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Sample records for improves protein digestive

  1. Improving performance of broilers fed lower digestible protein diets

    Qaisrani, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Problem Statement There is a great interest in recent years to replace soybean meal by cost effective protein sources such as rapeseed meal and maize gluten in animal feed. In poultry, this replacement, however, may result in a poorer performance due to among others its low ileal digestibility, which may lead to hindgut protein fermentation. This hindgut protein fermentation can result in the production of harmful compounds such as ammonia, branched chain fatty acids, biogenic ...

  2. High Hydrostatic Pressure Pretreatment of Whey Protein Isolates Improves Their Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity

    Michèle M. Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI and native (nWPI whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation

    Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Therefore, irradiation could serve as a possible processing method for protein utilization improvement in defatted Jatropha curcas seeds before using as a protein supplement in animal feed

  4. In vitro digestibility and immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins.

    Do, Andrew B; Williams, Kristina; Toomer, Ondulla T

    2016-01-01

    Current models of digestibility solely utilize pepsin stability to assess the safety of allergenic food proteins. However, in vivo complete protein digestion requires acid denaturation and pepsin, trypsin, and/or chymotrypsin cleavage. This study aimed to identify the immunoreactivity and allergenicity of stable bovine milk proteins, using an improved digestibility model to simulate physiological gastric and intestinal conditions in vitro. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis were used to determine protein stability and immunoreactivity, respectively. Immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins, ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) and casein (CN) was greatly diminished with gastric simulation (0-60 min), but some proteins were stable and immunoreactive with simulated intestinal digestive conditions (0-60 min). This study demonstrates the need for improved digestibility models for more accurate assessment of the behavior of food allergens in vivo. PMID:26213013

  5. A bifunctional monolithic column for combined protein preconcentration and digestion for high throughput proteomics research.

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Si; Tang, Xiaoting; Kaiser, Nathan K; Bruce, James E

    2007-04-15

    Enzymatic digestion of proteins is a key step in protein identification by mass spectrometry (MS). Traditional solution-based protein digestion methods require long incubation times and are limitations for high throughput proteomics research. Recently, solid phase digestion (e.g. trypsin immobilization on solid supports) has become a useful strategy to accelerate the speed of protein digestion and eliminate autodigestion by immobilizing and isolating the enzyme moieties on solid supports. Monolithic media is an attractive support for immobilization of enzymes due to its unique properties that include fast mass transfer, stability in most solvents, and versatility of functional groups on the surfaces of monoliths. We prepared immobilized trypsin monolithic capillaries for on-column protein digestion, analyzed the digested peptides through LC/FTICR tandem MS, and compared peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF-MS. To further improve the digestion efficiency for low abundance proteins, we introduced C4 functional groups onto the monolith surfaces to combine on-column protein enrichment and digestion. Compared with immobilized trypsin monolithic capillaries without C4, the immobilized trypsin-C4 monolith showed improved digestion efficiency. A mechanism for increased efficiency from the combination of sample enrichment and on-column digestion is also proposed in this paper. Moreover, we investigated the effects of organic solvent on digestion and detection by comparing the observed digested peptide sequences. Our data demonstrated that all columns showed good tolerance to organic solvents and maintained reproducible enzymatic activity for at least 30 days. PMID:17150420

  6. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  7. Protein digestibility (in vitro) of chickpea and blackgram seeds as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    Jood, S; Chauhan, B M; Kapoor, A C

    1989-06-01

    Protein digestibility (in vitro) of grains of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and blackgram (Vigna mungo) cultivars varied from 48 to 53% and 52 to 58%, respectively. Soaking, cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds), autoclaving and sprouting improved significantly the protein digestibility of all the cultivars of chickpea and blackgram. Autoclaving was found to be most effective followed by cooking and sprouting; cooking of sprouts had only marginal effect. Protein digestibility was higher when soaked instead of unsoaked grains were cooked. PMID:2762243

  8. IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS

    Želmíra Balážová; Milan Ch?apek; Eva Palen?árová; Zdenka Gálová

    2012-01-01

    In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of t...

  9. Functionalizing Microporous Membranes for Protein Purification and Protein Digestion

    Dong, Jinlan; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2015-07-01

    This review examines advances in the functionalization of microporous membranes for protein purification and the development of protease-containing membranes for controlled protein digestion prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Recent studies confirm that membranes are superior to bead-based columns for rapid protein capture, presumably because convective mass transport in membrane pores rapidly brings proteins to binding sites. Modification of porous membranes with functional polymeric films or TiO2 nanoparticles yields materials that selectively capture species ranging from phosphopeptides to His-tagged proteins, and protein-binding capacities often exceed those of commercial beads. Thin membranes also provide a convenient framework for creating enzyme-containing reactors that afford control over residence times. With millisecond residence times, reactors with immobilized proteases limit protein digestion to increase sequence coverage in mass spectrometry analysis and facilitate elucidation of protein structures. This review emphasizes the advantages of membrane-based techniques and concludes with some challenges for their practical application.

  10. Comparative evaluation of fast protein enzymatic digestion

    Dyčka, Filip; Bobáľ, P.; Bobálová, Janette

    2011. s. 166. ISBN 978-972-99358-9-3. [International Congress on Analytical Proteomics /2./. 18.07.2011-20.07.2011, Ourense] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ČR IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : in-gel digestion * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  11. Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus(L.

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g on the weight gain (WG, food conversion FC, retained protein (PR, retained energy (ER and protein efficiency ratio (PER in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” (Oreochromis niloticus. Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between the experimental diets. In diets with 30% proteins, the increase of digestible energy significantly enhances WG, FC, PR, ER and PER, where the level of 3.7 kcal/g had the best performance. With 35% protein, the increase of digestible energy had not significant influence on the GP, CA, PR, ER and PER, however the growth of sex reversal Nile Tilapia was improved with the level of 3.3 kcal/g. When were compared both diets, were not find significant differences. Considering the protein cost, it can be concluded that best response was obtained with a diet containing 30 % of protein and 3.7 kcal/g of digestible energy and optimum digestible energy/ digestible protein ratio of 13.75 kcal/g protein.

  12. Protein digestibility of the same protein preparations by human and rat assays and by in vitro enzymic digestion methods.

    Bodwell, C E; Satterlee, L D; Hackler, L R

    1980-03-01

    The apparent and true digestibilities of the same preparations of six proteins (spray dried whole egg, cottage cheese, canned tuna, peanut flour, soy isolate, and wheat gluten) were estimated in four to five men and in rats and compared to estimates of digestibility from three different in vitro enzymic digestion procedures. For all six proteins, the correlation coefficient was 0.46 between true digestibility in humans and in rats; with values for tuna excluded, r = 0.96. With all six proteins, none of the in vitro values was significantly correlated with values from humans or rats. However, with either the three animal proteins alone or the three plant proteins alone, correlations were high (r greater than 0.90) between one or more of the in vitro estimates and the observed true or apparent human and rat digestibilities. The differences in the relationship between enzymic digestion estimates and the human digestibility estimates for plant or animal proteins suggest that for accurate prediction of protein digestibility in humans by these enzymic methods, different equations would have to be used for plant and animal proteins. For protein sources containing both plant and animal protein, use of the in vitro enzymic procedures would give only an approximate estimate of digestibility in humans. PMID:6986763

  13. The efficient approaches for enzymatic digestion of plant proteins

    Dy?ka, Filip

    2012-01-01

    In this work the fast and efficient methods applying ultrasound and infrared radiation were employed for in-gel digestion of proteins extracted from Hordeum vulgare. These techniques can be used instead of time consuming conventional protocol prior mass spectrometry analysis. The comparative study indicates that the examined protocols are able to enhance digestion efficiency and protein identification.

  14. In vitro amino acid digestibility of food proteins as measured by the digestion cell technique.

    Savoie, L; Charbonneau, R; Parent, G

    1989-01-01

    The digestibility of proteins and individual amino acids of nineteen selected foods was determined by an in vitro assay. Samples were hydrolysed with pepsin for 30 minutes in an acidic medium; the pH was then raised to 7.5 and the mixture poured into the dialysis bag (molecular weight cut-off 1000) of a digestion cell with pancreatin. Digestion products, mixtures of free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides which pass through the dialysis membrane, were collected for 6 hours by sodium phosphate buffer circulation. All proteins from animal sources displayed a digestibility similar to casein, except for breakfast sausage. Vegetable proteins showed intermediate digestibility, except for cereals (lower) or peanut butter (higher). Target amino acids of enzymes were generally more readily hydrolysed. However, compared to other animal proteins, glycine in milk products, valine, isoleucine, methionine and lysine in breakfast sausage and hot dog, and histidine in tuna were more easily released. Overheating of non-fat dried milk not only reduced the lysine digestibility, but also that of methionine, phenylalanine, histidine and cystine. Among vegetable proteins, wheat products were characterized by a relatively greater release of threonine, isoleucine and histidine, and peas by a lower digestibility of methionine and lysine. Proline of soy isolate and isoleucine of pinto bean were resistant to hydrolysis while arginine of pinto beans and of rice-wheat-gluten was easily released. PMID:2496404

  15. Improving digestibility of feather meal by steam flash explosion.

    Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Poultry feathers are available in large quantities. However, natural feathers have poor digestibility and are often considered as solid wastes. To improve the digestibility of poultry feathers, steam flash explosion (SFE) was applied to duck feathers at different pressures ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 MPa for 1 min. The pepsin digestibility, disulfide bond content, and major secondary structure component (?-sheets) of duck feathers before and after the process were examined. The results showed that SFE could effectively increase pepsin digestibility of feather meal. Under the optimal conditions (1.8 MPa for 1 min), the pepsin digestibility of exploded feather meal achieved approximately 91%, which was about 9 times higher than that of the original feathers. The pepsin digestibility was highly correlated with the degree of reduction of disulfide bonds (R(2) = 0.98) and slightly negatively correlated with ?-sheet structure. SFE is an effective method to improve the bio-utilization of feather meal. PMID:24617674

  16. Effects of dietary protein concentration on performance and nutrient digestibility in Pekin ducks during aflatoxicosis.

    Chen, X; Murdoch, R; Zhang, Q; Shafer, D J; Applegate, T J

    2016-04-01

    A 14-d study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary crude protein concentration on performance, serum biochemistry, and nutrient digestive functions in Pekin ducklings during aflatoxicosis. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments arranged in a 2×2 factorial with 2 crude protein (CP) (20 and 24% on an analyzed basis) with or without 0.2 mg/kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (0.21 mg/kg analyzed). The AFB1 reduced BW gain, feed intake, and breast muscle weight by 33 to 43% (PPekin ducklings primarily through inhibited feed intake, as well as influence nutrient digestion processes (jejunum morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and apparent energy digestibility). Higher dietary CP can improve growth performance of ducklings regardless of AF exposure, but did not interact with dietary AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, or nutrient digestion in Pekin ducklings from hatch to 14 d. PMID:26740138

  17. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

  18. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.

  19. Effect of simulated gastric and intestinal digestion on temporal stability and immunoreactivity of peanut, almond, and pine nut protein allergens.

    Toomer, Ondulla T; Do, Andrew; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina

    2013-06-19

    Current models of digestibility utilize pepsin stability to assess the safety of allergenic versus nonallergenic food proteins. Dietary protein digestion in vivo, however, requires acid denaturation and protease cleavage by pepsin, trypsin, and/or chymotrypsin. The ability of this approach to identify food protein stability in the mammalian gut may be limited. We determined the temporal stability and immunoreactivity of almond, pine nut, and peanut allergenic proteins under simulated physiologic gastric and intestinal digestive conditions in vitro. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses were used to determine protein stability and immunoreactivity, respectively. Peanut, almond, and pine nut proteins were pepsin- and pancreatin-stable and immunoreactive for up to 1 h after initiation of digestion. Moreover, successive acid denaturation and pepsin and pancreatin cleavage were necessary to hydrolyze these allergenic proteins and reduce their IgG- and IgE-binding capacity, which suggests that digestibility models must be improved for more accurate safety assessment of food allergens. PMID:23742710

  20. Effects of enzymatic dephosphorylation on infant in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate.

    Liu, Dasong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yun; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Peng

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of dephosphorylation extent on infant in vitro gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate. Dephosphorylation was affected by phosphatase type and incubation pH. A series of milk protein concentrate with 0-69% dephosphorylation were obtained by incubation with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase at pH 6.5 for 0-420 min. Both β- and αs1-caseins in the modified milk protein concentrate showed multiply dephosphorylated isoforms with different numbers of phosphate groups depending on the extent of dephosphorylation. With increased dephosphorylation of milk protein concentrate, the gastric clotting extent decreased and the gastrointestinal digestibility increased under infant in vitro conditions. These results suggested the potential of developing a dephosphorylated milk protein concentrate, with improved gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility, to simulate the multiply phosphorylated patterns of human casein and hence to further the humanization of infant formula on a molecular level. PMID:26617031

  1. Effects of different industrial heating processes of milk on site-specific protein modifications and their relationship to in vitro and in vivo digestibility.

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Heating processes are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. However, how differences in "industrial" thermal treatments affect protein digestibility is still equivocal. In this study, raw milk was subjected to pasteurization, three kinds of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment, and in-can sterilization and was investigated by in vitro and in vivo digestion and proteomic methods. In-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples, showed a rapid decrease in protein bands during the course of digestion. However, protein digestibility determined by a Kjeldahl procedure showed insignificant differences. Proteomic analysis revealed that lactulosyllysine, which reflects a decrease in protein digestibility, in ?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, and caseins was higher in in-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples. Thus, industrial heating may improve the digestibility of milk proteins by denaturation, but the improvement is likely to be offset by heat-derived modifications involved in decreased protein digestibility. PMID:24720734

  2. Pea proteins for piglets: effects on digestive processes.

    le Guen, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    White-flowered pea ( Pisum sativum ) contains 20 to 25% crude protein (Nx6.25). The pea proteins consist in globulins (60%) and albumins (25%). Because the pea albumin proteins have biological activities due to their metabolic roles in the seed, some of them are called antinutritional factors (ANFs) for monogastric animals. These are mainly protease inhibitors and lectins. The apparent ileal digestibility of N and amino acids of raw peas fed to piglets was low. The N apparent ileal digestibil...

  3. Studies of protein metabolism in digestive diseases

    It is fairly common to observe in gastrointestinal diseases such blood protein changes as hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and sometimes hypogammaglobulinaeminia. In the last few years, extensive studies have been carried out in many patients with these disorders by means of labelled plasma proteins or labelled protein-like substances. Much has been learned in this field. This paper gives the data obtained in the study of diseases affecting the stomach, the small intestine, the colon and the liver and contains a review of major findings made in studies of protein metabolism in malignant diseases

  4. Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of the cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop the mathematical description based on a master-equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome specie, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation ...

  5. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume di...

  6. ENZYME DIGEST AND ACID HYDROLYZED INDEX OF PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION

    H.Mohammadiha P. Mostafavi

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A pancreatopeptidase (Elastase digest index was devised for a rapid and accurate estimation of protein quality. This index was calculated on the basis of all the amino acids released by an in-vitro Elastase digestion, acid hydrolyses of same sample and the residue of enzyme hydrolyzed. The amino acids were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography. Samples used were cooked white kidneybeans, cooked and over-heated soybean powder, and skimmed milk powder. Good correlation was observed between elastase index value and their biological values reported in the literature from feeding trials. The pattern of aminoacids released by acid and by enzyme hydrolysis was about the same.

  7. Dry anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic and protein residues

    Maryam M Kabir; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh; Ilona Sárvári Horváth

    2015-01-01

    Utilisation of wheat straw and wool textile waste in dry anaerobic digestion (AD) process was investigated. Dry-AD of the individual substrates as well as co-digestion of those were evaluated using different total solid (TS) contents ranging between 6 to 30%. Additionally, the effects of the addition of nutrients and cellulose- or protein-degrading enzymes on the performance of the AD process were also investigated. Dry-AD of the wheat straw resulted in methane yields of 0.081 – 0.200 Nm3CH4/...

  8. [Digestibility and protein quality of quinua: comparative study of quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa) seed and flour in children].

    López de Romaña, G; Graham, G G; Rojas, M; MacLean, W C

    1981-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the digestibility of quinua seed is the limiting factor in the utilization of nutrients from this staple, two quinua-based diets were prepared using quinua seeds and quinua flour. Theses diets were offered to children recovering from malnutrition. The digestibility and protein quality of the quinua diets were compared to those of a casein control diet by analyzing the children's metabolic balance. Results showed that digestibility of the quinua diets were compared to those of a casein control diet by analyzing the children's metabolic balance. Results showed that digestibility of the quinua seed is the limiting factor in the protein and energy utilization, and that milling improves significantly the digestibility of fat and carbohydrates. Findings also confirmed that the protein quality of quinua seeds is adequate for human consumption. PMID:6807239

  9. In vivo rat assay for true protein digestibility: collaborative study.

    McDonough, F E; Steinke, F H; Sarwar, G; Eggum, B O; Bressani, R; Huth, P J; Barbeau, W E; Mitchell, G V; Phillips, J G

    1990-01-01

    Eight laboratories participated in a collaborative study to estimate precision of a standardized rat assay for determining true protein digestibility in selected animal, fish, and cereal products. Each of 7 test protein sources (casein, tuna fish, macaroni/cheese, pea protein concentrate, rolled oats, pinto beans, and nonfat dried milk) was fed as the sole source of protein at a 10% protein level in mixed diets. Each diet was fed to 2 replicate groups of 4 rats each for a 4-day acclimation period and a 5-day balance period. Mean digestibilities ranged from 98.6% for casein to 72.6% for pinto beans. Repeatability standard deviations ranged from 0.5 to 2.0%; the mean relative standard deviation for repeatability was 0.9% (range 0.5-2.8%). Reproducibility standard deviations ranged from 1.2 to 3.2%, and the mean relative standard deviation for reproducibility was 2.4% (range 1.3-4.4%). The method has been approved interim official first action for determining true protein digestibility in foods and ingredients. PMID:2273008

  10. Rapid and efficient protein enzymatic digestion: An experimental comparison

    Dyčka, Filip; Bobáľ, P.; Mazanec, Karel; Bobálová, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2012), s. 288-295. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ČR IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : in- gel digestion * MALDI-TOF MS * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.261, year: 2012

  11. Improving composting as a post-treatment of anaerobic digestate.

    Zeng, Yang; De Guardia, Amaury; Dabert, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    This work investigated the influences of practical parameters upon composting of digestate. The yardsticks for evaluation were digestate stabilization, nitrogenous emissions mitigation and self-heating potential. The results suggest choosing an "active" bulking agent like dry wood chips (WC) which served as free-water and nitrogen sink through composting. At an optimal volumetric WC:digestate mixing ratio of 4:1, nearly 90% of the initial NH4(+)/NH3 were fixed, which reduced significantly nitrogenous emissions. This mixing ratio also improved the stabilization and self-heating potential. Using small particle size WC increased narrowly O2 consumption and reduced NH3 emission. Storing used WC prior to recycling reduced 40% N2O emission compared to directly recycled WC. Recycling compost helped to decrease NH3 emission, but quadrupled N2O emission. The optimal aeration rate (15Lh(-1)kg OM0) which was lower compared to composting of organic waste, was enough to ensure the O2 supply and ameliorate the self-heating potential through composting of digestate. PMID:26684176

  12. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during storage and in vitro digestion of pork and beef patties.

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Van Poucke, Christof; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-10-15

    The effect of protein oxidation on proteolysis during meat digestion was investigated following storage and subsequent in vitro digestion of beef and pork patties. Protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonylation, and specific carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde). Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, a hydroxylation product of phenylalanine, was identified and quantified as a new protein oxidation marker. After 7days of chilled illuminated storage (4°C), significant oxidative modifications were quantified and the oxidative degradation was continued during in vitro digestion. The observed effects were more abundant in beef patties. Protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion. PMID:27173550

  13. Dry anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic and protein residues

    Maryam M Kabir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of wheat straw and wool textile waste in dry anaerobic digestion (AD process was investigated. Dry-AD of the individual substrates as well as co-digestion of those were evaluated using different total solid (TS contents ranging between 6 to 30%. Additionally, the effects of the addition of nutrients and cellulose- or protein-degrading enzymes on the performance of the AD process were also investigated. Dry-AD of the wheat straw resulted in methane yields of 0.081 – 0.200 Nm3CH4/kgVS with the lowest and highest values obtained at 30 and 21% TS, respectively. The addition of the cellulolytic enzymes could significantly increase the yield in the reactor containing 13% TS (0.231 Nm3CH4/kg VS. Likewise, degradation of wool textile waste was enhanced significantly at TS of 13% with the addition of the protein-degrading enzyme (0.131 Nm3CH4/kg VS. Furthermore, the co-digestion of these two substrates showed higher methane yields compared with the methane potentials calculated for the individual fractions at all the investigated TS contents due to synergetic effects and better nutritional balance.

  14. Effects of Industrial Heating Processes of Milk-Based Enteral Formulas on Site-Specific Protein Modifications and Their Relationship to in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Digestibility.

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Heat treatments are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. Types of heating processes may have different effects on protein modifications, leading to different protein digestibility. In this study, milk-based liquid nutritional formulas (simulating enteral formulas) were subjected to steam injection ultra-high-temperature treatment or in-can sterilization, and the formulas were investigated by proteomic methods and in vitro and in vivo digestion assays. Proteomic analyses revealed that in-can sterilization resulted in higher signals for N(?)-carboxymethyllysine and dephosphorylation of Ser residues in major milk proteins than in steam-injected formula, reflecting the more severe thermal process of in-can sterilization. In vitro and in vivo digestion assays indicated that steam injection improved protein digestibility, supposedly by denaturation, while the improvement seemed to be overwhelmed by formation of aggregates that showed resistance to digestion in in-can sterilized formula. Adverse effects of heat treatment on protein digestibility are more likely to be manifested in milk-based formulas than in cow's milk. Although the differences might be of limited significance in terms of amino acid bioavailability, these results emphasize the importance of protein quality of raw materials and selection of heating processes. PMID:26161498

  15. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N; Sprenger, Richard Remko

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mass spectrometry-based protein quantification studies uses peptide-centric analytical methods and thus strongly relies on efficient and unbiased protein digestion protocols for sample preparation. We present a novel objective approach to assess protein digestion efficiency using a...

  16. Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility

    Magalli Costa Barbosa Lima e Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart. is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein, tests (bacuri almond flours and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV, (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds when compared to the control group (92.3%. The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

  17. Growth of Nile tilapia post-larvae from broodstock fed diet with different levels of digestible protein and digestible energy

    Silia Maria de Negreiros Sousa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different levels of digestible energy and digestible protein in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus broodstock on offspring growth during sex reversal stage. A total of 2,700 post-larvae (8.2±0.001 mg derived from breeders fed nine diets with distinct levels of digestible protein (28, 34 and 40% DP and digestible energy (2,800; 3,400; and 4,000 kcal DE.kg-1 were stored in twenty-seven 70 L tanks. After 30 days of growth, their average final weight (AFW, g, average weight gain (AWG, g, final standard length (SL, cm, condition factor (CF, specific growth rate (SGR, %/day, stock uniformity (UNI, %, survival (SUR, % and sex reversal rate (SRR, % were measured. Although female nutrition is thought to influence the performance or quality of progeny during early life stages, no influence of diets supplied to broodstock was detected on any parameter. Nonetheless, the offspring presented commercially satisfactory growth rates. Thus, diets containing 28% of digestible protein and 2,800 kcal of digestible energy.kg of diet-1 can be used to feed Nile tilapia broodstock without jeopardizing offspring performance during the sex reversal phase.

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on improvement of anaerobic digestive characteristic of sludge

    A comparative study was made about main anaerobic digestive characteristics of sludge which was subjected to a 60Co gamma-irradiation pretreatment. The results showed the gamma-irradiation pretreatment can clearly improve anaerobic digestibility of sludge and pick up the anaerobic digestion speed of sludge. (authors)

  19. Relação lisina digestível: proteína digestível em rações para tilápias-do-nilo Digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio in diets for Nile tilapia

    Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação lisina digestível:proteína digestível em rações para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo. As tilápias (11,0 ± 0,43 g foram distribuídas em 36 aquários (250 litros numa densidade de seis peixes/aquário. Foram formuladas 12 rações com 22,0; 26,0 ou 30,0% de proteína digestível, com base na composição em aminoácidos digestíveis, e 4,5; 6,0; 7,5 ou 9,0% de lisina, em relação à proteína digestível, fornecidas à vontade durante 60 dias. Houve interação significativa dos fatores lisina digestível/proteína digestível para o ganho de peso, uma vez que o aumento dos níveis de lisina em rações com 26,0 e 30,0% de proteína digestível promoveu aumento linear desse parâmetro. Os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com os níveis de 26,0 e 30,0% proteína digestível, que determinaram aumento do consumo diário de proteína digestível. O nível de lisina promoveu redução linear da conversão alimentar e aumento linear da taxa de eficiência proteica. O nível de 26,0% de proteína digestível pode ser utilizado em rações para juvenis de tilápiado-nilo, entretanto essas rações devem ser formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis e relação lisina digestível/proteína digestível de 6,0%. Quando utilizados níveis superiores a 26,0% de proteína digestível, o nível máximo de 7,5% de lisina digestível em relação à proteína digestível melhora o ganho de peso na espécie.This study was carried out to determine the best digestible protein/digestible lysine ratio that should be present in feed fed to Nile tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen tilapias (11.0 ± 0.43g were distributed in 36 fish tanks (205 L at a density of 6 fish/tank. Twelve feeds were formulated with three different digestible protein (DP levels 22.0; 26.0 and 30.0% (based on digestible amino acids and four different lysine percentages of 4.5; 6.0; 7.5 or 9.0% in relation to digestible protein. The fish were fed ad libtum during a 60-day period. There was significant effect of the digestible protein and digestible lysine ratio on weight gain, because the increase in lysine levels in feeds with 26 and 30% DP promoted linear increase in this parameter. The best values for feed conversion were obtained at the levels 26 and 30% DP that increased the daily consumption of digestible protein. The lysine level caused a linear reduction in feed conversion and linear increase in the protein efficiency rate. The results suggested that the 26% DP level might be used in ration to feed Nile tilapia juveniles; however, these should contain digestible amino acids and the digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio should be 6.0%. However, for levels higher than 26% DP, a maximum digestible lysine level of 7.5% DP improved weight gain for the species.

  20. Co-digestion of municipal sewage sludge and solid waste: modelling of carbohydrate, lipid and protein content influence.

    Nielfa, A; Cano, R; Pérez, A; Fdez-Polanco, M

    2015-03-01

    Solid wastes from industrial, commercial and community activities are of growing concern as the total volume of waste produced continues to increase. The knowledge of the specific composition and characteristics of the waste is an important tool in the correct development of the anaerobic digestion process. The problems derived from the anaerobic digestion of sole substrates with high lipid, carbohydrate or protein content lead to the co-digestion of these substrates with another disposed waste, such as sewage sludge. The kinetic of the anaerobic digestion is especially difficult to explain adequately, although some mathematical models are able to represent the main aspects of a biological system, thus improving understanding of the parameters involved in the process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the experimental biochemical methane potential on the co-digestion of sewage sludge with different solid wastes (grease; spent grain and cow manure) through the implementation of four kinetic models. The co-digestion of grease waste and mixed sludge obtained the best improvements from the sole substrates, with additional positive synergistic effects. The Gompertz model fits the experimental biochemical methane potential to an accuracy of 99%, showing a correlation between the percentage of lipid in the substrates and co-digestions and the period of lag phase. PMID:25698789

  1. Porous layer open tubular columns with immobilized trypsin for protein digestion

    Knob, R.; Křenková, J. (Jana); Petr, J.; Foret, F. (František)

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a monolithic porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column with immobilized trypsin for protein digestion. The PLOT column was prepared in a 10 (mikro)m ID fused silica capillary. Trypsin was immobilized on the monolithic surface and the developed enzyme reactor was used for protein digestion followed by on-line ESI/MS analysis.

  2. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.

    Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

    2015-01-01

    A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived. PMID:25568377

  3. The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the Venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B; Brautigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas Franck; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested to assimilate nutrients as the plants......, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from...... defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about its prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition....

  4. Improvement of the digestion of cattle slurry via the process of co-digestion

    Cornell, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The use of maize (Zea mays) as a co-substrate with cattle slurry for the production of biogas was investigated in detail by running several long term digestion trials under different operational conditions in laboratory scale semi-continuous digesters. These conditions included varying the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2 to 6 g VS l-1 d-1, the proportion of cattle slurry from 25 to 100%, and the recirculating regime. Results indicated that the co-digestion of cattle slurry and maize was ...

  5. The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms.

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-11-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition. PMID:22891002

  6. The Protein Composition of the Digestive Fluid from the Venus Flytrap Sheds Light on Prey Digestion Mechanisms*

    Schulze, Waltraud X.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D.; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R.; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition. PMID:22891002

  7. The appropriate standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio improves pig performance and regulates hormones and muscular amino acid transporters in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets.

    Ma, W F; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, X T; Xie, C Y; Zhang, G J; Qiao, S Y

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of various standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp to Lys ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low-CP (9.6%) diets supplemented with crystalline AA. Ninety gilts (89.1 ± 5.1 kg) were used in a dose-response study conducted for 35 d. Crystalline Trp (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 g/kg) was added to a corn-wheat bran basal diet providing SID Trp to Lys ratios of 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, or 0.24. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 3 gilts per pen. At the end of the experiment, 30 gilts (1 pig per pen) were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality (BW = 121 kg). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ADG (linear and quadratic effect, SID Trp to Lys ratio increased (linear and quadratic effects, SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ( SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the level of serum GH (quadratic effect, SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) in the longissimus dorsi muscle (linear and quadratic effect, SID Trp to Lys ratios to maximize ADG and G:F as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.16, 0.17, and 0.16 using a linear-breakpoint model and 0.20, 0.20, and 0.20 using a quadratic model. Tryptophan could influence serum GH and IGF-1 secretion and protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of SNAT2 in the longissimus dorsi muscle in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets. PMID:26020882

  8. HPTLC/DESI-MS Imaging of Tryptic Protein Digests Separated in Two Dimensions

    Pasilis, Sofie P [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Schorcht, Susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

    2008-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated as a method to detect and identify peptides from two-dimensional separations of cytochrome c and myoglobin tryptic digests on ProteoChrom HPTLC Cellulose sheets. Data-dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired during lane scans across the TLC plates. Peptides and the corresponding proteins were identified using a protein database search software. Two-dimensional distributions of identified peptides were mapped for each separated protein digest. Sequence coverages for cytochrome c and myoglobin were 81% and 74%, respectively. These compared well to those determined using the more standard HPLC/ESI-MS/MS approach (89% and 84%, respectively). Preliminary results show that use of more sensitive instrumentation has the potential for improved detection of peptides with low Rf values and improvement in sequence coverage. However, less multiple charging and more sodiation were seen in HPTLC/DESI-MS spectra relative to HPLC/ESI-MS spectra, which can affect peptide identification by MS/MS. Methods to increase multiple charging and reduce the extent of sodiation are currently under investigation.

  9. Variability in phytic acid content and protein digestibility of grain legumes.

    Chitra, U; Vimala, V; Singh, U; Geervani, P

    1995-02-01

    Several genotypes, number given within parenthesis, of chickpea, pigeonpea, urd bean, mung bean and soybean, differing in seed characteristics were analyzed for phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), protein, total phosphorus, and seed size. Phytic acid contents and IVPD values differed significantly among and within these species. Phytic acid content (mg/g) was the highest in soybean (36.4) followed by urd bean (13.7), pigeonpea (12.7), mung bean (12.0) and chickpea (9.6). On an average, phytic acid constituted 78.2 percent of the total phosphorus content and this percentage figure was the highest in soybean and the lowest in mung bean. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of pigeonpea and chickpea genotypes varied from 60.4 to 74.4 percent and 65.3 to 79.4 percent, respectively. The IVPD values of genotypes of mung bean, urd bean and soybean ranged from 67.2 to 72.2 percent, 55.7 to 63.3 percent and 62.7 to 71.6 percent, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between phytic acid and IVPD of these genotypes. Phytic acid was significantly and positively correlated with protein but the magnitude of correlation was very low in chickpea and pigeonpea. Results indicate that the genotypes of pulses with low phytic acid content could be identified and used in breeding program to improve their nutritive value and utilization. PMID:7792265

  10. Dietary N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation improves nutrient digestibility and attenuates pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers.

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is an intermediary metabolite in cellular choline and betaine metabolism. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary DMG on nutrient digestibility and development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers. A total of 64 14-day-old broiler hens (Ross-308) were raised until age 40 days under cold environmental temperature conditions (15 °C) and were fed a high energy feed in order to incite pulmonary hypertension. Birds were randomly assigned to two groups of which each group had eight replicate pens of four birds each. Test diets contained 0 or 167 mg Na-DMG (Taminizer(®) D; Taminco N.V., Ghent, Belgium)/kg feed. N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in apparent faecal digestibility of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract. Further, fulminant ascites was numerically lowered by DMG and incidence of pulmonary hypertension decreased significantly from 44.8% in the control group to 14.6% in the DMG group. Finally, fasted plasma level of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) was twofold in the control group in relation to the DMG group. In conclusion, these data demonstrate beneficial effects of DMG on digestibility of non-fat fractions, on fat metabolism and on progression towards broiler ascites syndrome. PMID:20662970

  11. High efficiency and quantitatively reproducible protein digestion by trypsin-immobilized magnetic microspheres

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Yang, Ping; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde- and NHS-activated magnetic microspheres were used to immobilize trypsin (CHO-trypsin and NHS-trypsin), and their performance for protein digestion was evaluated by reversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos instrument. NHS-trypsin provided greater sequence coverage and identified more peptides for the digestion of bovine serum albumin. A one-minute digestion at room temperature using the immobilized trypsin also ...

  12. Unconventional anaerobic digester designs for improving methane yields from sea kelp

    Fannin, K.F.; Srivastava, V.J.; Chynoweth, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were performed as part of an ongoing comprehensive research program to develop and optimize the anaerobic digestion process for producing methane from sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Laboratory-scale studies focused on digester design and operating techniques applicable toward the goal of increasing methane yields and production rates over those observed in previous studies using conventional stirred tank reactors (STR). Two unconventional anaerobic digesters, an upflow solids reactor and a baffle flow reactor, were used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of kelp; both digesters permit solids retention times that are longer than the hydraulic retention times. The performance of the unconventional digesters was compared with that of the STR on the basis of methane yield and process stability. These studies demonstrated that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp variability, the methane yield in both unconventional digesters exceeded 70% of the theoretical yield and was substantialy higher than that of the STR. Utilization of simple digester designs that promoted long solids retention times improved the anaerobic digester performance significantly over that observed in conventional anaerobic digestion processes.

  13. FRACTIONATION OF DIGESTIVE PROTEINASES FROM TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) LARVAE AND ROLE IN PROTEIN DIGESTION

    Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases were purified and characterized by gel filtration chromatography combined with activity electrophoresis. Cysteine proteinases, consisting of at least six distinct activities, were found in three chromatographic peaks in anterior and posterior midgut chro...

  14. In vitro digestion of soluble cashew proteins and characterization of surviving IgE-reactive peptides

    The stability of food allergens to digestion varies; and the ability of food proteins to cause an allergic reaction may be affected by the susceptibility of the allergen to digestion by proteases, including pepsin and trypsin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cashew nut allergens are often a ca...

  15. Update: The Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrate and Protein: Role of the Small Intestine.

    Leese, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of the small intestine in the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and proteins. Indicates as outdated the view that these materials must be broken down to monomeric units before absorption and that the gut secretes a mixture of digestive juices which brings about absorption. (JN)

  16. Integrative effects of feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance and digestibility in broilers: promotion muscle protein metabolism.

    Saleh, Ahmed A; Amber, Khairy; El-Magd, Mohammed A; Atta, Mostafa S; Mohammed, Ahmed A; Ragab, Mohamed M; Abd El-Kader, Hanaa

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA + FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15 d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% FOS, and combined of 0.05% AA and 0.05% FOS. Results from measurement of growth performance and digestibility revealed a significant increase in the body weight gain with improved feed conversion rate in the experimental groups. Interestingly, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude protein utilization (CPU) were improved. In addition, plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, while plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by feeding AA, FOS, and AA + FOS. Expressions of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were increased in experimental groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of either Aspergillus awamori or fructooligosaccharide or both improves digestibility and growth performance probably by promoting skeletal muscle protein metabolism. PMID:24895630

  17. Evaluation Protein Digestibility, Metabolic Energy of Autoclaved Komak Beans (Lablab purpureus L sweet on Broiler

    Dwi Wahyu Ayuning Tyas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to evaluate protein digestibility and metabolic energy of autoclaved komak beans on broilers. The material used consisted of basal feed, komak bean, local soybean, imported soybean, twenty thirty-seven-day broilers, and metabolic henhouse. The methods in the research implemented completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (Lablab Purpureus or LP0: basal diet; LP1: 15% local soybean; LP2: 15% imported soybean; LP3: 15% komak beans; LP4: 15% autoclaved of komak beans. The variables observed in this research were the protein digestibility, Nitrogen retention, Apparent Metabolic Energy, and Apparent Metabolic Energy corrected Nitrogen. The results showed that protein digestibility, nitrogen retention, AME and AMEN of autoclaved komak beans were not significant (P>0.05 on 37 days old broilers. It concluded that the protein digestibility, nitrogen retention, AME and AMEn in autoclaved komak beans had the same effectiveness as soybean.

  18. Digestion kinetics of potato protein isolates in vitro and in vivo.

    He, Tao; Spelbrink, Robin E J; Witteman, Ben J; Giuseppin, Marco L F

    2013-11-01

    Recently, an industrial process was developed to isolate native protein fractions from potato: a high (HMW) and a low (LMW) molecular weight fraction. Digestion kinetics of HMW and LMW was studied in vitro and in vivo and compared with reference proteins. Under simulated conditions, highest digestion was found for whey protein, followed by soy, pea, HMW, casein and LMW. Ingestion of 20 g of proteins by eight healthy subjects (following a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design) induced a slow and moderate increase with HMW and LMW, while a peaked and high increase with whey protein, in postprandial plasma amino acid levels. Casein gave a similar profile as HMW, with higher levels. Contrary to whey and casein, HMW and LMW did not result in any changes in plasma insulin or glucose levels. This study provides insights in digestion of native potato protein isolates to assist their use as protein sources in food applications. PMID:23713493

  19. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected. PMID:14641959

  20. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  1. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows.

    Alstrup, L; Weisbjerg, M R; Hymøller, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Nielsen, M O

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility. PMID:24835962

  2. Stability and immunogenicity of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes during in vitro pepsin digestion.

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Davis, Jack P; Foegeding, E Allen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated during simulated in vitro gastric digestion. When digested with pepsin, the basic subunit of the peanut allergen Ara h 3 was more rapidly hydrolyzed in peanut protein-cranberry or green tea polyphenol complexes compared to uncomplexed peanut flour. Ara h 2 was also hydrolyzed more quickly in the peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complex than in uncomplexed peanut flour. Peptides from peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complexes and peanut protein-green tea polyphenol complexes were substantially less immunoreactive (based on their capacity to bind to peanut-specific IgE from patient plasma) compared to peptides from uncomplexed peanut flour. These results suggest that peanut protein-polyphenol complexes may be less immunoreactive passing through the digestive tract in vivo, contributing to their attenuated allergenicity. PMID:26007692

  3. Tracking the fate of pasta (T. Durum semolina) immunogenic proteins by in vitro simulated digestion.

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mackie, Alan

    2015-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the celiacogenic/immunogenic proteins and peptides released during digestion of pasta (Triticum durum semolina). Cooked pasta was digested using a harmonized in vitro static model of oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. The course of pasta protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE, and gluten proteins were specifically analyzed by Western blot using sera of celiac patients. Among the allergens, nonspecific lipid-transfer protein was highly resistant to gastro-duodenal hydrolysis, while other digestion-stable allergens such as ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were not detected being totally released in the pasta cooking water. To simulate the final stage of intestinal degradation, the gastro-duodenal digesta were incubated with porcine jejunal brush-border membrane hydrolases. Sixty-one peptides surviving the brush-border membrane peptidases were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including several gluten-derived sequences encrypting different motifs responsible for the induction of celiac disease. These results provide new insights into the persistence of wheat-derived peptides during digestion of cooked pasta samples. PMID:25682706

  4. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TSadded was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TSadded and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TSadded were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  5. Improving conversion of Spartina alterniflora into biogas by co-digestion with cow feces

    Chen, Guangyin; Fang, Caixia; Zou, Xingxing; Zhang, Jibiao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zheng, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, Shiguan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Engineering Laboratory of Biomass Power Generation Equipment, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Anaerobic mono-digestion of Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) at initial volatile solid loading (VSL) of 4.0%, 6.0% and 8.0% as well as co-digestion of S. alterniflora and cow feces at cow feces proportions from 12.5% to 87.5% of volatile solid (VS) were investigated. A maximum methane yield of 0.19 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} from mono-digestion of S. alterniflora was obtained at initial VSL of 6.0% and the average methane content was 63.29%. Furthermore, co-digestion of S. alterniflora and cow feces in varying proportions was investigated at constant initial VSL of 7.0%. The addition of cow feces decreased the carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio from 21.82 to 14.19 in the feedstock. Co-digestion improved the biodegradability of S. alterniflora, and thus increased the methane yield by 7.09-44.26%, leading to a lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration of less than 800 mg/L (only about one third of S. alterniflora digested alone) in the solution and higher pH value in comparison to S. alterniflora digested alone. Although the VFA concentration was lower than S. alterniflora digested alone, the biogas yield was increased and the biogas yield peak was advanced for about 15 days. (author)

  6. Protein digestion in red aak borer larvae, Enaphalodes rufulus

    In the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, a recent outbreak of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), contributed to the death of tens of thousands of red oaks. To better understand nutrient digestion in E. rufulus larvae, biochemical analyses were used to characterize dige...

  7. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses. PMID:20977230

  8. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β...... NSP in FLF+Enz vs. 15.9% total NSP in FLF; P < 0.001), which also led to increased apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total and insoluble NSP (total NSP, 31.1% in FLF+Enz vs. 13.6% in FLF; P = 0.002). The Control did not, in general, show higher digestibility values than the experimental diet....... However, in the cases were it did, fermentation and enzyme addition brought the digestibility to the level of the Control. In conclusion, fermentation increased the ATTD of CP and the AID of P, with the same tendency (P ≤ 0.07) for the ATTD. Addition of NSP-degrading enzymes resulted in a pronounced...

  9. Enrichment and desalting of tryptic protein digests and the protein depletion using boron nitride

    Fischnaller, Martin; Köck, Rainer; Bakry, Rania, E-mail: rania.bakry@uibk.ac.at; Bonn, Günther K.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Protein tryptic digests were desalted and enriched utilizing hexagonal boron nitride. • Phosphopeptides were desalted with high recovery rates. • Boron nitride exhibits high wettability allowing fast sample preparation. • Boron nitride shows protein depletion capability applied for peptide purification. - Abstract: Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in modern bioanalysis and the interest in new efficient solid phase extraction (SPE) materials still remains high. In this work, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is introduced as a new SPE material for the isolation and enrichment of peptides. The h-BN is isoelectronic and structurally similar to graphite. It has remarkable properties including good thermal conductivity, excellent thermal and chemical stability and a better oxidation resistance than graphite. BN attracts increasing interest because of its wide range of applicability. In the present work, the great potential of h-BN, as a new SPE-material, on the enrichment, preconcentration and desalting of tryptic digest of model proteins is demonstrated. A special attention was dedicated to the efficient enrichment of hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Two elution protocols were developed for the enrichment of peptides compatible for subsequent MALDI-MS and ESI-MS analysis. In addition, the recoveries of 5 peptides and 3 phosphopeptides with wide range of pI values utilizing h-BN materials with different surface areas were investigated. 84–106% recovery rate could be achieved using h-BN materials. The results were compared with those obtained using graphite and silica C18 under the same elution conditions, and lower recoveries were obtained. In addition, h-BN was found to have a capability of protein depletion, which is requisite for the peptide profiling.

  10. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. PMID:26948633

  11. Kernel Composition, Starch Structure, and Enzyme Digestibility of Opaque-2 Maize and Quality Protein Maize

    Objectives of this study were to understand how opaque-2 (o2) mutation and quality protein maize (QPM) affect maize kernel composition and starch structure, property, and enzyme digestibility. Kernels of o2 maize contained less protein (9.6−12.5%) than those of the wild-type (WT) counterparts (12...

  12. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater treatment plant sludges and lignocellulosic substrates in biogas production

    Kolbl, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this doctoral dissertation was to improve the production of methane by mechanical and enzymatic pretreatments of organic substrates. For anaerobic digestion of different substrates and determination of biomethane potential, Automatic Methane Potential Test System (AMPTS II) device was used. AMPTS II is an analytical laboratory scale device used in measurements of ultra low speed production of biomethane produced during the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable substrates. Although b...

  13. Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J.; Heaven, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the...

  14. Fast and efficient protein enzymatic digestion in proteomics

    Dyčka, Filip; Bobáľ, P.; Bobálová, Janette

    Koszeg, 2010. s. 49. ISBN 978-963-7067-20-4. [IMMS. Informal Meeting on Mass Spectrometry /28./. 02.05.2010-06.05.2010, Koszeg] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ČR IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : digestion * microwave * ultrasonic * infrared radiation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs.

    Jakobsen, G V; Jensen, B B; Bach Knudsen, K E; Canibe, N

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating prices of cereals have led to an interest in alternative ingredients for feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation and the addition of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients of a diet based on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of ?-glucanase + xylanase + pectinase (FLF+Enz). The FLF was prepared by mixing feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) and, once daily, replacing 50% of the mixture with an equal amount of fresh feed and water. The diets were fed to 8 ileal cannulated barrows in a double Latin square design. Ileal digesta and feces were collected after an adaption period of 10 d. Results showed microbiologically good-quality fermented diets. The levels of Enterobacteriaceae were 5.1 to 5.4 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the ileum and 5.1 to 5.2 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the feces. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP was increased by fermentation (73.2% in FLF vs. 69.0% in nFLF; P = 0.033), and digestibility of P showed a tendency (P = 0.073) toward an increase. Addition of the enzyme mixture resulted in a pronounced reduction of dietary NSP compared with FLF (12.8% total NSP in FLF+Enz vs. 15.9% total NSP in FLF; P< 0.001), which also led to increased apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total and insoluble NSP (total NSP, 31.1% in FLF+Enz vs. 13.6% in FLF; P = 0.002). The Control did not, in general, show higher digestibility values than the experimental diet. However, in the cases were it did, fermentation and enzyme addition brought the digestibility to the level of the Control. In conclusion, fermentation increased the ATTD of CP and the AID of P, with the same tendency (P ? 0.07) for the ATTD. Addition of NSP-degrading enzymes resulted in a pronounced reduction in the concentration of NSP in the feed along with increased AID of NSP. Hence, the experimental diet seems to be a possible alternative to a traditional diet for pigs. PMID:26020320

  16. Ostrich (Strutio camelus) meat protein quality and digestibility

    LS Reis; TC Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ostrich meat protein quality, as its consumption has significantly increased in the last few years in Brazil. Male Wistar rats were distributed in groupe of six elements. The standard group received a casein-based diet, the control group received a protein-free diet, and the experimental group received ostrich meat diet as protein source. The evaluated biological parameters were protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR), net protein utili...

  17. The efficiency of trypsin digestion for mass-spectrometry-based identification and quantification of oxidized proteins: evaluation of the digestion of oxidized bovine serum albumin.

    Gouveia, Duarte D; Silva, André M N; Vitorino, Rui; Domingues, M Rosário M; Domingues, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    In bottom-up proteomics approaches, the enzymatic proteolysis step before mass spectrometry (MS) analysis is of crucial importance, as only the efficient digestion of the protein will ensure its accurate quantification. The structural and chemical alterations occurring upon protein oxidation may decrease the efficiency of trypsin digestion, compromising the ensuing MS analysis. Herein, the efficiency of the trypsin digestion of oxidized bovine serum albumin (BSA) was assessed by protein-sequence coverage and the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) algorithm, allowing a comparison of protein abundance in samples with different levels of oxidation. Despite the extensive oxidation induced to BSA, verified by analysis of protein carbonyls, no significant difference in the yield of tryptic peptides from oxidized samples could be observed by nano-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nano-HPLC7-electrospray ionization-MS analysis. After a database search, similar protein-sequence coverage rates were obtained for both treated and control samples. Thus, exponentially modified protein abundance index scores confirmed that, regardless of being oxidized, the same amount of BSA was present in the sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis bands excised for digestion. The obtained results show that the digestion of the control and oxidized samples were similar, leading to the conclusion that in-gel proteolysis is not a main hindrance for the identification and quantification of oxidized proteins by MS. PMID:24892298

  18. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduces the allergic reactivity of shrimp extract proteins and tropomyosin.

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, Ma Paz; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, Ma Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-04-15

    Shrimp are highly allergenic foods. Current management are limited to the avoidance of foods. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a safe and effective therapy using modified allergens. This study focuses on assessing the potential for modification of the allergenicity of shrimp proteins following heat treatment or simulated gastric digestion. Shrimp proteins do not reduce their IgE reactivity after heat treatment but it is reduced by simulated gastric digestion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tropomyosin in shrimp extract is worse digested than purified tropomyosin. After 60 min of 10 U/?g pepsin digestion, a strong inhibition was produced in the in vivo skin reactivity of shrimp extracts and in activation of basophils from allergic patients. Immunisation experiments performed in rabbits demonstrated that digested boiled shrimp extract is able to induce IgG antibodies that block the IgE binding to the untreated boiled shrimp extract in shrimp-allergic patients. Building on our observations, digestion treatment could be an effective method for reducing shrimp allergenicity while maintaining the immunogenicity. PMID:25466048

  19. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former. PMID:27143217

  20. Investigation of protein digestibility and amino acid absorption in different segments of porcine digestive tract. 5

    In 4 pigs (live weight 63 kg) with re-entrance cannulae in the duodenum as well as in the ileocecal region intake, excretion and flow rate of protein, methionine and 35S were measured after supplementary oral application of 35S-methionine to a wheat-wheat gluten-lysine diet and a protein-free diet, respectively, over a period of 7 days. For both the N and the methionine metabolism patterns were outlined according to the measured values and with the aid of a compartment model. The endogenous and exogenous levels of proteins and methionine in the duodenum, ileum and feces were estimated

  1. Serine proteinase of Renibacterium salmoninarum digests a major autologous extracellular and cell-surface protein.

    Rockey, D D; Turaga, P S; Wiens, G D; Cook, B A; Kaattari, S L

    1991-10-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a pathogen of salmonid fish that produces large amounts of extracellular protein (ECP) during growth. A proteolytic activity present in ECP at elevated temperatures digested the majority of the proteins in ECP. This digestion was also associated with the loss of ECP immunosuppressive function. In vitro activity of the proteinase in ECP was temperature dependent: it was not detected in an 18-h digest at 4 and 17 degrees C but became readily apparent at 37 degrees C. Proteinase activity was detected at bacterial physiological temperatures (17 degrees C) in reactions incubated for several days. Under these conditions, digestion of partially purified p57, a major constituent of ECP and a major cell-surface protein, yielded a spectrum of breakdown products similar in molecular weight and antigenicity to those in ECP. This pattern of digestion suggests that most of the immunologically related constituents of ECP are p57 and its breakdown products. The proteolytic activity was sensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, methanol, and ethanol and to 10-min incubation at temperatures above 65 degrees C. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteinase on polyacrylamide gels containing proteinase substrates indicated the native form to be 100 kDa or greater. The enzyme was active against selected unrelated substrates only when coincubated with a denaturant (0.1% lauryl sulfate) and (or) a reducing agent (20 mM dithiothreitol). PMID:1777853

  2. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule

    The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the strongest inhibitor. Mercuric chloride was also administered to rats in vivo for 5 to 8 months. Renal lysosomal enzymes from these animals also had a decreased ability to digest the two substrate proteins. Furthermore, the digestion of lysozyme intravenously injected into mercury-intoxicated rats was decreased in renal cortical slices incubated in vitro. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that intravenously injected labeled lysozyme was located primarily over lysosomes in proximal tubule cells 1 hour after injection in both control animals and mercury-intoxicated rats. These results suggest a decreased catabolism of low molecular weight proteins in the kidney during chronic mercury intoxication

  3. Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft; Young, Clifford; Poulsen, Flemming Martin; Nielsen, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be...

  4. The efficient approaches for enzymatic digestion of plant proteins

    Dyčka, Filip; Bobáľ, P.; Bobálová, Janette

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.; Boček, P.), s. 267-270 ISBN 978-80-904959-1-3. [CECE 2012. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /9./. Brno (CZ), 01.11.2012-02.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : ultrasonic * infrared * digestion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0215222

  5. Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes.

    Uppal, Veny; Bains, Kiran

    2012-04-01

    Germination of legumes followed by hydrothermal treatments is an effective mean of improving nutritive value of legumes. The protein content of mungbean, chickpea and cowpea increased by 9-11, 11-16 and 8-11% after germination. A significant (p???0.05) decrease in protein content was observed on pressure cooking and microwaving in all three legumes. The carbohydrates decreased by 1 to 3% during soaking and 2 to 6% during germination. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) was observed after soaking as well as after three germination periods. Germination resulted in an increase in IVPD from 15 to 25% in mungbean, 6 to 17% in chickpea and 6 to 17% in cowpea. A significant (p???0.05) increase in IVPD was observed when raw sprouts of three legumes were subjected to pressure cooking and microwaving. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) increased significantly (p???0.05) after germination, the percent increase being 8 to 12% in mungbean, 9 to 11% in chickpea and 10 to 13% in cowpea. The duration of germination had significant (p???0.05) effect on IVSD. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in IVSD was observed when legume sprouts were subjected to pressure cooking and microwave cooking. PMID:23572840

  6. Multifunctional protein processing chip with integrated digestion, solid-phase extraction, separation and electrospray.

    Wang, Can; Jemere, Abebaw B; Harrison, D Jed

    2010-11-01

    We describe a microfluidic device in which integrated tryptic digestion, SPE, CE separation and electrospray ionization for MS are performed. The chip comprised of 10 × 30 ?m channels for CE, and two serially connected 150??m deep, 800??m wide channels packed with 40 to 60 ?m diameter beads, loaded with either immobilized trypsin, reversed-phase packing or both. On-chip digestion of cytochrome c using the trypsin bed showed complete consumption of the protein in 3 min, in contrast to the 2 h required for conventional solution phase tryptic digestion. SPE of 0.25 ?g/mL solutions of the peptides leu-enkephalin, angiotensin II and LHRH gave concentration enhancements in the range of 4.4-12, for a ten times nominal volume ratio. A 100 nM cytochrome c sample concentrated 13.3 times on-chip gave a sequence coverage of 85.6%, with recovery values ranging from 41.2 to 106%. The same sample run without SPE showed only five fragment peaks and a sequence coverage of 41.3%. When both on-chip digestion and SPE (13.3 volume ratio concentration enhancement) were performed on 200 nM cytochrome c samples, a sequence coverage of 76.0% and recovery values of 21-105% were observed. Performing on-chip digestion alone on the same sample gave only one significant fragment peak. The above digestion/peptide concentration step was compared to on-chip protein concentration by SPE followed by on-chip digestion with solution phase trypsin. Both procedures gave similar recovery results; however, much larger trypsin autodigestion interference in the latter approach was apparent. PMID:20967777

  7. Variation in crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestion of wheat forage

    Pasture bloat can be a serious problem for ruminant livestock grazing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Decreased gains with nonlethal bloat episodes, yearly herd deaths up to 2%, and the cost and risk of active intervention reduce profi ts. Wheat has high digestibility, crude protein (CP), and s...

  8. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-01-01

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed. PMID:27173357

  9. Standardized ileal protein and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs and sows.

    Stein, H H; Kim, S W; Nielsen, T T; Easter, R A

    2001-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of the physiological condition of swine on standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficients were determined for crude protein and amino acids in six feed ingredients (corn, barley, wheat, soybean meal, canola meal, and meat and bone meal) in growing pigs and in gestating and lactating sows. Growing pigs and lactating sows were given free access to their diets, whereas gestating sows were allowed to consume only 2 kg of feed daily. The nonspecific (basal) endogenous losses of protein and amino acids were determined under similar feeding regimens after feeding a protein-free diet. The SID for crude protein and amino acids were calculated by correcting the apparent ileal digestibility coefficients for the nonspecific endogenous losses of protein and amino acids. With a few exceptions, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID for crude protein and amino acids between growing pigs and lactating sows. Overall, gestating sows had higher (P SID for crude protein and all amino acids, except for tryptophan and aspartate, compared with growing pigs. Likewise, the SID of most amino acids obtained by gestating sows were higher (P diets were observed for gestating sows compared with growing pigs as well as gestating sows compared with lactating sows. As a consequence, it is not possible to extrapolate data from one feed ingredient to another. On most occasions, the lowest SID among the indispensable amino acids was calculated for threonine, valine, and lysine. It is concluded that gestating sows fed 2 kg of feed per day have higher standardized digestibility coefficients than do growing pigs and lactating sows given free access to their diets. This difference may be due to differences in daily feed intake rather than to the physiological status of the animals. PMID:11518220

  10. DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND CHELATING ACTIVITY OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES FROM SPIRULINA (Arthrospira maxima OBTAINED BY SIMULATED GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTION

    N. Martínez-Palma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of two Spirulina samples (SpRPh: Spirulina reduced of pholyphenols and PCBEx: extract of phycobiliproteins, subjected both to sequential hydrolysis with pepsin and pancreatin. At the end of the enzymatic action, extensive hydrolysates with a degree of hydrolysis (% DH of 31.4 and 36.7%, for SpRPh and PCBEx respectively, were obtained. By determining the electrophoretic profiles, the degradation of characteristic bands of Spirulina proteins and the release of smaller peptides were observed. As a general trend, the antioxidant activity determined by different methods improved after simulating gastrointestinal digestion. On the other hand, protein hydrolysates from both groups showed Cu2+ and Fe2+ chelating activity.

  11. Improvement of raw starch digestibility by ion-beam mutation of Aspergillus awamori

    Aspergillus awamori possess the ability to express raw starch digestibility. For the effective utilization of starchy crops produced in South-Asian countries, it is important to achieve the digestion of raw starchs for industrial fermentation process. In this study, higher ratio of mutant strains of Aspergillus awamori IFO4033 were isolated by irradiation of C5+ ion-beam on freeze dried spores with improvement of enzyme production for two-to threefold in the extracellular α-amylase compared with gamma-irradiation. The digestibility of raw starch from cassava, sago and sukun increased remarkably about two-to threefold by some mutant strains obtained from irradiation of C5+ ion-beam. (author)

  12. Rapid Online Non-Enzymatic Protein Digestion Analysis with High Pressure Superheated ESI-MS

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Kinoshita, Masato; Noda, Masato; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, we reported a new ESI ion source that could electrospray the super-heated aqueous solution with liquid temperature much higher than the normal boiling point ( J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 1862-1869). The boiling of liquid was prevented by pressurizing the ion source to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The maximum operating pressure in our previous prototype was 11 atm, and the highest achievable temperature was 180°C. In this paper, a more compact prototype that can operate up to 27 atm and 250°C liquid temperatures is constructed, and reproducible MS acquisition can be extended to electrospray temperatures that have never before been tested. Here, we apply this super-heated ESI source to the rapid online protein digestion MS. The sample solution is rapidly heated when flowing through a heated ESI capillary, and the digestion products are ionized by ESI in situ when the solution emerges from the tip of the heated capillary. With weak acid such as formic acid as solution, the thermally accelerated digestion (acid hydrolysis) has the selective cleavage at the aspartate (Asp, D) residue sites. The residence time of liquid within the active heating region is about 20 s. The online operation eliminates the need to transfer the sample from the digestion reactor, and the output of the digestive reaction can be monitored and manipulated by the solution flow rate and heater temperature in a near real-time basis.

  13. Rapid Online Non-Enzymatic Protein Digestion Analysis with High Pressure Superheated ESI-MS.

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Kinoshita, Masato; Noda, Masato; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, we reported a new ESI ion source that could electrospray the super-heated aqueous solution with liquid temperature much higher than the normal boiling point (J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 1862-1869). The boiling of liquid was prevented by pressurizing the ion source to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The maximum operating pressure in our previous prototype was 11 atm, and the highest achievable temperature was 180°C. In this paper, a more compact prototype that can operate up to 27 atm and 250°C liquid temperatures is constructed, and reproducible MS acquisition can be extended to electrospray temperatures that have never before been tested. Here, we apply this super-heated ESI source to the rapid online protein digestion MS. The sample solution is rapidly heated when flowing through a heated ESI capillary, and the digestion products are ionized by ESI in situ when the solution emerges from the tip of the heated capillary. With weak acid such as formic acid as solution, the thermally accelerated digestion (acid hydrolysis) has the selective cleavage at the aspartate (Asp, D) residue sites. The residence time of liquid within the active heating region is about 20 s. The online operation eliminates the need to transfer the sample from the digestion reactor, and the output of the digestive reaction can be monitored and manipulated by the solution flow rate and heater temperature in a near real-time basis. PMID:25832029

  14. The effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and digestible crude protein of poultry excreta

    The changes in the chemical composition, digestible crude protein and cell-wall constituents for two types of excreta of laying hens were studied. In type I, excreta were dried at 170-180 C for 10 minutes whereas in type II dried at 55-60 C for several days. Each type was divided into two parts, the first stored for 3 months with the control. The second part was irradiated by gamma irradiation at 100 KGy and stored for 3 months with the control. The results indicated that here was significant decrease in the crude fibre (CF), NDF and ADF between the samples and the control, for the types I and II where CF, NDF and ADF values, before and after storage, decreased by 12%, 5% and 6%, respectively, ADL values decreased by 8% (I) and 3%(II). Hemicellulose and soluble carbohydrate (NFE) values increased by 5% and 7% for types I and II respectively as a result of irradiation in comparison to the control before and after storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and digested crude protein for types I and II before and after storage. Drying type I at high temperature in comparison to type II, before and after storage, decreased the crude protein values by 16%. Digested crude protein and CF, decreased 12% and NDF by 7%. Storage of excreta after drying had no effect on the chemical changes due to irradiation for types I and II. (author). 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Seed protein improvement by nuclear techniques

    The proceedings contain papers presented at two different meetings: 1) on seed protein improvement and 2) on aneuploids in wheat protein improvement. The former meeting discusses the seed protein content in cereals and grain legumes and the relation between protein content and yield; the procedures for analysis of protein and lysine content is also discussed. The latter meeting reports the results of co-operative experiments concerned with the chromosomal location of genes affecting protein and lysine content in wheat

  16. Superiority of alkali-extracted rice protein in bioavailability to starch degraded rice protein comes from digestion of prolamin in growing rats.

    Kumagai, Takehisa; Watanabe, Reiko; Saito, Mariko; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2009-04-01

    The rice protein prepared from alkaline extraction (AE-RP) has high digestibility compared to that obtained from starch degradation (SD-RP) in in vitro digestion experiments, and alterations in the protein body (PB) structures were observed in AE-RP in the previous study. The improvement in the digestibility of AE-RP is probably a result of the structural change of PB. The present study was carried out to elucidate the superiority of AE-RP compared to SD-RP in bioavailability in growing rats. There were no major differences between AE-RP and SD-RP in polypeptide compositions according to SDS-PAGE and their amino acid compositions. The equivalent body weight gain and similar growth curves in both AE-RP and casein (control) groups were obtained during the feeding period of 28 d, and their values were significantly higher compared to the SD-RP group (plysine concentrations at the last stage of the feeding period in the AE-RP and SD-RP groups were approximate levels and were appreciably lower, compared to that of the casein group (pimproved by alkaline extraction. PMID:19436144

  17. Effect of carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol on lipid and protein oxidation in an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model.

    Raes, Katleen; Doolaege, Evelyne H A; Deman, Steven; Vossen, Els; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-03-01

    Carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol are well-known antioxidants in many biological systems. However, their antioxidative effect during food digestion against lipid and protein oxidation is not well known. Therefore, in this study, an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model was used to investigate their stability during gastrointestinal conditions and their antioxidative properties during low pH digestion. In general, the stability of the antioxidants in the different steps of digestion was in the order of ?-tocopherol > quercetin >?carnosic acid. Salivary components, as well as the acidity of the gastric juice, were responsible for the reduction in antioxidants. Both ?-tocopherol and quercetin were able to lower lipid oxidation during digestion, while the effect on protein oxidation was not clear. In contrast, carnosic acid did not have any effect on lipid oxidation and tended to stimulate protein oxidation. This study clearly demonstrated that the environmental conditions are of major importance to the properties of antioxidant compounds. PMID:25578758

  18. Studies on voltammetric determination of cadmium in samples containing native and digested proteins

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@ch.pw.edu.pl; Malinowska, El?bieta

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Proteins exhibit diverse impact on the DPASV cadmium signals. • Proteins subjected to HNO{sub 3} introduce less interference, than the native ones. • Optimal amount of SDS depends on the kind of protein. • Presence of thiolated coating agents of QDs do not influence the analysis. - Abstract: This work focuses on determination of cadmium ions using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on thin film mercury electrode in conditions corresponding to those obtained after digestion of cadmium-based quantum dots and their conjugates. It presents the impact of selected proteins, including potential receptors and surface blocking agents on the voltammetric determination of cadmium. Experiments regarding elimination of interferences related to proteins presence using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are also shown. Effect of SDS on selected analytical parameters and simplicity of analyses carried out was investigated in the framework of current studies. The significant differences of influence among tested proteins on ASV cadmium determination, as well as the variability in SDS effectiveness as the antifouling agent were observed and explained. This work is especially important for those, who design new bioassays and biosensors with a use of quantum dots as electrochemical labels, as it shows what problems may arise from presence of native and digested proteins in tested samples.

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on ruminal protein degradation and intestinal digestibility of cottonseed meal

    The dry matter of cottonseed meal (CSM) was determined by freeze-drying 1 g sample in duplicate. Based on this value, sufficient water was added to increase the moisture content of 2.5 kg of CSM to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was carried out in a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 deg. C. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.37 Gy/s. Three polyethylene packages of samples were irradiated in a gamma cell for total doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy in the presence of air. Prior to sealing in plastic bags, samples were allowed to air equilibrate for 2 h, then refrigerated (4 deg. C). Duplicate nylon bags of untreated or irradiated CSM were suspended in the rumen of four non-lactating Holstein cows for up to 48 h, and in situ resulting data were fitted to non-linear degradation model to calculate degradation parameters of crude protein. Proteins of untreated and treated CSM bag residues were fractionated by gel electrophoresis. Intestinal digestibility of crude protein was measured using the mobile nylon bag technique. As shown, gamma irradiation of CSM resulted in decreasing of crude protein disappearance in the rumen. This is beneficial effect for high producing ruminants, which need high amount of escaped protein from rumen to intestine. Fitting disappearance data to non-linear degradation model showed that the wash out fraction and degradation rate of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01), but the potentially degradable fraction increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increases in irradiation doses. As a consequence, the effective degradability of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as doses increased. Intestinal digestibility of ruminally undegraded crude protein increased linearly (P < 0.01) as irradiation doses increased. Three major protein components were observed: globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S. Electrophoretic results indicated that globulin 9S in untreated cottonseed meal (whereas globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S in gamma irradiated cottonseed meal) make the bulk of escaped protein. In gamma irradiated CSM, there were cross-linked products of the degraded protein molecules that could not penetrate the running gels. Gamma irradiation of protein will result in denaturation of protein and probably transform the proteins to a more resistant structure. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation of cottonseed meal appeared to be an effective means of increasing digestible rumen undegradable protein content. (author)

  20. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Covalent Chromatography after Derivatization of Protein Digests Immobilized on Reversed-Phase Supports

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed β-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithioprop...

  1. Improved biogas production from food waste by co-digestion with de-oiled grease trap waste.

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste (FW) and de-oiled grease trap waste (GTW) to improve the biogas production. A lab-scale mesophilic digester (MD), a temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) and a TPAD with recycling (TPAD-R) were synchronously operated under mono-digestion (FW) and co-digestion (FW+de-oiled GTW). Co-digestion increased the biogas yield by 19% in the MD and TPAD-R, with a biogas yield of 0.60L/g VS added. Specific methanogenic activity in the TPAD-R was much higher than that in the MD. In addition to methane, hydrogen at a yield of approximately 1mol/mol hexose was produced in the TPAD-R. Alkalinity was consumed more in the co-digestion than in mono-digestion. Co-digestion resulted in more lipid accumulation in each digester. The MD favored the degradation of lipid and conversion of long-chain fatty acids more than the TPAD and TPAD-R. PMID:26679046

  2. Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production

    Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.

  3. Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft; Young, Clifford; Poulsen, Flemming Martin; Nielsen, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be...... optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require...... several preparation steps, which prolongs any parallel operation and high-throughput interaction analysis. Gnd-HCl allow the efficient elution and subsequent fast digestion of PPIs to provide a convenient high-throughput methodology for affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. To...

  4. Effects of Dietary Protein, Lipid, and Digestible Carbohydrate Levels on the Weight Gain, Feed Conversion Efficiency, and Protein Efficiency Ratio of Tilapia nilotica

    Teshima, Shin-ichi; Kanazawa, Akio; UCHIYAMA, Yoshihiro; ???, ????; ????, ???; ????, ????; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

    1985-01-01

    Feeding trials using purified diets, designed as 2-way layout experiments, were conducted to examine the effects of dietary protein (casein), lipid (a 1 to 1 mixture of soybean oil and pollack liver oil), and digestible carbohydrate (dextrin) on the growth of Tilapia nilotica in terms of weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and protein efficiency ratios. Tilapia fingerlings grew best on diets containing 40% protein, 12% lipid and 30% digestible carbohydrate. When the dietary lipi...

  5. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  6. Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests

    Pace Umberto; Bishara-Shieban Janette; Glickstein Hava; Braitbard Ori; Stein Wilfred D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i) products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic) digestion of the protein to be identifi...

  7. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    ... 2013 (historical) Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development ... pigmentation loss associated with the skin disorder in mice, according to recent research funded by the NIH’s ...

  8. Improved radiopaque agent for X-ray examination of the upper regions of the digestive tract

    The authors describe an improved composition of barium suspension intended for X-ray examination of the upper regions of the digestive tract: esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Sorbitol, sodium citrate, antifoamnsilane and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were incorporated additionally in the composition of barium sulfate suspension. It made it possible to raise barium sulfate concentration up to 190 mass volume per cent without a significant increase in the viscosity of the agent. The suspension also possesses a high enough anticoagulation stability in the acid medium of gastric juice. The agent can be used for both routine examination of the upper parts of the digestive tract and for primary (simultaneous) double contrast examination. The agent was tested under clinical conditions in 550 patients with the diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum

  9. Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins using proteinase K digestion and competition ELISA.

    Rispens, Theo; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins is useful to achieve and maintain a high degree of consistency of reagents used in research and diagnostic setting. Unfortunately, existing protocols and commercial kits suffer from a number of shortcomings that limit their usefulness. Here, we describe a simple protocol that overcomes the limitations of current assays. A robust competition ELISA was developed that is easy to carry out, uses no specialized equipment other than a standard plate reader for absorbance measurements and only reagents that are commonly available. The protocol uses a proteinase K digestion step of a sample of biotinylated protein to eliminate multivalency issues and sterical hindrance from bulky proteins. Furthermore, the use of an anti-biotin antibody instead of streptavidin results in a convenient range of sensitivity, avoiding million-fold dilutions that may impair precision. The resulting assay typically consumes about 1?gof biotinylated protein. PMID:26795634

  10. Minimizing asynchronism to improve the performances of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and corn stover.

    Zhou, Qi; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Jaffu, Muhanmad; Chufo, Akiber; Li, Xiujin

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the existence of the asynchronism during the anaerobic co-digestion of different substrates, two typical substrates of food waste and corn stover were anaerobically digested with altering organic loadings (OL). The results indicated that the biodegradability of food waste and corn stover was calculated to be 81.5% and 55.1%, respectively, which was main reason causing the asynchronism in the co-digestion. The asynchronism was minimized by NaOH-pretreatment for corn stover, which could improve the biodegradability by 36.6%. The co-digestion with pretreatment could increase the biomethane yield by 12.2%, 3.2% and 0.6% comparing with the co-digestion without pretreatment at C/N ratios of 20, 25 and 30 at OL of 35 g-VS/L, respectively. The results indicated that the digestibility synchronism of food waste and corn stover was improved through enhancing the accessibility and digestibility of corn stover. The biomethane production could be increased by minimizing the asynchronism of two substrates in co-digestion. PMID:24880810

  11. Response of growth and digestive organs development of Pelung x Kampung crossbred chicken to dietary proteins

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available More information on the performance of local breed of chicken encourages more exploration on early digestive tract development of Pelung x Kampung cross chicken. One hundred and sixty day-old chicks (doc of Pelung x Kampung crossbred were sexed and allocated to two different dietary proteins of 15 or 19% with the same level of dietary energy (2900 kcal/kg and other nutrients according to levels suggested for light high breed chicken. Rations, in a form of mash, and water provided ad libitum during the 28 days of observation. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Thirty-two day old chickens were sacrificed for digestive track analysis, then two chickens obtained from each trial replicate were also sacrificed at day 7, 14, 21 and 28, following at least 3 hours of starvation to clear the tract from remaining digesta. The cut organs (crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum were separated and cleaned carefully from digesta with tissue paper prior to weighing. Number of birds in each cage was rearranged to keep the number relatively the same throughout the replicates every week after sacrificing. Higher body weight of young chicken to 19% dietary protein compared to 15% dietary protein was shown at 28 days of age. Gizzard, duodenum, jejunum and ileum developments of male chicks were significantly higher than that of females when the chicks reached the age of 28 day. Generally the relatif weight of duodenum and jejunum were relatively higher than the development of growth or development of other digestive organ segmens. Response of other observed parameters other than mentioned above to dietary protein nor sex were not significantly different at any other ages.

  12. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack

    Swapnil S. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%–1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%–62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  13. Effects of protein source on nitrogen metabolism in continuous culture and intestinal digestion in vitro.

    Calsamiglia, S; Stern, M D; Firkins, J L

    1995-06-01

    Eight dual flow continuous culture fermenters were used in four replicated periods to study the effects of protein supplements on ruminal fermentation and CP digestion. A basal diet was supplemented with isonitrogenous amounts of urea and tryptone (control; CTRL), soybean meal (SBM), lignosulfonate-treated SBM (LSBM), corn gluten meal (CGM), blood meal (BM), hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM), fish meal (FM), or meat and bone meal (MBM). Digestion of DM, OM, and carbohydrates was not affected by treatment. Ammonia N concentration was highest (P < .05) for CTRL and lowest (P < .05) for LSBM, CGM, BM, HFM, and FM. Nonammonia N flow was lowest (P < .05) for CTRL. Dietary N flow was lowest (P < .05) for CTRL, intermediate for SBM, and highest (P < .05) for LSBM, CGM, BM, HFM, FM, and MBM. Total N flow, bacterial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected by treatment. Protein degradation was highest (P < .05) for CTRL. Flow of total amino acids (AA) was lowest (P < .05) for CTRL, SBM, and MBM. Diets containing BM provided the largest (P < .05) amounts of essential AA and lysine, and FM provided the largest (P < .05) amounts of methionine in fermenter effluent. Supplementation of diets with proteins low in ruminal degradability increased flows of nonammonia N, dietary N, and total and essential AA and modified the AA profile flowing out of fermenters. PMID:7673077

  14. Protein improvement in crop plants

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  15. Improvement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of agri-food waste by addition of glycerol.

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles, Jose A; Chica, Arturo F; Martin, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is a promising alternative to manage agri-food waste rather than landfilling, composting or incineration. But improvement of methane yield and biodegradability is often required to optimize its economic viability. Biomethanization of agri-food solid waste presents the disadvantage of a slow hydrolytic phase, which might be enhanced by adding a readily digestible substrate such as glycerol. In this study, strawberry extrudate, fish waste and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing are mixed at a proportion of 54:5:41, in VS (VS, total volatile solids), respectively. The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion at lab-scale of the mixture was stable at loads lower than 1.85 g VS/L, reaching a methane yield coefficient of 308 L CH4/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm) and a biodegradability of 96.7%, in VS. Moreover, the treatment capacity of strawberry and fish waste was increased 16% at adding the crude glycerol. An economic assessment was also carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed process. Even in a pessimistic scenario, the net balance was found to be positive. The glycerol adding implied a net saving in a range from 25.5 to 42.1 €/t if compared to landfill disposal. PMID:24726968

  16. Impact of Lipid and Protein Co-oxidation on Digestibility of Dairy Proteins in Oil-in-Water (O/W) Emulsions.

    Obando, Mónica; Papastergiadis, Antonios; Li, Shanshan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2015-11-11

    Enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a growing trend in the food industry. However, PUFAs are known to be susceptible to lipid oxidation. It has been shown that oxidizing lipids react with proteins present in the food and that as a result polymeric protein complexes are produced. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the impact of lipid and protein co-oxidation on protein digestibility. Casein and whey protein (6 mg/mL) based emulsions with 1% oil with different levels of PUFAs were subjected to respectively autoxidation and photo-oxidation. Upon autoxidation at 70 °C, protein digestibility of whey protein based emulsions containing fish oil decreased to 47.7 ± 0.8% after 48 h, whereas in the controls without oil 67.8 ± 0.7% was observed. Upon photo-oxidation at 4 °C during 30 days, mainly casein-based emulsions containing fish oil were affected: the digestibility amounted to 43.9 ± 1.2%, whereas in the control casein solutions without oil, 72.6 ± 0.2% of the proteins were digestible. Emulsions containing oils with high PUFA levels were more prone to lipid oxidation and thus upon progressive oxidation showed a higher impact on protein digestibility. PMID:26466987

  17. Using HPTLC/DESI-MS for Peptide Identification in 1D Separations of Tryptic Protein Digests

    Pasilis, Sofie P [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Schorcht, Susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

    2008-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was investigated as a method to detect and identify peptides from tryptic digests of cytochrome c and myoglobin separated on ProteoChrom HPTLC Silica gel 60 F254s plates and ProteoChrom HPTLC Cellulose sheets. Both full scan mass spectra and data-dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired in separate plate scans and used to identify peptide ions. Peptide distributions along the development lane were mapped for each separated protein digest. Signal levels ranged over several orders of magnitude. In general, highest signal levels were obtained for the peptides with the highest Rf values on a plate, while peptides with very low Rf values were often not detected. Sequence coverages for cytochrome c were 58% for the digest separated on the silica gel plate and 72% for the separation on the cellulose sheet; myoglobin sequence coverages were 62% and 68% on silica gel and cellulose, respectively. Weak correlations between peptide hydrophilicity and Rf values on the silica gel and cellulose plates were found, with more hydrophilic peptides having lower Rf values.

  18. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  19. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758

    Kenan Koprucu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

  20. Effects of dietary pectin on protein digestion and metabolism in growing rats

    Pirman, Tatjana; Patureau Mirand, Philippe; Orešnik, Andrej; Salobir, Janez

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the relationships between the digestive and metaboliceffects of additional feeding of citrus pectin, the intestinal contents, tissues weights, nitrogen excretion and retention were studied in laboratory rats. Twenty-four growing male Wistar rats (98.8 g 5.3 g of body weight) were fed ad libitum for 20 days with balanced diets containing casein as the source of protein. In the experimental diet 96 g of wheat starch was replaced by 80 g of citrus pectin and 16 g of vege...

  1. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils B; Reitelseder, Søren; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Holst, Jens J; van Hall, Gerrit; Madsbad, Sten

    2015-01-01

    . Changes in body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: After RYGB, basal plasma leucine concentration did not change, but marked changes were seen postprandially with 1.7-fold increased peak concentrations (before—mean: 217 μmol/L; 95% CI: 191, 243 μmol/L; 3 mo—mean: 377......BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance...

  2. Apparent digestibility coefficients of three protein ingredients in capaz, Pimelodus grosskopfii

    Rubén D. Valbuena- Villareal; Beatriz E. Zapata- Berruecos; Mariana C. Gutiérrez-Espinosa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study vas to determine the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and gross energy (GE) of three ingredients in capaz (Pimelodus grosskopfii). Ninety specimens of capaz were used. They weighted and sized about 114 ± 15 g and 23 ± 0.5 cm respectively. In order to collect the feces a battery of three fiberglass tanks with a capacity of 200 L, and conical bottom (modified Guelph system) was used. The ADC of ingredients were calculated by indirect method using ...

  3. The Compare Improvement of Ultrasonic Treatment to Dewatering and Digestion in Aerobic and Anaerobic Stabilization

    Mahdi Kargar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Backgrounds and Objectives: Large quantities of sludge are produced in biological wastewater treatment. Because this sludge is highly rotten, it should be stabilized before its disposal. Aerobic and anaerobic digestion is widely considered as stabilization techniques. Because of high retention time and sludge dewatering difficulties, reduction in retention time, operation and maintenance should be given into consideration. Ultrasonic process increases the enzymatic activity, so decreases the hydrolysis time, a limiting factor in digestion process, and contributes to the decrease of the detention time. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of ultrasound in improving dewatering and stabilization of aerobic and anaerobic digested sludge. In addition, the impact of ultrasonic treatment on improvement of sludge dewatering and aerobic and anaerobic digestion is compared.Materials and Methods: In this survey, samples of aerobic and anaerobic digestion were collected from local full-scale Garb Town and Tehran South wastewater treatment plant, respectively. The grab samples were collected for 4 month from July to October 2010. Total numbers of 20 samples were collected biweekly for each type of digestion. Each sample was sonicated for 15, 30, 60, and 90 min under 35 and 131 kHz frequencies separately. Total solids, volatile solids , pH, temperature , total COD, dissolved COD and settle able solids were measured. Ultrasound bath of the solution in a 300 mL glass reactor was performed as a bath reactor with power of 500 W.Result: The results showed that the application of ultrasonic wave increased dissolved COD and temperature and decreased volatile solid, pH and settle able solids. Application of ultrasonic wave with frequency of 131 kHz decreased the VS and increased the dewatering of sludge more effective than the 35 kHz frequency and the highest performance was at 15 min of time and 131 kHz of frequency. Also sonication method showed better efficiency for anaerobic sludge samples compared to the aerobic sludge samples.                 Conclusion: The results obtained showed that digestion and dewatering properties of sludge improved by ultrasonic application. Therefore it can be used as an alternative method for the sludge treatment. st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where...... was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the...

  5. In vitro crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens insect meals and its correlation with chemical composition traits

    Stefania Marono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between in vitro crude protein digestibility coefficients of insect meals from Tenebrio molitor (TI and Hermetia illucens (HI and their chemical composition traits as well as to develop regression equations able to estimate the in vitro crude protein digestibility (CPd from proximate analysis of insect meals. Twelve samples of insect meals (6 from TM larvae, TM 1-6 and 6 from HI larvae, HI 1-6 were obtained from different producers and analysed for chemical composition and in vitro crude protein digestibility by a two-step enzymatic method (digestion with pepsin and trypsin-enriched pancreatin. For both insect meal samples, CPd was negatively correlated to ADF and chitin contents, while just for HI there was a positive correlation (P<0.01 between CP percentage of the samples and CPd. For both insect meals the former variable chosen in the stepwise analysis was the chitin, explaining the 79.45% of CPd variability for Tenebrio molitor samples and the 98.30% for Hermetia illucens. In the second step, the amount of protein linked to ADF was added in the model for T. molitor and CP for H. illucens samples. The coefficients chitin is the main constituent of insect body able to affect the crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens larvae meals estimated by an in vitro enzymatic method.

  6. Effectiveness of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture to improve digestion of fibrous feeds

    Darwinsyah Lubis

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the use of living microorganisms as supplement have been done in the last two decades to improve digestion process in the rumen. Many factors affect the use of the supplement, such as ration composition and physiological status of the animals. Materials used in this experiment are Aspergillus oryzae (AO derived from ‘tauco’ (salty fermented soybean and soybean sauce processing factories located in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi districts (15 sources, and also AO culture collections of the Indonesian Res. Inst. for Anim. Prod. (2 strains and one strain from Indonesian Res. Inst. for Vet. Sci. in Bogor. The fungus was first isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA, incubated at room temp. (26-300C for 5 days for purification. The AO from PDA then inoculated into cooked rice enriched with mineral mix, oven-dried (40-450C, then ground and kept in refrigerator as a stock culture for further use. To produce more AO (scaling-up, the culture is inoculated in two basal media, i.e. soybean meal and ‘onggok’ (tapioca processing waste enriched with mineral mix, dried and ground, then kept in refrigerator as A. oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC. Ground-dried King grass was used for in vitro digestion trials using sheep rumen fluid, which was not supplemented (control or supplemented with the AOFC (10% w/w from various sources. Three best AOFC (by origin were chosen and used for further digestion study. The study was run using 2 (media x 3 (AOFC origin factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design and Duncan’s MRT was applied to test differences among treatment means. Preliminary results indicated of the AOFC-SP66, -F172, and -CT4 used, the best AOFC was SP66, as it increased (P<0.05 fiber (NDF digestion (10.5% better than the control. Total VFA productions were similar, but acetate content in the rumen fluid was lowered (P<0.05, while propionate and butyrate levels were alleviated (P<0.05 by the AOFC-SP66. Ammonia content was not affected by addition of AOFC. No differences were detected on digestion parameters between the two media used for AO cultivation, therefore, it is suggested to use ‘onggok’ for producing AOFC in large scale. VFAs composition pattern suggests that AOFC was more suitably used for meat rather than for milk production.

  7. imFASP: An integrated approach combining in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment with microwave-assisted protein digestion for fast and efficient proteome sample preparation.

    Zhao, Qun; Fang, Fei; Wu, Ci; Wu, Qi; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    An integrated sample preparation method, termed "imFASP", which combined in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment and microwave-assisted trypsin digestion, was developed for preparation of microgram and even nanogram amounts of complex protein samples with high efficiency in 1 h. For imFASP method, proteins dissolved in 8 M urea were loaded onto a filter device with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) as 10 kDa, followed by in-situ protein preconcentration, denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Compared with traditional in-solution sample preparation method, imFASP method generated more protein and peptide identifications (IDs) from preparation of 45 μg Escherichia coli protein sample due to the higher efficiency, and the sample preparation throughput was significantly improved by 14 times (1 h vs. 15 h). More importantly, when the starting amounts of E. coli cell lysate decreased to nanogram level (50-500 ng), the protein and peptide identified by imFASP method were improved at least 30% and 44%, compared with traditional in-solution preparation method, suggesting dramatically higher peptide recovery of imFASP method for trace amounts of complex proteome samples. All these results demonstrate that the imFASP method developed here is of high potential for high efficient and high throughput preparation of trace amounts of complex proteome samples. PMID:26920773

  8. In vitro digestibility of proteins in black gram (Phaseolus mungo) and green gram (Phaseolus radiatus) papads.

    Shashikala, M; Prakash, J

    1995-01-01

    'Papads', a traditional food of India, were prepared with decorticated black gram and green gram flours and toasted, microwaved or deep fat fried. Toasting was done by holding the papads over direct flame for 1-2 min. Sharp carousal microwave oven was used for microwaving at high temperature for 30-40 s. Deep fat frying was done by immersing the product in preheated refined groundnut oil for 5-10 s. In vitro digestibility of proteins in prepared papads was investigated by pepsin and pepsin + pancreatin. The percent protein hydrolysed in black gram papads was 80.5, 75.3 and 72.5 for toasted, microwaved and fried papads respectively. They were not significantly different from each other. Green gram papads exhibited significantly higher hydrolysis in microwaved product (79.3%) when compared to toasted (65.2%) or fried products (65.0%). Pepsin digestibilities were not influenced to a significant extent by cooking method and were in the range of 51.4-54.6% for black gram papads and 34.4-35.6% for green gram papads. PMID:7898577

  9. The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.

    Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW and 0.37 g N/kg BW, and this intake was the most appropriate for the conditioning of intensely exercised horses, considering the responses related to NI, NA, and the estimated NR to NA ratio. The NDF and ADF responses indicated that dietary fiber was more digested with an increased amount of N in the digestive tract. PMID:25568371

  10. Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut

    The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation had influence on in vitro protein digestibility and minerals availability of peanut. • Total mineral and protein content of peanut were not changed after treatments. • The treatment decreased the in vitro protein digestibility of peanut. • The irradiation of peanut resulted in increment of its minerals availability

  11. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  12. Uric Acid Determination in Poultry Excreta and its Application to Correcting Protein Digestibility Values: Spectrophotometry with Ultraviolet Detection vs HPLIC

    R. R. Marquardt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of uric acid contents of poultry excreta was examined for use in the estimation of apparent protein digestibility. Uric acid was determined either by high-performance liquid chromatography or by spectrophotometric method. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was used with absorbance measured at 285 nm. The method used a reverse-phase system with a C18-bonded column (250*4.6 mm, i.d.. The mobile phase was distilled deionized water. Injection volume was 20 l with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Correlation (r between the two methods for uric acid content of excreta from birds fed diets with different methionine levels was 0.976. The uric acid values were then used to determine apparent protein digestibility. The apparent protein digestibility values, when corrected for uric acid nitrogen, were comparable with those calculated from amino acid analysis.

  13. Digesting pythons quickly oxidize the proteins in their meals and save the lipids for later.

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A

    2015-07-01

    Pythons digesting rodent meals exhibit up to 10-fold increases in their resting metabolic rate (RMR); this increase in RMR is termed specific dynamic action (SDA). Studies have shown that SDA is partially fueled by oxidizing dietary nutrients, yet it remains unclear whether the proteins and the lipids in their meals contribute equally to this energy demand. We raised two populations of mice on diets labeled with either [(13)C]leucine or [(13)C]palmitic acid to intrinsically enrich the proteins and lipids in their bodies, respectively. Ball pythons (Python regius) were fed whole mice (and pureed mice 3 weeks later), after which we measured their metabolic rates and the ?(13)C in the breath. The ?(13)C values in the whole bodies of the protein- and lipid-labeled mice were generally similar (i.e. 5.7±4.7‰ and 2.8±5.4‰, respectively) but the oxidative kinetics of these two macronutrient pools were quite different. We found that the snakes oxidized 5% of the protein and only 0.24% of the lipids in their meals within 14?days. Oxidation of the dietary proteins peaked 24?h after ingestion, at which point these proteins provided ?90% of the metabolic requirement of the snakes, and by 14?days the oxidation of these proteins decreased to nearly zero. The oxidation of the dietary lipids peaked 1 day later, at which point these lipids supplied ?25% of the energy demand. Fourteen days after ingestion, these lipids were still being oxidized and continued to account for ?25% of the metabolic rate. Pureeing the mice reduced the cost of gastric digestion and decreased SDA by 24%. Pureeing also reduced the oxidation of dietary proteins by 43%, but it had no effect on the rates of dietary lipid oxidation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that pythons are able to effectively partition the two primary metabolic fuels in their meals. This approach of uniquely labeling the different components of the diet will allow researchers to examine new questions about how and when animals use the nutrients in their meals. PMID:25987734

  14. Amaranth-protein interaction in food system and its impact on tryptic digestibility

    Amaranth, a food color, is used in variety of food products to attract consumers, especially children. The purpose of the present study was to identify the component present in the food system which acts as a carrier of color and its distribution. The protein is the most possible candidate for color-conjugates and this was first explored by staining the resolved food proteins on PAGE simultaneously and separately with Amaranth as well as by Coomassie brilliant blue R250. It is the most widely used dye for protein assay. The color intensity of the Amaranth-protein complexes was slightly less than those of Coomassie brilliant blue R250, although the bands stained by Amaranth were very sharp, clearly separated and distinct. The staining procedure followed for Amaranth was quick. The impact of tryptic digestibility on amaranth-protein complexes has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect. The possible moode of conjugation between amino acid and azo-bond is also discussed. (author)

  15. Improved coverage of cDNA-AFLP by sequential digestion of immobilized cDNA

    Karlovsky Petr

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background cDNA-AFLP is a transcriptomics technique which does not require prior sequence information and can therefore be used as a gene discovery tool. The method is based on selective amplification of cDNA fragments generated by restriction endonucleases, electrophoretic separation of the products and comparison of the band patterns between treated samples and controls. Unequal distribution of restriction sites used to generate cDNA fragments negatively affects the performance of cDNA-AFLP. Some transcripts are represented by more than one fragment while other escape detection, causing redundancy and reducing the coverage of the analysis, respectively. Results With the goal of improving the coverage of cDNA-AFLP without increasing its redundancy, we designed a modified cDNA-AFLP protocol. Immobilized cDNA is sequentially digested with several restriction endonucleases and the released DNA fragments are collected in mutually exclusive pools. To investigate the performance of the protocol, software tool MECS (Multiple Enzyme cDNA-AFLP Simulation was written in Perl. cDNA-AFLP protocols described in the literatur and the new sequential digestion protocol were simulated on sets of cDNA sequences from mouse, human and Arabidopsis thaliana. The redundancy and coverage, the total number of PCR reactions, and the average fragment length were calculated for each protocol and cDNA set. Conclusion Simulation revealed that sequential digestion of immobilized cDNA followed by the partitioning of released fragments into mutually exclusive pools outperformed other cDNA-AFLP protocols in terms of coverage, redundancy, fragment length, and the total number of PCRs. Primers generating 30 to 70 amplicons per PCR provided the highest fraction of electrophoretically distinguishable fragments suitable for normalization. For A. thaliana, human and mice transcriptome, the use of two marking enzymes and three sequentially applied releasing enzymes for each of the marking enzymes is recommended.

  16. Engineering Cells to Improve Protein Expression

    Xiao, Su; Shiloach, Joseph; Michael J. Betenbaugh

    2014-01-01

    Cellular engineering of bacteria, fungi, insect cells and mammalian cells is a promising methodology to improve recombinant protein production for structural, biochemical, and commercial applications. Increased understanding of the host organism biology has suggested engineering strategies targeting bottlenecks in transcription, translation, protein processing and secretory pathways, as well as cell growth and survival. A combination of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology has been use...

  17. Characterization of digestates: do they fit with soil improvers or fertilisers standards?

    Trémier, A.; Buffet, J.; Daumoin, M.; Saint Cast, P.; Picard, S.; Berger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Management of digestates could be a key issue for the future development of the anaerobic digestion market. Actually, a clear definition of their status and quality is necessary to secure valorization opportunities for all of the treated organic matter. In this study, three digestion plants have been followed for one year. Raw, solid and liquid digestate were sampled and characterized five times along the year in order to state on their quality and to compare it to the existing standards for ...

  18. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2. gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. In vitro crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens insect meals and its correlation with chemical composition traits

    Stefania Marono; Giovanni Piccolo; Rosa Loponte; Carmelo Di Meo; Attia, Youssef A.; Antonino Nizza; Fulvia Bovera

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between in vitro crude protein digestibility coefficients of insect meals from Tenebrio molitor (TI) and Hermetia illucens (HI) and their chemical composition traits as well as to develop regression equations able to estimate the in vitro crude protein digestibility (CPd) from proximate analysis of insect meals. Twelve samples of insect meals (6 from TM larvae, TM 1-6 and 6 from HI larvae, HI 1-6) were obtained from different producers a...

  20. Effect of processing on protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization of millet and legume based infant mixes and biscuits.

    Geervani, P; Vimala, V; Pradeep, K U; Devi, M R

    1996-04-01

    Effect of combinations of millet and legume and processing on digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization was evaluated using albino rats. The millets and legumes selected for the study include sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, chickpea and green gram (P radiatus). The processes tested include dehulling, boiling, roasting, malting and baking. Among the combinations tested, the sorghum-chickpea combination had significantly (p < 0.05) higher digestibility. Between the processes tested, roasting resulted in significantly higher net protein utilization. Results of biological study on biscuits prepared by using millet and legume combination flours, indicated the biscuits to be of good protein quality. PMID:8865331

  1. Effects of synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen on fermentation, nutrient utilization and total tract digestibility in sheep

    Birgul Bozan; Gulay Deniz; Bulent Haluk Gulmez; Hakan Biricik; Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen; Hidir Gencoglu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of synchronizing the dietary starch and crude protein (CP) degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization, fermentation, and total tract digestibility in sheep. The four diets were formulated with different rates of starch and CP release in the rumen but with similar metabolic energy, starch, and CP. The diets were slowly degradable starch, slowly degradable protein; slowly degradable starch, rapidly degradable protein; rapidly...

  2. Digestible protein and energy value of fish meal, dextrin, fish oil and soybean oil for Thai sharpunti (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker)

    Hossain, M A; Rahman, M. M.; Chakraborty, S.C

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory trial was conducted to determine the digestible protein and energy value of fish meal, dextrin, fish oil and soybean oil for Thai sharpunti (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker). A reference diet containing 35% protein was formulated in which fish meal was the sole source of protein. Five test diets were formulated using reference diet and individual test ingredients (fish meal, dextrin, fish oil and soybean oil). Each treatment had three replicates with 15 fish per replicate. Fish were f...

  3. In vitro pH-Stat protein hydrolysis of feed ingredients for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. 2. In vitro protein digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients

    Tibbetts, S.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Lall, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using enzyme fractions isolated from the pyloric caeca of farmed Atlantic cod, the in vitro degree of protein hydrolysis (DH) of numerous conventional and novel feed ingredients were measured by a closed-system pH-Stat assay. Regression equations describing the relationship between in vivo apparent protein digestibility (ADC) and in vitro protein DH were used to predict in vitro protein ADC. The equations resulted in good correlation (

  4. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (2): Protein and starch hydrolyses.

    Villemejane, C; Denis, S; Marsset-Baglieri, A; Alric, M; Aymard, P; Michon, C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of protein and/or fibre enrichment on the nutritional properties of biscuits was studied in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Biscuits were digested using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system that simulates the main physiological digestive functions of the upper tract of healthy adult humans: the TIM-1. A control biscuit and three biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres were digested under the same conditions. Samples were collected in each compartment of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at different times of digestion and analysed in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Results indicate that both formulation and processing impacted the digestive fate of the biscuits. Incorporating proteins or fibres in biscuits lowered or delayed proteolysis. Moreover a protein-plus-fibre additional or synergic effect was observed. Biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres displayed a higher amylolysis degree than the control biscuit, probably due to lower starch amounts and higher gelatinization degrees. PMID:26212956

  5. Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds

    Antonio Ferriani Branco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéicos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR, na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta. A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável.The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were evaluated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pepsin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29 had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

  6. Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms grown in Jordan.

    Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms common in Jordan in terms of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which is a combination of the chemical score of the limiting amino acid multiplied by true digestibility of the protein. True protein digestibility values were low (61.4, 73.4, 52.6 and 80.5 for Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terrum and Agaricus macrosporus, respectively). Based on the essential amino acids pattern requirements for children, the limiting amino acids in P. ostreatus and A. macrosporus protein were sulphur-containing amino acids with chemical scores of 0.61 and 0.50, respectively. However, lysine was the limiting amino acid in the protein of T. claveryi and T. terreum with chemical scores of 0.71 and 0.67, respectively, and the PDCAAS was 0.43, 0.45, 0.35 and 0.40 for the mushrooms types, respectively. Considering the pattern of essential amino acid requirements of laboratory rats, the sulphur containing amino acids were the limiting amino acids in the protein of T. claveryi, P. ostreatus, T. terreum and A. macrosporus with chemical scores of 0.56, 0.30, 0.34 and 0.25, respectively. The PDCAAS were 0.34, 0.22. 0.17 and 0.20, respectively. It is concluded that the four mushroom types studied are of low protein quality. PMID:11855618

  7. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  8. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: karalue@bigpond.net.au

    2005-08-19

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

  9. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg 15N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the 15N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

  10. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge through microwave pre-treatment.

    Serrano, A; Siles, J A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Estévez-Pastor, F S; Toro-Baptista, E

    2016-07-15

    Sewage sludge generated in the activated sludge process is a polluting waste that must be treated adequately to avoid important environmental impacts. Traditional management methods, such as landfill disposal or incineration, are being ruled out due to the high content in heavy metal, pathogens, micropolluting compounds of the sewage sludge and the lack of use of resources. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A microwave pre-treatment at pilot scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. The operational variables of microwave pre-treatment (power and specific energy applied) were optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) under different pre-treatment conditions. According to the variation in the sCOD and TN concentration, the optimal operation variables of the pre-treatment were fixed at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. A subsequent anaerobic digestion test was carried out with raw and pre-treated sewage sludge under different conditions (20,000 J/g TS and 700 W; 20,000 J/g TS and 400 W; and 30,000 J/g TS and 400 W). Although stability was maintained throughout the process, the enhancement in the total methane yield was not high (up to 17%). Nevertheless, very promising improvements were determined for the kinetics of the process, where the rG and the OLR increased by 43% and 39%, respectively, after carrying out a pre-treatment at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. PMID:27107391

  11. Comparative studies of peak intensities and chromatographic separation of proteolytic digests, PTMs, and intact proteins obtained by nanoLC-ESI MS analysis at room and elevated temperatures.

    Moskovets, Eugene V; Ivanov, Alexander R

    2016-06-01

    This work demonstrates that the chromatographic separation performed at highly stabilized elevated temperature results in significant improvements in sensitivity, quantitative accuracy, chromatographic resolution, and run-to-run reproducibility of nanoLC-MS analysis of complex peptides mixtures. A newly developed platform was shown to provide conditions for accurate temperature stabilization and temperature homogeneity when performing nanoLC-ESI MS analysis. We quantitatively assessed and compared the recovery of peptides and small proteins from nanoLC columns at room and elevated temperatures. We found that analyses performed at highly stabilized elevated temperatures led to improved detection sensitivity, reproducibility, and chromatographic resolution in reversed-phase LC separation of unmodified peptides (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic), post-translationally modified peptides (O-phosphorylated), and small intact proteins. The analytical benefits of elevated temperatures for qualitative and quantitative proteomic LC-MS profiling were demonstrated using mixtures of synthetic peptides, tryptic digests of mixtures of model proteins, and digested total lysates of isolated rat kidney mitochondria. The effect of elevated temperature on the ion suppression was also demonstrated. Graphical Abstract A fragment of overlaid LC retention time-m/z planar views demonstrates the improved separation performance in the analysis of a complex peptide mixture at elevated temperature. Retention time-m/z 2D peptide features detected at 60 °C (magenta) were matched and aligned with features detected at room temperature (green). PMID:26898204

  12. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut. PMID:26696120

  13. Identification of cereal proteins by analysis of in-gel digested nonspecific peptides by MALDI-TOF MS

    Chmelík, Josef; Řehulka, Pavel; Allmaier, G.

    2004, s. 48. ISBN 963 7067 108. [IMMS. Informal Meeting on Mass Spectrometry /22./. Tokaj (HU), 02.05.2004-06.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : MALDI-TOF MS * cereal proteins * in-gel digest Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  14. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4 ± 2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P  0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response. PMID:23096766

  15. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

    2007-06-15

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  16. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  17. Laser-improved protein crystallization screening

    The effect of laser irradiation on freshly prepared protein drops was explored and found to be a viable tool to induce nucleation. In our experiment, the number of positive crystallization hits during the screening process increased. In some instances the speed of crystal growth, the size of the crystals and the resolution of X-ray diffraction showed a marked improvement after laser exposure. Under optimized laser settings, in no case was the laser detrimental to crystal growth. Screening of proteins for crystallization under laser irradiation was investigated using six proteins: ribonuclease B, glucose dehydrogenase, lysozyme, sorbitol dehydrogenase, fructose dehydrogenase and myoglobin. Shining 532 nm green circularly polarized laser light with a picosecond pulse and 6 mW power for 30 s on newly set-up protein drops showed a marked improvement in the number of screen conditions amenable for crystal growth compared with control drops under identical conditions but without laser exposure. For glucose dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, larger and better quality crystals were formed and the resolution of X-ray diffraction was improved. The speed of crystallization increased in the case of ribonuclease B, lysozyme and sorbitol dehydrogenase. During laser irradiation, the amount of precipitation in the screened drops increased, indicating a transient decrease in protein solubility. At the optimized laser settings, there was no deleterious effect of the laser on crystal growth or on the protein. In the cases of ribonuclease B and lysozyme the crystal packing did not change owing to the laser exposure

  18. Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is the major peptidase responsible for digesting polyglutamine sequences released by proteasomes during protein degradation

    Bhutani, N; Venkatraman, P; Goldberg, A L

    2007-01-01

    Long stretches of glutamine (Q) residues are found in many cellular proteins. Expansion of these polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences is the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Huntington's disease). Eukaryotic proteasomes have been found to digest polyQ sequences in proteins very slowly, or not at all, and to release such potentially toxic sequences for degradation by other peptidases. To identify these key peptidases, we investigated the degradation in cell extracts of m...

  19. DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND CHELATING ACTIVITY OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES FROM SPIRULINA (Arthrospira maxima) OBTAINED BY SIMULATED GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTION

    N. Martínez-Palma; A. Martínez-Ayala; G. Dávila-Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of tw...

  20. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-dige...

  1. A Peptidomic Analysis of Human Milk Digestion in the Infant Stomach Reveals Protein-Specific Degradation Patterns123

    Dallas, David C.; GUERRERO, ANDRÉS; Khaldi, Nora; Borghese, Robyn; Bhandari, Aashish; Underwood, Mark A; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In vitro digestion of isolated milk proteins results in milk peptides with a variety of actions. However, it remains unclear to what degree protein degradation occurs in vivo in the infant stomach and whether peptides previously annotated for bioactivity are released. This study combined nanospray LC separation with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, comprehensive structural libraries, and informatics to analyze milk from 3 human mothers and the gastric aspirates from their 4- to 12-d-old post...

  2. Comparison of Seven Chemical Pretreatments of Corn Straw for Improving Methane Yield by Anaerobic Digestion

    Song, Zilin; GaiheYang,; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and ...

  3. A Comparative Study of In-Gel Digestions Using Microwave and Pressure-Accelerated Technologies

    Alvarado, Rudy; Tran, Diana; Ching, Bonnie; Brett S. Phinney

    2010-01-01

    One of the most popular methods to prepare tryptic peptides for bottom-up proteomic analysis is in-gel digestion. To date, there have been few studies comparing various digestion methods. In this study, we compare the efficiency of several popular in-gel digestion methods, along with new technologies that may improve digestion efficiency, using a human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysate protein standard. The efficiency of each protocol was based on the average number of proteins identified and ...

  4. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration.

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models. PMID:26869107

  5. In vitro digestion of Pickering emulsions stabilized by soft whey protein microgel particles: influence of thermal treatment.

    Sarkar, Anwesha; Murray, Brent; Holmes, Melvin; Ettelaie, Rammile; Abdalla, Azad; Yang, Xinyi

    2016-04-13

    Emulsions stabilized by soft whey protein microgel particles have gained research interest due to their combined advantages of biocompatibility and a high degree of resistance to coalescence. We designed Pickering oil-in-water emulsions using whey protein microgels by a facile route of heat-set gel formation followed by mechanical shear and studied the influence of heat treatment on emulsions stabilized by these particles. The aim of this study was to compare the barrier properties of the microgel particles and heat-treated fused microgel particles at the oil-water interface in delaying the digestion of the emulsified lipids using an in vitro digestion model. A combination of transmission electron microscopy and surface coverage measurements revealed an increased coverage of heat-treated microgel particles at the interface. The heat-induced microgel particle aggregation and, therefore, a fused network at the oil-water interface were more beneficial to delay the rate of digestion in the presence of pure lipase and bile salts compared to intact whey protein microgel particles, as shown by the measurements of zeta potential and free fatty acid release, plus theoretical calculations. However, simulated gastric digestion with pepsin impacted significantly on such barrier effects, due to the proteolysis of the particle network at the interface irrespective of the heat treatment, as visualized using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis measurements. PMID:26959339

  6. Effect of protein corona magnetite nanoparticles derived from bread in vitro digestion on Caco-2 cells morphology and uptake.

    Di Silvio, Desirè; Rigby, Neil; Bajka, Balazs; Mackie, Alan; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) in biological fluids immediately interact with proteins forming a biomolecular corona (PC) that imparts their biological identity. While several studies on the formation of the PC in human plasma have been reported, the PC of orally administrated NPs has been less investigated, mostly in the presence of a food matrix. In fact, food matrixes when digested are subject of several dynamic changes that will certainly affect the PC formed on the NPs. The lack of studies on this topic is clearly related to the difficulty in isolating representative PC NPs from such a complex environment. In this work magnetite NPs were added to in vitro simulated digestion simultaneously with bread and PC NPs were isolated after gastric and duodenal phases by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation (UC). The PC NPs were characterized in terms of size and protein composition. Translocation studies were then performed on Caco-2 monolayers in a serum free environment and cell morphology was characterized by confocal microscopy. PC NPs isolated from gastric and duodenal phases were different in size, surface charge and protein corona composition. NP cellular uptake was enhanced by the digestive PC inducing morphology changes in the cell monolayer. Overall, in this work we were able to isolate PC NPs from digested fluids in the presence of a food matrix and study their biological response on Caco-2 cells. PMID:26520468

  7. Structural analysis of a MIP family protein from the digestive tract of Cicadella viridis.

    Beuron, F; Le Cahérec, F; Guillam, M T; Cavalier, A; Garret, A; Tassan, J P; Delamarche, C; Schultz, P; Mallouh, V; Rolland, J P

    1995-07-21

    Homopteran insects, and especially Cicadella viridis, display in their digestive tract a specialized epithelial differentiation, the filter chamber (FC) acting as a water-shunting complex. The main intrinsic membrane protein of the FC is a 25,000-Da polypeptide (P25). In this paper we demonstrate that this P25 polypeptide is a member of the MIP family of membrane channel proteins, and that P25 forms homotetramers in the native membranes. Using polymerase chain reaction, a 360-base pair cDNA, named cic, was isolated from RNA of the FC. cic encodes a 119-amino acid polypeptide (CIC) whose homologies with MIP26, AQP1 (CHIP), AQP2, and gamma-TIP are 38, 38, 34, and 20%, respectively. Using a specific antibody raised against a 15-amino acid peptide from the CIC sequence, we concluded that CIC and P25 are identical entities, and hence that P25 belongs to the MIP family. We investigated the quaternary structure of P25 in the membranes of the FC using biophysical analysis of P25 nondenaturing detergent micelles, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and image processing of conventional transmission electron microscopic images. All those different approaches converged to the conclusion that P25 exists as an homotetramer forming a regular two-dimensional array in the membranes. PMID:7542238

  8. Identification and characterization of antioxidant peptides obtained by gastrointestinal digestion of amaranth proteins.

    Orsini Delgado, María C; Nardo, Agustina; Pavlovic, Marija; Rogniaux, Hélène; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2016-04-15

    The objective of the present work was to separate and identify antioxidant peptides from a simulated gastrointestinal digest (Id) from Amaranthus mantegazzianus proteins (I), which has previously been demonstrated to have this activity. I and Id were separated by preparative RP-HPLC. Fractions were evaluated by the ORAC method and the more active ones were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Each fraction presented diverse peptides from different proteins, most of them from the 11S globulin. After grouping the peptides from 11S globulin according to their overlapping sequences, and based on previous information about structure-activity relationships, ten sequences were synthesized, in order to evaluate their antioxidant activity. Four peptides presented interesting activity: AWEEREQGSR>YLAGKPQQEH?IYIEQGNGITGM?TEVWDSNEQ. They exhibited some of the structural characteristics already known to demonstrate this activity, all of them containing at least one bulky aromatic residue. All belonged to little structured, internal or exposed regions of the acid subunit of the 11S globulin. PMID:26675853

  9. Eco-efficient post treatment of digestate from farm and collective biogas plants to improve nutrients (N&P) recycling

    Trémier, Anne; Béline, Fabrice; Déchaux, Claire; Aissan, Lynda; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Thomsen, Marianne

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste from agriculture and others sectors is a widely used technology which shows increasing implementation due to its capacity to produce renewable energy and also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. The development of AD is also an...... organic waste to agricultural soils for decreased resource depletion and climate mitigation. Substitution of the use of N and P mineral fertilizers with recycled soil health improver or organic fertilizers products as function of fi ve diff erent post-treatment technologies and raw digestate...

  10. Environmental sustainability of an energy self-sufficient sewage treatment plant: improvements through DEMON and co-digestion.

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Dewulf, Jo; Boeckx, Pascal; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    It is still not proven that treatment of sewage in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is (in every case) environmentally friendly. To address this matter, we have applied a state-of-the-art life cycle assessment (LCA) to an energy self-sufficient WWTP in Strass (Austria), its supply chain and the valorization of its 'products': produced electricity out of biogas from sludge digestion and the associated stabilized digestate, applied as agricultural fertilizer. Prominent aspects of our study are: a holistic environmental impact assessment, measurement of greenhouse gas emissions (including N2O), and accounting for infrastructure, replacement of conventional fertilizers and toxicity of metals present in the stabilized digestate. Additionally, the environmental sustainability improvement by implementing one-stage partial nitritation/anammox (e.g. DEMON(®)) and co-digestion was also assessed. DEMON on the digesters reject water leads to a considerable saving of natural resources compared to nitritiation/denitritation (about 33% of the life cycle resource input), this through the lowering of sludge consumption for N-removal, and thus increasing electricity production via a higher sludge excess. However, its N2O emission could be restrained through further optimization as it represents a large share (30-66%) of the plants' damaging effect on human health, this through climate change. The co-substrate addition to the digester resulted in no significant improvement of the digestion process but induced net electricity generation. If respective amounts of conventional fertilizers are replaced, the land application of the stabilized digestate is environmentally friendly through prevention of natural resource consumption and diversity loss, but possibly not regarding human health impact due the presence of toxic heavy metals, mainly Zn, in the digestate. The outcomes show that the complete life cycle results in a prevention of resource extraction from nature and a potential mitigation of diversity loss (though for some impact categories no quantification of associated diversity loss is possible) but it also leads to a damaging effect on human health, mainly via climate change and heavy metal toxicity. Since it is for now impossible to aggregate the impact to these different aspects in a sound manner, it is not yet possible to consider in this case the studied system as environmentally friendly. Generally, the field of LCA needs further development to present a better and single outcome. PMID:25727156

  11. Comparative study on chemical pretreatment methods for improving enzymatic digestibility of crofton weed stem.

    Zhao, Xuebing; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Dehua

    2008-06-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng), a potential pathway was proposed by using it as a feedstock for production of fermentable sugars. Three chemical pretreatment methods were used for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem. Mild H2SO4 pretreatment could obtain a relatively high yield of sugars in the pretreatment (32.89%, based on initial holocellulose), however, it led to only a slight enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. NaOH pretreatment could obtain a higher enzymatic conversion ratio of cellulose compared with H2SO4 pretreatment. Peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment seemed to be the most effective for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem in the three chemical pretreatment methods under the same conditions. The conversion ratio of cellulose in the sample pretreated by PAA under the "optimal" condition was increased to 50% by cellulase loading of 80 FPU/g cellulose for 72 h incubation. A number of empirical quadratic models were successfully developed according to the experimental data to predict the yield of sugar and degree of delignification. PMID:17709243

  12. Review of feedstock pretreatment strategies for improved anaerobic digestion: From lab-scale research to full-scale application.

    Carrere, Hélène; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Affes, Rim; Passos, Fabiana; Battimelli, Audrey; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Ferrer, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    When properly designed, pretreatments may enhance the methane potential and/or anaerobic digestion rate, improving digester performance. This paper aims at providing some guidelines on the most appropriate pretreatments for the main feedstocks of biogas plants. Waste activated sludge was firstly investigated and implemented at full-scale, its thermal pretreatment with steam explosion being most recommended as it increases the methane potential and digestion rate, ensures sludge sanitation and the heat needed is produced on-site. Regarding fatty residues, saponification is preferred for enhancing their solubilisation and bioavailability. In the case of animal by-products, this pretreatment can be optimised to ensure sterilisation, solubilisation and to reduce inhibition linked to long chain fatty acids. With regards to lignocellulosic biomass, the first goal should be delignification, followed by hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis, alkali or biological (fungi) pretreatments being most promising. As far as microalgae are concerned, thermal pretreatment seems the most promising technique so far. PMID:26384658

  13. Vegetable processing wastes addition to improve swine manure anaerobic digestion: Evaluation in terms of methane yield and SEM characterization

    Highlights: ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate for swine manure anaerobic digestion. ? Two hydraulic retention times of 25 and 15 d, respectively. ? SEM characterization of anaerobic sludges to observe microbial composition. ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate increases methane yields up to three times. ? Microbial composition changes after 120 d of digestion. -- Abstract: The effect of adding vegetable waste as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of swine manure was investigated. The study was carried out at laboratory scale using semi-continuous stirred tank reactors working at 37 °C. Organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.4 and 0.6 g VS L?1 d?1 were evaluated, corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 25 and 15 d, respectively. The addition of vegetable wastes (50% dw/dw) resulted in an improvement of 3 and 1.4-fold in methane yields at HRTs of 25 and 15 d, respectively. Changes on microbial morphotypes were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Samples analyzed were sludge used as inoculum and digestate obtained from swine manure anaerobic reactors. SEM pictures demonstrated that lignocellulosic material was not completely degraded. Additionally, microbial composition was found to change to cocci and rods morphotypes after 120 d of anaerobic digestion.

  14. Protein digestion in cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) as a target for plant defence by endogenous proteinase inhibitors.

    Pyati, Prashant; Bandani, Ali R; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2011-07-01

    Gut extracts from cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) showed significant levels of proteolytic activity, which was inhibited by reagents specific for cysteine proteases and chymotrypsin-like proteases. Gut tissue contained cDNAs encoding cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinases, similar to those identified in the closely related pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Analysis of honeydew (liquid excreta) from cereal aphids fed on diet containing ovalbumin showed that digestion of ingested proteins occurred in vivo. Protein could partially substitute for free amino acids in diet, although it could not support complete development. Recombinant wheat proteinase inhibitors (PIs) fed in diet were antimetabolic to cereal aphids, even when normal levels of free amino acids were present. PIs inhibited proteolysis by aphid gut extracts in vitro, and digestion of protein fed to aphids in vivo. Wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, which was found to inhibit serine and cysteine proteinases, was more effective in both inhibitory and antimetabolic activity than wheat cystatin, which inhibited cysteine proteases only. Digestion of ingested protein is unlikely to contribute significantly to nutritional requirements when aphids are feeding on phloem, and the antimetabolic activity of dietary proteinase inhibitors is suggested to result from effects on proteinases involved in degradation of endogenous proteins. PMID:21477592

  15. Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 digests fats in human milk and formula in concert with gastric lipase and carboxyl ester lipase

    Johnson, Karin; Ross, Leah; Miller, Rita; Xiao, Xunjun; Lowe, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dietary fats must be digested into fatty acids and monoacylglycerols prior to absorption. In adults, colipase-dependent pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) contributes significantly to fat digestion. In newborn rodents and humans, the pancreas expresses low levels of PTL. In rodents, a homologue of PTL, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) compensate for the lack of PTL. In human newborns, the role for PLRP2 in dietary fat digestion is uncl...

  16. Improving decoy databases for protein folding algorithms

    Lindsey, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 ACM. Predicting protein structures and simulating protein folding are two of the most important problems in computational biology today. Simulation methods rely on a scoring function to distinguish the native structure (the most energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing redundant structures. We test our approach on 17 different decoy databases of varying size and type and show significant improvement across a variety of metrics. We also test our improved databases on a popular modern scoring function and show that they contain a greater number of native-like structures than the original databases, thereby producing a more rigorous database for testing scoring functions.

  17. Decoy Database Improvement for Protein Folding.

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy; Lindsey, Aaron; Wu, Chih-Peng; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M

    2015-09-01

    Predicting protein structures and simulating protein folding are two of the most important problems in computational biology today. Simulation methods rely on a scoring function to distinguish the native structure (the most energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing redundant structures. We test our approach on 20 different decoy databases of varying size and type and show significant improvement across a variety of metrics. We also test our improved databases on two popular modern scoring functions and show that for most cases they contain a greater or equal number of native-like structures than the original databases, thereby producing a more rigorous database for testing scoring functions. PMID:26258648

  18. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hymøller, Lone; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Peter; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2014-01-01

    45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were...... 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg...... 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk...

  19. An ELISA-based procedure for assaying proteins in digests of human leukocytes and cell lines, using specifically selected peptides and appropriate antibodies

    Pace Umberto; Kott-Gutkowski Miriam; Glickstein Hava; Bishara-Shieban Janette; Braitbard Ori; Rund Deborah G; Stein Wilfred D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We describe the application of an ELISA-based assay (the Peptidomatrix) that can be used to simultaneously identify and quantitate a number of proteins in biological samples. The biological sample (blood component, biopsy, culture or other) is first lysed to release all the proteins, without any additional separation. The denatured proteins in the sample are then digested in bulk with the desired proteolytic enzyme(s). The peptides in the digest are then assayed by appropr...

  20. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  1. Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties

    Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

    2013-04-01

    Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant differences among treatments were registered in the above ground maize biomass. Molecular analysis conducted on microbial soil communities suggested that the application of digested residues to soil contributes to substantial modifications of both bacterial and fungal community structure. Soil organic C and total N increased in soils treated with digested residues addition, with no significant differences between the two doses of digestate. Cation exchange capacity did not show significant differences among treatments, remaining stable during the maize vegetative cycle. Differently, some variations occurred in the exchangeable cation pool. In particular, K content increased under digestate treatments, while Na and Mg contents increased with time irrespective of the fertilization treatment. No significant variations were observed in soil microelement levels, except for an increase in Zn content at the highest digestate dose. Moreover, digested residue addition had a positive impact on aggregates stability. From the first results, the absence of negative effects in plant productivity and soil fertility after residues application, at both doses, is a promising indication for the potential use of anaerobic digestate as substitute of mineral fertilizers.

  2. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system. PMID:22465955

  3. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    increased incorporation levels of PPC. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ash increased with increased proportion of dietary PPC, while there was no significant effect on the apparent digestibility of crude fat. The incorporation of 5.6% PPC decreased growth rate and 8.9% PPC decreased...

  4. The Prospect of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal as Ruminant Feeds Through Protein Quality Improvement by Microbes

    CH Prayitno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste of the broiler processing (feather is a potential source for animal feed. However the presence of keratins cause limited of feather use. Before using, therefore, feather must be treated to hydrolyze cysteine disulfide bound dominating keratins protein. Enzymatic (biological treatment using microbes will produce specific feather hydrolyzed and does not have negative impact on environment. The research objected to get the microbes which degradated selected keratins, improve protein quality of feather meal and find out the best ration formulation true in vitro the basic information to formulate in vivo ration. The research has been done in Laboratory of Animal Feedstuff Faculty of Animal Science UNSOED for eight months. Fermentation trial was done on liquid media with bath system. In vitro trial used of Tilley and Terry methods with parameter observe was dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, protein degradation, total VFA and solubility in pepsin. Based on all parameter, on fermentation trial with Bacillus licheniformis decides broiler chicken feather had good prospect to be developed on feed protein source. In vitro trial recommended ration with formulation of fermented feather meal concentrate (15 percent, soybeans meal (5 percent, rice bran (20 percent, molasses (4 percent, mineral mix (1 percent, with forage: concentrate ratio 40 : 60 could be used as in vivo ration. (Animal Production 5(1: 19-24 (2003 Key words : Hydrolyze, Feather, Keratin, Digestibility, Ruminant

  5. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen; Campbell, Patrick J.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    to trace the metabolic fate of dietary protein, 1·8% fishmeal was replaced with isotope-labelled whole protein (.98% 13C). The experiment was divided into a growth period lasting 89 d, growing fish from approximately 140 to 350 g, followed by a 3 d period feeding isotope-enriched diets. Isotope ratio...... MS was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4% of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3% of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention...... was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were...

  6. Absence of protein G-Fc interaction in ficin-derived mouse IgG1 digests.

    Belenky, Alexander S; Wask-Rotter, Elzbieta; Sommer, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Typical procedure for IgG fragmentation is based on proteolytic cleavage at the hinge region and usually involves a post-digestion purification step. In mice, IgG1 has been found to bind poorly to protein A. As a result, protein G chromatography could be considered as an alternative for Fc removal. Protein G is generally expected to bind specifically to the Fc region of IgG, but applying protein G for the purification of Fab2 fragment of mouse monoclonal IgG1 under standard physiological conditions, we obtained reproducible clone-independent negligible protein G-Fc reactivity and strong protein G-Fab2 interaction. PMID:12953975

  7. Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Duangrat Chookird

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

  8. Defining full-scale Anaerobic Digestion Stability: The Case of Central Weber Sewer Improvement District

    Morris E. Demitry; McFarland, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge was monitored for one hundred days. A chemical oxygen demand, COD, and volatile solids (VS), and mass balance were conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing methane gas. The COD mass balance could account for nearly 90% of the methane gas produced while the VS mass balance showed that 91% of the organic matter removed resulted in biogas formation. Other parameters moni...

  9. Recreates of steers on pastures with and without supplementation proteineous / energetics in the waters: intake, digestibility of nutrients and performance

    Daniel Lucas Santos Dias; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Fabiano Fereira da Silva; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Rita Kelly Couto Brandão; Anderson Luiz Nascimento da Silva; Daniele Soares Barroso; Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida Lins; Fabricio Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the supply of supplement of protein and supplement mineral in the rearing of crossbred steers Holstein x Zebu ½ maintained on Brachiaria brizantha. Marandu, in the rainy season and its implications on intake, nutrient digestibility and animal performance. Were used 22 steers averaging seven months of age and mean initial body weight of 164.09 ± 12.13 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with two types of supplement and eleven repetition...

  10. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... in a 2×2 factorial design in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Ruminal degradabilities were 14.9 and 18.6%, and intestinal digestibilities were 98.9 and 68.3%, respectively, for CP in blood meal and feather meal. Treatment effects on ruminal digestibilities were small. Protein supplementation increased...... total N intake by 29%, duodenal AA N flow by 39%, and AA N absorbed by 37%; absorption of Leu and Lys increased 60 and 33%, and absorption of ne and Met increased 11 and 7%, respectively. Measured duodenal AA N flow (Cr2O3 marker) was 33% higher in cows cannulated adjacent to the pylorus compared with...

  11. Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion

    In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion. (paper)

  12. Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion

    Pečová, M.; Šebela, M.; Marková, Z.; Poláková, K.; Čuda, J.; Šafářová, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion.

  13. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients. PMID:26770915

  14. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  15. Chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity of tortilla made with a blend of quality protein maize and black bean.

    Grajales-García, Eva M; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Goñi, Isabel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics. PMID:22312252

  16. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    Grajales-García, Eva M.; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Goñi, Isabel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics. PMID:22312252

  17. Crude protein levels in diets containing pelleted concentrate for lactating goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

    Edileusa de Jesus dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of crude protein (100, 130, 160 and 190 g kg-1 of dry matter of diets composed of 200 g kg-1 of Tifton 85 grass hay and 800 g kg-1 of pelleted concentrate on intake, nutrient digestibility, production and composition of milk in lactating goats. Eight female Saanen goats with 42.7 ± 1.43 kg and 57.7 ± 7.37 days of lactation and milk production of 2 ± 0.22 kg at the beginning of the experiment were housed in individual 1.32 × 3.10 m stalls and distributed into two 4 × 4-balanced Latin squares. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ether extract and total digestible nutrients showed a quadratic effect, with maximum intake of 2.030; 2.000; 305; 769; 55 and 1.574 g day-1 at the levels of 140.7; 140.8; 189.2; 140.9; 144.9 e 142.7 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrient level varied linearly, with increases estimated at 0.54; 0.50, 2.02, 0.49, 0.80 and 0.63 g/100g for each percentage unit of protein added to the diet, respectively. Milk production was affected, with increase of 0.54 g for each 1% crude protein added to the diet. Milk lactose level decreased linearly, unlike the fat level, which increased linearly. Protein level showed a quadratic behavior, with a maximum of 36.7 g per kg of milk at the level of 160.5 g per kg of DM. It is recommended to use crude protein between 135 g and 150 g per kg of dry matter of diets consisting of 800 g of pelleted concentrate (composed of soybean meal replacing the alfalfa hay as protein source per kg of DM for lactating goats producing 2 kg of milk per day.

  18. Digestion of high rate activated sludge coupled to biochar formation for soil improvement in the tropics.

    Nansubuga, Irene; Banadda, Noble; Ronsse, Frederik; Verstraete, Willy; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-09-15

    High rate activated sludge (HRAS) is well-biodegradable sludge enabling energy neutrality of wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion. However, even through successful digestion a notable residue still remains. Here we investigated whether this residue can be converted to biochar, for its use as a fertilizer or as a solid fuel, and assessed its characteristics and overall process efficiency. In a first phase, HRAS was anaerobicaly digested under mesophilic conditions at a sludge retention time of 20 days. HRAS digested well (57.9 ± 6.2% VS degradation) producing on average 0.23 ± 0.04 L CH4 per gram VS fed. The digestate particulates were partially air-dried to mimic conditions used in developing countries, and subsequently converted to biochar by fixed-bed slow pyrolysis at a residence time of 15 min and at highest heating temperatures (HHT) of 300 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C. Subsequently, the produced chars were characterized by proximate analysis, CHN-elemental analysis, pH in solution and bomb calorimetry for higher heating value. The yield and volatile matter decreased with increasing HHT while ash content and fixed carbon increased with increasing HHT. The produced biochar showed properties optimal towards soil amendment when produced at a temperature of 600 °C with values of 5.91 wt%, 23.75 wt%, 70.35% on dry basis (db) and 0.44 for volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash content and H/C ratio, respectively. With regard to its use for energy purposes, the biochar represented a lower calorific value than the dried HRAS digestate likely due to high ash content. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion of HRAS and its subsequent biochar formation at HHT of 600 °C represents an attractive route for sludge management in tropic settings like in Uganda, coupling carbon capture to energy generation, carbon sequestration and nutrient recovery. PMID:26072019

  19. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and CP in broilers fed the SBM diet were greater ( < 0.01) than the other group. The full digestive system in broilers fed SBM had a lower ( < 0.05) absolute and relative weight than that of broilers fed TML. Also, the weight and the percentage of the spleen in the SBM group were lower ( < 0.05) than those in the TML group. The length of the entire intestine in the group fed TML was greater ( < 0.05) than the other group and the same happened when intestinal length was expressed as percentage of broiler BW ( < 0.05). Among the different intestinal tracts, the ileum and ceca of broilers fed TML had a greater ( < 0.05) length than that of broilers fed SBM. Also, ceca weight (as an absolute value or percentage on live weight) in broilers fed TML was greater ( < 0.05) than that of broilers fed SBM. Breast pH and cooking losses in broilers fed TML were greater ( < 0.05) than those of broilers fed SBM. Chemical characteristic of meat obtained from right breast of slaughtered broilers were unaffected by dietary treatments. larvae meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for growing broilers and also when used as principal protein contributor to the diet. PMID:27065134

  20. Role of protein, amino acids, and enzyme activity on odor production from anaerobically digested and dewatered biosolids.

    Higgins, Matthew J; Adams, Gregory; Chen, Yen-Chih; Erdal, Zeynep; Forbes, Robert H; Glindemann, Dietmar; Hargreaves, J Ronald; McEwen, David; Murthy, Sudhir N; Novak, John T; Witherspoon, Jay

    2008-02-01

    The main objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that bioavailable protein and, more specifically, the sulfur-containing amino acids within the protein, can be degraded by proteolytic enzymes to produce odor-causing compounds--mainly volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs)--during biosolids storage. To achieve these objectives, samples of digester effluent and cake solids were collected at 11 different wastewater treatment plants in North America, and the samples were analyzed for protein and amino acid content and general protein-degrading enzyme activity. At the same time, cake samples were stored using headspace bottles, the concentration of VSCs were measured using gas chromatography, and olfactometry measurements were made by a trained odor panel. The results showed that the bound cake protein content and methionine content was well-correlated with VSC production and the detection threshold measured by the odor panel. PMID:18330222

  1. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Farhad Foroudi; Abdollah Ghasemi-Jirdehi; Saeed Khalaji; Seyed Naser Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP) by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2) with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5%) and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36) of laying h...

  2. Digestive tract

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131I, 125I or 82Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14C and 191Y. The use of 57Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131I, 125I and 51Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51Cr

  3. New technologies in proteomics: automated excision and digestion of fluorescently stained protein gel spots and identification of proteins by MALDI-QTOF mass spectrometry

    This presentation is an overview of the techniques and systems we use for large-scale proteomics in plants. This includes a variety of 2D gel electrophoresis methods, and automation of spot-cutting, in-gel digestion, nanoLC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry and SEQUEST based protein identification. Examples and applications of several new technologies will also be shown, including the use of a robotic spot cutter in conjunction with high sensitivity fluorescent protein staining and the identification of proteins by redundant peptide identification in a high-throughput fashion using a hybrid MALDI-Qtof mass spectrometer

  4. Improved efficiency and stable digestion of biomass in non-mixed upflow solids reactors

    Srivastava, V.J.; Fannin, K.F.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Frank, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR), which permitted longer solids than hydraulic retention times, was used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The performance of the USR was compared to that of the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at different organic loading rates in terms of methane yield, methane production rate, and process stability. Results showed that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp compositional variability, methane yields and production rates in the USR were significantly higher than those observed with the CSTR. Results also showed that volatile acid concentrations, which are generally inversely related to digester stability, were significantly lower in the USR than in the CSTR. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY GRADED LEVELS OF DIGESTIBLE LYSINE AND LOWERING ENERGY TO PROTEIN RATIO ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS UNDER SUBTROPICAL SUMMER CONDITIONS

    MMH Mushtaq

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe digestible lysine requirement for the growth performance of broilers fed diets with decreasing energy to protein ratio and reared under subtropical summer conditions were determined. Treatments consisted of five wheat-based diets with five levels (0.90, 0.95, 1.00, 1.05 and 1.10% of digestible lysine (DL and lowering energy to protein ratio (EPR; 13.6, 12.8, 12.0, 11.4 and 11.0, with five replicates of 80 birds each (n = 2000. Body weight gain (BWG significantly increased by increasing DL levels during wk 1 (p<0.001, while 1.05% DL promoted the highest BWG during the whole experimental period (p<0.01. Increasing DL level resulted in significant reduction in feed intake (FI and BWG to DL intake ratio (BWG:DLI during wk 1-3 (p<0.05. Feed:gain ratio (FGR significantly (p<0.01 improved with DL levels up to 1.05% during the whole experimental period, except for wk 5. The increasing ambient temperature had a linear effect on the all growth parameters. It is inferred that best growth performance can be obtained at 1.05% DL, maintaining all other AA constant under subtropical summer conditions.

  6. The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide.

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects. PMID:25284010

  7. Strategies in protein sequencing and characterization: Multi-enzyme digestion coupled with alternate CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry

    Highlights: • Multi-enzyme digestion for protein sequencing and characterization by CID/ETD. • Simultaneous use of trypsin/chymotrypsin for the maximization of sequence. • Identification of PTMs, sequence variants and species-specific residues. • Increase of accuracy in sequence assignments by orthogonal fragmentation techniques. - Abstract: A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

  8. Strategies in protein sequencing and characterization: Multi-enzyme digestion coupled with alternate CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry

    Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.palermo@unifg.it; Natale, Anna; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Multi-enzyme digestion for protein sequencing and characterization by CID/ETD. • Simultaneous use of trypsin/chymotrypsin for the maximization of sequence. • Identification of PTMs, sequence variants and species-specific residues. • Increase of accuracy in sequence assignments by orthogonal fragmentation techniques. - Abstract: A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

  9. Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: intake, digestibility and microbial protein production

    Carla Aparecida Soares Saraiva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried to evaluate the effect of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay [EGH], corn straw [CS], hay of cassava shoots [HCS], fresh sugarcane bagasse [FSB], and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse [HSB] on intake, apparent digestibility and macrobiotic protein production of cows. Five cows with 265 kg average body weight, 4.95 kg average daily milk yield and 5.22 kg 4% fat-corrected milk yield were randomly allocated to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals fed cactus associated with CS, EGH and HCS showed higher intake of DM and nutrients. However, regarding the digestibility, diets with sugarcane bagasse showed higher digestibility compared with those with CS and hay. For microbial protein, the excretion of purine derivatives, synthesis of microbial N and microbial protein production were higher in the treatment with CS than in the treatment with sugarcane bagasse. On the other hand, the treatment with EGH and HCS did not have statistical differences compared with the other cases. The mean efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of the experiment was 131 g microbial crude protein/kg of TDN. The treatment with CS showed better efficiency; however, it was statistically superior only compared with FSB. The other treatments did not show statistical difference compared with the other cases. Diets with cactus associated with corn straw, hay of elephant grass or hay of cassava shoots provide higher intake of dry matter and nutrients and better metabolic response compared with diets with cactus associated with sugarcane bagasse for lactating Sindhi cows.

  10. Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: intake, digestibility and microbial protein production

    Carla Aparecida Soares, Saraiva; Severino, Gonzaga Neto; Maria Fernanda Soares, Queiroz; Lara Toledo, Henriques; Edilson Paes, Saraiva; Rômulo Pontes de Freitas, Albuquerque; Vinicius de França Carvalho, Fonseca; George Vieira do, Nascimento.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried to evaluate the effect of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay [EGH], corn straw [CS], hay of cassava shoots [HCS], fresh sugarcane bagasse [FSB], and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse [HSB]) on intake, apparent digestibility and macrobiotic protein p [...] roduction of cows. Five cows with 265 kg average body weight, 4.95 kg average daily milk yield and 5.22 kg 4% fat-corrected milk yield were randomly allocated to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals fed cactus associated with CS, EGH and HCS showed higher intake of DM and nutrients. However, regarding the digestibility, diets with sugarcane bagasse showed higher digestibility compared with those with CS and hay. For microbial protein, the excretion of purine derivatives, synthesis of microbial N and microbial protein production were higher in the treatment with CS than in the treatment with sugarcane bagasse. On the other hand, the treatment with EGH and HCS did not have statistical differences compared with the other cases. The mean efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of the experiment was 131 g microbial crude protein/kg of TDN. The treatment with CS showed better efficiency; however, it was statistically superior only compared with FSB. The other treatments did not show statistical difference compared with the other cases. Diets with cactus associated with corn straw, hay of elephant grass or hay of cassava shoots provide higher intake of dry matter and nutrients and better metabolic response compared with diets with cactus associated with sugarcane bagasse for lactating Sindhi cows.

  11. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon fed protein deficient diet

    Jian Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys and methionine (Met on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4: i CP-adequate (16.63% diet; ii CP-deficient (13.77% diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv CP-deficient diet with 3 g/kg Lys and 2 g/kg Met. The digestibility of dry matter P<0.01, organic matter (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01, serum albumin (P<0.01, and total protein (P<0.01 concentrations of groups receiving CP-adequate or Met supplementation were improved. The average daily gain (P=0.10, gain to feed ratio (P=0.07, the digestibility of acid (P=0.07 and neutral detergent fibre (P=0.09, and the serum globulin (P=0.08 concentrations had a tendency to increase as the Met or CP level increased. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen (P<0.01 and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 were decreased for CP-deficient, but no response to Met-added diets; aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04 depressed for both CP-deficient and Met-added diets. Therefore, amino acids added to CP-deficient diets show high efficiency: they remain among the simplest ways for growth performance, while cutting down environmental waste and economic consumption.

  12. Improvement of the protein quality of corn with soybean protein.

    Bressani, R; Elías, L G; Braham, J E

    1978-01-01

    In most Central American countries, lime-treated corn provides 31% of the total protein and 45% of the energy intake, and beans 24% of the protein and 12% of the calories. Such diet is low in protein quality and quantity, as well as in energy. To overcome these deficiencies, corn can be supplemented either with its limiting amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, or better still, with whole soybeans which improve not only the amount and quality of the protein consumed but, because of their high oil content, the energy intake as well. In addition, animal experiments have shown that for maximum utilization of these nutrients, adequate vitamin and mineral intake is indispensable. At a level of 15 parts of whole soybean or 8 parts soybean-derived products, to 85--92 parts of corn there were no significant changes in the rheological or organoleptic characteristics of the tortilla prepared there of. Higher levels of soybean products, however, may affect the consistency of the lime-treated corn dough and, therefore, the tortilla acceptability. Since corn is usually cooked, but not ground, at home, the soybean supplement can be successfully added at the wet--milling stage of dough preparation or whole soybeans and corn may be cooked together, when a nutritional intervention is desired at the village level. At an industrial scale, if whole soybeans are used, they may be cooked together with corn, and if soy flour is used, this can be mixed at the end of the process when the cooked corn is ground to a flour. A flow diagram for supplementing corn with 15% whole soybeans is presented. If interventions of this nature are to be successful, there is need for increasing the prestige of corn-based food, as well as of nutrition education programs in these populations. PMID:569424

  13. Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal

    This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (P<0.05). EB irradiation was more effective than GR irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA (P<0.05). EB and GR treatments at a dose of 75 kGy increased in vitro digestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM. - Highlights: ? Irradiation was effective on reducing ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal. ? Ionizing radiations, especially electron beam, lessened ruminal degradability of amino acid substantially. ? Irradiation processing could be used as a safe and efficient method in improving nutritional value of cottonseed meal.

  14. Improvement of anaerobic digester performance by wastewater recirculation through an aerated membrane.

    Swine wastewater from an anaerobic digester was recirculated through a silicone hose located in an external aeration chamber to determine its effect on wastewater malodorants and biogas composition. The silicone hose acted as a semipermeable membrane for the passage of small molecules. In the first...

  15. Thermal wet oxidation improves anaerobic biodegradability of raw and digested biowaste

    Lissens, G.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; De Baere, L.; Verstraete, W.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    profits. The objective of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane yields from different biowastes (food waste, yard waste, and digested biowaste already treated in a full-scale biogas plant (DRANCO, Belgium)) by assessing thermal wet oxidation. The biodegradability of the...

  16. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. PMID:26341827

  17. The influence of irradiation treatment on gossypol and protein digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal for Broiler chicks

    The Effect of gamma irradiation (5-20 kGy) on the chemical composition, soluble protein, available lysine, gossypol, in-vitro and in vivo digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal (CSM) and the performance of broilers fed processed CSM were investigated. Radiation treatment of CSM at dose levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy did not affect moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and NFW content. However, the treatment reduced soluble protein by 4.18, 7.82, 10.91, 13.46%, respectively. Fluorodinitrobenzene-available lysine concentration reduced by 4.48, 8.12, 17.65 and 21.29% respectively. The concentrations of total gossypol decreased by 7.97, 15.78, 19.92 and 25.39% and free gossypol by 3.74, 7.85, 18.43 and 28.01%, respectively. The digestibility of CSM protein was increased by 5.3, 9.0, 16.6 and 17.2%, for in-vitro digestibility and by 4.8, 7.3, 9.4 and 12.9% for in-vivo due to treatment with 5,10, 15 and 20 kGy, respectively. From 7 to 42 days, arbor acres broilers were freely given iso energetic and iso nitrogenous : corn-soy control diet or diets containing 300 g kg-1 raw or irradiated CSM at 4, 15 or 20 kGy. Intake of raw CSM affected growth, feed intake and feed conversion as compared with birds receiving the control diet

  18. Quantificação de Polifenóis e Digestibilidade Protéica de Famílias de Feijoeiro Comum Polyphenol quantification and protein digestibility in common bean lineages

    Carla Viviane C. Egg Mendonça

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão é um dos alimentos encontrados em maior quantidade em todo o território nacional e é cultivado em quase todos os Estados. É uma importante fonte protéica na dieta do povo brasileiro, estando presente na alimentação da população rural e urbana. No presente trabalho, quantificaram-se os polifenóis e determinaram-se os níveis de digestibilidade protéica de cem famílias de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. obtidas do cruzamento entre os genótipos Amarelinho e CI 107. Os polifenóis afetam a qualidade do feijão, causando escurecimento, endurecimento e, ainda, podem reduzir a digestibilidade protéica. Pelos resultados obtidos, pôde-se encontrar 13 famílias com teores reduzidos de polifenóis e boa digestibilidade protéica in vitro, as quais poderão ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento dessa importante cultura.Common beans are one of the most important food crops in Brazil and are cultivated in almost all Brazilian states. It is an important protein source for Brazilian people in both rural and urban areas. The present work performed the quantification of phenolic compounds and in vitro protein digestibility of one hundred common bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L. obtained by crossing the genotypes "Amarelinho" and CI 107. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds affected bean cooking traits and quality through darkening and hardening of the seed coat. Phenolic compounds also influenced the in vitro protein digestibility. It was observed that all 13 lines presented low levels of phenolic compounds and good in vitro protein digestibility and, as a result, must be incorporated in the breeding programs for this important crop.

  19. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Covalent Chromatography After Solid Phase Derivatization of Protein Digests on Reversed Phase Supports.

    Nika, Heinz; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Hawke, David H

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of the phosphopeptide constituents from phosphoprotein digests is prerequisite to facilitate the mass spectrometric characterization of phosphorylation events. Here, we describe a chemical proteomics approach which combines solid phase derivatization of phosphoprotein digests with phosphopeptide enrichment by covalent chromatography. The use of the solid phase support for derivatization ensures for speed and completeness of reactions. The isolates proved highly suitable for mapping of the sites of phosphorylation by collisionally induced dissociation (CID). The method combines robustness with simplicity of operation using equipment available in biological laboratories, and may be readily extended to map the sites of O-glycosylation. PMID:26584917

  20. Measurement of the Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein Using Different Methods and Correlation Analysis

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Liu, Xiaolan; Kopparapu, N. K.; Xin, Hangshu; Liu, J.; Guo, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Four methods were adopted, including the mobile nylon bag (MNB) method, modified three-step in vitro (MTS) method, original three-step in vitro (OTS) method, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) estimating method, to evaluate the intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (DRUP) of 10 types of concentrates and 7 types of roughages. After correlation analysis to determine the DRUP values using the MNB, MTS, OTS, and ADIN methods, the study aimed to find out appropriate methods to replace the MNB method due to its disadvantages such as high price, long time period, and use of a duodenal T-fistula. Three dairy cows with a permanent ruminal fistula and duodenal T-fistula were used in a single-factor experimental design. The results showed that the determined DRUP values using the MNB method for soybean meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, corn germ meal, corn, rice bran, barley, wheat bran, corn fiber feed, Alfalfa (Zhao dong), Alfalfa (Long mu 801), Alfalfa (Long mu 803), grass (North), Grass (Inner Mongolia), corn silage and corn straw were 98.13%, 87.37%, 88.47%, 82.60%, 75.40%, 93.23%, 69.27%, 91.27%, 72.37%, 79.03%, 66.72%, 68.64%, 73.57%, 50.47%, 51.52%, 54.05%, and 43.84%, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.964) of the results between the MTS method and the MNB method was higher than that (R2 = 0.942) between the OTS method and the MNB method. The coefficient of determination of the DRUP values of the concentrates among the in vitro method (including the MTS and OTS methods) and the MNB method was higher than that of the roughage. There was a weak correlation between the determined DRUP values in concentrates obtained from the ADIN method and those from the MNB method, and there was a significant correlation (pvalues of the roughage obtained from the MNB method and those obtained from ADIN method. The DRUP values were significantly correlated with the nutritional ingredients of the feeds. The regression equation was DRUP =100.5566+0.4169CP ? 0.4344SP ? 0.7102NDF ? 0.7950EE (R2 = 0.8668, pvalues and the former method was more effective. Only the ADIN method could be used to predict the values of the roughages but conventional nutritional ingredients were available for all of the samples’ DRUP. PMID:26323402

  1. Measurement of the Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein Using Different Methods and Correlation Analysis.

    Wang, Y; Zhang, Y G; Liu, Xiaolan; Kopparapu, N K; Xin, Hangshu; Liu, J; Guo, Jianhua

    2015-10-01

    Four methods were adopted, including the mobile nylon bag (MNB) method, modified three-step in vitro (MTS) method, original three-step in vitro (OTS) method, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) estimating method, to evaluate the intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (DRUP) of 10 types of concentrates and 7 types of roughages. After correlation analysis to determine the DRUP values using the MNB, MTS, OTS, and ADIN methods, the study aimed to find out appropriate methods to replace the MNB method due to its disadvantages such as high price, long time period, and use of a duodenal T-fistula. Three dairy cows with a permanent ruminal fistula and duodenal T-fistula were used in a single-factor experimental design. The results showed that the determined DRUP values using the MNB method for soybean meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, corn germ meal, corn, rice bran, barley, wheat bran, corn fiber feed, Alfalfa (Zhao dong), Alfalfa (Long mu 801), Alfalfa (Long mu 803), grass (North), Grass (Inner Mongolia), corn silage and corn straw were 98.13%, 87.37%, 88.47%, 82.60%, 75.40%, 93.23%, 69.27%, 91.27%, 72.37%, 79.03%, 66.72%, 68.64%, 73.57%, 50.47%, 51.52%, 54.05%, and 43.84%, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R (2) = 0.964) of the results between the MTS method and the MNB method was higher than that (R (2) = 0.942) between the OTS method and the MNB method. The coefficient of determination of the DRUP values of the concentrates among the in vitro method (including the MTS and OTS methods) and the MNB method was higher than that of the roughage. There was a weak correlation between the determined DRUP values in concentrates obtained from the ADIN method and those from the MNB method, and there was a significant correlation (pneutral detergent fiber; EE, ether extract). It was concluded that both the MTS method and the OTS may suitable to replace the MNB method for determining the DRUP values and the former method was more effective. Only the ADIN method could be used to predict the values of the roughages but conventional nutritional ingredients were available for all of the samples' DRUP. PMID:26323402

  2. Digestive Diseases

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  3. Digestive System

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System Print A A ... body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  4. Peptidomics of Peptic Digest of Selected Potato Tuber Proteins: Post-Translational Modifications and Limited Cleavage Specificity.

    C K Rajendran, Subin R; Mason, Beth; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-03-23

    Bioinformatic tools are useful in predicting bioactive peptides from food proteins. This study was focused on using bioinformatics and peptidomics to evaluate the specificity of peptide release and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in a peptic digest of potato protein isolate. Peptides in the protein hydrolysate were identified by LC-MS/MS and subsequently aligned to their parent potato tuber proteins. Five major proteins were selected for further analysis, namely, lipoxygenase, α-1,4-glucan phosphorylase, annexin, patatin, and polyubiquitin, based on protein coverage, abundance, confidence levels, and function. Comparison of the in silico peptide profile generated with ExPASy PeptideCutter and experimental peptidomics data revealed several differences. The experimental peptic cleavage sites were found to vary in number and specificity from PeptideCutter predictions. Average peptide chain length was also found to be higher than predicted with hexapeptides as the smallest detected peptides. Moreover, PTMs, particularly Met oxidation and Glu/Asp deamidation, were observed in some peptides, and these were unaccounted for during in silico analysis. PTMs can be formed during aging of potato tubers, or as a result of processing conditions during protein isolation and hydrolysis. The findings provide insights on the limitations of current bioinformatics tools for predicting bioactive peptide release from proteins, and on the existence of structural modifications that can alter the peptide bioactivity and functionality. PMID:26947758

  5. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some dietary protein sources but not others. PMID:24431326

  6. Recombinant immobilized rhizopuspepsin as a new tool for protein digestion in hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Rey, Martial; Man, Petr; Brandolin, Gérard; Forest, Eric; Pelosi, Ludovic

    2009-11-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange coupled to mass spectrometry is nowadays routinely used to probe protein interactions or conformational changes. The method has many advantages, e.g. very low sample consumption, but offers limited spatial resolution. One way to higher resolution leads through the use of different proteases or their combinations. In the present work we describe recombinant production, purification and use of aspartic protease zymogen from Rhizopus chimensis, protease type XVIII (EC 3.4.23.6), commonly referred to as rhizopuspepsinogen (Rpg). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded and purified to homogeneity. A typical yield was approximately 100 mg of pure enzyme per 1 L of original bacterial culture. The kinetics of protease activation, i.e. removal of the propeptide achieved by autolysis in an acidic environment, was followed by mass spectrometry. The digestion efficiency was tested for the protease in solution as well as for the immobilized enzyme. Apomyoglobin was successfully digested under all conditions tested and the protease displayed very low or no autodigestion. The results outperformed those obtained with commercial protease where the digestion of apomyoglobin was incomplete and accompanied by many contaminating peptides. Taken together, the recombinant protease type XVIII can be considered as a new and highly efficient tool for H/D exchange followed by mass spectrometry. PMID:19827048

  7. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U?>?5), a 5-kDa permeate (U?digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p?digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells. PMID:26307493

  8. Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins

    Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

  9. Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins

    Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

  10. Inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 with amyloglucosidase for measuring non-digestible oligosaccharides and proposal for an improvement of the method.

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2014-05-15

    We wished to clarify the inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 for the measurement of non-digestible oligosaccharides and to propose an improved method using porcine intestinal enzymes. Amyloglucosidase used in AOAC method 2009.01 scarcely hydrolyses sucrose, palatinose and panose (which are readily digested by intestinal enzymes). Hence, oligosaccharides could not be measured accurately by AOAC method 2009.01. To confirm the inaccuracy of the method, we used porcine intestinal enzymes instead of amyloglucosidase. Using the improved method, fructooligosaccharide and galactooligosaccharide were measured accurately as non-digestible oligosaccharides, but sucrose, palatinose, panose and isomaltooligosaccharide were not. The improved method hydrolysed digestible oligosaccharides into monosaccharides. These results demonstrate that the inaccuracy of AOAC method 2009.01 for oligosaccharide measurement is due to incomplete hydrolysis by amyloglucosidase. We propose that amyloglucosidase should be replaced with porcine intestinal enzymes for such measurements. PMID:24423568

  11. Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests

    Pace Umberto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. Results In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual data in some model systems. Conclusion The data suggest that the peptides bind to the plastic substratum in more than one conformation and that, once bound, the peptide displays different affinities for the antibody, depending on how it has bound to the plate

  12. Proteomic profiling of platelet proteins by trypsin immobilized self-assembled monolayers digestion chip and protein identification using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tyan, Yu-Chang; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Jong, Shiang-Bin; Liao, Pao-Chi; Yang, Ming-Hui; Chang, Yin-Wei; Klauser, Ruth; Himmelhaus, Michael; Grunze, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on coinage metal provide versatile modeling systems for studies of interfacial electron transfer, biological interactions, molecular recognition, and other interfacial phenomena. Recently, the bonding of enzyme to SAMs of alkanethiols onto Au electrode surfaces was exploited to produce a bio-sensing system. In this work, the attachment of trypsin to a SAMs surface of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid was achieved using water soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling agent. Experimental results have revealed that the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) C1s core levels at 286.3 and 286.5 eV (C with N), 288.1 eV (amide bond), and 289.3 eV (carboxyl) illustrate the immobilization of trypsin. These data were also in good agreement with Fourier-Transformed Infrared Reflection-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectra for the peaks valued at 1659.4 cm(-1) (amide I) and 1546.6 cm(-1) (amide II). Using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) observations, analytical results have demonstrated the platelet proteins digestion of the immobilized trypsin on the functionalized SAMs surface. For such surfaces, platelet proteins were digested on the trypsin-immobilized SAMs surface, which shows the enzyme digestion ability of the immobilized trypsin. The terminal groups of the SAMs structure can be further functionalized with biomolecules or antibodies to develop surface-base diagnostics, biosensors, or biomaterials. PMID:15368258

  13. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others

  14. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  15. Effect of limonene on anaerobic digestion of citrus waste and pretreatments for its improvement

    RUIZ FUERTES, BEGOÑA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable and technically sound way to valorise citrus waste if the inhibitory effect of the citrus essential oil (CEO) is controlled. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome these difficulties: keeping the organic loading rate (OLR) in low values to avoid excess dosage of inhibitor, supplementing the citrus waste with nutrient and buffering solutions or pre-treating the citrus waste in order to reduce the CEO concentration, either by recovery or by d...

  16. Estimation of the Optimal Ratio of Standardized Ileal Digestible Threonine to Lysine for Finishing Barrows Fed Low Crude Protein Diets

    Xie, Chunyuan; Zhang, Shihai; Zhang, Guijie; Zhang, Fengrui; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirement and the ideal SID threonine (Thr) to Lys ratio for finishing barrows. In Exp. 1, 120 barrows with an average body weight of 72.8±3.6 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design conducted for 35 d. Each diet was fed to five pens of pigs containing four barrows. A normal crude protein (CP) diet providing 15.3% CP and 0.71% SID Lys and five low ...

  17. Functional and anti-nutritional properties, in-vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition of dehulled afzelia africana seeds

    Analysis of Afzelia africana seed flour showed that the seeds possessed high water absorption capacity (128.31%), good oil absorption capacity (588.49%) and fairly good emulsion property (35.25%). However, it had the Least gelation concentration (6 .00% w/v) and foaming properties ( 8.00%,3 .00%). Anti-nutritional factors were very low, with the highest being phytate (13.59/o) and tannin the least (0.43%). Total amino acid composition was 796.6 mg/g protein. Essentiaal amino acids (48.5%)w ere in high proportion with in-vitro digestibility of 71.5%. (author)

  18. Estimation of the optimal ratio of standardized ileal digestible threonine to lysine for finishing barrows fed low crude protein diets.

    Xie, Chunyuan; Zhang, Shihai; Zhang, Guijie; Zhang, Fengrui; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirement and the ideal SID threonine (Thr) to Lys ratio for finishing barrows. In Exp. 1, 120 barrows with an average body weight of 72.8±3.6 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design conducted for 35 d. Each diet was fed to five pens of pigs containing four barrows. A normal crude protein (CP) diet providing 15.3% CP and 0.71% SID Lys and five low CP diets providing 12% CP with SID Lys concentrations of 0.51, 0.61, 0.71, 0.81 and 0.91% were formulated. Increasing the SID Lys content of the diet resulted in an increase in weight gain (linear effect p = 0.04 and quadratic effect p = 0.08) and an improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linear effect p = 0.02 and quadratic effect p = 0.02). For weight gain and FCR, the estimated SID Lys requirement of finishing barrows were 0.71 and 0.71% (linear broken-line analysis), 0.79 and 0.78% (quadratic analysis), respectively. Exp. 2 was a 26 d dose-response study using SID Thr to Lys ratios of 0.56, 0.61, 0.67, 0.72 and 0.77. A total of 138 barrows weighing 72.5±4.4 kg were randomly allotted to receive one of the five diets. All diets were formulated to contain 0.61% SID Lys (10.5% CP), which is slightly lower than the pig's requirement. Weight gain was quadratically (p = 0.03) affected by SID Thr to Lys ratio while FCR was linearly improved (p = 0.02). The SID Thr to Lys ratios for maximal weight gain and minimal FCR and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) were 0.67, 0.71 and 0.64 using a linear broken-line model and 0.68, 0.78 and 0.70 using a quadratic model, respectively. Based on the estimates obtained from the broken-line and quadratic analysis, we concluded that the dietary SID Lys requirement for both maximum weight gain and minimum FCR was 0.75%, and an optimum SID Thr to Lys ratio was 0.68 to maximize weight gain, 0.75 to optimize FCR and 0.67 to minimize SUN for finishing barrows. PMID:25049898

  19. Infogest: an international network for improving health properties of food by sharing our knowledge on the digestive process

    Léonil, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    Establishing the links between food and human health was a top research priority for Europe. EU legislation, as advised by EFSA, now demands proper scientific data in nutrition and health claims. There is a lot of data being generated on the link between the food digestion and human health and a significant effort continues to be expended separately in each EU country on optimizing food for preventing the development of food-related diseases. The main objective of the COST Action “Improving...

  20. Improving ADM1 model to simulate anaerobic digestion start-up with inhibition phase based on cattle slurry

    The Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) was improved to simulate an anaerobic digestion start-up phase. To improve the ADM1, a combined hydrolysis equation was used based on the Contois model of bacterial growth and the function of hydrolysis inhibition by VFA. The start-up with fresh cattle slurry was carried out in a pilot-scale reactor to calibrate the chosen parameters of the ADM1. The important aspects of model calibration were hydrolysis rate, the number of anaerobic microbes in cattle slurry, and the growth rate of bacteria. Good simulation results were achieved after calibration for the independent start-up test with pre-conditioned cattle slurry. - Highlights: • Improved ADM1 can be used for simulation of reactor start-up with inhibition phase. • The hydrolysis rate had a decreased value in case of high VFA concentration or low number of hydrolytic bacteria. • Hydrolysis inhibitory threshold value of 9.85 g L−1 was obtained for VFA. • Start-up with pre-conditioned cattle slurry had a relatively short inhibition phase

  1. In vitro protein digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flours and protein concentrates from two varieties of lentil (Lens culinaris).

    Barbana, Chockry; Boye, Joyce Irene

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition of whole lentil flours and lentil protein concentrates prepared by alkaline extraction and iso-electric precipitation from Blaze and Laird varieties of lentil were studied. The protein composition of the flours and concentrates, determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) showed that the extracted proteins were composed mainly of globulins and albumins. Trypsin inhibitor activity ranged between 0.94 and 1.94 trypsin inhibitor units (TIU) mg(-1) for the flours, but was markedly lower in the protein concentrates ranging between 0.17 and 0.66 TIU mg(-1). In vitro protein digestibility ranged between 75.90 and 77.05% for the flours, whereas significantly (P flours and the concentrates from both varieties. Thermal properties of both flours as studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were comparable. However, the endothermic parameters of the two protein concentrates were significantly (P lentil protein concentrates is higher than that of the flours, however, both lentil flours and protein concentrates contain useful proteins that could serve as value-added ingredients in food formulations. PMID:23151538

  2. Studies on the digestibility of microbial cell protein in buffalo calves

    The digestibility of cell wall, cell contents and mixed whole 35S-rumen bacteria and 14C-protozoal cells was determined in buffalo calves. The intact cells as well as their fractions were injected in a single dose into the rumen after treating with formaldehyde to protect degradation in the rumen and radioactivity excreted in the faeces was measured for six consecutive days. The indigestibility of mixed whole rumen bacteria, cell wall and cell contents was observed to be 87.13 +- 0.61, 92.77 +- 0.83 and 83.62 +- 1.10 percent, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of mixed whole rumen protozoa, cell wall, cell content and Holotrics were 90.95 +- 0.39, 94.39 +- 1.08, 89.01 +- 0.97 and 93.16 +- 0.69 percent, respectively. (auth.)

  3. On the digestibility and utilization of labelled protein of feeds and foods rich in dietary fibres

    Labelled straw meal as model substance and broiler hens as experimental animals, which take in 25% of ration dry matter as straw were used. Since the digestibility of high-polymeric carbohydrate is considerably increased by γ-rays in ruminants untreated and irradiated straw were included. The hens were given a ration which also contained labelled wheat and which was supplemented with straw meal in order to find the origin of the additional N excretion by the fibre. (author)

  4. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D; Kim, Jungbae

    2010-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple multilayer random crosslinking of the trypsin molecules onto magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while the conventional immobilization of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to t...

  5. Highly stable trypsin-aggregate coatings on polymer nanofibers for repeated protein digestion

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Lee, Sang-Mok; Ahn, Hye-Kyung; Nair, Sujith; Seong H. Kim; Kim, Beom Soo; Petritis, Konstantinos; Camp, David G.; Grate, Jay W.; Smith, Richard D; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2009-01-01

    A stable and robust trypsin-based biocatalytic system was developed and demonstrated for proteomic applications. The system utilizes polymer nanofibers coated with trypsin aggregates for immobilized protease digestions. After covalently attaching an initial layer of trypsin to the polymer nanofibers, highly concentrated trypsin molecules are crosslinked to the layered trypsin by way of a glutaraldehyde treatment. This process produced a 300-fold increase in trypsin activity compared with a co...

  6. Histology-guided protein digestion/extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pressure ulcer biopsies.

    Taverna, Domenico; Pollins, Alonda C; Nanney, Lillian B; Sindona, Giovanni; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    Herein we present a simple, reproducible and versatile approach for in situ protein digestion and identification on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. This adaptation is based on the use of an enzyme delivery platform (hydrogel discs) that can be positioned on the surface of a tissue section. By simultaneous deposition of multiple hydrogels over select regions of interest within the same tissue section, multiple peptide extracts can be obtained from discrete histological areas. After enzymatic digestion, the hydrogel extracts are submitted for LC-MS/MS analysis followed by database inquiry for protein identification. Further, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is used to reveal the spatial distribution of the identified peptides within a serial tissue section. Optimization was achieved using cutaneous tissue from surgically excised pressure ulcers that were subdivided into two prime regions of interest: the wound bed and the adjacent dermal area. The robust display of tryptic peptides within these spectral analyses of histologically defined tissue regions suggests that LC-MS/MS in combination with IMS can serve as useful exploratory tools. PMID:26440596

  7. Improving health properties of food by sharing our knowledge on the digestive process

    Dupont, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions are provided by the Actions directly via e-COST. The Science Policy Briefing n°36 jointly published by ESF and COST in March 2009 clearly stated that the links between food and human health was a top research priority for Europe. EU legislation, as advised by EFSA, now demands proper scientific data in nutrition and health claims. There is a lot of data being generated on the link between the food digestion and human health and a significant effort continues to be expended se...

  8. Non Starch Polysaccharidase - A Potent tool in improving fibre digestibility in Ruminants

    Yancy Mary Issac

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of rumen fermentation by using feed additives has been gaining popularity in ruminant nutrition in recent years. One such approach is the use of fibrolytic enzymes in the treatment of feedstuffs to enhance their digestibility. The better understanding of the production techniques, enzyme activity, mode of enzyme action and application techniques of commercial non starch polysaccharidase enzymes can help the scientific community for competent utilization of these biotechnological products for efficient utilization of the available feed resources. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 142-144

  9. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  10. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements.

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%-62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%-56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5-9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  11. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%–62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%–56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5–9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  12. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Bassan, Juliana C.; Goulart, Antonio J.; Nasser, Ana L. M.; Bezerra, Thaís M. S.; Garrido, Saulo S.; Rustiguel, Cynthia B.; Guimarães, Luis H. S.; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey. PMID:26465145

  13. Environment specific substitution tables improve membrane protein alignment

    Hill, Jamie R.; Kelm, Sebastian; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Membrane proteins are both abundant and important in cells, but the small number of solved structures restricts our understanding of them. Here we consider whether membrane proteins undergo different substitutions from their soluble counterparts and whether these can be used to improve membrane protein alignments, and therefore improve prediction of their structure. Results: We construct substitution tables for different environments within membrane proteins. As data is scarce, we...

  14. Simplified sample preparation method for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: in-gel digestion on the probe surface

    Stensballe, A; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2001-01-01

    Identification and detailed characterization of complex mixtures of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) require optimized and robust methods for interfacing electrophoretic techniques to mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping by matrix-assisted laser desorption...... digestion of protein samples directly on the MALDI-MS metal probe. Removal of detergent and reagents as well as protein reduction and S-alkylation were performed prior to cutting of protein samples from the polyacrylamide gel slab. The general utility of this approach was demonstrated by on-probe digestion...... and MALDI-MS peptide mapping of femtomole amounts of standard proteins isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A representative set of 47 human proteins obtained from a silver stained two-dimensional electrophoretic gel was analyzed by the new method and resulted in a...

  15. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  16. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m3 d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH3 inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m3 d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and/or free NH3) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m3 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm3/kg VSfed. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm3/kg VSfed). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials

  17. Protein fraction and digestibility of marandu, xaraes and campo grande grasses in monocropping and intercropping systems under different sowing methods - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15134

    Welma Santos Crunivel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the protein fraction and in vitro dry matter digestibility of marandu, xaraes grasses and campo grande in monocropping and intercropping systems under different planting methods, for a period of two years. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications. The treatments consisted of the following crop systems: campo grande in monocropping; xaraés grass in monocropping; marandu grass in monocropping; xaraés intercropped with campo grande in rows; xaraés intercropped with campo grande, broadcast; marandu grass intercropped with campo grande in rows; and marandu intercropped with campo grand, broadcast. The evaluations were conducted for two years, consisting of seasonal evaluations (autumn, winter, spring and summer in the same plots, with repeated measurements over time. The results showed that xaraes and marandu grasses were similar between crop systems, indicating that both can be intercropped with campo grande. The intercropping of campo grande with Brachiaria brizantha cultivars improved the protein fraction and digestibility. The row method of planting provided better protein fractions and in vitro dry matter digestibility.

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY GRADED LEVELS OF DIGESTIBLE LYSINE AND LOWERING ENERGY TO PROTEIN RATIO ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS UNDER SUBTROPICAL SUMMER CONDITIONS

    MMH Mushtaq; G Ahmad; R. Parvin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe digestible lysine requirement for the growth performance of broilers fed diets with decreasing energy to protein ratio and reared under subtropical summer conditions were determined. Treatments consisted of five wheat-based diets with five levels (0.90, 0.95, 1.00, 1.05 and 1.10%) of digestible lysine (DL) and lowering energy to protein ratio (EPR; 13.6, 12.8, 12.0, 11.4 and 11.0), with five replicates of 80 birds each (n = 2000). Body weight gain (BWG) significantly increased by ...

  19. Effect of dietary crude protein level on basal ileal endogenous losses and standardized ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in newly weaned pigs.

    Eklund, M; Mosenthin, R; Piepho, H-P; Rademacher, M

    2008-10-01

    The study was carried out to estimate basal ileal endogenous crude protein and amino acid losses (IAAL(B)) and standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) originating from casein in newly weaned pigs from linear relationships between ileal recoveries and dietary intakes of graded levels of CP and AA. A total of 14 (12 + 2 for replacement) 3-week-old barrows weighing 5.7 kg was fitted with simple T cannulas at the distal ileum. At 28 days of age, the pigs were randomly allocated to the six experimental diets with two pigs per diet in four weekly repeated measurements. Corn starch-based diets, containing six graded levels of CP from casein (90, 155, 220, 285, 350, 415 g/kg CP as-fed basis respectively), were formulated. Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) was included as a digestibility marker. Each experimental period consisted of 7 days. Ileal digesta were collected for a total of 24 h during day 6 and 8. Splitting the total range of 90 to 415 g/kg CP into smaller ranges, i.e. from 90 to 220, 220 to 350 or 285 to 415 g/kg CP, provides estimates for CP and AA recoveries which are not significantly different from zero. As a result, dietary CP and AA originating from casein are completely digested and absorbed until the end of the small intestine. In addition, the use of large ranges of dietary CP levels showed that IAAL(B) were affected (p diets are fed, IAAL(B) were estimated as a function of the dietary CP level. There were linear increases (p tryptophan respectively. These values are in close agreement with IAAL(B) obtained in grower-finisher pigs. PMID:19012602

  20. An improved Bradford protein assay for collagen proteins.

    López, J M; Imperial, S; Valderrama, R; Navarro, S

    1993-10-29

    A modification of the protein determination method of Bradford adapted for collagen-rich samples is described. The use of Coomassie-based protein determination methods is limited by the great variation in colour yield obtained for different proteins. This is especially important in samples containing significant amounts of collagen where direct application of the methods of Lowry and Bradford results in underestimated values. Addition of small amounts of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (0.0035%) to the diluted solutions of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G used as dye reagent in the Bradford colorimetric assay caused a 4-fold increase in the colour response of three collagen proteins (Col I, III and IV) and a decrease in absorbance for various non-collagen proteins. The presence of SDS in the reagent did not result in a significant metachromatic shift of the collagen-dye complexes. This simple modification in the preparation of the reagent for the Bradford assay allows similar response curves to be obtained for collagen and non-collagen proteins, making the modified assay of potential use for protein determination in collagen-rich samples such as pancreatic extracts. PMID:8287563

  1. Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations

    Mônica Schaitl Thon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte e seus efeitos no desempenho das aves dos 7 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de arginina digestível (1,363; 1,463; 1,563 e 1,663% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (20 e 22%, totalizando oito tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de 15 aves. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, o índice de conversão alimentar, a biometria dos órgãos do trato gastrintestinal e a digestibilidade e retenção de matéria seca e nitrogênio. O maior ganho de peso na fase de 1 a 14 dias de idade foi obtido com a ração com 22% de proteína bruta. Os níveis de arginina digestível tiveram efeito quadrático na conversão alimentar na fase de 1 a 10 dias de idade. O peso do esôfago e inglúvio foi maior nas aves alimentadas com a ração com 20% de proteína bruta, no entanto, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina digestível sobre o comprimento do intestino aos 10 dias de idade e sobre o peso do esôfago + inglúvio aos 3 dias de idade. Houve interação entre os níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível para o peso relativo do fígado aos 14 dias, que respondeu de forma quadrática ao nível de 20% de proteína bruta, e para o comprimento de intestino, cujo maior valor foi obtido com os níveis de 22% de proteína bruta e 1,603% de arginina digestível. O balanço e a retenção de nitrogênio foram maiores no nível de 22% de proteína bruta. O nível de 1,363% de arginina digestível atende às exigências nutricionais dos frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial.This experiment was carried out to evaluate levels of crude protein and digestible arginine in pre-starter broiler ration and their effects on the performance of the broilers from 7 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663% and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22% with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.

  2. Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia

    Igo Gomes Guimarães

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of gross energy and dry matter (DM and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal in compound diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582, and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

  3. Effect of different drying methods on the myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile profile of squid fillets.

    Deng, Yun; Luo, Yali; Wang, Yuegang; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-03-15

    The impacts of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (AD), and heat pump drying (HPD) on myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile compounds of squid (Todarodes pacificus) fillets were evaluated. Freeze-dried squids showed similar amino acid composition to that of raw squids, but differed from that of AD and HPD samples. The percentage of in vitro digestibility followed the order of FD (76.81%)>HPD (70.51%)>raw (67.99%)>AD (61.47%) samples. AD caused more damage to squid myosin structure than HPD, while FD effectively retained the myosin integrity. Drying decreased total number of volatile compounds, but increased the content of total volatile compounds based on GC × GC-TOFMS results. HPD and AD samples had the highest and lowest total numbers and contents of volatiles, respectively. In general, FD provided squids with the best quality, followed by HPD. Considering the production cost and product quality, HPD demonstrated the potential for industrial application. PMID:25308657

  4. Digestive System

    ... and pancreas. The alimentary canal (also called the digestive tract ) is the long tube of organs — including the ... from the mouth to the anus. An adult's digestive tract is about 30 feet long. Continue How Digestion ...

  5. Digestive diseases

    Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which is sometimes called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In digestion, food and drink are broken down into small parts (called nutrients) that ...

  6. Effects of diets differing in protein source and technical treatment on digestibility, performance and visceral and biochemical parameters of fattening pigs.

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the experiment on 100 cross-bred barrows was to compare commercial diets for fattening pigs based on either soya bean meal (SBM) imported from non-European countries with diets based on a mixture of locally produced rape seed meal, distillers' dried grains with solubles and soya beans as main protein sources. In addition, these both types of diets were processed by two different technical feed treatments, i.e. coarse grinding without hydrothermal treatment or fine grinding and pelleting. With only few exceptions, nutrients of the diet without SBM were more digestible (p local protein sources without compromising digestibility or performances of animals. Although fine grinding and thermal treatment particularly seemed to be advantageous for digestibility and performance, the possible risk of development of stomach lesions should be considered. PMID:27032030

  7. Effect of simulated processing on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage model systems.

    He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie

    2015-05-15

    The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p antioxidant activity of FJMB. Pasteurization (63°C/30 min) and pH adjustment (pH 3.7 or pH 6.8) had either non-significant or slight effects on FJMB's antioxidant capacity, while sterilization significantly (p0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility. PMID:25577106

  8. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  9. Effect of protein source on digestion and growth performance of early-weaned rabbits

    Gutiérrez, Ignacio; Espinosa, Ana; García, Javier; Carabaño, Rosa; De Blas, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Effet de la source protéique sur la digestion et la croissance de lapereaux sevrés précocement. Quatre aliments à base de concentrés protéiques d'origine végétale ont été formulés pour la période de démarrage ($25{-}39$ j) de lapereaux sevrés précocement (25 j d'âge). Les concentrés protéiques, qui fournissaient 30 % des matières azotées totales (MAT), ont été : une farine de soja 48 (aliment SB48), un concentré de protéine de soja (aliment SB61), une farine de tournesol (aliment SF36) et une...

  10. Improvement of protein content in winter wheat with physicochemical mutagens

    Induced mutation is one of the approaches to improve the protein content of wheat. In present experiments the wheat mutation contained high protein, gluten and lysine were obtained by means of treating dry seeds with different physicochemical mutation. The procedure of breeding for improving the qiality of wheat was found

  11. Stability of Trans-Resveratrol Encapsulated in a Protein Matrix Produced Using Spray Drying to UV Light Stress and Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Digestion.

    Koga, Clarissa C; Andrade, Juan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-02-01

    Trans-resveratrol has demonstrated the potential to provide both therapeutic and preventive activities against chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. The incorporation of trans-resveratrol into food products would allow for broader access of this bioactive compound to a larger population. However, this strategy is limited by instability of trans-resveratrol under environmental conditions and within the digestive system leading to isomerization of trans-resveratrol (bioactive form) to cis-resveratrol (bio-inactive form). Studies in the stabilization of trans-resveratrol into protein microparticles are presented. Trans-resveratrol was encapsulated using whey protein concentrate (WPC) or sodium caseinate (SC), with or without anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Binding of resveratrol and aromatic residues in protein was estimated utilizing the Stern-Volmer equation and the number of tryptophan residues. The stability of encapsulated resveratrol was evaluated after exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light and 3-stage in vitro digestion. After UVA light exposure, SC-based microcapsules maintained a higher trans:cis resveratrol ratio (0.63, P < 0.05) than WPC-based microcapsules (0.43) and unencapsulated resveratrol (0.49). In addition, encapsulation of resveratrol in both protein microparticles led to an increased digestive stability and bioaccessibility in comparison to unencapsulated resveratrol (47% and 23%, respectively, P < 0.05). SC-based microcapsules provided a higher digestive stability and bioaccessibility (86% and 81%; P < 0.05) compared to WPC-based microcapsules (71% and 68%). The addition of AMF to the microcapsules did not significantly change the in vitro digestion values. In conclusion, SC-based microencapsulation increased the stability of trans-resveratrol to UVA light exposure and simulated digestion conditions. This encapsulation-system-approach can be extended to other labile, bioactive polyphenols. PMID:26677808

  12. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 4. Sites of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influenced by dietary reactive tannin concentration.

    Barry, T N; Manley, T R; Duncan, S J

    1986-01-01

    1. Vegetative secondary growth Lotus pedunculatus was cut daily, and fed fresh at hourly intervals (600 g dry matter (DM)/d) to three groups each of three sheep fitted with permanent cannulas into the rumen and duodenum. Lotus fed to two of the groups was sprayed with low and high rates of polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight 3350), which specifically binds the condensed tannins (CT). Nutrient intake and faecal excretion were measured directly, duodenal flows estimated from continuous intraruminal infusion of inert ruthenium phenanthroline (Ru-P) and CrEDTA markers, and rumen pool sizes measured at slaughter. 2. Dietary concentrations of total reactive CT (i.e. that not bound to PEG) were 95, 45 and 14 g/kg DM, whilst the corresponding values for free CT were 15, 5 and 2 g/kg DM. 3. Increasing dietary reactive CT concentration linearly increased duodenal flows of non-ammonia nitrogen, but linearly decreased the apparent digestibility of energy and organic matter, and rumen digestion of hemicellulose but not of cellulose. Rumen digestion as a proportion of total digestion was increased by the higher PEG rate for organic matter, energy, pectin and lignin. 4. High dietary CT concentration was associated with increased N retention. Rumen ammonia concentration and pool size showed only a slight decline on this diet, indicating that there must have been increased recycling of N into the rumen. 5. Increasing dietary reactive CT concentration had no effect on the rate at which carbohydrate constituents were degraded in the rumen per unit time (FDR), but increased the rate at which their undegraded residues (FOR) left the rumen per unit time. The latter appeared to be the principal mechanism by which rumen digestion as a proportion of total digestion was reduced at high dietary CT concentrations. From a comparison of FDR and FOR of carbohydrate components in lotus and Brassica oleracea diets, it was concluded that hemicellulose digestion was rate-limiting for rumen cell-wall digestion, probably due to bonding with lignin. However, the considerable post-rumen digestion of hemicellulose was not associated with post-rumen lignin digestion. 6. It was concluded that a desired concentration of CT in Lotus sp. should represent a balance between the positive effect of CT in improving the efficiency of N digestion and their negative effect in depressing rumen carbohydrate digestion. A recommended concentration is 30-40 g/kg DM. PMID:3663569

  13. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins. PMID:24252432

  14. Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Escobedo-Lozano, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitated and characterized. 496 g of demineralized exoskeleton were obtained from 1 kg of shrimp shell; out of these, 376 g corresponded to chitin and 120 g corresponded to protein Total protein content was 33.80 ± 0.34 %. The digestible protein fractions were 26.7 g and 92.1 g were insoluble proteins. Of this latter fraction, the largest proportion belonged to the scleroprotein type. The amino acid profile analysis from the recovered proteins indicated that there were present nine amino acids out of the ten essential ones, being leucine the one with the highest proportion. In vitro digestibility was shown to be up to an 83.7 %. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the recovery of digestibleproteins from shrimp exoskeleton may be useful in diet formulation.

  15. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (Pdogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

  16. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas práticas com diferentes relações energia: proteína em juvenis de pirarucu Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles

    Eduardo Akifumi Ono

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e energia de dietas para juvenis de pirarucu, Arapaima gigas. Foram testadas oito dietas, contendo quatro relações energia:proteína (11, 10,1, 9, 8 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta e duas fontes de energia não-protéica (óleo de soja e gordura de aves, em esquema fatorial 4x2, com três repetições. Foram estocados 240 juvenis de pirarucu com peso de 96,8±2,3 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques cilíndricos com fundo cônico, adaptados para a coleta de fezes (sistema Guelph modificado. Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade aparente com as dietas experimentais contendo 0,5% de óxido de cromo, como marcador inerte para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. As dietas com a relação energia:proteína de 9 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta apresentaram os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrativo não nitrogenado. O maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da gordura foi obtido com o uso do óleo de soja. A relação energia:proteína na dieta influencia os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos macronutrientes e energia no pirarucu.The objective of this work was to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of diets for pirarucu (Arapaima gigas juveniles. Eight experimental diets containing four energy:protein ratios (11, 10.1, 9, 8 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein and two non-protein energy sources (soybean oil and poultry fat were tested in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in triplicates. Two hundred and forty pirarucu juveniles weighting 96.8±2.3 g were distributed in 24 cylindrical-conical fiberglass tanks, adapted for feces collection (modified Guelph system. Fish were fed twice a day to apparent satiation, with experimental diets containing 0.5% of chromium oxide as inert marker in order to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients. Diets containing an energy:protein ratio of 9 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein resulted in significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, crude protein and non-nitrogenous extract. The highest apparent digestibility coefficients for crude fat was obtained with soybean oil. The dietary energy:protein ratio influences the nutrient and energy apparent digestibility coefficients to pirarucu juveniles.

  17. Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter

    N.M. Rodriguez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das frações solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73% e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%. O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16% e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%. Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado. Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten, com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue.This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. The soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73% and highest intestinal digestibility (98%. Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16% and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously. Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility. Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

  18. Hydrolysis of soybean protein improves iron bioavailability

    Iron is an important trace metal element in human body. Iron deficiency affects human health, especially pregnant women and children. Soybean protein is a popular food in Asia and can contain a high amount of iron (145.70±0.74 ug/g); however, it is usually reported as an inhibitor of iron absorption...

  19. Nutritive value of digested cattle slurry from a biogas plant in sheep

    Saxena, K.K.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    When animal waste is processed through an anaerobic digester, the quality and quantity of protein improves during fermentation because of the increase in the microbial population in the digested slurry, making the slurry a potential animal feed. Tests indicate that oven-dried as well as sun-dried slurry was palatable when mixed with wheat bran and could be fed to sheep in a maintenance ration of up to 30% slurry without any adverse effects. The digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients of the slurry were 7 and 40%, respectively. Furthermore, the slurry showed no evidence of pathogenic organisms.

  20. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  1. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  2. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria o...

  3. Improved Design of Anaerobic Digesters for Household Biogas Production in Indonesia: One Cow, One Digester, and One Hour of Cooking per Day

    Usack, Joseph G.; Wiratni Wiratni; Largus T. Angenent

    2014-01-01

    A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3?m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ?1?h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor...

  4. Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p?=?0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p?=?0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619. PMID:24330605

  5. Identification of synergistic impacts during anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes.

    Astals, S; Batstone, D J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Jensen, P D

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely investigated, but there is limited analysis of interaction between substrates. The objective of this work was to assess the role of carbohydrates, protein and lipids in co-digestion behaviour separately, and together. Two sets of batch tests were done, each set consisting of the mono-digestion of three substrates, and the co-digestion of seven mixtures. The first was done with pure substrates--cellulose, casein and olive oil--while in the second slaughterhouse waste--paunch, blood and fat--were used as carbohydrate, protein and lipid sources, respectively. Synergistic effects were mainly improvement of process kinetics without a significant change in biodegradability. Kinetics improvement was linked to the mitigation of inhibitory compounds, particularly fats dilution. The exception was co-digestion of paunch with lipids, which resulted in an improved final yield with model based analysis indicating the presence of paunch improved degradability of the fatty feed. PMID:25079207

  6. Improved detection specificity for plasma proteins by targeting cysteine-containing peptides with photo-SRM.

    Enjalbert, Quentin; Girod, Marion; Simon, Romain; Jeudy, Jérémy; Chirot, Fabien; Salvador, Arnaud; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Lemoine, Jérôme

    2013-03-01

    Targeted mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) has emerged as an alternative to immunoassays for protein quantification owing to faster development time and higher multiplexing capability. However, the SRM strategy is faced with the high complexity of peptide mixtures after trypsin digestion of whole plasma or the cellular proteome that most of the time causes contamination, irremediably, by interfering compounds in the transition channels monitored. This problem becomes increasingly acute when the targeted protein is present at a low concentration. In this work, the merit of laser-induced photo-dissociation in the visible region at 473 nm implemented in an hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer (photo-SRM) was evaluated for detection specificity of cysteine-containing peptides in a group of plasma proteins after tagging with a dabcyl chromophore. Compared with conventional SRM, photo-SRM chromatograms have improved detection specificity for most of peptides monitored. Comparison of the signals obtained for the best proteotypic peptides in SRM mode and those recorded by photo-SRM of cysteine-containing peptides for the same proteins reveals either increased (up to 10-fold) or similar signal to photo-SRM detection. Finally, photo-SRM has extended response linearity across a calibration plot obtained by diluting human plasma in rat plasma, down to the lowest concentrations. Hence, photo-SRM may advantageously complement conventional SRM in assay of proteins in complex biological matrices. PMID:23325399

  7. Dewaterability of thermophilically digested biosolids: effects of temperature and cellular polymeric substances

    Thermophilic processes digest sludge at high temperatures to produce Class A biosolids.Recent research work revealed that digestion temperature is the predominant factor affecting dewaterability of thermophilic biosolids. This paper presents findings of a laboratory study that investigated how various digestion temperatures affect dewaterability of digested biosolids, studied the phase partition of the substances affecting dewaterability in digested biosolids, and tested the role of cellular polymeric substances in affecting dewaterability.Secondary sludges were digested at 40-70oC or 22oC for up to 12 days. Centrate from thermophilically digested biosolids were treated with protease and boiling. This study found that, during the first few hours of digestion, higher temperatures resulted in more rapid and more significant deterioration in dewaterability than lower digestion temperatures. Continued digestion resulted in either improved (60oC or 70oC), or unchanged (40oC or 50oC), or gradually deteriorated dewaterability (22oC). The substances affecting dewaterability were primarily located in the liquid phase of thermophilically digested biosolids. Boiling treatment did not result in significant changes in dewaterability. Protease treatment of the liquid phase of thermophilic biosolids improved dewaterability by 13-19%. Such an improvement confirmed the role of proteins in affecting dewaterability. (author)

  8. Evaluation of bromine and iodine content of milk whey proteins combining digestion by microwave-induced combustion and ICP-MS determination.

    da Silva, Sabrina Vieira; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes; Wagner, Roger; dos Santos Richards, Neila Silvia Pereira; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2016-01-01

    The bromine and iodine content of whey protein concentrate (WPC), hydrolysate (WPH), and isolate (WPI) was evaluated combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination. MIC digestion allowed the decomposition of up to 500 mg of samples using diluted NH4OH solution (25 mmol L(-1)) for absorption of analytes, assuring the compatibility with ICP-MS determination. Accuracy was evaluated using milk powder certified reference material (NIST 8435) with good agreements for Br and I (102% and 105%, respectively). For Br and I, the limit of quantification obtained by ICP-MS was 7 and 281 times lower in comparison with ion chromatography determination, respectively. Iodine could be enriched in whey protein production and up to 70% of the tolerable upper intake level was found, thus revealing the need to monitor it in whey proteins. On the other hand, the concentration of Br was below its acceptable daily intake. PMID:26212983

  9. Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by mobile bag incubated with or without pepsin-HCl and three-step techniques

    P., Paengkoum; S., Traiyakun; S., Paengkoum.

    Full Text Available Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted [...] with permanent rumen and duodenal cannulae. Intestinal digestibility was measured using the mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique with or without incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution, and a three-step in vitro technique. The rate of ruminal disappearances of DM and CP, and the potential degradation of CP from nylon bags of both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than that for leucaena fodder. Potential degradation (A+B) values of CP were 45.6%, 54.2% and 52.8% for leucaena, Madras thorn and moringa fodders, respectively. Average DM and CP digestibility in the intestine and total tract for both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than for leucaena fodder. Average digestibility of DM and CP in the intestine and total tract measured using MNB without pepsin-HCl solution was significantly lower than with pepsin-HCl and with the three-step methods. These data suggest that the results of in vivo and in vitro methods for estimating intestinal digestibility are similar, though in all methods the incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution is necessary.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz; Marta Pokora; Ewelina Eckert; Marek Szo?tysik; Anna D?browska; Józefa Chrzanowska; Tadeusz Trziszka

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properti...

  11. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  12. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells.

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. PMID:26788245

  13. Water, fixed charge density, protein contents, and lysine incorporation into protein in chymopapain-digested intervertebral disc of rabbit.

    Kitano, S; Tsuji, H; Hirano, N; Sano, A; Terahata, N

    1989-11-01

    Chymopapain (Discase) was injected at a dose of 0.125 nanokatal unit into the intervertebral discs of rabbits, and sequential changes in the metabolism of water, proteoglycan, collagen, and noncollagenous protein were investigated separately in the nucleus pulposus, anterior, and posterior anulus fibrosus. One week after chymopapain injection, the water and proteoglycan content was lower in all of the fractionated tissues of the anterior and posterior anulus and nucleus pulposus of the discs than in the control discs. In the anterior and posterior anulus, the proteoglycan content recovered after 12 weeks, but there was no recovery in the nucleus pulposus. The collagen content continued to increase up to the 12th week in the nucleus pulposus, while the noncollagenous protein content decreased in all tissue fractions after 1 week. In the anterior and posterior anulus, the content of noncollagenous protein recovered after 3 to 6 weeks, but there was no recovery in the nucleus pulposus. The lysine incorporation in collagen and noncollagenous protein was inhibited in all tissue fractions after 12 weeks, suggesting a decrease in synthetic activity. The intradiscal pressure calculated from proteoglycan hydration at 1 to 6 weeks after chymopapain injection showed a marked decrease to 0.8 to 0.9 atm, but it recovered to 1.6 atm after 12 weeks. PMID:2513652

  14. Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility / Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro

    Rita de Cássia Oliveira, Sant' Ana; Fabrícia Queiroz, Mendes; Christiano Vieira, Pires; Maria Goreti de Almeida, Oliveira.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento [...] é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS), quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to es [...] timate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP), quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  16. Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

    Kanwar Rupinder K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC, heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested and digested (Enprocal D selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells. Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80, MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α and up-regulated IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.

  17. Disulphide bonds in wheat gluten: cystine peptides derived from gluten proteins following peptic and thermolytic digestion.

    Keck, B; Köhler, P; Wieser, H

    1995-06-01

    Gluten from the wheat variety Rektor was extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol. The insoluble portion (whole glutenin) was partially hydrolysed with trypsin at pH 6.5 and separated on a Sephadex G25 column. The high molecular weight fraction 1 was further hydrolysed with pepsin at pH 2.0. To remove low molecular weight proteins, a portion of whole glutenin was extracted with dilute acetic acid. The residue (enriched glutenin), which contained mostly LMW and HMW subunits of glutenin, was hydrolysed with thermolysin at pH 6.5. The peptic and tryptic hydrolysates were separated on a Sephadex G25 column and the peptide fractions with the highest cystine content were separated further by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Cystine peptides were detected by differential chromatography (RP-HPLC prior to and after reduction of disulphide bonds) and then isolated by preparative RP-HPLC. After reduction, cysteine peptides were alkylated and analysed for their amino acid sequence. Altogether, 19 cystine peptides were characterized and assigned to known sequences of gluten proteins; 16 peptides confirmed the positions of disulphide bonds present in LMW subunits and gamma-gliadins, as described previously. For the first time, a cystine peptide has been isolated, representing an intermolecular disulphide bond between the y-type of HMW and LMW subunits. Furthermore, a cystine peptide was assigned to gamma-gliadins; thus, all cysteine residues of gamma-gliadins are documented by at least one cystine peptide. One peptide analysed came from the alpha-amylase inhibitor CM 16. Altogether the results indicate that the intramolecular linkages of gluten proteins are not formed at random, but are strongly directed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7668061

  18. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  19. Nutrient digestibility and growth of five breeds of sheep under different levels of undegradable protein

    Yulistiani D; Naufaliah N; Kardaya D; Subandriyo . .

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of rumen undegradable protein (UDP) in concentrate on performance of five breeds of sheep. Namely: Compass Agrinak (CA); Garut Composite breed (KG); Barbados Cross breed (BC); St Croix breed (SC); and Local Garut (GL) breed. Ten heads of sheep were used from each breed, in which each breed was grouped into 5 groups according to their body weight, and each sheep in each group was assigned to one of two treatments diet. Th...

  20. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  1. Improvement of protein quality in grain legumes. An overview on mutational improvement of protein quality in pigeon pea

    Grain legumes provide an essential part of the diet in developing countries in terms of protein. Besides increasing production also improving the grain quality would be an important objective. The paper discusses the methodology for protein improvement in seeds of pigeon pea. Variety Hy-2 was irradiated with 20, 25, 30 and 35 Kr of gamma radiation and the M2 population was screened for total sulfur content

  2. Polyacrylamide gel miniaturization improves protein visualization and autoradiographic detection

    Polyacrylamide gels shrink to one-quarter of their original area when soaked in a 50% (w/v) solution of polyethylene glycol. Gel miniaturization improves the contrast of protein bands, with four valuable consequences. (i) A 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity for Coomassie blue is observed. (ii) Gels are more durable; i.e., they resist tearing when wet and they do not crack during drying under vacuum. (iii) Shrunken gels give sharper photographic images and provide better interlane protein band comparisons. (iv) Condensed protein bands lead to an increased sensitivity for detecting low-abundance, radioactively-labeled proteins by fluorography

  3. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the......, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and...

  4. Protein biofortified sorghum: effect of processing into traditional african foods on their protein quality.

    Taylor, Janet; Taylor, John R N

    2011-03-23

    Protein biofortification into crops is a means to combat childhood protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in developing countries, by increasing the bioavailability of protein in staple plant foods and ensuring sustainability of the crop. Protein biofortification of sorghum has been achieved by both chemically induced mutation and genetic engineering. For this biofortification to be effective, the improved protein quality in the grain must be retained when it is processed into staple African foods. Suppression of kafirin synthesis by genetic engineering appeared to be superior to improved protein digestibility by chemical mutagenesis, because both the lysine content and protein digestibility were substantially improved and maintained in a range of African foods. For the genetically engineered sorghums, the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score was almost twice that of their null controls and considerably higher than the high protein digestibility sorghum type. Such protein biofortified sorghum has considerable potential to alleviate PEM. PMID:21338110

  5. Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein

    Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

    2011-09-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.

    Chitra, U; Singh, U; Rao, P V

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed Indian pulses and soybean. Germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. Fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. Autoclaving and roasting were more effective in reducing phytic acid in chickpea and pigeonpea than in urd bean, mung bean, and soybean. Germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). IVPD was only slightly increased by roasting and autoclaving of all legumes. Germination and fermentation also remarkably decreased the total dietary fiber (TDF) in all legumes. Autoclaving and roasting resulted in slight increases in TDF values. All the processing treatments had little effect on calcium, magnesium and iron contents. PMID:8983057

  7. Ileal digestibility of broilers fed diets supplemented with exogenous enzymes

    Nei André Arruda Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme efficiency in diets with and without nutrient reduction on the ileal digestibility of broilers. A total of 1440 male broiler chicks (Cobb ® were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments in a factorial 2 x 2 (two control diets versus supplemented or not with enzyme with 8 replicates of 45 birds in each experimental unit. The control diets were: positive control (with nutritional levels recommended in the literature for each phase and a negative control (with reduced energy, calcium and phosphorus. Enzyme supplementation consisted of a combination of enzymes, phytase (100g/t and complex of amylase, protease and xylanase (500g/t. We evaluated the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy of birds of age 22 and 43 days old. The reduction of nutrients in the diets caused a reduction in the negative control digestible energy and protein digestibility, however, the addition of enzyme mix in the negative control increased the digestible energy in two phases, and the digestibility of protein at 22 days old. The addition of enzymes improved the digestibility of nutrients in diets with nutrient reduction.

  8. potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231), defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967) and increasing IL-10

    Tetens, Inge

    and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells...

  9. Effects of digestible protein to energy ratios on growth and carcass chemical composition of siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens

    Marcos Vinicius Antunes de Lemos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion in the market of ornamental fish depends on the intensification of production systems and the generation of appropriate technologies. Therefore, it is necessary to know the nutritional requirements of each species for the formulation of nutritionally balanced diets. A 30-day feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different dietary digestible protein to energy ratio in diets for Betta splendens fingerlings. Fifty-six all-male B. splendens with 1.03 ± 0.11 g average weight were randomly stocked into 56 1L-aquaria in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, comprising eight treatments and seven replication. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Diets were formulated to contain 28.0, 35.0, 42.0 and 49.0% DP and 3,600 and 3,200 kcal/kg DE. The growth parameters evaluated in this trial were weight gain (WG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and specific growth rate (SGR. No difference (P > 0.05 was observed for WG, FCR and SGR. However, a higher FI was observed for fish fed diets containing 42.0% DP (P < 0.05. A positive effect of DP and DE on PER was observed in this study. Generally, according to the increase of DE levels, a reduction on PER was observed. Based on this experimental condition, we recommend the use of 28.0% DP and 3,200 kcal/kg DE in diets for B. splendens.

  10. An ELISA-based procedure for assaying proteins in digests of human leukocytes and cell lines, using specifically selected peptides and appropriate antibodies

    Pace Umberto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the application of an ELISA-based assay (the Peptidomatrix that can be used to simultaneously identify and quantitate a number of proteins in biological samples. The biological sample (blood component, biopsy, culture or other is first lysed to release all the proteins, without any additional separation. The denatured proteins in the sample are then digested in bulk with the desired proteolytic enzyme(s. The peptides in the digest are then assayed by appropriate antibodies, using a competition ELISA protocol. Results As an example of its use, the present paper applies the Peptidomatrix to the assay of four membrane proteins MDR1 (P-glycoprotein or ABCB1, MRP1 (ABCC1, BCRP/MXR (ABCG2 and the alpha subunit of the Na, K_ATPase (ATP1A1, present in a number of cell lines and in human lymphocytes. We show that we can detect and quantitate these proteins, using a series of peptide-antibody pairs, and that we can differentiate between cell lines or cell preparations that express the target proteins and those that do not. Conclusion We have devised a simple, ELISA-based proteomics assay that enables the quantitation of designated proteins in a cell or tissue sample, and that can be used in any laboratory, with minimal specialized equipment.

  11. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source. PMID:26254527

  12. AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS

    Ryadchikov V. G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition their transformation in net milk protein, lysine and methionine accordingly amounted to 0.67, 0,83 and 0,82. The most significant changes in the concentration of methionine, proline, glutamate, glutamine, glycine were observed in cows before calving and immediately after birth, stabilization of their level starts with a 24 lactation day, that is connected with the peculiarities of the feeding behavior of the cows and the gradual intensification of the processes of metabolism and milk production. To control the status of protein metabolism we have offered benchmarks compositions of free amino acids in cows’ blood plasma phases: 21-0 days before calving, 0-21 and 22-120 days after calving

  13. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO3 or the mixture HNO3/H2O2 and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (II) without H2O2 and with heating to dryness; (III) with H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H2O2 and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 μg g-1

  14. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Lavilla, I; González-Costas, J M; Bendicho, C

    2007-05-22

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO3 or the mixture HNO3/H2O2 and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (II) without H2O2 and with heating to dryness; (III) with H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H2O2 and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 degrees C for 30 min in 6M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 microg g(-1). PMID:17481413

  15. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Lavilla, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Gonzalez-Costas, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, C. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)]. E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2007-05-22

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO{sub 3} or the mixture HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and without heating to dryness; (II) without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and with heating to dryness; (III) with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 {mu}g g{sup -1}.

  16. Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and <i>in Vitro</i> Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet

    Florence Suma Pushparaj; Asna Urooj

    2011-01-01

    From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra) were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich frac...

  17. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy regarding fish meal, poultry by-product meal and quinua for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Mariana C. Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Martha I. Yossa-Perdomo; Walter Vásquez-Torres

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine protein (ADCp) and energy (ADCe) apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa) (QF) used in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The indirect method with a chromium oxide marker was used to estimate the aforementioned ADC; faeces were collected by the modified Guelph system. Tilapias having an average 130 g weight were fed on an experimental diet consisting o...

  18. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L-1) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L-1 HNO3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L-1. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L-1) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  19. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  20. Improvement of protein structure comparison using a structural alphabet.

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Srinivasan, N; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2011-09-01

    The three dimensional structure of a protein provides major insights into its function. Protein structure comparison has implications in functional and evolutionary studies. A structural alphabet (SA) is a library of local protein structure prototypes that can abstract every part of protein main chain conformation. Protein Blocks (PBs) is a widely used SA, composed of 16 prototypes, each representing a pentapeptide backbone conformation defined in terms of dihedral angles. Through this description, the 3D structural information can be translated into a 1D sequence of PBs. In a previous study, we have used this approach to compare protein structures encoded in terms of PBs. A classical sequence alignment procedure based on dynamic programming was used, with a dedicated PB Substitution Matrix (SM). PB-based pairwise structural alignment method gave an excellent performance, when compared to other established methods for mining. In this study, we have (i) refined the SMs and (ii) improved the Protein Block Alignment methodology (named as iPBA). The SM was normalized in regards to sequence and structural similarity. Alignment of protein structures often involves similar structural regions separated by dissimilar stretches. A dynamic programming algorithm that weighs these local similar stretches has been designed. Amino acid substitutions scores were also coupled linearly with the PB substitutions. iPBA improves (i) the mining efficiency rate by 6.8% and (ii) more than 82% of the alignments have a better quality. A higher efficiency in aligning multi-domain proteins could be also demonstrated. The quality of alignment is better than DALI and MUSTANG in 81.3% of the cases. Thus our study has resulted in an impressive improvement in the quality of protein structural alignment. PMID:21569819

  1. Crude protein reduction and digestible methionine+cystine and threonine to digestible lysine ratios in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings Redução de proteína bruta e relações de metionina+cistina e treonina digestíveis com lisina digestível em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo

    Moisés Quadros

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate crude protein reduction and the methionine+cystine and threonine to lysine ratios in diets for reversed Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus, Thai strain. Four hundred and twenty Nile tilapia fingerlings with an average initial weight of 1.83 ± 0.02 g were placed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, seven replications per treatment and 12 fish per experimental unit, for 37-days. Two crude protein (CP levels were evaluated (32 and 28%. The diet with 32% CP had methionine+cystine:lysine and threonine:lysine ratios of 63 and 74%, respectively. Three diets with 28% CP had methionine+cystine:lysine and threonine:lysine ratios of 63 and 74%, 60 and 74% and 60 and 69%, respectively. The diet with 28% CP and had methionine+cystine:lysine ratio of 63% and threonine:lysine of 74% and was supplemented with 0.3% glutamic acid. The fish were kept in thirty-five 130 L aquariums supplied with single-pass flow-through water, individual aeration and fed ad libitum six times per day. Fish fed the diet with 32% CP had lower protein efficiency ratios and nitrogen efficiency ratios. The diet CP level was 28% and the methionine+cystine and threonine to lysine ratios were 60 and 69%, respectively.Objetivou-se avaliar a redução do nível de proteína bruta e as relações dos aminoácidos metionina+cistina e treonina digestíveis com a lisina digestível em dietas para alevinos revertidos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, da linhagem tailandesa. Um experimento com duração de 37 dias foi realizado utilizando-se 420 alevinos com peso inicial de 1,83 ± 0,02 g, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, composto de 5 dietas, 7 repetições e 12 peixes por unidade experimental. Foram avaliados dois níveis de PB (32 e 28% em diversas dietas experimentais. Na dieta com 32% de PB, foram mantidas as relações de metionina+cistina e treonina com lisina de 63 e 74%, respectivamente; nas três dietas com 28% de PB, as relações de metionina+cistina e treonina com lisina foram de 63 e 74%, 60 e 74% e 60 e 69%, respectivamente; e, na dieta com 28% de PB, as relações de metionina+cistina e treonina com lisina foram de 63 e 74%, respectivamente, porém com acréscimo de 0,3% de ácido glutâmico. Os peixes foram mantidos em 35 aquários de 130 litros, com abastecimento de água, aeração individual e alimentação à vontade em seis refeições diárias. Os peixes mantidos com a dieta com 32% de PB apresentaram menores eficiências de retenção de proteína e de nitrogênio. O nível de PB de rações para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo deve ser de 28,0% e as relações de metionina+cistina digestível e treonina digestível com a lisina, de 60 e 69%, respectivamente.

  2. Improving accuracy of protein-protein interaction prediction by considering the converse problem for sequence representation

    Wang Yong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of genome-sequencing technologies, protein sequences are readily obtained by translating the measured mRNAs. Therefore predicting protein-protein interactions from the sequences is of great demand. The reason lies in the fact that identifying protein-protein interactions is becoming a bottleneck for eventually understanding the functions of proteins, especially for those organisms barely characterized. Although a few methods have been proposed, the converse problem, if the features used extract sufficient and unbiased information from protein sequences, is almost untouched. Results In this study, we interrogate this problem theoretically by an optimization scheme. Motivated by the theoretical investigation, we find novel encoding methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. Our new methods exploit sufficiently the information of protein sequences and reduce artificial bias and computational cost. Thus, it significantly outperforms the available methods regarding sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recall with cross-validation evaluation and reaches ~80% and ~90% accuracy in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively. Our findings here hold important implication for other sequence-based prediction tasks because representation of biological sequence is always the first step in computational biology. Conclusions By considering the converse problem, we propose new representation methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. The results show that our method significantly improves the accuracy of protein-protein interaction predictions.

  3. Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    The primary constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. These countries experience serious shortages of animal feeds and fodders of the conventional type. Natural forages are very variable both in quality and quantity, conventional agro-industrial by-products are scarce and vary seasonal, and grains are required almost exclusively for human consumption. The small farmers in developing countries have limited resources available to them for feeding their ruminant livestock. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Providing adequate good-quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Recent advances in ration balancing include manipulation of feed to increase the quantity and quality of protein and energy delivered to the small intestine. Selection of feeds based on high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with the high dry matter digestibility, and development of feeding strategies based on high efficiency as well as high microbial protein synthesis in the rumen will lead to higher supply of protein post-ruminally. The strategy for improving production has therefore been to maximize the efficiency of utilization of available feed resources in the rumen by providing optimum conditions for microbial growth and thereby supplementing dietary nutrients to complement and balance the products of rumen digestion to the animal's requirement

  4. Protein-carbohydrate supplements improve muscle protein balance in muscular dystrophy patients after endurance exercise

    Andersen, Grete; Ørngreen, Mette C; Preisler, Nicolai; Jeppesen, Tina D; Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; van Hall, Gerrit; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    before, during, and after exercise and 2) the effect of postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation on muscle protein balance in patients with muscular dystrophies. In 17 patients [7 women and 10 men, aged 33 ± 11 yr (18-52), body mass index: 22 ± 3 kg/m(2) (16-26)] and 8 healthy matched controls...... [3 women and 5 men, age 33 ± 13 years (19-54), body mass index: 23 ± 3 kg/m(2) (19-27)], muscle protein synthesis, breakdown, and fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured across the leg using tracer dilution methodology on two occasions, with and without oral postexercise protein......In healthy individuals, postexercise protein supplementation increases muscle protein anabolism. In patients with muscular dystrophies, aerobic exercise improves muscle function, but the effect of exercise on muscle protein balance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated 1) muscle protein balance...

  5. Evaluation of the effect of commercially available plant and animal protein sources in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): digestive and metabolic investigations.

    Hartviksen, Mali; Bakke, Anne Marie; Vecino, José G; Ringø, Einar; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of various alternative diet ingredients partially replacing fishmeal (FM) on digestive and metabolic parameters in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts (initial body mass 305 ± 69 g) following 12 weeks of feeding. Experimental diets containing 20 % extracted sunflower (ESF), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soy protein concentrate (SPC), feather meal (FeM) and poultry by-product (PBY) were compared to a reference diet containing FM as the main protein source. For the different intestinal compartments trypsin, lipase, bile salts, dry matter and chyme-associated leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were measured from the content and LAP was measured in the tissue. Selected metabolites were measured in plasma samples. In general, use of plant proteins resulted in low C-LAP activity, low plasma cholesterol and high plasma magnesium. The plasma levels of cholesterol and Mg reflecting were most likely reflections of the composition of the diet, while the LAP activity in chyme may indicate lower epithelial cell turnover. Other responses varied depending on the plant protein source. Results from the animal protein substitution also varied both between diets and compartments; however, both materials increased lipase activity in DI. FeM resulted in a significant increase in both total and specific LAP activities suggesting an attempt to increase the digestive capacity in response to low digestibility of the diet while PBY showed very little difference from the FM-fed control fish. The present trial indicates that 20 % PPC, SPC and PBY can partially replace FM in diets for Atlantic salmon. The qualities of ESF and FeM used in this trial show little promise as FM replacement at 20 % inclusion level. PMID:24962539

  6. Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins. PMID:25069136

  7. Efeitos da fonte de proteína da dieta sobre a digestão de amido em bovinos Effects of diet protein source on starch digestion in cattle

    Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de três fontes de proteína: uréia (UR, farinha de penas (FPE e farelo de glúten de milho (FGM sobre a digestão ruminal, intestinal e total do amido em bovinos. Utilizaram-se três bovinos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, castrados, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental quadrado latino 3 x 3. Não houve efeito da fonte protéica (P > 0,05 sobre os parâmetros de digestão avaliados com relação à matéria seca, bem como a composição química microbiana e pH ruminal. A dieta UR apresentou maior produção ruminal de amônia seguida pelas dietas FGM e FPE (P The effect of three protein sources, urea (UR, feather meal (FM and corn gluten meal (CGM on ruminal, intestinal and total starch digestion in cattle was evaluated. Three Holstein steers implanted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae, in a 3x3 Latin square design, were used. Protein source (p > 0.05 did not affect dry matter evaluations, chemical microbial composition and ruminal pH. UR diet showed highest ruminal ammonium production, followed by CGM and FM diets (P < 0.05. The apparent and true microbial efficiency was higher in CGM diet (P < 0.05 and identical to UR and FM diets. Protein source did not affect intestinal digestibility starch. Total digestibility coefficient (% of starch failed to show any significant difference, albeit total digestion of starch (g/day was higher (P < 0.05 in UR and FM diets.

  8. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Lidia Ferreira, Miranda; Norberto Mario, Rodriguez; Elzânia Sales, Pereira; Augusto César de, Queiroz; Roberto Daniel, Sainz; Patrícia Guimarães, Pimentel; Miguel Marques, Gontijo Neto.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP), total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), cassava (Manihot esculenta), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and rami [...] e (Boehmeria nivea), and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP) and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation). For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  9. Extraction, Enrichment, Solubilization, and Digestion Techniques for Membrane Proteomics.

    Moore, Stephanie M; Hess, Stephanie M; Jorgenson, James W

    2016-04-01

    The importance of membrane proteins in biological systems is indisputable; however, their amphipathic nature makes them difficult to analyze. In this study, the most popular techniques for extraction, enrichment, solubilization, and digestion are compared, resulting in an overall improved workflow for the insoluble portion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell lysate. Yeast cells were successfully lysed using a French press pressure cell at 20 000 psi, and resulting proteins were fractionated prior to digestion to reduce sample complexity. The proteins were best solubilized with the addition of ionic detergent sodium deoxycholate (1%) and through the application of high-frequency sonication prior to a tryptic digestion at 37 °C. Overall, the improved membrane proteomic workflow resulted in a 26% increase in membrane protein identifications for baker's yeast. In addition, more membrane protein identifications were unique to the improved protocol. When comparing membrane proteins that were identified in the improved protocol and the standard operating procedure (176 proteins), 93% of these proteins were present in greater abundance (higher intensity) when using the improved method. PMID:26979493

  10. Identifying proper agitation interval to prevent floating layers formation of corn stover and improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion.

    Tian, Libin; Zou, Dexun; Yuan, Hairong; Wang, Linfeng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiujin

    2015-06-01

    Floating tests were conducted in anaerobic digestion with different OLR of corn stover to investigate formation of floating layers and to find proper agitation interval for preventing floating layer formation. Floating layers were formed in the early stage of no-agitation period. The daily biogas production was decreased by 81.87-87.90% in digesters with no agitation and feeding compared with digesters having agitation. Reduction of biogas production was mainly attributed to poor contact of substrate-microorganisms. Agitation intervals of 10 h, 6 h, and 2 h were found to be proper for eliminating floating layer at OLR of 1.44, 1.78 and 2.11 g(TS) L(-1) d(-1), respectively. The proper agitation interval was further validated by anaerobic experiments. It showed that proper agitation interval could not only prevent floating layer formation and achieve high biogas production but also increase energy efficiency of anaerobic digestion. The finding is useful for operating anaerobic digester with corn stover in a cost-effective way. PMID:25795528

  11. Improving Protein Expression Prediction Using Extra Features and Ensemble Averaging.

    Fernandes, Armando; Vinga, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The article focus is the improvement of machine learning models capable of predicting protein expression levels based on their codon encoding. Support vector regression (SVR) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to create the models. SVR yields predictions that surpass those of PLS. It is shown that it is possible to improve the models predictive ability by using two more input features, codon identification number and codon count, besides the already used codon bias and minimum free energy. In addition, applying ensemble averaging to the SVR or PLS models also improves the results even further. The present work motivates the test of different ensembles and features with the aim of improving the prediction models whose correlation coefficients are still far from perfect. These results are relevant for the optimization of codon usage and enhancement of protein expression levels in synthetic biology problems. PMID:26934190

  12. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  13. Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel / Intestinal protein digestibility of by-products from biodiesel industry

    G.S., Couto; J.C., Silva Filho; A.D., Corrêa; E.A., Silva; R.M.P., Pardo; C., Esteves.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI) da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não deg [...] radados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR), proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR). A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine intestinal protein digestibility (ID) of some biodiesel by-products in the form of cakes and the meals. Eight by-products were: cakes and meals of physic nut, turnip, lupine, cotton cake, cottonseed meal. The by-products were incubated in the rumen for [...] 16 hours, were the undegradable rumen residues were submitted to enzymatic digestion with pepsin and pancreatin solution for the determination of ID. In the incubation residues the following was also determined: dry matter degradability (RD), rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP). The intestinal protein digestibility of biodiesel by-products ranged from 2.4 to 48.6%. All the by-products evaluated in this study were characterized as high protein sources and were considered high-RDP. The by-products presented low intestinal protein digestibility. The ID protein of biodiesel by-products was higher in the cakes than the meals. The by-products evaluated, the cottonseed cake and meal presented the highest ID coefficients.

  14. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  15. Digestive system

    Seven articles concern the digestive system cancer, mixing of images, toxicity of the chemoradiotherapy, comparison of dosimetry tools, pancreas cancer, rectum cancer, treated by chemoradiotherapy. (N.C.)

  16. Ethanol-based organosolv treatment with trace hydrochloric acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) by exposing nanofibers on the surface.

    Hideno, Akihiro; Kawashima, Ayato; Endo, Takashi; Honda, Katsuhisa; Morita, Masatoshi

    2013-03-01

    The effects of adding trace acids in ethanol based organosolv treatment were investigated to increase the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress. A high glucose yield (60%) in the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained by treating the sample at 170 °C for 45 min in 50% ethanol liquor containing 0.4% hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the enzymatic digestibility of the treated sample was improved to ∼70% by changing the enzyme from acremonium cellulase to Accellerase1500. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of lignin droplets and partial cellulose nanofibers on the surface of the treated sample. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the treated samples using thermotolerant yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777) was tested. A high ethanol concentration (22.1 g/L) was achieved using the EtOH50/W50/HCl0.4-treated sample compared with samples from other treatments. PMID:23395739

  17. Linker engineering for fusion protein construction: Improvement and characterization of a GLP-1 fusion protein.

    Kong, Yuelin; Tong, Yue; Gao, Mingming; Chen, Chen; Gao, Xiangdong; Yao, Wenbing

    2016-01-01

    Protein engineering has been successfully applied in protein drug discovery. Using this technology, we previously have constructed a fusion protein by linking the globular domain of adiponectin to the C-terminus of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog. Herein, to further improve its bioactivity, we reconstructed this fusion protein by introducing linker peptides of different length and flexibility. The reconstructed fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using nickel affinity chromatography. Their agonist activity towards receptors of GLP-1 and adiponectin were assessed in vitro by using luciferase assay and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) immunoblotting, respectively. The effects of the selected fusion protein on glucose and lipid metabolism were evaluated in mice. The fusion protein reconstructed using a linker peptide of AMGPSSGAPGGGGS showed high potency in activating GLP-1 receptor and triggering AMPK phosphorylation via activating the adiponectin receptor. Remarkably, the optimized fusion protein was highly effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the bioactivity of this GLP-1 fusion protein can be significantly promoted by linker engineering, and indicate that the optimized GLP-1 fusion protein is a promising lead structure for anti-diabetic drug discovery. PMID:26672455

  18. Estrategias para mejorar los resultados academicos para las latinas (Strategies for Improving the Educational Outcomes of Latinas). ERIC Digest.

    Schwartz, Wendy

    The educational experiences of Latinas are affected by the interaction of many factors, including poverty, racism, sexual harassment, and lack of English language proficiency. This Spanish-language digest presents a range of strategies that schools can employ to promote the academic achievement of Latinas. Schools should communicate that Hispanic…

  19. Exigência de lisina digestível e planos de nutrição para frangos de corte machos mantendo as relações metionina + cistina e treonina digestível na proteína ideal Digestible lysine requirements for male broilers keeping methionine + cystine and threonine ratios in the ideal protein

    Douglas Haese

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a exigência de lisina digestível e planos nutricionais para frangos de corte machos de alto potencial genético. Quatrocentos e noventa e cinco pintos de um dia, da marca comercial Cobb, com peso médio inicial de 45,6 ± 0,3g foram utilizados, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três dietas contendo diferentes níveis de lisina digestível, nove repetições e onze aves por unidade experimental para determinar o melhor nível de lisina para a fase pré-incial (1 a 7 dias de idade e o melhor plano nutricional para o período total (1 a 21 dias de idade. Os níveis de lisina não influenciaram o consumo de ração das aves. O consumo de lisina digestível aumentou de forma linear com o aumento dos níveis deste aminoácido na ração. O ganho de peso aumentou e a conversão alimentar melhorou de forma quadrática com o aumento dos níveis de lisina digestível. A exigência de lisina digestível de pintos de 1 a 21 dias de idade para melhor ganho de peso e conversão é de 1,30 e 1,29% de lisina digestível, respectivamente, correspondendo aos consumos estimados de 2,68 e 2,64g de lisina digestível. O Plano nutricional PN3 atende as exigências nutricionais de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade.A study was conducted to evaluate the requirement of digestible lysine and nutrition plans for broilers with high genetic potential. Four hundred and ninety five one-day-old Cobb chicks with initial average weight of 45.6g±0.3g were used, allotted in a completely randomized design with three diets containing different levels of lysine, nine replicates, and 11 birds per experimental unit, to determine the best lysine level for the pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days old and the best nutritional plan for the total period (1 to 21 days of age. Lysine levels did not influence broilers' feed intake. The digestible lysine intake increased linearly with increasing levels of this amino acid in the diet. Weight gain and feed conversion improved quadratically by increasing dietary levels of lysine. Digestible lysine requirement of 1-to-7-day-old male broilers is 1.30 and 1.29% for best weight gain and feed conversion, respectively, corresponding to intakes of 2.68 and 2.64g digestible lysine. The nutritional plan PN3 meets the nutritional needs of male broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.

  20. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp.

    Bayr, S; Ojanperä, M; Kaparaju, P; Rintala, J

    2014-10-01

    In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55°C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and/or free NH3) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3)d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm(3)/kg VS(fed). On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500-680 dm(3)/kg VS(fed)). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials. PMID:25002371

  1. Effect of exogenous cellulase enzyme on feed digestibility in lamb

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous enzyme on digestibility and N retention in lamb. Eight lambs were randomly allocated to 2 experiment group in group comparison design trial. Experimental treatments were: 1) CTL (No enzyme) and 2 50NZ (Mixed enzyme with high cellulase at 50g/100kg.feed). The digestibility study showed that Exogenous enzyme increased (P<0.05) dry matter and crude protein digestibility of treated lamb compared to those of control. A similar trend (P=0.11) was observed for the NDF digestibility. Mean values for dry matter digestibility were 57.86 and 69.83% and for protein digestibility were 64.76 and 73.38%, for CTL and 50NZ, respectively). The N intake was similar among treatment, averaging 22.57g/head/day. Percent N retained of 50 NZ treated lambs was higher (P<.05) than those of CTL group (mean value were 47.74 and 59.07 for CTC and 50NZ, respectively). Feed efficiency or feed conversion ratio was numerically improved for enzyme-treated groups. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence that mixed cellulase enzyme can be used to improver performance of lambs as compare to non-enzyme diet.

  2. Bayesian Proteoform Modeling Improves Protein Quantification of Global Proteomic Measurements

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Datta, Susmita; Payne, Samuel H.; Kang, Jiyun; Bramer, Lisa M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Tardiff, Mark F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Pounds, Joel G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2014-12-01

    As the capability of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has matured, tens of thousands of peptides can be measured simultaneously, which has the benefit of offering a systems view of protein expression. However, a major challenge is that with an increase in throughput, protein quantification estimation from the native measured peptides has become a computational task. A limitation to existing computationally-driven protein quantification methods is that most ignore protein variation, such as alternate splicing of the RNA transcript and post-translational modifications or other possible proteoforms, which will affect a significant fraction of the proteome. The consequence of this assumption is that statistical inference at the protein level, and consequently downstream analyses, such as network and pathway modeling, have only limited power for biomarker discovery. Here, we describe a Bayesian model (BP-Quant) that uses statistically derived peptides signatures to identify peptides that are outside the dominant pattern, or the existence of multiple over-expressed patterns to improve relative protein abundance estimates. It is a research-driven approach that utilizes the objectives of the experiment, defined in the context of a standard statistical hypothesis, to identify a set of peptides exhibiting similar statistical behavior relating to a protein. This approach infers that changes in relative protein abundance can be used as a surrogate for changes in function, without necessarily taking into account the effect of differential post-translational modifications, processing, or splicing in altering protein function. We verify the approach using a dilution study from mouse plasma samples and demonstrate that BP-Quant achieves similar accuracy as the current state-of-the-art methods at proteoform identification with significantly better specificity. BP-Quant is available as a MatLab ® and R packages at https://github.com/PNNL-Comp-Mass-Spec/BP-Quant.

  3. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9±0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4±1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9±1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have the capability to digest and absorb the additional nutrients with a higher plane of nutrition during the first week of postnatal life. PMID:26723121

  4. Improving anaerobic digestion of pig manure by adding in the same reactor a stabilizing agent formulated with low-grade magnesium oxide

    Struvite precipitation and pig manure anaerobic digestion were coupled in the same reactor in order to mitigate the inhibitory effect of free ammonia and avoid precipitator costs. The stabilizing agent used to facilitate struvite precipitation was formulated with low-grade magnesium oxide by-product; an approach that would notably reduce struvite processing costs. The interaction between pig manure and stabilizing agent was analyzed in batch experiments, on a wide range of stabilizing agent additions from 5 to 100 kg m−3. The monitoring of the pH and ammonia removal during 24 h showed the high capacity of the stabilizing agent to remove ammonia; removal efficiencies above 80% were obtained from 40 kg m−3. However, a long-term anaerobic digester operation was required to assess the feasibility of the process and to ensure that the stabilizing agent does not introduce any harmful compound for the anaerobic biomass. In this vein, the addition of 5 and 30 kg m−3 of the stabilizing agent in a pig manure continuous digester resulted in a 25% (0.17 m3 kg−1) and a 40% (0.19 m3 kg−1) increase in methane production per mass of volatile solid, respectively, when compared with the reference digester (0.13 m3 kg−1). Moreover, the stability of the process during four hydraulic retention times guarantees that the stabilizing agent did not exert a negative effect on the consortium of microorganisms. Finally, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of struvite as well as two precipitation mechanisms, struvite precipitation on the stabilizing agent surface and in the bulk solution. - Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and struvite precipitation were satisfactorily coupled. • The stabilizing agent showed high ammonia removals efficiencies. • The stabilizing agent improved the methane production of a pig manure digester. • The stabilizing agent does not introduce harmful compound for the anaerobic biomass. • Struvite precipitation in the liquid phase and on the stabilization agent particles

  5. Characterization of quinoa seed proteome combining different protein precipitation techniques: Improvement of knowledge of nonmodel plant proteomics.

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    A shotgun proteomics approach was used to characterize the quinoa seed proteome. To obtain comprehensive proteomic data from quinoa seeds three different precipitation procedures were employed: MeOH/CHCl3 /double-distilled H2 O, acetone either alone or with trichloroacetic acid; the isolated proteins were then in-solution digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. However, since quinoa is a nonmodel plant species, only a few protein sequences are included in the most widely known protein sequence databases. To improve the data reliability a UniProt subdatabase, containing only proteins of Caryophillales order, was used. A total of 352 proteins were identified and evaluated both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. This combined approach is certainly useful to increase the final number of identifications, but no particular class of proteins was extracted and identified in spite of the different chemistries and the different precipitation protocols. However, with respect to the other two procedures, from the relative quantitative analysis, based on the number of spectral counts, the trichloroacetic acid/acetone protocol was the best procedure for sample handling and quantitative protein extraction. This study could pave the way to further high-throughput studies on Chenopodium Quinoa. PMID:25580831

  6. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, P.J., van de; M.W.A. Verstegen

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vitro method that mimics digestive processes in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. An experiment was designed to use this method for predicting site, rate and extent of starch digestion i...

  7. Characterizing the Range of Extracellular Protein Post-Translational Modifications in a Cellulose-Degrading Bacteria Using a Multiple Proteolyic Digestion/Peptide Fragmentation Approach

    Dykstra, Andrew B [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Cook, Kelsey [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to play a significant role in many biological functions. The focus of this study is to characterize the post-translational modifications of the cellulosome protein complex used by the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum to better understand how this protein machine is tuned for enzymatic cellulose solubilization. To enhance comprehensive characterization, the extracellular cellulosome proteins were analyzed using multiple proteolytic digests (trypsin, Lys-C, Glu-C) and multiple fragmentation techniques (collisionally-activated dissociation, electron transfer dissociation, decision tree). As expected, peptide and protein identifications were increased by utilizing alternate proteases and fragmentation methods, in addition to the increase in protein sequence coverage. The complementarity of these experiments also allowed for a global exploration of PTMs associated with the cellulosome based upon a set of defined PTMs that included methylation, oxidation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and signal peptide cleavage. In these experiments, 85 modified peptides corresponding to 28 cellulosome proteins were identified. Many of these modifications were located in active cellulolytic or structural domains of the cellulosome proteins, suggesting a level of possible regulatory control of protein function in various cellulotyic conditions. The use of multiple enzymes and fragmentation technologies allowed for independent verification of PTMs in different experiments, thus leading to increased confidence in PTM identifications.

  8. Use of the mobile nylon bag technique for determination of apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs

    Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U; Sauer, W C; Ahrens, F; Jørgensen, Henry; Mosenthin, R

    2011-01-01

    Three digestibility experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of determination of apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) by the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) using 21 feedstuffs and three mixed diets. In two conventional digestibility...... experiments (Exp. 1 and 2), AID were determined using in total 10 barrows (BW 35 kg) fitted with simple T-cannulas at the terminal ileum. For the MNBT studies, four pigs were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the proximal duodenum and a Post-Valve T-Caecum (PVTC) cannula at the terminal ileum. The MNBT....../l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from the...

  9. The Effect of Soybean Hulls Substitution Levels to Corn in The Ration on Energy and Protein Digestibility and on Sheep Performance

    Ning Iriyanti

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean hulls levels substitution in to corn as ration in twenty seven rams. The animal had a mean of live weight of 12.86 ± 1.94 kg. Levels of substitution were 0, 50, and 100% or 0, 25, and 50% ration dry matter basis and rations were iso-nitrogeneous. Analysis of variance were conducted for completely randomized design and polynomial orthogonal test were applied for the statistical analysis. Inclusion of soybean hulls in 50% ration dry matter had no effect on daily gain (99.71 ± 22.97 g, and digestible crude protein (62.43 ± 6.56 %. However, dry matter consumption tended to increase linearly and as soybean hulls level increase in the ration (P<0.01. The digestible energy significantly decrease linearly (P<0.01, whereas intake of the energy had same was 1.27 ± 0.33, 1.44 ± 0.17, and 1.23 ± 0.19 Mcal/day for ration containing 0, 25, 50% of soybean hulls, respectively. It was concluded that the soybean hulls may be substituted for corn. (Animal Production 2(2: 98-103 (2000 Key words : soybean hulls, corn, digestibility, daily gain.

  10. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable protein in diets of Holstein cows: 1. Feed intake, digestibility and milk production

    A., Afzalzadeh; H., Rafiee; A.A., Khadem; A., Asadi.

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) on lactation responses, digestion and dry matter intake (DMI), nine multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows, averaging 171 ± 17 days in milk and 24.1 ± 3.3 kg of milk/d were assigned to a 3 [...] × 3 Latin square design. The total mixed rations (TMR) included 45% forage on a dry matter (DM) basis and 55% concentrates. The RDP (g/kg of DM) and NFC : RDP ratios of diets were respectively: 1) 98 and 4.10 (LRDP), 2) 108 and 3.71 (MRDP), 3) 118 and 3.34 (HRDP). Ratios were achieved through altering the RDP content of the diets while the NFC was held constant at 401 g/kg of DM. Urea was supplemented as a source of RDP to decrease the ratio. DMI and organic matter intake (OMI) were affected by treatment and tended to decrease linearly from LRDP to HRDP. Crude protein intake (CPI) increased linearly as the amount of RDP in the diets increased. Apparent organic matter digestion in the total tract decreased significantly in the HRDP diet. Percentage of protein and solid non-fat (SNF) and concentration of milk urea-nitrogen (MUN) in milk increased linearly when cows were fed diets with the higher amounts of RDP. Results showed that low producing cows are less likely to respond to altering NFC : RDP ratios than high producing cows, but digestibility in the MRDP treatment was higher and RDP level equal to 108 (g/kg of DM). A NFC : RDP ratio equal to 3.71 was useful and recommendable for mid-lactation dairy cow.

  11. Effect of Incremental Levels of Dried Tomato Pomace with and without Dietary Enzyme Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Ileal Protein Digestibility of Broiler Chicks

    Ahmadreza Shahidpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in order to determine the nutritional value of Dried Tomato Pomace (DTP and the impact of its incremental levels with and without enzyme supplementation on broilers growth performance and ileal protein digestibility. About 384 days old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were raised together until day 7. At 7 days of age chicks were randomly allocated to one of eight treatments with 4 replicates of 12 birds each according to factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design. Treatments included 0, 3, 6 and 9% of DTP for starter period (7-21 days; 0, 6, 9 and 12% for grower period (21-42 days and 0, 9, 12 and 15% for finisher period (42-49 days with and without enzyme supplementation. Body weight gain and feed intake of chicks were recorded at the end of each period and calculated for entire experimental period. Food conversion ratio was also calculated for different periods. At 49 days of age, two male birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of protein digestibility by chromium oxide marker. Increasing DTP in none-enzyme supplemented treatments resulted in a significant reduction of daily weight gain (p0.05 impact on carcass characteristics. There was no deleterious impact of experimental diets observed on ileal protein digestibility. The obtained results suggest that DTP along with enzyme supplementation could be incorporated in broilers diet up to 3, 6 and 9% for starter, grower and finisher periods, respectively without any adverse effect on performance and carcass characteristics.

  12. Improving the Performance of an HMM for Protein Family Modelling

    Mohamed Hamza El-Sayed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hidden Markov model for protein modelling consists of sub-models for alpha-helix, beta-sheets, coil and possibly more. It is described how to estimate the model parameters as a whole from labeled sequences instead of estimating the parameters from the individual parts independently from subsequences. It is argued that the standard maximum likelihood ML estimation is not the optimal for training such model. In this study a new method is used where instead of estimating the parameters of model that maximizing the probability of the protein sequences (ML, we maximize the probability of the correct labels prediction, such a criterion is called conditional maximum likelihood CML. The advantage of this method is to optimize recognition of model. We tested our method on some of protein families such as L-asparagines, we noted that the performance of HMM is improved in prediction process.

  13. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Gladstone Brumano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de 12 alimentos protéicos para aves. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos Leghorne adultos cecectomizados, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os alimentos estudados foram: farelo de glúten de milho 22%, farelo de glúten de milho 60%, concentrado protéico de soja, soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada, farinha de carne e ossos 36%, farinha de carne e ossos 45%, farinha de peixe, farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura, farinha de penas, plasma sangüíneo 70%, plasma sangüíneo 78% e hemácias. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, foram, respectivamente, 83,32 e 87,20 para o farelo de glúten de milho 22%; 92,90 e 94,86 para o farelo de glúten de milho 60%; 91,10 e 90,19 para o concentrado protéico de soja; 88,90 e 88,91 para a soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada; 88,63 e 85,94 para a farinha de carne e ossos 36%; 87,80 e 85,00 para a farinha de carne e ossos 45%; 89,39 e 87,32 para a farinha de peixe; 79,22 e 74,36 para a farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura; 85,89 e 82,32 para a farinha de penas; 87,22 e 87,78 para o plasma sangüíneo 70%; 90,42 e 91,40 para o plasma sangüíneo 78%; e 95,25 e 94,31 para as hemácias.The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid digestibility of 12 protein meals were determined in Leghorn cecectomized roosters by the "forced feed" method. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with 12 treatments, six replicates and one rooster per experimental unit. The studied feedstuffs were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, corn gluten meal 60%, soybean protein concentrate, partially defatted extruded whole soybean, meat and bone meal 36%, meat and bone meal 45%, fish meal, full fat poultry by-product meal, feather meal, spray-dried plasma 70%, spray-dried plasma 78% and erythrocytes. The average values of essential and non essential true amino acids digestibility coefficients, in percentage, were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, 83.32 and 87.20; corn gluten meal 60%, 92.90 and 94.86; soybean protein concentrate, 91.10 and 90.19; partially defatted extruded whole soybean: 88.90 and 88.91, meat and bone meal, 36%, 88.63 and 85.94; meat and bone meal 45%, 87.80 and 85.00; fish meal, 89.39 and 87.32; full fat poultry by-product meal, 79.22 and 74.36; feather meal, 85.89 and 82.32; spray-dried plasma 70%, 87.22 and 87.78; spray-dried plasma 78%, 90.42 and 91.40; and erythrocytes, 95.25 and 94.31.

  14. Effect of low-protein diets and single sex on production performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and nitrogen excretion in 1- to 48-day-old broilers.

    Hernández, F; López, M; Martínez, S; Megías, M D; Catalá, P; Madrid, J

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of low-CP diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids, according to an ideal amino acid ratio, on the performance, plasma metabolites, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and water intake in male and female chickens from 1 to 48 d of age using a 4-phase feeding program: prestarter (1-7 d), starter (8-21 d), grower (22-35 d), and finisher (36-48 d). Three experimental diets were formulated for each phase: a control diet with a CP level of 24.5, 23.0, 21.5, and 20.5%, respectively, and medium- and low-CP diets containing 1.5 and 3% less than that of the control, respectively, but the same ME and digestible lysine levels. In experiment 1, in males, the reduction in dietary protein content by 3% increased the feed conversion ratio (P protein content linearly decreased water consumption in both sexes (P protein by 1.5 or 3% reduced nitrogen excretion to the environment by 9.5 and 17% in males and by 11.8 and 14.6% in females, respectively. In summary, the low-CP 4-phase feeding reduced water intake and nitrogen excretion with an adverse effect on the feed conversion ratio in males but not in females. So, single-sex rearing could be used to reduce the environmental impact of chicken farms. PMID:22334744

  15. A structural alphabet for local protein structures: improved prediction methods.

    Etchebest, Catherine; Benros, Cristina; Hazout, Serge; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2005-06-01

    Three-dimensional protein structures can be described with a library of 3D fragments that define a structural alphabet. We have previously proposed such an alphabet, composed of 16 patterns of five consecutive amino acids, called Protein Blocks (PBs). These PBs have been used to describe protein backbones and to predict local structures from protein sequences. The Q16 prediction rate reaches 40.7% with an optimization procedure. This article examines two aspects of PBs. First, we determine the effect of the enlargement of databanks on their definition. The results show that the geometrical features of the different PBs are preserved (local RMSD value equal to 0.41 A on average) and sequence-structure specificities reinforced when databanks are enlarged. Second, we improve the methods for optimizing PB predictions from sequences, revisiting the optimization procedure and exploring different local prediction strategies. Use of a statistical optimization procedure for the sequence-local structure relation improves prediction accuracy by 8% (Q16 = 48.7%). Better recognition of repetitive structures occurs without losing the prediction efficiency of the other local folds. Adding secondary structure prediction improved the accuracy of Q16 by only 1%. An entropy index (Neq), strongly related to the RMSD value of the difference between predicted PBs and true local structures, is proposed to estimate prediction quality. The Neq is linearly correlated with the Q16 prediction rate distributions, computed for a large set of proteins. An "expected" prediction rate QE16 is deduced with a mean error of 5%. PMID:15822101

  16. Effects of dietary pectin on protein digestion and metabolism in growing rats: Vpliv pektina na prebavo beljakovin in metabolizem pri rastočih podganah:

    Orešnik, Andrej; Patureau Mirand, Philippe; Pirman, Tatjana; Salobir, Janez

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the relationships between the digestive and metaboliceffects of additional feeding of citrus pectin, the intestinal contents, tissues weights, nitrogen excretion and retention were studied in laboratory rats. Twenty-four growing male Wistar rats (98.8 g 5.3 g of body weight) were fed ad libitum for 20 days with balanced diets containing casein as the source of protein. In the experimental diet 96 g of wheat starch was replaced by 80 g of citrus pectin and 16 g of vege...

  17. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Anantasook, N.; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75%) lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW) of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementat...

  18. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon) fed protein deficient diet

    Jian Huang; Tie-Tao Zhang; Bao Kun; Guang-Yu Li; Kai-Ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP) deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4): i) CP-adequate (16.63%) diet; ii) CP-deficient (13.77%) diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii) CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv) CP-deficient diet w...

  19. Long time storage (archiving) of peptide, protein and tryptic digest samples on disposable nano-coated polymer targets for MALDI MS

    Stefan Bugovsky; Wolfgang Winkler; Werner Balika; Günter Allmaier

    2015-01-01

    Archiving of biological specimens is important due to the importance of reanalysis of already prepared MALDI MS samples or simultaneuous analysis of a sample series. Proteins/peptides and digests were prepared for measurement on a polymer-based metal nano-coated MALDI target and subjected to various storage conditions (−80 °C to RT) in a vacuum-sealed pouch and at atmosphere for 6 months. The MS data gathered from these preparations illustrate trends in the aging of different samples and to f...

  20. Bile Salt–Stimulated Lipase and Pancreatic Lipase-Related Protein 2 Are the Dominating Lipases in Neonatal Fat Digestion in Mice and Rats

    Li, Xiaonan; Lindquist, Susanne; Lowe, Mark; NOPPA, LAILA; Hernell, Olle

    2007-01-01

    During infancy, the basic conditions for digestion of dietary fat differ from later in life. The bile salt–stimulated lipase (BSSL) is an enzyme expressed in the exocrine pancreas and in some species (including human) also in the lactating mammary gland and secreted with the milk. The aim of this study was to compare the ontogeny of four pancreatic lipases [BSSL, pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PL), pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2)] in one species that ...

  1. Seed protein improvement in wheat by mutation breeding

    Several nutritional surveys conducted in different areas in Pakistan have shown the prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition, especially among young children. However, there is no evidence of overall deficiency of protein resources in the country on a national basis. The available data are entirely inadequate to draw a definite conclusion about the extent of malnutrition in the country, and to plan a strategy for improving the diet of vulnerable groups. The common meal of the low income groups consists of Dal-Roti, which is a spiced pulse soup and pan bread. It is therefore essential to improve the protein content of the pulses and wheat in order to overcome malnutrition. The average yield per acre of pulses in Pakistan is very low, and it is particularly important to evolve high yielding, improved grain quality varieties of the popular pulses which have been hitherto largely neglected. Studies on the improvement of various local and exotic varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mung (Phaseolus aureus), through induced mutation, have yielded several high yielding and high protein mutants. These mutant lines are being further investigated for the confirmation of their variant traits. Single plant selections of mung bean made from the M2 generation on the basis of their plant type, habit of growth, maturity time, grain yield and disease resistance are under critical observation. Other pulses, e.g. Cicer arietinum, Lens esculenta and Phaseolus mungo have also been included in the programme; however the breeding work on these crops is still in the preliminary stages. (author)

  2. Improving protein coreference resolution by simple semantic classification

    Nguyen Ngan; Kim Jin-Dong; Miwa Makoto; Matsuzaki Takuya; Tsujii Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Current research has shown that major difficulties in event extraction for the biomedical domain are traceable to coreference. Therefore, coreference resolution is believed to be useful for improving event extraction. To address coreference resolution in molecular biology literature, the Protein Coreference (COREF) task was arranged in the BioNLP Shared Task (BioNLP-ST, hereafter) 2011, as a supporting task. However, the shared task results indicated that transferring core...

  3. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, leading to the conclusion, that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  4. Intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silage with additives

    Emilyn Midori Maeda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intake and total and ruminal digestibility, ruminal characteristics and microbial synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silages treated with microbial additive Lactobacillus buchneri (inoculate and the addition of: cassava byproduct meal at 250 g/kg; soybean hulls at 250 g/kg; and urea at 33 g/kg, in natural matter were evaluated. The forage:concentrate ratio was 600:400 g/kg. Bubaline body weight (BW was 403±49 kg and bovine BW was 492±10 kg. The experimental design consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The average DM intake did not differ between species, and the diet with urea showed lowest intake (13 g/kg BW. Among the diets, the one with soybean hulls addition increased the total digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, while addition of urea reduced the DM, OM and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC total digestibility in both species. Bovines have higher ruminal digestibility of NFC in the diet with addition of inoculate, inoculate + soybean meal and inoculate + urea diets than bubaline. Ruminal liquid pH was higher for bubaline (6.61 than bovines (6.48. Diets with addition of cassava byproduct and soybean hulls presented higher ruminal short chain fatty acids concentrations. Ruminal ammonia concentration (N-NH3 did not differ between species and the treatment with urea presented the highest value of N-NH3 (17.25 mg/100 mL. Liquid passage rate was higher for bubaline (12.9%/h than bovines (9.9%/h. Bubaline has higher microbial synthesis efficiency than bovine: 35.1 vs 24.6 g of N-microbial/kg OM of the total rumen digestibility, regardless of the diet.

  5. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake). PMID:10702992

  6. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed proteins are providing the basis for future plant breeding strategies. The Symposium concluded with reviews of the possible use of cell cultures and genetic transformations for seed protein improvement and a consideration of prospects for future developments of food and feed materials. Increased scientific knowledge and the application of molecular biology and genetic engineering techniques will have an undoubted influence upon the course and speed of future progress. However, the solution of the immediate nutritional problems of the poor and the hungry is very much dependent upon the vigorous and intelligent application of existing knowledge and techniques to produce and promote the use of plant genotypes with improved nutritional value. Until there is a market value for nutritional quality such varieties will have to be at least equal in yield and all other characteristics to the varieties commonly grown. (author)

  7. Protein depth calculation and the use for improving accuracy of protein fold recognition.

    Xu, Dong; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Protein structure and function are largely specified by the distribution of different atoms and residues relative to the core and surface of the molecule. Relative depths of atoms therefore are key attributions that have been widely used in protein structure modeling and function annotation. However, accurate calculation of depth is time consuming. Here, we developed an algorithm which uses Euclidean distance transform (EDT) to convert the target protein structure into a 3D gray-scale image, where depths of atoms in the protein can be conveniently and precisely derived from the minimum distance of the pixels to the surface of the protein. We tested the proposed EDT-based method on a set of 261 non-redundant protein structures, which shows that the method is 2.6 times faster than the widely used method proposed by Chakravarty and Varadarajan. Depth values by EDT method are highly accurate with a Pearson's correlation coefficient ?1 compared to the calculations from exhaustive search. To explore the usefulness of the method in protein structure prediction, we add the calculated residue depth to the scoring function of the state of the art, profile-profile alignment based fold-recognition program, which shows an additional 3% improvement in the TM-score of the alignments. The data demonstrate that the EDT-based depth calculation program can be used as an efficient tool to assist protein structure analysis and structure-based function annotation. PMID:23992298

  8. Intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization in cattle fed tropical forage and supplemented with protein in the rumen, abomasum, or both

    Rufino, Luana Marta de Almeida; Detmann, Edenio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Reis, William Lima Santiago dos; Batista, Erick Darlisson; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Paulino, Mário Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little information in the tropics with regard the comparative understanding of how an increased nitrogen supply in the rumen or in the intestines affects efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle. This study evaluated the effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds in the rumen, abomasum, or both on intake, digestibility and the characteristics of nitrogen utilization in cattle fed tropical forage. Four rumen- and abomasum-fistulated Nellore bulls (227 ± 11 kg...

  9. VOLUNTARY INTAKE, APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY AND DIGESTA KINETICS OF THREE PROTEIN-LEVEL FORAGES FED TO SHEEP CONSUMO VOLUNTÁRIO, DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE E CINÉTICA DIGESTIVA DE TRÊS FORRAGEIRAS EM OVINOS

    Adibe Luiz Abdalla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the voluntary intake, apparent digestibility and digesta kinetics of three protein-level forages fed to Santa Inês sheep. Six sheep (LW = 40 ± 5.7 kg fitted with rumen cannulas were used. Lucerne (LUC, signalgrass (SIG and Tifton-85 grass (TIF hays were chosen due to their crude protein (CP content (respectively, 191, 29 and 75 g kg-1 DM. Treatments and animals were fitted in a double Latin square (3 treatments, 3 periods, 6 animals. To measure the voluntary intake, animals were kept in individual stall with free access to water and food, during the first phase of each period. The feed consisted exclusively of LUC, SIG or TIF and mineral supplementation. Apparent digestibility was determined by total faeces collection. Digesta kinetics was estimated using Co-EDTA and Cr mordant fibre as markers to liquid and solid phases, respectively. Means were compared by Tukey test. Dry matter voluntary intake of treatment LUC was higher (P < 0.05 than treatments SIG and TIF and it reflected the strong relationship between intake and protein content in the diet. Dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficients were superior (P < 0.05 for LUC. Crude protein apparent digestibility showed differences (P < 0.05 between the three treatments, being LUC (0.694 the highest observed followed by TIF (0.500. Crude protein apparent digestibility of SIG was practically null (0.001, indicating intense protein deficit. Dry matter voluntary intake and digestibility of tested feeds were influenced by chemical composition and digestion kinetics. Low protein feeds had a prejudicial effect in nutrient apparent digestibi-lity, decreasing until nullity for protein of treatment SIG.

    Key-words: Lucerne, marker, nutrition, ruminant, signalgrass, Tifton.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo voluntário, a digestibilidade aparente e a cinética diges-tiva de três forragens, com teores protéicos distintos, em ovinos. Utilizaram-se  seis ovinos da raça Santa Inês (PV = 40 ± 5,7 kg, machos adultos, castrados e providos de cânulas ruminais. Optou-se pelo uso de fenos de alfafa (ALF, de braquiária (BRA e de capim Tifton-85 (TIF pelos seus teores de proteína bruta (PB, respectivamente, 191, 29 e 75 g kg-1 MS. Alocaram-se os tratamentos e os animais em delineamento de dois quadrados latinos (três tratamentos, três períodos e seis animais. As dietas consistiam exclusivamente de ALF, BRA ou TIF e mistura mineral, oferecida separadamente. O ensaio de consumo voluntário foi realizado em baias individuais e os de digestibilidade e cinética digestiva, em gaiolas de metabolismo. Determinou-se a digestibilidade aparente por coleta total de fezes. Estimou-se a cinética digestiva mediante o uso de Co-EDTA e fibra Cr-mordantada como marcadores das fases líquida e sólida, respectivamente. Compararam-se as médias por teste de Tukey. O consumo voluntário de MS do tratamento ALF foi maior (P < 0,05 que os tratamentos BRA e TIF, o que refletiu a forte relação entre consumo e teor de proteína na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS e da MO também foram superiores (P < 0,05 para ALF. A digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta mostrou diferenças (P < 0,05 entre os três tratamentos, sendo ALF (0,694 a mais alta que se observou, seguida por TIF (0,500. Para o tratamento BRA, essa variável foi praticamente nula (0,001, indicando déficit protéico intenso. O consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente dos alimentos testados receberam influência da composição química e da cinética digestiva. Alimentos com baixo teor protéico prejudicaram a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes, diminuindo, próximo à nulidade, para a proteína do tratamento BRA.

    Palavras-chaves:  Alfafa, braquiária, marcadores, nutrição, ruminantes, Tifton.

  10. Improving classification in protein structure databases using text mining

    Jones David T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classification of protein domains in the CATH resource is primarily based on structural comparisons, sequence similarity and manual analysis. One of the main bottlenecks in the processing of new entries is the evaluation of 'borderline' cases by human curators with reference to the literature, and better tools for helping both expert and non-expert users quickly identify relevant functional information from text are urgently needed. A text based method for protein classification is presented, which complements the existing sequence and structure-based approaches, especially in cases exhibiting low similarity to existing members and requiring manual intervention. The method is based on the assumption that textual similarity between sets of documents relating to proteins reflects biological function similarities and can be exploited to make classification decisions. Results An optimal strategy for the text comparisons was identified by using an established gold standard enzyme dataset. Filtering of the abstracts using a machine learning approach to discriminate sentences containing functional, structural and classification information that are relevant to the protein classification task improved performance. Testing this classification scheme on a dataset of 'borderline' protein domains that lack significant sequence or structure similarity to classified proteins showed that although, as expected, the structural similarity classifiers perform better on average, there is a significant benefit in incorporating text similarity in logistic regression models, indicating significant orthogonality in this additional information. Coverage was significantly increased especially at low error rates, which is important for routine classification tasks: 15.3% for the combined structure and text classifier compared to 10% for the structural classifier alone, at 10-3 error rate. Finally when only the highest scoring predictions were used to infer classification, an extra 4.2% of correct decisions were made by the combined classifier. Conclusion We have described a simple text based method to classify protein domains that demonstrates an improvement over existing methods. The method is unique in incorporating structural and text based classifiers directly and is particularly useful in cases where inconclusive evidence from sequence or structure similarity requires laborious manual classification.

  11. Bulgur processes increase nutrition value: possible role in in-vitro protein digestability, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor activity and mineral bioavailability.

    Erta?, Nilgün; Türker, Selman

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the chemical constituents and nutritive quality of chickpea bulgur process, were studied in seeds that were soaked at different time (2, 8 and 12 h), different soaking water pH (pH 4, 6 and 8). Soaking in pH 8 soaking water and 12 h soaking time significantly (p?bulgur samples. Compared to the raw material, the protein content and in-vitro protein digestibility increased, but starch, crude fiber, fat and energy values decreased and trypsin inhibitor activity was completely eliminated by bulgur process. As the soaking time increased, the phytic acid content also decreased. The highest total phenolic content was determinated with bulgur samples soaked in pH 4 soaking water. The P, Ca, and K values decreased with increasing soaking time. The HCl-extractability of P, Ca, Mg, Fe and K present in chickpea bulgur samples were significantly higher than the raw chickpea seeds. PMID:24966437

  12. Characterization of Solid Digestates: Part 1, Review of Existing Indicators to Assess Solid Digestates Agricultural Use

    Téglia, C.; Trémier, A.; Martel, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic wastes is clearly encouraged by current regulations in Europe. In complement to the energy supply it represents, this biological treatment process also allows the recycling of organic matter and nutrients contained in biodegradable wastes. Indeed the digestion residue can be further promoted as soil improver or fertilizer. The sustainability of anaerobic digestion plants partly depends on the management of these digestion residues. Digestates present particular ...

  13. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  14. Chapter 11. Digestive tube

    Exploration of the digestive tube by radioactive tracers relates mainly to the functional study of certain digestion or absorption troubles. The tracer absorbed by the digestibe system was followed by counting of the stools, successive measurements of the plasma radioactivity, measurements of urinary elimination or uptake on a storage organ such as the liver in the case of vitamin B12, measurement of whole-body radioactivity for vitamin B12 and iron. The different isotopic techniques used to study intestinal absorption of lipids, proteins and aminoacids, vitamin B 12 and iron were described and their contribution to the detection of exudative enteropathies and digestive haemorrhage was shown. It was pointed out that the stomach is one of the organs most accessible to standard exploration techniques. The role of sup(99m)Tc in both the morphological exploration of stomach and the study of gastric secretion, of 51Cr and 129Cs in the study of gastric evacuation were demonstrated

  15. Biogas production improvement and C/N control by natural clinoptilolite addition into anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste.

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lieyu; Xi, Beidou; Sun, Wenjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Zhu, Chaowei; He, Xiaosong; Li, Mingxiao; Yang, Tianxue; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhonglei

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (A co-D) performance of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste with addition of clinoptilolite (one main kind of zeolite) was investigated to evaluate the improvement of biogas/methane production and internal mechanism of nitrogen and organics control. A better biogas/methane production was observed by 10% clinoptilolite (v/v) than bentonite and diatomite, with the shortest lag phase of 0.070d(-1), the max rate of 15.89L/(kgVSday) and ultimate biogas production of 308.2L/kgVS as the modified Gompertz equation predicted. Accordingly, the content of methane in the biogas was increased from 44.10% to 65.30%. Furthermore, the clinoptilolite inhibited the acidification of digestion liquid (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and enhanced the VFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) destruction. Moreover, 10% of clinoptilolite optimally enhanced the microbial utilization of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), controlled the C/N ratio, and improved the biogas production as well as NH3-N/NO3-N inhibition efficiency. PMID:25603527

  16. Fermentation of Sugarcane Sludge to Improve Dry- and and Organic Matters Digestibility and Rumen Parameters In Vitro

    Yusuf Widodo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the utilization of fungi and yeast on sugarcane sludge fermentation. The treatments of the first experiment were P0= sugarcane sludge without fermentation; P1= fermentation by Saccharomyces cereviceae; P2 = fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae; P3 = fermentation by Aspergillus niger; P4= fermentation by Rhizopus orryzae. Treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomised Design. The treatments of the second experiments were R0 = basic rations, R1 = R0 + 5% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R2 = R0 + 10% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R3 = R0 + 15% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R4 = R0 + 20% fermented of sugarcane sludge. Treatments have significant effects (P<0.05 on VFA and NH3 parameters. Based on these parameters, fermentation of sugarcane sludge using Saccharomyces cereviceae had better results compared to others. The treatments had significant effect (P<0.05 on NH3, and based on polynomial orthogonal test the treatments had linear curve of Y= 4,035 +0,237X. However, treatments had no significant effects on VFA and organic matters digestibility. The dry matters digestibility parameters were significantly affected (P<0.05, and the curve response was linear with equation of Y=45,964 - 0,294X. (Animal Production 10(1: 30-33 (2008 Key Words: Sugarcane sludge processing, fungi, yeast, in vitro

  17. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Millán, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  18. Effects of duration of moderate increases in grain feeding on endotoxins in the digestive tract and acute phase proteins in peripheral blood of yearling calves.

    Plaizier, J C; Li, S; Le Sciellour, M; Schurmann, B L; Górka, P; Penner, G B

    2014-11-01

    Effects of duration of grain feeding on the concentration of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in digesta throughout the digestive tract and on acute phase proteins and LPS in peripheral blood were determined in Holstein yearling calves. Twenty-five Holstein yearling steer calves received either a forage-based diet containing 92% hay and 8% of a mineral and vitamin pellet on a dry matter basis (CON) or a moderate-grain diet, obtained by replacing 41.5% of the hay in the forage-based diet with barley grain, for 3 (MG3), 7 (MG7), 14 (MG14), or 21 d (MG21) before slaughter. Immediately before slaughter, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Immediately after slaughter, digesta samples were collected from the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum. Rumen liquid digesta, digesta from the intestines, and peripheral blood plasma were analyzed for LPS. Peripheral blood plasma and serum were analyzed for the acute phase proteins amyloid A, haptoglobin, and LPS-binding protein. Feeding the grain diet increased the LPS concentration in rumen fluid linearly from 15,488 endotoxin units (EU)/mL for CON to 70,146 EU/mL for MG7. Concentrations of LPS in rumen fluid in MG14 and MG21 were 61,944 and 56,234 EU/mL, respectively, and did not differ. The LPS concentrations in jejunal digesta were much lower than that in digesta elsewhere in the digestive tract, which suggests that ruminal LPS is broken down in the abomasum or proximal jejunum. The concentration of digesta LPS in the ileum was higher than that of digesta elsewhere in the intestines and similar to that in rumen fluid. The duration of grain feeding increased the LPS concentration in digesta in the ileum and cecum and tended to increase that in the colon cubically. Concentrations of LPS in this part of the digestive tract were highest in the MG3 and MG21 groups. The highest concentrations of LPS in digesta in the cecum, colon, and rectum were 3.7, 3.8, and 5.6 times higher than that in CON, respectively. Grain feeding and the increase in LPS in digesta were not accompanied by an acute phase response or a detectable concentration of LPS in peripheral blood. The absence of LPS in peripheral blood and the lack of increase in acute phase proteins indicated that the grain feeding protocol used in the current study and the accompanying changes in LPS concentrations of the digesta did not result in systemic inflammation. PMID:25242427

  19. Direct Analysis of Reversed-Phase HPTLC Separated Tryptic Protein Digests using a Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe/ESI-MS System

    Emory, Joshua F [ORNL; Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Minarik, susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

    2010-01-01

    The sampling, ionization and detection of tryptic peptides separated in one-dimension on reversed phase HPTLC plates was performed using liquid microjunction surface sampling probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Tryptic digests of five proteins (cytochrome c., myoglobin, beta-casein, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin) were spotted on reversed phase HPTLC RP-8 F254s and HPTLC RP-18 F254s plates. The plates were then developed using 70/30 methanol/water with 0.1 M ammonium acetate. A dual purpose extraction/electrospray solution containing 70/30/0.1 water/methanol/formic acid was infused through the sampling probe during analysis of the developed lanes. Both full scan mass spectra and data dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired for each development lane to detect and verify the peptide distributions. Data dependent tandem mass spectra provided both protein identification and sequence coverage information. Highest sequence coverages were achieved for cytochrome c. and myoglobin (62.5% and 58.3%, respectively) on reversed phase RP-8 plates. While the tryptic peptides were separated enough for identification, the peptide bands did show some overlap with most peptides located in the lower half of the development lane. Proteins whose peptides were more separated gave higher sequence coverage. Larger proteins such as beta-casein and BSA which were spotted in lower relative amounts gave much lower sequence coverage than the smaller proteins.

  20. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of individual amino acids in mixed diets with different crude protein levels measured by the modified in vitro three-step and mobile nylon bag technique.

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Lv, Bo; Liu, Chenli; Chen, Daofu

    2016-04-01

    The ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in three total mixed rations with different CP levels were estimated using the modified in vitro three-step procedure (TSP) and mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique on growing lambs. The ruminal effective degradability of DM and CP did not respond with increasing dietary CP level. However, the intestinal digestibility of DM was significantly increased with increasing dietary CP level estimated by TSP (P aspartic acid and proline for the three diets. Similarly, only a few AAs (i.e. histidine, methionine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and cysteine in TSP; histidine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and serine in MNB) had significant differences in their intestinal digestibility; in addition, values of MNB were lower than that of the TSP method, indicating that intestinal digestibility of DM seems to be overestimated in TSP, while that of CP might be overestimated in the MNB method. PMID:26559908

  1. Using support vector machine for improving protein-protein interaction prediction utilizing domain interactions

    Singhal, Mudita; Shah, Anuj R.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2010-10-02

    Understanding protein interactions is essential to gain insights into the biological processes at the whole cell level. The high-throughput experimental techniques for determining protein-protein interactions (PPI) are error prone and expensive with low overlap amongst them. Although several computational methods have been proposed for predicting protein interactions there is definite room for improvement. Here we present DomainSVM, a predictive method for PPI that uses computationally inferred domain-domain interaction values in a Support Vector Machine framework to predict protein interactions. DomainSVM method utilizes evidence of multiple interacting domains to predict a protein interaction. It outperforms existing methods of PPI prediction by achieving very high explanation ratios, precision, specificity, sensitivity and F-measure values in a 10 fold cross-validation study conducted on the positive and negative PPIs in yeast. A Functional comparison study using GO annotations on the positive and the negative test sets is presented in addition to discussing novel PPI predictions in Salmonella Typhimurium.

  2. Integrative Effects of Feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on Growth Performance and Digestibility in Broilers: Promotion Muscle Protein Metabolism

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Khairy Amber; El-Magd, Mohammed A.; Atta, Mostafa S.; Mohammed, Ahmed A.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Hanaa Abd El-Kader

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA?+?FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15?d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% F...

  3. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester. PMID:21975301

  4. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production. PMID:26897414

  5. Microbial community structure reveals how microaeration improves fermentation during anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste.

    Lim, Jun Wei; Chiam, Jun An; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of microaeration on the fermentation process during anaerobic co-digestion of brown water (BW) and food waste (FW). This was achieved by daily monitoring of reactor performance and the determination of its bacterial consortium towards the end of the study. Molecular cloning and sequencing results revealed that bacteria within phyla Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes represented the dominant phylogenetic group. As compared to anaerobic conditions, the fermentation of BW and FW under microaeration conditions gave rise to a significantly more diverse bacterial population and higher proportion of bacterial clones affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The acidogenic reactor was therefore able to metabolize a greater variety of substrates leading to higher hydrolysis rates as compared to the anaerobic reactor. Other than enhanced fermentation, microaeration also led to a shift in fermentation production pattern where acetic acid was metabolized for the synthesis of butyric acid. PMID:25194261

  6. Utilizing shared interacting domain patterns and Gene Ontology information to improve protein-protein interaction prediction.

    Roslan, Rosfuzah; Othman, Razib M; Shah, Zuraini A; Kasim, Shahreen; Asmuni, Hishammuddin; Taliba, Jumail; Hassan, Rohayanti; Zakaria, Zalmiyah

    2010-06-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a significant role in many crucial cellular operations such as metabolism, signaling and regulations. The computational methods for predicting PPIs have shown tremendous growth in recent years, but problem such as huge false positive rates has contributed to the lack of solid PPI information. We aimed at enhancing the overlap between computational predictions and experimental results in an effort to partially remove PPIs falsely predicted. The use of protein function predictor named PFP() that are based on shared interacting domain patterns is introduced in this study with the purpose of aiding the Gene Ontology Annotations (GOA). We used GOA and PFP() as agents in a filtering process to reduce false positive pairs in the computationally predicted PPI datasets. The functions predicted by PFP() were extracted from cross-species PPI data in order to assign novel functional annotations for the uncharacterized proteins and also as additional functions for those that are already characterized by the GO (Gene Ontology). The implementation of PFP() managed to increase the chances of finding matching function annotation for the first rule in the filtration process as much as 20%. To assess the capability of the proposed framework in filtering false PPIs, we applied it on the available S. cerevisiae PPIs and measured the performance in two aspects, the improvement made indicated as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the strength of improvement, respectively. The proposed filtering framework significantly achieved better performance than without it in both metrics. PMID:20417930

  7. Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processing methods

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, atividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados.Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein digestibility. Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima were submitted to the following treatments, which were carried out in quadruplicate: used raw; boiled for 5, 10, and 15 minutes; and steamed for 10 minutes. Next, the seeds were freeze-dried, grinded, and stored at room temperature until the analyses were completed. There was no significant difference among the treatments as for the levels of polyphenols. The raw seeds showed the highest content of cyanide, smallest level of trypsin inhibitor, and smallest protein digestibility. The 10-minute boiling resulted in the lowest content of saponins and greatest protein digestibility. No Hemaglutinin activity was detected in the samples. It can be concluded that the 10-minute boiling was the treatment that produced better results.

  8. Adaptation of digestive enzymes to dietary protein, carbohydrate and fibre levels and influence of protein and carbohydrate quality in Penaeus vannamei larvae (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    Le Moullac, Gilles; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    1994-01-01

    L'activité des enzymes digestives (trypsine, chymotrypsine et amylase) au cours des premiers stades larvaires de Penaeus vannamei est étudiée en relation avec l'alimentation. Les microparticules à base de caséine diminuent le contenu protéique soluble et les activités enzymatiques. L'activité spécifique de la trypsine est corrélée (p

  9. Improvement of recombinant protein production by an anti-apoptotic protein from hemolymph of Lonomia obliqua.

    Vieira, Helena L A; Pereira, Ana C P; Peixoto, Cristina C; Moraes, Roberto H P; Alves, Paula M; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z

    2010-12-01

    Apoptosis is a major problem in animal cell culture during production of biopharmaceuticals, such as recombinant proteins or viral particles. In the present work baculovirus-insect cell expression system (BEVS/IC) is used as model to produce rotavirus like-particles, composed by three layers of three different viral proteins (VP2, VP6 and VP7). In this model baculovirus infection also induces host cell death. Herein a new strategy to enhance cell life span and to increase recombinant rotavirus protein production of BEVS/IC system was developed. This strategy relies on hemolymph from Lonomia oblique (total extracts or a semi-purified fraction) medium supplementation. The total extract and a purified fraction from hemolymph of Lonomia obliqua were able to protect Sf-9 cell culture against apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress (using the pro-oxidant agents tert butylhydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide) and by baculovirus infection. Furthermore, hemolymph enhance final recombinant protein production, as it was observed by the increased amounts of VP6 and VP7, which were measured by the semi-quantitative western blot method. In conclusion, hemolymph medium supplementation can be a promising strategy to improve cell viability and productivity of recombinant protein in BEVS/IC system. PMID:20936342

  10. Post-polymerization photografting on methacrylate-based monoliths for separation of intact proteins and protein digests with comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography hyphenated with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Vonk, Rudy J; Wouters, Sam; Barcaru, Andrei; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; de Koning, Leo J; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Post-polymerization photografting is a versatile tool to alter the surface chemistry of organic-based monoliths so as to obtain desired stationary phase properties. In this study, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid was grafted to a hydrophobic poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith to create a strong cation exchange stationary phase. Both single-step and two-step photografting were addressed, and the effects of grafting conditions were assessed. An experimental design has been applied in an attempt to optimize three of the key parameters of the two-step photografting chemistry, i.e. the grafting time of the initiator, the monomer concentration and the monomer irradiation time. The photografted columns were implemented in a comprehensive two-dimensional column liquid chromatography ( (t) LC ×  (t) LC) workflow and applied for the separation of intact proteins and peptides. A baseline separation of 11 intact proteins was obtained within 20 min by implementing a gradient across a limited RP composition window in the second dimension. (t) LC ×  (t) LC with UV detection was used for the separation of cytochrome c digest, bovine serum insulin digest and a digest of a complex protein mixture. A semi-quantitative estimation of the occupation of separation space, the orthogonality, of the (t) LC ×  (t) LC system yielded 75%. The (t) LC ×  (t) LC setup was hyphenated to a high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer instrument to identify the bovine serum insulin tryptic peptides and to demonstrate the compatibility with MS analysis. PMID:25801383

  11. Long time storage (archiving of peptide, protein and tryptic digest samples on disposable nano-coated polymer targets for MALDI MS

    Stefan Bugovsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Archiving of biological specimens is important due to the importance of reanalysis of already prepared MALDI MS samples or simultaneuous analysis of a sample series. Proteins/peptides and digests were prepared for measurement on a polymer-based metal nano-coated MALDI target and subjected to various storage conditions (−80 °C to RT in a vacuum-sealed pouch and at atmosphere for 6 months. The MS data gathered from these preparations illustrate trends in the aging of different samples and to find optimal storage conditions (−20 or −80 °C in low oxygen environment. The disposable/low cost target proved to be a suitable platform for storage and MALDI MS.

  12. Resolution Improvement in Multidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with both liquid-state and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Most of this work is devoted to the investigation by solid-state NMR of C13-enriched compounds with the principal aim of presenting techniques devised for further improving the spectral resolution in multidimensional NMR of microcrystalline proteins. In fully C13-labelled compounds, the J-coupling induces a broadening of the carbon lineshapes. We show that spin-state-selective technique called IPAP can be successfully combined with standard polarisation transfer schemes in order to remove the J-broadening in multidimensional solid-state NMR correlation experiments of fully C13-enriched proteins. We present subsequently two techniques tailored for liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. The carbon directly detected techniques provide chemical shift information for all backbone hetero-nuclei. They are very attracting for the study of large bio-molecular systems or for the investigation of paramagnetic proteins. In the last part of this thesis, we study the spin-echo J-modulation for homonuclear two-spin 1/2 systems. Under magic-angle spinning, the theory of J-induced spin-echo modulation allows to derive a set of modulation regimes which give a spin-echo modulation exactly equal to the J-coupling. We show that the chemical-shift anisotropy and the dipolar interaction tend to stabilize the spin-echo J-modulation. The theoretical conclusions are supported by numerical simulations and experimental results obtained for three representative samples containing C13 spin pairs. (author)

  13. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Pytharopoulou, S.; Kournoutou, G.G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Leotsinidis, M. [Laboratory of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Georgiou, C.D. [Department of Biology, Section of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kalpaxis, D.L., E-mail: dimkal@med.upatras.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd{sup 2+}, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 μg/L Cu{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+}. Both metals, in particular Cd{sup 2+}, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu{sup 2+} also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd{sup 2+} for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd{sup 2+}-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms.

  14. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Highlights: • Cu2+-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd2+-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd2+, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 μg/L Cu2+ or Cd2+. Both metals, in particular Cd2+, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu2+ also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd2+ for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd2+-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd2+ and Cu2+ affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms

  15. Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo para beta (Betta splendens. Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens. Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

  16. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    Highlights: ► This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. ► Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. ► Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. ► Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. ► It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  17. Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276 l(N) kg VS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286 l(N) kg VS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140°C and a retention time of 60 min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process. PMID:25549903

  18. Characterization and Comparison of Protein and Peptide Profiles and their Biological Activities of Improved Common Bean Cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mexico and Brazil.

    Mojica, Luis; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-06-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and complex carbohydrates. The objective was to compare protein profile, including anti-nutrient proteins, and potential bioactive peptides of improved common bean cultivars grown in Mexico and Brazil. Bean protein isolates (BPI) were prepared from 15 common bean cultivars and hydrolyzed using pepsin/pancreatin. Thirteen proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE and protein in-gel tryptic-digestion-LC/MS. Protein profile was similar among common bean cultivars with high concentrations of defense-related proteins. Major identified proteins were phaseolin, lectin, protease and α-amylase inhibitors. Lectin (159.2 to 357.9 mg lectin/g BPI), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (inh) (4.3 to 75.5 mg trypsin inh/g BPI), Bowman-Birk inhibitor (5.4 to 14.3 μg trypsin-chymotrypsin inh/g BPI) and α-amylase inhibitor activity (2.5 to 14.9% inhibition relative to acarbose/mg BPI) were higher in Mexican beans compared to Brazilian beans. Abundant peptides were identified by HPLC-MS/MS with molecular masses ranging from 300 to 1500 Da and significant sequences were SGAM, DSSG, LLAH, YVAT, EPTE and KPKL. Potential bioactivities of sequenced peptides were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE), dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) and antioxidant capacity. Peptides from common bean proteins presented potential biological activities related to control of hypertension and type-2 diabetes. PMID:25764244

  19. SHIFTX2: significantly improved protein chemical shift prediction

    A new computer program, called SHIFTX2, is described which is capable of rapidly and accurately calculating diamagnetic 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shifts from protein coordinate data. Compared to its predecessor (SHIFTX) and to other existing protein chemical shift prediction programs, SHIFTX2 is substantially more accurate (up to 26% better by correlation coefficient with an RMS error that is up to 3.3× smaller) than the next best performing program. It also provides significantly more coverage (up to 10% more), is significantly faster (up to 8.5×) and capable of calculating a wider variety of backbone and side chain chemical shifts (up to 6×) than many other shift predictors. In particular, SHIFTX2 is able to attain correlation coefficients between experimentally observed and predicted backbone chemical shifts of 0.9800 (15N), 0.9959 (13Cα), 0.9992 (13Cβ), 0.9676 (13C′), 0.9714 (1HN), 0.9744 (1Hα) and RMS errors of 1.1169, 0.4412, 0.5163, 0.5330, 0.1711, and 0.1231 ppm, respectively. The correlation between SHIFTX2’s predicted and observed side chain chemical shifts is 0.9787 (13C) and 0.9482 (1H) with RMS errors of 0.9754 and 0.1723 ppm, respectively. SHIFTX2 is able to achieve such a high level of accuracy by using a large, high quality database of training proteins (>190), by utilizing advanced machine learning techniques, by incorporating many more features (χ2 and χ3 angles, solvent accessibility, H-bond geometry, pH, temperature), and by combining sequence-based with structure-based chemical shift prediction techniques. With this substantial improvement in accuracy we believe that SHIFTX2 will open the door to many long-anticipated applications of chemical shift prediction to protein structure determination, refinement and validation. SHIFTX2 is available both as a standalone program and as a web server (http://www.shiftx2.cahttp://www.shiftx2.ca).

  20. Effects of varying ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on forage digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and urea kinetics in Nellore cattle fed low-quality tropical forage.

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares Filho, S C; Valadares, R F D; Prates, L L; Rennó, L N; Paulino, M F

    2016-01-01

    Effects of supplemental RDP and RUP on nutrient digestion, N metabolism, urea kinetics, and muscle protein degradation were evaluated in Nellore heifers () consuming low-quality signal grass hay (5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis). Five ruminally and abomasally cannulated Nellore heifers (248 ± 9 kg) were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Treatments were the control (no supplement) and RDP supplementation to meet 100% of the RDP requirement plus RUP provision to supply 0, 50, 100, or 150% of the RUP requirement. Supplemental RDP (casein plus NPN) was ruminally dosed twice daily, and RUP supply (casein) was continuously infused abomasally. Jugular infusion of [NN]-urea with measurement of enrichment in urine was used to evaluate urea kinetics. The ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to creatinine was used to estimate skeletal muscle protein degradation. Forage NDF intake (2.48 kg/d) was not affected ( ≥ 0.37) by supplementation, but supplementation did increase ruminal NDF digestion ( < 0.01). Total N intake (by design) and N retention increased ( < 0.001) with supplementation and also linearly increased with RUP provision. Urea entry rate and gastrointestinal entry rate of urea were increased by supplementation ( < 0.001). Supplementation with RUP linearly increased ( = 0.02) urea entry rate and tended ( = 0.07) to linearly increase gastrointestinal entry rate of urea. Urea use for anabolic purposes tended ( = 0.07) to be increased by supplementation, and RUP provision also tended ( = 0.08) to linearly increase the amount of urea used for anabolism. The fraction of recycled urea N incorporated into microbial N was greater ( < 0.001) for control (22%) than for supplemented (9%) heifers. Urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine of control heifers was more than double that of supplemented heifers ( < 0.001). Control heifers reabsorbed a greater ( < 0.001) fraction of urea from the renal tubule than did supplemented heifers. Overall, unsupplemented heifers had greater mobilization of AA from myofibrillar protein, which provided N for urea synthesis and subsequent recycling. Supplemental RUP, when RDP was supplied, not only increased N retention but also supported increased urea N recycling and increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:26812327

  1. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  2. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-06-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC-MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465. PMID:26977438

  3. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    Levitt Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula to estimate the accuracy of predicted conformations (or decoys. This scoring function, called the density score function, evaluates decoy conformations by performing an all-against-all Cα RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation calculation in a given decoy set. We tested the density score function on 83 decoy sets grouped by their generation methods (4state_reduced, fisa, fisa_casp3, lmds, lattice_ssfit, semfold and Rosetta. The density scores have correlations as high as 0.9 with the Cα RMSDs of the decoy conformations, measured relative to the experimental conformation for each decoy. We previously developed a residue-specific all-atom probability discriminatory function (RAPDF, which compiles statistics from a database of experimentally determined conformations, to aid in structure selection. Here, we present a decoy-dependent discriminatory function called self-RAPDF, where we compiled the atom-atom contact probabilities from all the conformations in a decoy set instead of using an ensemble of native conformations, with a weighting scheme based on the density scores. The self-RAPDF has a higher correlation with Cα RMSD than RAPDF for 76/83 decoy sets, and selects better near-native conformations for 62/83 decoy sets. Self-RAPDF may be useful not only for selecting near-native conformations from decoy sets, but also for fold simulations and protein structure refinement. Conclusions Both the density score and the self-RAPDF functions are decoy-dependent scoring functions for improved protein structure selection. Their success indicates that information from the ensemble of decoy conformations can be used to derive statistical probabilities and facilitate the identification of near-native structures.

  4. Improving the Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Dairy Farming using Value-Added Products derived from the Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    Collins, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how manure-derived value-added products via anaerobic digestion impact the environment and economics of dairy farming. An on-farm anaerobic digester (AD) at Virginia dairy was used in this study. The AD performance evaluated for: (i) biogas production (ii) waste stabilization; and (iii) production of organic fertilizer. Locally available organic waste streams were evaluated for co-digestion with dairy manure to increase biomethane production at the on-far...

  5. Directed evolution methods for improving polypeptide folding and solubility and superfolder fluorescent proteins generated thereby

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2007-09-18

    The current invention provides methods of improving folding of polypeptides using a poorly folding domain as a component of a fusion protein comprising the poorly folding domain and a polypeptide of interest to be improved. The invention also provides novel green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and red fluorescent proteins that have enhanced folding properties.

  6. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( MRP and cross-link products. PMID:27065264

  7. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive. Microbial N supply was not affected by wood ash treatment. It is concluded that wood ash treatment is a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in acacia leaves, although additional energy is needed to ensure utilisation of the available N. (author)

  8. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive. Microbial N supply was not affected by wood ash treatment. It is concluded that wood ash treatment is a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in acacia leaves, although additional energy is needed to ensure utilisation of the available N. (author)

  9. Identification of protein binders in works of art by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector analysis of their tryptic digests.

    Fremout, Wim; Sanyova, Jana; Saverwyns, Steven; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2009-04-01

    Proteins in works of art are generally determined by the relative amounts of amino acids. This method, however, implies a loss of information on the protein structure and its modifications. Consequently, we propose a method based on the analysis of trypsin digests using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) UV diode array detection (DAD) for painting binder studies. All reaction steps are done in the same vial; no extraction methods or sample transfer is needed, reducing the risk of sample losses. A collection of pure binders (collagen, ovalbumin, yolk and casein) as well as homemade and historical paint samples have been investigated with this method. Chromatograms of unknowns at 214 nm and 280 nm are compared with those of the reference samples as a fingerprint. There is a good agreement between many peptides, but others seem to have been lost or their retention time shifted due to small compositional changes because of ageing and degradation of the paint. The results are comparable with the results of other techniques used for binder identification on the same samples, with the additional advantage of differentiation between egg yolk and glair. PMID:19259647

  10. Prospects for genetic improvement of seed protein in plants

    A survey of protein synthesizing systems reveals that certain components of the system cannot be varied to alter the amount or type of specific protein in the seed while others can be modified by mutation and selection. A number of possible approaches that might prove of use in obtaining more and better plant proteins are suggested. (author)

  11. The Growth Rate and Efficiency of Rumen Microbial Protein Digestion of Red Clover Silage (Trifolium pratense cv. Sabatron)

    (Trifolium pratense cv. Sabatron). Red clover silage supplemented with different level of carbohydrates has been examined using the in-vitro gas production technique. Cumulative gas production, hydro.gen sulfite production, and ammonia was followed and used as indicators of microbial growth rate and extent of protein degradation. Microbial nitrogen production, VFA, and efficiency microbial production was used as indicator of nitrogen use efficiency. 15N was used as a microbial marker to estimate the amount of nitrogen incorporation into microbial protein. Supplementation of Red clover with increasing 5 levels; 0 g; 0.625 g; 0.15 g; 0.225 g and 0.3 g of maize starch led to graded increase in microbial growth and protein degradation. This was reflected in the increasing gas production and the accumulation of hydrogen sulfite. Diurnal change in ammonia production reflected the microbial utilization of ammonia for protein synthesis. Protein microbe (P<0.001) as VFA (P<0.001) increased due to carbohydrate addition as well as utilization of nitrogen (P<0.001). There was also the efficiency of nitrogen utilization which increased significantly. This result suggested that energy supply can increased efficiency of nitrogen use in the rumen and may reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. (author)

  12. Bovine milk proteome in the first 9 days: protein interactions in maturation of the immune and digestive system of the newborn.

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the milk proteome and its changes from colostrum to mature milk, samples taken at seven time points in the first 9 days from 4 individual cows were analyzed using proteomic techniques. Both the similarity in changes from day 0 to day 9 in the quantitative milk proteome, and the differences in specific protein abundance, were observed among four cows. One third of the quantified proteins showed a significant decrease in concentration over the first 9 days after calving, especially in the immune proteins (as much as 40 fold). Three relative high abundant enzymes (XDH, LPL, and RNASE1) and cell division and proliferation protein (CREG1) may be involved in the maturation of the gastro-intestinal tract. In addition, high correlations between proteins involved in complement and blood coagulation cascades illustrates the complex nature of biological interrelationships between milk proteins. The linear decrease of protease inhibitors and proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune system implies a protective role for protease inhibitor against degradation. In conclusion, the results found in this study not only improve our understanding of the role of colostrum in both host defense and development of the newborn calf but also provides guidance for the improvement of infant formula through better understanding of the complex interactions between milk proteins. PMID:25693162

  13. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae.

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly, little has been done to determine which processes serve as rate-limiting steps for protein accumulation. In other expression systems, as Escherichia coli, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and insect cells, recombinant protein accumulation can be hampered by cell's inability to fold the target polypeptide into the native state, resulting in aggregation and degradation. To determine if chloroplasts' ability to oxidize proteins that require disulfide bonds into a stable conformation is a rate-limiting step of protein accumulation, three recombinant strains, each expressing a different recombinant protein, were analyzed. These recombinant proteins included fluorescent GFP, a reporter containing no disulfide bonds; Gaussia princeps luciferase, a luminescent reporter containing disulfide bonds; and an immunotoxin, an antibody-fusion protein containing disulfide bonds. Each strain was analyzed for its ability to accumulate proteins when supplemented with selenocystamine, a small molecule capable of catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds. Selenocystamine supplementation led to an increase in luciferase and immunotoxin but not GFP accumulation. These results demonstrated that selenocystamine can increase the accumulation of proteins containing disulfide bonds and suggests that a rate-limiting step in chloroplast protein accumulation is the disulfide bonds formation in recombinant proteins native structure. PMID:26137911

  14. Digestible lysine requirements of broilers

    LEP Bernal; FC Tavernari; HS Rostagno; Albino LFT

    2014-01-01

    Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days) and grower (22-35 days) phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digest...

  15. Identifying Gel-Separated Proteins Using In-Gel Digestion, Mass Spectrometry, and Database Searching: Consider the Chemistry

    Albright, Jessica C.; Dassenko, David J.; Mohamed, Essa A.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is an important bioanalytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. This is an especially powerful tool when combined with gel separation of proteins and database mining using the mass spectral data. Currently, few hands-on…

  16. Allerginicity of wheat proteins: the effect of thermal processing (baking and cooking), high pressure treatment and enzymatic digestion

    Kitanovičová, Andrea; Janatková, I.; Houska, M.; Tučková, Ludmila

    Latina : Allergy data laboratories, 2007, s. 43-43. [International Symposium on Molecular Allergology /2./. Roma (IT), 22.04.2007-24.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food allergy * wheat proteins * thermal processing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Identifying Gel-Separated Proteins Using In-Gel Digestion, Mass Spectrometry, and Database Searching: Consider the Chemistry

    Albright, Jessica C.; Dassenko, David J.; Mohamed, Essa A.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is an important bioanalytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. This is an especially powerful tool when combined with gel separation of proteins and database mining using the mass spectral data. Currently, few hands-on…

  18. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 2

    In experiments with colostomized broiler hens apparent digestibility of the crude nutrients of the ration after straw meal supplements of 20, 30 and 40 g per animal was determined. In addition, the 15N digestibility of straw meal and wheat was ascertained on the basis of straw meal supplements. The digestibility of the crude nutrients of the rations decreased significantly (P 15N excess (15N') of the wheat was, at 86 +- 1%, largely independent of the straw meal intake. The apparent digestibility of the straw 15N excess in broiler hens of 42 +- 8 to 55 +- 2% is surprisingly high. (author)

  19. Addition of unsaturated fatty acids improves digestion of mid lactating dairy cows / Adição de ácidos graxos insaturados melhora os processos digestivos de vacas leiteiras no terço médio de lactação

    J.E., Freitas Júnior; F.P., Rennó; J.R., Gandra; L.N., Rennó; A.C., Rego; M. V., Santos; M.D.S., Oliveira; C.S., Takiya.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o uso de fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados nas rações de vacas leiteiras sobre o balanco de nutrientes e o perfil de ácidos graxos do leite. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas Holandesas no terco médio de lactação (média de 128 dias) e (580 kg de peso corpóreo) com produçã [...] o média de leite de 25 kg/ dia distribuidas aleatoriamente em três quadrados latinos balanceados 4x4 alimentadas com as seguintes dietas: 1) controle (CO); 2) óleo de soja refinado; (SO); 3) grão de soja integral (WS) e; 4) sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos insaturados (CSFA). A produção de leite obtida foi de 26,6; 26,4; 24,1 e 25,7 kg/dia para as dietas CO, SO, WS e CSFA respectivamente. As vacas alimentadas com as dietas OS, GS e SCAG apresentaram menores consumos diários de MS, MO, PB, EE, CT, CNF e NDT em relação às vacas do tratamento CO. Os animais alimentados com as dietas contendo ácidos graxos apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS e EE em relação a dieta CO. A suplementação de ácidos graxos aumentou os valores de pH e as concentrações de N-NH3 no rúmen. As excreções de alantoína, ácido úrico, alatoína do leite, derivados totais de purinas, total de purinas absorvidas, nitrogênio microbiano, e eficiência microbiana não diferiram entre as dietas experimentais. O uso de ácidos graxos insaturados na dieta de vacas leiteiras altera a eficiência digestiva da dieta dependendo da forma suplementada. Abstract in english The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of different unsaturated fatty acids supplementation sources on digestive metabolism, including nutrient intake and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Twelve Holst [...] ein mid lactating cows (580±20 kg of body weight; mean±SD, with average of 128 days in milk, and milk yield of 25 kg/d), were assigned randomly into three 4x4 Latin squares, fed the following diets: 1) control (CO); 2) refined soybean oil (SO); 3) whole raw soybean (WS) and; 4) calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA). Milk yields were 26.6; 26.4; 24.1 and 25.7 for cows fed CO, SO, WS and CSFA, respectively. Cows fed SO, WS and CSFA had lesser intake of DM, OM, CP, EE, TC, NFC and TDN than cows fed CO. Animals fed unsaturated fatty acids supplementation had higher DM and EE digestibility, when compared to cows fed CO. Fatty acids supplementation increased ruminal pH and decreased NH3-N concentrations, when compared to animals fed CO. Daily allantoin excretion, uric acid, milk allantoin, total purine derivatives, absorbed purines, microbial nitrogen, and microbial efficiency did not differ among cows fed different experimental diets. Diets with whole raw soybeans and soybean oil improved digestive metabolism and increased the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in milk.

  20. Proteína bruta e energia digestível em dietas para alevinos de curimbatá (Prochilodus affins Crude protein and digestible energy in the diets for curimbatá fingerlings (Prochilodus affins

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB em função do nível de energia digestível (ED da dieta para alevinos de curimbatá (Prochilodus affins, foram utilizados 256 peixes com peso inicial de 2,72 ± 0,11 g, mantidos em 32 aquários de 100 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais. O experimento foi realizado seguindo-se esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro níveis de PB: 18,0; 22,0; 26,0; e 30,0%, combinados com dois níveis de ED: 2.700 e 3.000 kcal/kg, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições e oito peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados ad libitum em duas refeições diárias durante 78 dias. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo aparente de racão, a conversão alimentar aparente, a taxa de crescimento específico, a taxa de eficiência protéica, a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio, a umidade, a proteína e a gordura corporais e as porcentagens de nitrogênio e de gordura no ganho de peso. Verificou-se que não houve interação dos níveis de PB ´ ED, à exceção da porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. Com o nível de 3.000 kcal de ED/kg, obtiveram-se peixes com maiores níveis de matéria seca, gordura corporal e porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. Concluiu-se que a exigência de PB e ED para alevinos de curimbatá é de 26,05% e 2.700 kcal/kg, respectivamente, que corresponde a uma relação ED:PB de 10,36 kcal de ED/g de PB, por proporcionar as melhores respostas em ganho de peso e composição de carcaça.Two hundred and fifty six curimbatá (Prochilodus affins fingerlings averaging initial weight of 2.72 ± 0.11 g, stocked in 32 aquariums (100 L with water renewal, controlled temperature and individual aeration, were used to determine the dietary crude protein (CP requirements, according to the digestible energy level (DE. The experiment was carried out in to a 4 x 2 factorial scheme (four CP levels: 18.0, 22.0, 26.0 and 30.0% combined with two DE levels: 2,700 and 3,000 kcal/kg, according to a completely randomized design with four replicates of eight fishes. The fishes were fed ad libitum twice a day, during 78 days. Weight gain, apparent feed intake, apparent feed:gain ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency rate, nitrogen retention efficiency, humidity, body fat and protein, nitrogen and fat percentage in weight gain were evaluated. No CP ´ DE levels interaction was observed for any studied variable, except for the fat percentage in weight gain. Fishes fed diets with 3,000 kcal de DE/kg showed higher levels of dry matter, body fat and fat percentage in weight gain. It was concluded that CP and DE requirements for curimbatá fingerlings are of 26.05% and 2,700 kcal/kg, respectively, that correspond to DE:CP ratio of 10.36 kcal DE/g CP, due to the best results of weight gain and carcass composition.

  1. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven al...

  2. Effect of salseed-meal tannins on protein synthesis, 35S incorporation and cellulose digestibility by rumen microbes in vitro

    Tannins from seed-meal of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) were fractionated after treatments into ethyl acetate (EA) and lead acetate (LA) fractions. In trial 1, incorporation of 35S from (NH4)235SO4 into microbial protein declined due to the effect of both 2% EA and LA fractions as compared to control. Microbial protein synthesis was depressed significantly (P 35S incorporation and cellulolysis at all levels of both the tannin fractions. It may be inferred that both the tannin fractions from salseed-meal showed antimicrobial activity and LA fraction seems to be more deleterious than EA fraction for rumen metabolism. The experiments were conducted in vitro using rumen liquor of a non-pregnant dry cow having permanent rumen fistula. (auth.)

  3. Lisina digestível em dietas de baixa proteína para frangos de corte tipo caipira de um aos 28 dias Digestible lysine in diets containing low protein concentrations for broiler type redneck from 1 to 28 days

    H.G. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão de diferentes porcentagens de lisina digestível em dietas de baixa proteína para frangos de corte tipo caipira, machos e fêmeas, com idade entre um e 28 dias. Utilizaram-se 792 machos e 792 fêmeas de linhagem comercial, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x6 (sexo x porcentagem de lisina digestível: 0,85; 0,90; 0,95; 1,00; 1,05 e 1,10% com seis repetições de 22 aves. Não foi constatada interação (P>0,05 de sexo versus inclusão de lisina. Observou-se superioridade (P0,05 para conversão alimentar. Da composição centesimal da carcaça, apenas o percentual de matéria mineral foi influenciada (PThe inclusion of different percentages of digestible lysine in low-protein diets was evaluated for male and female free-range broiler chickens, from 1 to 28 days. We used 792 female and 792 male naked neck chickens a day in a completely randomized 2x6 factorial scheme (sex x percentages of digestible lysine: 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 1.00, 1.05 and1.10% with six replicates of 22 broilers. No interaction of sex versus lysine was found. Superiority was observed (P0.05 in food conversion.In the chemical composition of the carcass, only thepercentage of mineral matter was influenced (P<0.05 bydigestible lysine levels.It was concluded that the level of 0.85% for type redneck broiler meets the nutritional requirement of digestible lysine in diets containing lower protein concentrations.

  4. Intestinal digestibility of protein of adapted forages and by-products in Brazilian Northeast by three-steps technique Digestão intestinal da proteína de forrageiras e co-produtos da agroindústria produzidos no Nordeste Brasileiro por intermédio da técnica de três estágios

    José Gilson Lousada Regadas Filho; Arturo Bernardo Selaive Villarroel; Labib Santos Duarte; Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel; Elzania Sales Pereira; José Nery Rocha Júnior

    2010-01-01

    It was aimed to estimate the intestinal digestibility (ID) of rumen-undegradable protein (RUDP) of several feeds by a three-steps procedure. The evaluated forages were algaroba (Prosopis juliflora), canafístula (Pithecellobium multiflorum), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), jitirana (Ipomea sp.), juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro), mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia), sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth), palma gigante (Opuntia ficus indica) and xique-xique (Cereus gounellei), and the agroindustry by...

  5. Exigência de treonina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Digestible threonine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings using ideal protein concept

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações com 1,35% de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos de tilápia, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial de 1,64 ± 0,03 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições, e doze peixes por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações com diversas relações treonina:lisina digestível (69,0; 74,0; 79,0; 84,0 e 89,0% e relação metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 70,0% e uma ração com relação treonina:lisina digestível de 84,0% e de metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 75,0%, todas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais, e alimentados à vontade, seis vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a composição corporal, as deposições de proteína e gordura e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. O consumo de ração, o teor de proteína corporal e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com a relação treonina:lisina na ração, contudo, não foram influenciados pelo aumento da relação metionina + cistina:lisina da ração. Os níveis de treonina total ou digestível que proporcionaram os melhores resultados de desempenho em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo foram de 1,11 e 0,99%, enquanto os níveis que promoveram melhor deposição de proteína corporal foram de 1,43 e 1,28%, que correspondem às relações treonina:lisina total de 71,0 e 69,0% e treonina:lisina digestível de 90,0 e 89,0%.The effects of digestible threonine levels, based on ideal protein concept in diets with 1.35% of digestible lysine on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings performance. Four hundred thirty two reverted Nile tilapia, Thailand strain, with initial weight of 1.64 ± 0.03 g, were allotted to completely randomized design, with six diets and six replications with twelve fishes each. The five diets, isoenergetic isoproteic, consisted of various threonine:digestible lysine ratio (69.0, 74.0, 79.0, 84.0, and 89.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine ratio of 70.0% and one diet with threonine:digestible lysine of 84.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine of 75.0%. The fish were kept in 36 aquariums of 130 L, equipped with water supply, controlled temperature and individual aeration, and ad libitum fed six times a day for 30 days. Performance, body composition, protein and fat depositions and nitrogen retention efficiency of fishes were evaluated. Consumption of feed, body protein content and body protein deposition increased in a linear fashion in accordance to threonine:digestible lysine in the diet, however, was not affected by the increase of dietary methionine + cystine:digestible lysine. Total or digestible threonine levels that provided the best results of performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings were 1.11 and 0.99%, while the levels that promoted better body protein deposition were 1.43 and 1.28%, which correspond to threonine:total lysine ratio of 71.0 and 69.0% and threonine:digestible lysine of 90.0 and 89.0%.

  6. Improving protein function prediction methods with integrated literature data

    Gabow Aaron P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the function of uncharacterized proteins is a major challenge in the post-genomic era due to the problem's complexity and scale. Identifying a protein's function contributes to an understanding of its role in the involved pathways, its suitability as a drug target, and its potential for protein modifications. Several graph-theoretic approaches predict unidentified functions of proteins by using the functional annotations of better-characterized proteins in protein-protein interaction networks. We systematically consider the use of literature co-occurrence data, introduce a new method for quantifying the reliability of co-occurrence and test how performance differs across species. We also quantify changes in performance as the prediction algorithms annotate with increased specificity. Results We find that including information on the co-occurrence of proteins within an abstract greatly boosts performance in the Functional Flow graph-theoretic function prediction algorithm in yeast, fly and worm. This increase in performance is not simply due to the presence of additional edges since supplementing protein-protein interactions with co-occurrence data outperforms supplementing with a comparably-sized genetic interaction dataset. Through the combination of protein-protein interactions and co-occurrence data, the neighborhood around unknown proteins is quickly connected to well-characterized nodes which global prediction algorithms can exploit. Our method for quantifying co-occurrence reliability shows superior performance to the other methods, particularly at threshold values around 10% which yield the best trade off between coverage and accuracy. In contrast, the traditional way of asserting co-occurrence when at least one abstract mentions both proteins proves to be the worst method for generating co-occurrence data, introducing too many false positives. Annotating the functions with greater specificity is harder, but co-occurrence data still proves beneficial. Conclusion Co-occurrence data is a valuable supplemental source for graph-theoretic function prediction algorithms. A rapidly growing literature corpus ensures that co-occurrence data is a readily-available resource for nearly every studied organism, particularly those with small protein interaction databases. Though arguably biased toward known genes, co-occurrence data provides critical additional links to well-studied regions in the interaction network that graph-theoretic function prediction algorithms can exploit.

  7. Digestibilidade aparente de alguns alimentos protéicos pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent digestibility of some protein sources for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Fábio Meurer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um ensaio de digestibilidade para determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CD da matéria seca (MS, energia bruta (EB e proteína bruta (PB da farinha de peixe (FP, farinha de vísceras de aves (FV, glúten de milho (GM e levedura de álcool spray dried (LS pela tilápia do Nilo, da linhagem tailandesa. Foram utilizados 100 peixes revertidos sexualmente, (peso médio de 37,6 ± 5,0 g acondicionados em dois tanques de alimentação de 500 L e duas cubas cilíndricas com fundo cônico, de 150 L, para coleta de fezes. A determinação dos CD foi feita por intermédio da metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 0,1% de óxido crômico (Cr2O3, como indicador. As médias de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica durante o período experimental foram de 25,8 ± 1,0ºC; 3,2 ± 1,4 mg/L; 6,8 ± 0,1; e 205,7 ± 16,6 µS/cm, respectivamente. Os CD da PB, EB e MS foram respectivamente de 90,66; 89,53 e 87,63 para FP; 82,03; 72,09 e 62,21 para FV; 97,61; 93,52 e 91,01 para GM; 77,39; 62,77 e 58,68 para LS. Os valores de proteína (% e energia (kcal/kg digestíveis, na matéria natural, de 53,01 e 3568,0 para FP; 47,65 e 3650,9 para FV; 65,34 e 5036,7 para GM e 32,19 e 2706,9 para LS.A digestibility trial was carried out to determine the dry matter (MS, gross energy (EB and crude protein (PB apparent digestibility coefficients (CD for fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, gluten meal (GM and alchool spray dried yeast (LV for Thai Nile tilapia fingerlings. A hundred sexually reverted fishes (average weight 37.6 ± 5.0 g were assigned to two 500-L feeding tanks and two 150-L cylindrical tanks with conical bottom, to feces collection . CD analysis was performed by the indirect method, using 0.1% chromic oxide (Cr2O3, as marker. Average water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were 25.8 ± 1.0ºC; 3.2 ± 1.4 mg/L; 6.8 ± 0.1; and 205.7 ± 16.5 µS/cm, respectively. CD of PB, EB and MS were 90.66, 89.53 and 87.63 for FP; 82.03, 72.09 and 62.21 for FV; 97.61, 93.52 and 91.01 for GM; 77.39, 62.77 and 58.68 for LS, respectively. The digestible values of protein (% and energy (kcal/kg, as fed basis, were 53.01 and 3568.0 for FP; 47.65 and 3650.9 for FV; 65.34 and 5036.7 for GM; and 32.19 and 2706.9 for LS.

  8. Corn germ with pericarp in relation to whole corn: nutrient contents, food and protein efficiency, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves; Maiza Vieira Leão de Castro; Aline Luiz de Mendonça; Grazielle Gebrim Santos; Maria Sebastiana Silva

    2011-01-01

    The germ fraction with pericarp (bran) is generated in the industrial processing of corn kernel, and it is used for oil extraction and animal feed. This study evaluated the nutritional and protein quality of this fraction in relation to whole corn. The proximate composition, mineral contents, and amino acid profile of the germ fraction with pericarp and of whole corn were determined. A 4-week experiment was conducted using 36 weanling male Wistar rats, and three 10%-protein diets (reference, ...

  9. Open-tubular capillary electrochromatography with bare gold nanoparticles-based stationary phase applied to separation of trypsin digested proteins

    Mikšík, Ivan; Lacinová, Kateřina; Zmatlíková, Zdeňka; Sedláková, Pavla; Král, V.; Sýkora, D.; Řezanka, P.; Kašička, Václav

    Olomouc : Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 2012 - (Maier, V.; Ševčík, J.), s. 16-17 ISBN 978-80-244-3115-4. ISSN 0232-0061. [International Symposium Advances in Chromatography and Electrophoresis and Chiranal. Olomouc (CZ), 11.06.2012-14.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/0675; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : open-tubular capillary electrochromatography * gold nanoparticles * glycation of proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  10. Growth and survival of juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas fed artificial diets containing varying levels of digestible protein and energy

    Aquaculture methods for queen conch, Strombus gigas, have been established for several decades. However, there is a need to improve husbandry techniques for the growout of juveniles. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and survival of juvenile queen conch fed artificial diets with incr...

  11. Interaction of sorghum tannins with wheat proteins and effects on in vitro starch digestibility in wheat flour tortillas

    Excess calorie intake and associated disease risks are a major problem in many parts of the world. Carbohydrates contribute the most calories in the diet, making starch-based foods a logical target for improvement. This study investigated the potential interaction of sorghum bran proanthocyanidins (...

  12. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  13. Improving Protein Fold Recognition by Deep Learning Networks

    Jo, Taeho; Hou, Jie; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2015-12-01

    For accurate recognition of protein folds, a deep learning network method (DN-Fold) was developed to predict if a given query-template protein pair belongs to the same structural fold. The input used stemmed from the protein sequence and structural features extracted from the protein pair. We evaluated the performance of DN-Fold along with 18 different methods on Lindahl’s benchmark dataset and on a large benchmark set extracted from SCOP 1.75 consisting of about one million protein pairs, at three different levels of fold recognition (i.e., protein family, superfamily, and fold) depending on the evolutionary distance between protein sequences. The correct recognition rate of ensembled DN-Fold for Top 1 predictions is 84.5%, 61.5%, and 33.6% and for Top 5 is 91.2%, 76.5%, and 60.7% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of single DN-Fold (DN-FoldS), which showed the comparable results at the level of family and superfamily, compared to ensemble DN-Fold. Finally, we extended the binary classification problem of fold recognition to real-value regression task, which also show a promising performance. DN-Fold is freely available through a web server at http://iris.rnet.missouri.edu/dnfold.

  14. Rice protein improvement through mutation breeding techniques, advance evaluations. Part of a coordinated programme on use of nuclear techniques for cereal grain protein improvement

    The use of gamma radiations for improving protein content of rice variety Pelita I/1 yielded mutants which were consistently high in protein level. However, only a very few have a good TD value. One is mutant 627/5-PsJ which has a good chance to be officially released because it is resistant to BPH, has high yielding potential, good eating quality, early maturity and high tolerance to salinity. The environmental conditions, such as heterogeneity of soil, amount of N-fertilizer and reproducibility of method for protein determination have significant effects on the variability of protein content in certain genotypes of rice. (author)

  15. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion

    Bornhorst, GM; Gouseti, O; Wickham, MSJ; Bakalis, S

    2016-01-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to ...

  16. Accuracy improvement in protein complex prediction from protein interaction networks by refining cluster overlaps

    Chiam Tak; Cho Young-Rae

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent computational techniques have facilitated analyzing genome-wide protein-protein interaction data for several model organisms. Various graph-clustering algorithms have been applied to protein interaction networks on the genomic scale for predicting the entire set of potential protein complexes. In particular, the density-based clustering algorithms which are able to generate overlapping clusters, i.e. the clusters sharing a set of nodes, are well-suited to protein co...

  17. Production of lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Lqari, Hassane; Pedroche, Justo; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Millán, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates were obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin a-conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4% to 11% for lupin flour, and from 4% to 13% for a-conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties...

  18. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  19. Evaluation of the digestibility of nutrients in pigs by ileal cannulation technique.

    Szelényi-Galátai, M; Fébel, H; Szegedi, B; Zsolnai-Harczi, I; Huszár, S

    1996-01-01

    A simple T-cannula was surgically inserted into the ileum of growing female Large White x Dutch Landrace swine. Chymus samples collected with the help of the cannula were analysed to determine the apparent digestibility of different dietary nutrients such as dry matter, crude protein and starch, as well as of some essential amino acids. The following three experiments were conducted: (I) of the cereals, the "Tewo" triticale variety fed alone and in 1:1 concentrate mixtures with wheat or maize was studied; (II) waxy maize hybrids and maize hybrids of normal endosperm were compared without treatment and after treatment by the Bocchi technology; (III) untreated and extruded maize supplemented either with extracted soybean or with extracted sunflower was also tested. The ileal digestibility of protein, amino acids and starch was determined and compared with values obtained by conventional (faecal) analysis. When feeding triticale alone or in combination with wheat or maize, the ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids increased as a result of feeding the cereal combinations (e.g. crude protein 72-79%, lysine 75-79%, threonine 63-78%, methionine 74-86%). Comparison of the two maize hybrids revealed that, with the exception of methionine, lysine and tyrosine, the amino acids of the waxy hybrid had higher ileal digestibility. Treatment of the normal hybrid by the Bocchi technology caused a significant improvement in the ileal digestibility of cystine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, and dry matter. This treatment also improved the faecal digestibility of all test nutrients but methionine. Bocchi treatment of the waxy hybrid significantly improved the ileal digestibility of isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tyrosine and valine, and the faecal digestibility of cystine, dry matter, and crude protein. No major variety- or treatment-related differences were found in the digestibility of starch. As a result of extrusion, the digestibility of nutrients of the soybean + maize mixture increased from 61.6% to 70.3% (crude protein), from 41.1% to 59.4% (threonine), from 60.1 to 72.0% (methionine), and from 70.7% to 82.7% (lysine). The same treatment of the sunflower + maize mixture increased the digestibility of crude protein from 80.6% to 84.5%, that of threonine from 78.1% to 80.6%, that of methionine from 79.7% to 84.3%, while that of lysine from 61.4% to 72.3%. The ileal digestibility of starch was 97-98% for both mixtures. As a result of extrusion, most of the faecal digestibility values showed a significant improvement for both the soybean- and the sunflower-containing mixtures. The favourable effect exerted by extrusion on the digestibility of nutrients is markedly influenced by the feed components. PMID:9141278

  20. Improving microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep fed fresh tofu waste by crude tannin extract of Acacia mangium

    Elizabeth Wina; D Yulistiani; IWR Susana; B. Tangendjaja

    2012-01-01

    Tannin can be found in many tropical plants and the presence of tannin may reduce the nutritional value of feed. However, it can give beneficial effect as it protects the protein from its excessive degradation in the rumen. Tofu waste is abundant in a country, including Indonesia, where tofu is produced widely. A feeding trial on sheep to study the effect of tannin on microbial protein synthesis and condition of rumen fermentation, digestibility and N retention of feed containing tofu waste w...

  1. Improving microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep fed fresh tofu waste by crude tannin extract of Acacia mangium

    Elizabeth Wina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tannin can be found in many tropical plants and the presence of tannin may reduce the nutritional value of feed. However, it can give beneficial effect as it protects the protein from its excessive degradation in the rumen. Tofu waste is abundant in a country, including Indonesia, where tofu is produced widely. A feeding trial on sheep to study the effect of tannin on microbial protein synthesis and condition of rumen fermentation, digestibility and N retention of feed containing tofu waste was conducted. Fifteen sheep were allocated to one of 3 treatments, i.e: 1 control treatment, feed without tannin, 2 feed + tannin treatment and 3 feed + tannin + polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment. The sheep was placed in the individual metabolism cage. They were fed with treatment feed for 14 days and then, the following 7 days, faeces and urine were collected. At the end of the treatment, rumen fluid was taken from each sheep before and after feeding. Rumen parameter (pH, ammonia, SCFA, protozoa and microbial protein synthesis, digestibility, nitrogen retention were observed. Results showed that inclusion of 4% tannin in the feed depressed ammonia production in the rumen of sheep before and 3 hours after morning feeding. Total SCFA and individual SCFA were not different among treatments. Tannin did not affect daily feed intake. Tannin lowered the dry matter, organic matter and protein digestibilities but it significantly reduced ADF digestibility (P < 0.05 and tended to reduce NDF digestibility (P < 0.1. However, tannin increased the microbial protein synthesis. PEG addition was expected to bind tannin and alleviate the negative effect of tannin.

  2. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37°C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20°C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion. PMID:26760266

  3. Analysis of the role of the gene coding the Amyloid-Precursor Protein Binding Protein 1 (APP-BP1) in the radio-sensitivity of epidermoid carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract infected by the human papillomavirus; Analyse du role du gene codant l'Amyloid-Precursor Protein Binding Protein 1 (APP-BP1) dans la radiosensibilite des carcinomes epidermoides des voies aero-digestives superieures infectees par le papillomavirus humain

    Guihard, S.; Altmeyer, A.; Ramolu, L.; Macabre, C.; Abecassis, J.; Noel, G.; Jung, A.C. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-10-15

    As the human papillomavirus (HPV) is at the origin of 25% of upper aero-digestive tract cancers, and as these tumours present an increased radio-sensitivity compared to other tumours, probably due to a greater transcriptional activity of p53, the authors report the study on the influence of a decrease of the expression of the APP-BP1 in these tumours which could favour a radio-induced apoptosis. By using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), they assessed the APP-BP1 expression levels as well as expression levels of transcriptions coding onco-proteins known to be over-expressed in HPV+ tumours. They compared the radio-sensitivities of HPV+ and HPV- cells, the first one appearing to be greater than the second one. Short communication

  4. Screening of Protease Producing Fungi for Microbial Digestion of Seed Proteins and Synthesis of Amino Acids-metalnutrient Chelates

    S. Kale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of metalnutrient deficiency is becoming more serious with the introduction of modern agricultural practices. As a result, metalnutrient deficiency is recognized as one of the critical yield limiting factors. Metalnutrients are generally offered in their sulphate or oxide forms. However, it is reported that organically bound minerals generally have a higher bioavailability than inorganic minerals. Chelation makes otherwise unavailable metalnutrients plant available. Amino acids are well known among various chelating agents. In present investigation the fungus Paecilomyces variotii PR-4 was isolated from soil and was used for production of protease and determination of its activity. Proteins from germinating seeds of chick pea, mung bean, soybean and cowpea were hydrolyzed for the production of amino acids. Amino acids were recovered, estimated and utilized for chelation of metalnutrients viz., Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, B and Mo. The resultant chelates were employed to detect with Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR analysis. The peaks of most intensive bands in the IR spectra of ligands recorded were present in the intervals of the wave numbers 3500-3300 and 1720-1700 cm-1. Chelation of metalnutrients led to the broadening of peak and changes of the peak position of hydroxyl groups, which indicated the binding of the carboxylic groups and primary amine groups of amino acids to the metalnutrients. The resultant amino acids-metalnutrient chelates can be utilized as organic fertilizer.

  5. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

  6. Improvements relating to the radio-labelling of proteins

    A method is provided for attaching 32P to a protein, normally an antibody, that will bind with and irradiate a tumour-associated structure leading to therapeutic benefit. The invention is based upon the introduction of a peptide region to the protein, which is capable of acting as a substrate for a phosphokinase utilising 32P--ATP as a typical source of the radionuclide. Novel substrate peptides, Foxtide I and Foxtide II are disclosed. Foxtide I is Lys. Tyr. Arg. Arg. Ala. Ser. Leu. Gly. Foxtide II is Cys. Arg. Arg. Lys. Ala. Ser. Gly. Pro. Pro. Val. (author)

  7. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  8. Use of wheat and maize protein mutants in breeding for improved protein quantity and quality

    Selected offspring progenies (50 mutant lines) originating from mutation experiments with hexaploid wheat (cv. Bezostaya 1) were analysed for induced heritable variation in protein content, lysine content, grain yield and protein and lysine yields. Ten of these mutant lines were crossed with 11 local varieties. The protein and lysine contents were measured in the progenies of these crossings. The data showed better correlations of grain yield with protein and lysine yields than the protein and lysine contents with their corresponding yields. F1 seeds showed higher lysine and protein contents than local varieties. Data with maize showed that: (1) the total endosperm protein content of modified opaque-2 types increases with an increase in the degree of normalization; (2) the lysine content in dry matter and protein in normalized o2 kernels usually decreases with the increasing degree of normalization; (3) the lysine content in protein of modified o2 kernels, is, in general, satisfactory up to the normalization of about 50% of endosperm. A desirable modification of o2 endosperm within line A632o2 was selected and crossed with o2 lines. Most of the tested hybrids had a good protein quality, but endosperm modification was not evident in all hybrids. The o2 gene was incorporated into high protein backgrounds. Besides a high protein content and quality, some of the hybrids tested had a comparable or higher yield than the o2 check. (author)

  9. Conversion of protein kinase C from a Ca2+-dependent to an independent form of phorbol ester-binding protein by digestion with trypsin

    Tryptic fragments of protein kinase C containing the kinase (45 KDa) and phorbol ester-binding activity (38 KDa) were separated by Mono O column chromatography. The purified phorbol ester-binding fragment exhibits a higher affinity for phosphatidylserine than the native enzyme but comparable Kd for [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate as the native enzyme. This proteolytic fragment binds phorbol ester equally efficient either in the presence or absence of Ca2+ and the addition of the kinase fragment did not restore the Ca2+-requirement for the binding. These results indicate that protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units which can be expressed independently after limited proteolysis with trypsin

  10. Improvements in the Protein Identifier Cross-Reference service.

    Wein, Samuel P; Côté, Richard G; Dumousseau, Marine; Reisinger, Florian; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan A

    2012-07-01

    The Protein Identifier Cross-Reference (PICR) service is a tool that allows users to map protein identifiers, protein sequences and gene identifiers across over 100 different source databases. PICR takes input through an interactive website as well as Representational State Transfer (REST) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) services. It returns the results as HTML pages, XLS and CSV files. It has been in production since 2007 and has been recently enhanced to add new functionality and increase the number of databases it covers. Protein subsequences can be Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) against the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) to provide an entry point to the standard PICR mapping algorithm. In addition, gene identifiers from UniProtKB and Ensembl can now be submitted as input or mapped to as output from PICR. We have also implemented a 'best-guess' mapping algorithm for UniProt. In this article, we describe the usefulness of PICR, how these changes have been implemented, and the corresponding additions to the web services. Finally, we explain that the number of source databases covered by PICR has increased from the initial 73 to the current 102. New resources include several new species-specific Ensembl databases as well as the Ensembl Genome ones. PICR can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/picr/. PMID:22544604

  11. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  12. potentially pathogenic gastrointestinal microorganisms (ID 2972), improved lactose digestion (ID 2972) and increasing IL-10 production (ID 2973) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1688 and Lactobacillus salivarius CNCM I-1794 and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion and increasing IL-10 production. The food constituent that is the subject of the health......-intestinal discomfort, is a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, might be a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, improved lactose digestion, is a beneficial...... physiological effect for individuals with lactose maldigestion. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the above-mentioned claims. On the basis of the data provided, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not...

  13. Interação de polifenóis e proteínas e o efeito na digestibilidade proteica de feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Pérola Polyphenol and protein interaction and the effect on protein digestibility in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Perola

    Ricardo de Araújo Delfino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão é um alimento de importância na dieta dos brasileiros, sendo consumido com frequência. Além de sua importância proteica e de carboidratos contém também compostos bioativos que são essenciais para a manutenção da saúde dos indivíduos. Esses compostos podem se alterar com a estocagem e com a cocção, resultando em modificações de suas propriedades de ligação. A pesquisa teve por objetivos medir a capacidade de hidratação e o tempo de cocção antes e após o armazenamento e avaliar os teores de taninos em feijão comum, cultivar Pérola e a interferência desses compostos na digestibilidade de proteínas, estes parâmetros foram avaliados em feijões recém-colhidos e armazenados durante 3 e 6 meses, antes e após cocção. Para tanto, foram avaliados absorção de água, tempo de cocção em grãos de feijão antes e após armazenamento e composição centesimal dos grãos antes e após cocção. O teor de taninos diminuiu com a cocção e com o tempo de armazenamento; a digestibilidade aumentou com o tempo de armazenamento; a absorção de água diminuiu com o tempo de armazenamento; o tempo de cocção aumentou; e a composição centesimal apresentou diferença em relação à umidade e ao teor de fibra alimentar. Portanto foram obtidas alterações significativas para os parâmetros avaliados tanto para a cocção como para o tempo de armazenamento dos grãos de feijão comum, cultivar Pérola.Bean is one of the most important components of the Brazilian diet, and it is consumed frequently. It has been proven to be source of protein and carbohydrates and contains bioactive compounds that are essential for people´s heath. These compounds can undergo changes as a result of storage and cooking leading to modifications in their bonding properties. The objectives of this research are to determine the common bean cultivar Perola's water absorption capacity and its cooking time before and after storage and to evaluate its content of tannin. The effect of these compounds on the protein digestibility of post-harvested beans and beans stored for 3 and 6 months at room temperature before and after cooking was also investigated. The water absorption capacity and cooking time were determined before and after storage of 3 and 6 months; the proximal composition of the grains was determined before and after cooking. The content of tannin decreased after cooking and with storage. The protein digestibility increased with storage. The water absorption capacity decreased with storage; the cooking time increased and the proximal composition of the grains presented difference in terms of moisture and content of alimentary fiber before and after cooking. Therefore, it can be said that significant changes in terms of cooking and storage occurred in the parameters of the common bean cultivar Perola grains evaluated.

  14. Impact of transgenic oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) and of insecticidal proteins on longevity and digestive enzymes of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    Konrad, Roger; Connor, Melanie; Ferry, Natalie; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Babendreier, Dirk

    2009-04-01

    The risk that insect-resistant transgenic plants may pose for solitary bees was assessed by determining longevity of adult Osmia bicornis (O. rufa) chronically exposed to transgenic oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) or to the purified insecticidal proteins recombinant rOC-1, Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), or Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ab dissolved in sugar solution (at 0.01 and 0.1%, w:v, Cry1Ab only at 0.01%). Compared to control bees, longevity was significantly reduced by SBTI and GNA at both concentrations and by rOC-1 at 0.1%, but not by Cry1Ab or rOC-1 at 0.01%. Longevity on the OC-1 oilseed rape was not significantly different from the control plants. The effects of SBTI and rOC-1 on longevity were investigated through characterization of the digestive proteinases of O. bicornis and analysis of the response in proteinase profiles to ingestion of these proteinase inhibitors. A relatively complex profile of at least four types of soluble proteolytic enzymes was identified. Serine proteinases were found to be predominant, with metallo and especially cysteine proteinases making a smaller albeit significant contribution. The compensatory response to in vivo enzyme inhibition was similar for SBTI and rOC-1 although less pronounced for rOC-1. It consisted of a non-specific overproduction of native proteinases, both sensitive and insensitive, and the induction of a novel aspartic proteinase. PMID:19135058

  15. The effects of in ovo feeding arginine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate, and protein on jejunal digestive and absorptive activity in embryonic and neonatal turkey poults.

    Foye, O T; Ferket, P R; Uni, Z

    2007-11-01

    In ovo feeding, injecting nutrients into the amnion of the avian embryo, may enhance jejunal nutrient uptake, activity of the intestinal enzymes, and posthatch growth. This hypothesis was tested in the following in ovo feeding (IOF) experiments. In experiment 1, 400 eggs were evenly distributed among 4 nutritional treatments at 23 d of embryonic development (23E) and administered 1 of 4 treatments as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of arginine (ARG 0, 0.7%) and beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate (HMB 0, 0.1%). Tissues were assayed for maltase, sucrase, and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) at 25E, hatch, and 3, 7, and 14 d. In experiment 2, all IOF procedures were repeated and treatments were administered at 21E: injected or noninjected control, 21% egg white protein (EWP), 21% EWP + 0.1% HMB. In experiment 3, two hundred eggs were evenly distributed among the following treatments at 23E: noninjected control or 0.7% ARG + 0.1% HMB + 21% EWP. Jejunal samples were assayed for glucose or alanine uptake at 23E, 25E, and hatch (experiment 2), and hatch and 7 d (experiment 3), respectively. All poults were fed a turkey starter diet ad libitum immediately upon hatching. There was a highly significant HMB x ARG interaction on jejunal sucrase, maltase, and LAP activities at 25E and 14 d. Poults in ovo (IO) fed HMB + ARG had approximately a 2- to 3-fold increase in jejunal sucrase, maltase, and LAP activities at 25E, and a 3-fold increase at 14 d, over other treatments. Poults IO fed EWP + HMB (experiment 2) had enhanced glucose uptake at 25E, whereas poults IO fed ARG + HMB + EWP (experiment 3) had enhanced alanine uptake at hatch and 7 d. These studies demonstrate that IOF ARG, HMB, and EWP may enhance jejunal nutrient uptake and digestion in turkeys. PMID:17954584

  16. Commercially available amino acid supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens with different ratios of digestible glycine+serine:lysine.

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Eyng, C; Nunes, R V; Duarte, C R A; Vargas, M D

    2012-12-01

    This work studied the effect of supplementing commercially available amino acids in low-protein diets using different ratios of digestible (dig) glycine+serine:lysine (Gly+Ser:Lys) on performance, serum parameters, feathering, and litter characteristics of broiler chickens during the starter period. A total of one thousand fifty 1-d-old Cobb-Vantress male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into 6 treatments with 5 replicates of 35 birds each. The treatments were as follows: T1, control diet based on corn and soybean meal formulated with 22% CP (dig Gly+Ser:Lys ratio of 147); T2, diet with a 2% CP reduction, supplemented with Val (dig Gly+Ser:Lys ratio of 137); T3, similar to T2 with the addition of Gly (dig Gly+Ser:Lys ratio of 147); T4, diet with a 3% CP reduction, supplemented with Val, Ile, and Arg (dig Gly+Ser:Lys ratio of 127); and T5 and T6, similar to T4 with the addition of Gly (dig Gly+Ser:Lys ratios of 137 and 147, respectively). At 7 and 21 d, broilers that had received diets with a 3% CP reduction (19% CP) and a Gly+Ser:Lys ratio that was equivalent to 127 had lower G:F (P ammonia emission than the litter of broilers receiving the control diet. The treatments did not influence (P > 0.05) the feather length or feathering scores at 21 or 28 d of age. The supplementation of essential amino acids while maintaining dig Gly+Ser:Lys ratios at and above 137 allowed for a reduction in the dietary CP of 3% without undermining the performance, feathering or serum parameters of early stage broilers. PMID:23155025

  17. Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize (MON810) in relation to total dietary feed proteins in dairy cow digestion

    Paul, Vijay; Guertler, Patrick; Wiedemann, Steffi; Meyer, Heinrich H.D.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relative degradation and fragmentation pattern of the recombinant Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of dairy cows, a 25 months GM maize feeding study was conducted on 36 lactating Bavarian Fleckvieh cows allocated into two groups (18 cows per group) fed diets containing either GM maize MON810 or nearly isogenic non-GM maize as the respective diet components. All cows were fed a partial total mixed ration (...

  18. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    Levitt Michael; Fain Boris; Wang Kai; Samudrala Ram

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula ...

  19. Níveis de lisina digestível em rações, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético dos 15 aos 30 kg Dietary digestible lysine levels, using the ideal protein concept, for barrows with high genetic potential from 15 to 30 kg

    Márvio Lobão Teixeira de Abreu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 40 leitões machos castrados, de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne magra na carcaça, com pesos inicial e final de 15,76 + 0,93 e 30,23 + 1,56 kg, respectivamente, para avaliar o efeito de níveis de lisina digestível, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, sobre o desempenho e a composição da carcaça. Os tratamentos corresponderam a uma ração basal com 19,46% de PB e 3.280 kcal de EM/kg, suplementada com L-lisina HCl, resultando em rações com 0,90; 1,.00; 1,10 e 1,20% de lisina digestível. As rações foram suplementadas com níveis crescentes de aminoácidos sintéticos, resultando em rações com relações constantes entre metionina + cistina, treonina, triptofano e valina com a lisina (60, 60, 19 e 69%, respectivamente, com base na digestibilidade verdadeira. Não se observou efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo diário de ração, a concentração de uréia no plasma e as porcentagens de água, proteína e gordura na carcaça dos animais. Houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de lisina digestível sobre o ganho de peso diário, que aumentou até o nível estimado de 1,10% de lisina na ração, e a conversão alimentar, que melhorou até o nível estimado de 1,12%. Houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo diário de lisina, que aumentou de forma linear. As deposições de proteína e gordura na carcaça foram influenciadas de forma quadrática, aumentando até os níveis estimados de 1,12 e 1,08% de lisina digestível, respectivamente. O nível de 1,12% de lisina digestível foi o que proporcionou os melhores resultados de desempenho e de características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético na fase de 15 a 30 kg, o que correspondeu a um consumo de lisina digestível de 12,03 g/dia (3,42 g de Lis/Mcal de EM.Fourty barrows with high genetic potential for lean gain averaging initial and final body weights of 15.76 + 0.93 kg and 30.23 + 1.56 kg, respectively, were used to evaluate the effect of digestible lysine levels, using the ideal protein concept, on the performance and carcass composition. The treatments were composed of a basal diet containing 19.46% crude protein and 3,280 kcal of ME/kg, that were supplemented with different levels of HCl-L-Lysine, resulting in diets with 0.90, 1.00, 1,10, and 1.20% of digestible lysine. The diets were supplemented with increasing levels of synthetic amino acids, resulting in diets with ratios of methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and valine:lysine constant in 60, 60, 19 e 69%, respectively, based on the true digestibility. No treatment effects on feed intake, concentration of plasma urea and percentages of water, protein and fat in the carcass were observed in this trial. However, significant quadratic effects on weight gain and feed:gain ratio with quadractic maximum and minimum of 1.10 and 1.12% of lysine, respectively, were detected. Intake of digestible lysine increased linearly among treatments. The depositions of protein and fat in the carcass answered quadractily with quadratic maxima at 1.12 and 1.08%, respectively. The level of digestible lysine that provided the best results of performance and carcass characteristics of barrows with high genetic potential from 15 to 30 kg was of 1.12% of true digestible lysine, corresponding to a digestible lysine intake of 12.03 g/day (3.42 g of Lys/Mcal of ME.

  20. Improvement of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for the determination of nine nutritional elements in food products by Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy after microwave digestion: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    Poitevin, Eric; Nicolas, Marine; Graveleau, Laetitia; Richoz, Janique; Andrey, Daniel; Monard, Florence

    2009-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy in order to improve and update AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed or open vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proved through a successful internal RT using experienced food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD and HorRat values) regarding SLV and RT. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an improved version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula. PMID:19916387

  1. of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), improved lactose digestion (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), and reduction in numbers of circulating CD34+ cells (ID 2947, 2952, 2975) (further assessment) pursuant to

    Tetens, Inge

    Lactobacillus acidophilus BCCM/LMG P-18806, Lactobacillus delbrueckii BCCM/LMG P-18805 and Streptococcus thermophilus BCCM/LMG P-18807 and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, and reduction in numbers of......, might be a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, improved lactose digestion, is a beneficial physiological effect for individuals with lactose maldigestion. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific...... reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and improved lactose digestion....

  2. Effect of Different Processing Methods on Anti-Nutrients Content and Protein Quality of Improved Lupin (Lupinus Albus L. Cultivar Seeds

    Mohamed Ahmed M. Omer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupin seeds of genetically improved cultivar (Golo were subjected to different processing methods and investigated according to anti-nutritional factors content and protein quality. Results showed that tannin content of raw seeds was significantly increased in sprouted and debittered seeds before and after boiling but in fermented seeds it declined significantly. Phytate content was significantly decreased in all processed seeds with a significant reduction observed in germinated seeds. The reduction in Phytate as a result of processing was accompanied by a significant improvement in protein digestibility. The protein content of lupin seeds decreased in sprouted seeds and increased in fermented and debittered ones. Boiling of the seeds even the sprouted ones significantly increased the protein content compared to raw lupin seeds. In raw lupin seeds, globulins comprised the major fraction followed by glutelin. Debittered seeds characterized by high glutelin, fermented are characterized by high globulin while germinated characterized by both fractions. Most of the amino acids level was increased after processing of the seeds.

  3. Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs

    Thyman, T; Sørensen, K U; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Elnif, J; Jensen, Bent Borg; Banga-Mboko, H; Lesner, T D; Sangild, P T

    The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite fo...

  4. Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs

    Thymann, Thomas; Sørensen, Kristina U.; Hedemann, Mette S.; Elnif, Jan; Jensen, Bent B.; Banga-Mboko, Henri; Leser, Thomas D.; Sangild, Per T.

    2007-01-01

    The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite fo...

  5. Coupling Protein Side-Chain and Backbone Flexibility Improves the Re-design of Protein-Ligand Specificity.

    Ollikainen, Noah; de Jong, René M; Kortemme, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    Interactions between small molecules and proteins play critical roles in regulating and facilitating diverse biological functions, yet our ability to accurately re-engineer the specificity of these interactions using computational approaches has been limited. One main difficulty, in addition to inaccuracies in energy functions, is the exquisite sensitivity of protein-ligand interactions to subtle conformational changes, coupled with the computational problem of sampling the large conformational search space of degrees of freedom of ligands, amino acid side chains, and the protein backbone. Here, we describe two benchmarks for evaluating the accuracy of computational approaches for re-engineering protein-ligand interactions: (i) prediction of enzyme specificity altering mutations and (ii) prediction of sequence tolerance in ligand binding sites. After finding that current state-of-the-art "fixed backbone" design methods perform poorly on these tests, we develop a new "coupled moves" design method in the program Rosetta that couples changes to protein sequence with alterations in both protein side-chain and protein backbone conformations, and allows for changes in ligand rigid-body and torsion degrees of freedom. We show significantly increased accuracy in both predicting ligand specificity altering mutations and binding site sequences. These methodological improvements should be useful for many applications of protein-ligand design. The approach also provides insights into the role of subtle conformational adjustments that enable functional changes not only in engineering applications but also in natural protein evolution. PMID:26397464

  6. Improved functional overview of protein complexes using inferred epistatic relationships

    Ryan, Colm

    2011-05-23

    Abstract Background Epistatic Miniarray Profiling(E-MAP) quantifies the net effect on growth rate of disrupting pairs of genes, often producing phenotypes that may be more (negative epistasis) or less (positive epistasis) severe than the phenotype predicted based on single gene disruptions. Epistatic interactions are important for understanding cell biology because they define relationships between individual genes, and between sets of genes involved in biochemical pathways and protein complexes. Each E-MAP screen quantifies the interactions between a logically selected subset of genes (e.g. genes whose products share a common function). Interactions that occur between genes involved in different cellular processes are not as frequently measured, yet these interactions are important for providing an overview of cellular organization. Results We introduce a method for combining overlapping E-MAP screens and inferring new interactions between them. We use this method to infer with high confidence 2,240 new strongly epistatic interactions and 34,469 weakly epistatic or neutral interactions. We show that accuracy of the predicted interactions approaches that of replicate experiments and that, like measured interactions, they are enriched for features such as shared biochemical pathways and knockout phenotypes. We constructed an expanded epistasis map for yeast cell protein complexes and show that our new interactions increase the evidence for previously proposed inter-complex connections, and predict many new links. We validated a number of these in the laboratory, including new interactions linking the SWR-C chromatin modifying complex and the nuclear transport apparatus. Conclusion Overall, our data support a modular model of yeast cell protein network organization and show how prediction methods can considerably extend the information that can be extracted from overlapping E-MAP screens.

  7. Xylanase supplementation of a wheat-based diet improved nutrient digestion and mRNA expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens.

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Xu; Li, Changwu; Guo, Yuming

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens has become prevalent in the European Union due to the withdrawal of antibiotics in poultry feed. In an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 336 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to 4 groups with or without C. perfringens challenge and fed wheat-based diets supplemented with or without xylanase at 5,500 U/kg of diet. The study aimed to investigate effects of xylanase addition on growth performance as well as nutrient digestion and absorption of C. perfringens-infected broilers. Before challenge (d 0-14), xylanase-supplemented birds had greater ADG and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR; P Clostridium perfringens infection decreased AME values and apparent ileal digestibility of DM of diets (P perfringens infection (P perfringens infection and elevated apparent ileal digestibility of CP and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in challenged birds. PMID:24570428

  8. Modelling anaerobic co-digestion in Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2: Parameter estimation, substrate characterisation and plant-wide integration.

    Arnell, Magnus; Astals, Sergi; Åmand, Linda; Batstone, Damien J; Jensen, Paul D; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is an emerging practice at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to improve the energy balance and integrate waste management. Modelling of co-digestion in a plant-wide WWTP model is a powerful tool to assess the impact of co-substrate selection and dose strategy on digester performance and plant-wide effects. A feasible procedure to characterise and fractionate co-substrates COD for the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) was developed. This procedure is also applicable for the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). Long chain fatty acid inhibition was included in the ADM1 model to allow for realistic modelling of lipid rich co-substrates. Sensitivity analysis revealed that, apart from the biodegradable fraction of COD, protein and lipid fractions are the most important fractions for methane production and digester stability, with at least two major failure modes identified through principal component analysis (PCA). The model and procedure were tested on bio-methane potential (BMP) tests on three substrates, each rich on carbohydrates, proteins or lipids with good predictive capability in all three cases. This model was then applied to a plant-wide simulation study which confirmed the positive effects of co-digestion on methane production and total operational cost. Simulations also revealed the importance of limiting the protein load to the anaerobic digester to avoid ammonia inhibition in the digester and overloading of the nitrogen removal processes in the water train. In contrast, the digester can treat relatively high loads of lipid rich substrates without prolonged disturbances. PMID:27088248

  9. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    Athaydes Francisco Leite; Leandro Janke; Zuopeng Lv; Hauke Harms; Hans-Hermann Richnow; Marcell Nikolausz

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−...

  10. Improved Proteomic Analysis Following Trichloroacetic Acid Extraction of Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Wunschel, David S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Wahl, Karen L.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-08-07

    Proteomic analysis of bacterial samples provides valuable information about cellular responses and functions under different environmental pressures. Proteomic analysis is dependent upon efficient extraction of proteins from bacterial samples without introducing bias toward extraction of particular protein classes. While no single method can recover 100% of the bacterial proteins, selected protocols can improve overall protein isolation, peptide recovery, or enrich for certain classes of proteins. The method presented here is technically simple and does not require specialized equipment such as a mechanical disrupter. Our data reveal that for particularly challenging samples, such as B. anthracis Sterne spores, trichloroacetic acid extraction improved the number of proteins identified within a sample compared to bead beating (714 vs 660, respectively). Further, TCA extraction enriched for 103 known spore specific proteins whereas bead beating resulted in 49 unique proteins. Analysis of C. botulinum samples grown to 5 days, composed of vegetative biomass and spores, showed a similar trend with improved protein yields and identification using our method compared to bead beating. Interestingly, easily lysed samples, such as B. anthracis vegetative cells, were equally as effectively processed via TCA and bead beating, but TCA extraction remains the easiest and most cost effective option. As with all assays, supplemental methods such as implementation of an alternative preparation method may provide additional insight to the protein biology of the bacteria being studied.

  11. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DDSCOD), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (khyd), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate methane yield (fd), demonstrating that increased solubilization of WAS from a pretreatment does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency

  12. Reduced ?-lactoglobulin IgE binding upon in vitro digestion as a result of the interaction of the protein with casein glycomacropeptide.

    Martinez, María J; Martos, Gustavo; Molina, Elena; Pilosof, Ana M R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the presence of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on the in vitro digestibility and potential allergenicity of ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg)-CMP mixtures. The digestion products were analyzed by RP-HPLC and RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The potential allergenicity of the digestion products was studied by human IgE binding by inhibition ELISA with serum samples from children with clinical allergic symptoms to ?-lg. No differences were observed by HPLC in the mixtures hydrolysates due to CMP-?-lg interactions. RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed different peptides occurring in the mixtures hydrolysates. Additionally, it was observed a significant reduction of ?-lg IgE binding in the presence of CMP. The disappearance of epitopes in the digested mixtures could explain the lower IgE binding observed in these systems compared to ?-lg. It can be concluded that the presence of CMP in products containing ?-lg may modify the digestion products that may reduce the potential allergenicity of ?-lg. PMID:26304433

  13. Functional improvement of antibody fragments using a novel phage coat protein III fusion system

    Jensen, Kim Bak; Larsen, Martin; Pedersen, Jesper Søndergaard; Christensen, Peter Astrup; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis; Goletz, Steffen; Clark, Brian F.C.; Kristensen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Functional expressions of proteins often depend on the presence of host specific factors. Frequently recombinant expression strategies of proteins in foreign hosts, such as bacteria, have been associated with poor yields or significant loss of functionality. Improvements in the performance of het...

  14. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    Yust, María del Mar; Pedroche, Joaquín; Megías, Cristina; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaíz Barragán, Manuel; Millán, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v) alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 8...

  15. Improved anaerobic digestion of a thermally pretreated mixture of physicochemical sludge; broiler excreta and sugar cane wastes (SCW): Effect on organic matter solubilization, biodegradability and bioenergy production.

    Nava-Valente, Noemí; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Nativitas-Sandoval, Liliana S; Mendez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-04-15

    Thermal pretreatment effect of a mixture of organic wastes (physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and sugarcane wastes (SCW)) in the solubilization and biodegradability organic matter as well as bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion was evaluated. Two different mixtures of physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and SCW (70%, 15%, 15% and 60%, 20%, 20% of VS, respectively) were treated at different temperatures (80°C, 85°C and 90°C) and contact time (30, 60 and 90 min). Results indicate that, organic matter solubilization degree increased from 1.14 to 6.56%; subsequently, in the anaerobic digestion process, an increase of 50% in the volatile solids removal and 10% in biogas production was observed, while, retention time decreased from 23 up to 9 days. The results obtained were similar to pilot-scale. In both experimental scales it showed that the synergy produced by the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of different substrates could increase bioenergy production up to 1.3 L bio g(-1) VS removed and 0.82 L CH4 g(-1) VS removed. The treatment conditions presented in this study allow for large residue quantities to be treated and large bioenergy quantities to be produced (10% higher than during conventional treatment) without increasing the anaerobic digester volume. PMID:26819145

  16. Improved silicon nanowire field-effect transistors for fast protein-protein interaction screening.

    Lin, Ti-Yu; Li, Bor-Ran; Tsai, Sheng-Ta; Chen, Chien-Wei; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Pan, Chien-Yuan

    2013-02-21

    Understanding how proteins interact with each other is the basis for studying the biological mechanisms behind various physiological activities. Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) are sensitive sensors used to detect biomolecular interactions in real-time. However, the majority of the applications that use SiNW-FETs are for known interactions between different molecules. To explore the capability of SiNW-FETs as fast screening devices to identify unknown interacting molecules, we applied mass spectrometry (MS) to analyze molecules reversibly bound to the SiNW-FETs. Calmodulin (CaM) is a Ca(2+)-sensing protein that is ubiquitously expressed in cells and its interaction with target molecules is Ca(2+)-dependent. By modifying the SiNW-FET surface with glutathione, glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged CaM binds reversibly to the SiNW-FET. We first verified the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between GST-CaM and purified troponin I, which is involved in muscle contraction, through the conductance changes of the SiNW-FET. Furthermore, the cell lysate containing overexpressed Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase IIα induced a conductance change in the GST-CaM-modified SiNW-FET. The bound proteins were eluted and subsequently identified by MS as CaM and kinase. In another example, candidate proteins from neuronal cell lysates interacting with calneuron I (CalnI), a CaM-like protein, were captured with a GST-CalnI-modified SiNW-FET. The proteins that interacted with CalnI were eluted and verified by MS. The Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between GST-CalnI and one of the candidates, heat shock protein 70, was re-confirmed via the SiNW-FET measurement. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining MS with SiNW-FETs to quickly screen interacting molecules from cell lysates. PMID:23235921

  17. Improved protein surface comparison and application to low-resolution protein structure data

    Kihara Daisuke; Sael Lee

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent advancements of experimental techniques for determining protein tertiary structures raise significant challenges for protein bioinformatics. With the number of known structures of unknown function expanding at a rapid pace, an urgent task is to provide reliable clues to their biological function on a large scale. Conventional approaches for structure comparison are not suitable for a real-time database search due to their slow speed. Moreover, a new challenge has ar...

  18. Improvement of recombinant protein production by an anti-apoptotic protein from hemolymph of Lonomia obliqua

    Vieira, Helena L. A.; Pereira, Ana C. P.; Peixoto, Cristina C.; Moraes, Roberto H. P.; Alves, Paula M; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z.

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis is a major problem in animal cell culture during production of biopharmaceuticals, such as recombinant proteins or viral particles. In the present work baculovirus-insect cell expression system (BEVS/IC) is used as model to produce rotavirus like-particles, composed by three layers of three different viral proteins (VP2, VP6 and VP7). In this model baculovirus infection also induces host cell death. Herein a new strategy to enhance cell life span and to increase recombinant rotaviru...

  19. INCREASING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER WITH CO-DIGESTION USING DECANTER CAKE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2014-01-01

    Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS) contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production pot...

  20. An improved protein extraction method for detecting ruminant material in feed using lateral flow device dipsticks

    Karanam, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently used immunological lateral flow based dipstick technology is not sensitive to detect the presence of ruminant animal material below 1% level of contamination in feed. The possible reason is that the processed animal proteins are subjected to chemicals and to high temperatures during the rendering process, thereby leading to either their denaturation or degradation. Also some feed samples producing viscous extracts or containing high contents of mineral or vitamins delay the migration flow in the test device and may thus give rise to either inconclusive or false positive results. Veterinary Laboratory Agency focused its efforts on developing a new protein extraction method through the EU Safeed-PAP project with the aim to increase the sensitivity of the dipstick method. The method developed is based on a bone sedimentation procedure coupled with an EDTA digestion step in order to liberate the protected proteins which are covalently bound to mineral structures within the bone mineral cage. All the results using this method showed that the feed contaminated with ruminant material is detected at 0.1 to 0.2% levels.

  1. An approach to improve kernel-based Protein-Protein Interaction extraction by learning from large-scale network data.

    Li, Lishuang; Guo, Rui; Jiang, Zhenchao; Huang, Degen

    2015-07-15

    Protein-Protein Interaction extraction (PPIe) from biomedical literatures is an important task in biomedical text mining and has achieved desirable results on the annotated datasets. However, the traditional machine learning methods on PPIe suffer badly from vocabulary gap and data sparseness, which weakens classification performance. In this work, an approach capturing external information from the web-based data is introduced to address these problems and boost the existing methods. The approach involves three kinds of word representation techniques: distributed representation, vector clustering and Brown clusters. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on five publicly available corpora. Our code and data are available at: http://chaoslog.com/improving-kernel-based-protein-protein-interaction-extraction-by-unsupervised-word-representation-codes-and-data.html. PMID:25864936

  2. Proteína bruta e energia digestível em dietas para alevinos de curimbatá (Prochilodus affins) Crude protein and digestible energy in the diets for curimbatá fingerlings (Prochilodus affins)

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira Lanna; Moacyr Antonio Serafini; Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro; Karine da Silva Pena

    2005-01-01

    Objetivando-se determinar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB) em função do nível de energia digestível (ED) da dieta para alevinos de curimbatá (Prochilodus affins), foram utilizados 256 peixes com peso inicial de 2,72 ± 0,11 g, mantidos em 32 aquários de 100 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais. O experimento foi realizado seguindo-se esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro níveis de PB: 18,0; 22,0; 26,0; e 30,0%, combinados com dois níveis de ED: ...

  3. Proteínas do feijão preto sem casca: digestibilidade em animais convencionais e isentos de germes (germ-free Proteins of dehulled black beans: digestibility in conventional and germ-free animals

    Conceição Angelina dos Santos PEREIRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. é uma leguminosa de grande importância para a dieta da população brasileira. No entanto, um de seus maiores problemas é representado pelo baixo valor nutricional de suas proteínas, decorrente, por um lado, da sua baixa digestibilidade e, de outro, do teor e biodisponibilidade reduzidos de aminoácidos sulfurados. Com o objetivo de avaliar a digestibilidade das proteínas albumina e globulina do feijão preto sem casca, foram realizados ensaios biológicos com camundongos isentos de germes e convencionais e com ratos (Wistar, recém-desmamados, com idade de 21 a 25 dias. Avaliou-se ainda o Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína. A digestibilidade verdadeira no experimento com camundongos isentos de germes foi de 90,21 e 90,00%, no teste com camundongos convencionais foi de 85,53 e 86,73%, e no experimento com ratos foi de 82,62 e 68,53%, para albumina e globulina, respectivamente. O Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína foi de 61,00% para a albumina e 51,00% para a globulina. A digestibilidade determinada em animais isentos de germes foi superior aos valores encontrados em animais convencionais, sugerindo que a flora intestinal esteja contribuindo para elevar o teor de nitrogênio nas fezes dos animais convencionais, e, portanto, esteja sendo subestimada a digestibilidade verdadeira do feijão.The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. is a legume of great importance in the Brazilian typical diet. Nevertheless, it presents a low protein quality due to its poor digestibility and low levels and bioavailability of its sulfur aminoacids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility of albumin and globulin protein fractions of dehulled black beans in conventional and germ-free mice and also in weaning rats (Wistar of 21 to 25 days of age. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score was also determined. True digestibility values in germ-free mice were 90.21 and 90.00%, in conventional mice were 85.53 and 86.73%, and in rats were 82.62 and 68.53%, for albumin and globulin respectively. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score was 61.00% for albumin and 51.00% for globulin. True digestibility values in germ-free mice were higher than those obtained with conventional animals. This fact suggests that intestinal flora is contributing to increase fecal nitrogen output in conventional animals, and, therefore, true digestibility of beans is being underestimated.

  4. Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro

    Rita de Cássia Oliveira Sant'Ana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to estimate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP, quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS, quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos.

  5. Improved quantitative protein mutants, selected from a barley mutation breeding program using advanced selection procedures

    Within a mutation breeding program a selection experiment is described for the spring barley varieties Asse (6-rowed) and Edelmut (2-rowed advanced mutant line) after application of EMS-treatments (1-, 2-, 3 x replicated) and X-ray irradiations (3 x replicated). Selection occurred for protein yield, as major selection criteria, using a partial bulk breeding method during segregating generations. As an example for this research experiment (M3 - M6), results are demonstrated for the successful selection of improved protein lines from variety Edelmut, including description of the breeding program, an improved selection criteria for quantitative protein selection, and a successful selection procedure. (author)

  6. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W. C.; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  7. Exigência de lisina digestível e planos de nutrição para frangos de corte machos mantendo as relações metionina + cistina e treonina digestível na proteína ideal Digestible lysine requirements for male broilers keeping methionine + cystine and threonine ratios in the ideal protein

    Douglas Haese; João Luís Kill; Ismail Ramalho Haddade; Alysson Saraiva; Edney Leandro Vitória; Débora Del Puppo; Evelar Oliveira Souza

    2012-01-01

    Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a exigência de lisina digestível e planos nutricionais para frangos de corte machos de alto potencial genético. Quatrocentos e noventa e cinco pintos de um dia, da marca comercial Cobb, com peso médio inicial de 45,6 ± 0,3g foram utilizados, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três dietas contendo diferentes níveis de lisina digestível, nove repetições e onze aves por unidade experimental para determinar o melhor nível de lisi...

  8. NEW SCX PEPTIDE ELUTION SCORE FOR PH/SALT-GRADIENT SCX CHROMATOGRAPHY IN 2D-NANO-LC/MSMS ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN DIGESTS

    A new automated 2D-(SCX/RP)-nano-LC/MSMS method was developed. Separation of the peptides in the first LC dimension was the main focus of this work, and it was optimized using human serum albumin (HSA) and human lung cell lysate tryptic digests. Samples were reduced and alkylated...

  9. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 2. Quantitative digestion of carbohydrates and proteins.

    Barry, T N; Manley, T R

    1984-05-01

    Primary growth vegetative Lotus pedunculatus containing 46 and 106 g/kg dry matter (DM) of total condensed tannin and 3 and 14 g/kg DM of free condensed tannin, was cut and fed fresh at hourly intervals (750 g DM/d) to sheep fitted with permanent cannulas into the rumen and duodenum. Low- and high-tannin lotus contained respectively 41.3 and 31.6 g total nitrogen/kg DM and 132 and 152 g lignin/kg DM. The two forms of lotus were similar in carbohydrate composition. Nutrient intake was recorded and faecal output measured by direct collection. Digesta flow to the duodenum was estimated by measuring dilution at the duodenum of inert ruthenium phenanthroline (Ru-P) and chromium-EDTA markers continuously infused into the rumen. Effects attributable to condensed tannins were assessed by comparing the digestion of the two diets, and by comparing the digestion of each with predicted values for non-tannin-containing fresh forages fed at similar intakes. Apparent digestibility of all nutrients measured was less for high- than for low-tannin lotus (P less than 0.01). The levels of cellulose digested ruminally and post- ruminally in both forms of lotus were similar to predicted values. However, less hemicellulose and readily fermentable carbohydrate (RFC; soluble carbohydrate + pectin) was digested in the rumen in sheep given both forms of lotus than would be predicted for non-tannin-containing fresh forage diets, but this was compensated for by greater post-ruminal absorption of both nutrients. Total N gains across the rumen (duodenal N flow--total N intake) were 1.8 and 10.5 g/d for low- and high-tannin lotus v. predicted losses of 3.7 and 2.1 g/d for non-tannin-containing fresh forages given at the same total N intakes. Post-ruminal digestion of non- amonia -N (NAN; proportion NAN flowing at duodenum) was 0.71 and 0.67 for low- and high-tannin lotus respectively v. 0.76 for comparable non-tannin-containing fresh forages. Energy absorbed as amino acids from the small intestine was calculated to be 0.29 of metabolizable energy for both forms of lotus, compared with 0.17 and 0.21 for perennial ryegrass and white clover. It was concluded that the presence of condensed tannins in lotus markedly increased post-ruminal NAN absorption compared with non-tannin-containing fresh forage diets, but depressed ruminal digestion of RFC and hemicellulose. PMID:6722090

  10. Fatores antinutricionais e coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína de produtos de soja para o pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus = Anti-nutritional factors and protein apparent digestibility coefficients of soybeans sources to pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Marcia Regina Stech

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar as atividades dos inibidores de tripsina, hemaglutinante e teores de taninos no farelo de soja e na soja crua e processada, e avaliar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da fração proteica para juvenis de pacu. Oscoeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína da soja crua, extrusada, tostada e macerada foram determinadas usando óxido de cromo (0,5% como marcador. Foi elaborada dieta de referência com 26% de proteína bruta e 4.352 kcal kg-1, e a cada alimento avaliado foram substituídas 30% da dieta-teste. As fezes foram coletadas por pressãoabdominal. Todos os produtos analisados apresentaram fatores antinutricionais, mas foi observada menor atividade de inibidor de tripsina no farelo de soja. Sojas que receberam tratamento térmico apresentaram os melhores coeficientes de digestibilidade e menoresvalores de atividade hemaglutinante do que a soja crua. Não foram observados efeitos dos inibidores de tripsina e taninos sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína, mas foi observada relação negativa entre os teores de hemaglutinina com a digestibilidade daproteína bruta. Para a alimentação do pacu recomenda-se a utilização do farelo de soja e da soja processada por extrusão ou tostada.This study aimed to determine the activities of trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinant and tannin levels in soybean meal and in raw andprocessed soy, as well evaluate the protein apparent digestibility coefficient for pacu juveniles. The apparent coefficients of raw, extruded, toasted and milled soy were determined using chromium oxide (0.5% as marker. A reference diet was created with 26% crude protein and 4,352 kcal kg-1, with each feed containing 30% of the test diet. Feces were collected by abdominal pressure. All analyzed products presented anti-nutritional factors, but the lowest trypsin inhibitoractivity was observed in soybean meal. Soy that received thermal treatment presented better digestibility coefficients and lower hemagglutinating activity values than raw soy. No effects of trypsin and tannin inhibitor were observed on the protein digestibility coefficient, but a negative relationship was observed between hemagglutinin levels and protein digestibility coefficient. Theuse of soybean meal and extruded or toasted soy is recommended for pacu feeding.

  11. [Isobutylidene diurea as an NPN source for ruminants. 1. Rumen fermentation, digestibility of the nutrients and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows].

    Voigt, J; Piatkowski, B; Krawielitzki, R; Bergner, H; Görsch, R

    1981-01-01

    In 3 experiments 2 lactating dairy cows received a mixed ration consisting of 10 kg maize silage, 2.5 kg hay, 2.0 kg barley, 1 kg dried sugar-beet pulp, 1.5 kg maize starch, 0.5 kg sugar, 0.2 kg of a mineral-vitamin mixture and 0.08 kg non-protein nitrogen (NPN) per animal and day. The ration contained 8.3 kg dry matter, 5.1 kEFU cattle and 1.18 kg crude protein, 0.5 kg of which from NPN, and was given in equal shares twice a day. Urea (I) or isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), to which the animals were not adapted (II) resp. adapted (III), were the sources of NPN.IBDU proved to a be a very slow source of NH3 in the rumen. 2 hours after the intake of NPN 48 . . . 75, 5 . . . 9 and 5 . . . 12 mg NH3/100 ml could be detected from I to III. Up to the third hour the concentration of IBDU and urea increased in III, which is due to the slow distribution of the slowly soluble IBDU in the fluid digestaphasis. 12 hours after the feeding the level of IBDU and urea in III still amounted to 25 mg urea/100 ml, in I to 1 mg/100 ml only. In the first 3 hours after supplying the NPN the pH-value of I was more than 1 unit higher than that of II and III. There were no significant differences in the fermentation models between the variants, the concentration of volatile fatty acids was 12.6, 12.3 and 11.1 mmol/100 ml. In the stomachs the digestibility of the organic matter was 52, 51 and 54%, that of the crude cellulose 64, 62 and 66% and that of the starch 91, 93 and 98%. At the duodenum the passage rate of N was 87 . . . 93, 107 . . . 126 and 96 . . . 130% of the N-intake, that of NH3-N 6, 43 and 22 g per day and that of bacteria-N 61 . . . 76, 78 . . . 100 and 76 . . . 96% of the N-intake. 2.3 . . . 2.8, 2.6 . . . 3.2 and 2.1 . . . 3.1 g bacteria-N were formed per 100 g dry matter fermented in the rumen. In the intestines 55 . . . 61, 57 . . . 64 and 48 . . . 71% of the feed-N were available as non-NH3-N. The conclusion is that in comparison to urea and concerning IBDU, the rumeno-hepatic circulation plays a definitely bigger role for the N-supply of the rumen microbes and that the possibility of the better N-utilisation can be derived from that. PMID:6895175

  12. Handling of digestate on farm level

    Rodhe, Lena; Salomon, Eva; Edstroem, Mats

    2006-07-15

    The farmers are interested in the influence of the digestate properties on the farm economy, how to get a high utilisation of the plant nutrient contents of the digestate and the influence of spreading strategy e.g. application rate and time on the spreading economy. The value of the liquid and solid digestate was investigated by economical calculations in different scenarios. For calculating the profitability of handling liquid and solid digestate on farm level, an economical model was used. The model describes the handling system and the relationships between soil, crop, technology and the organization that influences the profitability of different systems for handling digestate on farms. The revenues are calculated as the sum of nutrients (N, P and K) available to plants. Costs are included for machinery (spreaders), labour and soil compaction. The fixed costs for the tractor for loading the solid digestate and for spreading liquid/solid digestate are considered as overheads. Storage cost was not included. Nor was the cost for the digestate included. The revenues reduced with the costs gives the net present value (Euro/t/yr). Including the fixed costs of tractors, costs of storage and possible charge for the digestate, means additional costs and thereby lower net present value For the set conditions, the liquid digestate (15,000 t/yr) were band spread with two tankers each 15 m{sup 3} in growing winter wheat (30 or 20 t/ha) and before sowing in the autumn (20 t/ha). The amount were either divided 2/3 in summer: 1/3 autumn or 1/3 summer:2/3 autumn. The concentrations of the liquid digestate (2.5 % dry matter content) were estimated to 4.8 kg total-N/t, 3.6 kg total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN)/t, 0.4 kg phosphorus (P)/t, and 4.2 kg potassium (K)/t. Calculations were also made with concentrations +25% and -25% of the estimated concentrations. The solid digestate (6 500 t/yr) were broadcast spread with two spreaders (12 m working width) before sowing in the autumn (30 t/ha). Two loading capacities (8.4 or 12 t) were included in the calculations. The concentrations of the solid digestate (25% dry matter content) were estimated to 10.9 kg total-N/t, 3.2 kg TAN/t, 2.9 kg P/t, and 3.8 kg K/t. The net present value for the liquid digestate handled was between -0.48 and 1.98 in Euro/t/yr. A 25% increase in nutrient concentration means an increased value of the liquid digestate by 0.85-1.02 Euro/t/yr. A higher application rate of the liquid digestate in growing crops (30 t/ha compared with 20 t/ha) improves the profitability for each spreading strategy with about 0.20-0.60 Euro/t /yr. It is more profitable to spread the main part (2/3) of liquid digestate in the fore season in growing crop at the rate 30 t/ha than the main part before sowing in the autumn. With a lower rate, 20 t/ha in the growing crop, it is more profitable to apply most of the digestate before sowing in the autumn. The net present value for solid digestate handled was about 4.55 Euro/t /yr . This is a higher value compared with liquid digestate and is explained by the high N and P content, autumn spreading with relatively low soil compaction and lower investment costs for the spreader compared with a slurry spreader. An operation strategy of the biogas plant that results in a digestate with higher nutrient concentration improves the value of the digestate.

  13. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in alfalfa meal, sugar beet pulp, and wheat bran compared to wheat and protein ingredients for growing pigs.

    Eklund, M; Rademacher, M; Sauer, W C; Blank, R; Mosenthin, R

    2014-03-01

    A total of 11 (8 + 3 for replacement) barrows with an initial BW of 23 kg and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were used in 2 consecutive experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 7 assay feed ingredients according to 2 consecutive duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square designs. In Exp. 1, 3 corn starch-based assay diets were formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), or meat-and-bone meal (MBM) and 1 assay diet that contained 136 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from wheat as commonly used feed ingredients for pigs. In Exp. 2, the pigs were fed 4 assay diets formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either the same SBM as in Exp. 1 or a combination of this SBM and alfalfa meal (AM), sugar beet pulp (SB), or wheat bran (WB) to compare the SID of AA in these feed ingredients with those used in Exp. 1. The SID of AA in CM was lower compared to SBM (P < 0.05) with intermediate values for MBM and wheat. Among fiber rich feed ingredients, SID values were lower in SB compared to WB (P < 0.05) with intermediate values for AM. In AM, SID values ranged between 29 and 45% for Lys, Cys, Thr, and Phe and between 51 and 71% for Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Met, and Val. In SB, SID values ranged between -21 and 46% for Cys, Thr, Phe, and Val and between 51 and 61% for Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, and Met. In WB, SID values were between 55 and 64% for Lys, Cys, Phe, Thr, and Val and between 68 and 80% for Arg, His, Ile, Leu, and Met. The SID values in WB, SB, and AM provided in the present study may improve diet formulation when these feed ingredients are used in diet formulation for pigs. PMID:24492581

  14. Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and of gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Eduardo Gianini Abimorad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus, é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão, Guelph e Guelph modificado, e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por intermédio do coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína bruta de uma dieta-referência para o pacu. Não houve diferença entre os métodos de coleta de fezes; já os intervalos de tempo das coletas apresentaram diferenças, podendo interferir nos resultados de digestibilidade da proteína. Em uma segunda etapa, para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da proteína e da energia de cinco concentrados protéicos de origem animal, cinco de origem vegetal e quatro energéticos, foram utilizadas rações elaboradas com 69,5% de uma dieta-referência, 30% do ingrediente teste e 0,5% de Cr2O3, utilizando o método de extrusão manual para a coleta de fezes. Os valores de digestibilidade da proteína da maioria dos alimentos apresentaram-se altos e não variaram estatisticamente, de 93,89 a 75,73% para o farelo de trigo e a farinha de penas, respectivamente. Entretanto, a farinha de sangue e a levedura apresentaram valores de digestibilidade da fração protéica significativamente inferiores (57,72 e 68,86%, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da energia dos alimentos variaram consideravelmente, apresentando altos valores (acima de 90% para o sorgo, o farelo de arroz e as sojas crua e tostada, e baixos valores (menores que 70% para as farinhas de vísceras e de sangue, os farelos de soja e de algodão e a levedura. Quanto aos métodos de coleta de fezes, conclui-se que qualquer um pode ser adotado para a determinação de digestibilidade, desde que sejam rigorosamente aplicados. De maneira geral, a maioria dos concentrados protéicos pode ser utilizada como ótimas fontes de proteína, com exceção da farinha de sangue e a levedura, enquanto os alimentos energéticos confirmaram-se como excelentes fontes de energia em dietas para o pacu.To improve the pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus feeding in the growth phase, it's necessary to know the digestibility of the ingredients used in his diets. Initially, four fecal collection methods were analyzed (dissection, stripping, Guelph and modified Guelph, based on precision and versatility and also the most efficient time among fecal collection of the Guelph sedimentation systems, through crude protein digestibility coefficient of pacu basic diet. There was no difference among the fecal collection methods while the intervals of time among the collections were significantly different, which may interfere in the protein digestibility results. In a second stage, five proteins concentrated of animal origin, five of vegetable origin and four energetic were studied for estimating protein and energy digestibility coefficients using the stripping method. The rations contained 69.5% of a reference diet, 30.0% of the ingredient test and 0.5% of Cr2O3. In a general way, crude protein digestibility coefficients were high and did not differ from the wheat meal (93.89% and feather flour (75.73%, respectively. However, blood and yeast showed lower crude protein digestibility (57.72% and 68.86%, respectively. Gross energy digestibility coefficients varied considerably among the feedstuffs, showing high values (above 90% for the sorghum, rice meal and raw and toasted soy and lower values (smaller than 70% for poultry by-product and blood meal, soybean meal, cotton and yeast. However, with regard to the fecal collection methods, the results showed that anyone can be adopted with safety for digestibility determination, if used accurately. In a general way, most of protein concentrate can be used as a very good protein source, except for blood meal and the yeast. The energy concentrate revealed to be a source of energy in pacu diets.

  15. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics.

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L?¹·day?¹ indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  16. Improving the representation of peptide-like inhibitor and antibiotic molecules in the Protein Data Bank

    Dutta, Shuchismita; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Feng, Zukang; Persikova, Irina; Sen, Sanchayita; Shao, Chenghua; Westbrook, John; Young, Jasmine; Zhuravleva, Marina A.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Berman, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    With the accumulation of a large number and variety of molecules in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) comes the need on occasion to review and improve their representation. The Worldwide PDB (wwPDB) partners have periodically updated various aspects of structural data representation to improve the integrity and consistency of the archive. The remediation effort described here was focused on improving the representation of peptide-like inhibitor and antibiotic molecules so that they can be easily id...

  17. Improvements in Digestion Protocols for Trace Element and Isotope Determinations in Stream and Lake Sediment Reference Materials (JSd-1, JSd-2, JSd-3, JLk-1 and LKSD-1)

    Révillon, Sidonie; Hureau-Mazaudier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Total dissolution is a critical step in geochemical analysis. Despite the number of published protocols, this issue still draws attention for sediment samples, which are particularly difficult to dissolve due to the common occurrence and high abundance of refractory phases such as zircon. We present tests of different chemical digestion procedures carried out on reference materials (RM) of stream (JSd-1, JSd-2 and JSd-3) and lake (JLk-1 and LKSD-1) sediments from the Geological Survey of Japa...

  18. Digestive Secretion of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's Flytrap).

    Scala, J; Iott, K; Schwab, D W; Semersky, F E

    1969-03-01

    The digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula has been studied with respect to its protein content as a function of time after entrapment of protein material and some enzymes of the secretion. Maximum secretion of enzyme occurs within the first 3 days of the digestive cycle and protein reaches its maximum at 4 days. Phosphatase, proteinase, nuclease and amylase have been observed in the secretion. The enzymes have acid pH optima and the proteinase has a molecular weight of about 40,000. PMID:16657071

  19. Digestion characteristics by beef cattle consuming bermudagrass or bromegrass hay alone or with alfalfa and(or) corn.

    Sun, W; Goetsch, A L; Galloway, D L; Forster, L A; Johnson, Z B

    1993-01-01

    Cannulated beef cattle (four cows: 556 kg initial weight; four steers: 504 kg initial weight) were used in an experiment with two simultaneous Latin squares to determine effects of substituting alfalfa and(or) corn for vegetative bermudagrass (BER; 77% neutral detergent fibre and 5.5% acid detergent lignin) or mature bromegrass (BRO; 70% neutral detergent fibre and 6.6% acid detergent lignin) hay on digestion characteristics. For Controls, BER or BRO was fed at 1.32 or 1.54% body weight of cows and steers, respectively; other treatments entailed substitution for hay DM of alfalfa cubes (17%) or ground corn (33%). A protein supplement was given to all animals. In vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestion was slightly greater for BER than BRO. Supplement treatments did not affect the concentration of total volatile fatty acids or the molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid. True ruminal organic matter (OM) digestion was similar among diets; greater duodenal microbial OM flow and postruminal NDF digestion for BRO than BER diets were responsible for higher (P BER than BRO; depressions in total tract NDF digestion with alfalfa and corn substitutions were additive. With constant DM intake, slightly less than ad libitum, alfalfa or corn substituted alone or together for hay did not improve characteristics of digestion by cattle consuming vegetative bermudagrass or mature bromegrass other than increased postruminal and total tract OM digestibilities with corn. PMID:8585795

  20. INCREASING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER WITH CO-DIGESTION USING DECANTER CAKE

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential of different HRTs and that of wastewater digestion alone. The anaerobic co-digestion is operated in continuous with continuously stirred reactors at HRT of 10, 20 and 30 days. The mechanical stirring units of all reactors are operated automatically. The stirring action occurred continuously during the experiments. The anaerobic co-dige