed by in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-Qq-TOFMS. Most tested proteases cut ?3 within a 'hypersensitive' region between amino acids 217 and 238. In addition, to gain a better understanding of the sequence of subsequent proteolytic events that result in generation of reovirus subviral particles, time-course digestions of purified particles were performed under physiologic salt conditions and released peptide fragments ranging from 500 to 5000 Da were directly analyzed by MALDI-Qq-TOFMS. Trypsin digestion initially releaserypsin digestion initially released a peptide that corresponded to the C-terminus of ?1C, followed by a peptide that corresponded to amino acids 214-236 of the ?3 protein. Other regions of ?1C were not observed until protein ?3 was completely digested. Similar experiments with Glu-C indicated the hypersensitive region of ?3 was cut first when virions were treated at pH values of 4.5 or 7.4, but treatment of virions with pepsin at pH 3.0 released different ?3 peptides, suggesting acid-induced conformational changes in this outer capsid protein. These studies also revealed that the N-terminus of ?3 is acetylated

128

[Assessment of protein quality in foods by calculating the amino acids score corrected by digestibility].  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein score reflects its amino acids (AA) content in comparison with the ideal protein. However, when there is a need to know the use of AA by the organism it is necessary to do a correction of the score value by protein digestibility (PDCAAS). Since this information is not available for usually consumed foods, the present work aimed at calculating the PDCAAS values of these foods. The score was calculated the limiting AA of 70 foods, taking as reference protein the AA pattern for children > 1 year old and adults proposed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for the year 2002. The PDCAAS value was obtained in each case by multiplying the score value by the digestibility index. For vegetable foods the obtained score values and PDCAAS were, respectively: vegetables 88.5% / 73.4%, tubercles 89.44% / 74.24%, fresh fruits 75.6% / 64.3%, dried fruits 65.6% / 48.1%, legumes in general 89.2% / 69.58%, chickpea and soybean 100% / 78%, cereals and derivatives 68.8% / 58.5%. Creation of table that contents the score values, digestibility values, and PDCAAS of foods is a useful tool when food selection for a dietary plan based on its protein quality is desirable. PMID:16562812

Suárez López, M M; Kizlansky, A; López, L B

2006-01-01

129

Should digestion assays be used to estimate persistence of potential allergens in tests for safety of novel food proteins?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Food allergies affect an estimated 3 to 4% of adults and up to 8% of children in developed western countries. Results from in vitro simulated gastric digestion studies with purified proteins are routinely used to assess the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. The digestion of purified proteins in simulated gastric fluid typically progresses in an exponential fashion allowing persistence to be quantified using pseudo-first-order rate constants or half lives...

Herman Rod A; Schnell Santiago

2009-01-01

130

Protein quality evaluation twenty years after the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1989 the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Protein Quality Evaluation recommended the use of the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) method for evaluating protein quality. In calculating PDCAAS, the limiting amino acid score (i.e., ratio of first limiting amino acid in a gram of target food to that in a reference protein or requirement) is multiplied by protein digestibility. The PDCAAS method has now been in use for 20 years. Research emerging during this time has provided useful data on various aspects of protein quality evaluation that has made a review of the current methods used in assessing protein quality necessary. This paper provides an overview of the use of the PDCAAS method as compared to other methods and addresses some of the key challenges that remain in regards to protein quality evaluation. Furthermore, specific factors influencing protein quality including the effects of processing conditions and preparation methods are presented. Protein quality evaluation methods and recommended protein intakes currently used in different countries vis-à-vis the WHO/FAO/UNU standards are further provided. As foods are frequently consumed in complement with other foods, the significance of the PDCAAS of single protein sources may not be evident, thus, protein quality of some key food groups and challenges surrounding the calculation of the amino acid score for dietary protein mixtures are further discussed. As results from new research emerge, recommendations may need to be updated or revised to maintain relevance of methods used in calculating protein quality. PMID:23107529

Boye, Joyce; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Burlingame, Barbara

2012-08-01

131

Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP...

Krimpen, M. M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G. P.; Veer, R.

2010-01-01

132

Preparation of high efficiency and low carry-over immobilized enzymatic reactor with methacrylic acid-silica hybrid monolith as matrix for on-line protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a novel kind of organic-silica hybrid monolith based immobilized enzymatic reactor (IMER) was developed. The monolithic support was prepared by a single step "one-pot" strategy via the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane and vinyltrimethoxysilane and in situ copolymerization of methacrylic acid and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes with ammonium persulfate as the thermal initiator. Subsequently, the monolith was activated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) - N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), followed by the modification of branched polyethylenimine (PEI) to improve the hydrophilicity. Finally, after activated by EDC and NHS, trypsin was covalently immobilized onto the monolithic support. The performance of such a microreactor was evaluated by the in sequence digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin, followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Compared to those obtained by traditional in-solution digestion, not only higher sequence coverages for BSA (74±1.4% vs. 59.5±2.7%, n=6) and myoglobin (93±3% vs. 81±4.5%, n=6) were obtained, but also the digestion time was shortened from 24h to 2.5 min, demonstrating the high digestion efficiency of such an IMER. The carry-over of these two proteins on the IMER was investigated, and peptides from BSA could not be found in mass spectrum of myoglobin digests, attributed to the good hydrophilicity of our developed monolithic support. Moreover, the dynamic concentration range for protein digestion was proved to be four orders of magnitude, and the IMER could endure at least 7-day consecutive usage. Furthermore, such an IMER was coupled with nano-RPLC-ESI/MS/MS for the analysis of extracted proteins from Escherichia coli. Compared to formerly reported silica hybrid monolith based IMER and the traditional in-solution counterpart, by our developed IMER, although the identified protein number was similar, the identified distinct peptide number was improved by 7% and 25% respectively, beneficial to improve the reliability of protein identification. The IMER was further online integrated with two-dimensional nano-HPLC-MS/MS system for the analysis of protein extracts from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with low metastasis rate, and more than 3000 protein groups were identified, with only 46 proteins identified from the residues of the IMER. All these results demonstrated that such a hybrid monolith based IMER would be of great promise in the high throughput and high confidence proteome analysis. PMID:25456586

Yuan, Huiming; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

2014-12-01

133

Digestibility and structural properties of thermal and high hydrostatic pressure treated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the effects of thermal (40, 60, 80, 100 and 127 °C) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 200, 400 and 600 MPa) treatments on the in vitro digestibility and structural properties of sweet potato protein (SPP). The results showed that the in vitro digestibility of SPP increased significantly with increasing heating temperature and heating time (0-60 min), while HHP treatment had little or no effect. Native SPP denaturation temperature (T d ) and enthalpy change (?H) were 89.0 °C and 9.6 J/g, respectively. Thermal and HHP treated SPP had T d of 84.6-88.9 °C and 86.4-87.6 °C, respectively. ?H of thermal treated SPP was 3.6-6.4 J/g, while that of HHP treated SPP was 5.9-7.8 J/g. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that HHP and thermal treatments both significantly reduced SPP thermodynamic stability. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that native SPP contains ?-helixes, ?-sheets and random coils (4.3, 48.0 and 47.7%, respectively). After thermal treatment at 127 °C for 20 min, the content of ?-helixes and turns increased significantly (13.2 and 27.6%, respectively), whereas the content of ?-sheets decreased significantly (12.3%). In contrast, HHP treatment increased the content of ?-sheets, but decreased the content of random coils. This study suggested that the SPP structure changes might be the main reason affecting the in vitro digestibility of SPP, and thermal treatment was more effective at changing SPP secondary structures and improving in vitro SPP digestibility than HHP treatment. PMID:24913513

Sun, Minjie; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao

2014-09-01

134

The Effect of Crude Protein Level in Diets on Laying Performance, Nutrient Digestibility of Yellow Quails  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four diets with different crude protein levels 17.75%, 19.95%, 21.85%, 24.08% were used to feed 192 seven-week-old yellow quails in this experiment. During 50-day-old to 95-day-old, laying rate, feed intake and egg weight were recorded to analysis the effect of different levels of dietary protein on the performance of yellow quails. All fences were collected and analysis the effect of different levels of dietary protein on feed digestibility and Crude Protein utilizablity of yellow quails. The results showed that there was no significant difference of the average egg weight in four diets. The laying rate of diet 2 is significant high than others (p0.05 but significant of EE and total organism and the utilizability of crude protein was significant difference (p<0.05 in four diets. Result showed that dietary crude protein had significant effect not only on laying performance but also on nutrient digestibility and 20% dietary crude protein was optimum for yellow-feather quails.

T.J. Guo

2011-01-01

135

[Food conversion in the digestive system of juvenile bulls. 1. Conversion of protein and amino acids].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fistulated bulls (duodenal bridge fistulas) received 10 rations containing 60% concentrate and combinations of carbohydrates from various sources to investigate the protein and amino acid flux in the digestive tract. With a constant crude protein concentration of 12-13% in the rations (adjusted by adding urea), an average of 85 +/- 8% of the crude protein ingested with the feed were found in the duodenum. The highest values were measured for rations containing wheat/dried sugar beet chips (97% and 67% resp.). The mean percentage of bacterial crude protein in the corrected total protein found in the duodenum was 69 +/- 11%. This fraction accounted for 53% and 51% respectively for the rations containing maize or fodder beet and increased to above 70% with the rations containing dried sugar beet chips. The amounts of lysine, threonine, methionine and glycine found in the duodenum were always higher than in the feed. The highest synthesis rates were found in animals receiving rations containing fodder beet or dried sugar beet chips, and the lowest was measured for dried sugar beet pulp. Glutamic acid was slight, and no histidine synthesis was detected. The concentration of the amino acids per kg dry matter digesta was similar for the individual amino acids. Crude bacterial protein productions was relatively low (80 to 113 g bacterial crude protein per kg digestible organic matter), but correlated with ration composition. PMID:7668969

Alert, H J; Poppe, S; al-Munajed, R

1994-01-01

136

The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve anaerobic digestion of activated sludge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracellular and extracellular components are set free and are immediately availabl [...] e for biological degradation which leads to an improvement of the subsequent anaerobic process. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge results in organic matter and a polymer transfer from the solid phase to the liquid phase, and an increase in COD value of 284 mg??-1 was observed, i.e. from 42 mg??-1 to 326 mg??-1. In addition the degree of disintegration changed from 14% after 15 min disintegration to 54% after 90 min of disintegration. A disruption of bacterial cells by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. The cells of the activated sludge micro-organisms rupture and addition to the digestion process leads to increased biogas production. The hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge leads to a higher degree of degradation and higher biogas production. Adding the disintegrated sludge (10%, 20% and 30% of volume) to fermentation processes resulted in an improvement in biogas production of about 22%, 95% and 131% respectively.

A, Machnicka; K, Gr& #369; bel; J, Suschka.

2009-01-01

137

Minimizing asynchronism to improve the performances of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and corn stover.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the existence of the asynchronism during the anaerobic co-digestion of different substrates, two typical substrates of food waste and corn stover were anaerobically digested with altering organic loadings (OL). The results indicated that the biodegradability of food waste and corn stover was calculated to be 81.5% and 55.1%, respectively, which was main reason causing the asynchronism in the co-digestion. The asynchronism was minimized by NaOH-pretreatment for corn stover, which could improve the biodegradability by 36.6%. The co-digestion with pretreatment could increase the biomethane yield by 12.2%, 3.2% and 0.6% comparing with the co-digestion without pretreatment at C/N ratios of 20, 25 and 30 at OL of 35 g-VS/L, respectively. The results indicated that the digestibility synchronism of food waste and corn stover was improved through enhancing the accessibility and digestibility of corn stover. The biomethane production could be increased by minimizing the asynchronism of two substrates in co-digestion. PMID:24880810

Zhou, Qi; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Jaffu, Muhanmad; Chufo, Akiber; Li, Xiujin

2014-08-01

138

The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Goat’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards goat’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male goats, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg,  coefficient variant11.78%) were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava...

Sri Mawati; Soedarsono, S.; Sunarso, S.; Agung Purnomoadi

2013-01-01

139

Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Covalent Chromatography after Derivatization of Protein Digests Immobilized on Reversed-Phase Supports  

OpenAIRE

A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed ?-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithiopro...

Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

2013-01-01

140

Phosphorous and protein digestibility in phytase-supplemented rations in tilapia, Oreochromis sp.  

OpenAIRE

AbstractThe present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of phytase supplement on the digestibility of phosphorous and protein in corn gluten (CG), hard wheat flour (HWF) and whole soya (WS) in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) diets. The chromium III oxide indirect labelling method was used for calculating the coefficients; fish faeces were collected using the modified Guelph system. Juvenile red tilapia weighing 100 g were selected. The rations consisted of reference diet (RD) (69.5%), 0.5%...

Rueda-uribe, Wilson E.; Wálter Vásquez-Torres; Gutie?rrez-espinosa, Mariana C.

2012-01-01

141

Development of an open-tubular trypsin reactor for on-line digestion of proteins  

OpenAIRE

A study was initiated to construct a micro-reactor for protein digestion based on trypsin-coated fused-silica capillaries. Initially, surface plasmon resonance was used both for optimization of the surface chemistry applied in the preparation and for monitoring the amount of enzyme that was immobilized. The highest amount of trypsin was immobilized on dextran-coated SPR surfaces which allowed the covalent coupling of 11 ng mm?2 trypsin. Fused-silica capillaries were modified in a similar m...

Stigter, E. C. A.; Jong, G. J.; Bennekom, W. P.

2007-01-01

142

Preliminary results on the effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed condensed tannins on in vitro intestinal digestibility of the lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seed protein fraction in small ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Condensed tannins (CT) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) were added to complex the protein fraction of Lupinus angustifolius seeds. Three CT/protein ratios were used: 96 mg/g (T(1)), 180 mg/g (T(2)) and 0 mg/g (T(0)). The CP losses in the rumen were assessed by the nylon-bag technique and CP intestinal digestibility (CPID) was estimated using an in vitro assay applying a three-step procedure: samples were subject to rumen degradation (in situ, 16 h) and the remaining residues were subject to the digestive enzymes of the abomasum and pancreas in vitro. A positive effect (p 0.05) by the presence of CT. These findings suggest that the use of grape seed CT might have the potential to improve the efficiency of utilisation of the protein fraction from lupin seeds. PMID:21039934

Bruno-Soares, A M; Soares-Pereira, A L; Matos, T J S; Ricardo-da-Silva, J M

2011-08-01

143

Amino acid composition, available lysine content and in vitro protein digestibility of selected tropical crop seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the search for alternative sources of food to alleviate hunger continues, this study was undertaken to determine nitrogen and amino acid content, chemical score, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of 8 lesser known, wild tropical seeds, gathered in Nigeria. Results were contrasted with a tropical soybean variety (Glycine max, TGX 1660-15F). The investigated seeds were Millettia thonningii, Gliricidia sepium, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Albizia zygia, Daneillia ogea and Afzella bella from the family of Leguminosae, Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) and Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae). The crude protein content, based on nitrogen determination, was found to be lower in the wild seeds compared to soybean, which was partly due to the relatively high content of non-protein nitrogen. With reference to amino acid requirement and digestibility in most seed samples, lysine, followed by sulphur amino acids and threonine, were the limiting amino acids. It was concluded, that these less familiar wild seed plants may be used as valuable food or feed complements. However, further investigation is necessary to elucidate potential toxic and antinutritional factors. PMID:9201749

Petzke, K J; Ezeagu, I E; Proll, J; Akinsoyinu, A O; Metges, C C

1997-01-01

144

75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious Diseases...Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious...

2010-12-30

145

Ileal and faecal protein digestibility measurement in humans and other non-ruminants - a comparative species view  

OpenAIRE

A comparative non-ruminant species view of the contribution of the large intestinal metabolism to inaccuracies in nitrogen and amino acid absorption measurements is provided to assess potential implications for the determination of crude protein/amino acid digestibility in adult humans consuming lower digestible protein sources. Most of the amino acids in the hindgut are constituents of the microorganisms and significant microbial metabolism of dietary and endogenous amino acids occu...

Hendriks, W. H.; Baal, J.; Bosch, G.

2012-01-01

146

The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)--a concept for describing protein quality in foods and food ingredients: a critical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Score (PDCAAS) is discussed. PDCAAS is now widely used as a routine assay for protein quality evaluation, replacing the more traditional biological methods [e.g., measurement of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in rats]. PDCAAS is based on comparison of the essential amino acid content of a test protein with that of a reference essential amino acid pattern and a correction for differences in protein digestibility as determined using a rat assay. Although PDCAAS is a rapid and useful method, it often shows discrepancies when compared to PER values. These discrepancies relate to the following issues: uncertainty about the validity of reference patterns, invalidity of correction for fecal (versus ileal) digestibility, truncation of PDCAAS values to 100%, failure to obtain full biological response after supplementation of the limiting essential amino acid, discrepancies between protein and amino acid digestibility, effects of processing on protein quality, and effects of the presence of antinutritional factors in the matrix containing the protein. Part of the discrepancy between PDCAAS and PER can be overcome by modifications of PDCAAS. This article describes some proposed modifications and puts forward the suggestion that the rat protein fecal digestibility assay be replaced by an in vitro ileal amino acid digestibility assay based on a computer-controlled gastrointestinal model. PMID:16001875

Schaafsma, Gertjan

2005-01-01

147

Nutritional value of [15N]-soy protein isolate assessed from ileal digestibility and postprandial protein utilization in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to assess the true oro-ileal digestibility, and to concurrently quantify the deamination of absorbed dietary nitrogen to examine the postprandial nutritional value of a soy protein isolate (SPI) in humans. To assess bioavailability and bioutilization of SPI, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 30 g of SPI, intrinsically and uniformly [15N]-labeled, added with 100 g of sucrose and water up to a final volume of 500 mL. True ileal digestibility was assessed by the [15N]-dilution method for 8 h by means of a naso-intestinal intubation technique. To describe and quantify exogenous nitrogen deamination for the same time period, urine and plasma samples were collected. True oro-ileal digestibility of SPI nitrogen was 91%. The amount of absorbed SPI amino acids used for nonoxidative disposal, i.e., postprandial biological value, was 86% 8 h after meal ingestion. Hence, net postprandial protein utilization of SPI was 78%. Compared to previous data that were assessed under the same condition in humans, the nutritional value of SPI is 92% of that in milk protein concentrate. PMID:10539774

Mariotti, F; Mahé, S; Benamouzig, R; Luengo, C; Daré, S; Gaudichon, C; Tomé, D

1999-11-01

148

The digestion of protein in young pigs and the utilization of dietary methionine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty pigs between 23 and 51 d of age were given ad lib. diets containing wheat and one of five protein concentrates: meat meal A, meat meal B, soya-bean meal, milk and lupins (Lupinus augustifolius). Twenty of these pigs were given indigestible markers from 51 to 56 d of age and were killed at 56 d of age. The diets containing meat meals A and B, soya-bean meal and milk contained 2.3 g total methionine/kg and the diet containing lupins contained 2.1 g/kg. A further forty pigs of the same age were given the same diets supplemented with 1 g synthetic methionine/kg. The weight gains and feed conversion ratios of the pigs given the diets containing 2.1-2.3 g methionine and 3.1-3.3 g methionine/kg were not significantly different. The weight gains of the pigs given lupins (2.1 g methionine/kg) were less than those of the pigs given the diets containing 2.3 g methionine/kg. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen was less for the diets containing the meat meals (0.75 and 0.78 respectively) than for those containing the other protein concentrates (0.80 and 0.84). The retention times in the large intestine of the diets containing soya-bean meal and lupins were 965 and 1083 min which were greater than those of the diets containing the other protein concentrates, mean 732 min. The major site of N digestion and absorption for the diet containing milk was the area of the small intestine 25-50% of total length from the pylorus, while for the other protein concentrates the major site was 50-75% of its total length from the pylorus. The digestion and absorption of N in the large intestine was less (3.4%) for the diet containing milk than for those containing the other protein concentrates (7.5-11.3%). The apparent digestibility of the methionine to the ileum for the five diets ranged from 0.74 to 0.86 while the calculated retention of the apparently-absorbed methionine was 1.00. It was suggested that methionine digestibility could be used as an indicator of availability. The calculated retention of apparently absorbed N in the carcass was 0.71 for the pigs given the diet containing milk and 0.51-0.58 for the pigs given the other diets. PMID:4063257

Leibholz, J

1985-01-01

149

The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P protein levels. Dry matter intake average was 1.7% of BW. CP and N intake showed a linear increase as a function of increasing protein level in diets. A quadratic response (P digestibility coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW and 0.37 g N/kg BW, and this intake was the most appropriate for the conditioning of intensely exercised horses, considering the responses related to NI, NA, and the estimated NR to NA ratio. The NDF and ADF responses indicated that dietary fiber was more digested with an increased amount of N in the digestive tract. PMID:25568371

Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

2015-01-01

150

Identification of a Low Digestibility ?-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry  

OpenAIRE

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase ...

Ogura, Takahiro; Herna?ndez, Adria?n; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-butler, Iva?n J.

2013-01-01

151

Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

152

Digestibility, blood levels of nutrients and skin responses of calves fed soyabean and lupin proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three milk substitute diets in which the protein was provided either by skim milk only (control diet) or mainly (71%) by a commercial soyabean or lupin concentrate (soyabean or lupin diet, respectively) were given to intact or ileo-caecal-cannulated preruminant calves. In vitro tests showed that both concentrates were partially proteolysed and had low antigenic and antitryptic activities. The low antigenicity was confirmed in vivo since none of the calves produced specific plasma antibodies against dietary proteins, and skin reactions following the injection of these proteins were minor. Postprandial plasma level of triglycerides was higher with the 2 legume diets, suggesting faster abomasal emptying of fat and probably protein. Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility was lower (P lupin diets than with the control diet (0.86, 0.88 and 0.95, respectively). At the ileal level, the differences were smaller and non-significant (0.90, 0.88 and 0.92) for nitrogen, but remained significant for valine and tyrosine with the soyabean diet, and for proline, valine, methionine, leucine and lysine with the lupin diet. However, the differences were small enough to conclude that proper denaturation of soyabean and lupin proteins by processes including partial hydrolysis can suppress their antigenicity and render them very digestible. PMID:7873043

Tukur, H M; Pardal, P B; Formal, M; Toullec, R; Lallès, J P; Guilloteau, P

1995-01-01

153

Magnetic proteinase K reactor as a new tool for reproducible limited protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an aid to differentiating between the prion proteins Prp(c) and PrP(Sc), the preparation and use of immobilized Proteinase K (PK) is described. An accumulation of PrP(Sc) in the central nervous system is the one of the causes of neurodegenerative disease. Current routine diagnosis is based on the postmortem detection of the distinct neuropathological lesion profiles of CNS and by the presence of the PK-resistant core of the prion protein isolated from brain lysates. An assay with PK immobilized to magnetic -COOH micro- and nanoparticles can offer a convenient as well as economic method. The individual immobilization steps were verified by measuring the zeta potential of the particles. The stability of the newly developed PK magnetic reactor, observed during kinetics measurements, was highly satisfactory. The calculated values of the apparent Michaelis constant (4.25 mM for native enzyme and 1.28 mM for immobilized enzyme) were determined from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Human growth hormone was digested using the newly prepared magnetic PK reactor and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the digests showed satisfactory efficiency. Controlled digestion of PrP(c) from the Mov mouse cell line was demonstrated with Western blot detection. PMID:18335999

Slováková, Marcela; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Bílková, Zuzana; Juklícková, Martina; Hernychová, Lenka; Viovy, Jean-Louis

2008-04-01

154

Amino acid and energy digestibility of protein sources for growing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA and DE, and to estimate ME and NE of rice protein concentrate, salmon protein hydrolysate, whey protein concentrate, and spray-dried plasma protein. In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (initially 29.5 +/- 2.5 kg of BW) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and fed each of 5 cornstarch-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d. During a given week, there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment, resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk. The 4 test diets (fed from d 0 to 28) were formulated to contain 12.5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate, salmon protein hydrolysate, whey protein concentrate, or spray-dried plasma protein. The fifth (N-free) diet was fed from d 28 to 35 to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA, which were used to calculate SID. Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed, and AID and SID values were calculated. Apparent ileal digestible Lys, Met, and Thr values were 80.0 +/- 3.3, 65.6 +/- 3.1, and 68.4 +/- 4.5% for rice protein concentrate; 85.6 +/- 4.8, 85.5 +/- 4.3, and 69.8 +/- 8.5% for salmon protein hydrolysate; 93.3 +/- 1.4, 89.9 +/- 5.8, and 83.6 +/- 5.3% for whey protein concentrate; and 92.8 +/- 0.9, 85.7 +/- 2.1, 86.5 +/- 2.3% for spray-dried plasma protein, respectively. In Exp. 2, 6 barrows (initially 37.6 +/- 1.7 kg of BW) were fed each of 5 corn-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d. During a given week, there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment, resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk. The 4 diets containing the test ingredients were formulated to contain approximately 20% CP by using their analyzed nutrient compositions. The fifth (corn control) diet containing 8.2% CP was also used to calculate energy values by difference. Feces were collected to determine DE. The ME and NE contents were estimated using published regression equations. The DE, ME, and NE (as-fed) values were 4,724 +/- 461, 4,226 +/- 437, and 3,235 +/- 380 kcal/kg for rice protein concentrate; 4,173 +/- 1,052, 3,523 +/- 1,002, and 2,623 +/- 872 kcal/kg for salmon protein hydrolysate; 4,949 +/- 1,002, 4,352 +/- 955, and 3,344 +/- 831 kcal/kg for whey protein concentrate; and 4,546 +/- 673, 3,979 +/- 652, and 3,020 +/- 567 kcal/kg for spray-dried plasma protein, respectively. The excellent AA digestibility and relatively high DE, ME, and NE values indicate that these protein sources warrant further investigation as ingredients for growing pig diets. PMID:16699096

Gottlob, R O; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Hastad, C W; Knabe, D A

2006-06-01

155

The Compare Improvement of Ultrasonic Treatment to Dewatering and Digestion in Aerobic and Anaerobic Stabilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Backgrounds and Objectives: Large quantities of sludge are produced in biological wastewater treatment. Because this sludge is highly rotten, it should be stabilized before its disposal. Aerobic and anaerobic digestion is widely considered as stabilization techniques. Because of high retention time and sludge dewatering difficulties, reduction in retention time, operation and maintenance should be given into consideration. Ultrasonic process increases the enzymatic activity, so decreases the hydrolysis time, a limiting factor in digestion process, and contributes to the decrease of the detention time. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of ultrasound in improving dewatering and stabilization of aerobic and anaerobic digested sludge. In addition, the impact of ultrasonic treatment on improvement of sludge dewatering and aerobic and anaerobic digestion is compared.Materials and Methods: In this survey, samples of aerobic and anaerobic digestion were collected from local full-scale Garb Town and Tehran South wastewater treatment plant, respectively. The grab samples were collected for 4 month from July to October 2010. Total numbers of 20 samples were collected biweekly for each type of digestion. Each sample was sonicated for 15, 30, 60, and 90 min under 35 and 131 kHz frequencies separately. Total solids, volatile solids , pH, temperature , total COD, dissolved COD and settle able solids were measured. Ultrasound bath of the solution in a 300 mL glass reactor was performed as a bath reactor with power of 500 W.Result: The results showed that the application of ultrasonic wave increased dissolved COD and temperature and decreased volatile solid, pH and settle able solids. Application of ultrasonic wave with frequency of 131 kHz decreased the VS and increased the dewatering of sludge more effective than the 35 kHz frequency and the highest performance was at 15 min of time and 131 kHz of frequency. Also sonication method showed better efficiency for anaerobic sludge samples compared to the aerobic sludge samples.                 Conclusion: The results obtained showed that digestion and dewatering properties of sludge improved by ultrasonic application. Therefore it can be used as an alternative method for the sludge treatment. st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

Mahdi Kargar

2012-04-01

156

Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP Enzyme Improves the Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Piglet Fed a Cottonseed Meal-Based Diets  

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Full Text Available NSP is the major factor introducing a low digestibility of cottonseed meal in piglets. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of NSP enzyme on the nutrient digestibility of weaned piglets fed a cottonseed meal-based diets. About 15 weaned piglets (14±1.4 kg were selected and ileal fistula surgery was done to determine the DE, CP, DM and NSP’s apparent digestibility. The results indicated that NSP enzyme improved piglet’s apparent digestibility (p<0.05 in varying degrees; pectinase resulted in obvious degradation of the cell wall and increased piglets’ DE (26.69% and CP of ileal digesta (20.33% and compound enzyme was better in improving cottonseed meal based diets than single enzyme.

Xiaosong Wu

2012-01-01

157

Tandem mass spectral libraries of peptides in digests of individual proteins: Human Serum Albumin (HSA).  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a method for creating a mass spectral library containing tandem spectra of identifiable peptide ions in the tryptic digestion of a single protein. Human serum albumin (HSA(1)) was selected for this purpose owing to its ubiquity, high level of characterization and availability of digest data. The underlying experimental data consisted of ?3000 one-dimensional LC-ESI-MS/MS runs with ion-trap fragmentation. In order to generate a wide range of peptides, studies covered a broad set of instrument and digestion conditions using multiple sources of HSA and trypsin. Computer methods were developed to enable the reliable identification and reference spectrum extraction of all peptide ions identifiable by current sequence search methods. This process made use of both MS2 (tandem) spectra and MS1 (electrospray) data. Identified spectra were generated for 2918 different peptide ions, using a variety of manually-validated filters to ensure spectrum quality and identification reliability. The resulting library was composed of 10% conventional tryptic and 29% semitryptic peptide ions, along with 42% tryptic peptide ions with known or unknown modifications, which included both analytical artifacts and post-translational modifications (PTMs) present in the original HSA. The remaining 19% contained unexpected missed-cleavages or were under/over alkylated. The methods described can be extended to create equivalent spectral libraries for any target protein. Such libraries have a number of applications in addition to their known advantages of speed and sensitivity, including the ready re-identification of known PTMs, rejection of artifact spectra and a means of assessing sample and digestion quality. PMID:24889059

Dong, Qian; Yan, Xinjian; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Liang, Yuxue; Mirokhin, Yuri A; Roth, Jeri S; Rudnick, Paul A; Stein, Stephen E

2014-09-01

158

Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP was determined in Lohmann Brown layers. Hens (n = 132) were housed in 22 cages (6 hens/cage) and allotted to 5 dietary treatments. In the PAP diets (4 replicates/treatment), 100 g/kg of CP of animal origin was added, replacing soybean meal and corn (Zea mays) in the basal diet (6 replicates/treatment). The PAP sources differed largely in chemical composition and digestibility coefficients. Energy content (AME(n)) varied from 1,817 (Daka-40) to 3,107 kcal/kg (Sonac-60), and digestible lysine varied from 15.4 (Daka-40) to 28.3 g/kg (Sonac-50). Subsequently, the effect of a control diet (without PAP) vs. 4 PAP diets (50 g/kg of CP of animal origin from the same batches as used in the digestibility study) on performance was determined. All diets were isocaloric (AME(n) = 2,825 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (digestible lysine = 6.8 g/kg). Hens were housed in 40 floor pens (12 hens/pen, 8 pens/treatment) from 20 to 40 wk of age. Feed intake levels of the hens fed the meat and bone meal diets were reduced compared with those of hens fed the meat meal diets, whereas the feed intake level of hens fed the control diet was intermediate. Laying hen performance differed between treatments, being was most favorable for the Sonac-50 treatment and most adverse for the Daka-40 treatment. Differences in laying hen performance seemed to be related partly to differences in feed intake and corresponding amino acid intake. PMID:21076098

van Krimpen, M M; Veldkamp, T; Binnendijk, G P; de Veer, R

2010-12-01

159

Effects of Protein Levels and Supplementation of Methyl Group Donor on Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Broiler Chickens in the Tropics  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of protein levels and supplementation of methyl group donors on nutrient digestibility and performance of broiler chickens. Three experimental diets were formulated to have three levels of crude protein (23, 21.5 and 20%. Each protein level was supplemented with methyl group donor (methionine or betaine and was categorized by: without supplementation (control, with supplementation of 0.14% methionine, 0.14% betaine and combination of 0.14% methionine plus 0.14% betaine. The diets were applied to 540 broiler chickens, which were randomly assigned to 3 x 4 factorial arrangement. Dietary with 21.5 and 20% protein and the supplementation of methyl group donor increased the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude fiber (p<0.05. Dietary with 23 and 21.5% protein resulted in a higher daily gain and a lower abdominal fat compared to that with 20% protein (p<0.05. All methyl group donor supplementations increased carcass and breast yield, while only supplementation with betaine and methionine plus betaine decreased abdominal fat deposition (p<0.05. Therefore, it is concluded that dietary with 21.5% protein can be applied to broiler chickens. Supplementation of methyl group donor provided benefits, particularly to improve carcass characteristics of broilers.

Adi Ratriyanto

2014-01-01

160

Effects of protein and energy supplementation on growth, forage intake, forage digestion and nitrogen balance in meat goat kids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to further the understanding of the effects of dietary protein and energy supplements on growth, performance, feed intake and grass forage digestibility in growing meat goat wethers. In Experiment 1, an 18% CP complete goat pellet was offered alone (control diet, C) or added (+), or not, as supplement to three grass hays (coastal bermudagrass, CB; Tifton 85 bermudagrass, T; and sorghum-Sudan grass hay, SS), to Boer-cross wethers (n = 72). The resulting seven diets were offered ad libitum. In Experiment 2, four wether goats in metabolism crates were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed a SS basal diet ad libitum with treatments consisting of no supplement, supplemental urea (200 mg/kg BW daily), supplemental dextrose (0.2% BW daily), or urea + dextrose (200 mg/kg BW daily and 0.2% BW daily, respectively). In Experiment 1, average daily gain (ADG) were -3.8, -5.0 and -6.6 g/day for goats consuming CB, T and SS, respectively, and 69.2, 61.6 and 58.1 g/day for supplemented CB (CB+), T (T+) and SS (SS+), respectively, as compared to 245.8 g/day for ad libitum access to C. Supplementation in Experiment 1 increased (P < 0.01) ADG for all hays when compared to hay-only diets. In Experiment 2, protein and energy supplementation increased (P < 0.01) nitrogen retention but did not impact diet digestibility. The beneficial effects of supplements in Experiment 1 and the increase in nitrogen retention in Experiment 2 cannot be explained by improvements in ruminal fiber utilization, but could be due to post-ruminal nutrient supply and/or increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:22444840

Patterson, J M; Lambert, B D; Muir, J P; Foote, A P

2009-08-01

161

Electrochemical detection of protein kinase activity based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion triggered signal amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

An effective assay method for monitoring protein kinase activity and screening inhibitors is greatly beneficial to kinase-related drug discovery, early diagnosis of diseases, and therapeutic effect evaluation. Herein, we develop a simple electrochemical method for detecting the activity of casein kinase II (CK2) based on phosphorylation against carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion triggered signal amplification, where CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation event protects the substrate peptide from the digestion of CPY, maintains the repulsive force of the substrate peptide towards the redox probe, and results in a weak electrochemical signal. Whereas, without phosphorylation, the substrate peptide is digested by CPY and a strong electrochemical signal is obtained. The detection feasibility is demonstrated for the assay of CK2 activity with low detection limit of 0.047unit/mL. Moreover, the biosensor was used for the analysis of kinase inhibition. Based on the electrochemical signal dependent inhibitor concentration, the IC50 value of ellagic acid was estimated to be 39.77nM. The proposed method is also successfully applied to analyze CK2 activity in cell lysates, proving the applicability in complex biological samples. PMID:25460885

Yin, Huanshun; Wang, Xinxu; Guo, Yunlong; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun

2015-04-15

162

Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A stable and robust trypsin-based biocatalytic system was developed and demonstrated for proteomic applications. The system utilizes polymer nanofibers coated with trypsin aggregates for immobilized protease digestions. After covalently attaching an initial layer of trypsin to the polymer nanofibers, highly concentrated trypsin molecules are crosslinked to the layered trypsin by way of a glutaraldehyde treatment. This new process produced a 300-fold increase in trypsin activity compared with a conventional method for covalent trypsin immobilization and proved to be robust in that it still maintained a high level of activity after a year of repeated recycling. This highly stable form of immobilized trypsin was also resistant to autolysis, enabling repeated digestions of bovine serum albumin over 40 days and successful peptide identification by LC-MS/MS. Finally, the immobilized trypsin was resistant to proteolysis when exposed to other enzymes (i.e. chymotrypsin), which makes it suitable for use in “real-world” proteomic applications. Overall, the biocatalytic nanofibers with enzyme aggregate coatings proved to be an effective approach for repeated and automated protein digestion in proteomic analyses.

Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Lee, Sang-mok; Ahn, Hye-kyung; Nair, Sujith; Kim, Seong H.; Kim, Beom S.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Camp, David G.; Grate, Jay W.; Smith, Richard D.; Koo, Yoon-mo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

2009-04-01

163

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758  

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Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

Kenan Koprucu

2004-01-01

164

Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (p<0.001). For carbohydrate fraction, the highest C fraction was also observed in GP (2.67%) and in relation to the other citrus pulps (p<0.001). Ruminal CP disappearance was highest in OP (71.89%) (p<0.001). The level of post-ruminal CP disappearance, measured by MTSP, was highest for BP (34.94%) (p<0.001). The highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was found for TP (80.44%) followed by that estimated for BP (78.38%) (p<0.001). The estimated metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) varied from 9.77 for LP to 12.91 for BP. Tangerine pulp had the highest true rumen digestibility (TRD) (p<0.001). According to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products. PMID:22703299

Lashkari, S; Taghizadeh, A

2013-08-01

165

In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula) e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja) em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações conten [...] do 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P Abstract in english This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate) and plant (soybean meal) ingredients. Three replicate groups of [...] prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (P

Analía Verónica, Fernández Gimenez; Ana Cristina, Díaz; Susana María, Velurtas; Jorge Lino, Fenucci.

1379-13-01

166

Feed transit and apparent protein, phosphorus and energy digestibility of practical feed ingredients by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)  

OpenAIRE

A study was conducted with Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of protein, phosphorus and energy in practical feed ingredients. The digestible energy (DE) content was also evaluated. Test ingredients were anchovy fishmeal, solvent-extracted soybean meal, corn gluten and wheat meal. Due to their low cohesion, sole faeces were collected directly in posterior intestine by dissection. The feed transit time along the gastrointestinal tra...

Dias, Jorge; Yu?fera, Manuel; Valente, Luisa M. P.; Rema, Paulo

2010-01-01

167

Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i) products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic) digestion of the prote...

Pace Umberto; Bishara-Shieban Janette; Glickstein Hava; Braitbard Ori; Stein Wilfred D

2006-01-01

168

EVALUATION OF APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH AND WITHOUT FISH MEAL FOR LABEO ROHITA  

OpenAIRE

The apparent digestibility coefficients of three protein levels of reference diets (without fish meal) and test diets (with fish meal) were estimated for Labeo rohita. Three test diets (test diet-I, test diet-II and test diet-III) and three reference diets (reference diet-I, reference diet-II and reference diet-III) having 28, 30 and 32% protein levels were prepared. Chromic oxide was used as an internal marker in the experimental diets for the evaluation of digestibility of protein levels. T...

Y Gul, M. Salim And B. Rabbani

2007-01-01

169

Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS) for soy protein isolates and concentrate: criteria for evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein quality, as determined by the PDCAAS method, is a measure of a protein's ability to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids for human needs. PDCAAS is calculated using an amino acid profile and true digestibility of a food protein. Soy protein is recognized as a high quality plant protein, but published PDCAAS values may vary based on the soy protein ingredient as well as the reproducibility and accuracy of the testing methods. Comparison of PDCAAS values for four differently processed soy ingredients, including three isolated soy proteins (ISP) and one soy protein concentrate (SPC), was made using two different laboratories with evaluation of the impact of the reproducibility and accuracy of amino acid profiles. PDCAAS calculations, using amino acid values from one laboratory, yielded a truncated PDCAAS of 1.00 for all four ingredients, while a second laboratory provided statistically significantly lower scores (0.95-1.00). We conclude that analytical method error can be a significant contributor to PDCAAS differences and can be mitigated by the application of amino acid nitrogen recovery correction factors. PMID:22017752

Hughes, Glenna J; Ryan, David J; Mukherjea, Ratna; Schasteen, Charles S

2011-12-14

170

Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa  

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Full Text Available Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed.

Li-Fen Huang

2013-04-01

171

Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed. PMID:23615467

Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Tan, Chia-Chun; Ku, Jung-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Cho; Su, Sung-Chieh; Lu, Chung-An; Huang, Li-Fen

2013-01-01

172

Comparison of Chemical Composition and Protein Digestibility, Carotenoids, Tanins and Alkaloids Content of Wild Lupinus Varieties Flour  

OpenAIRE

Proximate composition, carotenoids, tannins, quinolizidine alkaloids and in vitro protein digestibility were determined in flours of two wild lupines seeds recollected at central region of Mexico. Varieties identified as Lupinus barkeri and Lupinus montanus were compared with a domesticated cultivated Lupinus albus crop. Although total protein content resulted significantly (pL. barkeri and L. montanus, no significantly (p...

Jorge Yanez-Fernandez; Hernandez-chavez, Juan F.; Jorge Martinez-Herrera; Norma Guemes-Vera; Alfonso Totosaus

2012-01-01

173

Ponceau 4R: A Novel Staining Agent for Resolve Food Proteins on PAGE and Its Impact on Digestibility  

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Full Text Available Ponceaue 4R interaction with protein, Nisin and BSA was concentration dependent and may be used for protein assay. As the dye binds with almost all the proteins and current methodology may be used for the estimation of proteins in various food systems. During the course of present work staining with ponceau 4R of resolved proteins on PAGE (poly acryl amide gel electrophorosis was comparable with Coommassie Brilliant Blue R250. The Ponceaue 4R was highly sensitive, rapid and produced sharp red bands on the gel on 0.2% concentration. The effects of pH, concentration of proteins and dye were also investigated in various conditions which would help food processors to use a calculated amount of dye. The impact of tryptic digestibility on Ponceaue 4R -Protein Complexes (PPC has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect on the digestion of PPC.

Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed

2012-10-01

174

Changes in nitrogenous and other chemical constituents, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of germinating fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 7 days of germination on levels of nitrogenous and other nutrition related parameters, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed was studied. The non-protein nitrogen gradually increased and the protein nitrogen content decreased during germination. Albumin and globulin fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of fluted pumpkin seeds, constituting about 58.6% of the total protein of the ungerminated (raw) seeds. The protein fractions, albumin and glutelin, were observed to increase by 61.5% and 57.0%, respectively, while a 54.6% decrease was noted in the prolamine fraction. The globulin fraction increased at the beginning of germination but decreased at the end. Germination significantly (p< or =0.05) increased the crude protein, nitrogen solubility and in vitro protein digestibility but decreased the fat, phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the seeds. PMID:10540985

Giami, S Y; Chibor, B S; Edebiri, K E; Achinewhu, S C

1999-01-01

175

Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation had influence on in vitro protein digestibility and minerals availability of peanut. • Total mineral and protein content of peanut were not changed after treatments. • The treatment decreased the in vitro protein digestibility of peanut. • The irradiation of peanut resulted in increment of its minerals availability

176

Comparison of standardized ileal amino acid digestibilities in protein supplements and cereal grains for weaned pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in protein ingredients and grains was determined in weaned piglets (5 kg initial BW) using the difference method. Animals were fitted with a simple ileal T-cannula on day 24 or 25 of age. A synthetic diet based on corn (Zea mays) starch and casein was either supplemented with an extruded soybean (Glycine max) meal (ESM), rice (Oryza sativa) protein concentrate (RPC), full fat heat-treated soybeans (SB), corn, barley (Hordeum vulgare), or wheat (Triticum aestivum). The contribution of CP and AA from casein and from the assay feed ingredients to the assay diet averaged 50% each. Each diet was fed to 6 animals according to a row-column design with 3 periods. Apparent ileal digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous losses of AA to obtain SID values. Between RPC and soy products, differences (P 0.05) between barley and wheat, except for Met (P corn than wheat. In conclusion, SID of most AA in the present study with piglets was lower than tabulated SID values determined in studies with grower-finisher pigs. Furthermore, the use of RPC, despite its high CP content, in diets for weaned piglets is limited due to its low SID of AA. PMID:23365298

Sauer, N; Eklund, M; Hoerner, S; Rademacher, M; Mosenthin, R

2012-12-01

177

Release of flavonoids from lupin globulin proteins during digestion in a model system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lupin seed globulin proteins form complexes with flavonoids, predominantly apigenin C-glycosides. Enzymes typical for the gastrointestinal tract were used to hydrolyze lupin seed globulins. Release of native flavonoids as a result of the proteolysis reaction was observed. Different analytical methods such as size exclusion chromatography, HPLC-MS, and fluorescence spectroscopy (steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes) were used for a detailed characterization of this phenomenon. Flavonoids liberated from lupin globulin proteins as a result of pancreatin-catalyzed digestion were bound by ?-conglutin resistant to this enzyme. Two possible mechanisms of this interaction may be suggested: hydrogen bonding between oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins and the sugar moieties of the flavonoid glycosides or electrostatic attraction between positively charged ?-conglutin and flavonoids partially ionized at pH 7.5. PMID:22264085

Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Kachlicki, Piotr; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora; Nogala-Kalucka, Malgorzata

2012-02-22

178

Uric Acid Determination in Poultry Excreta and its Application to Correcting Protein Digestibility Values: Spectrophotometry with Ultraviolet Detection vs HPLIC  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of uric acid contents of poultry excreta was examined for use in the estimation of apparent protein digestibility. Uric acid was determined either by high-performance liquid chromatography or by spectrophotometric method. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was used with absorbance measured at 285 nm. The method used a reverse-phase system with a C18-bonded column (250*4.6 mm, i.d.. The mobile phase was distilled deionized water. Injection volume was 20 l with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Correlation (r between the two methods for uric acid content of excreta from birds fed diets with different methionine levels was 0.976. The uric acid values were then used to determine apparent protein digestibility. The apparent protein digestibility values, when corrected for uric acid nitrogen, were comparable with those calculated from amino acid analysis.

R. R. Marquardt

2002-10-01

179

A Comparative Study of In-Gel Digestions Using Microwave and Pressure-Accelerated Technologies  

OpenAIRE

One of the most popular methods to prepare tryptic peptides for bottom-up proteomic analysis is in-gel digestion. To date, there have been few studies comparing various digestion methods. In this study, we compare the efficiency of several popular in-gel digestion methods, along with new technologies that may improve digestion efficiency, using a human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysate protein standard. The efficiency of each protocol was based on the average number of proteins identified and ...

Alvarado, Rudy; Tran, Diana; Ching, Bonnie; Phinney, Brett S.

2010-01-01

180

Identification of a low digestibility ?-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

2013-01-01

181

In vitro pH-Stat protein hydrolysis of feed ingredients for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. 2. In vitro protein digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients  

OpenAIRE

Using enzyme fractions isolated from the pyloric caeca of farmed Atlantic cod, the in vitro degree of protein hydrolysis (DH) of numerous conventional and novel feed ingredients were measured by a closed-system pH-Stat assay. Regression equations describing the relationship between in vivo apparent protein digestibility (ADC) and in vitro protein DH were used to predict in vitro protein ADC. The equations resulted in good correlation (<4 percentage points difference) between ‘measured’ an...

Tibbetts, S.; Verreth, J. A. J.; Lall, S. P.

2011-01-01

182

Effect of simulated processing on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage model systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility. PMID:25577106

He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie

2015-05-15

183

Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Origin on the Redox Status in the Digestive Tract of Mice  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of high protein (soybean protein or casein on the balance between production of free radicals and antioxidant level in digestive organs of mice. For this purpose, male (C57BL/6J mice were adapted to experimental diets containing soybean protein or casein with 20% (normal protein diets, NPDs or 60% (high protein diets, HPDs, and HPDs supplemented with 0.06g/kg cysteamine. After two weeks of feeding, oxidative and antioxidative parameters in duodenum, liver and pancreas were measured. The results show that ingestion of high protein markedly increased contents of superoxide anion and malondialdehyde (MDA, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and Na+ K+-ATPase, and content of reduced glutathione (GSH in digestive organs of mice (P<0.05. Levels of oxidative parameters were lower and antioxidant capacity of both enzyme and non-enzyme was higher in mice fed with soybean protein than those fed with casein. In groups fed HPDs supplemented with cysteamine, oxidative stress was mitigated. However, oxidative parameter levels were still higher than those of NPD-fed groups. The present study indicates that ingestion of high protein diets could result in an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant, and thus induce oxidative stress in digestive organs of mice. The oxidative damage was smaller in mice fed with high level of soy protein in comparison with casein.

Guowei Le

2008-04-01

184

In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate and plant (soybean meal ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (PO objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações contendo 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P<0,05. A farinha de peixe apresentou a maior digestibilidade (92%, enquanto valores intermediários de digestibilidade (83% foram encontrados para a farinha de carne e ossos. A ração contendo farinha de soja e concentrado de proteína de lula resultou em menor digestibilidade (63%. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de digestibilidade in vitro para as rações testadas. Estes resultados indicam a limitação inerente dos ensaios enzimáticos in vitro, os quais poderiam ser complementados com estudos in vivo.

Analía Verónica Fernández Gimenez

2009-12-01

185

Duodenal supply of glutamate and casein both improve intestinal starch digestion in cattle but by apparently different mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater postruminal flows of protein increase small intestinal starch digestion in cattle. Our objective was to determine if small intestinal starch digestion is increased by duodenal supplementation of AA. We fed 5 duodenally and ileally cannulated steers a low-starch soybean hull-based diet in 5 × 5 Latin square designs and provided continuous duodenal infusion of raw cornstarch in combination with AA or casein and measured small intestinal starch digestion. In Exp. 1 treatments were continuous duodenal infusion of 1) no supplement (control), 2) casein (400 g/d), 3) crystalline AA similar in amount and AA composition to the casein (CASAA), 4) crystalline nonessential AA similar to those provided by casein, or 5) crystalline essential AA similar to those provided by casein. In Exp. 2 treatments were continuous duodenal infusion of 1) no supplement (control), 2) casein (400 g/d), 3) Glu (133 g/d), 4) Phe and Trp plus Met (30.4, 6.5, and 17.5 g/d, respectively; PTM), or 5) a combination of Glu and PTM. Duodenal infusion of casein increased (P ? 0.05) small intestinal starch digestion. When CASAA was infused, small intestinal starch digestion was similar (P = 0.30) to casein infusion. Infusion of only nonessential AA tended to increase (P = 0.14) small intestinal starch digestion relative to the control, but infusion of essential AA alone did not affect (P = 0.84) small intestinal starch digestion. In addition, infusion of casein or CASAA increased ileal flows of ethanol-soluble starch (small-chain ?-glycosides), but nonessential AA alone were not different than the control. Duodenal infusion of Glu increased (P ? 0.05) small intestinal starch digestion, whereas PTM did not. Neither Glu nor PTM increased ileal flow of ethanol-soluble starch, but Glu and PTM provided together tended (P = 0.07) to increase ileal flows of small chain ?-glycosides. Our data suggest that Glu alone can increase small intestinal starch digestion in cattle similar to casein, but increases in small intestinal starch digestion in response to Glu are not associated with an increase in ileal flows of small chain ?-glycosides. PMID:25057031

Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Anderson, D E

2014-09-01

186

Comparison of metabolic rates and feed nutrient digestibility in conventional, genetically improved (GIFT) and genetically male (GMNT) Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Various aspects of energy metabolism and feed digestibility were evaluated in two reportedly improved strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) namely GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) and GMNT (genetically male Nile tilapia) and compared with those of CNT (conventional Nile tilapia). Fish were stocked individually in a computer-controlled respirometer system at 27+/-0.1 degrees C for 10 weeks. Metabolic rates were measured at three different feeding levels: starved, maintenance (3.0 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) and growth (7.5 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) using a fishmeal based feed containing TiO2 marker (41% crude protein, 9% crude lipid and 19 kJ (g DM)(-1) gross energy). The standard metabolic rate (SMR), measured at the beginning of the experiment (45.4+/-4.6, 52.4+/-7.7 and 46.8+/-4.6 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1) respectively for GIFT, GMNT and CNT), did not differ significantly between the groups (p<0.05). Similarly, non-significant differences were also observed in the routine metabolic rates under starved, maintenance and growth conditions but the variability was higher in the case of GMNT and CNT than in GIFT. The latter group showed a significantly lower active metabolic rate (145 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1)) compared to GMNT and CNT (232 and 253 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1), respectively) at maintenance feeding level. The specific dynamic action (% offered feed energy) showed no significant differences among the groups. Digestibility coefficients of feed dry matter, protein, lipid and energy for the three tilapia groups also did not differ significantly. Therefore, we concluded that the genetic improvement or modification in the GIFT or GMNT might not upgrade the inherent physiological potential compared to CNT as far as energy metabolism and digestion efficiencies are concerned. PMID:17555997

Mamun, Shamsuddin Mohammed; Focken, Ulfert; Becker, Klaus

2007-09-01

187

Crosslinking food proteins for improved functionality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different possibilities for protein crosslinking are examined in this review, with special emphasis on enzymatic crosslinking and its impact on food structure. Among potential enzymes for protein crosslinking are transglutaminase (TG) and various oxidative enzymes. Crosslinking enzymes can be applied in cereal, dairy, meat, and fish processing to improve the texture of the product. Most of the current commercial applications are based on TG. The reaction mechanisms of the crosslinking enzymes differ, which in turn results in different technological properties. PMID:22129332

Buchert, Johanna; Ercili Cura, Dilek; Ma, Hairan; Gasparetti, Chiara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Faccio, Greta; Mattinen, Maija; Boer, Harry; Partanen, Riitta; Selinheimo, Emilia; Lantto, Raija; Kruus, Kristiina

2010-01-01

188

Phosphopeptide enrichment by covalent chromatography after derivatization of protein digests immobilized on reversed-phase supports.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed ?-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithiopropionate. Gentle oxidation of cysteine residues, followed by acetylation of ?- and ?-amino groups before these reactions, ensured selectivity of reversible capture of the modified phosphopeptides by covalent chromatography on activated thiol sepharose. The use of C18 reversed-phase supports as a miniaturized reaction bed facilitated optimization of the individual modification steps for throughput and completeness of derivatization. Reagents were exchanged directly on the supports, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps and thus, allowing the immobilized analyte to be carried through the multistep reaction scheme with minimal sample loss. The use of this sample-preparation method for phosphopeptide enrichment was demonstrated with low-level amounts of in-gel-digested protein. As applied to tryptic digests of ?-S1- and ?-casein, the method enabled the enrichment and detection of the phosphorylated peptides contained in the mixture, including the tetraphosphorylated species of ?-casein, which has escaped chemical procedures reported previously. The isolates proved highly suitable for mapping the sites of phosphorylation by collisionally induced dissociation. ?-Elimination, with consecutive Michael addition, expanded the use of the solid-phase-based enrichment strategy to phosphothreonyl peptides and to phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides derived from proline-directed kinase substrates and to their O-sulfono- and O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)-modified counterparts. Solid-phase enzymatic dephosphorylation proved to be a viable tool to condition O-GlcNAcylated peptide in mixtures with phosphopeptides for selective affinity purification. Acetylation, as an integral step of the sample-preparation method, precluded reduction in recovery of the thiolation substrate caused by intrapeptide lysine-dehydroalanine cross-link formation. The solid-phase analytical platform provides robustness and simplicity of operation using equipment readily available in most biological laboratories and is expected to accommodate additional chemistries to expand the scope of solid-phase serial derivatization for protein structural characterization. PMID:23997662

Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

2013-09-01

189

Evaluation of the improvement of sonication pre-treatment in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sewage sludge is a polluting and hazardous waste generated in wastewater treatment plants with severe management problems. The high content in heavy metal, pathogens and micropolluting compounds limit the implementation of the available management methods. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment method, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A sonication pre-treatment at lab scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. Sonication time was optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) at different pre-treatment times. The pre-treatment time was fixed at 45 min under the study conditions given that the solubilisation of organic matter did not increase significantly at lower sonication times, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen increased markedly at higher times. The volatile fatty acids generation rate was also evaluated for the pre-treatment conditions. The anaerobic digestion of untreated and pre-treated sewage sludge was subsequently compared and promising results were obtained for loads of 1.0 g VS/L (VS, total volatile solids). The methane yield coefficient increased from 88 to 172 mLSTP/g VS (STP, 0 °C, 1 atm) after the pre-treatment, while biodegradability was found to be around 81% (in VS). Moreover, the allowed organic loading rate and methane production rate observed for the sewage sludge reached values of up to 4.1 kg VS/m(3)·d and 1270 LSTP/m(3)·d, respectively. PMID:25284801

Martín, María Ángeles; González, Inmaculada; Serrano, Antonio; Siles, José Ángel

2015-01-01

190

Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms grown in Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to evaluate the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms common in Jordan in terms of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which is a combination of the chemical score of the limiting amino acid multiplied by true digestibility of the protein. True protein digestibility values were low (61.4, 73.4, 52.6 and 80.5 for Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terrum and Agaricus macrosporus, respectively). Based on the essential amino acids pattern requirements for children, the limiting amino acids in P. ostreatus and A. macrosporus protein were sulphur-containing amino acids with chemical scores of 0.61 and 0.50, respectively. However, lysine was the limiting amino acid in the protein of T. claveryi and T. terreum with chemical scores of 0.71 and 0.67, respectively, and the PDCAAS was 0.43, 0.45, 0.35 and 0.40 for the mushrooms types, respectively. Considering the pattern of essential amino acid requirements of laboratory rats, the sulphur containing amino acids were the limiting amino acids in the protein of T. claveryi, P. ostreatus, T. terreum and A. macrosporus with chemical scores of 0.56, 0.30, 0.34 and 0.25, respectively. The PDCAAS were 0.34, 0.22. 0.17 and 0.20, respectively. It is concluded that the four mushroom types studied are of low protein quality. PMID:11855618

Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

2002-01-01

191

Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen  

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Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

2014-02-01

192

Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4?±?2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P??0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P??0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response. PMID:23096766

Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

2013-03-01

193

Effects of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS) and urea-treated (3%) rice straw (UTRS), and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: long form rice straw (LFR) and chopped (4 cm) rice straw (CHR). The steers were offered the concentrate at 0.5% body weight (BW) /d and rice straw was fed ad libitum. DM intake and nutrient digestibility were increased (p0.05), except propionic acid (C3) was increased (p<0.05) in UTRS fed group. Nitrogen (N) balance was affected by urea treatment (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis (MCP) synthesis were greater by UTRS and CHR group (p<0.05). The efficiency of microbial N synthesis was greater for UTRS than for RS (p<0.05). From these results, it can be concluded that using the long form combined with urea treatment of rice straw improved feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial N synthesis in crossbred dairy steers. PMID:25049759

Gunun, P; Wanapat, M; Anantasook, N

2013-12-01

194

Antinutritional Evaluation and In vitro Protein Digestibility of Some Nigerian Cucurbits  

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Full Text Available The antinutritional factors of three Nigerian cucurbits namely, ‘snake tomato’ Trichosanthes cucumerina, ‘pumpkins’ Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata were analyzed. The antinutritional factors evaluated were tannin ranging from 0.23 to 0.49%; oxalate, 0.01 to 0.23%; cyanogenic glycosides, 0.43 to 0.44% and trypsin inhibitor, 6.32 to 11.58 TI unit/g. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in some of the antinutritional components of the cucurbits evaluated. The samples exhibited high protein digestibility but low levels of antinutrients which showed that the cucurbits studied cannot be toxic for human consumption postulating that the samples are of high nutritional quality so large scale production should be encouraged.

Okoye Ngozi Franca

2012-01-01

195

Simulated gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation and plasma protein interaction of white, green, and black tea polyphenols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation, and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from a single tea cultivar at different stages of processing (white, green, and black teas) were simulated. The salivary phase contained 74.8-99.5% of native polyphenols, suggesting potential bioavailability of significant amounts of antioxidants through the oral mucosal epithelium that might be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. White tea had the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability for catechins. Since most of native catechins were not absorbed, they were expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular glucose and cholesterol uptake was assumed. The permeated catechins (approximately, 2-15% of intestinal levels) significantly bound (about 37%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. White tea and its potential nutraceuticals could be effective in the regulation of plasma glucose and cholesterol levels. PMID:25236233

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

2015-02-15

196

Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

2012-01-01

197

Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (Pdigestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM.

Ghanbari, F.; Ghoorchi, T.; Shawrang, P.; Mansouri, H.; Torbati-Nejad, N. M.

2012-06-01

198

Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require several preparation steps, which prolongs any parallel operation and high-throughput interaction analysis. Gnd-HCl allow the efficient elution and subsequent fast digestion of PPIs to provide a convenient high-throughput methodology for affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. To validate the Gnd-HCl approach, label-free PPI analysis of several GFP-tagged yeast deubiquitinating enzymes was performed. The identification of known interaction partners demonstrates the utility of the optimized Gnd-HCl protocol that is also scalable to the 96 well-plate format.

Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft

2013-01-01

199

Vegetable processing wastes addition to improve swine manure anaerobic digestion: Evaluation in terms of methane yield and SEM characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate for swine manure anaerobic digestion. ? Two hydraulic retention times of 25 and 15 d, respectively. ? SEM characterization of anaerobic sludges to observe microbial composition. ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate increases methane yields up to three times. ? Microbial composition changes after 120 d of digestion. -- Abstract: The effect of adding vegetable waste as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of swine manure was investigated. The study was carried out at laboratory scale using semi-continuous stirred tank reactors working at 37 °C. Organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.4 and 0.6 g VS L?1 d?1 were evaluated, corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 25 and 15 d, respectively. The addition of vegetable wastes (50% dw/dw) resulted in an improvement of 3 and 1.4-fold in methane yields at HRTs of 25 and 15 d, respectively. Changes on microbial morphotypes were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Samples analyzed were sludge used as inoculum and digestate obtained from swine manure anaerobic reactors. SEM pictures demonstrated that lignocellulosic material was not completely degraded. Additionally, microbial composition was found to change to cocci and rods morphotypes after 120 d of anaerobic digestion.

200

Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection.

Hassan, Amro B.; Diab, Eiman E.; Mahmoud, Nagat S.; Elagib, Randa A. A.; Rushdi, Mohamed A. H.; Osman, Gammaa A. M.

2013-10-01

201

Comparative evaluation of standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in protein supplements for piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA was determined in 6 protein ingredients for piglets. A basal diet based on corn (Zea mays) starch and casein was supplemented with fluid-bed-dried porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysate, spray-dried porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysate, soy (Glycine max) protein concentrate, 2 batches of soy protein, or full-fat soybeans. The SID of AA did not differ between the 4 soybean products (P > 0.05). Compared to most SID values in the 4 soybean products, SID of AA were lower in the 2 porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysates (P ? 0.05). In conclusion, although the initial trypsin inhibitor contents in the raw soybeans have not been determined, high SID values in the 4 soybean products indicate that the different processing procedures used to manufacture these products were efficient to inactivate trypsin inhibitors. For most AA in the 2 porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysates, drying procedure did not affect SID of AA, but SID values were generally lower compared to the 4 soybean products. PMID:23365314

Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Hörner, S; Rademacher, M; Mosenthin, R

2012-12-01

202

Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [?-32P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at Mr 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses

203

Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean  

OpenAIRE

Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher ...

Bello-pe?rez, Luis A.; Guzma?n-maldonado, Salvador H.; Deisy Hervert-Hernández; Isabel Goñi; Grajales-garci?a, Eva M.; Perla Osorio-Díaz

2012-01-01

204

Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is the major peptidase responsible for digesting polyglutamine sequences released by proteasomes during protein degradation  

OpenAIRE

Long stretches of glutamine (Q) residues are found in many cellular proteins. Expansion of these polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences is the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Huntington's disease). Eukaryotic proteasomes have been found to digest polyQ sequences in proteins very slowly, or not at all, and to release such potentially toxic sequences for degradation by other peptidases. To identify these key peptidases, we investigated the degradation in cell extracts of m...

Bhutani, N.; Venkatraman, P.; Goldberg, A. L.

2007-01-01

205

EVALUATION OF APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH AND WITHOUT FISH MEAL FOR LABEO ROHITA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The apparent digestibility coefficients of three protein levels of reference diets (without fish meal and test diets (with fish meal were estimated for Labeo rohita. Three test diets (test diet-I, test diet-II and test diet-III and three reference diets (reference diet-I, reference diet-II and reference diet-III having 28, 30 and 32% protein levels were prepared. Chromic oxide was used as an internal marker in the experimental diets for the evaluation of digestibility of protein levels. The differences in apparent digestibility for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy of reference and test diets were highly significant (P<0.01. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter were 32.10 ± 0.30 and 35.30 ± 0.30% for reference and test diets -III. The ADCs of crude protein and crude fat were 77.92 ± 0.10, 69.23 ± 0.06 and 75.77 ± 0.05, 70.40 ± 0.22% for reference and test diets-III, respectively. The values of ADCs of gross energy were maximum for reference diet-III (52.28 ± 0.25% and test diet-III (48.65 ± 0.78%. The ADCs of dry matter were 19.80 ± 1.40 and 18.15 ± 0.05% for reference and test diet-I. The ADCs of crude protein and crude fat were 73.93 ± 0.05, 68.43 ± 1.58 and 59.49 ± 1.13, 57.02 ± 2.42% for reference and test diet-I respectively. The ADCs values of gross energy were for reference diet-I (42.43 ± 0.36% and test diet-I (39.09 ± 1.35%. The better ADCs for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy were at 32% protein level.

Y. GUL, M. SALIM AND B. RABBANI

2007-07-01

206

Advantages and limitations of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) as a method for evaluating protein quality in human diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

PDCAAS is a widely used assay for evaluating protein quality. It is a chemical score, which is derived from the ratio between the first limiting amino acid in a test protein and the corresponding amino acid in a reference amino acid pattern and corrected for true faecal N digestibility. Chemical scores exceeding 100 % are truncated to 100 %. The advantages of the PDCAAS are its simplicity and direct relationship to human protein requirements. The limitations are as follows: the reference pattern is based on the minimum amino acid requirements for tissue growth and maintenance and does not necessarily reflect the optimum intake. Truncated PDCAAS of high-quality proteins do not give any information about the power of these proteins to compensate, as a supplement, for low levels of dietary essential amino acids in low-quality proteins. It is likely that faecal N digestibility does not take into account the loss from the colon of indispensable amino acids that were not absorbed in the ileum. Anti-nutritional factors, such as lectins and trypsin inhibitors, in several plant protein sources can cause heightened endogenous losses of amino acids, an issue which is particularly relevant in animal feedstuffs. The assumption that amino acid supplementation can completely restore biological efficiency of the protein source is incorrect since the kinetics of digestion and absorption between supplemented free amino acids and amino acids present in dietary proteins, are different. PMID:23107546

Schaafsma, Gertjan

2012-08-01

207

Formation of a phorbol ester-binding fragment from protein kinase C by proteolytic digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When washed human platelets were disrupted by sonication in the presence of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, both the catalytic and [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu)-binding activities of protein kinase C were recovered in the soluble fraction and were not separable from each other upon several column chromatographies. Platelet protein kinase C required diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid for its activation and showed a molecular weight of about 87,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. However, when platelets were first incubated with 2 microM Ca2+-ionophore A23187 for 5 min at 37 degrees C in the medium containing 3 mM CaCl2 and then disrupted under the same conditions, the catalytic and [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activities were separately recovered in the soluble and particulate fractions, respectively; moreover, the catalytic activity recovered in the soluble fraction became independent of diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and phospholipid, and showed a molecular weight of about 50,000 as estimated by gel filtration analysis. The kinetic properties of this Mr 50,000 enzyme were similar to those of the catalytic fragment of rat brain protein kinase C described previously. In a cell-free system, digestion with trypsin of protein kinase C highly purified from rat brain caused the generation of a fragment which had no catalytic activity but showed full [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyr full [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-binding activity. The molecular weight of this fragment was estimated to be about 35,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that protein kinase C consists of at least two functionally different domains, a hydrophobic phorbol ester- or diacylglycerol-binding and hydrophilic catalytic domains

208

Protein Levels for Heat-Exposed Broilers: Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Energy and Protein Metabolism  

OpenAIRE

Heat stress causes significant economic losses on broilers production due to poorer performance and carcass quality. Considering that protein has the highest heat increment among nutrients, it has been suggested that protein levels should be reduced in diets for heat-exposed broilers. Nevertheless, there are no conclusive results on the benefits of such practice, and further studies should be performed to elucidate some reported discrepancies. Thus, a trial was carried out to evaluate the eff...

Daniel Emygdio Faria Filho; Daniel Mendes Borges Campos; Karoll Andrea Alfonso-Torres; Bruno Serpa Vieira; Paulo Sergio Rosa; Aiani Maria Vaz; Marcos Macari; Renato Luis Furlan

2007-01-01

209

Characterization, in vitro Trypsin Digestibility and Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Soybean Protein Meal with Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6  

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Full Text Available In this study, soybean protein meal was subjected to solid state fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 either in the presence or absence of a protease. The extracts were investigated for changes in mineral composition, amino acid composition, in vitro trypsin digestibility, DPPH radical scavenging activities and electrophoretic pattern. The amino acid and mineral element compositions showed significant (pin vitro trypsin digestibility and showed a single polypeptide with estimated molecular weight of 14.4 kDa in the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE assay.

O.S. Gbadamosi

2009-01-01

210

Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia  

OpenAIRE

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and dry matter (DM) and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal) in compound diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for pou...

Igo Gomes Guimarães; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Margarida Maria Barros; Rosângela do Nascimento Fernandes

2012-01-01

211

Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas ( Pisum satinum L), cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils ( Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly ( p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

El-Niely, Hania F. G.

2007-06-01

212

Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

213

Protein cleavage strategies for an improved analysis of the membrane proteome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins still remain elusive in proteomic studies. This is in part due to the distribution of the amino acids lysine and arginine, which are less frequent in integral membrane proteins and almost absent in transmembrane helices. As these amino acids are cleavage targets for the commonly used protease trypsin, alternative cleavage conditions, which should improve membrane protein analysis, were tested by in silico digestion for the three organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and Corynebacterium glutamicum as hallmarks for eukaryotes, archea and eubacteria. Results For the membrane proteomes from all three analyzed organisms, we identified cleavage conditions that achieve better sequence and proteome coverage than trypsin. Greater improvement was obtained for bacteria than for yeast, which was attributed to differences in protein size and GRAVY. It was demonstrated for bacteriorhodopsin that the in silico predictions agree well with the experimental observations. Conclusion For all three examined organisms, it was found that a combination of chymotrypsin and staphylococcal peptidase I gave significantly better results than trypsin. As some of the improved cleavage conditions are not more elaborate than trypsin digestion and have been proven useful in practice, we suppose that the cleavage at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids should facilitate in general the analysis of membrane proteins for all organisms.

Poetsch Ansgar

2006-03-01

214

Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant differences among treatments were registered in the above ground maize biomass. Molecular analysis conducted on microbial soil communities suggested that the application of digested residues to soil contributes to substantial modifications of both bacterial and fungal community structure. Soil organic C and total N increased in soils treated with digested residues addition, with no significant differences between the two doses of digestate. Cation exchange capacity did not show significant differences among treatments, remaining stable during the maize vegetative cycle. Differently, some variations occurred in the exchangeable cation pool. In particular, K content increased under digestate treatments, while Na and Mg contents increased with time irrespective of the fertilization treatment. No significant variations were observed in soil microelement levels, except for an increase in Zn content at the highest digestate dose. Moreover, digested residue addition had a positive impact on aggregates stability. From the first results, the absence of negative effects in plant productivity and soil fertility after residues application, at both doses, is a promising indication for the potential use of anaerobic digestate as substitute of mineral fertilizers.

Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

2013-04-01

215

The Prospect of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal as Ruminant Feeds Through Protein Quality Improvement by Microbes  

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Full Text Available The waste of the broiler processing (feather is a potential source for animal feed. However the presence of keratins cause limited of feather use. Before using, therefore, feather must be treated to hydrolyze cysteine disulfide bound dominating keratins protein. Enzymatic (biological treatment using microbes will produce specific feather hydrolyzed and does not have negative impact on environment. The research objected to get the microbes which degradated selected keratins, improve protein quality of feather meal and find out the best ration formulation true in vitro the basic information to formulate in vivo ration. The research has been done in Laboratory of Animal Feedstuff Faculty of Animal Science UNSOED for eight months. Fermentation trial was done on liquid media with bath system. In vitro trial used of Tilley and Terry methods with parameter observe was dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, protein degradation, total VFA and solubility in pepsin. Based on all parameter, on fermentation trial with Bacillus licheniformis decides broiler chicken feather had good prospect to be developed on feed protein source. In vitro trial recommended ration with formulation of fermented feather meal concentrate (15 percent, soybeans meal (5 percent, rice bran (20 percent, molasses (4 percent, mineral mix (1 percent, with forage: concentrate ratio 40 : 60 could be used as in vivo ration. (Animal Production 5(1: 19-24 (2003 Key words : Hydrolyze, Feather, Keratin, Digestibility, Ruminant

CH Prayitno

2003-01-01

216

Staphylococcus aureus Typing by Digestion of Protein A Coding Gene Using Bsp143I  

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Full Text Available Background: Protein A is the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus rolling in its pathogenesis, and its gene is used for typing. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP with different enzymes has been used for this action. Objectives: In this study, we used Bsp143I enzyme for digestion of the gene, coding protein A (spa gene in S. aureus. The bacteria were isolated from patients and healthy carriers in Gorgan, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: DNAs of 128 S. aureus subjects (53 from healthy carriers and 75 from patients were extracted and amplified using specific primers of the spa gene. The product was digested by Bsp143I enzyme and its pattern was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Results: There were seven spa types among the tested S. aureus samples, among which six types differed in the repeated X region of the spa gene, but the seventh type had a deletion on one of BSP143I restriction sites. The frequency of spa types among isolated S. aureus samples as well as healthy carriers was six and five, respectively. S. aureus isolated from wounds showed the most diverse spa types (five among clinical samples. Types 1, 2 and 4 were observed in all clinical samples, while only one case of type 3 was identified among patients, whereas this type constituted over 32% of the isolates among carriers. We found seven and four spa types among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA isolates, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed that typing the spa gene using PCR-RFLP using Bsp143I was an acceptable method for typing S. aureus. Furthermore, this survey showed that the types in healthy carriers and MSSA were more variable than patient and MRSA isolates, respectively. We used the Bsp143I enzyme, which was not used in any previous studies on the spa gene. The results of this study suggested that we can use PCR-RFLP of spa gene by Bsp143I for molecular typing and sequencing of S. aureus, instead of relatively expensive methods. This method is relatively rapid and inexpensive, and can be accomplished in centers with conventional molecular facilities. Keywords: Staphylococcal Protein A; Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Fatemeh Shakeri

2014-06-01

217

Effect of Processing Treatments Followed by Fermentation on Protein Content and Digestibility of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) Cultivars  

OpenAIRE

Two pearl millet cultivars namely Gadarif and Gazeera were used in this study. The effect of soaking, debranning, dry heating and germination of the grains before and after fermentation on protein content and digestibility was investigated. The effect of processing treatments on the protein content was fluctuated and varied between the cultivars. For both cultivars germination of the grains increased the protein content and digestibility (except course ground grains). For both cultivar...

Hassan, Amro B.; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.; Osman, Nuha M.; Eltayeb, Mohamed M.; Osman, Gammaa A.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

2006-01-01

218

Comparison of two different fecal collection methods for protein digestibility and amino acid availability coefficients of three animal protein sources for sunshine bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis)  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for protein and individual amino acid availabilities in menhaden fish meal (MEN) and two grades of poultry by-product meal (PBM) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass using two different fecal collection methods, passive netting (net) or man...

219

Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-12-15

220

Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

221

Effect of Soaking, Sprouting and Cooking on Chemical Composition, Bioavailability of Minerals and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed  

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Full Text Available Chemical composition, bioavailability of minerals and in vitro digestibility of proteins in karkade seed (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as affected by soaking, sprouting and cooking were studied. The different methods showed varied deviation of nutrients and antinutrients from the raw seeds. Sprouting and cooking significantly increased protein content and decreased starch and soluble carbohydrates levels. K, Na and all the trace elements studied were decreased by processing methods. Cooking was more effective in improving bioavailability of minerals studied than soaking or sprouting. Total polyphenols reduced more by cooking, while phytic acid did not change significantly by processing. In vitro protein digestibility was significantly reduced by all processing methods, with soaking gave the highest percentage of reduction and cooking the lowest percentage. The results also indicated that domestic processing methods changed total acidity and fat acidity as well as N solubility in water and 1 M NaCl. Amino acid profile of the karkade seed indicated that sulfur amino acids and threonine are the limiting amino acids. With respect to FAO pattern, considerable proportion of the essential amino acids were retained on processing, except for lysine on soaking and sprouting and sulfur acids on sprouting and cooking.

Abu El Gasim A. Yagoub

2008-01-01

222

Effect of Undegraded Protein and Energy Level on Intake and Digestibility of Nutrient and Blood Metabolite in Dairy Cows  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of undegraded protein and energy level on intake and digestibility of nutrient and glucose and urea blood content in dairy cows. The benefit of the research was to inform about the utilization of undegraded protein and energy level to optimize nutrient utilization in dairy cattle. The experiment was conducted in 4 month in the Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science Gadjah Mada University. The experiment used 4 female rumen fistulated dry cows (Friesian Holstein Crossbreed of 3.0-3.5 years old and 350–400 kg body weight. The treatments of this experiment were T1: 20% of undegraded protein (UDP and 70% energy from requirement; T2: 20% undegraded protein and 120% energy from requirement; T3: 30% undegraded protein and 70% energy from requirement; and T4: 30% undegraded protein and 120% energy from requirement with Latin square design. Variables observed were intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, Acid detergent fiber (ADF, and glucose and urea blood content. Collected data were analyzed by analysis of variances, and further differences were tested by orthogonal contrast. Results of the research showed that the level of UDP in the rations did not affect DM, OM, CP intake, rumen degradable protein (RDP, NDF and ADF; however level of energy had significant affect on DM, OM, CP, RDP and ADF intake. The level of UDP resulted in non significant difference in DM; but significantly different on CP digestibility. Digestibility of DM and OM were significantly influenced by the level of energy, but it did not influence NDF and ADF digestibility. Cattle treated with the high energy rations had higher blood glucose concentration than cattle treated with the low energy rations. Blood urea in cattle fed low UDP rations was higher than cattle fed high UDP rations. (Animal Production 10(2: 96-101 (2008 Key Words: Undegraded protein, nitrogen, energy, blood metabolite

BP Widyobroto

2008-05-01

223

Improvement through low cost biofilm carrier in anaerobic tubular digestion in cold climate regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research is to evaluate the increase of biogas production with low cost tubular digesters in cold climates using PET rings inside the reactor. Two similar digesters have been operated and monitored in cold weather conditions and have been fed with cow manure. Digester 1 was filled with PET - rings as a biofilm carrier, Digester 2 was kept as a reference. Through the PET - rings the functional surface could be increased by a factor 4.2. The results show that 44% more biogas per Kg SV has been produced with the biofilm carrier in use (0.33 m(3)/kg SV) (reference digester -0.23 m(3)/kg SV), at an organic load rate of 0.26 kg SV/m(3)/d. The thermal performance shows that with an adaptation of the low cost tubular digester the slurry temperature can be raised up to 16.6°C (average) by surrounding temperature of 6.1°C (average) without using any active heating system. PMID:24971949

Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Rojas, M R; Aliaga, L; Céspedes, R; Carbonell, J

2014-09-01

224

Effects of synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen on fermentation, nutrient utilization and total tract digestibility in sheep  

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Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of synchronizing the dietary starch and crude protein (CP degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization, fermentation, and total tract digestibility in sheep. The four diets were formulated with different rates of starch and CP release in the rumen but with similar metabolic energy, starch, and CP. The diets were slowly degradable starch, slowly degradable protein; slowly degradable starch, rapidly degradable protein; rapidly degradable starch, rapidly degradable protein; and rapidly degradable starch, slowly degradable protein. The diets were fed to four cannulated sheep ad libi- tumin two equal portions, using a 4x4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DM was not influenced by either the rate of starch or protein degradation. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, starch, CP, neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the rumen and total tract. Ruminal pH was greater for sheep fed slowly degrad- able starch diets than rapidly degradable starch (P< 0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by treatments but the molar proportions of propionic acid were greater for sheep fed rapid- ly degradable starch diets than slowly degradable starch diets (P< 0.05. The ratios of acetic acid (A to pro- pionic acid (P were higher for sheep fed slowly degradable starch diets than rapidly degradable starch diets (P< 0.05. Ruminal ammonia-N concentrations were not affected from the degradability characteristics of protein. Rumen pH and A:P were higher in diets containing slowly degradable starch than in diets rapidly degradable starch. Propionic acid was higher in diets containing rapidly degradable starch than in diets con- taining slowly degradable starch. Rumen fermentation and utilization of nutrients in the rumen affected starch degradability more than protein degradability. Synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen had no effect on the intake, digestibility of nutrients in sheep.

Birgul Bozan

2010-01-01

225

Staphylococcus aureus Typing by Digestion of Protein A Coding Gene Using Bsp143I  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Protein A is the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus rolling in its pathogenesis, and its gene is used for typing. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with different enzymes has been used for this action. Objectives: In this study, we used Bsp143I enzyme for digestion of the gene, coding protein A (spa gene) in S. aureus. The bacteria were isolated from patients and healthy carriers in Gorgan, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: DNAs of 128 S. aureus subjects (53 from healthy carriers and 75 from patients) were extracted and amplified using specific primers of the spa gene. The product was digested by Bsp143I enzyme and its pattern was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Results: There were seven spa types among the tested S. aureus samples, among which six types differed in the repeated X region of the spa gene, but the seventh type had a deletion on one of BSP143I restriction sites. The frequency of spa types among isolated S. aureus samples as well as healthy carriers was six and five, respectively. S. aureus isolated from wounds showed the most diverse spa types (five) among clinical samples. Types 1, 2 and 4 were observed in all clinical samples, while only one case of type 3 was identified among patients, whereas this type constituted over 32% of the isolates among carriers. We found seven and four spa types among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed that typing the spa gene using PCR-RFLP using Bsp143I was an acceptable method for typing S. aureus. Furthermore, this survey showed that the types in healthy carriers and MSSA were more variable than patient and MRSA isolates, respectively. We used the Bsp143I enzyme, which was not used in any previous studies on the spa gene. The results of this study suggested that we can use PCR-RFLP of spa gene by Bsp143I for molecular typing and sequencing of S. aureus, instead of relatively expensive methods. This method is relatively rapid and inexpensive, and can be accomplished in centers with conventional molecular facilities. PMID:25371797

Shakeri, Fatemeh; Ghaemi, Ezzat Allah; Babai Kochkaksaraei, Maya

2014-01-01

226

Maize silage supplementation to lower quality grass silage improves the intake, apparent digestibility and N retention in wether sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of interactions between lower quality grass silage (GS dominated by orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. and maize silage (MS (Zea mays L. on ad libitum intake, digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The study consisted of four feeding treatments involving GS and MS alone, and GS and MS mixtures in ratios of 67:33 or 33:67 (DM basis fed twice daily. The GS was harvested at the beginning of flowering of orchardgrass (about 35 % of plants were in flower while the MS used was of lower DM and starch concentration (264 g kg-1 fresh weight and 211 g kg-1 DM respectively. Mean DM content of GS was 408 g kg-1 fresh weight. MS was lower in crude protein (CP (62 g kg-1 DM than the GS (98 g kg-1 DM (P<0.001. GS contained larger quantities of neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P<0.001 than MS. Inclusion of MS in the diet (33 % vs. 67 % had positive linear effects on fresh matter (FM voluntary intake (P<0.05, digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM, digestible OM in the DM (D-value (P<0.05, starch digestibility (P<0.05, N intake (P<0.01, N output in faeces (P<0.05 and absorbed N (P<0.05. A positive associative effect of GS and MS was observed for all intake parameters measured (FM, DM, OM, NDF (quadratic, P<0.05 to P<0.01, digestibility of DM, ADF (quadratic, P<0.05, CP (quadratic, P<0.01, N intake and absorbed N (quadratic, P<0.01. It was concluded that positive interactions of GS and MS were recorded for a limited number of parameters because of the lower quality MS than required for the full benefit of two forages fed together.

Ivana Mati?

2009-12-01

227

Effect of Protein Level, Main Protein and non Forage Fiber Source on Digestibility, N Balance and Energy Value of Sheep Rations  

OpenAIRE

in vivo digestion trials were conducted, by using a latin square 4x4 experimental design with castrated rams, to evaluate the effects of diet?s CP level, N degradability and Non-Forage Fiber Source (NFFS) on nutrient digestibility, N balance and energy value of sheep rations. In each trial, rams were fed at maintenance level four isocaloric-isonitrogenous and isofibrous rations, differing in main protein and/or NFFS source. At the first trial mean CP/ME ratio of the diets ...

Ch. Milis; Liamadis, D.

2007-01-01

228

Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

Duangrat Chookird

2010-05-01

229

Improving anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by implementation of a hyper-thermophilic prehydrolysis step  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study focuses on a two-step process for treatment and stabilisation of primary sludge. The process consists of a hyperthermophilic hydrolysis step operated at 70 degrees C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 clays followed by a thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion step at a HRT of 13 days. A one-step anaerobic digester operated at 55 degrees C and 15 days HRT Was used as a reference process. The two-step process was characterized by a 12% higher organic suspended solids removal efficiency and better pathogen reduction effect than the conventional one-step digestion. The microbial community of the digester fed with pre-treated sludge was characterised by it higher activity compared to that of the digester treating raw sludge. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the primary sludge resulted up to 48% increase of the methane potential (20.09 and 13.56 mmol CH4 g(-)VS(-1) with and Without pre-treatment respectively) and up to 115% increase of the methane production rate. Finally it was shown that the extra energy requirements for the operation of a pre-treatment step would be covered by the energy Produced from the extra methane production and in addition there would be it significant energy Surplus of 2.17 kJ d(-1) For the system tested.

Lu, Jingquan; Gavala, Hariklia N.

2008-01-01

230

Investigation on the effects of various protein levels with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP) by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2) with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5%) and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36) of laying ...

Mousavi, Seyed N.; Saeed Khalaji; Abdollah Ghasemi-Jirdehi; Farhad Foroudi

2013-01-01

231

Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP) by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2) with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5%) and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36) of laying ...

Farhad Foroudi; Abdollah Ghasemi-Jirdehi; Saeed Khalaji; Seyed Naser Mousavi

2013-01-01

232

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758)  

OpenAIRE

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), corn (Zea mays) gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida), gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis) and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus) exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was a...

Kenan Koprucu; Pinar Tatli Seven; Gulizar Tuna

2004-01-01

233

The Effect of Three Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Digestibility and Tests Function in Male Pubertal Rabbits  

OpenAIRE

Six healthy crossbred rabbits (New Zealand white & Chinchilla) were assigned to each of three isocaloric rations viz: treatment A (control) with 20% crude protein on dry matter basis (CP), treatment B with 14% CP and treatment C with 24% CP. The performance parameters considered included dry matter and CP digestibility, feed intake, growth rate, and reproduction parameters like paired testes weight, paired testes volume/density, gonadal sperm reserves and daily sperm production. The resul...

Ladokun, Ao; Egbunike, Gn; Adejumo, Do; Sokunbi, Oa

2006-01-01

234

Selective release of HMG nonhistone proteins during DNase digestion of Tetrahymena chromatin at different stages of the cell cycle.  

OpenAIRE

The possible role of LG-1, a Tetrahymena specific HMG protein found in the macronuclear chromatin (Hamana, K. and Iwai, K. (1979) J. Biochem. 86, 789-794), was examined in relation to the chromatin structure. The chromatin isolated from cells synchronized at different stages of the cell cycle contained about one molecule of LG-1 per nucleosome. Limited digestion of the chromatin with DNase I or micrococcal nuclease selectively released LG-1 with the nucleosomal core histones and H1 remained i...

Hamana, K.; Zama, M.

1980-01-01

235

Impact of Legume Flours on Quality and In Vitro Digestibility of Starch and Protein from Gluten-Free Cakes  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of incorporation of different legumes (chickpea, pea, lentil and bean) on quality, chemical composition and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of gluten-free layer cake (rice flour/legume flour, 50:50). The incorporation of legume flours increased the batter viscosity and, with exception of chickpea, resulted in higher specific cake volume than that in control. Chickpea and pea containing cakes had the brightest and the most yellowish ...

Arocha Gularte, Marcia; Go?mez, Manuel; Rosell, Cristina M.

2012-01-01

236

Effect of plants containing secondary compounds with palm oil on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial population in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75%) lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW) of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control), supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05). However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS) in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05) while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows. PMID:25049855

Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

2013-06-01

237

Expression of chemoresistance-related proteins in alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma of the digestive organs.  

Science.gov (United States)

alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma of the digestive organs (APAD) is known to show a poor prognosis. To clarify the characteristics of chemoresistance in APAD, three proteins of fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy association [dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and thymidylate synthase (TS)] and one protein of cisplatin association [metallothionein (MT)] were immunohistochemically evaluated. Tissue samples were taken from 12 AFP-positive gastric cancers and 94 AFP-negative gastric cancers. Four AFP-positive cancer xenografts (one colonic, two pancreatic, and one biliary tract) and 17 AFP-negative cancer xenografts were also examined. In gastric cancers, high expression of TP was observed in 30% of AFP-negative tumors but in none of AFP-positive tumors (p=0.03). High expression of MT was found in 30% of AFP-negative tumors but in only one of the AFP-positive tumors. The TP-low and MT-low phenotype was noted in 92% of AFP-positive tumors and in 46% of AFP-negative tumors (p=0.004). None of the AFP-positive cancer xenografts revealed high TP expression and only one showed high MT expression. In the cellular level, TP and MT were scarcely co-expressed with AFP in either gastric cancer or xenograft series, using double immunostaining and serial sectioning techniques. There were no significant differences in the expression of DPD and TS between AFP-positive group and -negative group. However, DPD was frequently co-expressed with AFP in poorly differentiated medullary areas of the AFP-positive gastric cancers. The data presented herein suggest that APAD should be sensitive to cisplatin, but resistant to capecitabine and 5'-deoxyfluorouridine, fluoropyrimidines which are converted to 5-fluorouracil by TP. S-1, a fluoropyrimidine containing a strong DPD inhibitor, may be effective for AFP-positive gastric cancers with poorly differentiated medullary growth pattern. PMID:16969485

Kamoshida, Shingo; Suzuki, Mai; Sakurai, Yoichi; Ochiai, Masahiro; Kimura, Fumikazu; Kuwao, Sadahito; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Masakazu; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

2006-10-01

238

Eco-efficient post treatment of digestate from farm and collective biogas plants to improve nutrients (N&P) recycling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste from agriculture and others sectors is a widely used technology which shows increasing implementation due to its capacity to produce renewable energy and also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. The development of AD is also an opportunity to improve nutrient recycling from organic waste through the development of an eco-effi cient post-treatment system. In this context, LCA was applied to evaluate the sustainability of diff erent raw digestate post-treatment technologies regarding recycling of nutrients from agricultural and organic waste to agricultural soils for decreased resource depletion and climate mitigation. Substitution of the use of N and P mineral fertilizers with recycled soil health improver or organic fertilizers products as function of fi ve diff erent post-treatment technologies and raw digestate characteristics was evaluated. A particular attention was carried to (1) the gaseous emissions (NH3 and N2O) from process (post-treatment) but also after land spreading and (2) the carbon cycle considering the CO2 carbon costs of fertiliser production and the soil carbon sequestration benefit.

Trémier, Anne; Béline, Fabrice

239

Improved efficiency and stable digestion of biomass in non-mixed upflow solids reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR), which permitted longer solids than hydraulic retention times, was used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The performance of the USR was compared to that of the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at different organic loading rates in terms of methane yield, methane production rate, and process stability. Results showed that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp compositional variability, methane yields and production rates in the USR were significantly higher than those observed with the CSTR. Results also showed that volatile acid concentrations, which are generally inversely related to digester stability, were significantly lower in the USR than in the CSTR. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Srivastava, V.J.; Fannin, K.F.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Frank, J.R.

1987-01-01

240

Paradata for 'Effects of traditional cooking methods on some antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Turkey'  

Science.gov (United States)

This record contains paradata for the resource 'Effects of traditional cooking methods on some antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Turkey'

241

A replaceable microreactor for on-line protein digestion in a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system with tandem mass spectrometry detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system that incorporates a replaceable enzymatic microreactor for on-line protein digestion. In this system, trypsin is immobilized on magnetic beads. At the start of each experiment, old beads are flushed to waste and replaced with a fresh plug of beads, which is captured by a pair of magnets at the distal tip of the first capillary. For analysis, proteins are separated in the first capillary. A fraction is then parked in the reactor to create peptides. Digested peptides are periodically transferred to the second capillary for separation; a fresh protein fraction is simultaneously moved to the reactor for digestion. An electrospray interface is used to introduce peptides into a mass spectrometer for analysis. This procedure is repeated for several dozen fractions under computer control. The system was demonstrated by the separation and digestion of insulin chain b oxidized and ?-casein as model proteins. PMID:21030030

Li, Yihan; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

2011-04-15

242

Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 ?mol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 ?mol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

Luis A. Bello-Pérez

2011-12-01

243

Xylanase supplementation of a wheat-based diet improved nutrient digestion and mRNA expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens has become prevalent in the European Union due to the withdrawal of antibiotics in poultry feed. In an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 336 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to 4 groups with or without C. perfringens challenge and fed wheat-based diets supplemented with or without xylanase at 5,500 U/kg of diet. The study aimed to investigate effects of xylanase addition on growth performance as well as nutrient digestion and absorption of C. perfringens-infected broilers. Before challenge (d 0-14), xylanase-supplemented birds had greater ADG and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR; P SGLT1), H(+)-dependent peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) were downregulated (P SGLT1 gene expression was increased by infection (P SGLT1, PepT1, and L-FABP genes as well as ileal PepT1 and L-FABP genes in challenged broilers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, xylanase supplementation of wheat-based diets improved FCR and AME in birds irrespective of C. perfringens infection and elevated apparent ileal digestibility of CP and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in challenged birds. PMID:24570428

Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Xu; Li, Changwu; Guo, Yuming

2014-01-01

244

Research on crude protein and digestibility of Arnica montana L. using conventional NIR spectrometry and hyperspectral imaging NIR  

OpenAIRE

Arnica montana L. (AM) is considered a medicinal plant, used as hay in feed ration. The aim of this study is to assess the prediction of protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility value in grass mixtures containing Arnica montana L., and in a second step to check if these values have a positive or negative influence in the mixtures. Crude protein has been selected because it is one of the most important quality parameters of forages as nutritional element used in animal feeding...

Dale, Laura; Fernandez, Juan Antonio; Vermeulen, Philippe; Lecler, Bernard; Bogdan, Anca Dorina; Pacurar, Florin; Rotar, Ioan; Thewis, Andre?; Baeten, Vincent

2012-01-01

245

Improvement of anaerobic digester performance by wastewater recirculation through an aerated membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swine wastewater from an anaerobic digester was recirculated through a silicone hose located in an external aeration chamber to determine its effect on wastewater malodorants and biogas composition. The silicone hose acted as a semipermeable membrane for the passage of small molecules. In the first...

246

Improved method for trypsin digestion of Paraplast sections before immunofluorescence staining.  

OpenAIRE

Formalin-fixed, Paraplast-embedded tissue sections mounted on subbed slides were digested with crude trypsin in modified Sorensen phosphate buffer containing sodium fluoride before immunofluorescence staining. This method prevented detachment of sections from slides during processing, thereby permitting immunofluorescence and histological examinations of adjacent serial sections.

Rowse-eagle, D.; Watson, H. D.; Tignor, G. H.

1981-01-01

247

New technologies in proteomics: automated excision and digestion of fluorescently stained protein gel spots and identification of proteins by MALDI-QTOF mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation is an overview of the techniques and systems we use for large-scale proteomics in plants. This includes a variety of 2D gel electrophoresis methods, and automation of spot-cutting, in-gel digestion, nanoLC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry and SEQUEST based protein identification. Examples and applications of several new technologies will also be shown, including the use of a robotic spot cutter in conjunction with high sensitivity fluorescent protein staining and the identification of proteins by redundant peptide identification in a high-throughput fashion using a hybrid MALDI-Qtof mass spectrometer

248

Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (P<0.05). EB irradiation was more effective than GR irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA (P<0.05). EB and GR treatments at a dose of 75 kGy increased in vitro digestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM. - Highlights: ? Irradiation was effective on reducing ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal. ? Ionizing radiations, especially electron beam, lessened ruminal degradability of amino acid substantially. ? Irradiation processing could be used as a safe and efficient method in improving nutritional value of cottonseed meal.

249

Inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 with amyloglucosidase for measuring non-digestible oligosaccharides and proposal for an improvement of the method.  

Science.gov (United States)

We wished to clarify the inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 for the measurement of non-digestible oligosaccharides and to propose an improved method using porcine intestinal enzymes. Amyloglucosidase used in AOAC method 2009.01 scarcely hydrolyses sucrose, palatinose and panose (which are readily digested by intestinal enzymes). Hence, oligosaccharides could not be measured accurately by AOAC method 2009.01. To confirm the inaccuracy of the method, we used porcine intestinal enzymes instead of amyloglucosidase. Using the improved method, fructooligosaccharide and galactooligosaccharide were measured accurately as non-digestible oligosaccharides, but sucrose, palatinose, panose and isomaltooligosaccharide were not. The improved method hydrolysed digestible oligosaccharides into monosaccharides. These results demonstrate that the inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 for oligosaccharide measurement is due to incomplete hydrolysis by amyloglucosidase. We propose that amyloglucosidase should be replaced with porcine intestinal enzymes for such measurements. PMID:24423568

Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2014-05-15

250

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

2012-12-01

251

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

12Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P <0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P <0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage.

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K

2012-01-01

252

Predicting Levels of Crude Protein, Digestibility, Lignin and Cellulose in Temperate Pastures Using Hyperspectral Image Data  

OpenAIRE

Hyperspectral sensors provide the potential for direct estimation of pasture feed quality attributes. However, remote sensing retrieval of digestibility and fibre (lignin and cellulose) content of vegetation has proven to be challenging since tissue optical properties may not be ...

Susanne Thulin; Hill, Michael J.; Alex Held; Simon Jones; Peter Woodgate

2014-01-01

253

The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on non-host plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry identified up-regulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25284010

Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

2014-10-01

254

Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: intake, digestibility and microbial protein production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This experiment was carried to evaluate the effect of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay [EGH], corn straw [CS], hay of cassava shoots [HCS], fresh sugarcane bagasse [FSB], and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse [HSB]) on intake, apparent digestibility and macrobiotic protein p [...] roduction of cows. Five cows with 265 kg average body weight, 4.95 kg average daily milk yield and 5.22 kg 4% fat-corrected milk yield were randomly allocated to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals fed cactus associated with CS, EGH and HCS showed higher intake of DM and nutrients. However, regarding the digestibility, diets with sugarcane bagasse showed higher digestibility compared with those with CS and hay. For microbial protein, the excretion of purine derivatives, synthesis of microbial N and microbial protein production were higher in the treatment with CS than in the treatment with sugarcane bagasse. On the other hand, the treatment with EGH and HCS did not have statistical differences compared with the other cases. The mean efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of the experiment was 131 g microbial crude protein/kg of TDN. The treatment with CS showed better efficiency; however, it was statistically superior only compared with FSB. The other treatments did not show statistical difference compared with the other cases. Diets with cactus associated with corn straw, hay of elephant grass or hay of cassava shoots provide higher intake of dry matter and nutrients and better metabolic response compared with diets with cactus associated with sugarcane bagasse for lactating Sindhi cows.

Carla Aparecida Soares, Saraiva; Severino, Gonzaga Neto; Maria Fernanda Soares, Queiroz; Lara Toledo, Henriques; Edilson Paes, Saraiva; Rômulo Pontes de Freitas, Albuquerque; Vinicius de França Carvalho, Fonseca; George Vieira do, Nascimento.

2014-10-01

255

Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is the major peptidase responsible for digesting polyglutamine sequences released by proteasomes during protein degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long stretches of glutamine (Q) residues are found in many cellular proteins. Expansion of these polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences is the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Huntington's disease). Eukaryotic proteasomes have been found to digest polyQ sequences in proteins very slowly, or not at all, and to release such potentially toxic sequences for degradation by other peptidases. To identify these key peptidases, we investigated the degradation in cell extracts of model Q-rich fluorescent substrates and peptides containing 10-30 Q's. Their degradation at neutral pH was due to a single aminopeptidase, the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA, cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase). No other known cytosolic aminopeptidase or endopeptidase was found to digest these polyQ peptides. Although tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) exhibited limited activity, studies with specific inhibitors, pure enzymes and extracts of cells treated with siRNA for TPPII or PSA showed PSA to be the rate-limiting activity against polyQ peptides up to 30 residues long. (PSA digests such Q sequences, shorter ones and typical (non-repeating) peptides at similar rates.) Thus, PSA, which is induced in neurons expressing mutant huntingtin, appears critical in preventing the accumulation of polyQ peptides in normal cells, and its activity may influence susceptibility to polyQ diseases. PMID:17318184

Bhutani, N; Venkatraman, P; Goldberg, A L

2007-03-01

256

The Effect of Three Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Digestibility and Tests Function in Male Pubertal Rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six healthy crossbred rabbits (New Zealand white & Chinchilla were assigned to each of three isocaloric rations viz: treatment A (control with 20% crude protein on dry matter basis (CP, treatment B with 14% CP and treatment C with 24% CP. The performance parameters considered included dry matter and CP digestibility, feed intake, growth rate, and reproduction parameters like paired testes weight, paired testes volume/density, gonadal sperm reserves and daily sperm production. The results showed that CP digestibility was significantly affected (P= 0.05 while dry matter digestibility was not significantly affected. Average weight gain was significantly different (P= 0.05 between treatment B and C but not between B and C and control. There was no significant dietary effect on relative testis weight among treatments but testis volume was significantly enhanced by dietary CP. Daily sperm production and gonadal sperm reserves were significantly enhanced (P= 0.05 with increasing dietary CP. It is concluded that dietary crude protein significantly enhances the reproduction efficiency of pubertal rabbits.

Ladokun, AO.

2006-01-01

257

The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef; Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa; Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay, 200 g fishmeal. The concentrations of the amino-acids threonine, iso-leucine, leucine and arginine were increased in the total ration when lucerne hay replaced the tef hay while fishmeal supplementation increased the methionine and lysine contents, which provided a wide range of concentrations of digestible amino-acids in each of the 4 rations.

F.E. Van Niekerk

2012-07-01

258

Biphasic microreactor for efficient membrane protein pretreatment with a combination of formic acid assisted solubilization, on-column pH adjustment, reduction, alkylation, and tryptic digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combining good dissolving ability of formic acid (FA) for membrane proteins and excellent complementary retention behavior of proteins on strong cation exchange (SCX) and strong anion exchange (SAX) materials, a biphasic microreactor was established to pretreat membrane proteins at microgram and even nanogram levels. With membrane proteins solubilized by FA, all of the proteomics sample processing procedures, including protein preconcentration, pH adjustment, reduction, and alkylation, as well as tryptic digestion, were integrated into an "SCX-SAX" biphasic capillary column. To evaluate the performance of the developed microreactor, a mixture of bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c was pretreated. Compared with the results obtained by the traditional in-solution process, the peptide recovery (93% vs 83%) and analysis throughput (3.5 vs 14 h) were obviously improved. The microreactor was further applied for the pretreatment of 14 ?g of membrane proteins extracted from rat cerebellums, and 416 integral membrane proteins (IMPs) (43% of total protein groups) and 103 transmembrane peptides were identified by two-dimensional nanoliquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (2D nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS) in triplicate analysis. With the starting sample preparation amount decreased to as low as 50 ng, 64 IMPs and 17 transmembrane peptides were identified confidently, while those obtained by the traditional in-solution method were 10 and 1, respectively. All these results demonstrated that such an "SCX-SAX" based biphasic microreactor could offer a promising tool for the pretreatment of trace membrane proteins with high efficiency and throughput. PMID:23957459

Zhao, Qun; Liang, Yu; Yuan, Huiming; Sui, Zhigang; Wu, Qi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

2013-09-17

259

Low-cost additive improved silage quality and anaerobic digestion performance of napiergrass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of molasses-alcoholic wastewater on the ensiling quality of napiergrass were investigated at ambient temperature, and its anaerobic digestion performance was assessed at mesophilic temperature. Results showed that the molasses-alcoholic wastewater had positive effect on silage quality and anaerobic digestion performance. Lower pH values of 5.20-5.28, lower NH3-N contents of 32.65-36.60g/kg and higher lactic acid contents of 56-61mg/kg FM were obtained for the silage samples with molasses-alcoholic wastewater addition. Higher specific biogas yield of 273mL/g VS was obtained for the sample with 11% molasses-alcoholic wastewater added. Therefore 11% molasses-alcoholic wastewater addition was recommended. PMID:25443806

Lianhua, Li; Feng, Zhen; Yongming, Sun; Zhenhong, Yuan; Xiaoying, Kong; Xianyou, Zhou; Hongzhi, Niu

2014-12-01

260

Energy efficiency improvement of wastewater treatment– case study of an autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion process  

OpenAIRE

Environmental and legislative constraints regarding sludge disposal, such as its application on agricultural land, stimulate research in this area. Since municipalities are responsible for sludge disposal and finance it from taxpayers’ money, cost is the major constraint in providing this service. Therefore, research in this area has to provide economically viable solutions. The Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) process is one practical solution that enables the reuse of slu...

Jamniczky-kaszas, Dora

2010-01-01

261

Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2013-12-15

262

Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others

263

Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts inhibit carbohydrate digestion and absorption, improving postprandial glucose levels and hyperinsulinemia in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. In this study, helichrysum ( Helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. The helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL) than ?-amylase (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). Both extracts reduced maltose digestion in noneverted intestinal sacs (57% with helichrysum and 46% with grapefruit). Likewise, both extracts inhibited SGLT1-mediated methylglucoside uptake in Caco-2 cells in the presence of Na(+) (56% of inhibition with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit). In vivo studies demonstrated that helichrysum decreased blood glucose levels after an oral maltose tolerance test (OMTT), and both extracts reduced postprandial glucose levels after the oral starch tolerance test (OSTT). Finally, both extracts improved hyperinsulinemia (31% with helichrysum and 50% with grapefruit) and HOMA index (47% with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit) in a dietary model of insulin resistance in rats. In summary, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improve postprandial glycemic control in rats, possibly by inhibiting ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzyme activities and decreasing SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. PMID:24261475

de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Lostao, María Pilar; San Román, Belén; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

2013-12-11

264

Strategies in protein sequencing and characterization: Multi-enzyme digestion coupled with alternate CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. PMID:25479873

Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen; Natale, Anna; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

2015-01-01

265

Quantificação de Polifenóis e Digestibilidade Protéica de Famílias de Feijoeiro Comum Polyphenol quantification and protein digestibility in common bean lineages  

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Full Text Available O feijão é um dos alimentos encontrados em maior quantidade em todo o território nacional e é cultivado em quase todos os Estados. É uma importante fonte protéica na dieta do povo brasileiro, estando presente na alimentação da população rural e urbana. No presente trabalho, quantificaram-se os polifenóis e determinaram-se os níveis de digestibilidade protéica de cem famílias de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. obtidas do cruzamento entre os genótipos Amarelinho e CI 107. Os polifenóis afetam a qualidade do feijão, causando escurecimento, endurecimento e, ainda, podem reduzir a digestibilidade protéica. Pelos resultados obtidos, pôde-se encontrar 13 famílias com teores reduzidos de polifenóis e boa digestibilidade protéica in vitro, as quais poderão ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento dessa importante cultura.Common beans are one of the most important food crops in Brazil and are cultivated in almost all Brazilian states. It is an important protein source for Brazilian people in both rural and urban areas. The present work performed the quantification of phenolic compounds and in vitro protein digestibility of one hundred common bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L. obtained by crossing the genotypes "Amarelinho" and CI 107. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds affected bean cooking traits and quality through darkening and hardening of the seed coat. Phenolic compounds also influenced the in vitro protein digestibility. It was observed that all 13 lines presented low levels of phenolic compounds and good in vitro protein digestibility and, as a result, must be incorporated in the breeding programs for this important crop.

Carla Viviane C. Egg Mendonça

2003-08-01

266

/ Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 [...] × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

Nivea Regina de Oliveira, Felisberto; Marcelo Teixeira, Rodrigues; Marco Aurélio Delmondes, Bomfim; Rogério da Silva, Matos; Ana Gabriela Pombo Celles, Cordeiro; Márcia Maria Cândido da, Silva.

2228-22-01

267

Trypsin digestion of proteins on intact immobilized pH gradient strips for surface matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolelectric focusing (IEF) of proteins on immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips is an integral part of two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis-based proteomics. Proteins can be effectively analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) on the intact strip itself, leading to the creation of a virtual 2D map giving pI and MW information, bypassing the second dimension SDS-PAGE. Further, trypsin digestion of proteins on the strip can significantly aid the identification of IPG-separated proteins. However, the small size of the peptides leads to diffusion along and outside the gel matrix. In this study, we describe a simple spray-based procedure to perform 'on-strip' trypsin digestion of proteins embedded in IPG strips. Examination of intact myoglobin and its tryptic peptides shows that post-digestion diffusion of tryptic peptides is significantly minimized using this approach. PMID:14558133

Iyer, Srinivas; Olivares, José

2003-01-01

268

Characterization of condensed tannins purified from legume forages: chromophore production, protein precipitation, and inhibitory effects on cellulose digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify simple screening tools for selecting condensed tannin (CT)-containing forages as candidate sources for further study, CT were isolated from nine legumes, and their molecular weights (MW), chromophore production, capacity to precipitate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Fraction 1 protein (Rubisco) isolated from alfalfa, and inhibition of filter paper digestion were compared. Sources were as follows: leaves of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata Dum.-Cours.), crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.), and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.); stems of hedysarum (Hedysarum alpinum L.); seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); and whole plants of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. corniculatus L.) and three varieties of big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus Cav.), viz., Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr, L. uliginosus var. glabriusculus, and L. uliginosus var. villosus. Molecular weights and sizes (degrees of polymerization) of the CT varied considerably within and among plant species. Average MW ranged from 3036 Da (crown vetch) to 7143 Da (lespedeza). All CT exhibited greater capacity (w/w basis) to bind alfalfa Rubisco than BSA. Relative astringencies (microg CT required to precipitate 1 mg protein) against BSA ranged from 262.5 for CT from lespedeza to 435.5 for CT from L. corniculatus, and against Rubisco, from 49.6 (sainfoin) to 108.2 (alfalfa seed). Including CT at 300 microg/ml in cultures of Fibrobacter succinogenes reduced digestion of cellulose filter paper by 19.8% (sainfoin) to 92.4% (crown vetch) and increased the specific activity of cell-associated endoglucanase. There were no correlations between inhibitory effects of CT on filter paper digestion and (1) chromophore formation during CT assay by butanol-HCl, vanillin-HCl, or H2SO4; (2) precipitation of BSA or alfalfa Rubisco; and (3) MW of CT. The most inhibitory CT for cellulose digestion included those with broad and with narrow MW distributions. Sainfoin was the most desirable source of CT, as it had the highest capacity to bind alfalfa protein and was least inhibitory to cellulose digestion by F. succinogenes. This study suggests that these properties are not easily defined via chemical means, and that biological assays using rumen bacteria may help identify those CT with properties of nutritional interest. PMID:16132212

McAllister, Tim A; Martinez, Tomas; Bae, Hee Dong; Muir, Alister D; Yanke, L Jay; Jones, Graham A

2005-09-01

269

Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. PMID:25465633

Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

2015-01-01

270

AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS  

OpenAIRE

Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition the...

Ryadchikov V. G.; Shlaychova O. G.

2014-01-01

271

The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources  

OpenAIRE

Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef); Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa); Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes...

Niekerk, F. E.; Niekerk, C. H.

2012-01-01

272

Processing Effects on Some Antinutritional Factors and In vitro Multienzyme Protein Digestibility (IVPD of Three Tropical Seeds: Breadnut (Artocarpus altilis, Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale and Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mature seeds of breadnut, cashewnut and fluted pumpkin were processed in the laboratory into the raw dried, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds. Differently processed seeds were dried at 50°C, ground and sieved through 500?m sieves. The seed flours were evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activity, tannin, phosphorus compounds and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD. The results show that processing significantly (P = 0.05 affected the antinutritional factors in the seed flours. Breadnut flours contain 2.8-5.3g/kg phytic acid, 5.8-9.2g/kg tannin and 0.9-8.1mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Cashewnut flours contain 6.0-9.9g/kg phytic acid, 5.1-13.3g/kg tannin and 0.8-2.5mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fluted pumpkin seed flours contain 2.8-13.8g/kg phytic acid, 7.5-19.1g/kg tannin and 0.0-11.0mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fermentation is the most effective processing method to reduce phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity while boiling is most effective in reducing the tannin content. The result of IVPD of the seeds generally show that the boiled samples are the most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw dried/germinated samples are the least. The order of digestibility of the three seeds is fluted pumpkin (72.0 - 86.0% > cashewnut (74.3 - 82.9% > Breadnut flour (71.3 - 78.3%. Processing techniques used reduced the antinutritional factors in the seeds and improve its IVPD when compared with the raw dried seed flours.

T.N. Fagbemi

2005-01-01

273

Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

Malinauskyt?, Ernesta; Ramanauskait?, Jovita; Leskauskait?, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

2014-12-15

274

Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality. PMID:17009215

Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

2006-10-01

275

Effects of milk proteins on release properties and particle morphology of ?-carotene emulsions during in vitro digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, ?-lactoglobulin, sodium caseinate, lactalbumin and lactoferrin were used to prepare ?-carotene emulsions. The milk protein-stabilized emulsions were explored using an in vitro release model to elucidate the effects of different milk proteins on ?-carotene release properties in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine, respectively. Notable changes in the droplet size and size distribution were observed among these four oil-in-water (O/W) milk protein emulsions. In the gastric environment, the highest ?-carotene release rate (2.9%) was achieved in ?-lactoglobulin emulsion with a remarkable change in the particle size. In the simulated intestine, the best ?-carotene micellarization potency (92%) was observed in ?-lactoglobulin emulsion and its droplet diameter moderately increased from 215 nm to 471 nm. Moreover, substantial release of ?-carotene was found in the small intestine for the four types of emulsions. It was concluded that ?-carotene release in different digestive stages was characterized by the emulsion interfacial composition. PMID:25215854

Liu, Yuwei; Lei, Fei; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

2014-11-01

276

Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. Results In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual data in some model systems. Conclusion The data suggest that the peptides bind to the plastic substratum in more than one conformation and that, once bound, the peptide displays different affinities for the antibody, depending on how it has bound to the plate

Pace Umberto

2006-05-01

277

Non Starch Polysaccharidase - A Potent tool in improving fibre digestibility in Ruminants  

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Full Text Available Manipulation of rumen fermentation by using feed additives has been gaining popularity in ruminant nutrition in recent years. One such approach is the use of fibrolytic enzymes in the treatment of feedstuffs to enhance their digestibility. The better understanding of the production techniques, enzyme activity, mode of enzyme action and application techniques of commercial non starch polysaccharidase enzymes can help the scientific community for competent utilization of these biotechnological products for efficient utilization of the available feed resources. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 142-144

Yancy Mary Issac

2010-06-01

278

Functional and anti-nutritional properties, in-vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition of dehulled afzelia africana seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of Afzelia africana seed flour showed that the seeds possessed high water absorption capacity (128.31%), good oil absorption capacity (588.49%) and fairly good emulsion property (35.25%). However, it had the Least gelation concentration (6 .00% w/v) and foaming properties ( 8.00%,3 .00%). Anti-nutritional factors were very low, with the highest being phytate (13.59/o) and tannin the least (0.43%). Total amino acid composition was 796.6 mg/g protein. Essentiaal amino acids (48.5%)w ere in high proportion with in-vitro digestibility of 71.5%. (author)

279

Intake and Digestibility of Cattle’s Ration on Complete Feed Based-On Fermented Ammonization Rice Straw with Different Protein Level  

OpenAIRE

Complete feed (CF) utilization is expected to have impact on higher productivity due to increased intake and digestibility. The objective of research was to evaluate the effects of different level protein of CF based-on fermented ammonization (amofer) rice straw to Simmental offspring intake and digestibility  Twenty males Simmental offspring with average live weight 372.15± 26.64 kg (coefficient of variance 7.16%) were used in this study. Feed treatmen...

Ballo, F.; Sunarso, S.; Christiyanto, M.; Hamdi Mayulu

2013-01-01

280

Ileal and total tract apparent crude protein and amino acid digestibility of ensiled and dried cassava leaves and sweet potato vines in growing pigs  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL + SPV in growing (>60 kg BW) pigs. Coefficients of ileal (CIAD) and total tract (CTTAD) apparent digestibilities of organic matter (OM), CP, AA, crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fi...

Nguyen, T. H. L.; Ngoan, L. D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

2012-01-01

281

Protein sources and digestive enzyme activities in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) Fontes protéicas e atividade de enzimas digestivas em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen)  

OpenAIRE

Digestive enzymes activity influence feed utilization by fish, and its understanding is important to optimize diet formulation. This study reports the digestive enzyme activities of jundiá juveniles fed diets with protein sources. Fish were fed six experimental diets for 90 days: MBY (meat and bone meal + sugar cane yeast), SY (soybean meal + sugar cane yeast), S (soybean meal), MBS (meat and bone meal + soybean meal), FY (fish meal + sugar cane yeast) and FS (fish meal + soybean meal), and ...

Rafael Lazzari; João Radünz Neto; Fabio de Araújo Pedron; Vania Lucia Loro; Alexandra Pretto; Carolina Rosa Gioda

2010-01-01

282

Internal amino acid sequence analysis of proteins separated by one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis after in situ protease digestion on nitrocellulose.  

OpenAIRE

We have developed a general two-step method for obtaining peptide fragments for sequence analysis from picomole quantities of proteins separated by gel electrophoresis. After separation by one- or two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proteins are electrophoretically transferred (electroblotted) onto nitrocellulose, the protein-containing regions are detected by reversible staining and are cut out, and each protein is digested in situ by proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin or st...

Aebersold, R. H.; Leavitt, J.; Saavedra, R. A.; Hood, L. E.; Kent, S. B.

1987-01-01

283

A Quantitative Study of the Effects of Chaotropic Agents, Surfactants, and Solvents on the Digestion Efficiency of Human Plasma Proteins by Trypsin  

OpenAIRE

Plasma biomarkers studies are based on the differential expression of proteins between different treatment groups or between diseased and control populations. Most mass spectrometry-based methods of protein quantitation, however, are based on the detection and quantitation of peptides, not intact proteins. For peptide-based protein quantitation to be accurate, the digestion protocols used in proteomic analyses must be both efficient and reproducible. There have been very few studies, however,...

Proc, Jennifer L.; Kuzyk, Michael A.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Yang, Juncong; Smith, Derek S.; Jackson, Angela M.; Parker, Carol E.; Borchers, Christoph H.

2010-01-01

284

Effects of defaunation on digestion and growth, in sheep receiving a mixed diet (fresh Digitaria decumbens grass and concentrate) at four protein to energy ratios  

OpenAIRE

The effects of defaunation on growth and digestion were measured on sheep consuming four mixed diets (D1 to D4) of Digitaria decumbens grass and concentrate, with different protein to energy ratios. The protein digestible in the intestine (protein French feeding system, PDI) to energy (Forage unit, energy French feeding system) levels (P/E) in the diets were 80 (D1), 100 (D2), 120 (D3) and 140 (D4). Conventional and ciliate-free animals were conducted in parallel in 4 × 4 Latin square design...

Euge?ne, Maguy; Archime?de, Harry; Weisbecker, Jean-louis; Periacarpin, Fred; Saminadin, George; Sauvant, Daniel

2004-01-01

285

Improved side-chain modeling for protein–protein docking  

OpenAIRE

Success in high-resolution protein–protein docking requires accurate modeling of side-chain conformations at the interface. Most current methods either leave side chains fixed in the conformations observed in the unbound protein structures or allow the side chains to sample a set of discrete rotamer conformations. Here we describe a rapid and efficient method for sampling off-rotamer side-chain conformations by torsion space minimization during protein–protein docking starting from discre...

Wang, Chu; Schueler-furman, Ora; Baker, David

2005-01-01

286

Improving cultivation processes for recombinant protein production.  

Science.gov (United States)

An new cascade control system is presented that reproducibly keeps the cultivation part of recombinant protein production processes on its predetermined track. While the system directly controls carbon dioxide production mass and carbon dioxide production rates along their setpoint profiles in fed-batch cultivation, it simultaneously keeps the specific biomass growth rates and the biomass profiles on their desired paths. The control scheme was designed and tuned using a virtual plant environment based on the industrial process control system SIMATIC PCS 7 (Siemens AG). It is shown by means of validation experiments that the simulations in this straightforward approach directly reflect the experimentally observed controller behaviour. Within the virtual plant environment, it was shown that the cascade control is considerably better than previously used control approaches. The controller significantly improved the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the fermentations. Experimental tests confirmed that it is particularly suited for cultivation processes suffering from long response times and delays. The performance of the new controller is demonstrated during its application in Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivations as well as in animal cell cultures with CHO cells. The technique is a simple and reliable alternative to more sophisticate model-supported controllers. PMID:21779890

Kuprijanov, A; Schaepe, S; Aehle, M; Simutis, R; Lübbert, A

2012-03-01

287

Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P?0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P?0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P?0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P?0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P?0.01. Significant (P?0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

Farhad Foroudi

2013-01-01

288

Dewaterability of thermophilically digested biosolids: effects of temperature and cellular polymeric substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermophilic processes digest sludge at high temperatures to produce Class A biosolids.Recent research work revealed that digestion temperature is the predominant factor affecting dewaterability of thermophilic biosolids. This paper presents findings of a laboratory study that investigated how various digestion temperatures affect dewaterability of digested biosolids, studied the phase partition of the substances affecting dewaterability in digested biosolids, and tested the role of cellular polymeric substances in affecting dewaterability.Secondary sludges were digested at 40-70oC or 22oC for up to 12 days. Centrate from thermophilically digested biosolids were treated with protease and boiling. This study found that, during the first few hours of digestion, higher temperatures resulted in more rapid and more significant deterioration in dewaterability than lower digestion temperatures. Continued digestion resulted in either improved (60oC or 70oC), or unchanged (40oC or 50oC), or gradually deteriorated dewaterability (22oC). The substances affecting dewaterability were primarily located in the liquid phase of thermophilically digested biosolids. Boiling treatment did not result in significant changes in dewaterability. Protease treatment of the liquid phase of thermophilic biosolids improved dewaterability by 13-19%. Such an improvement confirmed the role of proteins in affecting dewaterabie role of proteins in affecting dewaterability. (author)

289

Trypsin digestion of the inositol trisphosphate receptor: implications for the conformation and domain organization of the protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited digestion of rat cerebellum microsomal vesicles with trypsin resulted in the proteolysis of the 240 kDa inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the formation of a 94 kDa species that remained membrane-bound and retained immunoreactivity to an antibody raised against the C-terminal sequence of this protein. The appearance of the 94 kDa species was associated with a loss of [3H]IP3 binding sites in the membrane and the appearance of [3H]IP3 binding sites in the soluble fraction. The 94 kDa fragment retained reactivity to biotinylated concanavalin A. In vitro phosphorylation of the IP3R in membranes with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP produced an unlabelled 94 kDa fragment after tryptic digestion. According to current models of the cerebellar IP3R this would place the proteolytic site between the phosphorylation site at serine-1755 and the first transmembrane segment of the IP3R. A second antibody raised to amino acids 401-414 in the N-terminal region of the receptor recognizes a 68 kDa fragment released into the soluble fraction after trypsin treatment. The time course of release of the 68 kDa fragment was correlated with the appearance of soluble binding sites, and the fragment was bound by IP3-Affigel resin. A large proportion of the 68 kDa fragment remained associated with the membrane fraction and could be specifically immunoprecipitated from detergent extracts of digested membranes by anti-C-terminus antibody. Our results provide experimental evidence to further localize the ligand binding domain and suggest that regions of the N-terminus and C-terminus may be non-covalently associated. PMID:7741718

Joseph, S K; Pierson, S; Samanta, S

1995-05-01

290

Protein fraction and digestibility of marandu, xaraes and campo grande grasses in monocropping and intercropping systems under different sowing methods - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15134  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the protein fraction and in vitro dry matter digestibility of marandu, xaraes grasses and campo grande in monocropping and intercropping systems under different planting methods, for a period of two years. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications. The treatments consisted of the following crop systems: campo grande in monocropping; xaraés grass in monocropping; marandu grass in monocropping; xaraés intercropped with campo grande in rows; xaraés intercropped with campo grande, broadcast; marandu grass intercropped with campo grande in rows; and marandu intercropped with campo grand, broadcast. The evaluations were conducted for two years, consisting of seasonal evaluations (autumn, winter, spring and summer in the same plots, with repeated measurements over time. The results showed that xaraes and marandu grasses were similar between crop systems, indicating that both can be intercropped with campo grande. The intercropping of campo grande with Brachiaria brizantha cultivars improved the protein fraction and digestibility. The row method of planting provided better protein fractions and in vitro dry matter digestibility.

Welma Santos Crunivel

2013-01-01

291

Comparative study of mechanical, hydrothermal, chemical and enzymatic treatments of digested biofibers to improve biogas production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic waste such as manure is an important resource for biogas production. The biodegradability of manures is however limited because of the recalcitrant nature of the biofibers it contains. To increase the biogas potential of the biofibers in digested manure, we investigated physical treatment (milling), chemical treatment (CaO), biological treatment (enzymatic and partial aerobic microbial conversion), steam treatment with catalyst (H(3)PO(4) or NaOH) and combination of biological and steam treatments (biofibers steam-treated with catalyst were treated with laccase enzyme). We obtained the highest methane yield increase through the chemical treatment that resulted in 66% higher methane production compared to untreated biofibers. The combination of steam treatment with NaOH and subsequent enzymatic treatment increased the methane yield by 34%. To choose the optimal treatment, the energy requirements relative to the energy gain as extra biogas production have to be taken into account, as well as the costs of chemicals or enzymes. PMID:20638274

Bruni, Emiliano; Jensen, Anders Peter; Angelidaki, Irini

2010-11-01

292

Acid and rennet gels exhibit strong differences in the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid bioavailability.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at determining the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid absorption after ingestion by six multi-canulated mini-pigs of two gelled dairy matrices having the same composition, similar rheological and structural properties, but differing by their mode of coagulation (acidification/renneting). Duodenal, mid-jejunal effluents and plasma samples were collected at different times during 7h after meal ingestion. Ingestion of the acid gel induced a peak of caseins and ?-lactoglobulin in duodenal effluents after 20min of digestion and a peak of amino acids in the plasma after 60min. The rennet gel induced lower levels of both proteins in the duodenum (with no defined peak) as well as much lower levels of amino acids in the plasma than the acid gel. Plasma ghrelin concentrations suggested a potentially more satiating effect of the rennet gel compared to the acid gel. This study clearly evidences that the gelation process can significantly impact on the nutritive value of dairy products. PMID:24054204

Barbé, Florence; Ménard, Olivia; Le Gouar, Yann; Buffière, Caroline; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Laroche, Béatrice; Feunteun, Steven Le; Rémond, Didier; Dupont, Didier

2014-01-15

293

Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC, heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested and digested (Enprocal D selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells. Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80, MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-? and up-regulated IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.

Kanwar Rupinder K

2009-01-01

294

Studies on the digestibility of microbial cell protein in buffalo calves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The digestibility of cell wall, cell contents and mixed whole 35S-rumen bacteria and 14C-protozoal cells was determined in buffalo calves. The intact cells as well as their fractions were injected in a single dose into the rumen after treating with formaldehyde to protect degradation in the rumen and radioactivity excreted in the faeces was measured for six consecutive days. The indigestibility of mixed whole rumen bacteria, cell wall and cell contents was observed to be 87.13 +- 0.61, 92.77 +- 0.83 and 83.62 +- 1.10 percent, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of mixed whole rumen protozoa, cell wall, cell content and Holotrics were 90.95 +- 0.39, 94.39 +- 1.08, 89.01 +- 0.97 and 93.16 +- 0.69 percent, respectively. (auth.)

295

On the digestibility and utilization of labelled protein of feeds and foods rich in dietary fibres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Labelled straw meal as model substance and broiler hens as experimental animals, which take in 25% of ration dry matter as straw were used. Since the digestibility of high-polymeric carbohydrate is considerably increased by ?-rays in ruminants untreated and irradiated straw were included. The hens were given a ration which also contained labelled wheat and which was supplemented with straw meal in order to find the origin of the additional N excretion by the fibre. (author)

296

Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa  

OpenAIRE

Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells ca...

Li-Fen Huang; Sung-Chieh Su; Chung-An Lu; Wei-Cho Hsu; Jung-Ting Ku; Chia-Chun Tan; Yu-Chieh Kuo

2013-01-01

297

An improved titration model reducing over estimation of total volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion of energy crop, animal slurry and food waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Titration methodologies have been used for the many years for low cost routine monitoring of full scale anaerobic digestion plants. These methodologies have been correlated to indicate the carbonate alkalinity and the volatile fatty acids (VFA) content within digesters. Two commonly used two end-point titration methods were compared using a dataset of 154 samples from energy crop and animal slurry digestates and were shown to be inaccurate in the estimation of tVFA. Using this dataset correlated with HPLC VFA analysis, two empirical bivariate linear regression equations were derived, where the validation dataset showed an absolute tVFA mean error improvement from ±3386 and ±3324 mg kg(-1) tVFA to ±410 and ±286 mg kg(-1) tVFA, respectively. The same equation was then applied to a food waste dataset where an absolute tVFA mean error was improved from ±3828 to ±576 mg kg(-1) tVFA. The newly derived titration equations can provide greater confidence in digester performance monitoring and are tools that can improve digester management. PMID:24911562

Purser, B J Jobling; Thai, S-M; Fritz, T; Esteves, S R; Dinsdale, R M; Guwy, A J

2014-09-15

298

Improvement of protein content in winter wheat with physicochemical mutagens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation is one of the approaches to improve the protein content of wheat. In present experiments the wheat mutation contained high protein, gluten and lysine were obtained by means of treating dry seeds with different physicochemical mutation. The procedure of breeding for improving the qiality of wheat was found

299

Characterization of Tannin and Study of in vitro Protein Digestibility and Mineral Profile of Sudanese and Indian Sorghum Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, mineral profile, tannin content, and effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility , and separation and identification of free and bound phenolic acids of Sudanese sorghum cultivar (namely feterita and Indian sorghum cultivar (namely CSH5. Chemical composition of the two sorghum cultivars was determined. Sudanese cultivar showed significantly (p<0.05 high moisture, ash, protein, and fat while Indian cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in fiber and carbohydrate contents. Cupper, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium were determined for the two cultivars. Results revealed that, Sudanese cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in cupper, calcium, iron, and sodium while Indian cultivar was significantly higher (P<0.05 in phosphorus and potassium content. Tannin content in Sudanese cultivar was significantly (P<0.05 higher compared to Indian cultivar. Effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility revealed that cooking significantly (P<0.05 reduced the in vitro protein digestibility of the two sorghum cultivars. The phenolic acids (PAs as free and bound form content were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the two sorghum cultivars. Syringic, p-coummaric, ferulic acid were detected as free form of phenolic acids of Indian cultivar while gallic , protocatechuic, gentisic, caffeic, p-coummaric , and ferulic acids were detected in free form of Sudanese cultivar. Gallic, protocatechuic , gentisic, and p-coummaric were not detected in free form in Indian cultivar while syringic acid was not detected in Sudanese cultivar in free form. Indian cultivar contained high caffeic and ferulic acid in free form compared to Sudanese cultivar. Syringic , caffeic, p- coummaric and ferulic acids were detected in bound form in Indian cultivar while gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coummaric and ferulic acid were detected in bound form in Sudanese cultivar. Gallic, protocatechuic and gentisic acids were not detected in free and bound form in Indian cultivar while p-coummaric acid was only detected in bound form in Indian cultivar. Syringic, caffeic, p-coummaric and ferulic acids content in bound form were high in Indian cultivar than Sudanese cultivar. Generally phenolic acids of the two cultivars exist mostly in bound form.

Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem

2009-01-01

300

Protein digestibility evaluations of meat and fish substrates using laboratory, avian and ileally cannulated dog assays  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish and meat protein serves as important protein sources in the human and companion animal diets: however, limited information is available on differences in protein quality. Pollock fillet, and salmon fillet, beef loin, pork loin and chicken breast, were evaluated for protein quality and amino aci...

301

Reducing agitation energy-consumption by improving rheological properties of corn stover substrate in anaerobic digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rheological properties of corn stover substrate were investigated to explore agitation energy reduction potential for different total solid (TS) in anaerobic digestion. The effects of particle size and temperature on rheological properties and corresponding energy reduction were studied. The results indicated that corn stover slurry exhibited pseudo-plastic flow behavior at TS of 4.23-7.32%, and was well described by Power-law model. At TS of 4.23%, rheological properties were not obviously affected by particle size and temperature. However, when TS was increased to 7.32%, there was 10.37% shear stress reduction by size-reduction from 20 to 80-mesh, and 11.73% shear stress reduction by temperature-increase from 25 to 55 °C. PTS was advanced as variations of power consumption by TS-increase from 4.23% to 7.32%. There was 9.2% PTS-reduction by size-reduction from 20 to 80-mesh at 35 °C. Moreover, PTS-reduction of 10.3%/10 °C was achieved at 20-mesh compared with 9.0%/10 °C at 80-mesh. PMID:24690465

Tian, Libin; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

2014-09-01

302

INCREASING PROTEIN STABILITY BY IMPROVING BETA-TURNS  

OpenAIRE

Our goal was to gain a better understanding of how protein stability can be increased by improving ?-turns. We studied 22 ?-turns in nine proteins with 66 to 370 residues by replacing other residues with proline and glycine and measuring the stability. These two residues are statistically preferred in some ?-turn positions. We studied: Cold shock protein B (CspB), Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr), Ubiquitin, Ribonucleases Sa2, Sa3, T1, and HI, Tryptophan synthetase ?-subu...

Fu, Hailong; Grimsley, Gerald R.; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J. Martin; Pace, C. Nick

2009-01-01

303

Digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets containing non conventional vegetable proteins fed to pigs of genetic strains suitable for outdoor systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate on growing pigs kept in metabolism crates, either belonging to a “traditional” cross-breed (Duroc x Large White – DLW or a local breed (Cinta Senese – CS, the digestibility and the nitrogen balance of non-conventional vegetable protein sources (field beans, pea and sunflower cake when compared to soybean meal. The four diets were formulated so as to supply the same crude protein amount. CS pigs showed lower apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for crude protein (81,38% vs 82,65% and crude fibre (35,97% vs 40,65%. Nitrogen balance was more favourable in DLW pigs (32,12% vs 19,67% which showed a higher nitrogen retention (+69%.With respect to the protein source, no differences were observed for nitrogen balance. Sunflower diet showed the higher ADC for ether extract (+20% compared with soybean diet. Crude fibre digestibility was lowered in sunflower (-33% and field beans (-13% diets. Sunflower and field beans diets showed the lowest gross energy digestibility coefficients. Field pea diet had the highest ADC for crude fibre (+ 12% leading to ADCs for organic matter and gross energy comparable to those of soybean meal. It is concluded that field bean, sunflower cake and field pea could be considered as valuable non-conventional protein sources in swine nutrition.

L. Sardi

2010-04-01

304

The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (plupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. PMID:22540870

Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

2013-08-01

305

Physicochemical Content, Metabolizable Energy and In-vitro Protein Digestibility of Wheat Screening Diet on Growth Rate of Broiler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In competitions by monogastric animal particular in poultry by consumption human food sources, high attempt should be made to find out new sources of feed that is not consumed by human. Wheat screening is one of the these sources of feed which need to be considered. Determination of physicochemical content, metabolizable energy (ME and protein digestibility may lead to elucidate the quality of this feed as well as arrangement in feed formulation of broiler ration. Physical content of two types of wheat screening (W. S. were tested by seed sorting system (grad 1 and 2, lots of straw, sand, dust, soil and none cereal seed were observed in wheat screening grads 2 compared with wheat screening grade 1. In addition 80% of wheat screening includes wheat screening grads 1 which content less Straw, soil, sand and none cereal seed. Otherwise metabolizable energy which was estimated by Sibbaled method was significantly higher (P<0.05, In W. S. grad 1 (2992.51 kcal/kg than grad 2 (2212.72 kcal/kg. Based on these finding wheat screening grads 1 was selected for broiler feeding. Crude protein and crude fibre (11.4 and 4.14% respectively in chemical composition of wheat screening grad 1 were determined by AOAC method. In-vitro protein digestibility 81.7% and digestible energy 2352.73 kcal/kg in wheat screening grad 1 were quiet desirable which evaluated by Fuller method. The effect of wheat screening grad 1 on growth rate of broiler, was examined by carried out an experiment which includes 320 day old unsexed Ross broiler chicken with (0, 10, 20 and 30% W. S.. No significantly differences were found in daily feed intake (DFI, daily growth rate (DGR, uniformity (UF and production index (PI in concern to different levels of wheat screening. The result of this study have shown that, it is possible to use wheat screening grad 1 in broiler ration, but the exact amount of this unconvencial feed source need to be clarify by further investigation.

A.A. Saki

2005-01-01

306

Effect of different drying methods on the myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile profile of squid fillets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (AD), and heat pump drying (HPD) on myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile compounds of squid (Todarodes pacificus) fillets were evaluated. Freeze-dried squids showed similar amino acid composition to that of raw squids, but differed from that of AD and HPD samples. The percentage of in vitro digestibility followed the order of FD (76.81%)>HPD (70.51%)>raw (67.99%)>AD (61.47%) samples. AD caused more damage to squid myosin structure than HPD, while FD effectively retained the myosin integrity. Drying decreased total number of volatile compounds, but increased the content of total volatile compounds based on GC × GC-TOFMS results. HPD and AD samples had the highest and lowest total numbers and contents of volatiles, respectively. In general, FD provided squids with the best quality, followed by HPD. Considering the production cost and product quality, HPD demonstrated the potential for industrial application. PMID:25308657

Deng, Yun; Luo, Yali; Wang, Yuegang; Zhao, Yanyun

2015-03-15

307

Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and dry matter (DM) and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal) in compou [...] nd diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582), and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

Igo Gomes, Guimarães; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Rosângela do Nascimento, Fernandes.

1801-18-01

308

Total on-line analysis of a target protein from plasma by immunoextraction, digestion and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total on-line analysis of a target protein from a plasma sample was made using a selective immunoextraction step coupled on-line to an immobilized enzymatic reactor (IMER) for the protein digestion followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. For the development of this device, cytochrome c was chosen as model protein due to its well-known sequence. An immunosorbent (IS) based on the covalent immobilization of anti-cytochrome c antibodies on a solid support was made and an immunoextraction procedure was carefully developed to assess a selective extraction of the target protein from plasma. For the first time, IS was easily coupled on-line with a laboratory-made IMER based on pepsin. The whole on-line device (IS-IMER-LC-MS/MS) allowed the quantification of cytochrome c from 8.5pmol to 1.7nmol in buffer medium. Finally, this device was applied to the analysis of only 85pmol of cytochrome c from plasma with a RSD value lower than 10% (n=3). PMID:19665945

Cingöz, A; Hugon-Chapuis, F; Pichon, V

2010-01-15

309

Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

Louise Dye

2013-04-01

310

The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

311

Different Dietary Levels of Protein to Lipid Ratio Affected Digestive Efficiency, Skeletal Growth, and Muscle Protein in Rainbow Trout Families  

OpenAIRE

Normal Protein (NP) and High Protein (HP) diets were provided to rainbow trout families from juvenile to maturity. Muscle protein concentration increased during growth and the protein to lipid (P/L) ratio was doubled at late stage with respect to the dietary P/L ratio. The HP-diet fish showed higher protein deposition in body and white muscle, and had lower condition factor due to protein deposition associated more with body length than body weight. Fish growth rates were decreased at maturat...

Torrissen, Krisna Rungruangsak; Stien, Lars Helge; Daae, Britt S.; Va?gseth, Tone; Thorsheim, Grethe B.; Tobin, Declan; Ritola, Ossi

2009-01-01

312

Compositions and methods for improved protein production  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

Bodie, Elizabeth A. (San Carlos, CA); Kim, Steve (San Francisco, CA)

2012-07-10

313

Compositions and methods for improved protein production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Steve Sungjin

2014-06-03

314

Apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acid in feedstuffs used in Nile Tilapia feed as determined by the technique of dissection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus of the Thai strain during the growth phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.

Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro

2012-05-01

315

Apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acid in feedstuffs used in Nile Tilapia feed as determined by the technique of dissection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal) in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of the Thai strain during the growt [...] h phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time) into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus) using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.

Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Patrícia de Souza Lima, Cunha; Sylvia Sanae, Takishita; Rafael Alves, Vianna.

1075-10-01

316

SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS  

OpenAIRE

A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro tec...

Bassompierre, M.; Kjar, A.; Ewen McLean

1997-01-01

317

A new calibrant for MALDI-TOF-TOF-PSD-MS/MS of non-digested proteins for top-down proteomic analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

RATIONALE: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight-time-of-flight (TOF-TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has seen increasing use for post-source decay (PSD)-MS/MS analysis of non-digested protein ions for top-down proteomic identification. However, there is no commonl...

318

Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitated and characterized. 496 g of demineralized exoskeleton were obtained from 1 kg of shrimp shell; out of these, 376 g corresponded to chitin and 120 g corresponded to protein Total protein content was 33.80 ± 0.34 %. The digestible protein fractions were 26.7 g and 92.1 g were insoluble proteins. Of this latter fraction, the largest proportion belonged to the scleroprotein type. The amino acid profile analysis from the recovered proteins indicated that there were present nine amino acids out of the ten essential ones, being leucine the one with the highest proportion. In vitro digestibility was shown to be up to an 83.7 %. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the recovery of digestibleproteins from shrimp exoskeleton may be useful in diet formulation.

Escobedo-Lozano, A.Y.

2014-01-01

319

Hydrolysis of soybean protein improves iron bioavailability  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron is an important trace metal element in human body. Iron deficiency affects human health, especially pregnant women and children. Soybean protein is a popular food in Asia and can contain a high amount of iron (145.70±0.74 ug/g); however, it is usually reported as an inhibitor of iron absorption...

320

Effects of two halophytic plants (kochia and atriplex) on digestibility, fermentation and protein synthesis by ruminal microbes maintained in continuous culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight continuous culture fermenters were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate various nutritional values of Kochia (Kochia scoparia) compared with Atriplex (Atriplex dimorphostegia). Dried and pelleted samples (leaves and stems) provided substrate for metabolism by ruminal microbes maintained in a continuous culture fermentation system. Results indicated that there were no differences (p>0.05) in dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) digestibility between the two halophytic plants. Atriplex had higher (pKochia. Neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) digestibility of Atriplex (411 g/kg) was higher (pKochia (348 g/kg), however acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility was higher (pKochia compared with Atriplex (406 vs. 234 g/kg). There were no differences (p>0.05) between the two halophytic plants in molar proportion of acetate and propionate, but the concentration of butyrate and valerate in Kochia were about two fold of Atriplex (pKochia provided substrate to the microbes, protein synthesis was higher (pKochia scoparia and Atriplex dimorphostegia had similar digestibility of DM and CP. It appears that these halophytic plants may not have enough digestible energy for high producing ruminants. PMID:25049608

Riasi, A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Stern, M D; Ruiz Moreno, M J

2012-05-01

321

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo para beta (Betta splendens. Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens. Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

2007-08-01

322

An evaluation of total and digestible lysine as a predictor of lysine availability in protein concentrates for young pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty pigs between 23 and 51 d of age were given, ad lib., diets containing 7.9 g lysine/kg. The diets contained wheat and one of five protein concentrates: milk, peanut (Arachis hypogaea) meal, cotton-seed (Gossypium herbaceum) meal, meat meal or lupins (Lupinus augustifolius). Twenty of the pigs were given an indigestible marker, 103Ru-labelled Tris-(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) chloride, between 51 and 56 d of age and were killed at 56 d of age. A further forty pigs, between 23 and 51 d of age, were given the same diets supplemented with 3 g L-lysine hydrochloride/kg. The weight gains of the pigs given the diets containing 7.9 g lysine/kg (95-153 g/d) were significantly less (P less than 0.05) than those of the pigs given the diets containing 10.9 g lysine/kg (274-340 g/d). Weight gains of pigs given the diets containing meat meal were less than those of pigs given diets containing milk, peanut meal or lupins. Feed conversion ratios decreased and N balances increased with increasing lysine content of the diets. Apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen of the diets containing meat meal and cotton-seed meal were less than those of the other three diets, but there was no effect of lysine content of the diets on these indices. The major site of DM and N absorption for the diet containing milk was the duodenum while for the other four protein concentrates the jejunum and ileum were the major absorption sites. Apparent digestibility of lysine from the five diets ranged from 0.54 to 0.75. The retention of the apparently absorbed lysine in weight gain was 0.86-0.94, and there was no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference between diets which suggested that the apparent digestibility of lysine could be an indicator of its availability. PMID:3933552

Leibholz, J

1985-05-01

323

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta / Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB) e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe) e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo) para beta (Betta splendens). Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários [...] de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário) para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held [...] in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium) for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Jener Alexandre Sampaio, Zuanon; Hamilton, Hisano; Dario Rocha, Falcon; Fernanda Garcia, Sampaio; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

2007-08-01

324

Digestibilidade aparente de dietas práticas com diferentes relações energia: proteína em juvenis de pirarucu / Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e energia de dietas para juvenis de pirarucu, Arapaima gigas. Foram testadas oito dietas, contendo quatro relações energia:proteína (11, 10,1, 9, 8 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta) e duas fontes de [...] energia não-protéica (óleo de soja e gordura de aves), em esquema fatorial 4x2, com três repetições. Foram estocados 240 juvenis de pirarucu com peso de 96,8±2,3 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques cilíndricos com fundo cônico, adaptados para a coleta de fezes (sistema Guelph modificado). Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade aparente com as dietas experimentais contendo 0,5% de óxido de cromo, como marcador inerte para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. As dietas com a relação energia:proteína de 9 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta apresentaram os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrativo não nitrogenado. O maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da gordura foi obtido com o uso do óleo de soja. A relação energia:proteína na dieta influencia os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos macronutrientes e energia no pirarucu. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of diets for pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) juveniles. Eight experimental diets containing four energy:protein ratios (11, 10.1, 9, 8 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein) and two non-protein energy [...] sources (soybean oil and poultry fat) were tested in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in triplicates. Two hundred and forty pirarucu juveniles weighting 96.8±2.3 g were distributed in 24 cylindrical-conical fiberglass tanks, adapted for feces collection (modified Guelph system). Fish were fed twice a day to apparent satiation, with experimental diets containing 0.5% of chromium oxide as inert marker in order to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients. Diets containing an energy:protein ratio of 9 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein resulted in significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, crude protein and non-nitrogenous extract. The highest apparent digestibility coefficients for crude fat was obtained with soybean oil. The dietary energy:protein ratio influences the nutrient and energy apparent digestibility coefficients to pirarucu juveniles.

Eduardo Akifumi, Ono; Érica da Silva Santiago, Nunes; Jimmy Carlos Campos, Cedano; Manoel, Pereira Filho; Rodrigo, Roubach.

2008-02-01

325

Evaluating and improving the photostability of fluorescent proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescent proteins are the most common and versatile class of genetically encoded optical probes. While structure-guided rational design and directed evolution approaches have largely overcome early problems such as oligomerization, poor folding at physiological temperatures, and availability of wavelengths suitable for multi-color imaging, nearly all fluorescent proteins have yet to be fully optimized. We have developed novel methods for evaluating the current generation of fluorescent proteins and improving their remaining suboptimal properties. Little is yet known about the mechanisms responsible for photobleaching of fluorescent proteins, and inadequate photostability is a chief complaint among end users. In order to compare the performance of fluorescent proteins across the visual spectrum, we have standardized a method used to measure photostability in live cells under both widefield and confocal laser illumination. This method has allowed us to evaluate a large number of commonly used fluorescent proteins, and has uncovered surprisingly complex and unpredictable behaviors in many of these proteins. We have also developed novel methods for selecting explicitly for high photostability during the directed evolution process, leading to the development of highly improved monomeric orange and red fluorescent proteins. These proteins, most notably our photostable derivative of TagRFP, have remarkably high photostability and have proven useful as fusion tags for long-term imaging. Our methods should be applicable to any of the large number of fluorescent proteins still in need of improved photostability.

Shaner, Nathan C.; Lin, Michael Z.; McKeown, Michael R.; Steinbach, Paul A.; Hazelwood, Kristin L.; Davidson, Michael W.; Tsien, Roger Y.

2009-02-01

326

Bean husks as a supplemental fiber for ruminants: potential use for activation of fibrolytic rumen bacteria to improve main forage digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the suitability of easily digested fiber sources as a supplemental fiber to improve overall fiber digestion in ruminants. First, the degradation of five fibrous feedstuffs and the stimulatory effects on rumen bacteria were examined in situ. Chickpea and lablab bean husks were selected for their potential use due to their large degradable fraction (>94%), which had a stimulatory effect on fibrolytic rumen bacteria such as Fibrobacter succinogenes. Second, a possible improvement in the digestibility of rice straw diet by husk supplementation was monitored in vivo. Four dietary treatments comprising RS (rice straw and concentrate), CHM (RS supplemented with Myanmar chickpea husk), CHE (RS with Egyptian chickpea husk) and LH (RS with lablab bean husk) were allocated to four wethers. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber was 3.1-5.5% greater in CHM and LH than RS. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher in LH than other treatments. Acetate proportion was higher in LH than RS. Ruminal abundance of F. succinogenes was 1.3-1.5 times greater in CHM and LH than RS. These results suggest that bean husk supplementation, especially lablab bean husk, might improve the nutritive value of rice straw diet by stimulating fibrolytic bacteria. PMID:22250738

Ngwe, Tin; Nukui, Yoko; Oyaizu, Shinya; Takamoto, Genki; Koike, Satoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroki; Kondo, Seiji; Kobayashi, Yasuo

2012-01-01

327

Improved Design of Anaerobic Digesters for Household Biogas Production in Indonesia: One Cow, One Digester, and One Hour of Cooking per Day  

OpenAIRE

A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3?m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ?1?h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bior...

Usack, Joseph G.; Wiratni Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T.

2014-01-01

328

Effects of supplemental energy and/or degradable intake protein on performance, grazing behavior, intake, digestibility, and fecal and blood indices by beef steers grazed on dormant native tallgrass prairie.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effects of balancing total diet degradable intake protein with dietary total digestible nutrients (TDN), we conducted two studies during 2 yr with 100 (302 +/- 8 kg initial BW) mixed-breed yearling steers and 12 ruminally cannulated steers (526 +/- 28 kg). Steers individually received one of four supplements 5 d/wk while grazing dormant native tallgrass prairie. Supplements included: 1) corn and soybean meal, balanced for total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN (CRSBM), 2) corn and soybean hulls, equal in supplemental TDN to CRSBM (CORN), 3) soybean meal, equal in supplemental degradable intake protein to CRSBM (SBM), or 4) a cottonseed hull-based control supplement (CONT). At each feeding (5 d/wk), steers consumed 13.6, 13.6, or 4.2 g of dry matter/kg of body weight, or 178 g of DM, respectively, of supplement. Steers fed CRSBM had greater (P cattle fed CORN or SBM. Feeding soybean meal (CRSBM, SBM) resulted in improved (P cattle not fed corn (SBM and CONT). Total diet digestibility (P cattle fed either CORN or SBM. Steers fed CRSBM had greater (P cattle fed CORN or SBM. Corn-fed cattle had lesser (P Cattle fed supplements with soybean meal (CRSBM and SBM) had greater (P cattle grazing dormant tallgrass prairie require a balance of total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN to optimize animal performance. PMID:12597402

Bodine, T N; Purvis, H T

2003-01-01

329

Apparent Digestibility of Feed Nutrients, Total Tract and Ileal Amino Acids of Broiler Chicken Fed Quality Protein Maize (Obatampa) and Normal Maize  

OpenAIRE

Two hundred and forty Ross Broiler chicken were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the apparent digestibility of Obatampa, a quality protein maize (QPM) and normal maize (NM) nutrients with respect to crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract, as well as total tract and Ileal amino acids. There were 4 dietary treatments, each having 3 replicates with 20 birds per replicate. Two pure diets each of NM and QPM were formulated, one each withou...

Onimisi, P. A.; Dafwang, I. I.; Omage, J. J.; Onyibe, J. E.

2008-01-01

330

Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP), total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), cassava (Manihot esculenta), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea), and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP) and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including ...

Lidia Ferreira Miranda; Norberto Mario Rodriguez; Elzânia Sales Pereira; Augusto César Queiroz; Roberto Daniel Sainz; Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel; Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto

2012-01-01

331

Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

OpenAIRE

The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitat...

Escobedo-lozano, A. Y.; Me?ndez Go?mez, E.; Va?zquez-olivares, A. E.; Marti?nez-sa?nchez, H. F.

2014-01-01

332

Characterization of Tannin and Study of in vitro Protein Digestibility and Mineral Profile of Sudanese and Indian Sorghum Cultivars  

OpenAIRE

The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, mineral profile, tannin content, and effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility , and separation and identification of free and bound phenolic acids of Sudanese sorghum cultivar (namely feterita) and Indian sorghum cultivar (namely CSH5). Chemical composition of the two sorghum cultivars was determined. Sudanese cultivar showed significantly (p<0.05) high moisture, ash, protein, and fat while Indian cultiva...

Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem; Muralikrishna, G.; El Tinay, A. H.; Mustafa, A. I.

2009-01-01

333

Improving protein secondary structure prediction with aligned homologous sequences.  

OpenAIRE

Most recent protein secondary structure prediction methods use sequence alignments to improve the prediction quality. We investigate the relationship between the location of secondary structural elements, gaps, and variable residue positions in multiple sequence alignments. We further investigate how these relationships compare with those found in structurally aligned protein families. We show how such associations may be used to improve the quality of prediction of the secondary structure el...

Di Francesco, V.; Garnier, J.; Munson, P. J.

1996-01-01

334

Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

2012-01-01

335

Proteomic strategy for identifying mollusc shell proteins using mild chemical degradation and trypsin digestion of insoluble organic shell matrix: a pilot study on Haliotis tuberculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

A successful strategy for the identification of shell proteins is based on proteomic analyses where soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from organic shell matrix are digested with trypsin with the aim of generating peptides, which are used to identify novel shell proteins contained in databases. However, using trypsin as a sole degradative agent is limited by the enzyme's cleavage specificity and is dependent upon the occurrence of lysine and arginine in the shell protein sequence. To bypass this limitation, we investigated the ability of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a low-specificity chemical degradative agent, to generate clusters of analyzable peptides from organic shell matrix, suitable for database annotation. Acetic acid-insoluble fractions from Haliotis tuberculata shell were processed by trypsin followed by TFA digestion. The hydrolysates were used to annotate an expressed sequence tag library constructed from the mantle tissue of Haliotis asinina, a tropical abalone species. The characterization of sequences with repeat motifs featured in some of the shell matrix proteins benefited from TFA-induced serial cutting, which can result in peptide ladder series. Using the degradative specificities of TFA and trypsin, we were able to identify five novel shell proteins. This pilot study indicates that a mild chemical digestion of organic shell matrix combined with trypsin generates peptides suitable for proteomic analysis for better characterization of mollusc shell matrix proteins. PMID:22160345

Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Benjamin; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Marin, Frédéric; Milet, Christian

2012-08-01

336

Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in hempseed cake (HC) that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or 130°C, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ resi...

Karlsson, L.; Ruiz-moreno, M.; Stern, M. D.; Martinsson, K.

2012-01-01

337

Quantifying raft proteins in neonatal mouse brain by 'tube-gel' protein digestion label-free shotgun proteomics  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The low concentration and highly hydrophobic nature of proteins in lipid raft samples present significant challenges for the sensitive and accurate proteomic analyses of lipid raft proteins. Elimination of highly enriched lipids and interfering substances from raft samples is generally required before mass spectrometric analyses can be performed, but these procedures often lead to excessive protein loss and increased sample variability. For accurate analys...

Stephen, Tint G.; Halligan Brian; Li Man; Wakim Bassam; Yu Hongwei; Patel Shailendra B

2007-01-01

338

Milk protein for improved metabolic health: a review of the evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological evidence shows that consumption of dairy products is associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic related disorders, whilst evidence from experimental studies points towards dairy protein as a dietary component which may aid prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Poor metabolic health is a common characteristic of overweight, obesity and aging, and is the forerunner of T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and an ever increasing global health issue. Progressive loss of metabolic control is evident from a blunting of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which is commonly manifested through decreased insulin sensitivity, inadequate glucose and lipid control, accompanied by a pro-inflammatory environment and hypertension. Adverse physiological changes such as excess visceral adipose tissue deposition and expansion, lipid overspill and infiltration into liver, muscle and other organs, and sarcopaenia or degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass and function all underpin this adverse profile. 'Sarcobesity' and sarcopaenic diabetes are rapidly growing health issues. As well as through direct mechanisms, dairy protein may indirectly improve metabolic health by aiding loss of body weight and fat mass through enhanced satiety, whilst promoting skeletal muscle growth and function through anabolic effects of dairy protein-derived branch chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAAs enhance muscle protein synthesis, lean body mass and skeletal muscle metabolic function. The composition and processing of dairy protein has an impact on digestion, absorption, BCAA kinetics and function, hence the optimisation of dairy protein composition through selection and combination of specific protein components in milk may provide a way to maximize benefits for metabolic health. PMID:23822206

McGregor, Robin A; Poppitt, Sally D

2013-01-01

339

'Stealth' lipid-based formulations: poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated digestion inhibition improves oral bioavailability of a model poorly water soluble drug.  

Science.gov (United States)

For over 20years, stealth drug delivery has been synonymous with nanoparticulate formulations and intravenous dosing. The putative determinants of stealth in these applications are the molecular weight and packing density of a hydrophilic polymer (commonly poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)) that forms a steric barrier at the surface of the nanoparticle. The current study examined the potential translation of the concepts learned from stealth technology after intravenous administration to oral drug delivery and specifically, to enhance drug exposure after administration of oral lipid-based formulations (LBFs) containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). MCT LBFs are rapidly digested in the gastrointestinal tract, typically resulting in losses in solubilisation capacity, supersaturation and drug precipitation. Here, non-ionic surfactants containing stealth PEG headgroups were incorporated into MCT LBFs in an attempt to attenuate digestion, reduce precipitation risk and enhance drug exposure. Stealth capabilities were assessed by measuring the degree of digestion inhibition that resulted from steric hindrance of enzyme access to the oil-water interface. Drug-loaded LBFs were assessed for maintenance of solubilising capacity during in vitro digestion and evaluated in vivo in rats. The data suggest that the structural determinants of stealth LBFs mirror those of parenteral formulations, i.e., the key factors are the molecular weight of the PEG in the surfactant headgroup and the packing density of the PEG chains at the interface. Interestingly, the data also show that the presence of labile ester bonds within a PEGylated surfactant also impact on the stealth properties of LBFs, with digestible surfactants requiring a PEG Mw of ~1800g/mol and non-digestible ether-based surfactants ~800g/mol to shield the lipidic cargo. In vitro evaluation of drug solubilisation during digestion showed stealth LBFs maintained drug solubilisation at or above 80% of drug load and reduced supersaturation in comparison to digestible counterparts. This trend was also reflected in vivo, where the relative bioavailability of drug after administration in two stealth LBFs increased to 120% and 182% in comparison to analogous digestible (non-stealth) formulations. The results of the current study indicate that self-assembled "stealth" LBFs have potential as a novel means of improving LBF performance. PMID:25058571

Feeney, Orlagh M; Williams, Hywel D; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

2014-10-28

340

Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína / Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das fraç [...] ões solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73%) e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%). O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16%) e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%). Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado). Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten), com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. T [...] he soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73%) and highest intestinal digestibility (98%). Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16%) and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously). Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility). Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

N.M., Rodriguez; J.F.C., Moreira; P.C.C., Fernandes; C.M., Veloso; E.O.S., Saliba; I., Borges; L.C., Gonçalves; A.L.C.C., Borges.

2003-06-01

341

Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das frações solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73% e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%. O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16% e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%. Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado. Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten, com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue.This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. The soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73% and highest intestinal digestibility (98%. Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16% and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously. Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility. Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

N.M. Rodriguez

2003-06-01

342

Improved understanding of pathogenesis from protein interactions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensive mapping and analysis of protein-protein interactions provide not only systematic approaches for dissecting the infection and survival mechanisms of pathogens but also clues for discovering new antibacterial drug targets. Protein interaction data on Mycobacterium tuberculosis have rapidly accumulated over the past several years. This review summarizes the current progress of protein interaction studies on M. tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. These efforts improve our knowledge on the stress response, signaling regulation, protein secretion and drug resistance of the bacteria. M. tuberculosis-host protein interaction studies, although still limited, have recently opened a new door for investigating the pathogenesis of the bacteria. Finally, this review discusses the importance of protein interaction data on identifying and screening new anti-tuberculosis targets and drugs, respectively. PMID:25327725

Cui, Tao; He, Zheng-Guo

2014-12-01

343

Digestibility of Nutrients on Broiler Given Various Protein Sources and Two Levels of Quebracho Tannin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suatu penelitian telah dilaksanakan yang bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh sumber protein dan kandungan tannin dalam ransum terhadap kecernaan nutrien pada ayam broiler. Sebanyak enampuluh empat ayam telah digunakan dan ditempatkan secara acak dalam faktorial 2x4 sebanyak delapan ulangan. Protein yang digunakan meliputi gelatin, tepung ikan, tepung bulu dan campuran tepung daging dan kedelai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Quebracho Tanin (QT menekan kecernaan nutrien pada broiler. Sumber protein mempunyai kemampuan untuk mengoreksi pengaruh negatif tanin dimana tepung ikan menghasilkan nilai tertinggi dan tepung bulu menghasilkan nilai yang paling rendah pada kecernaan. Nilai kecernaan protein masing-masing untuk tepung ikan dan tepung bulu sebesar 54,40 dan 44,30%. (Animal Production 8(1: 50-58 (2006 Kata Kunci : Kecernaan, quebracho, tannin

Rusdi

2006-01-01

344

Full-scale application of focused-pulsed pre-treatment for improving biosolids digestion and conversion to methane.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested at full-scale the innovative Focused Pulsed (FP) technology for pre-treating waste sludge in order to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion, but without incurring problems of odors, toxicity, and high costs for chemical or energy consumption. FP pre-treatment of a mixture of primary and secondary sludge increased the soluble COD by 160% and DOC 120% over the control. FP pre-treatment of 63% of the input waste sludge increased biogas production by over 40% and reduced biosolids requiring disposal by 30% when compared to the plant baseline. FP pre-treatment also correlated with a shift of the bacterial and archaeal communities. The most significant change was that the acetate-cleaving Methanosaeta became the dominant methanogen. Full FP pre-treatment should increase biogas production and biosolids removal by 60% and 40%, respectively. Full FP pre-treatment should generate energy benefits of at least 2.7 times and as high as 18 times the FP energy input, depending on heat recovery from FP treatment. For a plant treating 76,000 m3/d of wastewater (380 m3-sludge/d), FP treatment should generate an annual economic benefit of approximately $540,000 net of electricity and other operating and maintenance costs. This represents a payback period of three years or less. PMID:19039167

Rittmann, Bruce E; Lee, Hyung-sool; Zhang, Husen; Alder, Jared; Banaszak, James E; Lopez, Ronald

2008-01-01

345

Protein-phenolic interaction of tryptic digests of ?-lactoglobulin and cloudberry ellagitannin.  

Science.gov (United States)

LC-ESI-MS was applied to investigate interaction reactions between a dimeric ellagitannin, sanguiin H-6, isolated from cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus) and peptides of ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg). Three peptides, LIVTQTMK (m/z 934), ALPMHIR (m/z 838), and IPAVFK (m/z 674) were isolated from enzymatic (trypsin) digestion of ?-Lg. Oxidation of the peptides with and without sanguiin H-6 was monitored by LC-ESI-MS for up to 7 days. Sanguiin H-6 showed radical scavenging activities toward oxidation of the selected peptides. An interaction product was found with sanguiin H-6 and peptide LIVTQTMK by using MS and supported by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). An observable (haze) but unstable interaction product of sanguiin H-6 was seen with peptide ALPMHIR, but no detectable interaction products were seen with peptide IPAVFK. A higher proportion of sanguiin H-6 toward the amount of peptide might allow for further characterization of these interaction products. PMID:24828893

Wang, Bei; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kylli, Petri; Heinonen, Marina; Poutanen, Marjo

2014-06-01

346

Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes  

OpenAIRE

Germination of legumes followed by hydrothermal treatments is an effective mean of improving nutritive value of legumes. The protein content of mungbean, chickpea and cowpea increased by 9–11, 11–16 and 8–11% after germination. A significant (p???0.05) decrease in protein content was observed on pressure cooking and microwaving in all three legumes. The carbohydrates decreased by 1 to 3% during soaking and 2 to 6% during germination. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in i...

Uppal, Veny; Bains, Kiran

2011-01-01

347

Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker in digestibility studies with dogs, blue foxes and mink fed diets containing different protein sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study evaluated the use of yttrium oxide (Y(2)O(3)) as an inert marker in studies of apparent total tract digestibility in dogs, blue foxes and mink. Comparison was made with total faecal collection, and use of chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) as marker respectively. Four experimental diets were added 0.1 g/kg yttrium oxide and 10 g/kg chromic oxide and fed to four animals of each species. Faecal recovery of yttrium oxide was 94.4% (SEM +/- 1.0), and of chromic oxide 105.8% (SEM +/- 1.5). The digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, starch and total carbohydrates obtained by total collection and yttrium oxide as marker showed close similarity, and in most cases not significant differences, independent of species and diets. In dogs, overall digestibilities of main nutrients with chromic oxide as marker were not significantly different from overall means obtained with yttrium oxide (p > 0.05). Overall digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and total carbohydrates in blue foxes and mink was significantly higher with chromic oxide than with yttrium oxide (p yttrium oxide were not different from values obtained using total collection of faeces, both within diets and for overall mean (p > 0.05). Overall amino acid digestibilities in dogs determined with chromic oxide as marker were similar to corresponding figures for yttrium oxide, whereas use of chromic oxide resulted in significantly higher digestibilites for a number of amino acids compared with yttrium oxide in foxes and mink (p 0.05). The study showed that yttrium oxide can be used in low concentration in the feed, and allows high accuracy of analyses and thereby precise digestibility determination. It is concluded that yttrium oxide is an alternative inert marker to chromic oxide in the studied species. PMID:17845245

Vhile, S G; Skrede, A; Ahlstrøm, O; Hove, K

2007-10-01

348

A two-stage spin cartridge for integrated protein precipitation, digestion and SDS removal in a comparative bottom-up proteomics workflow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein precipitation with organic solvent is an effective means of depleting contaminants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), while maintaining high analyte recovery. Here, we report the use of a disposable two-stage spin cartridge to facilitate isolation of the precipitated protein, with subsequent enzyme digestion and peptide cleanup in the cartridge. An upper filtration cartridge retains over 95% of the protein (10?g BSA), with 99.75% detergent depleted from a sample initially containing 2% SDS. Following precipitation, a plug attached to the base of the filtration cartridge retains the solution to enable tryptic digestion in the vial, while a solid phase extraction cartridge attached to the base of the filter facilitates peptide cleanup post-digestion. A GELFrEE fractionated Escherichia coli proteome extract processed with the spin cartridge yields similar protein identifications compared to controls (226 vs 216 for control), and with an increased number of unique peptides (1753 vs 1554 for control). The device is applied to proteome characterization of rat kidneys experiencing a surgically induced ureteral tract obstruction, revealing several statistically altered proteins, consistent with the morphology and expected pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:25316050

Crowell, Andrew M J; MacLellan, Dawn L; Doucette, Alan A

2014-10-12

349

Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by mobile bag incubated with or without pepsin-HCl and three-step techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted [...] with permanent rumen and duodenal cannulae. Intestinal digestibility was measured using the mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique with or without incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution, and a three-step in vitro technique. The rate of ruminal disappearances of DM and CP, and the potential degradation of CP from nylon bags of both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than that for leucaena fodder. Potential degradation (A+B) values of CP were 45.6%, 54.2% and 52.8% for leucaena, Madras thorn and moringa fodders, respectively. Average DM and CP digestibility in the intestine and total tract for both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than for leucaena fodder. Average digestibility of DM and CP in the intestine and total tract measured using MNB without pepsin-HCl solution was significantly lower than with pepsin-HCl and with the three-step methods. These data suggest that the results of in vivo and in vitro methods for estimating intestinal digestibility are similar, though in all methods the incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution is necessary.

P., Paengkoum; S., Traiyakun; S., Paengkoum.

350

Facilitating protein disulfide mapping by a combination of pepsin digestion, electron transfer higher energy dissociation (EThcD), and a dedicated search algorithm SlinkS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disulfide bond identification is important for a detailed understanding of protein structures, which directly affect their biological functions. Here we describe an integrated workflow for the fast and accurate identification of authentic protein disulfide bridges. This novel workflow incorporates acidic proteolytic digestion using pepsin to eliminate undesirable disulfide reshuffling during sample preparation and a novel search engine, SlinkS, to directly identify disulfide-bridged peptides isolated via electron transfer higher energy dissociation (EThcD). In EThcD fragmentation of disulfide-bridged peptides, electron transfer dissociation preferentially leads to the cleavage of the S-S bonds, generating two intense disulfide-cleaved peptides as primary fragment ions. Subsequently, higher energy collision dissociation primarily targets unreacted and charge-reduced precursor ions, inducing peptide backbone fragmentation. SlinkS is able to provide the accurate monoisotopic precursor masses of the two disulfide-cleaved peptides and the sequence of each linked peptide by matching the remaining EThcD product ions against a linear peptide database. The workflow was validated using a protein mixture containing six proteins rich in natural disulfide bridges. Using this pepsin-based workflow, we were able to efficiently and confidently identify a total of 31 unique Cys-Cys bonds (out of 43 disulfide bridges present), with no disulfide reshuffling products detected. Pepsin digestion not only outperformed trypsin digestion in terms of the number of detected authentic Cys-Cys bonds, but, more important, prevented the formation of artificially reshuffled disulfide bridges due to protein digestion under neutral pH. Our new workflow therefore provides a precise and generic approach for disulfide bridge mapping, which can be used to study protein folding, structure, and stability. PMID:24980484

Liu, Fan; van Breukelen, Bas; Heck, Albert J R

2014-10-01

351

Effect of pH, dietary proteins and trypsin inhibitors on the hydrolytic rate of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) by rat digestive enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of pH, dietary proteins and trypsin inhibitors on the hydrolytic rate of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) by digestive enzymes were studied by in vitro incubation experiments. The bile obtained by cannulation into the rat common bile duct and the eluates obtained by infusing distilled water into the gastrointestinal tract were used as sources of digestive enzymes. Some proteins including dietary proteins such as casein and ovalbumin, and two kinds of trypsin inhibitors, chicken egg white and soybean ones, were used to examine the protective action on the hydrolysis of G-CSF by digestive enzymes. With an experiment using the digestive enzyme fluids obtained after centrifugation of bile by ultra-filters with a molecular weight (Mr) cut off of 30000, 10000 and 5000, the proteolytic activity to G-CSF decreased as the cut off Mr decreased. The enzyme solution obtained with a membrane with a Mr cut off of 5000 still had an enzyme activity against G-CSF. The protease activity was mainly ascribed to the pancreatic fluid, but the hepatic bile still had an enzyme activity. The hydrolytic rate of G-CSF was dependent on the pH of the enzyme fluid, and the intestinal fluid. The hydrolytic rate of G-CSF was studied at pHs of 1.68, 4.01, 6.86 and 9.18. Especially, as the pH decreased to 1.68, the hydrolytic rate of G-CSF considerably decreased. Some proteins including dietary proteins also affected the hydrolytic rate of G-CSF. The strength of the inhibitory effect of the proteins is the following order; ovalbumin greater than casein greater than mucin greater than keratin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1724987

Takada, K; Ushirogawa, Y

1991-07-01

352

Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility / Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento [...] é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS), quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to es [...] timate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP), quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.

Rita de Cássia Oliveira, Sant' Ana; Fabrícia Queiroz, Mendes; Christiano Vieira, Pires; Maria Goreti de Almeida, Oliveira.

2011-08-01

353

Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to estimate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP, quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS, quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos.

Rita de Cássia Oliveira Sant'Ana

2011-08-01

354

Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow and digestibility, although nutrient flow was lower and nutrient digestibility was greater in cows when sampled by the omasal technique compared with the reticular technique. Cows fed FG diets had greater ruminal propionate, lower acetate:propionate ratio, and lower pH. Feeding NS diets increased milk and protein yields and feeding finely ground corn increased ruminal propionate concentration. PMID:25468693

Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

2015-01-01

355

Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa / The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternati [...] vos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados. Abstract in english Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as t [...] hose suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days) and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

Maria Júlia de Miguel, Amistá; Olga Luisa, Tavano.

2013-03-01

356

Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternativos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados.Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as those suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

Maria Júlia de Miguel Amistá

2013-03-01

357

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properti...

Aleksandra Zambrowicz; Marta Pokora; Ewelina Eckert; Marek Szo?tysik; Anna D?browska; Józefa Chrzanowska; Tadeusz Trziszka

2012-01-01

358

Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2011-05-15

359

Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of using diluted HNO3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L-1) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L-1 HNO3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L-1. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L-1) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

360

Improving Lactose Digestion and Symptoms of Lactose inTolerance with a Novel Galacto-Oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.  

OpenAIRE

Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) bei...

Savaiano, Dennis

2013-01-01

361

Method for improving the functional properties of a globular protein, protein thus prepared, use thereof and products containing the protein  

OpenAIRE

The invention relates to a method for improving the functional properties of globular proteins, comprising the steps of providing a solution of one or more globular proteins, in which solution the protein(s) is / are at least partially aggregated in fibrils; and performing one or more of the following steps in random order: increasing the pH; increasing the salt concentration; concentrating the solution; and changing the solvent quality of the solution. Preferably, the solution of the on or...

Veerman, C.; Sagis, L. M. C.; Baptist, H. G. M.; Linden, E.; Bolder, S. G.; Kloek, W.

2004-01-01

362

Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

363

IMPROVEMENT OF COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGY OF TABLETS WITH SUNFLOWER PROTEIN  

OpenAIRE

The work is dedicated to the improvement of composition and technology of tablets with plant proteins. As objects of research were chosen natural compounds: sunflower protein and immunomodulator (mix-factor). The manufacturing of tablets has been performed with preliminary wet granulation. Substitution of moisturizer from purified water to mixfactor. During the studies the new composition of immunomodulatory tablets has been developed, which meets SPU requirements, ...

Mansky A. A.

2014-01-01

364

Protease digestion of hepatitis A virus: disparate effects on capsid proteins, antigenicity, and infectivity.  

OpenAIRE

High concentrations of either trypsin or chymotrypsin caused nearly complete cleavage of capsid protein VP2 of hepatitis A virus but did not significantly reduce the infectivity, thermostability, or antigenicity of the virus. Chymotrypsin also had a lesser effect on VP1. These findings indicate the presence of a protease-accessible VP2 surface site which neither contributes significantly to the dominant antigenic site nor plays a role in the attachment of the virus to putative cell receptors.

Lemon, S. M.; Amphlett, E.; Sangar, D.

1991-01-01

365

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 ?molGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

Aleksandra Zambrowicz

2012-12-01

366

Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins. PMID:25069136

Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

2014-07-01

367

Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage / Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de- [...] açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia/sulfato de amônio para conterem 10% de proteína bruta. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 240 kg ± 15 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 5 × 5. Foram realizadas coletas totais de fezes, abomasal e dois esvaziamentos pela manhã. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho apresentaram maiores digestibilidades ruminal da proteína e intestinal do extrato etéreo, taxas de ingestão, passagem e de digestão da matéria seca, justificando os maiores consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp). As maiores taxas de passagem nos animais alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura justificam os maiores consumos de matéria seca e FDNcp em relação ao observado com o fornecimento de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Animais consumindo dietas contendo silagem de milho apresentam maiores taxas de passagem da matéria seca e digestão da FDNcp. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, armazenada ou não, favorecem o consumo e a taxa de passagem da matéria seca, em relação a dietas com cana ensilada. O uso de cal na ensilagem não melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem a taxa de passagem da dieta. A cana-de-açúcar armazenada por 72 horas possui características digestíveis semelhantes às da cana-de-açúcar in natura. Abstract in english It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment a [...] nd a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap). The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.

Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Felipe Antunes, Magalhães; Rilene Ferreira Diniz, Valadares; Lays Débora, Mariz; Edenio, Detmann; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Maria Ignez, Leão.

1104-11-01

368

An ELISA-based procedure for assaying proteins in digests of human leukocytes and cell lines, using specifically selected peptides and appropriate antibodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the application of an ELISA-based assay (the Peptidomatrix that can be used to simultaneously identify and quantitate a number of proteins in biological samples. The biological sample (blood component, biopsy, culture or other is first lysed to release all the proteins, without any additional separation. The denatured proteins in the sample are then digested in bulk with the desired proteolytic enzyme(s. The peptides in the digest are then assayed by appropriate antibodies, using a competition ELISA protocol. Results As an example of its use, the present paper applies the Peptidomatrix to the assay of four membrane proteins MDR1 (P-glycoprotein or ABCB1, MRP1 (ABCC1, BCRP/MXR (ABCG2 and the alpha subunit of the Na, K_ATPase (ATP1A1, present in a number of cell lines and in human lymphocytes. We show that we can detect and quantitate these proteins, using a series of peptide-antibody pairs, and that we can differentiate between cell lines or cell preparations that express the target proteins and those that do not. Conclusion We have devised a simple, ELISA-based proteomics assay that enables the quantitation of designated proteins in a cell or tissue sample, and that can be used in any laboratory, with minimal specialized equipment.

Pace Umberto

2006-06-01

369

AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS  

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Full Text Available Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition their transformation in net milk protein, lysine and methionine accordingly amounted to 0.67, 0,83 and 0,82. The most significant changes in the concentration of methionine, proline, glutamate, glutamine, glycine were observed in cows before calving and immediately after birth, stabilization of their level starts with a 24 lactation day, that is connected with the peculiarities of the feeding behavior of the cows and the gradual intensification of the processes of metabolism and milk production. To control the status of protein metabolism we have offered benchmarks compositions of free amino acids in cows’ blood plasma phases: 21-0 days before calving, 0-21 and 22-120 days after calving

Ryadchikov V. G.

2014-02-01

370

Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte e seus efeitos no desempenho das aves dos 7 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de arginina digestível (1,363; 1,463; 1,563 e 1,663% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (20 e 22%, totalizando oito tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de 15 aves. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, o índice de conversão alimentar, a biometria dos órgãos do trato gastrintestinal e a digestibilidade e retenção de matéria seca e nitrogênio. O maior ganho de peso na fase de 1 a 14 dias de idade foi obtido com a ração com 22% de proteína bruta. Os níveis de arginina digestível tiveram efeito quadrático na conversão alimentar na fase de 1 a 10 dias de idade. O peso do esôfago e inglúvio foi maior nas aves alimentadas com a ração com 20% de proteína bruta, no entanto, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina digestível sobre o comprimento do intestino aos 10 dias de idade e sobre o peso do esôfago + inglúvio aos 3 dias de idade. Houve interação entre os níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível para o peso relativo do fígado aos 14 dias, que respondeu de forma quadrática ao nível de 20% de proteína bruta, e para o comprimento de intestino, cujo maior valor foi obtido com os níveis de 22% de proteína bruta e 1,603% de arginina digestível. O balanço e a retenção de nitrogênio foram maiores no nível de 22% de proteína bruta. O nível de 1,363% de arginina digestível atende às exigências nutricionais dos frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial.This experiment was carried out to evaluate levels of crude protein and digestible arginine in pre-starter broiler ration and their effects on the performance of the broilers from 7 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663% and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22% with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.

Mônica Schaitl Thon

2010-05-01

371

Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed Indian pulses and soybean. Germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. Fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. Autoclaving and roasting were more effective in reducing phytic acid in chickpea and pigeonpea than in urd bean, mung bean, and soybean. Germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). IVPD was only slightly increased by roasting and autoclaving of all legumes. Germination and fermentation also remarkably decreased the total dietary fiber (TDF) in all legumes. Autoclaving and roasting resulted in slight increases in TDF values. All the processing treatments had little effect on calcium, magnesium and iron contents. PMID:8983057

Chitra, U; Singh, U; Rao, P V

1996-06-01

372

Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein  

Science.gov (United States)

It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

2011-09-01

373

Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings series  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural and induced variability was studied in Vicia faba, Phaseolus, soybeans, maize, barley, wheat, rice, and other cereals. Studies included mutations induced by radiation and chemical mutagens and breeding for high protein production. Prospects for the future were considered with regard to cell cultures, plant transformations, and development of food and feed materials. Other studies included molecular basis of gene action in protein synthesis; genetic control of protein synthesis; automated assay of protease inhibitors; radioinduced mutants in mung beans; and improvement in lysine content in maize. (HLW)

1979-01-01

374

An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization for Protein Folding Prediction  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we combine particle swarm optimization (PSO and levy flight to solve the problem of protein folding prediction, which is based on 3D AB off-lattice model. PSO has slow convergence speed and low precision in its late period, so we introduce levy flight into it to improve the precision and enhance the capability of jumping out of the local optima through particle mutation mechanism. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is turned to be an effective way to analyze protein structure.

Xin Chen

2011-02-01

375

Improving accuracy of protein-protein interaction prediction by considering the converse problem for sequence representation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of genome-sequencing technologies, protein sequences are readily obtained by translating the measured mRNAs. Therefore predicting protein-protein interactions from the sequences is of great demand. The reason lies in the fact that identifying protein-protein interactions is becoming a bottleneck for eventually understanding the functions of proteins, especially for those organisms barely characterized. Although a few methods have been proposed, the converse problem, if the features used extract sufficient and unbiased information from protein sequences, is almost untouched. Results In this study, we interrogate this problem theoretically by an optimization scheme. Motivated by the theoretical investigation, we find novel encoding methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. Our new methods exploit sufficiently the information of protein sequences and reduce artificial bias and computational cost. Thus, it significantly outperforms the available methods regarding sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recall with cross-validation evaluation and reaches ~80% and ~90% accuracy in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively. Our findings here hold important implication for other sequence-based prediction tasks because representation of biological sequence is always the first step in computational biology. Conclusions By considering the converse problem, we propose new representation methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. The results show that our method significantly improves the accuracy of protein-protein interaction predictions.

Wang Yong

2011-10-01

376

Predicting microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle: relationship to intakes of total digestible nutrients and crude protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction of microbial CP (MCP) synthesis in the rumen is an integral part of the MP system. For the NRC beef model, MCP is calculated as 0.13 multiplied by TDN intake (TDNI), with adjustment for physically effective NDF (peNDF) concentrations less than 20%. Despite its application for nearly 2 decades, MCP predictions using this approach have not been extensively evaluated. We assembled a database of 285 treatment means from 66 published papers using beef cattle and dairy or dairy × beef crossbred steers, fed diets with a wide range of TDN, CP, and ether extract (EE) concentrations, in which MCP synthesis was measured. Fat-free TDN (FFTDN) concentration was calculated by subtracting 2.25 × percent EE from the TDN concentration. Based on initial model selection procedures indicating that DMI and concentrations of TDN, FFTDN, and CP were significantly (P variables. Mixed model regression methods were used to fit 1-, 2-, and 3-independent-variable models based on either TDNI or FFTDNI (e.g., TDNI only, TDNI and CPI, and TDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of TDNI; or FFTDNI only, FFTDNI and CPI, and FFTDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of FFTDNI). True ruminal OM digested (TROMD; g/d) was highly related (r(2) = 0.84 using citation-adjusted data) to MCP synthesis. Similarly, both TDNI and FFTDNI were highly related to citation-adjusted TROMD (r(2) > 0.96) and MCP synthesis (r(2) > 0.89). Models with FFTDNI were slightly more precise with slightly smaller prediction errors than those with TDNI. Randomly dividing the citations into Development (60%) and Evaluation (40%) data sets indicated that models such as those derived from the overall database accounted for 46 to 56% of the variation in MCP synthesis, with neither mean nor linear bias (P ? 0.26). In contrast, calculating MCP as 0.13 × TDNI, with or without adjustment for peNDF concentration, resulted in overprediction of MCP (P errors of prediction associated with these empirical regression equations were on the order of 25 to 30% of the mean MCP. PMID:25253815

Galyean, M L; Tedeschi, L O

2014-11-01

377

Disulphide bonds in wheat gluten: cystine peptides derived from gluten proteins following peptic and thermolytic digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gluten from the wheat variety Rektor was extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol. The insoluble portion (whole glutenin) was partially hydrolysed with trypsin at pH 6.5 and separated on a Sephadex G25 column. The high molecular weight fraction 1 was further hydrolysed with pepsin at pH 2.0. To remove low molecular weight proteins, a portion of whole glutenin was extracted with dilute acetic acid. The residue (enriched glutenin), which contained mostly LMW and HMW subunits of glutenin, was hydrolysed with thermolysin at pH 6.5. The peptic and tryptic hydrolysates were separated on a Sephadex G25 column and the peptide fractions with the highest cystine content were separated further by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Cystine peptides were detected by differential chromatography (RP-HPLC prior to and after reduction of disulphide bonds) and then isolated by preparative RP-HPLC. After reduction, cysteine peptides were alkylated and analysed for their amino acid sequence. Altogether, 19 cystine peptides were characterized and assigned to known sequences of gluten proteins; 16 peptides confirmed the positions of disulphide bonds present in LMW subunits and gamma-gliadins, as described previously. For the first time, a cystine peptide has been isolated, representing an intermolecular disulphide bond between the y-type of HMW and LMW subunits. Furthermore, a cystine peptide was assigned to gamma-gliadins; thus, all cysteine residues of gamma-gliadins are documented by at least one cystine peptide. One peptide analysed came from the alpha-amylase inhibitor CM 16. Altogether the results indicate that the intramolecular linkages of gluten proteins are not formed at random, but are strongly directed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7668061

Keck, B; Köhler, P; Wieser, H

1995-06-01

378

Increasing protein stability by improving beta-turns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our goal was to gain a better understanding of how protein stability can be increased by improving beta-turns. We studied 22 beta-turns in nine proteins with 66-370 residues by replacing other residues with proline and glycine and measuring the stability. These two residues are statistically preferred in some beta-turn positions. We studied: Cold shock protein B (CspB), Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein, Ubiquitin, Ribonucleases Sa2, Sa3, T1, and HI, Tryptophan synthetase alpha-subunit, and Maltose binding protein. Of the 15 single proline mutations, 11 increased stability (Average = 0.8 +/- 0.3; Range = 0.3-1.5 kcal/mol), and the stabilizing effect of double proline mutants was additive. On the basis of this and our previous work, we conclude that proteins can generally be stabilized by replacing nonproline residues with proline residues at the i + 1 position of Type I and II beta-turns and at the i position in Type II beta-turns. Other turn positions can sometimes be used if the phi angle is near -60 degrees for the residue replaced. It is important that the side chain of the residue replaced is less than 50% buried. Identical substitutions in beta-turns in related proteins give similar results. Proline substitutions increase stability mainly by decreasing the entropy of the denatured state. In contrast, the large, diverse group of proteins considered here had almost no residues in beta-turns that could be replaced by Gly to increase protein stability. Improving beta-turns by substituting Pro residues is a generally useful way of increasing protein stability. PMID:19626709

Fu, Hailong; Grimsley, Gerald R; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J Martin; Pace, C Nick

2009-11-15

379

Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows  

OpenAIRE

Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein (CP) after passing the rumen, the intestines and the total gastro-intestinal (GI) tract in grass and grass silages were determined with the two-step mobile nylon bag technique and a two-step in vitro...

Cone, J. W.; Gelder, A. H.; Mathijssen-kamman, A. A.; Hindle, V. A.

2006-01-01

380

Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and <i>in Vitro</i> Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet  

OpenAIRE

From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra) were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich frac...

Florence Suma Pushparaj; Asna Urooj

2011-01-01

381

DETERMINATION OF ROMANIAN ALFALFA CRUDE PROTEIN AND CRUDE FIBER CONTENTS AS WELL AS IN VITRO ORGANIC MATTER DIGESTIBILITY BY NIR SPECTROMETRY  

OpenAIRE

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high quality forage which has been used worldwide. The superiority of alfalfa lies in its high yield, high protein content and high digestibility. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, fast and non­destructive method, named Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to determinate alfalfa quality. To realize this study, alfalfa samples were obtained from Manaútur Experimental Station – Farm Cojocna in 2008–2009, in one experiment carried out using rando...

Dale, Laura M.; Thewis, Andre?; Rotar, Ioan; Boudry, Christelle; Vidican, Roxana; Malinas, Anamaria; Florian, Vasile; Lecler, Bernard; Agneessens, Richard; Ferna?ndez Pierna, Juan A.; Baeten, Vincent

2012-01-01

382

In-line system containing porous polymer monoliths for protein digestion with immobilized pepsin, peptide preconcentration and nano-liquid chromatography separation coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy  

OpenAIRE

The use of two different monoliths located in capillaries for on-line protein digestion, preconcentration of peptides and their separation has been demonstrated. The first monolith was used as support for covalent immobilization of pepsin. This monolith with well defined porous properties was prepared by in situ copolymerization of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone and ethylene dimethacrylate. The second, poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith with a different porous struct...

Geiser, Laurent; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Svec, Frantisek; Fre?chet, Jean M. J.

2008-01-01

383

Effects of Physical Form and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Steers  

OpenAIRE

This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS) and urea-treated (3%) rice straw (UTRS), and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: lon...

Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.

2013-01-01