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1

Production of rice protein by alkaline extraction improves its digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice seed endosperm has two types of protein bodies (PB). Type I protein body (PB-I) accumulates prolamin and is hard to digest, while type II protein body (PB-II) mainly consists of glutelin, an easily digestible protein. A simple method to process rice protein and improve its digestibility was tested from the viewpoint of its application to food manufacturing. Rice protein prepared by alkaline extraction followed by neutralization sedimentation (AE-RP) was compared with that prepared by starch degradation by alpha-amylase (SD-RP). The crude protein content of AE-RP and SD-RP was 84.7% and 78.2%, respectively. There were no major differences in protein composition among AE-RP, SD-RP and rice flour by SDS-PAGE, except 16 kDa polypeptide. With respect to amino acids, all the groups showed quite similar compositions, although cysteine and methionine were lower in AE-RP. In an in vitro digestion study with pepsin and pancreatin, both the SDS-PAGE analysis of protein pattern and the crude protein content of undigested residue clearly demonstrated that AE-RP has a higher digestibility than SD-RP. To find the cause of the difference in digestibility, the structural property of protein bodies by two production methods was compared using electron microscopy. PB-II of AE-RP was transformed into small, amorphous granules, while that of SD-RP was still kept partial protein body structures. PB-I of AE-RP kept its protein body structure, but produced double layers. From the finding that glutelin-gold was detected by immunochemistry not only in small, amorphous granules but also in PB-I, mainly the cortex layer, in AE-RP, it became clear that PB-I was swollen and fragile as a result of alkali treatment. These results strongly indicate that the improvement in digestibility of AE-RP is a result of the structural change of PB-I and -II caused by alkaline extraction. PMID:17330511

Kumagai, Takehisa; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Takao; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Saito, Yuhi; Masumura, Takehiro; Watanabe, Reiko; Kadowaki, Motoni

2006-12-01

2

Protein enrichment and digestion improvement of napiergrass and pangolagrass with solid-state fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher) and pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens Stent) are two major forage grasses for cow feeding. They possess high yields and high regeneration properties. Inoculation of cellulolytic microbes on herbage could enhance the protein content of herbage and promote digestibility in chickens. METHODS: Cellulolytic microbes were isolated from various sources and cultivated on napiergrass and pangolagrass with solid-state fermentation for protein enrichment and in vitro digestion improvement.The fermented napiergrass and pangolagrass were used as the main protein source in chicken diets to assess the feasibility for non-ruminants feed. RESULTS: After a 42-day fermentation period, napiergrass showed higher protein contents (13.4-13.9%) than those of pangolagrass(11.1-11.7%). The in vitro digestibility of pangolagrass increased from 5.29% to 20.4%, whereas that of napiergrass increased from 5.29% to 19.0%. The average feed conversion efficiencies of chickens were close to the traditional fodder using corn as the main ingredient. CONCLUSION: Inoculation of appropriate cellulolytic microbes to enrich protein content and improve in vitro digestibility of herbage with solid-state fermentation for chicken feed is the prospective technique for agriculture, animal husbandry, and substantial management.

Hsu PK; Liu CP; Liu LY; Chang CH; Yang SS

2013-06-01

3

Protein enrichment, cellulase production and in vitro digestion improvement of pangolagrass with solid state fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pangolagrass, Digitaria decumbens Stent, is a major grass for cow feeding, and may be a good substrate for protein enrichment. To improve the quality of pangolagrass for animal feeding, cellulolytic microbes were isolated from various sources and cultivated with solid state fermentation to enhance the protein content, cellulase production and in vitro digestion. The microbes, culture conditions and culture media were studied. METHODS: Cellulolytic microbes were isolated from pangolagrass and its extracts, and composts. Pangolagrass supplemented with nitrogen and minerals was used to cultivate the cellulolytic microbes with solid state fermentation. The optimal conditions for protein enrichment and cellulase activity were pangolagrass substrate at initial moisture 65-70%, initial pH 6.0-8.0, supplementation with 2.5% (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 2.5% KH(2)PO(4) and K(2)HPO(4) mixture (2:1, w/w) and 0.3% MgSO(4).7H(2)O and cultivated at 30(o)C for 6 days. RESULTS: The protein content of fermented pangolagrass increased from 5.97-6.28% to 7.09-16.96% and the in vitro digestion improved from 4.11-4.38% to 6.08-19.89% with the inoculation of cellulolytic microbes by solid state fermentation. Each 1 g of dried substrate yielded Avicelase 0.93-3.76 U, carboxymethylcellulase 1.39-4.98 U and ?-glucosidase 1.20-6.01 U. The isolate Myceliophthora lutea CL3 was the strain found to be the best at improving the quality of pangolagrass for animal feeding with solid state fermentation. CONCLUSION: Solid state fermentation of pangolagrass inoculated with appropriate microbes is a feasible process to enrich protein content, increase in vitro digestibility and improve the quality for animal feeding.

Hu CC; Liu LY; Yang SS

2012-02-01

4

Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p

2011-01-01

5

Insect protein digestion improves purity of Steinernema carpocapsae in vitro culture and reduces culture period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect protein, used for in vitro culture media for entomopathogenic nematode, produces nematodes of high quality. However, the time-consuming culture and poor purity of nematodes hinder the commercial application of insect protein media. We show that hydrolyzed insect protein improves nematode purity in in vitro culture. The results revealed that nematode purity was increased by more than 90 %, and the culture period was reduced by 6 days. Estimated economic efficiency of using hydrolyzed insect protein medium was increased by 44.25 % over that obtained with non-hydrolyzed insect medium.

Cao C; Jian H; Zhao A; Jiang X; Liu Q

2013-08-01

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Insect protein digestion improves purity of Steinernema carpocapsae in vitro culture and reduces culture period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect protein, used for in vitro culture media for entomopathogenic nematode, produces nematodes of high quality. However, the time-consuming culture and poor purity of nematodes hinder the commercial application of insect protein media. We show that hydrolyzed insect protein improves nematode purity in in vitro culture. The results revealed that nematode purity was increased by more than 90 %, and the culture period was reduced by 6 days. Estimated economic efficiency of using hydrolyzed insect protein medium was increased by 44.25 % over that obtained with non-hydrolyzed insect medium.

Cao C; Jian H; Zhao A; Jiang X; Liu Q

2013-10-01

7

Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

2010-02-01

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Improvement in the in vivo digestibility of rice protein by alkali extraction is due to structural changes in prolamin/protein body-I particle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice prolamin, constituting type-I protein body (PB-I), is indigestible and causes deterioration of rice protein nutritional quality. In this study, the in vivo digestibility of rice protein isolates was investigated by tracing their intraluminal transit in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of rats by western blotting and by observing the structures excreted in the feces by electron microscopy. Two types of rice protein isolates, produced by alkali extraction (AE-RP) and by starch degradation (SD-RP), were compared. The protein patterns in the isolates were similar, but their digestion in the GI-tract showed striking differences. In the AE-RP group, 13-kDa prolamin (13P) quickly disappeared in the lower GI tract and was not excreted in the feces. By contrast, in the SD-RP group, 13P accumulated massively and nearly intact PB-Is were excreted. These results indicate that the in vivo digestibility of prolamin can be improved by alkali extraction through structural changes to it. PMID:20208351

Kubota, Masatoshi; Saito, Yuhi; Masumura, Takehiro; Kumagai, Takehisa; Watanabe, Reiko; Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

2010-03-07

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Improvement in the in vivo digestibility of rice protein by alkali extraction is due to structural changes in prolamin/protein body-I particle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rice prolamin, constituting type-I protein body (PB-I), is indigestible and causes deterioration of rice protein nutritional quality. In this study, the in vivo digestibility of rice protein isolates was investigated by tracing their intraluminal transit in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of rats by western blotting and by observing the structures excreted in the feces by electron microscopy. Two types of rice protein isolates, produced by alkali extraction (AE-RP) and by starch degradation (SD-RP), were compared. The protein patterns in the isolates were similar, but their digestion in the GI-tract showed striking differences. In the AE-RP group, 13-kDa prolamin (13P) quickly disappeared in the lower GI tract and was not excreted in the feces. By contrast, in the SD-RP group, 13P accumulated massively and nearly intact PB-Is were excreted. These results indicate that the in vivo digestibility of prolamin can be improved by alkali extraction through structural changes to it.

Kubota M; Saito Y; Masumura T; Kumagai T; Watanabe R; Fujimura S; Kadowaki M

2010-01-01

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Improved Protein-A separation of VH3 Fab from Fc after Papain Digestion of Antibodies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antibody-binding fragments (Fab) are generated from whole antibodies by treatment with papain and can be separated from the Fc component using Protein-A affinity chromatography. Commercial kits are available, which facilitate the production and purification of Fab fragments; however, the manufacture...

Seldon, Therese A.; Hughes, Karen E.; Munster, David J.; Chin, David Y.; Jones, Martina L.

11

Influence of kiwifruit on protein digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green kiwifruit consumption has long been thought to assist in the digestion of food proteins due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin. This chapter reviews the recent findings of both in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of green kiwifruit (which contain the enzyme actinidin) on the gastro- and small-intestinal digestion of a range of common food proteins and protein-rich foods including milk, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, and cereal proteins. Clear evidence is provided that green kiwifruit, and the enzyme actinidin itself, can provide enhanced upper-tract digestion (particularly gastric) of a variety of food proteins, which lends support to a role for dietary kiwifruit as a digestive aid. Kiwifruit influences the digestion patterns of food proteins to varying extents. For some protein sources, digestion in the presence of green kiwifruit resulted in a substantially greater digestion of intact protein, and different peptide patterns were produced compared with those seen after digestion with mammalian digestive enzymes alone. Kiwifruit extract alone (in the absence of other digestive enzymes) has been observed to be capable of digesting some proteins present in foods, particularly those in yoghurt, cheese, fish, and raw eggs. An in vivo (pig) study including a positive control of added actinidin and a negative control where the actinidin in green kiwifruit had been inactivated showed conclusively that actinidin is responsible for the enhanced gastric hydrolysis of food proteins. PMID:23394986

Kaur, Lovedeep; Boland, Mike

2013-01-01

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Supplementation with non-fibrous carbohydrates reduced fiber digestibility and did not improve microbial protein synthesis in sheep fed fresh forage of two nutritive values.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine whether non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) supplementation improves fiber digestibility and microbial protein synthesis, 18 Corriedale ewes with a fixed intake level (40 g dry matter (DM)/kg BW0.75) were assigned to three (n = 6) diets: F = 100% fresh temperate forage, FG = 70% forage + 30% barley grain and FGM = 70% forage + 15% barley grain + 15% molasses-based product (MBP, Kalori 3000). Two experimental periods were carried out, with late (P1) and early (P2) vegetative stage forage. For P2, ewes were fitted with ruminal catheters. Forage was distributed at 0900 h, 1300 h, 1800 h and 2300 h, and supplement added at 0900 h and 1800 h meals. Digestibility of the different components of the diets, retained N and rumen microbial protein synthesis were determined. At the end of P2, ruminal pH and N-NH3 concentration were determined hourly for 24 h. Supplementation increased digestibility of DM (P < 0.001) and organic matter (OM; P < 0.001) and reduced NDF digestibility (P = 0.043) in both periods, with greater values in P2 (P = 0.008) for the three diets. Daily mean ruminal pH differed (P < 0.05) among treatments: 6.33 (F), 6.15 (FG) and 6.51 (FGM). The high pH in FGM was attributed to Ca(OH)2 in MBP. Therefore, the decreased fiber digestibility in supplemented diets could not be attributed to pH changes. The mean ruminal concentration of N-NH3 was 18.0 mg/dl, without differences among treatments or sampling hours. Microbial protein synthesis was greater in P2 (8.0 g/day) than in P1 (6.1 g/day; P = 0.006), but treatments did not enhance this parameter. The efficiency of protein synthesis tended to be lower in supplemented groups (16.4, 13.9 and 13.4 in P1, and 20.8, 16.7 and 16.2 g N/kg digestible OM ingested in P2, for F, FG and FGM, respectively; P = 0.07) without differences between supplements. The same tendency was observed for retained N: 2.55, 1.38 and 1.98 in P1, and 2.28, 1.23 and 1.10 g/day in P2, for F, FG and FGM, respectively; P = 0.05). The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was greater in P2 (P = 0.007). In conclusion, addition of feeds containing NFCs to fresh temperate forage reduced the digestibility of cell walls and did not improve microbial protein synthesis or its efficiency. An increase in these parameters was associated to the early phenological stage of the forage.

Tebot I; Cajarville C; Repetto JL; Cirio A

2012-04-01

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Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

2003-07-01

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Kafirinas, proteínas clave para conferir digestibilidad y calidad proteica al grano de sorgo Kafirins, key proteins to improve digestibility and proteic quality of sorghum grain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El sorgo es un alimento básico en varios países de África y Asia. Sin embargo, su grano es deficiente en lisina y su calidad proteica disminuye cuando se cocina. Los intentos para conferir calidad proteica al grano de sorgo, no han satisfecho los requerimientos nutricionales, y las alternativas biotecnológicas se han enfocado a la expresión heteróloga de proteínas, sin prestar atención a incrementar la digestibilidad proteica. El incremento del contenido de lisina en maíz QPM y el silenciamiento génico de las ?-zeínas en maíz, sugieren que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas, una familia de prolaminas del sorgo homólogas a las zeínas de maíz, permite incrementar el contenido de lisina y la digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. En esta revisión se discuten aspectos básicos de la clasificación de las kafirinas, su homología con las zeínas de maíz, y su contribución en la calidad y digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. El objetivo es sustentar la hipótesis de que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas mediante silenciamiento génico es una estrategia clave para mejorar el valor nutritivo del grano del sorgo, el estudio se llevó a cabo durante 2009 y 2010.Sorghum is a basic food in several countries of Africa and Asia. However, its grain is deficient in lysine and its proteic quality diminishes when is cooked. Attempts to confer proteic quality to sorghum grain have not satisfed the nutritional requirements, and biotechnical alternatives have been focused to proteins' heterologous expression, without taking into account to increase proteic digestibility. Increment of lysine content in QPM corn and gene silencing of ?-zeins in corn, suggest that modification of expression of kafirins, a prolamin family of sorghum homologous to corn zeins, allows to increase lysin content and the proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. In this revision basic issues of kafirins classification are discussed, their homology with corn zeins, and their contribution in quality and proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. The objective of this work is to support the hypothesis that modification of kafirins expression by means of gene silencing is key strategy to improve nutritious value in sorghum grain, study was carried out during 2009 and 2010.

Elizabeth Chiquito-Almanza; Gabriel Cobielles-Castrejón; Noé Montes-García; Víctor Pecina-Quintero; José Luis Anaya-López

2011-01-01

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Kafirinas, proteínas clave para conferir digestibilidad y calidad proteica al grano de sorgo/ Kafirins, key proteins to improve digestibility and proteic quality of sorghum grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El sorgo es un alimento básico en varios países de África y Asia. Sin embargo, su grano es deficiente en lisina y su calidad proteica disminuye cuando se cocina. Los intentos para conferir calidad proteica al grano de sorgo, no han satisfecho los requerimientos nutricionales, y las alternativas biotecnológicas se han enfocado a la expresión heteróloga de proteínas, sin prestar atención a incrementar la digestibilidad proteica. El incremento del contenido de lisina (more) en maíz QPM y el silenciamiento génico de las ?-zeínas en maíz, sugieren que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas, una familia de prolaminas del sorgo homólogas a las zeínas de maíz, permite incrementar el contenido de lisina y la digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. En esta revisión se discuten aspectos básicos de la clasificación de las kafirinas, su homología con las zeínas de maíz, y su contribución en la calidad y digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. El objetivo es sustentar la hipótesis de que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas mediante silenciamiento génico es una estrategia clave para mejorar el valor nutritivo del grano del sorgo, el estudio se llevó a cabo durante 2009 y 2010. Abstract in english Sorghum is a basic food in several countries of Africa and Asia. However, its grain is deficient in lysine and its proteic quality diminishes when is cooked. Attempts to confer proteic quality to sorghum grain have not satisfed the nutritional requirements, and biotechnical alternatives have been focused to proteins' heterologous expression, without taking into account to increase proteic digestibility. Increment of lysine content in QPM corn and gene silencing of ?- (more) zeins in corn, suggest that modification of expression of kafirins, a prolamin family of sorghum homologous to corn zeins, allows to increase lysin content and the proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. In this revision basic issues of kafirins classification are discussed, their homology with corn zeins, and their contribution in quality and proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. The objective of this work is to support the hypothesis that modification of kafirins expression by means of gene silencing is key strategy to improve nutritious value in sorghum grain, study was carried out during 2009 and 2010.

Chiquito-Almanza, Elizabeth; Cobielles-Castrejón, Gabriel; Montes-García, Noé; Pecina-Quintero, Víctor; Anaya-López, José Luis

2011-04-01

16

On-target ultrasonic digestion of proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work, we report a novel on-target protein cleavage method. The method utilizes ultrasonic energy and allows up to 20 samples to be cleaved in 5 min for protein identification and one sample in 30 s for on-tissue digestion. The standard proteins were spotted on a conductive glass slide in a volume of 0.5 ?L followed by 5 min of ultrasonication after trypsin addition. Controls (5 min, 37°C no ultrasonication) were also assayed. After trypsin addition, digestion of the tissues was enhanced by 30 s of ultrasonication. The samples were analyzed and compared to those obtained by using conventional 3 h heating proteolysis. The low sample volume needed for the digestion and reduction in sample-handling steps and time are the features that make this method appealing to the many laboratories working with high-throughput sample treatment.

Santos HM; Kouvonen P; Capelo JL; Corthals GL

2013-05-01

17

Cooking temperature is a key determinant of in vitro meat protein digestion rate: investigation of underlying mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aimed to evaluate the digestion rate and nutritional quality of pig muscle proteins in relation to different meat processes (aging, mincing, and cooking). Under our experimental conditions, aging and mincing had little impact on protein digestion. Heat treatments had different temperature-dependent effects on the meat protein digestion rate and degradation potential. At 70 °C, the proteins underwent denaturation that enhanced the speed of pepsin digestion by increasing enzyme accessibility to protein cleavage sites. Above 100 °C, oxidation-related protein aggregation slowed pepsin digestion but improved meat protein overall digestibility. The digestion parameters defined here open new insights on the dynamics governing the in vitro digestion of meat protein. However, the effect of cooking temperature on protein digestion observed in vitro needs to be confirmed in vivo.

Bax ML; Aubry L; Ferreira C; Daudin JD; Gatellier P; Rémond D; Santé-Lhoutellier V

2012-03-01

18

Protein digestibility (in vitro) of chickpea and blackgram seeds as affected by domestic processing and cooking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protein digestibility (in vitro) of grains of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and blackgram (Vigna mungo) cultivars varied from 48 to 53% and 52 to 58%, respectively. Soaking, cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds), autoclaving and sprouting improved significantly the protein digestibility of all the cultivars of chickpea and blackgram. Autoclaving was found to be most effective followed by cooking and sprouting; cooking of sprouts had only marginal effect. Protein digestibility was higher when soaked instead of unsoaked grains were cooked.

Jood S; Chauhan BM; Kapoor AC

1989-06-01

19

Improvement of sludge digestate biodegradability by thermophilic bioaugmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sludge digestate stabilized by mesophilic anaerobic digestion was further degraded through thermophilic anaerobic digestion using 0-10 % (v/v) of thermophilic, proteolytic Coprothermobacter proteolyticus, and/or methanogenic granular sludge. The results demonstrated that the temperature shift to thermophilic condition promoted abiotic solubilization of proteins and reactivated the fermentative bacteria and methanogens indigenous in the sludge digestate, resulting in a final methane yield of 6.25 mmol-CH4/g-volatile suspended solid (VSS) digestate. The addition of C. proteolyticus accelerated the hydrolysis and fermentation of proteins and polysaccharides in the digestate during the early stage of thermophilic anaerobic digestion and stimulated methane production by syntrophic cooperation with methanogenic granular sludge. In the treatment with granular sludge and inoculated with 10 % (v/v) of C. proteolyticus, a final methane yield of 7 mmol-CH4/g-VSS digestate was obtained, and 48.4 % proteins and 27.0 % polysaccharides were degraded. The dissolved proteins were contributed by abiotic factor, C. proteolyticus, and indigenous digestate bacteria, respectively, by around 16, 28, and 56 %. PMID:23681590

Lü, Fan; Li, Tianshui; Wang, Tianfeng; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

2013-05-17

20

Improvement of sludge digestate biodegradability by thermophilic bioaugmentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sludge digestate stabilized by mesophilic anaerobic digestion was further degraded through thermophilic anaerobic digestion using 0-10 % (v/v) of thermophilic, proteolytic Coprothermobacter proteolyticus, and/or methanogenic granular sludge. The results demonstrated that the temperature shift to thermophilic condition promoted abiotic solubilization of proteins and reactivated the fermentative bacteria and methanogens indigenous in the sludge digestate, resulting in a final methane yield of 6.25 mmol-CH4/g-volatile suspended solid (VSS) digestate. The addition of C. proteolyticus accelerated the hydrolysis and fermentation of proteins and polysaccharides in the digestate during the early stage of thermophilic anaerobic digestion and stimulated methane production by syntrophic cooperation with methanogenic granular sludge. In the treatment with granular sludge and inoculated with 10 % (v/v) of C. proteolyticus, a final methane yield of 7 mmol-CH4/g-VSS digestate was obtained, and 48.4 % proteins and 27.0 % polysaccharides were degraded. The dissolved proteins were contributed by abiotic factor, C. proteolyticus, and indigenous digestate bacteria, respectively, by around 16, 28, and 56 %.

Lü F; Li T; Wang T; Shao L; He P

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

Engineering the rabbit digestive ecosystem to improve digestive health and efficacy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In rabbits, the bacterial and archaeal community of caecal ecosystem is composed mostly of species not yet described and very specific to that species. In mammals, the digestive ecosystem plays important physiological roles: hydrolysis and fermentation of nutrients, immune system regulation, angiogenesis, gut development and acting as a barrier against pathogens. Understanding the functioning of the digestive ecosystem and how to control its functional and specific diversity is a priority, as this could provide new strategies to improve the resistance of the young rabbit to digestive disorders and improve feed efficiency. This review first recalls some facts about the specificity of rabbit digestive microbiota composition in the main fermentation compartment, and its variability with some new insights based on recent molecular approaches. The main functions of the digestive microbiota will then be explained. Finally, some possible ways to control rabbit caecal microbiota will be proposed and a suitable timing for action will be defined.

Combes S; Fortun-Lamothe L; Cauquil L; Gidenne T

2013-09-01

22

Alkaline post-treatment for improved sludge anaerobic digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alkaline post-treatment was tested in order to improve sludge anaerobic digestion. Between the 8th and the 12th hour of a 24-h digestion cycle, 5% of sludge was extracted from a semi-continuous digester with a sludge retention time of 20 days. The sludge was then disintegrated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH and returned to the digester after neutralization. The results showed that alkaline post-treatment increased the level of soluble organic substances in the extracted sludge, particularly of volatile fatty acids and polysaccharides. This process resulted in a 33% enhancement of biogas production in comparison with the control. When the ratio of the recycled sludge was further increased to 10% or 15%, the increment of biogas yield was reduced, due to excessive inactivation of anaerobic bacteria in the digester. Alkaline post-treatment had a minimal impact on the dewaterability of digested sludge.

Li H; Zou S; Li C; Jin Y

2013-07-01

23

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable (more) on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Vidal, Luiz Vítor Oliveira; Furuya, Wilson Massamitu; Martins, Elias Nunes; Xavier, Tadeu Orlandi; Michelato, Mariana; Graciano, Themis Sakaguti

2012-06-01

24

Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Themis Sakaguti Graciano

2012-01-01

25

Mass spectrometry compatible surfactant for optimized in-gel protein digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identification of proteins resolved by SDS-PAGE depends on robust in-gel protein digestion and efficient peptide extraction, requirements that are often difficult to achieve. A lengthy and laborious procedure is an additional challenge of protein identification in gel. We show here that with the use of the mass spectrometry compatible surfactant sodium 3-((1-(furan-2-yl)undecyloxy)carbonylamino)propane-1-sulfonate, the challenges of in-gel protein digestion are effectively addressed. Peptide quantitation based on stable isotope labeling showed that the surfactant induced 1.5-2 fold increase in peptide recovery. Consequently, protein sequence coverage was increased by 20-30%, on average, and the number of identified proteins saw a substantial boost. The surfactant also accelerated the digestion process. Maximal in-gel digestion was achieved in as little as one hour, depending on incubation temperature, and peptides were readily recovered from gel eliminating the need for postdigestion extraction. This study shows that the surfactant provides an efficient means of improving protein identification in gel and streamlining the in-gel digestion procedure requiring no extra handling steps or special equipment.

Saveliev SV; Woodroofe CC; Sabat G; Adams CM; Klaubert D; Wood K; Urh M

2013-01-01

26

Tannin contents and protein digestibility of black grams (Vigna mungo) after soaking and cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to ascertain the effects of soaking black grams (Cultivar AARI-5732) in different salt solutions at different temperatures and different time periods, and different methods of cooking on the tannin content and protein digestibility. Tannin content of black grams was reduced to various extents by soaking at 30 degrees and 100 degrees C for different time periods. However, soaking at 100 degrees C increased the rate of extraction and reduced the extraction time of tannins. Soaking black grams in water at 100 degrees C reduced tannins by 22.14% in 45 minutes whereas about 2.5 times more tannin was reduced after soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution with or without sodium chloride. Maximum improvement in protein digestibility was also observed after soaking black grams in sodium bicarbonate solution. Tannin contents were further reduced along with improvement in protein digestibility as a result of cooking. PMID:11442226

Zia-Ur-rehman; Shah, W H

2001-01-01

27

Tannin contents and protein digestibility of black grams (Vigna mungo) after soaking and cooking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this research was to ascertain the effects of soaking black grams (Cultivar AARI-5732) in different salt solutions at different temperatures and different time periods, and different methods of cooking on the tannin content and protein digestibility. Tannin content of black grams was reduced to various extents by soaking at 30 degrees and 100 degrees C for different time periods. However, soaking at 100 degrees C increased the rate of extraction and reduced the extraction time of tannins. Soaking black grams in water at 100 degrees C reduced tannins by 22.14% in 45 minutes whereas about 2.5 times more tannin was reduced after soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution with or without sodium chloride. Maximum improvement in protein digestibility was also observed after soaking black grams in sodium bicarbonate solution. Tannin contents were further reduced along with improvement in protein digestibility as a result of cooking.

Zia-Ur-rehman; Shah WH

2001-01-01

28

In Mesopore Protein Digestion: A New Forthcoming Strategy in Proteomics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conventional protocols for in solution or in gel protein digestion require many steps and long reaction times. The use of trypsin immobilized onto solid supports has recently captured the attention of many research groups, because these systems can speed-up protein digestion significantly. The utilization of new materials such as mesoporous silica as supports, in which enzyme and substrate are dramatically concentrated and confined in the nanospace, offers new opportunities to reduce the complexity of proteomics workflows. An overview of the procedures for in situ proteolysis of single proteins or complex protein mixtures is reported, with a special focus on porous materials used as catalysts. The challenging efforts for designing such systems aimed at mimicking the biochemistry of living cells are reviewed. Potentials, limitations and challenges of this branch of enzyme catalysis, which we indicate as in mesopore digestion, are discussed, in relation to its suitability for high-speed and high-throughput proteomics.

Rocco Savino; Francesca Casadonte; Rosa Terracciano

2011-01-01

29

Producing protein comprises collecting the protein or proteins from the digestive secretions of the carnivorous plant traps  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Producing at least one protein comprises cultivating a carnivorous plant, which has been genetically modified to express the protein or proteins, and collecting the protein or proteins from the digestive secretions of the carnivorous plant traps.

BITEAU FLORE; BOURGAUD FREDERIC; GONTIER ERIC

30

Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by onedimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS.6-8 One of the applications of this method is for characterizing multiprotein complexes by identifying large numbers of proteins in a single data acquisition.9 Large-scale implementations of this strategy have been reported for yeast and Escherichia coli.10-12 To achieve a goal of characterizing large numbers of protein complexes13 isolated by affinity purification from Rhodopseudomonas palustris,14 an efficient protocol for digesting these complexes is required.

Strader, Michael B [ORNL; Tabb, Dave L [ORNL; Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

2006-01-01

31

Seed protein of millets: amino acid composition, proteinase inhibitors and in-vitro protein digestibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six varieties of common millet (Panicum miliaceum, three varieties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and four varieties of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) were analyzed to determine the nitrogen constituents, amino acid composition, proteinase inhibitors and in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). The non-protein N accounted for 17.3, 12.5 and 17.0% of the total N found in common millet, finger millet and foxtail millet, respectively. Millet proteins were deficient in lysine, but contained adequate levels of the other essential amino acids. The proteins in finger millets were better balanced compared to those in common millet and foxtail millet. Little varietal differences were observed within millet types in terms of amino acid concentrations. The anti-tryptic activities of millets were high compared to their anti-chymotryptic activities. Foxtail millet had no detectable anti-chymotryptic activity. The IVPD values of raw, uncooked millets were low, but were improved by cooking.

Ravindran G

1992-01-01

32

Effect of protein-protected fat on ruminal and total nutrient digestibility of sheep diets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing chopped ryegrass hay with 0, 5, 10, or 20% fat coated with ruminal bypass protein (Prolip on ruminal digestion by cows and nutrient digestibility by sheep. Ruminal disappearances of DM, ADF, and NDF were measured by the in sacco technique using a cannulated cow. Degradation of DM, ADF, and NDF was not affected by protected fat supplementation at the 5, 10, or 20% level during the first 16 h in the rumen. In addition, supplementation with Prolip did not influence in vitro fermentation characteristics such as pH and VFA patterns. A digestibility experiment with six mature sheep in a switch-back design showed no decrease in feed intake or other undesired effects between unsupplemented (basal) and Prolip-supplemented diets. Whatever the diet fed to sheep, fiber digestibility was similar; however, DM and nitrogen digestibilities were significantly higher relative to the basal diet when ryegrass hay was substituted at 20% (64.2 vs 59.0% and 74.1 vs 71.1%, respectively). Ether extract digestion was enhanced by increasing level of Prolip; the corresponding values were 48.0, 64.9, 74.6, and 84.6% at 0, 5, 10, or 20% Prolip. Likewise, Prolip supplementation at the 10 or 20% level augmented digestibility of energy (62.7 or 65.9 vs 59.2%). Nitrogen and energy retentions were improved due to the decreases in fecal and(or) urinary excretion(s).

Bayourthe C; Moncoulon R; Vernay M

1993-04-01

33

Effect of Processing Treatments Followed by Fermentation on Protein Content and Digestibility of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two pearl millet cultivars namely Gadarif and Gazeera were used in this study. The effect of soaking, debranning, dry heating and germination of the grains before and after fermentation on protein content and digestibility was investigated. The effect of processing treatments on the protein content was fluctuated and varied between the cultivars. For both cultivars germination of the grains increased the protein content and digestibility (except course ground grains). For both cultivars fermentation of the germinated and course ground grains increased the protein content while fermentation of other treated grains fluctuated between the cultivars. The protein digestibility of the treated grains after fermentation was greatly improved. For both cultivars fermentation of the germinated grains gave higher protein digestibility (> 90%) compared to all other treatments.

Amro B. Hassan; Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed; Nuha M. Osman; Mohamed M. Eltayeb; Gammaa A. Osman; Elfadil E. Babiker

2006-01-01

34

ENZYME DIGEST AND ACID HYDROLYZED INDEX OF PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pancreatopeptidase (Elastase) digest index was devised for a rapid and accurate estimation of protein quality. This index was calculated on the basis of all the amino acids released by an in-vitro Elastase digestion, acid hydrolyses of same sample and the residue of enzyme hydrolyzed. The amino acids were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography. Samples used were cooked white kidneybeans, cooked and over-heated soybean powder, and skimmed milk powder. Good correlation was observed between elastase index value and their biological values reported in the literature from feeding trials. The pattern of aminoacids released by acid and by enzyme hydrolysis was about the same.

H.Mohammadiha P. Mostafavi

1984-01-01

35

Improved lactose digestion during pregnancy: a case of physiologic adaptation?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Loss of intestinal lactase activity among adults could theoretically limit milk consumption and hence dietary availability of calcium during pregnancy. The present study sought to define, using breath hydrogen (H2) production as an index of incomplete carbohydrate absorption, the prevalence during pregnancy of lactose maldigestion of 360 mL of milk (18 g of lactose), and to determine whether lactose digestion improved as pregnancy advanced. The prevalence of lactose maldigestion among 114 pregnant women tested before the 15th week of gestation was 54%. By term, 44% of those originally classified as maldigesters had become digesters. There was a significant reduction in the four-hour sum of the changes in breath H2 concentration from the period before 15 weeks (116.6 +/- 9.6 ppm) to the time after 36 weeks (54.4 +/- 7.3 ppm; P less than .01). This apparent adaptive improvement in intestinal handling of milk lactose during gestation has implications for calcium intake and absorption.

Villar J; Kestler E; Castillo P; Juarez A; Menendez R; Solomons NW

1988-05-01

36

Robust Trypsin Coating on Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers in Rigorous Conditions and Its Uses for Protein Digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient protein digestion in proteomic analysis requires the stabilization of proteases such as trypsin. In the present work, trypsin was stabilized in the form of enzyme coating on electrospun polymer nanofibers (EC-TR), which crosslinks additional trypsin molecules onto covalently-attached trypsin (CA-TR). EC-TR showed better stability than CA-TR in rigorous conditions, such as at high temperatures of 40 °C and 50 °C, in the presence of organic co-solvents, and at various pH's. For example, the half-lives of CA-TR and EC-TR were 0.24 and 163.20 hours at 40 ºC, respectively. The improved stability of EC-TR can be explained by covalent-linkages on the surface of trypsin molecules, which effectively inhibits the denaturation, autolysis, and leaching of trypsin. The protein digestion was performed at 40 °C by using both CA-TR and EC-TR in digesting a model protein, enolase. EC-TR showed better performance and stability than CA-TR by maintaining good performance of enolase digestion under recycled uses for a period of one week. In the same condition, CA-TR showed poor performance from the beginning, and could not be used for digestion at all after a few usages. The enzyme coating approach is anticipated to be successfully employed not only for protein digestion in proteomic analysis, but also for various other fields where the poor enzyme stability presently hampers the practical applications of enzymes.

Ahn, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Byoung Chan; Jun, Seung-Hyun; Chang, Mun Seock; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Smith, Richard D.; Gu, Man Bock; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Beom S.; Kim, Jungbae

2010-12-15

37

In vivo digestion of infant formula in piglets: protein digestion kinetics and release of bioactive peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first months of life correspond to a key period in human life where dramatic physiological changes (establishment of microbiota, development of the immune system, etc.) occur. In order to better control these changes it is necessary to understand the behaviour of food in the gastrointestinal tract of the newborn. Infant formula is the only food for the newborn when breast-feeding is impossible. The kinetics of digestion of milk proteins and the nature of the peptides liberated in the small intestine throughout infant formula digestion have never been extensively investigated so far and were therefore studied using the piglet as a model of the newborn child. Piglets were fed infant formula by an automatic delivery system during 28 d, and slaughtered 30, 90 and 210 min after the last meal. Contents of stomach, proximal and median jejunum and ileum were collected and characterised. The extent of ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg), ?-lactalbumin (?-la) and casein proteolysis was monitored by inhibition ELISA, SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and MS. At 30 min after the last meal, caseins were shown to be extensively hydrolysed in the stomach. Nevertheless, peptides originating mainly from ?-caseins (from 509 to 2510 Da) were identified in the jejunum and ileum of the piglets. ?-Lg partially resisted gastric digestion but completely disappeared in the stomach after 210 min. ?-La had a similar behaviour to that of ?-lg. Two large peptides (4276 and 2674 Da) generated from ?-lg were present in the ileum after 30 and 210 min and only one (2674 Da) after 90 min.

Bouzerzour K; Morgan F; Cuinet I; Bonhomme C; Jardin J; Le Huërou-Luron I; Dupont D

2012-12-01

38

Effect of protein oxidation on the in vitro digestibility of soy protein isolate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soy protein isolate (SPI) was modified by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) oxidation pretreatment, and the in vitro digestibility of oxidised SPI was investigated. Results indicated that oxidation induced amino acid modification. The amount of most amino acids decreased, accompanied by decreasing digestive proteolysis susceptibility. Peptide size distribution implied that oxidation generated protein aggregates that could not be degraded by pepsin, but could be digested by pancreatin. Oxidation induced a maximum of 16.6% and 14.6% loss, respectively, for free essential and free total amino acid in the digests of oxidised SPI. Antioxidant activities evaluation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value and DPPH scavenging activity showed that oxidation deteriorated the antioxidant activities of the digests from oxidised SPI.

Chen N; Zhao M; Sun W

2013-12-01

39

Effect of protein oxidation on the in vitro digestibility of soy protein isolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soy protein isolate (SPI) was modified by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) oxidation pretreatment, and the in vitro digestibility of oxidised SPI was investigated. Results indicated that oxidation induced amino acid modification. The amount of most amino acids decreased, accompanied by decreasing digestive proteolysis susceptibility. Peptide size distribution implied that oxidation generated protein aggregates that could not be degraded by pepsin, but could be digested by pancreatin. Oxidation induced a maximum of 16.6% and 14.6% loss, respectively, for free essential and free total amino acid in the digests of oxidised SPI. Antioxidant activities evaluation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value and DPPH scavenging activity showed that oxidation deteriorated the antioxidant activities of the digests from oxidised SPI. PMID:23871081

Chen, Nannan; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng

2013-06-04

40

Effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on improvement of anaerobic digestive characteristic of sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study was made about main anaerobic digestive characteristics of sludge which was subjected to a 60Co gamma-irradiation pretreatment. The results showed the gamma-irradiation pretreatment can clearly improve anaerobic digestibility of sludge and pick up the anaerobic digestion speed of sludge. (authors)

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis : Quantitative assessment of protein digestion protocols  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The majority of mass spectrometry-based protein quantification studies uses peptide-centric analytical methods and thus strongly relies on efficient and unbiased protein digestion protocols for sample preparation. We present a novel objective approach to assess protein digestion efficiency using a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein fractions. We evaluated nine trypsin-based digestion protocols, based on standard in-solution or on spin filter-aided digestion, including new optimized protocols. We investigated various reagents for protein solubilization and denaturation (dodecyl sulfate, deoxycholate, urea), several trypsin digestion conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows for efficient, unbiased generation and recovery of peptides from all protein classes, including membrane proteins. This deoxycholate-assisted protocol was also optimal for spin filter-aided digestions as compared to existing methods.

Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit

2013-01-01

42

Microwave-assisted Protein Digestion on Various Locations of a Microplate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effectiveness of microwave-assisted protein digestion in different well positions of a 96-well microplate wasinvestigated where microwave-assisted protein digestion of bovine serum albumin was performed in 10 different wells of a 96-wellmicroplate in a microwave oven. Similarly increased sequence coverages (~70%) were generally observed for the 10 microwaveassistedprotein digestion samples compared to conventional overnight digestion (63%), which is possibly due to higher miscleavageratios (~53%) of the samples from microwave-assisted protein digestion than conventional overnight digestion (42.1%). The reproducibleresults of microwave-assisted digestions from different well positions demonstrate the potential of high-throughput analysis ofproteins using microwave-assisted protein digestion.

Ji-hye Lee; Sehwan Park; Sunyoung Lee; Jangmi Hong; Kyu Hwan Park; Hyun Sik Kim; Jeongkwon Kim

2011-01-01

43

Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (P<0.05) among the seven protein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids.

Cui J; Chong B; Rutherfurd SM; Wilkinson B; Singh H; Moughan PJ

2013-07-01

44

Effect of protein-protected fat on ruminal and total nutrient digestibility of sheep diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing chopped ryegrass hay with 0, 5, 10, or 20% fat coated with ruminal bypass protein (Prolip on ruminal digestion by cows and nutrient digestibility by sheep. Ruminal disappearances of DM, ADF, and NDF were measured by the in sacco technique using a cannulated cow. Degradation of DM, ADF, and NDF was not affected by protected fat supplementation at the 5, 10, or 20% level during the first 16 h in the rumen. In addition, supplementation with Prolip did not influence in vitro fermentation characteristics such as pH and VFA patterns. A digestibility experiment with six mature sheep in a switch-back design showed no decrease in feed intake or other undesired effects between unsupplemented (basal) and Prolip-supplemented diets. Whatever the diet fed to sheep, fiber digestibility was similar; however, DM and nitrogen digestibilities were significantly higher relative to the basal diet when ryegrass hay was substituted at 20% (64.2 vs 59.0% and 74.1 vs 71.1%, respectively). Ether extract digestion was enhanced by increasing level of Prolip; the corresponding values were 48.0, 64.9, 74.6, and 84.6% at 0, 5, 10, or 20% Prolip. Likewise, Prolip supplementation at the 10 or 20% level augmented digestibility of energy (62.7 or 65.9 vs 59.2%). Nitrogen and energy retentions were improved due to the decreases in fecal and(or) urinary excretion(s). PMID:8386715

Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R; Vernay, M

1993-04-01

45

Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR.

Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

2009-01-01

46

Relação lisina digestível: proteína digestível em rações para tilápias-do-nilo/ Digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio in diets for Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação lisina digestível:proteína digestível em rações para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo. As tilápias (11,0 ± 0,43 g) foram distribuídas em 36 aquários (250 litros) numa densidade de seis peixes/aquário. Foram formuladas 12 rações com 22,0; 26,0 ou 30,0% de proteína digestível, com base na composição em aminoácidos digestíveis, e 4,5; 6,0; 7,5 ou 9,0% de lisina, em relação à proteína digestí (more) vel, fornecidas à vontade durante 60 dias. Houve interação significativa dos fatores lisina digestível/proteína digestível para o ganho de peso, uma vez que o aumento dos níveis de lisina em rações com 26,0 e 30,0% de proteína digestível promoveu aumento linear desse parâmetro. Os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com os níveis de 26,0 e 30,0% proteína digestível, que determinaram aumento do consumo diário de proteína digestível. O nível de lisina promoveu redução linear da conversão alimentar e aumento linear da taxa de eficiência proteica. O nível de 26,0% de proteína digestível pode ser utilizado em rações para juvenis de tilápiado-nilo, entretanto essas rações devem ser formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis e relação lisina digestível/proteína digestível de 6,0%. Quando utilizados níveis superiores a 26,0% de proteína digestível, o nível máximo de 7,5% de lisina digestível em relação à proteína digestível melhora o ganho de peso na espécie. Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the best digestible protein/digestible lysine ratio that should be present in feed fed to Nile tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen tilapias (11.0 ± 0.43g) were distributed in 36 fish tanks (205 L) at a density of 6 fish/tank. Twelve feeds were formulated with three different digestible protein (DP) levels 22.0; 26.0 and 30.0% (based on digestible amino acids) and four different lysine percentages of 4.5; 6.0; 7.5 or 9.0% in rel (more) ation to digestible protein. The fish were fed ad libtum during a 60-day period. There was significant effect of the digestible protein and digestible lysine ratio on weight gain, because the increase in lysine levels in feeds with 26 and 30% DP promoted linear increase in this parameter. The best values for feed conversion were obtained at the levels 26 and 30% DP that increased the daily consumption of digestible protein. The lysine level caused a linear reduction in feed conversion and linear increase in the protein efficiency rate. The results suggested that the 26% DP level might be used in ration to feed Nile tilapia juveniles; however, these should contain digestible amino acids and the digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio should be 6.0%. However, for levels higher than 26% DP, a maximum digestible lysine level of 7.5% DP improved weight gain for the species.

Gonçalves, Giovani Sampaio; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo; Barros, Margarida Maria; Tachibana, Leonardo; Rosa, Maria Julia Santa; Guimarães, Igo Gomes

2009-12-01

47

Relação lisina digestível: proteína digestível em rações para tilápias-do-nilo Digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio in diets for Nile tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação lisina digestível:proteína digestível em rações para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo. As tilápias (11,0 ± 0,43 g) foram distribuídas em 36 aquários (250 litros) numa densidade de seis peixes/aquário. Foram formuladas 12 rações com 22,0; 26,0 ou 30,0% de proteína digestível, com base na composição em aminoácidos digestíveis, e 4,5; 6,0; 7,5 ou 9,0% de lisina, em relação à proteína digestível, fornecidas à vontade durante 60 dias. Houve interação significativa dos fatores lisina digestível/proteína digestível para o ganho de peso, uma vez que o aumento dos níveis de lisina em rações com 26,0 e 30,0% de proteína digestível promoveu aumento linear desse parâmetro. Os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com os níveis de 26,0 e 30,0% proteína digestível, que determinaram aumento do consumo diário de proteína digestível. O nível de lisina promoveu redução linear da conversão alimentar e aumento linear da taxa de eficiência proteica. O nível de 26,0% de proteína digestível pode ser utilizado em rações para juvenis de tilápiado-nilo, entretanto essas rações devem ser formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis e relação lisina digestível/proteína digestível de 6,0%. Quando utilizados níveis superiores a 26,0% de proteína digestível, o nível máximo de 7,5% de lisina digestível em relação à proteína digestível melhora o ganho de peso na espécie.This study was carried out to determine the best digestible protein/digestible lysine ratio that should be present in feed fed to Nile tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen tilapias (11.0 ± 0.43g) were distributed in 36 fish tanks (205 L) at a density of 6 fish/tank. Twelve feeds were formulated with three different digestible protein (DP) levels 22.0; 26.0 and 30.0% (based on digestible amino acids) and four different lysine percentages of 4.5; 6.0; 7.5 or 9.0% in relation to digestible protein. The fish were fed ad libtum during a 60-day period. There was significant effect of the digestible protein and digestible lysine ratio on weight gain, because the increase in lysine levels in feeds with 26 and 30% DP promoted linear increase in this parameter. The best values for feed conversion were obtained at the levels 26 and 30% DP that increased the daily consumption of digestible protein. The lysine level caused a linear reduction in feed conversion and linear increase in the protein efficiency rate. The results suggested that the 26% DP level might be used in ration to feed Nile tilapia juveniles; however, these should contain digestible amino acids and the digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio should be 6.0%. However, for levels higher than 26% DP, a maximum digestible lysine level of 7.5% DP improved weight gain for the species.

Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Margarida Maria Barros; Leonardo Tachibana; Maria Julia Santa Rosa; Igo Gomes Guimarães

2009-01-01

48

An automated in-gel digestion/iTRAQ-labeling workflow for robust quantification of gel-separated proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Simple protein separation by 1DE is a widely used method to reduce sample complexity and to prepare proteins for mass spectrometric identification via in-gel digestion. While several automated solutions are available for in-gel digestion particularly of small cylindric gel plugs derived from 2D gels, the processing of larger 1D gel-derived gel bands with liquid handling work stations is less well established in the field. Here, we introduce a digestion device tailored to this purpose and validate its performance in comparison to manual in-gel digestion. For relative quantification purposes, we extend the in-gel digestion procedure by iTRAQ labeling of the tryptic peptides and show that automation of the entire workflow results in robust quantification of proteins from samples of different complexity and dynamic range. We conclude that automation improves accuracy and reproducibility of our iTRAQ workflow as it minimizes the variability in both, digestion and labeling efficiency, the two major causes of irreproducible results in chemical labeling approaches.

Schmidt C; Hesse D; Raabe M; Urlaub H; Jahn O

2013-05-01

49

Effect of various types of fermentation on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of differently processed pearl millet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) grains were fermented with Lactobacilli and yeast alone, in combination and with natural flora at 30 degrees C for 48 h after giving various processing treatments viz, fine and coarse grinding, soaking, debranning, dry heat treatment, germination and autoclaving after adding of water. Fermentation was carried out with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Rhodotorula isolated from naturally fermented pearl millet and Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida utilis and natural fermentation using freshly ground pearl millet flour as inoculum. All the processing treatments except coarse grinding improved the protein and starch digestibility. Autoclaving enhanced the digestibilities of processed samples which was further improved by different types of fermentation, the maximum being in case of germinated and naturally fermented pearl millet. A combination of Lactobacilli and yeast was more effective in increasing the protein as well as starch digestibility as compared to pure culture fermentation.

Sharma A; Kapoor AC

1996-05-01

50

Effect of various types of fermentation on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of differently processed pearl millet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) grains were fermented with Lactobacilli and yeast alone, in combination and with natural flora at 30 degrees C for 48 h after giving various processing treatments viz, fine and coarse grinding, soaking, debranning, dry heat treatment, germination and autoclaving after adding of water. Fermentation was carried out with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Rhodotorula isolated from naturally fermented pearl millet and Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida utilis and natural fermentation using freshly ground pearl millet flour as inoculum. All the processing treatments except coarse grinding improved the protein and starch digestibility. Autoclaving enhanced the digestibilities of processed samples which was further improved by different types of fermentation, the maximum being in case of germinated and naturally fermented pearl millet. A combination of Lactobacilli and yeast was more effective in increasing the protein as well as starch digestibility as compared to pure culture fermentation. PMID:8766667

Sharma, A; Kapoor, A C

1996-05-01

51

Effect of heat processing on in vitro protein digestibility and some chemical properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of dry heat (roasting) and moist heat (boiling) on in vitro protein digestibility, protein fractions and other chemical properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seed that affect their utilization as a source of human food were investigated. Chemical analyses showed that the crude protein and fat contents of the unprocessed (raw) seeds were 20. 1% and 13.7%, respectively. The level of phytic acid in the raw seed (1.19 mg/g) was lower than the levels found in some commonly consumed pulses in Nigeria. Albumin and globulin protein fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of African breadfruit seed, constituting 67.8% of the total protein of the raw seed. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between crude protein, ash and fat contents of the raw and heat processed samples. Boiling proved more effective than roasting for improving protein digestibility and for reducing the levels of trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and polyphenols of the samples. The complete removal of these antinutrients, however, would require a more severe heat treatment of the seed, which in turn would profoundly reduce the nutritional value and availability of proteins, as demonstrated by the low values obtained for in vitro protein digestibility, protein fractions and protein extractability.

Giami SY; Adindu MN; Hart AD; Denenu EO

2001-01-01

52

Functionality, in Vitro Digestibility and Physicochemical Properties of Two Varieties of Defatted Foxtail Millet Protein Concentrates  

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Two varieties of foxtail millet protein concentrates (white and yellow) were characterized for in vitro trypsin digestibility, functional and physicochemical properties. Millet protein concentrate was easily digested by trypsin in vitro. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by th...

Tabita Kamara Mohamed; Kexue Zhu; Amadou Issoufou; Tarawalie Fatmata; Huiming Zhou

53

The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition.

Schulze WX; Sanggaard KW; Kreuzer I; Knudsen AD; Bemm F; Thøgersen IB; Bräutigam A; Thomsen LR; Schliesky S; Dyrlund TF; Escalante-Perez M; Becker D; Schultz J; Karring H; Weber A; Højrup P; Hedrich R; Enghild JJ

2012-11-01

54

The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition. PMID:22891002

Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J

2012-08-12

55

Binding ability of Allura Red with food proteins and its impact on protein digestibility  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Allura Red-40 is a safe colour additive (permissible by the FDA and Health Canada) that is used in a variety of foods to make them more attractive and appealing for consumers. However, limited information is available about its binding to macronutrients that are responsible for its uniform distribution in food products. In the present study, the binding capacity of Allura with food proteins is compared with Coomassie Brillant Blue R 250, which is an established staining agent for visualizing electrophoretically resolved proteins. The data illustrate that Allura is a fast reacting dye and binds with a variety of food proteins including peanut, rice bran, garlic and mixture of proteins [(Takadiastase, nisin, a microbial protein and bovine serum albumin (BSA)]. The Allura bound proteins retained their colour at high and low temperatures and in a wide range of pH. The experiments on the resolution of proteins and staining with Allura have shown that the dye is highly sensitive, rapid, lasting and is easily linked with a variety of proteins. The binding of Allura to various proteins had almost no adverse effect on protein digestibility, as predicted by in vitro digestibility determinations.

Umer Abdullah S; Badaruddin Muhammad; Asad Sayeed S; Ali Rashida; Riaz MianN

2008-10-01

56

FRACTIONATION OF DIGESTIVE PROTEINASES FROM TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) LARVAE AND ROLE IN PROTEIN DIGESTION  

Science.gov (United States)

Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases were purified and characterized by gel filtration chromatography combined with activity electrophoresis. Cysteine proteinases, consisting of at least six distinct activities, were found in three chromatographic peaks in anterior and posterior midgut chro...

57

Batch anaerobic co-digestion of proteins and carbohydrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch anaerobic studies were conducted using five mixtures (M1-M5) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and starch. The results showed that co-digestion of BSA and starch had a positive impact on the methane production. The highest methane production of 288 mL, the highest methane yield of 360 mL CH(4)/g COD(added), and the highest maximum methane production rate of 62 mL CH(4)/d were achieved for M4 (20% BSA and 80% starch). Most of the particulate proteins (90%) as well as particulate carbohydrates (95%) were degraded in the first 3 days. The hydrolysis coefficients of particulate proteins and particulate carbohydrates ranged from 0.65 to 1.01 d(-1) and from 0.53 to 1.06 d(-1), respectively. The highest methane production was achieved at C:N ratio of 12.8 for M4. For BSA only, propionic acid was the main volatile fatty acid (VFA), while for the starch only, butyric acid was the predominant VFA. PMID:22609672

Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Nakhla, George

2012-04-21

58

Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.

de Vries S; Pustjens AM; Kabel MA; Salazar-Villanea S; Hendriks WH; Gerrits WJ

2013-09-01

59

Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments. PMID:23964718

de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J

2013-09-05

60

Improving methodology in open vessel digestion with a graphite heating block (T7)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Open block digestion systems have been very popular in environmental analysis over the past decades, but have consistently suffered from the major drawback of their sensitivity against corrosion and the subsequent risk of contamination. Therefore block digestion systems have not been considered state-of-the-art technology in trace and ultra trace sample preparation. Graphite block digestion systems are well established in North America and are recently becoming more frequently considered in Europe. These systems overcome the deficiencies of the traditional systems, made from stainless steel or aluminum, because the block is manufactured from graphite and typically coated with a fluoro-polymer to present the possibility metallic contamination from the surface of the system during the handling of the samples. Graphite block systems present an alternative to the current mainstream technology of open and closed vessel microwave assisted digestion systems, as they allow large numbers of samples to be digested simultaneously, thus overcoming one of the major weaknesses of closed vessel systems. More recently a number of improvements in the technology has been developed for graphite block digestion systems and studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of such improvements. The paper presented will deal with the technological improvements: monitoring and control of sample temperature vs. monitoring of block temperature, elimination of cross contamination effects during open vessel block digestion, evaporation of samples for pre-concentration or multiple digestion steps, addressing the needs of various labs and applications for block digesters. The effects of those developments will be discussed; application examples and finally an outlook into possible future trends for graphite block digestion systems will be given. (author)

2002-07-03

 
 
 
 
61

Effects of Malting and Fermentation on Anti-Nutrient Reduction and Protein Digestibility of Red Sorghum, White Sorghum and Pearl Millet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorghum and millet and their products require specialized treatment in order to improve their nutritive value, organoleptic properties and shelf-life. They contain anti-nutrients which are the major phytochemicals which negatively affects their nutritive values. The phytochemicals of concern include tannins and phytates, which interfere with mineral absorption, palatability and protein digestibility. Malting and fermentation treatments were applied to reduce the anti-nutrients, improve protein digestibility, and acidity to increase the products shelf life. The effects of malting and fermentation on the cereals nutritive value and anti-nutrient reduction were studied and evaluated for a period of 8 days. A treatment combining malting for 3 days and fermentation for 2 days respectively both at room temperatures (25°C) was employed. Tannins and phytates were significantly reduced (p ? 0.05) by malting and fermentation. Protein digestibility was significantly (p ? 0.05) improved by malting and fermentation treatments; malted cereals digestibility ranged between 34.5-68.1% while the fermented flours protein digestibility range was 97.4-98.3%. The pH values were lowered to below 4.0, a level at which they could effectively inhibit spoilage microorganisms at the end of the fermentation period. A combination of optimum time treatments of malting and fermentation for 3 days and 2 days respectively were effective in reducing tannins and phytates and improving protein digestibility of the cereals.

C. A. Onyango; S. O. Ochanda; M. A. Mwasaru; J. K. Ochieng; F. M. Mathooko; J. N. Kinyuru

2012-01-01

62

Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TSadded was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TSadded and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TSadded were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

2010-01-01

63

Improving conversion of Spartina alterniflora into biogas by co-digestion with cow feces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic mono-digestion of Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) at initial volatile solid loading (VSL) of 4.0%, 6.0% and 8.0% as well as co-digestion of S. alterniflora and cow feces at cow feces proportions from 12.5% to 87.5% of volatile solid (VS) were investigated. A maximum methane yield of 0.19 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} from mono-digestion of S. alterniflora was obtained at initial VSL of 6.0% and the average methane content was 63.29%. Furthermore, co-digestion of S. alterniflora and cow feces in varying proportions was investigated at constant initial VSL of 7.0%. The addition of cow feces decreased the carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio from 21.82 to 14.19 in the feedstock. Co-digestion improved the biodegradability of S. alterniflora, and thus increased the methane yield by 7.09-44.26%, leading to a lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration of less than 800 mg/L (only about one third of S. alterniflora digested alone) in the solution and higher pH value in comparison to S. alterniflora digested alone. Although the VFA concentration was lower than S. alterniflora digested alone, the biogas yield was increased and the biogas yield peak was advanced for about 15 days. (author)

Chen, Guangyin; Fang, Caixia; Zou, Xingxing; Zhang, Jibiao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zheng, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, Shiguan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Engineering Laboratory of Biomass Power Generation Equipment, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

2010-11-15

64

[Nutrition of horses: digestion, energy and protein evaluation and nutritional standards  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diet of horses should cover the energy and nutrient requirements of these animals. The desired composition of the ration depends on its digestion in the equine gastrointestinal tract. Nutritional problems or diseases caused by incorrect composition of the ration or by incorrect feeding should be prevented. The digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract is described. In addition, the recently introduced net energy and digestible protein evaluation systems for feeds, and the energy and protein requirements of horses are presented.

van 't Klooster AT; Hallebeek JM; Beynen AC

1999-07-01

65

Rice Protein Extracted by Different Methods Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats Due to Its Lower Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS). The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significant cholesterol-lowering effects were observed in rats fed by RP-A and RP-E. Fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by RP-E, but not by RP-A. The apparent cholesterol absorption was more effectively inhibited by RP-E than RP-A because more fecal neutral sterols were excreted in rats fed RP-E. There was a significant correlation between protein digestibility and cholesterol absorption (r = 0.8662, P < 0.01), resulting in a significant correlation between protein digestibility and plasma cholesterol level (r = 0.7357, P < 0.01) in this study. The present study demonstrates that the digestibility of rice protein affected by extraction method plays a major role in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action induced by rice protein with lower digestibility primarily contribute to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption.

Lin Yang; Jiahou Chen; Tong Xu; Wei Qiu; Yan Zhang; Lanwei Zhang; Fuping Xu; Hongbo Liu

2011-01-01

66

Rice protein extracted by different methods affects cholesterol metabolism in rats due to its lower digestibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS). The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significant cholesterol-lowering effects were observed in rats fed by RP-A and RP-E. Fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by RP-E, but not by RP-A. The apparent cholesterol absorption was more effectively inhibited by RP-E than RP-A because more fecal neutral sterols were excreted in rats fed RP-E. There was a significant correlation between protein digestibility and cholesterol absorption (r = 0.8662, P < 0.01), resulting in a significant correlation between protein digestibility and plasma cholesterol level (r = 0.7357, P < 0.01) in this study. The present study demonstrates that the digestibility of rice protein affected by extraction method plays a major role in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action induced by rice protein with lower digestibility primarily contribute to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption.

Yang L; Chen J; Xu T; Qiu W; Zhang Y; Zhang L; Xu F; Liu H

2011-01-01

67

In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO) and fish oil (FO) and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude fat (CF), and crude protein (CP). Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula.Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro

L Hartati; A Agus; BP Widyobroto; LM Yusiati

2012-01-01

68

Relationship between proportion and composition of albumins, and in vitro protein digestibility of raw and cooked pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Peas provide an excellent plant protein resource for human diets, but their proteins are less readily digestible than animal proteins. To identify the relationship between composition and in vitro digestibility of pea protein, eight pea varieties with a wide range of protein content (157.3-272.7 g kg?¹) were determined for the proportion of albumins and globulins, their compositions using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) before and after heat treatment using a multi-enzyme (trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase) method.RESULTS: The proportion of albumins based on total seed protein content decreased from 229 to 147 g kg?¹ as seed protein content increased from 157.3 to 272.7 g kg?¹, while the proportion of globulins increased from 483 to 590 g kg?¹. The IVPDs of eight raw pea seeds were 79.9-83.5%, with significant varietal variations, and those were improved to 85.9-86.8% by cooking. Albumins, including (pea albumins 2) PA2, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and lipoxygenase, were identified as proteolytic resistant proteins. Globulins were mostly digested by protease treatment after heating.CONCLUSION: The quantitative ratio of albumins and globulins, and the quantitative variations of albumin protein components, including lipoxygenase, PA2, lectins and trypsin inhibitors, appear to influence the protein digestibility of both raw and cooked pea seeds. Copyright

Park SeiJoon; Kim TaeWan; Baik Byung-Kee

2010-08-01

69

Influence of Non-fibrous Carbohydrate and Degradable Intake protein and Ruminal Fermentation ,Nutrien Digestion and performance of Local Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate the impact dietary non-fibrous carbohydrate ( NFC) and ruminally degradable intake protein (DIP) concentration have on ruminal fermentation , nutrient digestion and performance of local sheep. The animal had a mean of liveweight 19.80 ±1.55 kg. four diets ,arranged in a 2x2 factorial ,were formulated to contain either 40 or 50 % NFC and 50 or 60 % of dietary crude protein as DIP .dietary DM contained 25 % Indonesian field grass and 75 % concentrate. Solvent –extracted or formaldehyd 2 % -treated soybean meal were used to alter DIP and corn or soybean hulls to alter NFC level. Percentage of energy and NDF digestion was similar ( p<0,01) as DIP level decreased in the diets. The soybean hulls was fermentable and total VFA concentration in the rumen increased ( p<0.01), but N-NH3 concentration was decreased ( p<0.01) as DIP level decreased in the diets. Daily live weight gain ( 146.29±25.84 g) and body composition ( fat, water , protein and mineral) was similar ( p<0.05) among diets. The preponderance ruminal fermentation ,nutrient digestion and performance of local sheeps did not be improved by sincronization of energy and nitrogen release but may more likely be limited by either energy or nitrogen alone. (Animal Production 3(2): 53-61 (2001)Key Word : Carbohydrate, protein, rumen fermentation, nutrients digestion and performance

Efka AR; SNO Suwandyastuti; Ning Iriyanti

2001-01-01

70

Rapid online nonenzymatic protein digestion combining microwave heating acid hydrolysis and electrochemical oxidation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report an online nonenzymatic method for site-specific digestion of proteins to yield peptides that are well suited for collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The method combines online microwave heating acid hydrolysis at aspartic acid and online electrochemical oxidation at tryptophan and tyrosine. The combined microwave/electrochemical digestion is reproducible and produces peptides with an average sequence length of 10 amino acids. This peptide length is similar to the average peptide length of 9 amino acids obtained by digestion of proteins with the enzyme trypsin. As a result, the peptides produced by this novel nonenzymatic digestion method, when analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, produce protonated molecules with mostly +1 and +2 charge states. The combination of these two nonenzymatic methods overcomes shortcomings with each individual method in that (i) peptides generated by the microwave-hydrolysis method have an average amino acid length of 16 amino acids and (ii) the electrochemical-cleavage method is unable to reproducibly digest proteins with molecular masses above 4 kDa. Preliminary results are presented on the application and utility of this rapid online digestion (total of 6 min of digestion time) on a series of standard peptides and proteins as well as an Escherichia coli protein extract.

Basile F; Hauser N

2011-01-01

71

Rice protein digestion by sake koji enzymes: comparison between steamed rice grains and isolated protein bodies from rice endosperm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The digestion of proteins in steamed rice grains by sake koji enzymes under simulated sake mash conditions was analyzed by comparing the hydrolysis of steamed rice grains and heat-treated protein bodies (PBs) isolated from seven rice samples including four endosperm-storage protein mutants. The disappearance of peptides in the digest of isolated PBs was faster than that of steamed rice grains; however, more insoluble proteins formed in the case of isolated PBs. Not all of the hydrolyzed PB proteins were immediately solubilized in the digestion tests. High-molecular-weight peptides were more abundant in the solubilized digest of steamed rice grains than in that of isolated PBs. Variance in Ile, Ser, Glu, and Gly levels in the digest of steamed rice grains was relatively high among the seven samples, but was not found to be high in digests of isolated PBs. These results indicate that factors that may be derived from the steamed rice grains profoundly affect the digestion of proteins in steamed rice grains by sake koji enzymes. PMID:17116582

Hashizume, Katsumi; Okuda, Masaki; Sakurao, Syohei; Numata, Mineyo; Koseki, Takuya; Aramaki, Isao; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Sato, Hikaru

2006-10-01

72

Digestion kinetics of potato protein isolates in vitro and in vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Recently, an industrial process was developed to isolate native protein fractions from potato: a high (HMW) and a low (LMW) molecular weight fraction. Digestion kinetics of HMW and LMW was studied in vitro and in vivo and compared with reference proteins. Under simulated conditions, highest digestion was found for whey protein, followed by soy, pea, HMW, casein and LMW. Ingestion of 20?g of proteins by eight healthy subjects (following a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design) induced a slow and moderate increase with HMW and LMW, while a peaked and high increase with whey protein, in postprandial plasma amino acid levels. Casein gave a similar profile as HMW, with higher levels. Contrary to whey and casein, HMW and LMW did not result in any changes in plasma insulin or glucose levels. This study provides insights in digestion of native potato protein isolates to assist their use as protein sources in food applications.

He T; Spelbrink RE; Witteman BJ; Giuseppin ML

2013-11-01

73

Digestion kinetics of potato protein isolates in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Recently, an industrial process was developed to isolate native protein fractions from potato: a high (HMW) and a low (LMW) molecular weight fraction. Digestion kinetics of HMW and LMW was studied in vitro and in vivo and compared with reference proteins. Under simulated conditions, highest digestion was found for whey protein, followed by soy, pea, HMW, casein and LMW. Ingestion of 20?g of proteins by eight healthy subjects (following a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design) induced a slow and moderate increase with HMW and LMW, while a peaked and high increase with whey protein, in postprandial plasma amino acid levels. Casein gave a similar profile as HMW, with higher levels. Contrary to whey and casein, HMW and LMW did not result in any changes in plasma insulin or glucose levels. This study provides insights in digestion of native potato protein isolates to assist their use as protein sources in food applications. PMID:23713493

He, Tao; Spelbrink, Robin E J; Witteman, Ben J; Giuseppin, Marco L F

2013-05-28

74

Digestion kinetics of potato protein isolates in vitro and in vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Recently, an industrial process was developed to isolate native protein fractions from potato: a high (HMW) and a low (LMW) molecular weight fraction. Digestion kinetics of HMW and LMW was studied in vitro and in vivo and compared with reference proteins. Under simulated conditions, highest digestion was found for whey protein, followed by soy, pea, HMW, casein and LMW. Ingestion of 20?g of proteins by eight healthy subjects (following a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design) induced a slow and moderate increase with HMW and LMW, while a peaked and high increase with whey protein, in postprandial plasma amino acid levels. Casein gave a similar profile as HMW, with higher levels. Contrary to whey and casein, HMW and LMW did not result in any changes in plasma insulin or glucose levels. This study provides insights in digestion of native potato protein isolates to assist their use as protein sources in food applications.

He T; Spelbrink RE; Witteman BJ; Giuseppin ML

2013-05-01

75

Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process.

Sheverdin V; Jung J; Lee K

2013-09-01

76

Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected.

Hesta M; Roosen W; Janssens GP; Millet S; De Wilde R

2003-12-01

77

Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected. PMID:14641959

Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

2003-12-01

78

Optimizing feed composition for improved methane yield during anaerobic digestion of cow manure based waste mixtures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated methane yield via anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates based on mixtures of biodegradable single-component substrates with cow dung as main component. Bench and full-scale digestion experiments were carried out for both single and multi-component substrates to identify the relationship between methane yield and substrate composition. Results from both bench- and full-scale experiments corresponded well and showed that using multi-component substrates increases the methane yield much more than what would be expected from digestion of single substrates. Process stability as indicated by gas production, pH and NH(4)(+) concentration variations were also improved by using multi-component substrates compared to digestion of single-component substrates. The results, thus, suggest that assessment of methane yield for multi-component substrates cannot reliably be based on methane yields for corresponding single-component substrates but should instead be measured directly.

Ashekuzzaman SM; Poulsen TG

2011-02-01

79

Optimizing feed composition for improved methane yield during anaerobic digestion of cow manure based waste mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated methane yield via anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates based on mixtures of biodegradable single-component substrates with cow dung as main component. Bench and full-scale digestion experiments were carried out for both single and multi-component substrates to identify the relationship between methane yield and substrate composition. Results from both bench- and full-scale experiments corresponded well and showed that using multi-component substrates increases the methane yield much more than what would be expected from digestion of single substrates. Process stability as indicated by gas production, pH and NH(4)(+) concentration variations were also improved by using multi-component substrates compared to digestion of single-component substrates. The results, thus, suggest that assessment of methane yield for multi-component substrates cannot reliably be based on methane yields for corresponding single-component substrates but should instead be measured directly. PMID:20974531

Ashekuzzaman, S M; Poulsen, Tjalfe G

2010-10-08

80

[Digestibility of ungraded crude protein from the rumen and of treated protein feeds in the postruminal part of the digestive tracts of ruminants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effective degradability and intestinal digestibility of CP of untreated and with formaldehyde (F) treated sunflower press--cakes (SF), lucerne meal (LM) and field beans (FB) were measured on polycannulated bulls by "in sacco" and "mobile bag" methods. The feeds were treated by F solution in doses from 0.2; 0.4... to 2.0 g F per 100 g CP. The effective CP degradability after treatment was decreased significantly (for SF from 78 to 33%, LM from 73 to 62%, FB from 70 to 47% with max. dose of F). The effect of F was various on individual feeds. The intestinal digestibility of treated feeds, without previous incubation in the rumen, passed from abomasum to feces has been influenced with doses of F non significantly. The digestibility of FB treated with max. dose of F was lower about 20% in the part duodenum feces than in abdomasum feces. The digestibility in the part caecum--feces for all tested feeds has been decreasing with doses of F, similar as in the rumen. The intestinal digestibility of in rumen undegraded crude protein residues of SF has been influenced by the treatment positively. It increased from 43 to 82%. The effect of F on LM was very low. The digestibility has been changed from 75 to 80%.

Sommer A; Ceresnáková Z; Szakács J; Chrenková M

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Digestibility of ungraded crude protein from the rumen and of treated protein feeds in the postruminal part of the digestive tracts of ruminants].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effective degradability and intestinal digestibility of CP of untreated and with formaldehyde (F) treated sunflower press--cakes (SF), lucerne meal (LM) and field beans (FB) were measured on polycannulated bulls by "in sacco" and "mobile bag" methods. The feeds were treated by F solution in doses from 0.2; 0.4... to 2.0 g F per 100 g CP. The effective CP degradability after treatment was decreased significantly (for SF from 78 to 33%, LM from 73 to 62%, FB from 70 to 47% with max. dose of F). The effect of F was various on individual feeds. The intestinal digestibility of treated feeds, without previous incubation in the rumen, passed from abomasum to feces has been influenced with doses of F non significantly. The digestibility of FB treated with max. dose of F was lower about 20% in the part duodenum feces than in abdomasum feces. The digestibility in the part caecum--feces for all tested feeds has been decreasing with doses of F, similar as in the rumen. The intestinal digestibility of in rumen undegraded crude protein residues of SF has been influenced by the treatment positively. It increased from 43 to 82%. The effect of F on LM was very low. The digestibility has been changed from 75 to 80%. PMID:8526724

Sommer, A; Ceresnáková, Z; Szakács, J; Chrenková, M

1995-01-01

82

Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed. PMID:24128503

Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

2013-08-29

83

Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed.

Zhang S; Vardhanabhuti B

2014-02-01

84

Protein digestion: an overview of the available techniques and recent developments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several proteomics approaches are available that are defined by the level (protein or peptide) at which analysis takes place. The most widely applied method still is bottom-up proteomics where the protein is digested into peptides that can be efficiently analyzed with a wide range of LC-MS or MALDI-TOF-MS instruments. Sample preparation for bottom-up proteomics experiments requires several treatment steps in order to get from the protein to the peptide level and can be very laborious. The most crucial step in such approaches is the protein digestion, which is often the bottleneck in terms of time consumption. Therefore, a significant gain in throughput may be obtained by speeding up the digestion process. Current techniques allow for reduction of the digestion time from overnight (~15 h) to minutes or even seconds. This advancement also makes integration into online systems feasible, thereby reducing the number of tedious sample handling steps and the risk of sample loss. In this review, an overview is given of the currently available digestion strategies and recent developments in the acceleration of the digestion process. Additionally, tailored approaches for classes of proteins that pose specific challenges are discussed.

Switzar L; Giera M; Niessen WM

2013-03-01

85

Influence of Strain of Chickens on Ileal Amino Acids Digestibility of Different Protein Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four protein sources (soyabean meal, fish silage, sardine fish and fishmeal) using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated; representing four different proteins sources and was evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-period of 23 h in every 24 h. Diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. On the fourth day after the adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then the birds were killed to allow for sampling of ileal digesta, from Meckels diverticulum to the ileal-caecal-colonic injunction. Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001) higher digestibility coefficients and digestible content of amino acids across all the protein sources than the local birds. Out of the four protein sources evaluated in this study, fishmeal had the lowest amino acids digestibility coefficient for the two bird breeds (p<0.001). The digestibility coefficient and digestible content of amino acids estimates for fish silage was the highest across the two strains (p<0.001). The lower digestibility of amino acids for soyabean meal is related to the presence of; antinutritional factor, trypsin inhibitor. Fish silage shows a great potential to be used as protein supplements for poultry feeding. The results suggest that the class of chickens and protein source significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible contents of amino acids in the nutrient assessed in this study.

W. Al-Marzooqi; I.T. Kadim; O. Mahgoub

2011-01-01

86

Improvement of fruit and vegetable waste anaerobic digestion performance and stability with co-substrates addition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of fish waste (FW), abattoir wastewater (AW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) addition as co-substrates on the fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) anaerobic digestion performance was investigated under mesophilic conditions using four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR) with the aim of finding the better co-substrate for the enhanced performance of co-digestion. The reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 2.46-2.51 g volatile solids (VS)l(-1)d(-1), of which approximately 90% were from FVW, and a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. It was observed that AW and WAS additions with a ratio of 10% VS enhanced biogas yield by 51.5% and 43.8% and total volatile solids removal by 10% and 11.7%, respectively. However FW addition led to improvement of the process stability, as indicated by the low VFAs/Alkalinity ratio of 0.28, and permitted anaerobic digestion of FVW without chemical alkali addition. Despite a considerable decrease in the C/N ratio from 34.2 to 27.6, the addition of FW slightly improved the gas production yield (8.1%) compared to anaerobic digestion of FVW alone. A C/N ratio between 22 and 25 seemed to be better for anaerobic co-digestion of FVW with its co-substrates. The most significant factor for enhanced FVW digestion performance was the improved organic nitrogen content provided by the additional wastes. Consequently, the occurrence of an imbalance between the different groups of anaerobic bacteria which may take place in unstable anaerobic digestion of FVW could be prevented.

Bouallagui H; Lahdheb H; Ben Romdan E; Rachdi B; Hamdi M

2009-04-01

87

Improvement of fruit and vegetable waste anaerobic digestion performance and stability with co-substrates addition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of fish waste (FW), abattoir wastewater (AW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) addition as co-substrates on the fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) anaerobic digestion performance was investigated under mesophilic conditions using four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR) with the aim of finding the better co-substrate for the enhanced performance of co-digestion. The reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 2.46-2.51 g volatile solids (VS)l(-1)d(-1), of which approximately 90% were from FVW, and a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. It was observed that AW and WAS additions with a ratio of 10% VS enhanced biogas yield by 51.5% and 43.8% and total volatile solids removal by 10% and 11.7%, respectively. However FW addition led to improvement of the process stability, as indicated by the low VFAs/Alkalinity ratio of 0.28, and permitted anaerobic digestion of FVW without chemical alkali addition. Despite a considerable decrease in the C/N ratio from 34.2 to 27.6, the addition of FW slightly improved the gas production yield (8.1%) compared to anaerobic digestion of FVW alone. A C/N ratio between 22 and 25 seemed to be better for anaerobic co-digestion of FVW with its co-substrates. The most significant factor for enhanced FVW digestion performance was the improved organic nitrogen content provided by the additional wastes. Consequently, the occurrence of an imbalance between the different groups of anaerobic bacteria which may take place in unstable anaerobic digestion of FVW could be prevented. PMID:19117663

Bouallagui, H; Lahdheb, H; Ben Romdan, E; Rachdi, B; Hamdi, M

2008-12-30

88

In-gel digestion for mass spectrometric characterization of proteins and proteomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In-gel digestion of proteins isolated by gel electrophoresis is a cornerstone of mass spectrometry (MS)-driven proteomics. The 10-year-old recipe by Shevchenko et al. has been optimized to increase the speed and sensitivity of analysis. The protocol is for the in-gel digestion of both silver and Coomassie-stained protein spots or bands and can be followed by MALDI-MS or LC-MS/MS analysis to identify proteins at sensitivities better than a few femtomoles of protein starting material.

Shevchenko A; Tomas H; Havlis J; Olsen JV; Mann M

2006-01-01

89

Effect of Fermentation, Malt-Pretreatment and Cooking on Antinutritional Factors and Protein Digestibility of Sorghum Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two sorghum cultivars namely, Mugud (low tannin) and Karamaka (high tannin) were used in this study. The flour of the seeds of both cultivars was mixed with 5% malt. Then the flour with or without malt was fermented for 16 h. Samples were taken every 2 h during fermentation to study changes in pH, total acidity, crude protein and dry matter. Fermentation of the flour with or without malt resulted in an increase in crude protein content and total acidity for both cultivars. Moreover, the fermented flour with or without malt was cooked to study changes in phytate, tannins and in vitro protein digestibility of the cultivars. A highly significant (P 0.05) reduction in antinutritional factors (phytate and tannins) was observed for malted and fermented flour compared to the fermented dough. Cooking significantly (P 0.05) reduced the in vitro protein digestibility of the treated cultivars but the extent of the reduction is lower in malted samples. Fermentation alleviates the adverse effect of cooking on sorghum protein digestibility after addition of malt. Results obtained revealed that addition of malt followed by fermentation is a useful method to improve the nutritional value of sorghum even after cooking.

Wedad Wedad; H. Abdelhaleem; Abdullahi H. El Tinay; Abdelmoneim I. Mustafa; Elfadil E. Babiker

2008-01-01

90

Rice protein extracted by different methods affects cholesterol metabolism in rats due to its lower digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS). The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significant cholesterol-lowering effects were observed in rats fed by RP-A and RP-E. Fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by RP-E, but not by RP-A. The apparent cholesterol absorption was more effectively inhibited by RP-E than RP-A because more fecal neutral sterols were excreted in rats fed RP-E. There was a significant correlation between protein digestibility and cholesterol absorption (r = 0.8662, P rice protein affected by extraction method plays a major role in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action induced by rice protein with lower digestibility primarily contribute to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption. PMID:22174619

Yang, Lin; Chen, Jiahou; Xu, Tong; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Lanwei; Xu, Fuping; Liu, Hongbo

2011-11-07

91

Rice Protein Extracted by Different Methods Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats Due to Its Lower Digestibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. Th...

Lin Yang; Jiahou Chen; Tong Xu; Wei Qiu; Yan Zhang; Lanwei Zhang; Fuping Xu; Hongbo Liu

92

Evaluation of single cell protein from pulp mills: laboratory analyses and in vivo digestibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single cell protein (SCP) derived from secondary clarifiers of pulp mills is a potential commercial protein supplement in many areas. Samples of SCP were collected from several pulp mills in the Pacific Northwest and evaluated by laboratory procedures. Six in vivo digestion trials were conducted to determine the relative nutritive value of SCP that was dewatered by centrifugation or by the addition of a polyacrylamide polymer before being put through a belt press and dried with a sonic dehydrator. Amino acid analyses showed that SCP was higher in methionine than was cottonseed meal (CSM) and had a similar level of lysine. True protein, based upon amino acids recovered in SCP samples, ranged from 51.6 to 65.9% of the crude protein (CP). Pepsin digestibility of the CP ranged from 16.2 to 36.8%. Pepsin digestibility increased by 6.3 to 11.3 percentage units when SCP were incubated in a buffered rumen fluid for 24 hours. Solubility of the nitrogenous components in 10% Burroughs' buffer solution ranged from 12.4 to 36.5%. The range in mineral composition was : P, .62 to 1.55%; Ca, .14 to .99%; K, .21 to 5.52%; Mg, .07 to .59%. The concentration of trace minerals and heavy metals varied considerably from sample to sample. Digestion trials were conducted with sheep to compare SCP with CSM; 20 to 50% of the total CP was provided by the SCP sources. The CP digestibilities of the centrifuged and the polymer-dewatered SCP were 70.5 to 70.8% and 66.3 to 69.9%, respectively, of that observed for CSM. In all digestion trials, sheep consumed the SCP diets readily, and no digestive disturbances were observed. On the basis of laboratory and in vivo results, pulp mill SCP has the potential to be a viable protein supplement for livestock.

Kellems, R.O.; Aseltine, M.S.; Church, D.C.

1981-12-01

93

Digestibility of defense proteins in latex of milkweeds by digestive proteases of Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus L.: A potential determinant of plant-herbivore interactions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes the digestive protease activity extracted from the gut of fifth-instar Monarch butterfly larvae, and its proteolytic activity on latex proteins of their host plant, Calotropis procera (the milkweed) and related non-host species from the milkweed family. Gut extracts digested azocasein, BANA and BApNA. Cysteine protease inhibitors such as E-64 and iodoacetamide inhibited proteolytic activity on azocasein; however, the serine protease inhibitors PMSF and leupeptin were more effective. Gut extracts promptly digested LP and were not affected by endogenous latex proteases. Gut extracts, however, did not digest LP from Cryptostegia grandiflora and only slightly digested LP from Plumeria rubra, two plant species that are not consumed by Monarch larvae. The protein profiles of latex proteins extracted from healthy and attacked plants were different. A protein identified as glycoside hydrolase was detected in increased concentrations in latex from damaged plants. Larvae fed on artificial diets containing 1% or 5% latex proteins were not adversely affected and gained weight faster than control larvae. These results provide new information on the resistance of Monarch larvae fed on C. procera and suggest that the ability of Monarch proteolytic enzymes to promptly digest LP can explain (at least in part) how these insects overcome the defensive proteins found in C. procera latex.

Pereira DanielleA; Ramos MárcioV; Souza DiegoP; Portela TerezaCL; Guimarães JorgeA; Madeira SocorroVF; Freitas CleversonDT

2010-10-01

94

Improvement of raw starch digestibility by ion-beam mutation of Aspergillus awamori  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspergillus awamori possess the ability to express raw starch digestibility. For the effective utilization of starchy crops produced in South-Asian countries, it is important to achieve the digestion of raw starchs for industrial fermentation process. In this study, higher ratio of mutant strains of Aspergillus awamori IFO4033 were isolated by irradiation of C5+ ion-beam on freeze dried spores with improvement of enzyme production for two-to threefold in the extracellular ?-amylase compared with gamma-irradiation. The digestibility of raw starch from cassava, sago and sukun increased remarkably about two-to threefold by some mutant strains obtained from irradiation of C5+ ion-beam. (author)

1998-01-01

95

Improvement of raw starch digestibility by ion-beam mutation of Aspergillus awamori  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aspergillus awamori possess the ability to express raw starch digestibility. For the effective utilization of starchy crops produced in South-Asian countries, it is important to achieve the digestion of raw starchs for industrial fermentation process. In this study, higher ratio of mutant strains of Aspergillus awamori IFO4033 were isolated by irradiation of C{sup 5+} ion-beam on freeze dried spores with improvement of enzyme production for two-to threefold in the extracellular {alpha}-amylase compared with gamma-irradiation. The digestibility of raw starch from cassava, sago and sukun increased remarkably about two-to threefold by some mutant strains obtained from irradiation of C{sup 5+} ion-beam. (author)

Amsal, Aryanti [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Takigami, Machiko; Ito, Hitoshi

1998-09-01

96

Recycling of waste oyster shell for improvement in digested sludge dewaterability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purposes of this study were to examine applicability of waste oyster shells as conditioning agent, to determine the optimum conditions for improving digested sludge dewaterability and to compare with CaCO{sub 3}. If waste oyster shells were used as conditioning agent for dewatering digested sludge, it estimated that the optimum conditions were dosage 30 g/L, particle size 10 mesh, temp. 30 degree C, pH 7 and dewatering pressure 2.66 * 10{sup 4} N/m{sup 2}. On teh basis of induced optimum conditions, its specific resistance was 1.33 * 10{sup 12} m/kg of addomg waste oyster shells in digested sludge and was low about 2.8 times than raw digested sludge 3.74 * 101{sup 2} m/kg. But, it was almost similar to 1.24 * 10{sup 12} m/kg, if adding CaCO{sub 3} in digested sludge. Therefore, in view of waste recycling, it seemed that we could utilize waste containing analogy composition with waste oyster shells. 20 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Kim, Eun Ho; Shim, Eun Gi; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kwak, Chul; Park, In Soo; Hwang, Young Gi [Division of Fine Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea)

2000-04-01

97

[Prececal protein and amino acid digestibility and total crude nutrient digestibility of extracts of three rapeseed varieties, ascertained in ileorectostomized and intact swine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The apparent precaecal crude protein digestibility and amino acid absorption as well as the total digestibility of the nutrients organic matter, crude protein, crude fat and crude carbohydrates were determined of rations consisting of barley plus oilmeals of two rapeseed varieties of double quality (DQ) from Canada (Canola) and the GDR as well as of one variety of single quality (SQ) with 10 female pigs weighing between 120 and 140 kg with ileorectal anastomoses (IRA) and 4 intact (INT) female pigs weighing between 150 and 160 kg. The three rapeseed meals (RSM) were furthermore fed to IRA pigs as sole protein source together with protein-free feed. Based on the digestibilities of the crude nutrients determined with INT pigs and calculated with the difference method the energy content of RSM DQ "Canola", DQ GDR and SQ GDR could be calculated as 495, 633 and 500 EFUpig/kg DM (average: 543 EFUpig). The precaecal digestibility of the crude protein of the above mentioned RSM sorts determined with IRA pigs and calculated with the difference method amounts to 73, 76 and 75% resp. and is thus lower than the average absorption of all amino acids. The precaecal digestibilities of crude protein and essential amino acids for the mixtures calculated from the digestibility values of the individual feedstuffs barley and the above mentioned RSM largely agree with the experimentally determined digestibility values, i.e. there is additivity. On an average of the values known from literature for DQ RSM (including our own results), the precaecal digestibility of crude protein amounts to 70, of lysine to 74, of methionine to 82, of cystine to 82, of threonine to 69, of tryptophan to 72 and of isoleucine to 74%.

Hennig U; Wünsche J; Schadereit R; Kreienbring F; Souffrant WB

1991-02-01

98

Combining chymotrypsin/trypsin digestion to identify hydrophobic proteins from oil bodies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil bodies, lipid-storage organelles, are stabilized by a number of specific proteins. These proteins are very hydrophobic, which complicates their identification by "classical" proteomic protocols using trypsin digestion. Due to the lack of trypsin cleavage sites, the achievable protein coverage is limited or even insufficient for reliable protein identification. To identify such proteins and to enhance their coverage, we introduced a modified method comprising standard three-step procedure (SDS-PAGE, in-gel digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis). In this method, chymotrypsin, single or in combination with trypsin, was used, which enabled to obtain proteolytic peptides from the hydrophobic regions and to identify new oil bodies' proteins. Our method can be easily applied to identification of other hydrophobic proteins.

Vermachova M; Purkrtova Z; Santrucek J; Jolivet P; Chardot T; Kodicek M

2014-01-01

99

Investigation of protein digestibility and amino acid absorption in different segments of porcine digestive tract. 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 4 pigs (live weight 63 kg) with re-entrance cannulae in the duodenum as well as in the ileocecal region intake, excretion and flow rate of protein, methionine and 35S were measured after supplementary oral application of 35S-methionine to a wheat-wheat gluten-lysine diet and a protein-free diet, respectively, over a period of 7 days. For both the N and the methionine metabolism patterns were outlined according to the measured values and with the aid of a compartment model. The endogenous and exogenous levels of proteins and methionine in the duodenum, ileum and feces were estimated

1979-01-01

100

Intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization of three tropical tree legumes. II. As protein supplements  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calliandra calothyrsus, Paraserianthes falcataria and Gliricidia sepium leaves were supplemented at both 25 and 50% of dietary crude protein to a basal concentrate and fed to growing ram lambs. A control diet consisted of concentrate and the forage grass Brachiaria brizantha. Dry matter intakes and ADG of tree legume supplemented treatments were lower (P < 0.05) than control lambs, but increasing the amount of tree leaves fed did not result in further decreases in either dry matter intake or ADG. Dry matter digestibility was lower (P < 0.05) in both 25 and 50% dietary treatments compared with the control, while NDF digestibility was lower (P < 0.001) only in the 50% dietary treatments. Increasing the amount of leaves fed from all three tree species, led to decreased NDF digestibility. Fecal NDF-N was higher in tree-supplemented groups (P < 0.01) compared with control and increased (P < 0.05) with increasing amounts of tree leaves fed. Both apparent and true N digestibility were lower (P < 0.05) in C. calothyrsus, than in the other tree legume treatments. True N digestibility of 91% for the control was higher (P < 0.01) than the tree legume treatments supplemented at both 25 (range, 83-86%) and 50% dietary CP (range, 74-79%). Increasing the amount of tree leaves fed, regardless of tree species, decreased N digestibility in the diets. Higher fecal NDF-N and lower N digestibility in tree leaf supplemented lambs indicated that condensed tannins present in these tree species were binding protein and rendering it less available for digestion. Supplementation with C. calothyrsus, which had the highest levels of SPHE and SPRO, affected N utilization more negatively than did supplementation with either P. falcataria or G. sepium.

Merkel RC; Pond KR; Burns JC; Fisher DS

1999-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

Protein digestibility and quality in products containing antinutritional factors are adversely affected by old age in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been recommended to be the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by FAO/WHO. The PDCAAS method includes the use of young rats for predicting protein digestibility of foods for all ages including the elderly. To assess the usefulness of protein digestibility in old rats in the calculation of PDCAAS for the elderly, the influence of age on the digestibility of protein in 5-wk-old and 20-mo-old rats by the balance method was studied. Fifteen protein products were tested. Each protein product was fed as the sole source of 10% dietary protein. A protein-free diet was also included to obtain an estimate of metabolic fecal protein. Protein digestibility values (corrected for metabolic fecal protein loss) in old rats were significantly (P skim milk powder). Similarly, the differences attributed to age were not large (up to 5%) for properly processed vegetable protein products (soy protein isolate and autoclaved soybean meal, black beans and fava beans). However, digestibility values in old rats were considerably lower (7-17%) than in young rats when fed products containing antinutritional factors, that is, mustard flour containing glucosinolates; alkaline/heat-treated soy protein isolate and lactalbumin-containing lysinoalanine; raw soybean meal and black beans containing trypsin inhibitors; and heated skim milk powder containing Maillard compounds. Therefore, the inclusion of protein digestibility data obtained using young rats in the calculations of PDCAAS may overestimate protein digestibility and quality of these products for the elderly. For products specifically intended for the elderly, protein digestibility should be determined using old rats. PMID:12514294

Gilani, G Sarwar; Sepehr, Estatira

2003-01-01

102

In vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Glabrous Canaryseed Proteins as Affected by Variety and Thermal Treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glabrous or hairless canaryseed is a nutritional grain that could be a good addition to the diet if approved as a novel food. To assess the impact of thermal treatment on its digestibility; raw, roasted or boiled flours prepared from three different varieties of glabrous canaryseed were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion conditions and the effect on protein electrophoretic profiles was examined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Roasting was done by dry-heat in an oven at 176 °C for 12 min whereas boiling was done in water at 98 °C for 12 min. SDS-PAGE showed approximately twenty-five protein bands in the undigested raw flour with molecular masses (MM) ranging from <14 kDa to >97 kDa. The dominant proteins had low MM, between the ranges of ~57 to 12 kDa. Roasting markedly altered the protein electrophoretic profile with the appearance of large molecular weight aggregates. Canaryseed proteins were more easily digested after thermal treatment and under sequential gastric-duodenal conditions than under gastric or duodenal conditions alone. Furthermore, roasting appeared to have a greater impact on in vitro protein digestibility than boiling.

Rajamohamed SH; Aryee AN; Hucl P; Patterson CA; Boye JI

2013-09-01

103

In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of glabrous canaryseed proteins as affected by variety and thermal treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glabrous or hairless canaryseed is a nutritional grain that could be a good addition to the diet if approved as a novel food. To assess the impact of thermal treatment on its digestibility; raw, roasted or boiled flours prepared from three different varieties of glabrous canaryseed were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion conditions and the effect on protein electrophoretic profiles was examined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Roasting was done by dry-heat in an oven at 176 °C for 12 min whereas boiling was done in water at 98 °C for 12 min. SDS-PAGE showed approximately twenty-five protein bands in the undigested raw flour with molecular masses (MM) ranging from 97 kDa. The dominant proteins had low MM, between the ranges of ~57 to 12 kDa. Roasting markedly altered the protein electrophoretic profile with the appearance of large molecular weight aggregates. Canaryseed proteins were more easily digested after thermal treatment and under sequential gastric-duodenal conditions than under gastric or duodenal conditions alone. Furthermore, roasting appeared to have a greater impact on in vitro protein digestibility than boiling. PMID:23912803

Rajamohamed, Sahul H; Aryee, Alberta N A; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann; Boye, Joyce I

2013-09-01

104

Superiority of alkali-extracted rice protein in bioavailability to starch degraded rice protein comes from digestion of prolamin in growing rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rice protein prepared from alkaline extraction (AE-RP) has high digestibility compared to that obtained from starch degradation (SD-RP) in in vitro digestion experiments, and alterations in the protein body (PB) structures were observed in AE-RP in the previous study. The improvement in the digestibility of AE-RP is probably a result of the structural change of PB. The present study was carried out to elucidate the superiority of AE-RP compared to SD-RP in bioavailability in growing rats. There were no major differences between AE-RP and SD-RP in polypeptide compositions according to SDS-PAGE and their amino acid compositions. The equivalent body weight gain and similar growth curves in both AE-RP and casein (control) groups were obtained during the feeding period of 28 d, and their values were significantly higher compared to the SD-RP group (price protein containing prolamin was improved by alkaline extraction. PMID:19436144

Kumagai, Takehisa; Watanabe, Reiko; Saito, Mariko; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni

2009-04-01

105

Improved utilization of fish waste by anaerobic digestion following omega-3 fatty acids extraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fish waste is a potentially valuable resource from which high-value products can be obtained. Anaerobic digestion of the original fish waste and the fish sludge remaining after enzymatic pre-treatment to extract fish oil and fish protein hydrolysate was evaluated regarding the potential for methane production. The results showed high biodegradability of both fish sludge and fish waste, giving specific methane yields of 742 and 828 m(3)CH(4)/tons VS added, respectively. However, chemical analysis showed high concentrations of light metals which, together with high fat and protein contents, could be inhibitory to methanogenic bacteria. The feasibility of co-digesting the fish sludge with a carbohydrate-rich residue from crop production was thus investigated, and a full-scale process outlined for converting odorous fish waste to useful products.

Nges IA; Mbatia B; Björnsson L

2012-11-01

106

Improved utilization of fish waste by anaerobic digestion following omega-3 fatty acids extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish waste is a potentially valuable resource from which high-value products can be obtained. Anaerobic digestion of the original fish waste and the fish sludge remaining after enzymatic pre-treatment to extract fish oil and fish protein hydrolysate was evaluated regarding the potential for methane production. The results showed high biodegradability of both fish sludge and fish waste, giving specific methane yields of 742 and 828 m(3)CH(4)/tons VS added, respectively. However, chemical analysis showed high concentrations of light metals which, together with high fat and protein contents, could be inhibitory to methanogenic bacteria. The feasibility of co-digesting the fish sludge with a carbohydrate-rich residue from crop production was thus investigated, and a full-scale process outlined for converting odorous fish waste to useful products. PMID:22784804

Nges, Ivo Achu; Mbatia, Betty; Björnsson, Lovisa

2012-07-10

107

Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Germination of legumes followed by hydrothermal treatments is an effective mean of improving nutritive value of legumes. The protein content of mungbean, chickpea and cowpea increased by 9-11, 11-16 and 8-11% after germination. A significant (p???0.05) decrease in protein content was observed on pressure cooking and microwaving in all three legumes. The carbohydrates decreased by 1 to 3% during soaking and 2 to 6% during germination. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) was observed after soaking as well as after three germination periods. Germination resulted in an increase in IVPD from 15 to 25% in mungbean, 6 to 17% in chickpea and 6 to 17% in cowpea. A significant (p???0.05) increase in IVPD was observed when raw sprouts of three legumes were subjected to pressure cooking and microwaving. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) increased significantly (p???0.05) after germination, the percent increase being 8 to 12% in mungbean, 9 to 11% in chickpea and 10 to 13% in cowpea. The duration of germination had significant (p???0.05) effect on IVSD. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in IVSD was observed when legume sprouts were subjected to pressure cooking and microwave cooking.

Uppal V; Bains K

2012-04-01

108

Influence of dietary protein content and source on colonic fermentative activity in dogs differing in body size and digestive tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low-consistency, high-moisture feces have been observed in large dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), compared with small dogs, and particularly in sensitive breeds (e.g., German Shepherd dogs). The aim of this work was to determine if greater colonic protein fermentation is responsible for poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs. Twenty-seven bitches were allotted to 4 groups based on size and digestive sensitivity: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five experimental diets varying in protein source [highly digestible wheat gluten (WG) vs. medium digestible poultry meal (PM), and protein concentration from 21.4 to 21.6 (LP) to 38.2 to 39.2% CP (HP)] were tested. Diets were fed for 14 d and followed by a 12-d transition period. Digestive fermentation by-products were investigated in fresh stools [ammonia, phenol, indole, and short chain fatty acids including acetate, propionate, and butyrate (C2 to C4 SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and valerate] and in urine (phenol and indole). Bacterial populations in feces were identified. The PM diets resulted in greater fecal concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, valerate, indole, and C2 to C4 SCFA than WG diets (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.039, P = 0.003, and P = 0.012, respectively). Greater concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, and valerate were found in the feces of dogs fed HP compared with LP diets (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). The concentrations of ammonia, valerate, phenol, and indole in feces of large sensitive dogs were greater (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.019, respectively) compared with the other groups. The Enterococcus populations were greater in feces of dogs fed with PMHP rather than WGLP diets (P = 0.006). Urinary phenol and indole excretion was greater when dogs were fed PM than WG diets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.038, respectively) and HP than LP diets (P = 0.001 and P = 0.087, respectively). Large sensitive dogs were prone to excrete a greater quantity of phenol in urine (P < 0.001). A diet formulated with highly digestible protein, such as WG, led to reduced concentrations of protein-based fermentation products in feces together with improved fecal quality in dogs, especially in large sensitive ones. Poor fecal quality in large sensitive dogs could be partly related to the pattern of protein fermentation in the hindgut.

Nery J; Goudez R; Biourge V; Tournier C; Leray V; Martin L; Thorin C; Nguyen P; Dumon H

2012-08-01

109

Influence of dietary protein content and source on colonic fermentative activity in dogs differing in body size and digestive tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-consistency, high-moisture feces have been observed in large dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), compared with small dogs, and particularly in sensitive breeds (e.g., German Shepherd dogs). The aim of this work was to determine if greater colonic protein fermentation is responsible for poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs. Twenty-seven bitches were allotted to 4 groups based on size and digestive sensitivity: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five experimental diets varying in protein source [highly digestible wheat gluten (WG) vs. medium digestible poultry meal (PM), and protein concentration from 21.4 to 21.6 (LP) to 38.2 to 39.2% CP (HP)] were tested. Diets were fed for 14 d and followed by a 12-d transition period. Digestive fermentation by-products were investigated in fresh stools [ammonia, phenol, indole, and short chain fatty acids including acetate, propionate, and butyrate (C2 to C4 SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and valerate] and in urine (phenol and indole). Bacterial populations in feces were identified. The PM diets resulted in greater fecal concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, valerate, indole, and C2 to C4 SCFA than WG diets (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.039, P = 0.003, and P = 0.012, respectively). Greater concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, and valerate were found in the feces of dogs fed HP compared with LP diets (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). The concentrations of ammonia, valerate, phenol, and indole in feces of large sensitive dogs were greater (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.019, respectively) compared with the other groups. The Enterococcus populations were greater in feces of dogs fed with PMHP rather than WGLP diets (P = 0.006). Urinary phenol and indole excretion was greater when dogs were fed PM than WG diets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.038, respectively) and HP than LP diets (P = 0.001 and P = 0.087, respectively). Large sensitive dogs were prone to excrete a greater quantity of phenol in urine (P < 0.001). A diet formulated with highly digestible protein, such as WG, led to reduced concentrations of protein-based fermentation products in feces together with improved fecal quality in dogs, especially in large sensitive ones. Poor fecal quality in large sensitive dogs could be partly related to the pattern of protein fermentation in the hindgut. PMID:22328724

Nery, J; Goudez, R; Biourge, V; Tournier, C; Leray, V; Martin, L; Thorin, C; Nguyen, P; Dumon, H

2012-02-10

110

Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.

2006-01-01

111

Effect of heat treatment on antinutrients and precaecal crude protein digestibility in broilers of four tropical crop seeds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four tropical crop seeds, namely Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea), Mucuna pruriens, Manihot esculenta and Centrosema pubescens were thermally processed for 1 h at 100 °C and analysed for their antinutritional factors (ANF). Four hundred and forty-eight 1-day-old broilers were used to determine the effect of heating the seeds on their precaecal crude protein (CP) digestibility. Total phenols, protein precipitable tannins and l-dopa were higher in the mucuna and centrosema seeds and diets than in the vigna and manihot seeds and diets. Phytic acid was of similar occurrence in all the raw seeds. Heat treatment resulted in reduction in all the ANF in the seeds. Precaecal CP digestibility, feed intake and growth rate were significantly (P < 0.01) increased in the heat-treated mucuna and centrosema diets. There was no significant effect on the digestibility of CP, feed intake and growth rate in birds on the vigna and manihot diets owing to heat treatment of the seeds. The results showed that heating improved the nutritive quality of mucuna and centrosema seeds but was not of significant advantage with vigna and manihot seeds when used at levels of up to 150 g kg?¹ in diets.

Iyayi EustaceA; Kluth Holger; Rodehutscord Markus

2008-04-01

112

The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Goat’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards goat’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male goats, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg,  coefficient variant11.78%) were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN) 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P0.05) among crude protein and TDN treatments. Different energy and protein ration treatments caused different DM and OM intake but were not cause different in DM and OM digestibility. Based on the research results, a study on the effects of different ration’s energy and protein ratio towards N efficiency should be conducted in order to increase cattle productivity.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.76-79[How to cite this article: Mawati, S.,  Soedarsono, S., Sunarso, S. & Purnomoadi, A. (2013). The Effects of Different Energy and Ratio to Goat’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility. International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2),76-79. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.76-79

Sri Mawati; S. Soedarsono; S. Sunarso; Agung Purnomoadi

2013-01-01

113

Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey, poultry waste and cattle dung -a study of the use of mixture of adsorbents and/or surfactants to improve digester performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the improvement of anaerobic digestion process due to the addition of various surfactants and adsorbents in different combinations. Among the different combinations tested mixture of silica gel (2000 mg litre[sup -1]) and sodium lauryl sulphate (300 mg litre[sup -1]) showed maximum enhancement in gas production as well as methane content indicating better process performance. (author)

Desai, Manik; Madamwar, Datta (Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India). Post Graduate Dept. of Biosciences)

1994-01-01

114

The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve anaerobic digestion of activated sludge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracellular and extracellular components are set free and are immediately available for biological degradation which leads to an improvement of the subsequent anaerobic process. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge results in organic matter an (more) d a polymer transfer from the solid phase to the liquid phase, and an increase in COD value of 284 mg??-1 was observed, i.e. from 42 mg??-1 to 326 mg??-1. In addition the degree of disintegration changed from 14% after 15 min disintegration to 54% after 90 min of disintegration. A disruption of bacterial cells by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. The cells of the activated sludge micro-organisms rupture and addition to the digestion process leads to increased biogas production. The hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge leads to a higher degree of degradation and higher biogas production. Adding the disintegrated sludge (10%, 20% and 30% of volume) to fermentation processes resulted in an improvement in biogas production of about 22%, 95% and 131% respectively.

Machnicka, A; Grű bel, K; Suschka, J

2009-01-01

115

In vitro digestibility of individual amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein: the modified three-step procedure and the immobilized digestive enzyme assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three soybean meal, 3 SoyPlus (West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA), 5 distillers dried grains with solubles, and 5 fish meal samples were used to evaluate the modified 3-step in vitro procedure (TSP) and the in vitro immobilized digestive enzyme assay (IDEA; Novus International Inc., St. Louis, MO) for estimating digestibility of AA in rumen-undegraded protein (RUP-AA). In a previous experiment, each sample was ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h, and in vivo digestibility of AA in the intact samples and in the rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) was obtained for all samples using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. For the modified TSP, 5 g of RUR was weighed into polyester bags, which were then heat-sealed and placed into Daisy(II) incubator bottles. Samples were incubated in a pepsin/HCl solution followed by incubation in a pancreatin solution. After this incubation, residues remaining in the bags were analyzed for AA, and digestibility of RUP-AA was calculated based on disappearance from the bags. In vitro RUP-AA digestibility estimates obtained with this procedure were highly correlated to in vivo estimates. Corresponding intact feeds were also analyzed via the pepsin/pancreatin steps of the modified TSP. In vitro estimates of AA digestibility of the feeds were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility, which suggests that the feeds may not need to be ruminally incubated before determining RUP-AA digestibility in vitro. The RUR were also analyzed via the IDEA kits. The IDEA values of the RUR were good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in soybean meal, SoyPlus, and distillers dried grains with solubles, but the IDEA values were not as good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in fish meal. However, the IDEA values of intact feed samples were also determined and were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility for all feed types, suggesting that the IDEA value of intact feeds may be a better predictor of RUP-AA digestibility than the IDEA value of the RUR. In conclusion, the modified TSP and IDEA kits are good approaches for estimating RUP-AA digestibility in soybean meal products, distillers dried grains with solubles, and fish meal samples. PMID:19620677

Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stern, M D; Moreno, M Ruiz; Vázquez-Añón, M; Schwab, C G

2009-08-01

116

Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in northwest Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54), and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47), boiled beef (score = 75) and hamburger (score = 82). The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91) and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%). Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%). Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

Caire-Juvera G; Vázquez-Ortiz FA; Grijalva-Haro MI

2013-03-01

117

Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

2011-01-01

118

Relationship between in vitro assays and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of animal protein meals in broilers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two identical trials were conducted to determine the relationship of a novel digestive enzyme assay, Poultry Complete IDEA (PC IDEA), and the pepsin digestibility assay with standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 20 animal protein meals (APM) fed to broilers from 25 to 30 d of age. Animal protein meals included 10 meat and bone meals (MBM) consisting of bovine, porcine, or mixed bovine and porcine raw materials (BP), and 10 animal protein blends containing animal proteins from various species. Treatments consisted of 20 semi-purified diets containing 1 APM as the sole source of dietary amino acids (AA), and 1 N-free diet to determine endogenous ileal AA flow. With the exception of the N-free diet, diets were formulated to contain 20% CP. In each trial, 756 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were housed in battery cages and randomly assigned to 21 dietary treatments on d 25 (12 birds per cage; 3 replicate cages), and ileal digesta were collected on d 30 for determination of SIAAD. Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were determined for APM samples from each experimental diet (3 replicates per trial; 6 total replicates). Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were both correlated (P < 0.001) with SIAAD for each AA. Multiple linear regression of PC IDEA and pepsin digestibility on SIAAD resulted in the following equations: % Lys SIAAD = [-9.65 + (0.38 × % PC IDEA predicted Lys digestibility) + (0.69 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Met SIAAD = [-35.95 + (0.62 × % PC IDEA predicted Met digestibility) + (0.75 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Thr SIAAD = [-77.5 + (0.39 × % PC IDEA predicted Thr digestibility) + (1.37 × % pepsin digestibility)]. Values of R(2) were 0.46, 0.47, and 0.55 for Lys, Met, and Thr, respectively. The relatively low R(2) values may have been due to the limited range in SIAAD observed for the 20 APM, and additional data on APM varying in SIAAD are needed.

Rochell SJ; Kuhlers DL; Dozier WA 3rd

2013-01-01

119

Digestibility of Alternative Protein-Rich Feedstuffs for Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of amino acids, crude protein, gross energy, and dry matter of canola meal, corn gluten feed, fish offal meal, shrimp and fish offal meal, poultry by-product meal, and hydrolyzed feather meal were determined for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Experimental diets contained 30% test ingredient, 69.5% casein-based reference diet, and 0.5% chromic oxide. Groups of 20 fish (102.45 g) were fed the experimental diets twice a day at 3.5% body weight. Fecal samples were collected in triplicate daily at 0000 h and 0600 h after settlement into collection devices. Shrimp and fish offal meal and corn gluten feed presented significantly lower (P < 0.05) ADC for dry matter (59.5 and 39.3%) suggesting their low value as feedstuffs for catfish feeds. Although ADC values for crude protein were above 80% for all the test ingredients, amino acid digestibility varied significantly, except for histidine whose ADC remained constant regardless of the protein source. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in most of the test ingredients, except in fish offal meal and poultry by-product meal. Among the protein sources tested, only fish offal meal and poultry by-product meal met channel catfish amino acid requirements for a 28% digestible protein grow-out diet.

Kitagima RE; Fracalossi DM

2011-06-01

120

Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acid in marine feedstuffs for juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apparent protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs are needed for more accurate, environmentally friendly, and economical feed formulations for shrimp. Coefficients of digestibility of nine feedstuffs of marine origin were measured, in terms of apparent dry matter, protein, and essential amino acid, for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using 1% chromic oxide as the inert marker. The tested ingredients included four commercial fish meals (FMs) from different sources, batches, or species designated as A, B, C and D, fish soluble protein concentrate (FSPC), squid (Loligo gahi) meal (SM), shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) head meal (SHM), red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes) meal (RCM), and Catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus) by-product meal (CSBM). A reference diet was formulated and produced along with the experimental diets which included 30% of each ingredient and 70% of the reference diet. Apparent dry matter and protein (APD) digestibility coefficients varied very much among feedstuffs, from 46% to 102% and from 64% to 99%, respectively. APD for the fish soluble protein concentrate, squid and shrimp head meals were excellent (over 90%), Catarina scallop meal and FMA (sardine 66% CP) showed high protein digestibility (over 84%), while red crab meal (77%), FMB (sardine 70% CP; APD 71%) and FMD (tuna 60% CP; APD 70%) had low digestibility. The lowest dry matter (46%) and protein (63%) digestibilities were recorded for FMC (sardine 70% CP). Apparent amino acid digestibility (AAAD) coefficients were also variable among feedstuffs, and there was a reasonable, but not total, correspondence to protein digestibility. The most digestible feed ingredients for whiteleg shrimp were: fish soluble protein concentrate, squid meal, shrimp head meal, Catarina scallop by-product meal, and fish meal A (sardine 66% CP) showing that these ingredients are good sources of available protein and amino acids for juvenile whiteleg shrimp.

Terrazas-Fierro Martín; Civera-Cerecedo Roberto; Ibarra-Martínez Lilia; Goytortúa-Bores Ernesto; Herrera-Andrade Margarita; Reyes-Becerra Armando

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

M Bassompierre; A Kjar; Ewen McLean

1997-01-01

122

Effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of two indigenous varieties of Indian tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens Var. utilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and starch fractions and in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of white and black varieties of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis was studied. Cooking or autoclaving of both raw seeds and presoaked seeds in different solutions (water, tamarind extract, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid) significantly (p dry heat treatment. Moreover, among the different processing techniques, soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution followed by cooking (29.6-34.8%) or autoclaving (33.0-37.2%) seemed to be the best method for improving starch digestibility. PMID:11410009

Siddhuraju, P; Becker, K

2001-06-01

123

The role of protein synthesis and digestive enzymes in acinar cell injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The exocrine pancreas is the organ with the highest level of protein synthesis in the adult--each day the pancreas produces litres of fluid filled with enzymes that are capable of breaking down nearly all organic substances. For optimal health, the pancreas must produce sufficient enzymes of the right character to match the dietary intake. Disruption of normal pancreatic function occurs primarily as a result of dysfunction of the acinar cells that produce these digestive enzymes, and can lead to acute or chronic diseases. For many years, the prevailing dogma has been that inappropriate intracellular activation of the digestive enzymes produced by acinar cells was the key to pancreatic inflammatory diseases, as digestive enzymes themselves are potentially harmful to the cells that secrete them. However, we now know that many stressors can affect pancreatic acinar cells, and that these stressors can independently trigger pancreatic pathology through various mechanisms. This Review focuses on protein synthesis and active digestive enzymes--two key stressors faced by the acinar cell that are likely to be the major drivers of pathology encountered in the pancreas.

Logsdon CD; Ji B

2013-06-01

124

Flexible management of enzymatic digestion improves human islet isolation outcome from sub-optimal donor pancreata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide growing interest in reproducing the result of the Edmonton protocol in islet transplantation trials poses the problem of paucity of donors to supply sufficient amount of islets for clinical use. Improved outcomes include finding better ways to obtain higher yields from every donor organ processed and the possibility of extending islet isolation processing to glands of suboptimal quality. In order to optimize enzymatic digestion of marginal donor organs, we have modified the technique of tissue collection following enzymatic digestion of human pancreatic organs, allowing for reduced time of exposure of free islets to warm Liberase trade mark solution. Our results indicate that better controlled exposure to enzyme yields: (i) higher islet numbers; (ii) complete dissociation of all parts of pancreatic tissue; (iii) successful islet harvest from organs otherwise excluded. We also show that by limiting the exposure of free islets to enzyme solution, islet fragmentation and loss of insulin content are reduced. We further support evidence that enzymatic digestion may contribute to impairment of insulin secretory capacity of the islets in vitro during culture. PMID:12919094

Balamurugan, A N; Chang, Yigang; Fung, John J; Trucco, Massimo; Bottino, Rita

2003-09-01

125

Flexible management of enzymatic digestion improves human islet isolation outcome from sub-optimal donor pancreata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Worldwide growing interest in reproducing the result of the Edmonton protocol in islet transplantation trials poses the problem of paucity of donors to supply sufficient amount of islets for clinical use. Improved outcomes include finding better ways to obtain higher yields from every donor organ processed and the possibility of extending islet isolation processing to glands of suboptimal quality. In order to optimize enzymatic digestion of marginal donor organs, we have modified the technique of tissue collection following enzymatic digestion of human pancreatic organs, allowing for reduced time of exposure of free islets to warm Liberase trade mark solution. Our results indicate that better controlled exposure to enzyme yields: (i) higher islet numbers; (ii) complete dissociation of all parts of pancreatic tissue; (iii) successful islet harvest from organs otherwise excluded. We also show that by limiting the exposure of free islets to enzyme solution, islet fragmentation and loss of insulin content are reduced. We further support evidence that enzymatic digestion may contribute to impairment of insulin secretory capacity of the islets in vitro during culture.

Balamurugan AN; Chang Y; Fung JJ; Trucco M; Bottino R

2003-09-01

126

Improving accuracy of DNA diet estimates using food tissue control materials and an evaluation of proxies for digestion bias.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecologists are increasingly interested in quantifying consumer diets based on food DNA in dietary samples and high-throughput sequencing of marker genes. It is tempting to assume that food DNA sequence proportions recovered from diet samples are representative of consumer's diet proportions, despite the fact that captive feeding studies do not support that assumption. Here, we examine the idea of sequencing control materials of known composition along with dietary samples in order to correct for technical biases introduced during amplicon sequencing, and biological biases such as variable gene copy number. Using the Ion Torrent PGM©, we sequenced prey DNA amplified from scats of captive harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) fed a constant diet including three fish species in known proportions. Alongside, we sequenced a prey tissue mix matching the seals' diet to generate Tissue Correction Factors (TCFs). TCFs improved the diet estimates (based on sequence proportions) for all species and reduced the average estimate error from 28 ± 15% (uncorrected), to 14 ± 9% (TCF corrected). The experimental design also allowed us to infer the magnitude of prey-specific digestion biases and calculate Digestion Correction Factors (DCFs). The DCFs were compared to possible proxies for differential digestion (e.g., fish% protein,% lipid,% moisture) revealing a strong relationship between the DCFs and percent lipid of the fish prey, suggesting prey-specific corrections based on lipid content would produce accurate diet estimates in this study system. These findings demonstrate the value of parallel sequencing of food tissue mixtures in diet studies and offer new directions for future research in quantitative DNA diet analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Thomas AC; Jarman SN; Haman KH; Trites AW; Deagle BE

2013-09-01

127

A multienzyme network functions in intestinal protein digestion by a platyhelminth parasite.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteases frequently function not only as individual enzymes but also in cascades or networks. A notable evolutionary switch occurred in one such protease network that is involved in protein digestion in the intestine. In vertebrates, this is largely the work of trypsin family serine proteases, whereas in invertebrates, cysteine proteases of the papain family and aspartic proteases assume the role. Utilizing a combination of protease class-specific inhibitors and RNA interference, we deconvoluted such a network of major endopeptidases functioning in invertebrate intestinal protein digestion, using the parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni as an experimental model. We show that initial degradation of host blood proteins is ordered, occasionally redundant, and substrate-specific. Although inhibition of parasite cathepsin D had a greater effect on primary cleavage of hemoglobin, inhibition of cathepsin B predominated in albumin degradation. Nevertheless, in both cases, inhibitor combinations were synergistic. An asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) also synergized with cathepsin B and L in protein digestion, either by zymogen activation or facilitating substrate cleavage. This protease network operates optimally in acidic pH compartments either in the gut lumen or in vacuoles of the intestinal lining cells. Defining the role of each of these major enzymes now provides a clearer understanding of the function of a complex protease network that is conserved throughout invertebrate evolution. It also provides insights into which of these proteases are logical targets for development of chemotherapy for schistosomiasis, a major global health problem. PMID:17028179

Delcroix, Melaine; Sajid, Mohammed; Caffrey, Conor R; Lim, Kee-C; Dvorák, Jan; Hsieh, Ivy; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Dissous, Colette; McKerrow, James H

2006-10-06

128

Comparison of sludge digestion under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with a focus on the degradation of proteins at mesophilic temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aerobic and anaerobic digestion are popular methods for the treatment of waste activated sludge. However, the differences in degradation of sludge during aerobic and anaerobic digestion remain unclear. In this study, the sludge degradation during aerobic and anaerobic digestion was investigated at mesophilic temperature, focused on protein based on the degradation efficiency and degree of humification. The duration of aerobic and anaerobic digestion was about 90 days. The final degradation efficiency of volatile solid was 66.1 ± 1.6% and 66.4 ± 2.4% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The final degradation efficiency of protein was 67.5 ± 1.4% and 65.1 ± 2.6% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The degradation models of volatile solids were consistent with those of protein under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The solubility of protein under aerobic digestion was greater than that under anaerobic digestion. Moreover, the humification index of dissolved organic matter of aerobic digestion was greater than that during anaerobic digestion.

Shao L; Wang T; Li T; Lü F; He P

2013-07-01

129

The Compare Improvement of Ultrasonic Treatment to Dewatering and Digestion in Aerobic and Anaerobic Stabilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Backgrounds and Objectives: Large quantities of sludge are produced in biological wastewater treatment. Because this sludge is highly rotten, it should be stabilized before its disposal. Aerobic and anaerobic digestion is widely considered as stabilization techniques. Because of high retention time and sludge dewatering difficulties, reduction in retention time, operation and maintenance should be given into consideration. Ultrasonic process increases the enzymatic activity, so decreases the hydrolysis time, a limiting factor in digestion process, and contributes to the decrease of the detention time. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of ultrasound in improving dewatering and stabilization of aerobic and anaerobic digested sludge. In addition, the impact of ultrasonic treatment on improvement of sludge dewatering and aerobic and anaerobic digestion is compared.Materials and Methods: In this survey, samples of aerobic and anaerobic digestion were collected from local full-scale Garb Town and Tehran South wastewater treatment plant, respectively. The grab samples were collected for 4 month from July to October 2010. Total numbers of 20 samples were collected biweekly for each type of digestion. Each sample was sonicated for 15, 30, 60, and 90 min under 35 and 131 kHz frequencies separately. Total solids, volatile solids , pH, temperature , total COD, dissolved COD and settle able solids were measured. Ultrasound bath of the solution in a 300 mL glass reactor was performed as a bath reactor with power of 500 W.Result: The results showed that the application of ultrasonic wave increased dissolved COD and temperature and decreased volatile solid, pH and settle able solids. Application of ultrasonic wave with frequency of 131 kHz decreased the VS and increased the dewatering of sludge more effective than the 35 kHz frequency and the highest performance was at 15 min of time and 131 kHz of frequency. Also sonication method showed better efficiency for anaerobic sludge samples compared to the aerobic sludge samples.                 Conclusion: The results obtained showed that digestion and dewatering properties of sludge improved by ultrasonic application. Therefore it can be used as an alternative method for the sludge treatment. st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

Mahdi Kargar; Amir Hossein Mahvi

2012-01-01

130

Amino acid profile, protein digestibility, thermal and functional properties of Conophor nut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) defatted flour, protein concentrate and isolates  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Functional properties, amino acid compositions, in vitro protein digestibility, electrophoretic and thermal characteristics of conophor defatted flour (CDF), conophor protein concentrate (CPC), isoelectric protein isolate (CII) and neutral protein isolate (CNI) were evaluated. The isolates (CII and CNI) showed significantly lower (P?protein digestibility, enthalpy and denaturation temperature varied between 52.28% and 73.4%, 1.62–4.04?J?g?1 protein and 79.7–89.3?°C, respectively. The native proteins were comprised of subunits with molecular weights ranging between 15.3 and 129.3?kDa. The major amino acids in all the samples were aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine, whereas the percentages of essential amino acids in CDF, CPC, CII and CNI were 39.35%, 40.46%, 44.54% and 46.04%, respectively. Conophor protein products could be used as functional ingredients in food formulations and for enriching low quality protein diets.

Gbadamosi SO; Abiose SH; Aluko RE

2012-04-01

131

Reg proteins and their roles in inflammation and cancer of the human digestive system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The regenerating gene (Reg) family is a group of small molecules that includes four members found in various species, although only three are found in human tissues. Their expression is stimulated by certain growth factors or cytokines. The Reg family plays different roles in proliferation, migration, and anti-apoptosis through activating different signaling pathways. Their dysexpression is closely associated with a number of human conditions and diseases such as inflammation and cancer, especially in the human digestive system. Clinically, upregulation of Reg proteins is usually demonstrated in histological sections and sera from cancer patients. Therefore, Reg proteins can predict the progression and prognosis of cancers, especially those of the digestive tract, and can also act as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.

Zhao J; Wang J; Wang H; Lai M

2013-01-01

132

Anaerobic digestion of carbohydrate and protein-based wastewaters in fluidized bed bioreactors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present work is focused on evaluating the anaerobic digestion of complex substrates (proteins and carbohydrates) in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs). In a previous paper, an AFBR model was adjusted using only the experimental data obtained during the acclimatization stage (glucose and acetate-based feeding) of two mesophilic bioreactors. Here, the sensitivity of that model to represent the digestion processes of proteins such as gelatin and albumin, and sucros (more) e as a carbohydrate, is analyzed. Some kinetic expressions and parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis processes need to be modified to represent the real behavior of bioreactors. Under the analyzed operating conditions, a hydraulic retention time higher than 1 day is suggested to ensure good system efficiency.

Fuentes, M.; Scenna, N. J.; Aguirre, P. A.; Mussati, M. C.

2007-12-01

133

Anaerobic digestion of carbohydrate and protein-based wastewaters in fluidized bed bioreactors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work is focused on evaluating the anaerobic digestion of complex substrates (proteins and carbohydrates) in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs). In a previous paper, an AFBR model was adjusted using only the experimental data obtained during the acclimatization stage (glucose and acetate-based feeding) of two mesophilic bioreactors. Here, the sensitivity of that model to represent the digestion processes of proteins such as gelatin and albumin, and sucrose as a carbohydrate, is analyzed. Some kinetic expressions and parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis processes need to be modified to represent the real behavior of bioreactors. Under the analyzed operating conditions, a hydraulic retention time higher than 1 day is suggested to ensure good system efficiency.

M. Fuentes; N. J. Scenna; P. A. Aguirre; M. C. Mussati

2007-01-01

134

The Effect of Crude Protein Level in Diets on Laying Performance, Nutrient Digestibility of Yellow Quails  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four diets with different crude protein levels 17.75%, 19.95%, 21.85%, 24.08% were used to feed 192 seven-week-old yellow quails in this experiment. During 50-day-old to 95-day-old, laying rate, feed intake and egg weight were recorded to analysis the effect of different levels of dietary protein on the performance of yellow quails. All fences were collected and analysis the effect of different levels of dietary protein on feed digestibility and Crude Protein utilizablity of yellow quails. The results showed that there was no significant difference of the average egg weight in four diets. The laying rate of diet 2 is significant high than others (p0.05) but significant of EE and total organism and the utilizability of crude protein was significant difference (p<0.05) in four diets. Result showed that dietary crude protein had significant effect not only on laying performance but also on nutrient digestibility and 20% dietary crude protein was optimum for yellow-feather quails.

Y.X. Li; Y.Q. Wang; Y.Z. Pang; J.X. Li; X.H. Xie; T.J. Guo; W.Q. Li

2011-01-01

135

Physical modification of palm kernel meal improved available carbohydrate, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility in economic freshwater fishes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Unavailable carbohydrates are important limiting factor for utilization of palm kernel meal (PKM) as aquafeed ingredients. The aim of this study was to improve available carbohydrate from PKM. Different physical modifications including water soaking, microwave irradiation, gamma irradiation and electron beam, were investigated on chemical compositions, physicochemical properties and in vitro carbohydrate digestibility using digestive enzymes from economic freshwater fishes. RESULTS: Modified methods had significant (P < 0.05) effects on chemical compositions by decreasing crude fiber and increasing available carbohydrates. Improvements in physicochemical properties of PKM, such as water solubility, microstructure, relative crystallinity, and lignocellulosic spectra, were mainly achieved by soaking and microwave-irradiation. Carbohydrate digestibility varied among the physical modifications tested (P < 0.05) and three fish species had different abilities to digest the PKMs. Soaking was the proper modification for increasing carbohydrate digestion specifically in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), whereas either soaking or microwave irradiation was for striped snakehead (Channa striata). For walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), carbohydrate digestibility was similar among raw, soaked and microwave-irradiated PKMs. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that soaking and microwave irradiation could be practical methods for altering appropriate physicochemical properties of PKM as well as increasing carbohydrate digestibility in select economic freshwater fishes.

Thongprajukaew K; Yawang P; Dudae L; Bilanglod H; Dumrongrittamatt T; Tantikitti C; Kovitvadhi U

2013-07-01

136

Amino acid composition, available lysine content and in vitro protein digestibility of selected tropical crop seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the search for alternative sources of food to alleviate hunger continues, this study was undertaken to determine nitrogen and amino acid content, chemical score, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of 8 lesser known, wild tropical seeds, gathered in Nigeria. Results were contrasted with a tropical soybean variety (Glycine max, TGX 1660-15F). The investigated seeds were Millettia thonningii, Gliricidia sepium, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Albizia zygia, Daneillia ogea and Afzella bella from the family of Leguminosae, Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) and Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae). The crude protein content, based on nitrogen determination, was found to be lower in the wild seeds compared to soybean, which was partly due to the relatively high content of non-protein nitrogen. With reference to amino acid requirement and digestibility in most seed samples, lysine, followed by sulphur amino acids and threonine, were the limiting amino acids. It was concluded, that these less familiar wild seed plants may be used as valuable food or feed complements. However, further investigation is necessary to elucidate potential toxic and antinutritional factors.

Petzke KJ; Ezeagu IE; Proll J; Akinsoyinu AO; Metges CC

1997-01-01

137

Amino acid composition, available lysine content and in vitro protein digestibility of selected tropical crop seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the search for alternative sources of food to alleviate hunger continues, this study was undertaken to determine nitrogen and amino acid content, chemical score, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of 8 lesser known, wild tropical seeds, gathered in Nigeria. Results were contrasted with a tropical soybean variety (Glycine max, TGX 1660-15F). The investigated seeds were Millettia thonningii, Gliricidia sepium, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Albizia zygia, Daneillia ogea and Afzella bella from the family of Leguminosae, Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) and Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae). The crude protein content, based on nitrogen determination, was found to be lower in the wild seeds compared to soybean, which was partly due to the relatively high content of non-protein nitrogen. With reference to amino acid requirement and digestibility in most seed samples, lysine, followed by sulphur amino acids and threonine, were the limiting amino acids. It was concluded, that these less familiar wild seed plants may be used as valuable food or feed complements. However, further investigation is necessary to elucidate potential toxic and antinutritional factors. PMID:9201749

Petzke, K J; Ezeagu, I E; Proll, J; Akinsoyinu, A O; Metges, C C

1997-01-01

138

Ruminally undegradable protein content and digestibility for forages using the mobile bag in situ technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate RUP content and digestibility for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, upland native range, and warm-season grasses. Samples were collected from esophageally cannulated cows or ruminally cannulated steers. Forages were ruminally incubated in in situ bags for durations of time based on 75% of total mean retention time, which was based on IVDMD and rate of passage calculations. One-half of the bags were duodenally incubated and excreted in the feces, and NDIN was analyzed on all bags for RUP calculations. Crude protein was numerically greater early in the growing cycle for grasses compared with later as grasses matured (P ? 0.32). The RUP was 13.3%, 13.3%, and 19.7% of CP for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. These values tended to be lower early in the growth cycle and increased (linear P ? 0.13) as forages matured for warm-season grasses and subirrigated meadows. Because both CP and RUP content change throughout the growing season, expressing RUP as a percentage of DM gives more consistent averages compared with RUP as a percentage of CP. Coefficient of variation values for RUP as a percentage of DM averaged 0.21 over all 4 experiments compared with 0.26 for RUP as a percentage of CP. Average RUP as a percentage of DM was 2.03%, 1.53%, and 1.94% for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. Total tract indigestible protein (TTIDP) linearly increased with maturity for subirrigated meadow samples (P < 0.01). A quadratic response (P ? 0.06) for TTIDP was observed in smooth bromegrass and warm-season grass samples. Digestibility of RUP varied considerably, ranging from 25% to 60%. Subirrigated meadow, native range, and smooth bromegrass samples tended to have linear decreases (P ? 0.11) in RUP digestibility throughout the growing season. The amount of digested RUP was fairly consistent across experiments and averages for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range were 0.92%, 0.64%, and 0.49% of DM, respectively. Warm-season grasses in Exp. 2 had greater RUP (4.31% of DM) and amount of RUP digested (2.26% of DM), possibly because of cattle selecting for leadplant that contains more CP than the grasses. Forages can vary in CP, RUP, TTIDP, and RUP digestibility depending on the forage type, year, and time within year, but RUP digestibility is likely less than what previous sources have reported.

Buckner CD; Klopfenstein TJ; Rolfe KM; Griffin WA; Lamothe MJ; Watson AK; MacDonald JC; Schacht WH; Schroeder P

2013-06-01

139

Effects of dietary crude protein levels on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of Thai indigenous male goats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of Thai indigenous male goats fed different levels of crude protein (CP) in total mixed rations (TMR). Twenty goats, average body weight of 15.84±2.35 kg were used. The four dietary treatments were randomly allocated into 5 blocks of the animals stratified on their initial body weight. Dietary treatments contained 8, 10, 12 and 14% CP (% of DM) with a concentrate: roughage ratio of 85: 15. The feeding trial lasted for 120 days. At the end of feeding trial, digestion trial was conducted by total collection method for a 7-day period. Increasing levels of CP contents (8, 10, 12 and 14%) significantly lead to increasing amount of crude protein intake (CPI), from 47.00 to 84.81 g/d and digestible crude protein intake, from 2.89 to 6.28 g/BW0.75/d (p<0.05). Increasing CP levels in TMR resulted in linearly increased goat’s final body weight (23.10, 23.42, 24.10 and 27.42 kg, respectively), weight gain(6.84, 7.37, 7.60 and 11.06 kg, respectively) and average daily gain (ADG) (56.97, 61.42, 63.30 and 92.13 g/d, respectively)(p<0.01). Crude protein digestibility (62.05, 67.39, 71.23 and 74.89%, respectively) was increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of CP levels in TMR. The results of the regression of CPI (g/BW0.75/d) on ADG (g/BW0.75/d) showed thatthe goats needed 3.57 g/BW0.75/d to maintain their body weight. The estimation of CP requirement for goat BW gain (g/g gain) was 0.49. It can be concluded that increasing levels of CP content in TMR not only improved CPI but also enhanced CP digestibility and promoted growth performance of Thai indigenous goats. According to Thai indigenous goat response linearly to levels of CP in TMR so that more research study is needed to evaluate whether feeding greater levels CP wouldimprove the growth performance.

Jeerasak Chobtang; Kabuan Intharak; Auraiwan Isuwan

2010-01-01

140

Effect of time of cutting and maceration on nutrient flow, microbial protein synthesis, and digestibility in dual-flow continuous culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maceration and evening-cutting are 2 forage management techniques that have independently improved forage quality and nutrient utilization in ruminants, but have not been evaluated in combination. Using a dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system, this preliminary study was designed to evaluate the individual and combined effects of time of cutting and maceration on in vitro ruminal digestion, nutrient flows, and microbial protein synthesis. Forages were harvested as hay from a timothy (Phleum pratense L.)-birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) stand in the morning (AM) or evening (PM). Half of each morning- and evening-cut treatment was macerated (AM-M, PM-M). The chemical composition (DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF), including nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), was determined for each of the 4 treatments (AM, AM-M, PM, PM-M). Forages were ground to 2 mm and allocated to separate fermenters at 60 g of DM/d in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Fermenters were operated over four 10-d periods with the first 7 d for adaptation followed by 3 d of sampling. Evening-cutting enhanced the apparent digestibility of NDF (P = 0.02) and ADF (P = 0.006), with a tendency (P < 0.10) for improved true DM digestibility and microbial protein synthesis. Molar proportions of individual VFA were not affected (P > 0.10) by time of cutting, though evening-cutting increased (P = 0.02) total concentration of VFA. Maceration had no effect (P > 0.10) on true nutrient digestibility or microbial protein synthesis. An interaction of time of cutting and maceration (P < 0.05) was observed whereby maceration decreased true DM and OM digestibilities in evening-cut treatments, but had no effect in morning-cut treatments. Similarly, maceration reduced total N supply (P < 0.001) and molar proportions of acetate (P = 0.04) and increased molar proportions of propionate (P = 0.01) in evening-cut treatments with no effect on morning-cut treatments. These results indicate that independent use of evening cutting increased fiber digestibility and total VFA concentration, and independent use of maceration shifted molar proportions of VFA toward glucogenic fermentation. The combined use of these management techniques afforded no improvement for in vitro digestibility or metabolism when applied to morning-cut hay, and decreased nutrient digestibility when applied to evening-cut hay. Due to inherent limitations of in vitro systems, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Further in vivo studies are needed to support our conclusions.

Kokko C; Soder KJ; Brito AF; Hovey RC; Berthiaume R

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Citric acid improves growth performance and phosphorus digestibility in Beluga (Huso huso) fed diets where soybean meal partly replaced fish meal  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 2×3 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of dietary fish meal with soybean meal and citric acid (CA) supplementation on growth, food utilization, muscle composition and nutrient digestibility of Beluga, Huso huso. Three isonitrogenic and isoenergetic diets, as SBM1 (soybean meal protein (SBP):fishmeal protein (FP)=1:3), SBM2 (SBP:FP=2:3) and SBM3 (SBP:FP=1:1) containing two levels of CA (0 and 30gkg?1) were fed to triplicate groups of fish for 8 weeks. The results revealed that adding CA increased (P<0.05) the weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) and decreased (P<0.05) food conversion rate (FCR) whereas partial substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal decreased (P<0.05) growth performance. Partial replacement of fishmeal with SBM (P=0.021) as well as CA supplementation (P=0.019) and their interaction (P<0.001) affected hepatosomatic index (HSI). No differences (P>0.05) were observed for viscerosomatic index (VSI) among treatments (P>0.05). No differences (P>0.05) were detected in moisture, protein of muscle sample among treatments, but lipid content was reduced (P<0.05) while ash content increased (P=0.035) by CA. Soybean meal decreased (P<0.05) nutrient digestibility, whereas CA improved apparent protein and phosphorus (P) digestibility (P=0.011 and P<0.001 respectively). No interaction (P<0.05) between levels of SBM and CA was found on these parameters. Results of the present study indicate that Beluga has a limited ability to utilize SBM as a protein source in practical diets whereas CA can improve growth and nutrient utilization in Beluga.

Khajepour F; Hosseini SA

2012-01-01

142

Ruminally undegradable protein content and digestibility for forages using the mobile bag in situ technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate RUP content and digestibility for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, upland native range, and warm-season grasses. Samples were collected from esophageally cannulated cows or ruminally cannulated steers. Forages were ruminally incubated in in situ bags for durations of time based on 75% of total mean retention time, which was based on IVDMD and rate of passage calculations. One-half of the bags were duodenally incubated and excreted in the feces, and NDIN was analyzed on all bags for RUP calculations. Crude protein was numerically greater early in the growing cycle for grasses compared with later as grasses matured (P ? 0.32). The RUP was 13.3%, 13.3%, and 19.7% of CP for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. These values tended to be lower early in the growth cycle and increased (linear P ? 0.13) as forages matured for warm-season grasses and subirrigated meadows. Because both CP and RUP content change throughout the growing season, expressing RUP as a percentage of DM gives more consistent averages compared with RUP as a percentage of CP. Coefficient of variation values for RUP as a percentage of DM averaged 0.21 over all 4 experiments compared with 0.26 for RUP as a percentage of CP. Average RUP as a percentage of DM was 2.03%, 1.53%, and 1.94% for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. Total tract indigestible protein (TTIDP) linearly increased with maturity for subirrigated meadow samples (P RUP varied considerably, ranging from 25% to 60%. Subirrigated meadow, native range, and smooth bromegrass samples tended to have linear decreases (P ? 0.11) in RUP digestibility throughout the growing season. The amount of digested RUP was fairly consistent across experiments and averages for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range were 0.92%, 0.64%, and 0.49% of DM, respectively. Warm-season grasses in Exp. 2 had greater RUP (4.31% of DM) and amount of RUP digested (2.26% of DM), possibly because of cattle selecting for leadplant that contains more CP than the grasses. Forages can vary in CP, RUP, TTIDP, and RUP digestibility depending on the forage type, year, and time within year, but RUP digestibility is likely less than what previous sources have reported. PMID:23478833

Buckner, C D; Klopfenstein, T J; Rolfe, K M; Griffin, W A; Lamothe, M J; Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Schacht, W H; Schroeder, P

2013-03-11

143

Amino acid and energy digestibility of protein sources for growing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA and DE, and to estimate ME and NE of rice protein concentrate, salmon protein hydrolysate, whey protein concentrate, and spray-dried plasma protein. In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (initially 29.5 +/- 2.5 kg of BW) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and fed each of 5 cornstarch-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d. During a given week, there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment, resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk. The 4 test diets (fed from d 0 to 28) were formulated to contain 12.5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate, salmon protein hydrolysate, whey protein concentrate, or spray-dried plasma protein. The fifth (N-free) diet was fed from d 28 to 35 to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA, which were used to calculate SID. Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed, and AID and SID values were calculated. Apparent ileal digestible Lys, Met, and Thr values were 80.0 +/- 3.3, 65.6 +/- 3.1, and 68.4 +/- 4.5% for rice protein concentrate; 85.6 +/- 4.8, 85.5 +/- 4.3, and 69.8 +/- 8.5% for salmon protein hydrolysate; 93.3 +/- 1.4, 89.9 +/- 5.8, and 83.6 +/- 5.3% for whey protein concentrate; and 92.8 +/- 0.9, 85.7 +/- 2.1, 86.5 +/- 2.3% for spray-dried plasma protein, respectively. In Exp. 2, 6 barrows (initially 37.6 +/- 1.7 kg of BW) were fed each of 5 corn-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d. During a given week, there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment, resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk. The 4 diets containing the test ingredients were formulated to contain approximately 20% CP by using their analyzed nutrient compositions. The fifth (corn control) diet containing 8.2% CP was also used to calculate energy values by difference. Feces were collected to determine DE. The ME and NE contents were estimated using published regression equations. The DE, ME, and NE (as-fed) values were 4,724 +/- 461, 4,226 +/- 437, and 3,235 +/- 380 kcal/kg for rice protein concentrate; 4,173 +/- 1,052, 3,523 +/- 1,002, and 2,623 +/- 872 kcal/kg for salmon protein hydrolysate; 4,949 +/- 1,002, 4,352 +/- 955, and 3,344 +/- 831 kcal/kg for whey protein concentrate; and 4,546 +/- 673, 3,979 +/- 652, and 3,020 +/- 567 kcal/kg for spray-dried plasma protein, respectively. The excellent AA digestibility and relatively high DE, ME, and NE values indicate that these protein sources warrant further investigation as ingredients for growing pig diets. PMID:16699096

Gottlob, R O; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Hastad, C W; Knabe, D A

2006-06-01

144

Influence of different levels of concentrate and ruminally undegraded protein on digestive variables in beef heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment evaluated the effect of 2 levels of diet concentrate (20 and 40% of DM) and 2 levels of ruminally undegraded protein (RUP: 25 and 40% of CP) on nutrient intake, total and partial apparent nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and ruminal and physiological variables. Eight Nellore heifers (233 +/- 14 kg of BW) fitted with ruminal, abomasal, and ileal cannulas were used. The animals were held in individual sheltered pens of approximately 15 m(2) and fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h for ad libitum intake. Heifers were allocated in two 4 x 4 Latin square designs, containing 8 heifers, 4 experimental periods, and 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. All statistical analyses were performed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) were used to estimate digesta fluxes and fecal excretion. Purine derivative (PD) excretion and abomasal purine bases were used to estimate the microbial N (MN) synthesis. No significant interaction (P > 0.10) between dietary levels of RUP and concentrate was observed. There was no effect of treatment (P = 0.24) on DMI. Both markers led to the same estimates of fecal, abomasal, and ileal DM fluxes, and digestibilities of DM and individual nutrients. Ruminal pH was affected by sampling time (P RUP, whereas a quadratic effect (P RUP. The higher level of dietary concentrate led to greater MN yield regardless of the level of RUP. The MN yield and the efficiency of microbial yield estimated from urinary PD excretion produced greater (P RUP and concentrate were observed for ruminal and digestive parameters. Neither RUP nor concentrate level affected DMI. Titanium dioxide showed to be similar to Cr(2)O(3) as an external marker to measure digestibility and nutrient fluxes in cattle. PMID:18997071

Pina, D S; Valadares Filho, S C; Tedeschi, L O; Barbosa, A M; Valadares, R F D

2008-11-07

145

Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2 gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation.

Ghanimeh S; El-Fadel M; Saikaly P

2013-03-01

146

Improved biogas production from whole stillage by co-digestion with cattle manure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whole stillage, as sole substrate or co-digested with cattle manure, was evaluated as substrate for biogas production in five mesophilic laboratory-scale biogas reactors, operating semi-continuously for 640 days. The process performance was monitored by chemical parameters and by quantitative analysis of the methanogenic and acetogenic population. With whole stillage as sole substrate the process showed clear signs of instability after 120 days of operation. However, co-digestion with manure clearly improved biogas productivity and process stability and indicated increased methane yield compared with theoretical values. The methane yield at an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.8 g VS/(L×day) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 45 days with a substrate mixture 85% whole stillage and 15% manure (based on volatile solids [VS]) was 0.31 N L CH(4)/gVS. Surprisingly, the abundance of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations remained relatively stable throughout the whole operation and was not influenced by process performance.

Westerholm M; Hansson M; Schnürer A

2012-06-01

147

Improved biogas production from whole stillage by co-digestion with cattle manure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole stillage, as sole substrate or co-digested with cattle manure, was evaluated as substrate for biogas production in five mesophilic laboratory-scale biogas reactors, operating semi-continuously for 640 days. The process performance was monitored by chemical parameters and by quantitative analysis of the methanogenic and acetogenic population. With whole stillage as sole substrate the process showed clear signs of instability after 120 days of operation. However, co-digestion with manure clearly improved biogas productivity and process stability and indicated increased methane yield compared with theoretical values. The methane yield at an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.8 g VS/(L×day) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 45 days with a substrate mixture 85% whole stillage and 15% manure (based on volatile solids [VS]) was 0.31 N L CH(4)/gVS. Surprisingly, the abundance of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations remained relatively stable throughout the whole operation and was not influenced by process performance. PMID:22464422

Westerholm, Maria; Hansson, Mikael; Schnürer, Anna

2012-03-09

148

Simple and efficient digestion of a monoclonal antibody in serum using pellet digestion: comparison with traditional digestion methods in LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fast, efficient and reproducible digestion is critical for LC-MS/MS quantitative bioanalysis of therapeutic proteins. Traditional digestion methods require a pretreatment, such as sequential denaturation, reduction and alkylation, which are very time-consuming. RESULTS: Pellet digestion, which does not require the serial pretreatments of denaturation, reduction and alkylation, was evaluated using a test monoclonal antibody (mAb) with 16 disulfide bonds, and compared with traditional digestion methods. For the test mAb, pellet digestion provided much better digestion efficiency compared with direct digestion, and provided similar or better digestion efficiency compared with digestion-with-pretreatment. In particular, for two peptides with very low digestion efficiency under direct digestion, pellet digestion improved the digestion yield by approximately 30-fold, which was similar to or better than what digestion-with-pretreatment offered. This method was then successfully applied to an LC-MS/MS assay of the test mAb in monkey serum. CONCLUSION: Pellet digestion will be a very useful technique for high-throughput and reliable LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of mAbs and other large proteins, including ones with multiple disulfide bonds.

Yuan L; Arnold ME; Aubry AF; Ji QC

2012-12-01

149

Comparative efficiency of microbial enzyme preparations versus pancreatin for in vitro alimentary protein digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Utilisation of microbial enzymes may represent an alternative strategy to the use of conventional pancreatin obtained from pig pancreas for the treatment of severe pancreatic insufficiency. In this study, we focused on the capacity of two microbial preparations for their capacity to digest alimentary proteins (caseins and soya proteins) in comparison with pancreatin. These microbial enzymatic preparations were found to be able to generate small, medium-size and larger polypeptides from caseins and soya proteins but were inactivated at pH 3.0. As determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis, microbial enzymes generated very different peptides from caseins when compared with peptides generated through pancreatin action. These microbial preparations were characterised by relatively low trypsin- and low carboxypeptidase-like activities but high chymotrypsin-like activities and strong capacity for cleavage of caseins at the methionine sites. Although the efficiency of these microbial preparations to increase the rate of absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds in severe pancreatic insufficiency remains to be tested in vivo, our in vitro data indicate proteolytic capacities of such preparations for alimentary protein digestion.

Andriamihaja M; Guillot A; Svendsen A; Hagedorn J; Rakotondratohanina S; Tomé D; Blachier F

2013-02-01

150

The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheepâ??s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep�s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep�s, 6 � 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78%) were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN) 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P0.05) among crude protein and TDN treatments. Different energy and protein ration treatments caused different DM and OM intake but were not cause different in DM and OM digestibility. Based on the research results, a study on the effects of different ration�s energy and protein ratio towards N efficiency should be conducted in order to increase cattle productivity.

Sri Mawati; S. Soedarsono; S. Sunarso; Agung Purnomoadi

2013-01-01

151

Ecoengineering high rate anaerobic digestion systems: analysis of improved syntrophic biomethanation catalysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High performance biomethanation granules with operational specific COD removal rates of 7 kg COD removed/kg SS/d were obtained by ecoengineering conventional, granular, UASB digester sludge using a designed protocol of starvation and selection on a defined volatile fatty acid (VFA) based mineral medium. Addition of low (0.15 mM) sulfate levels to this VFA medium increased the maximum shock-load COD removal rate of the ecoengineered biomethanation granules to 9 kg COD/kg SS/d with specific acetate, propionate, and butyrate removal rates of 111, 28, and 64 mol/g SS/d. Addition of moderate (26 mM) calcium levels inhibited growth and altered the structure of granules. The general cellular, growth, stability, and performance features of these ecoengineered granules are described and discussed in relation to their use as improved biomethanation starter cultures.

Thiele JH; Wu WM; Jain MK; Zeikus JG

1990-04-01

152

Ecoengineering high rate anaerobic digestion systems: analysis of improved syntrophic biomethanation catalysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

High performance biomethanation granules with operational specific COD removal rates of 7 kg COD removed/kg SS/d were obtained by ecoengineering conventional, granular, UASB digester sludge using a designed protocol of starvation and selection on a defined volatile fatty acid (VFA) based mineral medium. Addition of low (0.15 mM) sulfate levels to this VFA medium increased the maximum shock-load COD removal rate of the ecoengineered biomethanation granules to 9 kg COD/kg SS/d with specific acetate, propionate, and butyrate removal rates of 111, 28, and 64 mol/g SS/d. Addition of moderate (26 mM) calcium levels inhibited growth and altered the structure of granules. The general cellular, growth, stability, and performance features of these ecoengineered granules are described and discussed in relation to their use as improved biomethanation starter cultures. PMID:18588244

Thiele, J H; Wu, W M; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G

1990-04-25

153

Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A stable and robust trypsin-based biocatalytic system was developed and demonstrated for proteomic applications. The system utilizes polymer nanofibers coated with trypsin aggregates for immobilized protease digestions. After covalently attaching an initial layer of trypsin to the polymer nanofibers, highly concentrated trypsin molecules are crosslinked to the layered trypsin by way of a glutaraldehyde treatment. This new process produced a 300-fold increase in trypsin activity compared with a conventional method for covalent trypsin immobilization and proved to be robust in that it still maintained a high level of activity after a year of repeated recycling. This highly stable form of immobilized trypsin was also resistant to autolysis, enabling repeated digestions of bovine serum albumin over 40 days and successful peptide identification by LC-MS/MS. Finally, the immobilized trypsin was resistant to proteolysis when exposed to other enzymes (i.e. chymotrypsin), which makes it suitable for use in “real-world” proteomic applications. Overall, the biocatalytic nanofibers with enzyme aggregate coatings proved to be an effective approach for repeated and automated protein digestion in proteomic analyses.

Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Lee, Sang-mok; Ahn, Hye-kyung; Nair, Sujith; Kim, Seong H.; Kim, Beom S.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Camp, David G.; Grate, Jay W.; Smith, Richard D.; Koo, Yoon-mo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

2009-04-01

154

Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (p<0.001). For carbohydrate fraction, the highest C fraction was also observed in GP (2.67%) and in relation to the other citrus pulps (p<0.001). Ruminal CP disappearance was highest in OP (71.89%) (p<0.001). The level of post-ruminal CP disappearance, measured by MTSP, was highest for BP (34.94%) (p<0.001). The highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was found for TP (80.44%) followed by that estimated for BP (78.38%) (p<0.001). The estimated metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) varied from 9.77 for LP to 12.91 for BP. Tangerine pulp had the highest true rumen digestibility (TRD) (p<0.001). According to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products.

Lashkari S; Taghizadeh A

2013-08-01

155

Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (p<0.001). For carbohydrate fraction, the highest C fraction was also observed in GP (2.67%) and in relation to the other citrus pulps (p<0.001). Ruminal CP disappearance was highest in OP (71.89%) (p<0.001). The level of post-ruminal CP disappearance, measured by MTSP, was highest for BP (34.94%) (p<0.001). The highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was found for TP (80.44%) followed by that estimated for BP (78.38%) (p<0.001). The estimated metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) varied from 9.77 for LP to 12.91 for BP. Tangerine pulp had the highest true rumen digestibility (TRD) (p<0.001). According to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products. PMID:22703299

Lashkari, S; Taghizadeh, A

2012-06-15

156

Superiority of alkali-extracted rice protein in bioavailability to starch degraded rice protein comes from digestion of prolamin in growing rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rice protein prepared from alkaline extraction (AE-RP) has high digestibility compared to that obtained from starch degradation (SD-RP) in in vitro digestion experiments, and alterations in the protein body (PB) structures were observed in AE-RP in the previous study. The improvement in the digestibility of AE-RP is probably a result of the structural change of PB. The present study was carried out to elucidate the superiority of AE-RP compared to SD-RP in bioavailability in growing rats. There were no major differences between AE-RP and SD-RP in polypeptide compositions according to SDS-PAGE and their amino acid compositions. The equivalent body weight gain and similar growth curves in both AE-RP and casein (control) groups were obtained during the feeding period of 28 d, and their values were significantly higher compared to the SD-RP group (p<0.05). The protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the SD-RP (1.73) group was significantly lower than those of the AE-RP (1.87) and casein (1.84) groups (p<0.05). The plasma lysine concentrations at the last stage of the feeding period in the AE-RP and SD-RP groups were approximate levels and were appreciably lower, compared to that of the casein group (p<0.001). Portal plasma amino acid concentrations were determined after single administration (4 g/kg) of two rice proteins in non-anaesthetized rats. All the amino acid concentrations in the 2 groups reached a maximum level at 30 min or 1 h and decreased to the pre-administration levels 6 h after the start of administration. The total amounts of three amino acids, leucine, valine and arginine, which appeared in the portal blood during the 6 h period after the start of administration of AE-RP, were higher than those of SD-RP (p<0.05). Furthermore, 13 kDa prolamin was detected with Western-blot analysis only in the feces of rats fed SD-RP. Consequently, these results indicate that the bioavailability of rice protein containing prolamin was improved by alkaline extraction.

Kumagai T; Watanabe R; Saito M; Watanabe T; Kubota M; Kadowaki M

2009-04-01

157

The influence of protein-flavonoid interactions on protein digestibility in vitro and the antioxidant quality of breads enriched with onion skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different types of breads enriched with onion skin were studied. The objectives were twofold: to show and examine protein-phenolic interactions and to discuss results concerning phenolic content, antioxidant activity and protein digestibility in the light of in vitro bioaccessibility. Phenolic contents and antiradical abilities were linked with the level of onion skin supplement however, the amounts determined were significantly lower than expected. Fortification influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 78.4% for control breads to 55% for breads with a 4% supplement). Electrophoretic and chromatographic studies showed the presence of indigestible protein-flavonoid complexes - with molecular weights about 25 kDa and 14.5 kDa; however, the reduction of free amino group levels and the increase in chromatogram areas suggest that flavonoids also bind to other bread proteins. The interaction of phenolics with proteins affects antioxidant efficacy and protein digestibility; thus, they have multiple effects on food quality and pro-health properties. PMID:23768379

Swieca, Micha?; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Czy?, Jaros?aw

2013-03-21

158

The influence of protein-flavonoid interactions on protein digestibility in vitro and the antioxidant quality of breads enriched with onion skin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different types of breads enriched with onion skin were studied. The objectives were twofold: to show and examine protein-phenolic interactions and to discuss results concerning phenolic content, antioxidant activity and protein digestibility in the light of in vitro bioaccessibility. Phenolic contents and antiradical abilities were linked with the level of onion skin supplement however, the amounts determined were significantly lower than expected. Fortification influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 78.4% for control breads to 55% for breads with a 4% supplement). Electrophoretic and chromatographic studies showed the presence of indigestible protein-flavonoid complexes - with molecular weights about 25 kDa and 14.5 kDa; however, the reduction of free amino group levels and the increase in chromatogram areas suggest that flavonoids also bind to other bread proteins. The interaction of phenolics with proteins affects antioxidant efficacy and protein digestibility; thus, they have multiple effects on food quality and pro-health properties.

Swieca M; Gawlik-Dziki U; Dziki D; Baraniak B; Czy? J

2013-11-01

159

In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula) e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja) em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações contendo 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada (more) ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P Abstract in english This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate) and plant (soybean meal) ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and (more) was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (P

Fernández Gimenez, Analía Verónica; Díaz, Ana Cristina; Velurtas, Susana María; Fenucci, Jorge Lino

2009-12-01

160

Chemical composition, digestibility and protein quality of 12 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) cultivars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) cultivars grown in Spain were analysed and tested in experiments with rats. The dehulled seeds contained an average of 32.2 MJ kg(-1) dry matter (DM) gross energy, 653 g kg(-1) DM fat, 60 g kg(-1) DM total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and 6 g kg(-1) DM Klason lignin. The sunflower seed hulls contained 20.2 MJ kg(-1) DM gross energy, 53g kg(-1) DM fat, 562 g kg(-1) DM total NSPs and 239 g kg(-1) DM Klason lignin. The sunflower samples were dehulled and partially defatted (to approximately 17% fat) and included in diets for rats. The dehulled, partially defatted samples contained on average 74.6 g nitrogen kg(-1) DM and 1.409 mg g(-1) phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid + caffeic acid + derivative 1 + derivative 2) varying from 0.677 to 2.847 mg g(-1). Groups of five growing rats were fed diets (9.38% crude protein) containing one of the sunflower cultivars as the only source of protein. Apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities were determined by using an indigestible marker (Cr(2)O(3)) and faecal digestibility based on total faecal collections. Apparent ileal, caecal and faecal digestibilities of organic matter were 81.2-91.5% (P = 0.05), 95.8-97.1% (P = 0.005) and 94.7-95.3% (P = 0.94) respectively. The apparent faecal digestibilities of DM, energy and protein (N x 6.25) were 93.2-93.8%, 93.5-94.3% and 81.6-84.3% respectively with no differences among cultivars. Biological value (BV) ranged between 63.8 and 73.2% (P = 0.0001) and net protein utilisation (NPU) between 59.9 and 69.5% (P = 0.0001). BV and NPU were positively correlated with lysine and threonine contents, but no correlation with the analysed phenolic compounds was detected.

Canibe N; Pedrosa MM; Robredo LM; Knudsen KEB

1999-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Adenovirus coded deoxyribonucleic acid binding protein. Isolation, physical properties, and effects of proteolytic digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure has been developed for the purification of adenovirus type 2 DNA-binding protein (DBP) from nuclei of infected HeLa cells. This procedure routinely yields 0.2 to 0.6 mg of protein per 10/sup 9/ cells that is greater than 98% DBP. Binding protein so prepared does not precipitate at low ionic strength, interacts with both single- and double-stranded DNA, and complements Ad5 ts125 function in an in vitro DNA synthesizing system dependent upon exogenous DBP. An examination of the hydrodynamic properties of Ad2 DBP indicated that DBP undergoes a concentration-dependent self-association process. In high ionic strength solutions (1.0 M NaCl), self-association is a limited process observed at DBP concentrations above about 0.1 mg/mL; the product is a unit having a molecular weight of a trimer. At low ionic strengths (0.1 M NaCl), self-association is more extensive and is observed at lower protein concentrations. Our findings suggest that units other than the 72,000 molecular weight monomer may interact with DNA in the cell. Purified Ad2 DBP was digested with several proteolytic enzymes to determine if smaller DNA-binding products could be generated that resemble the 48,000 molecular weight species observed in extracts of infected cells. Digestion of purified DBP with Pronase or chymotrypsin produced relatively stable fragments with molecular weights of 45,000 and 53,000, respectively. Trypsin cleavage produced a 51,000 molecular weight fragment that upon continued incubation was further digested to produce a 35,000-M/sub r/ peptide. The production of the 35,000-M/sub r/ peptide by trypsin cleavage of the 51,000-M/sub r/ fragment was not observed if a sufficient amount of DNA was added to the DBP solution prior to trypsin digestion. This result indicates that bound DNA protects a trypsin-sensitive site(s) in the 51,000-M/sub r/ fragment, and it suggests that the 51,000-M/sub r/ fragment contains at least a part of the binding site for single-stranded DNA.

Schechter, N.M.; Davies, W.; Anderson, C.W.

1980-01-01

162

Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin ?- and ?-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously.

2008-07-07

163

Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin {beta}- and {alpha}-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously.

Stigter, E.C.A. [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.c.a.stigter@uu.nl; Jong, G.J. de; Bennekom, W.P. van [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2008-07-07

164

Nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations differing in protein level, main protein source and non-forage fibre source.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two in vivo digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet's crude protein (CP) level, N degradability, and non-forage fibre source (NFFS) on nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations. In each trial, rams were fed four isocaloric and isofibrous rations, differing in main protein and/or NFFS source. At the first trial, mean CP/metabolizable energy (ME) ratio of the diets was 17 g/MJ ME and at the second trial, 13 g/MJ ME. At both trials, the first ration contained cotton seed cake (CSC) and wheat bran (WB), the second CSC and corn gluten feed (CGF), the third corn gluten meal (CGM) and WB and the fourth CGM and CGF. Data of both trials were analysed in common as 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Low N degradability (CGM) had positive effect on CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility of the ration. Those results suggest that an increase in rumen undegradable protein (RUP) content does not negatively affect nutrient digestibility of sheep rations. Corn gluten feed significantly elevated crude fibre (CF) digestibility, in comparison with WB. Rations having high CP/ME ratio had higher digestibility of CP in comparison with those having low CP/ME ratio; the opposite was true for ether extract, CF, NDF and ADF digestibilities. CP level x N degradability interaction negatively affected energy value of the rations that had high CP level and high N degradability. Former suggest that when CP content is high then N degradability should be low otherwise ration's ME is negatively affected. CP digestibility and coefficient q of the rations containing WB and having high N degradability (N degradability x NFFS interaction) were the lowest suggesting that the combination of CSC and WB negatively affected CP digestibility and energy value of the ration. This could be explained by a reduced microbial CP synthesis, or lower RUP digestibility or both. PMID:18184379

Milis, Ch; Liamadis, D

2008-02-01

165

Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with mulched switchgrass for improvement of the methane yield.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The owners of farm-scale anaerobic digesters are relying on off-farm wastes or energy crops as a co-digestion feedstock with animal manure in order to increase their production of methane and thus revenues. Switchgrass represents an interesting feedstock for Canadian digesters owners as it is a high-yielding low-maintenance perennial crop, well adapted to northern climate. Methane potential assays in batch tests showed methane production of 19.4 ± 3.6, 28.3 ± 1.7, 37.3 ± 7.1 and 45.7 ± 0.8 L kg(-1), for raw manure, blended manure, manure and mulched switchgrass, manure and pretreated switchgrass, respectively. Two 6-L lab-scale anaerobic digesters were operated for 130 days in order to assess the benefit of co-digesting switchgrass with bovine manure (digester #2), at a 20% wet mass fraction, compared with a manure-only operation (digester #1) The digesters were operated at an hydraulic retention time of 37 ± 6 days and at loads of 2.4 ± 0.6 and 2.6 ± 0.6 kg total volatile solids (TVS) L(-1) day(-1) for digesters #1 (D1) and #2 (D2), respectively. The TVS degradation reached 25 and 39%, which resulted in a methane production of 1.18 ± 0.18 and 2.19 ± 0.31 L day(-1) for D1 and D2, respectively. The addition of 20% on a wet mass ratio of switchgrass to a manure digester increased its methane production by 86%. The co-digestion of switchgrass in a 500 m(3) manure digester could yield up to 10.2 GJ day(-1) of purified methane or 1.1 MWh day(-1) of electricity.

Frigon JC; Roy C; Guiot SR

2012-03-01

166

Phosphorous and protein digestibility in phytase-supplemented rations in tilapia, Oreochromis sp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractThe present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of phytase supplement on the digestibility of phosphorous and protein in corn gluten (CG), hard wheat flour (HWF) and whole soya (WS) in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) diets. The chromium III oxide indirect labelling method was used for calculating the coefficients; fish faeces were collected using the modified Guelph system. Juvenile red tilapia weighing 100 g were selected. The rations consisted of reference diet (RD) (69.5%), 0.5% inert marker (chromium III oxide), the ingredient to be evaluated (30%) and phytase in 0.0, 500 and 1,000 units of phytase (PU)/kg diet for each of them. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for the proteins obtained were 94.7%,84.5% and 90.3% without including phytase, 95.1%, 84.1% and 89.3% with 500 PU and 97.6%, 90.8% and 92.9% with 1,000 PU for CG, HWF and WS respectively. Regarding phosphorous ADC, the results for CG varied from 30.7% to 69.8%,46.6% to 51.1% for HWF and 44.0% to 54.7% for WS. WS and HWF protein and phosphorous ADC were not significantly affected by added phytase level (p>0.05); however, protein and phosphorous ADC tended to be greater when 1,000 PU were added. CG protein ADC had significant differences between the diet including 0 PU of phytase and that containing 1,000 PU (p<0.05); there were phosphorous ADC differences between 500 PU and 1,000 PU.

Wilson E. Rueda-Uribe; Wálter Vásquez-Torres; Mariana C. Gutiérrez-Espinosa

2012-01-01

167

Effect of Processing Treatments Followed by Fermentation on Protein Content and Digestibility of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) Cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two pearl millet cultivars namely Gadarif and Gazeera were used in this study. The effect of soaking, debranning, dry heating and germination of the grains before and after fermentation on protein content and digestibility was investigated. The effect of processing treatments on the protein cont...

Amro B. Hassan; Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed; Nuha M. Osman; Mohamed M. Eltayeb; Gammaa A. Osman; Elfadil E. Babiker

168

Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is the major peptidase responsible for digesting polyglutamine sequences released by proteasomes during protein degradation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long stretches of glutamine (Q) residues are found in many cellular proteins. Expansion of these polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences is the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Huntington's disease). Eukaryotic proteasomes have been found to digest polyQ sequences in proteins ver...

Bhutani, N; Venkatraman, P; Goldberg, A L

169

Strategic Processing of Text: Improving Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities. ERIC/OSEP Digest #599.  

Science.gov (United States)

This digest, based on a book of the same title, summarizes relevant research and promising practices in the strategic processing of text, both narrative and expository, by students with learning disabilities. For narrative text, it cites studies on improving students' ability to use narrative structure and the effectiveness of teaching students to…

Williams, Joanna P.

170

Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions.

Mantovani RA; Cavallieri ÂL; Netto FM; Cunha RL

2013-09-01

171

Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed.

Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Tan, Chia-Chun; Ku, Jung-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Cho; Su, Sung-Chieh; Lu, Chung-An; Huang, Li-Fen

2013-01-01

172

Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed.

Kuo YC; Tan CC; Ku JT; Hsu WC; Su SC; Lu CA; Huang LF

2013-01-01

173

Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed.

Yu-Chieh Kuo; Chia-Chun Tan; Jung-Ting Ku; Wei-Cho Hsu; Sung-Chieh Su; Chung-An Lu; Li-Fen Huang

2013-01-01

174

Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

2012-01-01

175

Comparative study on chemical pretreatment methods for improving enzymatic digestibility of crofton weed stem.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng), a potential pathway was proposed by using it as a feedstock for production of fermentable sugars. Three chemical pretreatment methods were used for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem. Mild H2SO4 pretreatment could obtain a relatively high yield of sugars in the pretreatment (32.89%, based on initial holocellulose), however, it led to only a slight enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. NaOH pretreatment could obtain a higher enzymatic conversion ratio of cellulose compared with H2SO4 pretreatment. Peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment seemed to be the most effective for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem in the three chemical pretreatment methods under the same conditions. The conversion ratio of cellulose in the sample pretreated by PAA under the "optimal" condition was increased to 50% by cellulase loading of 80 FPU/g cellulose for 72 h incubation. A number of empirical quadratic models were successfully developed according to the experimental data to predict the yield of sugar and degree of delignification. PMID:17709243

Zhao, Xuebing; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Dehua

2007-08-20

176

Comparative study on chemical pretreatment methods for improving enzymatic digestibility of crofton weed stem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng), a potential pathway was proposed by using it as a feedstock for production of fermentable sugars. Three chemical pretreatment methods were used for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem. Mild H2SO4 pretreatment could obtain a relatively high yield of sugars in the pretreatment (32.89%, based on initial holocellulose), however, it led to only a slight enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. NaOH pretreatment could obtain a higher enzymatic conversion ratio of cellulose compared with H2SO4 pretreatment. Peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment seemed to be the most effective for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem in the three chemical pretreatment methods under the same conditions. The conversion ratio of cellulose in the sample pretreated by PAA under the "optimal" condition was increased to 50% by cellulase loading of 80 FPU/g cellulose for 72 h incubation. A number of empirical quadratic models were successfully developed according to the experimental data to predict the yield of sugar and degree of delignification.

Zhao X; Zhang L; Liu D

2008-06-01

177

Effects of gamma irradiation on ruminal protein degradation and intestinal digestibility of cottonseed meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The dry matter of cottonseed meal (CSM) was determined by freeze-drying 1 g sample in duplicate. Based on this value, sufficient water was added to increase the moisture content of 2.5 kg of CSM to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was carried out in a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 deg. C. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.37 Gy/s. Three polyethylene packages of samples were irradiated in a gamma cell for total doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy in the presence of air. Prior to sealing in plastic bags, samples were allowed to air equilibrate for 2 h, then refrigerated (4 deg. C). Duplicate nylon bags of untreated or irradiated CSM were suspended in the rumen of four non-lactating Holstein cows for up to 48 h, and in situ resulting data were fitted to non-linear degradation model to calculate degradation parameters of crude protein. Proteins of untreated and treated CSM bag residues were fractionated by gel electrophoresis. Intestinal digestibility of crude protein was measured using the mobile nylon bag technique. As shown, gamma irradiation of CSM resulted in decreasing of crude protein disappearance in the rumen. This is beneficial effect for high producing ruminants, which need high amount of escaped protein from rumen to intestine. Fitting disappearance data to non-linear degradation model showed that the wash out fraction and degradation rate of crude protein decreased linearly (P

2009-01-01

178

Should digestion assays be used to estimate persistence of potential allergens in tests for safety of novel food proteins?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Food allergies affect an estimated 3 to 4% of adults and up to 8% of children in developed western countries. Results from in vitro simulated gastric digestion studies with purified proteins are routinely used to assess the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. The digestion of purified proteins in simulated gastric fluid typically progresses in an exponential fashion allowing persistence to be quantified using pseudo-first-order rate constants or half lives. However, the persistence of purified proteins in simulated gastric fluid is a poor predictor of the allergenic status of food proteins, potentially due to food matrix effects that can be significant in vivo. The evaluation of the persistence of novel proteins in whole, prepared food exposed to simulated gastric fluid may provide a more correlative result, but such assays should be thoroughly validated to demonstrate a predictive capacity before they are accepted to predict the allergenic potential of novel food proteins.

Schnell Santiago; Herman Rod A

2009-01-01

179

A comparative study on proteins released from metaphase chromosomes after digestion with restriction endonucleases and deoxyribonuclease I.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extensive digestion of Chinese hamster metaphase chromosomes with Alu I, Hae III and Hinf I released up to 40 distinct chromosomal proteins. Some of the proteins released by Hae III or Hinf I were enriched in the protein moiety liberated by Alu I but several proteins released by Hae III were not released by Alu I digestion. The amount of chromosomal protein released by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) was comparable to that liberated by the three restriction enzymes so far tested, while only four abundant protein species were detectable in the protein moiety released by DNase I. Two of them with molecular weights of 58,000 and 50,000 were also released by the three restriction enzymes and are similar in size to those found previously in the core-like structure of histone-depleted chromosomes.

Takahashi K; Kaneko I; Fushimi K

1987-04-01

180

Ponceau 4R: A Novel Staining Agent for Resolve Food Proteins on PAGE and Its Impact on Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ponceaue 4R interaction with protein, Nisin and BSA was concentration dependent and may be used for protein assay. As the dye binds with almost all the proteins and current methodology may be used for the estimation of proteins in various food systems. During the course of present work staining with ponceau 4R of resolved proteins on PAGE (poly acryl amide gel electrophorosis) was comparable with Coommassie Brilliant Blue R250. The Ponceaue 4R was highly sensitive, rapid and produced sharp red bands on the gel on 0.2% concentration. The effects of pH, concentration of proteins and dye were also investigated in various conditions which would help food processors to use a calculated amount of dye. The impact of tryptic digestibility on Ponceaue 4R -Protein Complexes (PPC) has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect on the digestion of PPC.

Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed; Syed Asad Sayeed; Seema Ashraf; Lubna Mobin; Syeda Siara Imtiaz; Adnan Shakeel; Tabinda Zarren; Rashida Ali; Zafar Saieed Saify

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Histochemical studies on enzyme-digested protein plugs of patients with chronic pancreatitis: a preliminary report.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulfated acidic mucopolysaccharides have been found to be significant components of "protein plugs" in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The precise identification of the mucopolysaccharides and their distribution within the protein plugs may clarify the pathogenesis of the plugs. Pure pancreatic juice from five patients with chronic pancreatitis was obtained by endoscopic retrograde catheterization of the papilla of Vater. Enzymes for digestion of the plugs included hyaluronidase of the bovine testes and streptomyces hyalurolyticus, chondroitinase ABC and AC, and sialidase (neuraminidase). Our study indicated that: I) Sialic acid is distributed throughout the plugs and may be a major component, followed by a lesser amount of chondroitin sulfate B. 2) Chondroitin sulfate A, C, D and E and chondroitin may be minor components. 3) Hyaluronic acid is negligible in the plugs.

Harada,Hideo; Hayashi,Toshiaki; Miki,Hiroshi; Miyake,Hirofumi; Ochi,Kozi; Kimura,Ikuro; Takeda,Masahiko; Tanaka,Juntaro; Tanaka,Toshio

1983-01-01

182

Adjustment of digestion enzyme composition improves islet isolation outcome from marginal grade human donor pancreata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite improvements and recent attempts to standardize techniques to isolate islets from human donor pancreata, there still exists the problem of consistently recovering sufficient quantities of high quality islets. Moreover, achieving consistent recoveries of high numbers of good quality islets becomes even more challenging from marginal grade human donor pancreata with prolonged cold ischemic times. In this study, we investigate whether addition of Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, in combination with Pulmozyme, a recombinant human DNase I, to Liberase HI improves islet isolation outcome from marginal grade human donor pancreata (cold ischemic time > 12 h). Twenty-three marginal grade human donor pancreata were randomly digested using four different enzyme preparations: (1) Liberase alone (n = 6), (2) +Pefabloc (n = 7), (3) +Pefabloc/Pulmozyme (n = 5), and (4) +Pulmozyme (n = 5). Overall, there were no significant differences in donor age, body mass index (BMI), pancreas weight, and cold ischemic time. After purification, significantly higher islet yields (3,281 +/- 590 IE/g) were obtained with the Pefabloc/Pulmozyme group as compared to the Liberase alone (1,615 +/- 305 IE/g) or the Pefabloc group (1,255 +/- 261 IE/g) (P < 0.05). Significant improvements in islet viability were also noted from the Pefabloc/Pulmozyme group (87.3 +/- 4.4%) as opposed to islets isolated from the Pefabloc group (75.2 +/- 3.9%) (P < 0.05). No significant differences in insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation among the four groups were observed, which indicates that the addition of Pefabloc and/or Pulmozyme does not have a detrimental effect on the functionality of islets. It is concluded that the addition of Pefabloc in combination with Pulmozyme to the Liberse HI significantly improves islet isolation outcome and potentially impacts the viability and morphology of the islets obtained from marginal grade human donor pancreata with prolonged cold ischemic times.

Wang W; Upshaw L; Zhang G; Strong DM; Reems JA

2007-01-01

183

Adjustment of digestion enzyme composition improves islet isolation outcome from marginal grade human donor pancreata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite improvements and recent attempts to standardize techniques to isolate islets from human donor pancreata, there still exists the problem of consistently recovering sufficient quantities of high quality islets. Moreover, achieving consistent recoveries of high numbers of good quality islets becomes even more challenging from marginal grade human donor pancreata with prolonged cold ischemic times. In this study, we investigate whether addition of Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, in combination with Pulmozyme, a recombinant human DNase I, to Liberase HI improves islet isolation outcome from marginal grade human donor pancreata (cold ischemic time > 12 h). Twenty-three marginal grade human donor pancreata were randomly digested using four different enzyme preparations: (1) Liberase alone (n = 6), (2) +Pefabloc (n = 7), (3) +Pefabloc/Pulmozyme (n = 5), and (4) +Pulmozyme (n = 5). Overall, there were no significant differences in donor age, body mass index (BMI), pancreas weight, and cold ischemic time. After purification, significantly higher islet yields (3,281 +/- 590 IE/g) were obtained with the Pefabloc/Pulmozyme group as compared to the Liberase alone (1,615 +/- 305 IE/g) or the Pefabloc group (1,255 +/- 261 IE/g) (P < 0.05). Significant improvements in islet viability were also noted from the Pefabloc/Pulmozyme group (87.3 +/- 4.4%) as opposed to islets isolated from the Pefabloc group (75.2 +/- 3.9%) (P < 0.05). No significant differences in insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation among the four groups were observed, which indicates that the addition of Pefabloc and/or Pulmozyme does not have a detrimental effect on the functionality of islets. It is concluded that the addition of Pefabloc in combination with Pulmozyme to the Liberse HI significantly improves islet isolation outcome and potentially impacts the viability and morphology of the islets obtained from marginal grade human donor pancreata with prolonged cold ischemic times. PMID:17094018

Wang, Wenjing; Upshaw, Lisa; Zhang, Guangming; Strong, D Michael; Reems, Jo-Anna

2006-11-09

184

Improved method for protein complex detection using bottleneck proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Detecting protein complexes is one of essential and fundamental tasks in understanding various biological functions or processes. Therefore accurate identification of protein complexes is indispensable. METHODS: For more accurate detection of protein complexes, we propose an algorithm which detects dense protein sub-networks of which proteins share closely located bottleneck proteins. The proposed algorithm is capable of finding protein complexes which allow overlapping with each other. RESULTS: We applied our algorithm to several PPI (Protein-Protein Interaction) networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens, and validated our results using public databases of protein complexes. The prediction accuracy was even more improved over our previous work which used also bottleneck information of the PPI network, but showed limitation when predicting small-sized protein complex detection. CONCLUSIONS: Our algorithm resulted in overlapping protein complexes with significantly improved F1 score over existing algorithms. This result comes from high recall due to effective network search, as well as high precision due to proper use of bottleneck information during the network search.

Ahn J; Lee DH; Yoon Y; Yeu Y; Park S

2013-01-01

185

Effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of two indigenous varieties of Indian tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens Var. utilis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and starch fractions and in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of white and black varieties of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis was studied. Cooking or autoclaving of both raw seeds and presoaked seeds in different solutions (water, tamarind extract, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of total phenolics, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities, and L-dopa compared to soaking or dry heating techniques. The germination processes (24 and 48 h) were also effective in the reduction of various antinutrients, although this reduction appeared to be more pronounced in a prolonged period of germination (72 h). Water soaking followed by dehusking was found to be ineffective in the reduction of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities in both varieties. All of the treatments were effective in significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the resistant starch content in the presently investigated samples. Cooking as well as autoclaving brought about a more significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the digestibility of protein and starch compared to germination and dry heat treatment. Moreover, among the different processing techniques, soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution followed by cooking (29.6-34.8%) or autoclaving (33.0-37.2%) seemed to be the best method for improving starch digestibility.

Siddhuraju P; Becker K

2001-06-01

186

Effects of Mangosteen Peel (Garcinia mangostana) Supplementation on Rumen Ecology, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Digestibility and Voluntary Feed Intake in Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four, rumen fistulated cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experiment was to study effects of crude saponins and condensed tannins in mangosteen peel on rumen microorganisms and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in cattle. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = Control (without Mangosteen peel supplementation, MSP); T2 = 50 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T3 = 100 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T4 = 150 g DM of MSP/hd/d with urea-treated rice straw (UTS) fed ad libitum. Roughage dry matter intakes in terms of kg/d and %BW were slightly higher in 100 gDM/hd/d supplemented cattle. Apparent digestibilities (%) of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were similar among treatments. The values of ruminal temperature, pH, NH 3-N and BUN were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation. However, MSP supplementation increased bacterial population, and was highest at 150 gDM /hd /d supplementation. The protozoal population was significantly decreased while fungal zoospore populations were not changed, and were highest at the 100 gDM/hd/d supplementation group. However, lower values of TVFAs and C2/C3, and higher proportions of C3 were found at 100 gDM/hd/d of MSP supplemented than in the control group. In addition, microbial nitrogen supply, efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis and P /E ratio tended to be higher in MSP supplemented groups and were highest at 100 gDM /hd /d MSP supplementation. These results suggest that MSP supplementation at 100-150 gDM/hd/d could be used as a dietary source to manipulate rumen ecology thus improving rumen fermentation and potential productivity in cattle.

A. Ngamsaeng; M. Wanapat; S. Khampa

2006-01-01

187

Uric Acid Determination in Poultry Excreta and its Application to Correcting Protein Digestibility Values: Spectrophotometry with Ultraviolet Detection vs HPLIC  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of uric acid contents of poultry excreta was examined for use in the estimation of apparent protein digestibility. Uric acid was determined either by high-performance liquid chromatography or by spectrophotometric method. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was used with absorbance measured at 285 nm. The method used a reverse-phase system with a C18-bonded column (250*4.6 mm, i.d.). The mobile phase was distilled deionized water. Injection volume was 20 l with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Correlation (r) between the two methods for uric acid content of excreta from birds fed diets with different methionine levels was 0.976. The uric acid values were then used to determine apparent protein digestibility. The apparent protein digestibility values, when corrected for uric acid nitrogen, were comparable with those calculated from amino acid analysis.

F. Khajehali; H. Nassiri Moghaddam; R. R. Marquardt; M. Danesh Mesgaran

2002-01-01

188

Comparisons between true digestibility of total nitrogen and limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins fed to rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Values (%) for true digestibility (TD) of protein and individual amino acids in some vegetable proteins were determined by the rat balance (fecal) method. Diets containing 8% crude protein (N X 6.25) from soaked and autoclaved samples of Trapper and Century field peas, lentil, pinto bean, seafarer bean, black bean or fababean and autoclaved samples of soybean, peanut, sunflower, rolled oat, rice + soybean and corn + pea were tested in two rat balance studies. In the case of blends, each protein source provided 50% of total protein. The beans, peas and lentil proteins were limiting in sulphur amino acids, tryptophan and threonine, whereas sunflower and rolled oat were most limiting in lysine. In beans, peas and lentil, the TD values of methionine (51-82), cystine (46-85), tryptophan (47-90) and threonine (62-84) were considerably lower than the TD values of total nitrogen (72-90). Similarly, in sunflower and rolled oat, the TD values of lysine (81-83) were lower than the TD values of total nitrogen (90-91). These data suggested that crude protein digestibility may not be a good predictor of bioavailability of limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins. Amino acid scores of the vegetable proteins were 62-96%. The corrections for true digestibility of protein and individual amino acids lowered the scores by 6-15 and 11-47 percentage units, respectively.

Sarwar G; Peace RW

1986-07-01

189

Comparisons between true digestibility of total nitrogen and limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins fed to rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Values (%) for true digestibility (TD) of protein and individual amino acids in some vegetable proteins were determined by the rat balance (fecal) method. Diets containing 8% crude protein (N X 6.25) from soaked and autoclaved samples of Trapper and Century field peas, lentil, pinto bean, seafarer bean, black bean or fababean and autoclaved samples of soybean, peanut, sunflower, rolled oat, rice + soybean and corn + pea were tested in two rat balance studies. In the case of blends, each protein source provided 50% of total protein. The beans, peas and lentil proteins were limiting in sulphur amino acids, tryptophan and threonine, whereas sunflower and rolled oat were most limiting in lysine. In beans, peas and lentil, the TD values of methionine (51-82), cystine (46-85), tryptophan (47-90) and threonine (62-84) were considerably lower than the TD values of total nitrogen (72-90). Similarly, in sunflower and rolled oat, the TD values of lysine (81-83) were lower than the TD values of total nitrogen (90-91). These data suggested that crude protein digestibility may not be a good predictor of bioavailability of limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins. Amino acid scores of the vegetable proteins were 62-96%. The corrections for true digestibility of protein and individual amino acids lowered the scores by 6-15 and 11-47 percentage units, respectively. PMID:3746456

Sarwar, G; Peace, R W

1986-07-01

190

In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate) and plant (soybean meal) ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (PO objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula) e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja) em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações contendo 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P<0,05). A farinha de peixe apresentou a maior digestibilidade (92%), enquanto valores intermediários de digestibilidade (83%) foram encontrados para a farinha de carne e ossos. A ração contendo farinha de soja e concentrado de proteína de lula resultou em menor digestibilidade (63%). Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de digestibilidade in vitro para as rações testadas. Estes resultados indicam a limitação inerente dos ensaios enzimáticos in vitro, os quais poderiam ser complementados com estudos in vivo.

Analía Verónica Fernández Gimenez; Ana Cristina Díaz; Susana María Velurtas; Jorge Lino Fenucci

2009-01-01

191

Minced beef is more rapidly digested and absorbed than beef steak, resulting in greater postprandial protein retention in older men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Older individuals generally experience a reduced food-chewing efficiency. As a consequence, food texture may represent an important factor that modulates dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent postprandial protein balance. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of meat texture on the dietary protein digestion rate, amino acid availability, and subsequent postprandial protein balance in vivo in older men. DESIGN: Ten older men (mean ± SEM age: 74 ± 2 y) were randomly assigned to a crossover experiment that involved 2 treatments in which they consumed 135 g of specifically produced intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled beef, which was provided as beef steak or minced beef. Meat consumption was combined with continuous intravenous L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-(2)H2]tyrosine infusion to assess beef protein digestion and absorption kinetics as well as whole-body protein balance and skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates. RESULTS: Meat protein-derived phenylalanine appeared more rapidly in the circulation after minced beef than after beef steak consumption (P < 0.05). Also, its availability in the circulation during the 6-h postprandial period was greater after minced beef than after beef steak consumption (61 ± 3% compared with 49 ± 3%, respectively; P < 0.01). The whole-body protein balance was more positive after minced beef than after beef steak consumption (29 ± 2 compared with 19 ± 3 ?mol phenylalanine/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates did not differ between treatments when assessed over a 6-h postprandial period. CONCLUSIONS: Minced beef is more rapidly digested and absorbed than beef steak, which results in increased amino acid availability and greater postprandial protein retention. However, this does not result in greater postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01145131.

Pennings B; Groen BB; van Dijk JW; de Lange A; Kiskini A; Kuklinski M; Senden JM; van Loon LJ

2013-07-01

192

Phosphopeptide enrichment by covalent chromatography after derivatization of protein digests immobilized on reversed-phase supports.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed ?-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithiopropionate. Gentle oxidation of cysteine residues, followed by acetylation of ?- and ?-amino groups before these reactions, ensured selectivity of reversible capture of the modified phosphopeptides by covalent chromatography on activated thiol sepharose. The use of C18 reversed-phase supports as a miniaturized reaction bed facilitated optimization of the individual modification steps for throughput and completeness of derivatization. Reagents were exchanged directly on the supports, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps and thus, allowing the immobilized analyte to be carried through the multistep reaction scheme with minimal sample loss. The use of this sample-preparation method for phosphopeptide enrichment was demonstrated with low-level amounts of in-gel-digested protein. As applied to tryptic digests of ?-S1- and ?-casein, the method enabled the enrichment and detection of the phosphorylated peptides contained in the mixture, including the tetraphosphorylated species of ?-casein, which has escaped chemical procedures reported previously. The isolates proved highly suitable for mapping the sites of phosphorylation by collisionally induced dissociation. ?-Elimination, with consecutive Michael addition, expanded the use of the solid-phase-based enrichment strategy to phosphothreonyl peptides and to phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides derived from proline-directed kinase substrates and to their O-sulfono- and O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)-modified counterparts. Solid-phase enzymatic dephosphorylation proved to be a viable tool to condition O-GlcNAcylated peptide in mixtures with phosphopeptides for selective affinity purification. Acetylation, as an integral step of the sample-preparation method, precluded reduction in recovery of the thiolation substrate caused by intrapeptide lysine-dehydroalanine cross-link formation. The solid-phase analytical platform provides robustness and simplicity of operation using equipment readily available in most biological laboratories and is expected to accommodate additional chemistries to expand the scope of solid-phase serial derivatization for protein structural characterization.

Nika H; Nieves E; Hawke DH; Angeletti RH

2013-09-01

193

Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds  

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Full Text Available A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV) com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéicos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR), na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta). A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável.The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were evaluated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pepsin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29) had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

Antonio Ferriani Branco; Sabrina Marcantonio Coneglian; Fábio José Maia; Kátia Cylene Guimarães

2006-01-01

194

Improving the Mixing Performances of Rice Straw Anaerobic Digestion for Higher Biogas Production by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a lignocellulose-based substrate for anaerobic digestion, rice straw is characterized by low density, high water absorbability, and poor fluidity. Its mixing performances in digestion are completely different from traditional substrates such as animal manures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to investigate mixing performances and determine suitable stirring parameters for efficient biogas production from rice straw. The results from CFD simulation were applied in the anaerobic digestion tests to further investigate their reliability. The results indicated that the mixing performances could be improved by triple impellers with pitched blade, and complete mixing was easily achieved at the stirring rate of 80 rpm, as compared to 20-60 rpm. However, mixing could not be significantly improved when the stirring rate was further increased from 80 to 160 rpm. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The determined mixing parameters could achieve the highest biogas yield of 370 mL (g TS)(-1) (729 mL (g TSdigested)(-1)) and 431 mL (g TS)(-1) (632 mL (g TSdigested)(-1)) with the shortest technical digestion time (T 80) of 46 days. The results obtained in this work could provide useful guides for the design and operation of biogas plants using rice straw as substrates. PMID:23873639

Shen, Fei; Tian, Libin; Yuan, Hairong; Pang, Yunzhi; Chen, Shulin; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Liu, Yanping; Li, Xiujin

2013-07-20

195

Improving the Mixing Performances of Rice Straw Anaerobic Digestion for Higher Biogas Production by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a lignocellulose-based substrate for anaerobic digestion, rice straw is characterized by low density, high water absorbability, and poor fluidity. Its mixing performances in digestion are completely different from traditional substrates such as animal manures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to investigate mixing performances and determine suitable stirring parameters for efficient biogas production from rice straw. The results from CFD simulation were applied in the anaerobic digestion tests to further investigate their reliability. The results indicated that the mixing performances could be improved by triple impellers with pitched blade, and complete mixing was easily achieved at the stirring rate of 80 rpm, as compared to 20-60 rpm. However, mixing could not be significantly improved when the stirring rate was further increased from 80 to 160 rpm. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The determined mixing parameters could achieve the highest biogas yield of 370 mL (g TS)(-1) (729 mL (g TSdigested)(-1)) and 431 mL (g TS)(-1) (632 mL (g TSdigested)(-1)) with the shortest technical digestion time (T 80) of 46 days. The results obtained in this work could provide useful guides for the design and operation of biogas plants using rice straw as substrates.

Shen F; Tian L; Yuan H; Pang Y; Chen S; Zou D; Zhu B; Liu Y; Li X

2013-10-01

196

Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant differences among treatments were registered in the above ground maize biomass. Molecular analysis conducted on microbial soil communities suggested that the application of digested residues to soil contributes to substantial modifications of both bacterial and fungal community structure. Soil organic C and total N increased in soils treated with digested residues addition, with no significant differences between the two doses of digestate. Cation exchange capacity did not show significant differences among treatments, remaining stable during the maize vegetative cycle. Differently, some variations occurred in the exchangeable cation pool. In particular, K content increased under digestate treatments, while Na and Mg contents increased with time irrespective of the fertilization treatment. No significant variations were observed in soil microelement levels, except for an increase in Zn content at the highest digestate dose. Moreover, digested residue addition had a positive impact on aggregates stability. From the first results, the absence of negative effects in plant productivity and soil fertility after residues application, at both doses, is a promising indication for the potential use of anaerobic digestate as substitute of mineral fertilizers.

Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

2013-04-01

197

Effect of soy residue (okara) on in vitro protein digestibility and oil release in high-calorie emulsion stabilized by heated mixed proteins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the influences of a dietary fiber source – namely okara powder (OKP) and pectinase-hydrolyzed okara powder (PHO) – on the physicochemical characteristics of a high-calorie emulsion (1 kcal/mL) stabilized by sodium caseinate and soy protein isolate at a ratio of 0.7:0.3, with caloric distribution from carbohydrate:protein:lipid of 55:15:30. The viscosity and microstructure of the emulsion containing 0.08% (w/v) crude fiber and its digesta were monitored during in vitro protein digestion by pepsin and trypsin, along with the interfacial protein content in the cream phase, the soluble protein content in the serum phase, and oil release during the course of digestion. Use of OKP induced the formation of a thick paste under acidic conditions, and oil could be released after 15 min digestion by pepsin. On the other hand, the presence of PHO increased the viscosity of the emulsion under acidic pH to less extent than did the OKP and delayed the release of oil for up to 105 min during peptic digestion. The oil could be released from PHO-containing digesta after tryptic digestion, both in the absence and presence of bile acid. The study indicated that the rate of nutrient release can be controlled by the presence and type of dietary fiber source.

Nakornpanom NantaratNa; Hongsprabhas Pranithi; Hongsprabhas Parichat

2010-01-01

198

Antinutritional Evaluation and In vitro Protein Digestibility of Some Nigerian Cucurbits  

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Full Text Available The antinutritional factors of three Nigerian cucurbits namely, ‘snake tomato’ Trichosanthes cucumerina, ‘pumpkins’ Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata were analyzed. The antinutritional factors evaluated were tannin ranging from 0.23 to 0.49%; oxalate, 0.01 to 0.23%; cyanogenic glycosides, 0.43 to 0.44% and trypsin inhibitor, 6.32 to 11.58 TI unit/g. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in some of the antinutritional components of the cucurbits evaluated. The samples exhibited high protein digestibility but low levels of antinutrients which showed that the cucurbits studied cannot be toxic for human consumption postulating that the samples are of high nutritional quality so large scale production should be encouraged.

Okoye Ngozi Franca

2012-01-01

199

Semi-solid microbial fermentation of rice and wheat straw for protein enrichment and increased digestibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rice and wheat straws were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of sulfuric acid at different temperatures and different water: substrate ratios. The maximum amount of sugars of about 30-34% was released when heated at 121 degrees C with 0.5 N H2SO4 at a water: substrate ratio of 3:1. The pH of the hydrolyzed straws was raised to 5.0-5.5 with 5 N NH4OH. Such ammoniated straws were inoculated with the cultures of Penicillium funiculosum Thom. and Candida utilis (Henneb.) Lodder and Kreger-van Rij, and fermentation was carried out on semi-solid substrate for 5-7 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted in 37-180% increase in crude protein, 23-100% increase in crude fat and 20-30% increase in the digestibility. (Refs. 29).

Balasubramanya, R.H.; Bhatawdekar, S.P.

1980-12-01

200

In vitro study on digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate: evaluation of impact on bioactive properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, a simulated gastrointestinal digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate prepared by alcalase (AH) was studied to evaluate the impact of the main gastrointestinal proteases on its antiradical and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The in vitro digestion was performed in a model system under optimized reaction conditions, first by pepsin and then with ?-chymotrypsin and trypsin, simultaneously. The treatment with the gastrointestinal proteases led to a significant increase of the degree of hydrolysis, up to 55.95 ± 3.1% in the final digest. After the digestion, the 2,2-azinobis3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation activity of AH was increased from 7.59 ± 0.1 to 10.25 ± 0.3 mM trolox equivalent antioxidant coefficient/mg (p < 0.05), while the ACE inhibitory activity was not affected, being 74.29 ± 1.25% (IC50 = 0.404 ± 0.014 mg/ml) (p>0.05) in the final digest. These results showed an advantage of AH to increase the antiradical and resist ACE inhibitory activity during digestion by main gastrointestinal proteases, appearing as promising bioactive food ingredient.

Vaštag Z; Popovi? L; Popovi? S; Peri?in-Star?evi? I; Krimer-Maleševi? V

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Chemical composition, antinutritional constituents, precaecal crude protein and amino acid digestibility in three unconventional tropical legumes in broilers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three tropical crop seeds, namely Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Mucuna pruriens and Centrosema pubescens, were assessed for their contents of chemical constituents, antinutritional factors (ANFs), crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. Their meals were incorporated into broiler diets in place of maize starch at two levels (150 and 300 g kg?¹). Four hundred and twenty 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to seven experimental diets on a weight basis and used to determine CP and AA digestibility in the diets and seeds, and performance of the birds. The CP contents were 237, 278 and 252 g kg?¹ DM in E. cyclocarpum, M. pruriens and C. pubescens, respectively. Compared to the basal diet, the digestibility of CP and AAs in the diets and seeds was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at higher level of inclusion of E. cyclocarpum and M. pruriens but increased at higher C. pubescens inclusion. Digestibility of arginine, threonine and lysine in the C. pubescens meal diets was similar to that in the basal diet. Digestibility values of CP and AAs were least in E. cyclocarpum. Aspartic acid was the least and glutamic acid the most digested AA in all the seeds. Among the essential AAs, threonine was the least digested AA, while leucine (in E. cyclocarpum and M. pruriens) and lysine (in C. pubescens) had the highest digestibility with values of 65, 73 and 72%, respectively. Feed intake, body weights and weight gain in the birds were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the E. cyclocarpum and M. pruriens diets but increased in the C. pubescens diets compared to the basal diet. Results of the study suggest that, based on the CP content and AA profiles in the seeds, they have potential for poultry feeding. The presence of ANFs, especially in E. cyclocarpum and M. pruriens, however, could be a major limitation in their use in poultry feeding.

Iyayi EA; Kluth H; Rodehutscord M

2006-10-01

202

Low temperature anaerobic digestion of mixtures of llama, cow and sheep manure for improved methane production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biogas production in anaerobic digestion in farm-scale units is typically performed under mesophilic conditions when used for producing domestic fuel and stabilizing animal waste for the use of digested manure as a fertilizer. Previous studies on the digestion of llama and cow manure have shown the feasibility of producing biogas under altiplano conditions (low pressure and low temperature) and of llama manure as a promising feedstock. The present study concerns the utilization of various mixtures of feedstocks from the Bolivian altiplano under low temperature conditions (18-25 C). Laboratory scale experiments were performed on the digestion of mixtures of llama, sheep and cow manure in a semi-continuous process using ten 2-L stainless steel digesters to determine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the feed composition. The semi-continuous operation of mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure proved to be a reliable system, which could be operated with good stability. The results suggest that in a system digesting a mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure at low temperature (18-25 C) the maximum OLR value is between 4 and 6 kg VS m{sup 3} d{sup -1}. The methane yields obtained in the mixture experiments were in the range 0.07-0.14 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS added, with a methane concentration in the gas of between 47 and 55%. (author)

Alvarez, Rene [IIDEPROQ, UMSA, Plaza del Obelisco 1175, La Paz (Bolivia)]|[Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Liden, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2009-03-15

203

Breeding for improved protein in barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerted efforts to improve the nutritional value of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through increased levels of grain protein and/or lysine have been ongoing since the mid-1970s at Washington State University. Progress has been made in transferring the high protein and high lysine traits of 'Hiproly' and the high lysine trait of Risoe 7 into agronomically acceptable genotypes. Compromises were made in lysine, protein and yield levels in crossbred selections relative to the mutants used and the best local cultivars 'Advance' and 'Steptoe'. The highest stable protein, lysine in the protein and lysine in the grain levels in advanced breeding lines were about 14, 4 and 0.6%, respectively. The highest stable yields of these lines were about 98 and 92% of Advance, the best malting cultivar, and Steptoe, the best feed cultivar, respectively. No cultivar has been released, but improved protein parents and several promising lines have emerged. Measurable improvement in the nutritional value based on chick bioassays was demonstrated in several advanced lines compared with normal cultivars. Cautious optimism prevails as breeding efforts continue with a broadened germplasm base. (author)

1984-01-01

204

EnzymePredictor: a tool for predicting and visualizing enzymatic cleavages of digested proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mass spectrometric analysis of peptides contained in enzymatically digested hydrolysates of proteins is increasingly being used to characterize potentially bioactive or otherwise interesting hydrolysates. However, when preparations containing mixtures of enzymes are used, from either biological or experimental sources, it is unclear which of these enzymes have been most important in hydrolyzing the sample. We have developed a tool to rapidly evaluate the evidence for which enzymes are most likely to have cleaved the sample. EnzymePredictor, a web-based software, has been developed to (i) identify the protein sources of fragments found in the hydrolysates and map them back on it, (ii) identify enzymes that could yield such cleavages, and (iii) generate a colored visualization of the hydrolysate, the source proteins, the fragments, and the predicted enzymes. It tabulates the enzymes ranked according to their cleavage counts. The provision of odds ratio and standard error in the table permits users to evaluate how distinctively particular enzymes may be favored over other enzymes as the most likely cleavers of the samples. Finally, the method displays the cleavage not only according to peptides, but also according to proteins, permitting evaluation of whether the cleavage pattern is general across all proteins, or specific to a subset. We illustrate the application of this method using milk hydrolysates, and show how it can rapidly identify the enzymes or enzyme combinations used in generating the peptides. The approach developed here will accelerate the identification of enzymes most likely to have been used in hydrolyzing a set of mass spectrometrically identified peptides derived from proteins. This has utility not only in understanding the results of mass spectrometry experiments, but also in choosing enzymes likely to yield similar cleavage patterns. EnzymePredictor can be found at http://bioware.ucd.ie/?enzpred/Enzpred.php.

Vijayakumar V; Guerrero AN; Davey N; Lebrilla CB; Shields DC; Khaldi N

2012-12-01

205

Optimization of separation and digestion conditions in immune complexome analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immune complexome analysis is a method for identifying and profiling of antigens in circulating immune complexes (CICs); it involves separation of immune complexes from serum, direct tryptic digestion of these complexes, and protein analysis via nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS). In order to improve this method, we initially investigated the effects of two factors - the gradient elution program and nano-LC column type (C18-packed, C8-packed or packed spray capillary column) - on the numbers of peptides and proteins identified. Longer gradient elution times resulted higher identification capability throughout the range of 25 to 400 min. Moreover, the packed spray capillary column supported identification of more peptides and proteins than did any other column. Additionally, microwave-assisted digestion was compared with conventional digestion, which involved incubation overnight at 37 °C. Microwave-assisted digestion produced more partially digested peptides than did conventional digestion. However, the percentages of miscleaved peptides in all the identified peptides in microwave-assisted digestion of immune complexes (a protein mixture) were lower than those in the physical stimulation-assisted digestion of a model protein. Microwave-assisted digestion is slightly inferior to or as effective as conventional digestion, but drastically reduces the digestion time.

Baba M; Ohyama K; Kishikawa N; Kuroda N

2013-09-01

206

Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4?±?2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P??0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P??0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response. PMID:23096766

Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

2012-10-25

207

In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: karalue@bigpond.net.au

2005-08-19

208

In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg 15N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the 15N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

2005-08-19

209

Influence of dirlotapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, on the digestibility of a dry expanded diet in adult dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of dirlotapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, on apparent nutrient digestibility of an expanded dry dog food, on defecation frequency and fecal consistency. Eighteen beagles were randomized to either placebo (n = 6) or dirlotapide (n = 12). Testing was divided into a 21-day adaptation phase (days -21 to -1) and a 35-day treatment (digestibility testing) phase (days 0-35). During the treatment phase, dogs were administered oral dirlotapide (0.3 mg/kg) or placebo (0.06 mL/kg) once daily. For digestibility testing, feces were collected over two periods for 7 days each starting on days -9 and 28. All dogs were fed a commercial adult dog food throughout the study. Food intake was adjusted to maintain body weight during adaptation, followed by pair-feeding placebo dogs the amount of food ingested by the dirlotapide dogs during the treatment period. Dogs in both groups had reduced food intake and lost similar amounts of body weight during treatment. Dogs receiving 0.3 mg dirlotapide/kg once daily had a small but significant (P = 0.018) decrease (6.16 +/- 2.22%, mean +/- SD) in crude fat digestibility compared with the placebo-treated food-restricted dogs, but no difference in crude protein, dry matter, or energy digestibility was observed. Fecal consistency and volume and defecation frequency were similar between groups. Dirlotapide effectively reduced appetite and energy intake without affecting nutrient digestibility, except for a minimal decrease in fat digestibility. PMID:17567516

Kirk, C A; Boucher, J F; Sunderland, S J; Wren, J A

2007-08-01

210

Rapid Changes in Plasma Membrane Protein Phosphorylation during Initiation of Cell Wall Digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [gamma-(32)P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M(r) 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M(r) 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M(r) 22,000. These effects appeared not to be due to nonspecific protease activity and neither in vivo nor in vitro exposure to driselase caused a significant loss of Coomassie blue-staining bands on the gels of the isolated plasma membranes. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic (32)P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselase preparation was required for the observed responses.

Blowers DP; Boss WF; Trewavas AJ

1988-02-01

211

Rapid Changes in Plasma Membrane Protein Phosphorylation during Initiation of Cell Wall Digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [gamma-(32)P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M(r) 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M(r) 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M(r) 22,000. These effects appeared not to be due to nonspecific protease activity and neither in vivo nor in vitro exposure to driselase caused a significant loss of Coomassie blue-staining bands on the gels of the isolated plasma membranes. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic (32)P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselase preparation was required for the observed responses. PMID:16665936

Blowers, D P; Boss, W F; Trewavas, A J

1988-02-01

212

Rapid Changes in Plasma Membrane Protein Phosphorylation during Initiation of Cell Wall Digestion 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [?-32P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of Mr 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at Mr 22,000. These effects appeared not to be due to nonspecific protease activity and neither in vivo nor in vitro exposure to driselase caused a significant loss of Coomassie blue-staining bands on the gels of the isolated plasma membranes. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselase preparation was required for the observed responses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Blowers, David P.; Boss, Wendy F.; Trewavas, Anthony J.

1988-01-01

213

Infectivity of scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) following in vitro digestion with bovine gastrointestinal microbiota.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of a complex microflora residing in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle on the prion protein plays a crucial role with respect to early pathogenesis and the potential infectivity of faeces resulting in contamination of the environment. It is unknown whether infectious prion proteins, considered to be very stable, are inactivated by microbial processes in the gastrointestinal tract of animals during digestion. In our previous study it was shown that the scrapie-associated prion protein was degraded by ruminal and colonic microbiota of cattle, as indicated by a loss of anti-prion antibody 3F4 immunoreactivity in Western blot. Subsequently, in this study hamster bioassays with the pre-treated samples were performed. Although the PrP(Sc) signal was reduced up to immunochemically undetectable levels within 40 h of pre-treatment, significant residual prion infectivity was retained after degradation of infected hamster brain through the gastrointestinal microflora of cattle. The data presented here show that the loss of anti-prion antibody 3F4 immunoreactivity is obviously not correlated with a biological inactivation of PrP(Sc). These results highlight the deficiency of using Western blot in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies inactivation assessment studies and, additionally, point to the possibility of environmental contamination with faeces containing PrP(Sc) following an oral ingestion of prions. PMID:17542960

Scherbel, C; Pichner, R; Groschup, M H; Mueller-Hellwig, S; Scherer, S; Dietrich, R; Maertlbauer, E; Gareis, M

2007-01-01

214

Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M{sub r} 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M{sub r} 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M{sub r} 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic {sup 32}P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses.

Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J. (Univ. of Edinburgh (England))

1988-02-01

215

A new chemical approach to differentiate carboxy terminal peptide fragments in cyanogen bromide digests of proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel approach to perform C-terminal sequence analysis by discriminating the C-terminal peptide in a mass spectral analysis of a CNBr digest. During CNBr cleavage, all Met-Xxx peptide bonds are cleaved and the generated internal peptides all end with a homoserine lactone (hsl)-derivative. The partial opening of the hsl-derivatives, by using a slightly basic buffer solution, results in the formation of m/z doublets (Deltam=18 Da) for all internal peptides and allows to identify the C-terminal peptide which appears as a singlet in the mass spectra. Using two model proteins we demonstrate that this approach can be applied to study proteins purified in gel or in solution. The chemical opening of the hsl-derivative does not require any sample clean-up and therefore, the sensitivity of the C-terminal sequencing approach is increased significantly. Finally, the new protocol was applied to characterize the C-terminal sequence of two recombinant proteins. Tandem mass spectrometry by MALDI-TOF/TOF allowed to identify the sequence of the C-terminal peptides. This novel approach will allow to perform a proteome-wide study of C-terminal proteolytic processing events in a high-throughput fashion. PMID:20153848

Moerman, P P; Sergeant, K; Debyser, G; Devreese, B; Samyn, B

2010-02-12

216

A new chemical approach to differentiate carboxy terminal peptide fragments in cyanogen bromide digests of proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a novel approach to perform C-terminal sequence analysis by discriminating the C-terminal peptide in a mass spectral analysis of a CNBr digest. During CNBr cleavage, all Met-Xxx peptide bonds are cleaved and the generated internal peptides all end with a homoserine lactone (hsl)-derivative. The partial opening of the hsl-derivatives, by using a slightly basic buffer solution, results in the formation of m/z doublets (Deltam=18 Da) for all internal peptides and allows to identify the C-terminal peptide which appears as a singlet in the mass spectra. Using two model proteins we demonstrate that this approach can be applied to study proteins purified in gel or in solution. The chemical opening of the hsl-derivative does not require any sample clean-up and therefore, the sensitivity of the C-terminal sequencing approach is increased significantly. Finally, the new protocol was applied to characterize the C-terminal sequence of two recombinant proteins. Tandem mass spectrometry by MALDI-TOF/TOF allowed to identify the sequence of the C-terminal peptides. This novel approach will allow to perform a proteome-wide study of C-terminal proteolytic processing events in a high-throughput fashion.

Moerman PP; Sergeant K; Debyser G; Devreese B; Samyn B

2010-06-01

217

Effects of synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen on fermentation, nutrient utilization and total tract digestibility in sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of synchronizing the dietary starch and crude protein (CP) degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization, fermentation, and total tract digestibility in sheep. The four diets were formulated with different rates of starch and CP rele...

Hakan Biricik; Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen; Gulay Deniz; Bulent Haluk Gulmez; Hidir Gencoglu; Birgul Bozan

218

Effects of Mangosteen Peel (Garcinia mangostana) Supplementation on Rumen Ecology, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Digestibility and Voluntary Feed Intake in Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four, rumen fistulated cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experiment was to study effects of crude saponins and condensed tannins in mangosteen peel on rumen microorganisms and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in cattl...

A. Ngamsaeng; M. Wanapat; S. Khampa

219

Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require several preparation steps, which prolongs any parallel operation and high-throughput interaction analysis. Gnd-HCl allow the efficient elution and subsequent fast digestion of PPIs to provide a convenient high-throughput methodology for affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. To validate the Gnd-HCl approach, label-free PPI analysis of several GFP-tagged yeast deubiquitinating enzymes was performed. The identification of known interaction partners demonstrates the utility of the optimized Gnd-HCl protocol that is also scalable to the 96 well-plate format.

Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian T

2013-01-01

220

Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection.

Hassan, Amro B.; Diab, Eiman E.; Mahmoud, Nagat S.; Elagib, Randa A. A.; Rushdi, Mohamed A. H.; Osman, Gammaa A. M.

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Improving anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by implementation of a hyper-thermophilic prehydrolysis step  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study focuses on a two-step process for treatment and stabilisation of primary sludge. The process consists of a hyperthermophilic hydrolysis step operated at 70 degrees C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 clays followed by a thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion step at a HRT of 13 days. A one-step anaerobic digester operated at 55 degrees C and 15 days HRT Was used as a reference process. The two-step process was characterized by a 12% higher organic suspended solids removal efficiency and better pathogen reduction effect than the conventional one-step digestion. The microbial community of the digester fed with pre-treated sludge was characterised by it higher activity compared to that of the digester treating raw sludge. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the primary sludge resulted up to 48% increase of the methane potential (20.09 and 13.56 mmol CH4 g(-)VS(-1) with and Without pre-treatment respectively) and up to 115% increase of the methane production rate. Finally it was shown that the extra energy requirements for the operation of a pre-treatment step would be covered by the energy Produced from the extra methane production and in addition there would be it significant energy Surplus of 2.17 kJ d(-1) For the system tested.

Lu, Jingquan; Gavala, Hariklia N.

2008-01-01

222

Characterization, in vitro Trypsin Digestibility and Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Soybean Protein Meal with Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, soybean protein meal was subjected to solid state fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 either in the presence or absence of a protease. The extracts were investigated for changes in mineral composition, amino acid composition, in vitro trypsin digestibility, DPPH radical scavenging activities and electrophoretic pattern. The amino acid and mineral element compositions showed significant (pin vitro trypsin digestibility and showed a single polypeptide with estimated molecular weight of 14.4 kDa in the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) assay.

I. Amadou; S. Jin; M.T. Kamara; Y.H. Shi; O.S. Gbadamosi; Le Guo-Wei

2009-01-01

223

Apparent digestibility coefficients of several protein sources, and replacement of fishmeal by porcine meal in diets of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus, are affected by dietary protein levels  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A digestibility and a growth trial were conducted in this study respectively. Firstly, the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy in meat and bone meal, porcine meal (PM), hydrolysed feather meal, poultry by?products meal, fishmeal (FM), soybean meal and spray?dried blood meal were determined. In experiment 2, an 8?week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the substitution of FM by PM under the digestible ideal protein concept at two protein levels in the diets of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus. A FM?based control diet (FM diet; FM: 320?g?kg?1, crude protein: 434.9?g?kg?1, crude lipid: 124.6?g?kg?1) and three other diets were formulated to contain 115?g?kg?1 PM and only 160?g?kg?1 FM. Two diets were formulated on a crude protein basis without (PM diet) or with (PMA diet) essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation respectively. A low?protein diet was designed (LPMA diet, crude protein: 400.9?g?kg?1, crude lipid: 96.3?g?kg?1) with the same level of FM and PM but with the same digestible protein/ digestible energy and EAA profile as the FM diet. The results showed that nitrogen and total amino acid digestibility of the tested ingredients were ranged from 85.6% to 95.5% and from 87.6% to 95.5% respectively. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein for FM and PM were 91.2% and 95.9% respectively. In the growth trial, the weight gain rate and feed conversion ratio of fish fed the PMA diet did not show a significant difference from those of the control group, but were significantly higher than those of the PM and LPMA groups (P<0.05). Growth was related linearly to lysine and methionine intakes. It was shown that PM could be utilized in the Japanese seabass diet up to 115?g?kg?1 to replace about 160?g?kg?1 of FM protein under an ideal protein profile. Essential amino acid deficiency (diet PM) or a lower protein level despite having an ideal amino acid profile (diet LPMA) could not support the optimal growth of Japanese seabass.

Wang J; Yun B; Xue M; Wu X; Zheng Y; Li P

2012-01-01

224

Effects of dietary protein levels on digestibility of nutrients and growth rate in young female mink (Mustela vison).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in female mink at the different dietary protein levels during the mink growth period. Effects of dietary protein on growth performance of minks were also measured. Sixty 45-day-old healthy female minks were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups with 10 animals in each group. Animals were fed diets varying in protein levels: 28% (Group I), 30% (Group II), 32% (Group III), 34% (Group IV), 36% (Group V) and 38% (Group VI), respectively. The digestibilities of key nutrients were determined on Day 14 after initiating the experiment and the last 3?days. From the beginning of the study, body weight and feed intake were weighed and recorded every other week in order to calculate the average daily bodyweight gain and the feed efficiency. The trial had demonstrated that nitrogen intake was greatly significantly different, which was affected by dietary protein levels (p?protein level was at 28%. When dietary protein level was at 34%, minks had the best daily gains, feed efficiency, and digestibilities of some key nutrients.

Zhang TT; Zhang ZQ; Gao XH; Yang FH; Xing XM

2013-04-01

225

[Effect of total ginsenoside on content of protein and activity of digestive enzyme of Mythimna separata larvae].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to reveal the effect of total ginsenoside on the protein content and digestive enzyme activities of 4th-instar Mythimna separata larvae, including alpha-amylase and cellulose, and explore the ecological function of total ginsenoside. METHOD: While simulating natural growing condition indoors, 4th-instar M. separata larvae were fed by poison leaf disk method. The protein content was tested by Lowry Protein Assay Kit method, the activity of alpha-amylase was measured by dinitrosalicylic acid test, and the activity of cellulase was determined by the filter paper method. RESULT: The total ginsenoside could reduce the content of protein of 4th-instar M. separata larvae significantly, and the activity of digestive enzyme, including alpha-amylase and cellulase. The protein content, alpha-amylase and cellulase activity of treatments were obviously lower than that of the control. Inhibition ratio of alpha-amylase and cellulase activity was positively correlated with total ginsenoside concentration: i. e. 20 g x L(-1) > 10 g x L(-1) > 5 g x L(-1). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the inhibition effect of total ginsenoside on protein content and digestive enzymes may be one of the causes to antifeedant and dysplasia of M. separata larvae.

Tan SQ; Zhang AH; Xu YH; Zhang LX

2013-06-01

226

Improved efficiency and stable digestion of biomass in non-mixed upflow solids reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR), which permitted longer solids than hydraulic retention times, was used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The performance of the USR was compared to that of the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at different organic loading rates in terms of methane yield, methane production rate, and process stability. Results showed that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp compositional variability, methane yields and production rates in the USR were significantly higher than those observed with the CSTR. Results also showed that volatile acid concentrations, which are generally inversely related to digester stability, were significantly lower in the USR than in the CSTR. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Srivastava, V.J.; Fannin, K.F.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Frank, J.R.

1987-01-01

227

Effects of ruminal protein degradability and frequency of supplementation on site and extent of digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics in lambs fed low-quality forage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Suffolk wether lambs (34.5 +/- 2.0 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square-designed experiment to examine the effects of ruminal protein degradability and supplementation frequency on site and extent of digestion in lambs consuming a low-quality forage diet. Wethers were fed a basal diet of mature crested wheatgrass hay (4.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption plus 1 of 4 supplements: 1) a high RDP supplement provided daily (RDP-D), 2) the high RDP supplement provided on alternate days (RDP-A), 3) a high RUP supplement provided on alternate days (RUP-A), or 4) a 50:50 mixture of the RDP and RUP supplements, provided on alternate days (MIX-A). Forage OM, N, NDF, or ADF intakes were not affected by treatment. True ruminal OM digestibility was greater (P RUP-A lambs compared with other treatments. Ruminal digestibilities of NDF and ADF were greater (P RUP had less (P RUP-A lambs exhibiting the least concentrations and least variation over time. Ruminal urease activity was not affected by treatment. Microbial N flow was not affected by treatment; however, there was an increase (P = 0.004) in microbial efficiency for RDP-D lambs. Alternate day protein supplementation with a mixture of RDP and RUP may improve digestibility in lambs consuming low-quality forage, which may be related to decreased fluctuation in ruminal ammonia concentrations as a result of greater endogenous N recycling. PMID:19854985

Atkinson, R L; Toone, C D; Ludden, P A

2009-10-23

228

Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4?±?2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P?digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were similar (P?>?0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P??0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response.

Rahman MM; Abdullah RB; Wan Embong WK; Nakagawa T; Akashi R

2013-03-01

229

Protein-stabilized nanoemulsions and emulsions: comparison of physicochemical stability, lipid oxidation, and lipase digestibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions (d(43) ? 66 nm; 0.5% oil, 0.9% WPI) and emulsions (d(43) ? 325 nm; 0.5% oil, 0.045% WPI) were compared. Emulsions were prepared by high-pressure homogenization, while nanoemulsions were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation. The effects of pH, ionic strength (0-500 mM NaCl), thermal treatment (30-90 °C), and freezing/thawing on the stability and properties of the nanoemulsions and emulsions were compared. In general, nanoemulsions had better stability to droplet aggregation and creaming than emulsions. The nanoemulsions were unstable to droplet flocculation near the isoelectric point of WPI but remained stable at higher or lower pH values. In addition, the nanoemulsions were stable to salt addition, thermal treatment, and freezing/thawing (pH 7). Lipid oxidation was faster in nanoemulsions than emulsions, which was attributed to the increased surface area. Lipase digestibility of lipids was slower in nanoemulsions than emulsions, which was attributed to changes in interfacial structure and protein content. These results have important consequences for the design and utilization of food-grade nanoemulsions.

Lee SJ; Choi SJ; Li Y; Decker EA; McClements DJ

2011-01-01

230

A miniaturized multichamber solution isoelectric focusing device for separation of protein digests.  

Science.gov (United States)

A miniaturized multichamber device was constructed for solution isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation of complex peptide mixtures. The system, based on immobilized pH gels, consisted of 96 minichambers ( approximately 75 nuL each) arranged in eight rows. Neighboring chambers in a given row were separated by short glass tubes (4 mm inner diameter, 3 mm long), within which Immobiline gels of specific pH values were polymerized. During focusing, the device was sandwiched between two supporting blocks incorporating the reservoirs for anolyte and catholyte. In principle, multiple samples could be simultaneously fractionated, each separated into 12 fractions of various pI ranges. A variety of standard peptide mixtures and tryptic digests of proteins were separated by IEF using this device, and the fractions were characterized by mass spectrometry. For a codigested nine-protein mixture, both the total number of peptides identified and the average sequence coverage were similar to the results of ion-exchange chromatography (IEC), according to matrix assisted laser/desorption/ionization--time of flight (MALDI-TOF) data. The IEF separation provided concentrated and desalted fractions, suitable for an additional separation liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis (LC, CE) or mass spectrometry (MS) detection without additional sample cleanup. High loading capacity was achieved for the miniaturized multichamber IEF device. Importantly, a linear correlation was found between the experimentally determined and calculated pI values of peptides. PMID:12412130

Tan, Aimin; Pashkova, Anna; Zang, Li; Foret, Frantisek; Karger, Barry L

2002-10-01

231

Development of a bench scale system for anaerobic acidogenic digestion of wastewater from isolated soy protein  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastewater from isolated soy protein (ISP) production is characterized by high organic load. A complex primary wastewater treatment system has been studied: an anaerobic acidogenic reactor, a tubular reactor and a sedimentation tank. Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process; the control of temperature, pH, alkalinity, TSS/VSS and COD is fundamental. The objective was to develop and compare the efficiency of a bench scale anaerobic acidogenic reactor, followed by the precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation steps, with an existing industrial ISP wastewater treatment system. The results obtained with bench system (reaction time of 6 h, 48 °C) were very close to the industrial ones: pH reduction of 4.5 to 3.7 (indicating the protein hydrolysis), high VFA accumulation (1,300 and 2,650 mg.L-1 minimum and maximum concentration), no methane production and increase in TSS/VSS. This study gives an insight of the industrial primary wastewater treatment system and can be useful in future researches.

A.S. Cassini; I.C. Tessaro; L.D.F. Marczak

2010-01-01

232

Development of a bench scale system for anaerobic acidogenic digestion of wastewater from isolated soy protein  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Wastewater from isolated soy protein (ISP) production is characterized by high organic load. A complex primary wastewater treatment system has been studied: an anaerobic acidogenic reactor, a tubular reactor and a sedimentation tank. Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process; the control of temperature, pH, alkalinity, TSS/VSS and COD is fundamental. The objective was to develop and compare the efficiency of a bench scale anaerobic acidogenic reactor, followed by the (more) precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation steps, with an existing industrial ISP wastewater treatment system. The results obtained with bench system (reaction time of 6 h, 48 °C) were very close to the industrial ones: pH reduction of 4.5 to 3.7 (indicating the protein hydrolysis), high VFA accumulation (1,300 and 2,650 mg.L-1 minimum and maximum concentration), no methane production and increase in TSS/VSS. This study gives an insight of the industrial primary wastewater treatment system and can be useful in future researches.

Cassini, A.S.; Tessaro, I.C.; Marczak, L.D.F.

2010-07-01

233

The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on formation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from pea proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pea seeds were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in monoculture under different time and temperature conditions and the fermented products were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal conditions. After fermentation and digestion ACE inhibitory activity was determined. In all samples after fermentation no ACE inhibitory activity was noted. Potentially antihypertensive peptides were released during in vitro digestion. The highest DH (68.62%) were noted for control sample, although the lowest IC50 value (0.19mg/ml) was determined for product after 7days fermentation at 22°C. The hydrolysate characterised by the highest ACE inhibitory activity was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptides fractions were obtained. The highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50=64.04?g/ml) for the first fraction was noted. This fraction was separated by HPLC and identified by LC-MS/MS and the sequence of peptide derived from pea proteins was determined as KEDDEEEEQGEEE.

Jakubczyk A; Kara? M; Baraniak B; Pietrzak M

2013-12-01

234

The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on formation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from pea proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pea seeds were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in monoculture under different time and temperature conditions and the fermented products were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal conditions. After fermentation and digestion ACE inhibitory activity was determined. In all samples after fermentation no ACE inhibitory activity was noted. Potentially antihypertensive peptides were released during in vitro digestion. The highest DH (68.62%) were noted for control sample, although the lowest IC50 value (0.19mg/ml) was determined for product after 7days fermentation at 22°C. The hydrolysate characterised by the highest ACE inhibitory activity was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptides fractions were obtained. The highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50=64.04?g/ml) for the first fraction was noted. This fraction was separated by HPLC and identified by LC-MS/MS and the sequence of peptide derived from pea proteins was determined as KEDDEEEEQGEEE. PMID:23993548

Jakubczyk, Anna; Kara?, Monika; Baraniak, Barbara; Pietrzak, Marlena

2013-06-29

235

Ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of nutrients in cows fed diets high in fat and undegradable protein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows in a 2 x 2 factorial design in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Ruminal degradabilities were 14.9 and 18.6%, and intestinal digestibilities were 98.9 and 68.3%, respectively, for CP in blood meal and feather meal. Treatment effects on ruminal digestibilities were small. Protein supplementation increased total N intake by 29%, duodenal AA N flow by 39%, and AA N absorbed by 37%; absorption of Leu and Lys increased 60 and 33%, and absorption of Ile and Met increased 11 and 7%, respectively. Measured duodenal AA N flow (Cr2O3 marker) was 33% higher in cows cannulated adjacent to the pylorus compared with cows cannulated 100-cm distal to the pylorus, but only when cows were fed protein-supplemented diets; the estimates from those diets caused calculated microbial protein efficiency to exceed theoretical values. We postulated that blood meal and feather meal segregated near the pylorus, yielding high estimates of duodenal AA N flow. Removal of data for protein-supplemented diets obtained from cows cannulated at the pylorus yielded estimates of microbial protein synthetic efficiency consistent with literature values. Microbial synthesis of AA N was related linearly to ruminal digestion of carbohydrate. Location of intestinal cannulas may influence accuracy of nutrient flow estimates.

Palmquist DL; Weisbjerg MR; Hvelplund T

1993-05-01

236

Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows in a 2×2 factorial design in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Ruminal degradabilities were 14.9 and 18.6%, and intestinal digestibilities were 98.9 and 68.3%, respectively, for CP in blood meal and feather meal. Treatment effects on ruminal digestibilities were small. Protein supplementation increased total N intake by 29%, duodenal AA N flow by 39%, and AA N absorbed by 37%; absorption of Leu and Lys increased 60 and 33%, and absorption of ne and Met increased 11 and 7%, respectively. Measured duodenal AA N flow (Cr2O3 marker) was 33% higher in cows cannulated adjacent to the pylorus compared with cows cannulated 100-cm distal to the pylorus, but only when cows were fed protein-supplemented diets; the estimates from those diets caused calculated microbial protein efficiency to exceed theoretical values. We postulated that blood meal and feather meal segregated near the pylorus, yielding high estimates of duodenal AA N flow. Removal of data for protein-supplemented diets obtained from cows cannulated at the pylorus yielded estimates of microbial protein synthetic efficiency consistent with literature values. Microbial synthesis of AA N was related linearly to ruminal digestion of carbohydrate. Location of intestinal cannulas may influence accuracy of nutrient flow estimates.

Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

1993-01-01

237

Chymotrypsin selectively digests ?-lactoglobulin in whey protein isolate away from enzyme optimal conditions: potential for native ?-lactalbumin purification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examines the resistance of the ?-lactalbumin to ?-chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) digestion under various experimental conditions. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was hydrolysed using randomised hydrolysis conditions (5 and 10% of WPI; pH 7.0, 7.8 and 8.5; temperature 25, 37 and 50 °C; enzyme-to-substrate ratio, E/S, of 0.1%, 0.5 and 1%). Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to analyse residual proteins. Heat, pH adjustment and two inhibitors (Bowman-Birk inhibitor and trypsin inhibitor from chicken egg white) were used to stop the enzyme reaction. While operating outside of the enzyme optimum it was observed that at pH 8.5 selective hydrolysis of ?-lactoglobulin was improved because of a dimer-to-monomer transition while ?-la remained relatively resistant. The best conditions for the recovery of native and pure ?-la were at 25 °C, pH 8.5, 1% E/S ratio, 5% WPI (w/v) while the enzyme was inhibited using Bowman-Birk inhibitor with around 81% of original ?-la in WPI was recovered with no more ?-lg. Operating conditions for hydrolysis away from the chymotrypsin optimum conditions offers a great potential for selective WPI hydrolysis, and removal, of ?-lg with production of whey protein concentrates containing low or no ?-lg and pure native ?-la. This method also offers the possibility for production of ?-lg-depleted milk products for sensitive populations.

Lisak K; Toro-Sierra J; Kulozik U; Božani? R; Cheison SC

2013-02-01

238

Eco-efficient post treatment of digestate from farm and collective biogas plants to improve nutrients (N&P) recycling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste from agriculture and others sectors is a widely used technology which shows increasing implementation due to its capacity to produce renewable energy and also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. The development of AD is also an opportunity to improve nutrient recycling from organic waste through the development of an eco-effi cient post-treatment system. In this context, LCA was applied to evaluate the sustainability of diff erent raw digestate post-treatment technologies regarding recycling of nutrients from agricultural and organic waste to agricultural soils for decreased resource depletion and climate mitigation. Substitution of the use of N and P mineral fertilizers with recycled soil health improver or organic fertilizers products as function of fi ve diff erent post-treatment technologies and raw digestate characteristics was evaluated. A particular attention was carried to (1) the gaseous emissions (NH3 and N2O) from process (post-treatment) but also after land spreading and (2) the carbon cycle considering the CO2 carbon costs of fertiliser production and the soil carbon sequestration benefit.

Trémier, Anne; Béline, Fabrice

239

Antigenic stability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] proteins: effects of thermal treatments and in vitro digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based inhibition ELISA as well as immunoblotting analyses of proteins extracted from variously processed pecans (cv. Desirable) indicate that pecan proteins are antigenically stable. Pecan antigens were more sensitive to moist heat than dry heat processing treatments. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of the native and heat-denatured proteins that were previously subjected to in vitro simulated gastric fluid digestions indicate that stable antigenic peptides were produced. Both enzyme-to-substrate ratio and digestion time were influential in determining the stability of pecan polypeptides. The stable antigenic polypeptides may serve as useful markers in developing assays suitable for the detection of trace amounts of pecans in foods. PMID:16478273

Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Teuber, Suzanne S; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

2006-02-22

240

A multi-laboratory evaluation of a common in vitro pepsin digestion assay protocol used in assessing the safety of novel proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale. Evaluation of the potential allergenicity of proteins derived from genetically modified foods has involved a weight of evidence approach that incorporates an evaluation of protein digestibility in pepsin. Currently, there is no standardized protocol to assess the digestibility of proteins using simulated gastric fluid. Potential variations in assay parameters include: pH, pepsin purity, pepsin to target protein ratio, target protein purity, and method of detection. The objective was to assess the digestibility of a common set of proteins in nine independent laboratories to determine the reproducibility of the assay when performed using a common protocol. Methods. A single lot of each test protein and pepsin was obtained and distributed to each laboratory. The test proteins consisted of Ara h 2 (a peanut conglutin-like protein), beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, concanavalin A, horseradish peroxidase, ovalbumin, ovomucoid, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, ribulose diphosphate carboxylase, and soybean trypsin inhibitor. A ratio of 10U of pepsin activity/microg test protein was selected for all tests (3:1 pepsin to protein, w:w). Digestions were performed at pH 1.2 and 2.0, with sampling at 0.5, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60min. Protein digestibility was assessed from stained gels following SDS-PAGE of digestion samples and controls. Results. Results were relatively consistent across laboratories for the full-length proteins. The identification of proteolytic fragments was less consistent, being affected by different fixation and staining methods. Overall, assay pH did not influence the time to disappearance of the full-length protein or protein fragments, however, results across laboratories were more consistent at pH 1.2 (91% agreement) than pH 2.0 (77%). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that this common protocol for evaluating the in vitro digestibility of proteins is reproducible and yields consistent results when performed using the same proteins at different laboratories. PMID:15041142

Thomas, K; Aalbers, M; Bannon, G A; Bartels, M; Dearman, R J; Esdaile, D J; Fu, T J; Glatt, C M; Hadfield, N; Hatzos, C; Hefle, S L; Heylings, J R; Goodman, R E; Henry, B; Herouet, C; Holsapple, M; Ladics, G S; Landry, T D; MacIntosh, S C; Rice, E A; Privalle, L S; Steiner, H Y; Teshima, R; Van Ree, R; Woolhiser, M; Zawodny, J

2004-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

A multi-laboratory evaluation of a common in vitro pepsin digestion assay protocol used in assessing the safety of novel proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rationale. Evaluation of the potential allergenicity of proteins derived from genetically modified foods has involved a weight of evidence approach that incorporates an evaluation of protein digestibility in pepsin. Currently, there is no standardized protocol to assess the digestibility of proteins using simulated gastric fluid. Potential variations in assay parameters include: pH, pepsin purity, pepsin to target protein ratio, target protein purity, and method of detection. The objective was to assess the digestibility of a common set of proteins in nine independent laboratories to determine the reproducibility of the assay when performed using a common protocol. Methods. A single lot of each test protein and pepsin was obtained and distributed to each laboratory. The test proteins consisted of Ara h 2 (a peanut conglutin-like protein), beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, concanavalin A, horseradish peroxidase, ovalbumin, ovomucoid, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, ribulose diphosphate carboxylase, and soybean trypsin inhibitor. A ratio of 10U of pepsin activity/microg test protein was selected for all tests (3:1 pepsin to protein, w:w). Digestions were performed at pH 1.2 and 2.0, with sampling at 0.5, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60min. Protein digestibility was assessed from stained gels following SDS-PAGE of digestion samples and controls. Results. Results were relatively consistent across laboratories for the full-length proteins. The identification of proteolytic fragments was less consistent, being affected by different fixation and staining methods. Overall, assay pH did not influence the time to disappearance of the full-length protein or protein fragments, however, results across laboratories were more consistent at pH 1.2 (91% agreement) than pH 2.0 (77%). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that this common protocol for evaluating the in vitro digestibility of proteins is reproducible and yields consistent results when performed using the same proteins at different laboratories.

Thomas K; Aalbers M; Bannon GA; Bartels M; Dearman RJ; Esdaile DJ; Fu TJ; Glatt CM; Hadfield N; Hatzos C; Hefle SL; Heylings JR; Goodman RE; Henry B; Herouet C; Holsapple M; Ladics GS; Landry TD; MacIntosh SC; Rice EA; Privalle LS; Steiner HY; Teshima R; Van Ree R; Woolhiser M; Zawodny J

2004-04-01

242

Evaluation of protein fractionation and ruminal and intestinal digestibility of corn milling co-products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel corn milling co-products developed from technological advancements in ethanol production vary widely in chemical composition and nutrient availability. The objectives of this study were to characterize feed protein fractions and evaluate differences in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and its digestible fraction (dRUP), amino acid concentration, and in vitro gas production of 7 corn milling co-products. The crude protein (CP; % of dry matter) of co-products was 12.7 for germ, 26.9 for dried distillers grains plus solubles that had no heat exposure before fermentation (DDGS1), 45.4 for high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG), 12.7 for bran, 30.2 for wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS), 23.1 for wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), and 26.0 for dried distillers grains plus solubles that had heat exposure before fermentation (DDGS2). Two ruminally and duodenally fistulated Holstein steers weighing 663+/-24 kg were used to determine RUP and dRUP with the in situ and mobile bag techniques. Samples of each feed were ruminally incubated for 16 h, and mobile bags were exposed to simulated abomasal digestion before insertion into the duodenum and subsequent collection in the feces. Protein fractions A, B(1), B(2), B(3), and C were characterized as follows (% CP): germ=30.0, 15.0, 38.1, 13.5, 3.4; DDGS1=17.0, 7.0, 67.0, 4.8, 4.2; HPDDG=7.4, 0.6, 82.4, 8.8, 0.8; bran=33.5, 4.0, 54.3, 6.0, 2.2; WDGS=18.6, 2.4, 53.1, 11.0, 14.9; WCGF=36.6, 15.9, 33.2, 10.1, 4.1; and DDGS2=17.9, 2.1, 41.1, 11.1, 27.9. The proportions of RUP and dRUP were different and are reported as follows (% CP): DDGS2=56.3, 91.9; HPDDG=55.2, 97.7; WDGS=44.7, 93.1; DDGS1=33.2, 92.1; bran=20.7, 65.8; germ=16.5, 66.8; and WCGF=11.5, 51.1. The concentrations of Lys and Met in the RUP were different and are listed as follows (% CP): germ=2.9, 2.0; DDGS1=1.9, 2.0; HPDDG=2.0, 3.2; bran=3.2, 1.5; WDGS=1.9, 2.3; WCGF=3.5, 1.6; and DDGS2=1.9, 2.4. In vitro gas production (mL/48h) was highest for germ (52.1) followed by bran (50.1), WDGS (40.7), DDGS2 (40.1), WCGF (39.0), DDGS1 (38.6), and HPDDG (37.5). Comparison of co-products defined differences in chemical composition, protein fractionation, ruminal availability, and microbial fermentation. PMID:20494190

Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Tedeschi, L O; Jenkins, T C; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

2010-06-01

243

Effect of Mannanase on Broiler Performance, Ileal and In-vitro Protein Digestibility, Uric Acid and Litter Moisture in Broiler Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein digestibility and uric acid excretion may play the vital role in feed efficiency and consequently effect on broiler performance. Five hundred unsexed Arian day old chickens were placed after pre-starter feeding (10 days) in 22 pens with 23 chickens in each. This study was modulated in two levels of Mannanase (Tread mark of Hemicell enzyme) enzyme (0 and 5 kg/ton) and three levels of metabolizable energy (3000, 2900 and 2850 kcal/kg). Six treatments were arranged and statistical status was in complete random design (CRD) by management in factorial (2 x 3) in this experiment. There is no any significant effect on IIeal protein digestibility by different levels of enzyme. Where this digestibility was significantly higher (Pin-vitro digestibility (DMID) was greater significant (Pin-vitro dry matter digestibility (Pin-vitro protein digestibility (CPID) regarding enzyme reaction. In addition this item was significantly decreased (Pin-vitro protein digestibility by interaction between of 2850kcal/kg ME and high level of enzyme with exception of 2900 kcal/kg ME and high amount of enzyme. Although no significant reaction was observed in uric acid excretion by energy but this parameter significantly decreased (Pin-vitro DM, CP digestibility and reduction in uric acid excretion which may lead to reduce protein utilization in broiler feeding

A.A. Saki; M.T. Mazugi; A. Kamyab

2005-01-01

244

Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-12-15

245

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

12Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P <0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P <0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage.

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K

2012-01-01

246

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

2012-12-01

247

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage.

Poulsen HD; Blaabjerg K; Nørgaard JV; Ton Nu MA

2012-12-01

248

An aptamer-based trypsin reactor for on-line protein digestion with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An immobilized trypsin reactor that was based on aptamers has been developed and applied for the first time for proteomic digestion. Briefly, 25 single-stranded DNA aptamers that were specific for trypsin were obtained after SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) selection. TApt.23 (no. 23 trypsin aptamer), which had the lowest dissociation constant (Kd) value (0.0123?M), was amino-modified and subsequently grafted to an amino-modified silica surface with glutaraldehyde. The results indicated that 14.65±0.35?g of trypsin could be immobilized on 10mg of TApt.23-silica when an optimized borate buffer was used. Subsequently, a trypsin reactor was fabricated by using a PEEKsil micro column. Compared with in-solution digestion, the aptamer-based trypsin reactor exhibited similar results for protein identification but used a much shorter digestion time (?30min). An on-line analysis platform, which included a trypsin reactor coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry device, was built through a 6-port valve and achieved efficient protein digestion compared with in-solution and off-line methods. Compared with irreversible covalent enzyme immobilization, the aptamer-based carrier enables more rapid and convenient immobilized trypsin elution as well as re-immobilization of the enzyme. This superior reactor demonstrated that an aptamer could become a more widely used method for enzyme immobilization and other applications. PMID:23831476

Xiao, Peng; Lv, Xuefei; Wang, Shanshan; Iqbal, Javed; Qing, Hong; Li, Qin; Deng, Yulin

2013-07-03

249

Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

1990-01-01

250

Effect of Undegraded Protein and Energy Level on Intake and Digestibility of Nutrient and Blood Metabolite in Dairy Cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of undegraded protein and energy level on intake and digestibility of nutrient and glucose and urea blood content in dairy cows. The benefit of the research was to inform about the utilization of undegraded protein and energy level to optimize nutrient utilization in dairy cattle. The experiment was conducted in 4 month in the Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science Gadjah Mada University. The experiment used 4 female rumen fistulated dry cows (Friesian Holstein Crossbreed) of 3.0-3.5 years old and 350–400 kg body weight. The treatments of this experiment were T1: 20% of undegraded protein (UDP) and 70% energy from requirement; T2: 20% undegraded protein and 120% energy from requirement; T3: 30% undegraded protein and 70% energy from requirement; and T4: 30% undegraded protein and 120% energy from requirement with Latin square design. Variables observed were intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF), and glucose and urea blood content. Collected data were analyzed by analysis of variances, and further differences were tested by orthogonal contrast. Results of the research showed that the level of UDP in the rations did not affect DM, OM, CP intake, rumen degradable protein (RDP), NDF and ADF; however level of energy had significant affect on DM, OM, CP, RDP and ADF intake. The level of UDP resulted in non significant difference in DM; but significantly different on CP digestibility. Digestibility of DM and OM were significantly influenced by the level of energy, but it did not influence NDF and ADF digestibility. Cattle treated with the high energy rations had higher blood glucose concentration than cattle treated with the low energy rations. Blood urea in cattle fed low UDP rations was higher than cattle fed high UDP rations. (Animal Production 10(2): 96-101 (2008) Key Words: Undegraded protein, nitrogen, energy, blood metabolite

BP Widyobroto; SPS Budhi; A Agus

2008-01-01

251

Effects of synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen on fermentation, nutrient utilization and total tract digestibility in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of synchronizing the dietary starch and crude protein (CP) degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization, fermentation, and total tract digestibility in sheep. The four diets were formulated with different rates of starch and CP release in the rumen but with similar metabolic energy, starch, and CP. The diets were slowly degradable starch, slowly degradable protein; slowly degradable starch, rapidly degradable protein; rapidly degradable starch, rapidly degradable protein; and rapidly degradable starch, slowly degradable protein. The diets were fed to four cannulated sheep ad libi- tumin two equal portions, using a 4x4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DM) was not influenced by either the rate of starch or protein degradation. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, starch, CP, neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the rumen and total tract. Ruminal pH was greater for sheep fed slowly degrad- able starch diets than rapidly degradable starch (P< 0.05). Ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by treatments but the molar proportions of propionic acid were greater for sheep fed rapid- ly degradable starch diets than slowly degradable starch diets (P< 0.05). The ratios of acetic acid (A) to pro- pionic acid (P) were higher for sheep fed slowly degradable starch diets than rapidly degradable starch diets (P< 0.05). Ruminal ammonia-N concentrations were not affected from the degradability characteristics of protein. Rumen pH and A:P were higher in diets containing slowly degradable starch than in diets rapidly degradable starch. Propionic acid was higher in diets containing rapidly degradable starch than in diets con- taining slowly degradable starch. Rumen fermentation and utilization of nutrients in the rumen affected starch degradability more than protein degradability. Synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen had no effect on the intake, digestibility of nutrients in sheep.

Hakan Biricik; Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen; Gulay Deniz; Bulent Haluk Gulmez; Hidir Gencoglu; Birgul Bozan

2010-01-01

252

The Prospect of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal as Ruminant Feeds Through Protein Quality Improvement by Microbes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The waste of the broiler processing (feather) is a potential source for animal feed. However the presence of keratins cause limited of feather use. Before using, therefore, feather must be treated to hydrolyze cysteine disulfide bound dominating keratins protein. Enzymatic (biological) treatment using microbes will produce specific feather hydrolyzed and does not have negative impact on environment. The research objected to get the microbes which degradated selected keratins, improve protein quality of feather meal and find out the best ration formulation true in vitro the basic information to formulate in vivo ration. The research has been done in Laboratory of Animal Feedstuff Faculty of Animal Science UNSOED for eight months. Fermentation trial was done on liquid media with bath system. In vitro trial used of Tilley and Terry methods with parameter observe was dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, protein degradation, total VFA and solubility in pepsin. Based on all parameter, on fermentation trial with Bacillus licheniformis decides broiler chicken feather had good prospect to be developed on feed protein source. In vitro trial recommended ration with formulation of fermented feather meal concentrate (15 percent), soybeans meal (5 percent), rice bran (20 percent), molasses (4 percent), mineral mix (1 percent), with forage: concentrate ratio 40 : 60 could be used as in vivo ration. (Animal Production 5(1): 19-24 (2003) Key words : Hydrolyze, Feather, Keratin, Digestibility, Ruminant

CH Prayitno; SNO Suwandyastuti; Nur Hidayat

2003-01-01

253

Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of varying dietary digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) content on performance, nutrient retention efficiency and the de novo lipogenesis of DP origin were examined in triplicate groups of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), fed nine extruded experimental diets. In order to trace the metabolic fate of dietary protein, 1·8% fishmeal was replaced with isotope-labelled whole protein (.98% 13C). The experiment was divided into a growth period lasting 89 d, growing fish from approximately 140 to 350 g, followed by a 3 d period feeding isotope-enriched diets. Isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4% of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3% of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were significantly improved with increasing dietary energy density. The present study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently utilises dietary nutrients over a wide range of DP:DE ratios and energy densities. In addition, they appear to endeavour a certain body energy status rather than maximising growth, which in the present trial was apparent from inherently high de novo lipogenesis originating from DP

Ekmann, Kim SchØn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

2013-01-01

254

Effect of Soaking, Sprouting and Cooking on Chemical Composition, Bioavailability of Minerals and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical composition, bioavailability of minerals and in vitro digestibility of proteins in karkade seed (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) as affected by soaking, sprouting and cooking were studied. The different methods showed varied deviation of nutrients and antinutrients from the raw seeds. Sprouting and cooking significantly increased protein content and decreased starch and soluble carbohydrates levels. K, Na and all the trace elements studied were decreased by processing methods. Cooking was more effective in improving bioavailability of minerals studied than soaking or sprouting. Total polyphenols reduced more by cooking, while phytic acid did not change significantly by processing. In vitro protein digestibility was significantly reduced by all processing methods, with soaking gave the highest percentage of reduction and cooking the lowest percentage. The results also indicated that domestic processing methods changed total acidity and fat acidity as well as N solubility in water and 1 M NaCl. Amino acid profile of the karkade seed indicated that sulfur amino acids and threonine are the limiting amino acids. With respect to FAO pattern, considerable proportion of the essential amino acids were retained on processing, except for lysine on soaking and sprouting and sulfur acids on sprouting and cooking.

Abu El Gasim A. Yagoub; Mohammed A. Mohammed; Asma A. Abu Baker

2008-01-01

255

Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations. PMID:18473216

Morte, Elane S Boa; Costa, Leticia M; Nobrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria das Gracas A

2008-05-01

256

Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations.

Morte ES; Costa LM; Nobrega JA; Korn Md

2008-05-01

257

Multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography--capillary electrophoresis separation of a protein digest: an update.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The trypsin digest of a mixture of two proteins, namely cytochrome c and myoglobin, was first separated in the first dimension by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractions from the HPLC were collected every 30s with the aid of a fraction collector into a 96-well microtiter plate. After concentration, all the collected fractions were analyzed simultaneaosly in the second dimension by a 96-array capillary electrophoresis system. The labeled peptides were detected by laser-induced fluorescence. An internal standard, allura red, was added to all the fractions, prior to capillary electrophoretic analysis. The internal standard serves two functions, migration time correction and signal intensity correction. The data are presented in two different formats, as an electropherogram of all the fractions and in a two-dimensional (2-D) format. The 2-D plot of the data shows the density of each spot, which corresponds to the concentration of the migrating peptides. The total experimental time for the HPLC and capillary electrophoretic analyses ist less than 1 h, which ist much faster than using 2-D slab-gel electrophoresis or single-capillary capillary electrophoresis.

Issaq HJ; Chan KC; Liu CS; Li Q

2001-04-01

258

Multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography--capillary electrophoresis separation of a protein digest: an update.  

Science.gov (United States)

The trypsin digest of a mixture of two proteins, namely cytochrome c and myoglobin, was first separated in the first dimension by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractions from the HPLC were collected every 30s with the aid of a fraction collector into a 96-well microtiter plate. After concentration, all the collected fractions were analyzed simultaneaosly in the second dimension by a 96-array capillary electrophoresis system. The labeled peptides were detected by laser-induced fluorescence. An internal standard, allura red, was added to all the fractions, prior to capillary electrophoretic analysis. The internal standard serves two functions, migration time correction and signal intensity correction. The data are presented in two different formats, as an electropherogram of all the fractions and in a two-dimensional (2-D) format. The 2-D plot of the data shows the density of each spot, which corresponds to the concentration of the migrating peptides. The total experimental time for the HPLC and capillary electrophoretic analyses ist less than 1 h, which ist much faster than using 2-D slab-gel electrophoresis or single-capillary capillary electrophoresis. PMID:11358138

Issaq, H J; Chan, K C; Liu, C S; Li, Q

2001-04-01

259

Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37±1°C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9-70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4L/kgVS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others. PMID:23790673

Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

2013-06-20

260

Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37±1°C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9-70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4L/kgVS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

Ye J; Li D; Sun Y; Wang G; Yuan Z; Zhen F; Wang Y

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Influence of dietary protein level and source on the course of protein digestion along the small intestine of the veal calf.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the dietary crude protein (CP) content and source on the distribution of digesta proteins and peptides according to their molecular mass along the small intestine of veal calves. Diets contained 14, 104, 205, and 279 g/kg of CP supplied by skim milk powder (SMP) in experiment 1. Diets contained only SMP or SMP plus proteins (1:1 on digestible CP basis) from either a soybean protein concentrate (SPC), an isolated soy protein partially hydrolyzed (HSPI), or a potato protein concentrate (PPC) in experiment 2. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal digesta were collected from calves fitted with simple cannulae and continuously infused the milk replacers into the abomasum. The distribution of molecular mass (Mr) of proteins and peptides was studied by gel filtration chromatography. Increasing the dietary CP level of milk replacers increased the flow of oligopeptides and free amino acids in ileal digesta. Incorporating plant protein increased the flow of proteins with Mr > 20,000 in the duodenum and that of proteins and peptides with Mr < 10,000 in the ileum. Hydrolysis of oligopeptides and absorption may be a limiting step in the digestion of plant protein in the veal calf. PMID:12703630

Montagne, L; Crévieu-Gabriel, I; Toullec, R; Lallès, J P

2003-03-01

262

Cyanogen bromide digestion of the avian myeloblastosis virus pp19 protein: isolation of an amino-terminal peptide that binds to viral RNA.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The avian myeloblastosis virus pp19 protein was separated from the other virus proteins by a rapid and simple purification procedure which yields milligram amounts of homogeneous protein. This protein was then fragmented by digestion with cyanogen bromide. When the mixture of the cyanogen bromide pe...

Johnson, S P; Veigl, M; Vanaman, T; Leis, J

263

Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes/ True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV) com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéicos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submet (more) idos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR), na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta). A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável. Abstract in english The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were evaluated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pe (more) psin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29) had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

Branco, Antonio Ferriani; Coneglian, Sabrina Marcantonio; Maia, Fábio José; Guimarães, Kátia Cylene

2006-08-01

264

Improved identification of wheat gluten proteins through alkylation of cysteine residues and peptide-based mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentration and composition of wheat gluten proteins and the presence, concentration and location of cysteine residues therein are important for wheat flour quality. However, it is difficult to identify gluten proteins, as they are an extremely polymorphic mixture of prolamins. We here present methods for cysteine labeling of wheat prolamins with 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and iodoacetamide (IDAM) which, as compared to label-free analysis, substantially improve identification of cysteine-containing peptides in enzymic prolamin digests by electrospray ionization--tandem mass spectrometry. Both chymotrypsin and thermolysin yielded cysteine-containing peptides from different gluten proteins, but more proteins could be identified after chymotryptic digestion. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, we were the first to label prolamins with isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT), which are commonly used for quantitative proteomics. However, more peptides were detected after labeling gluten proteins with 4-VP and IDAM than with ICAT.

Rombouts I; Lagrain B; Brunnbauer M; Delcour JA; Koehler P

2013-01-01

265

Improved identification of wheat gluten proteins through alkylation of cysteine residues and peptide-based mass spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration and composition of wheat gluten proteins and the presence, concentration and location of cysteine residues therein are important for wheat flour quality. However, it is difficult to identify gluten proteins, as they are an extremely polymorphic mixture of prolamins. We here present methods for cysteine labeling of wheat prolamins with 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and iodoacetamide (IDAM) which, as compared to label-free analysis, substantially improve identification of cysteine-containing peptides in enzymic prolamin digests by electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry. Both chymotrypsin and thermolysin yielded cysteine-containing peptides from different gluten proteins, but more proteins could be identified after chymotryptic digestion. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, we were the first to label prolamins with isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT), which are commonly used for quantitative proteomics. However, more peptides were detected after labeling gluten proteins with 4-VP and IDAM than with ICAT.

Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Brunnbauer, Markus; Delcour, Jan A.; Koehler, Peter

2013-01-01

266

Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean  

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Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 ?mol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 ?mol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

Eva M. Grajales-García; Perla Osorio-Díaz; Isabel Goñi; Deisy Hervert-Hernández; Salvador H. Guzmán-Maldonado; Luis A. Bello-Pérez

2011-01-01

267

Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion.

Pe?ová, M.; Šebela, M.; Marková, Z.; Poláková, K.; ?uda, J.; Šafá?ová, K.; Zbo?il, R.

2013-03-01

268

Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion.

Pe?ová M; Šebela M; Marková Z; Poláková K; ?uda J; Šafá?ová K; Zbo?il R

2013-03-01

269

Influence of dietary protein on digestive enzyme activity, growth and tail muscle composition in redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (von Martens)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein on digestive enzyme profiles, growth and tail muscle composition in the freshwater redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. Crayfish were fed five diets that consisted of a commercial crayfish pellet and experimental diets containing 13%, 18%, 25% or 32% crude protein (CP), for a period of 12 weeks. Analysis of digestive enzyme profiles from the midgut gland (MG) revealed a positive correlation between protease, amylase and cellulase activities and dietary protein level. For all treatments, carbohydrase activity levels (cellulase and amylase) were significantly higher than those detected for protease. As dietary protein was elevated, there was a general increase in specific growth rate (SGR), with the highest SGR (0.58 ± 0.06) values observed in crayfish fed the diet containing 25% CP. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) ranged between 5.84 and 6.97 and did not differ significantly among the treatment groups including the reference diet, with the exception of the low-protein diet (13% CP) which showed an FCR of 9.31. Finally, regression analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between the level of dietary protein and CP content in the tail muscle (P=0.004; r²=0.99).

Pavasovic Ana; Anderson AlexJ; Mather PeterB; Richardson NeilA

2007-04-01

270

Effect of Soaking, Sprouting and Cooking on Chemical Composition, Bioavailability of Minerals and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seed  

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Chemical composition, bioavailability of minerals and in vitro digestibility of proteins in karkade seed (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) as affected by soaking, sprouting and cooking were studied. The different methods showed varied deviation of nutrients and antinutrients from the raw se...

Abu El Gasim A. Yagoub; Mohammed A. Mohammed; Asma A. Abu Baker

271

In situ ruminal degradability and intestinal digestion of raw and extruded legume seeds and soya bean meal protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of extrusion and carbohydrate addition on rumen degradation and intestinal digestion of raw legume seeds and solvent extracted soya bean meal (SBM) protein. Whole soya beans (WSB) without or with maize added (75:25) (WSB-M), peas, lupins and SBM were extruded at 140 degrees C. Protein rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of unprocessed and extruded protein sources were measured by in sacco and mobile bag procedures, respectively, in two dairy cows cannulated in rumen and duodenum. Between 12 and 15 polyester bags with 4 g of each protein source were incubated in rumen for 12 h and the residues, pooled by feed, were introduced into the duodenum in small nylon bags after pre-incubation in a pepsin solution, and recovered from faeces the day after. Extrusion significantly (p < 0.001) reduced N degradation of all protein sources, from 98.1%, 91.6%, 90.5% and 64.8% to 53.1%, 73.8%, 70.3% and 44.2% for peas, lupins, WSB and SBM respectively. The addition of maize to WSB strengthened the effect of extrusion on rumen N degradation, from 88.2% to 52.6%. Residues from rumen incubation of extruded feeds showed a higher (p < 0.001) intestinal N digestibility except for SBM (87.0%, 82.9%, 66.3%, 85.0% and 97.2%, and 99.1%, 95.8%, 96.8%, 97.8% and 98.7%, respectively, for non-extruded and extruded, peas, lupins, WSB, WSB-M and SBM). In conclusion, the extrusion of studied legume seeds and SBM promotes a clear and significant increase of their metabolizable protein value, particularly in peas, and the inclusion of a source of carbohydrates before extrusion increase this response. PMID:15787989

Solanas, E; Castrillo, C; Balcells, J; Guada, J A

272

In situ ruminal degradability and intestinal digestion of raw and extruded legume seeds and soya bean meal protein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of extrusion and carbohydrate addition on rumen degradation and intestinal digestion of raw legume seeds and solvent extracted soya bean meal (SBM) protein. Whole soya beans (WSB) without or with maize added (75:25) (WSB-M), peas, lupins and SBM were extruded at 140 degrees C. Protein rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of unprocessed and extruded protein sources were measured by in sacco and mobile bag procedures, respectively, in two dairy cows cannulated in rumen and duodenum. Between 12 and 15 polyester bags with 4 g of each protein source were incubated in rumen for 12 h and the residues, pooled by feed, were introduced into the duodenum in small nylon bags after pre-incubation in a pepsin solution, and recovered from faeces the day after. Extrusion significantly (p < 0.001) reduced N degradation of all protein sources, from 98.1%, 91.6%, 90.5% and 64.8% to 53.1%, 73.8%, 70.3% and 44.2% for peas, lupins, WSB and SBM respectively. The addition of maize to WSB strengthened the effect of extrusion on rumen N degradation, from 88.2% to 52.6%. Residues from rumen incubation of extruded feeds showed a higher (p < 0.001) intestinal N digestibility except for SBM (87.0%, 82.9%, 66.3%, 85.0% and 97.2%, and 99.1%, 95.8%, 96.8%, 97.8% and 98.7%, respectively, for non-extruded and extruded, peas, lupins, WSB, WSB-M and SBM). In conclusion, the extrusion of studied legume seeds and SBM promotes a clear and significant increase of their metabolizable protein value, particularly in peas, and the inclusion of a source of carbohydrates before extrusion increase this response.

Solanas E; Castrillo C; Balcells J; Guada JA

2005-04-01

273

The Effect of Three Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Digestibility and Tests Function in Male Pubertal Rabbits  

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Full Text Available Six healthy crossbred rabbits (New Zealand white & Chinchilla) were assigned to each of three isocaloric rations viz: treatment A (control) with 20% crude protein on dry matter basis (CP), treatment B with 14% CP and treatment C with 24% CP. The performance parameters considered included dry matter and CP digestibility, feed intake, growth rate, and reproduction parameters like paired testes weight, paired testes volume/density, gonadal sperm reserves and daily sperm production. The results showed that CP digestibility was significantly affected (P= 0.05) while dry matter digestibility was not significantly affected. Average weight gain was significantly different (P= 0.05) between treatment B and C but not between B and C and control. There was no significant dietary effect on relative testis weight among treatments but testis volume was significantly enhanced by dietary CP. Daily sperm production and gonadal sperm reserves were significantly enhanced (P= 0.05) with increasing dietary CP. It is concluded that dietary crude protein significantly enhances the reproduction efficiency of pubertal rabbits.

Ladokun, AO.; Egbunike, GN.; Adejumo, DO.; Sokunbi, OA.

2006-01-01

274

Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is the major peptidase responsible for digesting polyglutamine sequences released by proteasomes during protein degradation  

Science.gov (United States)

Long stretches of glutamine (Q) residues are found in many cellular proteins. Expansion of these polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences is the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Huntington's disease). Eukaryotic proteasomes have been found to digest polyQ sequences in proteins very slowly, or not at all, and to release such potentially toxic sequences for degradation by other peptidases. To identify these key peptidases, we investigated the degradation in cell extracts of model Q-rich fluorescent substrates and peptides containing 10–30 Q's. Their degradation at neutral pH was due to a single aminopeptidase, the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA, cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase). No other known cytosolic aminopeptidase or endopeptidase was found to digest these polyQ peptides. Although tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) exhibited limited activity, studies with specific inhibitors, pure enzymes and extracts of cells treated with siRNA for TPPII or PSA showed PSA to be the rate-limiting activity against polyQ peptides up to 30 residues long. (PSA digests such Q sequences, shorter ones and typical (non-repeating) peptides at similar rates.) Thus, PSA, which is induced in neurons expressing mutant huntingtin, appears critical in preventing the accumulation of polyQ peptides in normal cells, and its activity may influence susceptibility to polyQ diseases.

Bhutani, N; Venkatraman, P; Goldberg, A L

2007-01-01

275

Effect of ?-mannanase on the digestibility of diets with different protein sources in dogs determined by different methodologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of including the enzyme, ?-mannanase, in dog (Canis lupus familiaris) diets based on either poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) by-product meal (PBM) or soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Meal (SBM). The second objective was to evaluate 3 methods for determining energy and nutrient digestibility values in diets fed to dogs: total fecal collection (TFC) and use of aia or crude fiber (CF) as a marker. Eight dogs were allotted to a replicated latin square (4 by 4) design. There were 2 diets based on PBM as the major protein source and 2 diets based on SBM as the major protein source. Within each protein source, 1 diet contained no ?-mannanase and 1 diet contained 0.01% ?-mannanase. Diets were fed for an adaptation period of 5 d followed by 5 d of TFC. Fecal score (1 = watery feces to 5 = dry, hard pellets), pH, DM, and fecal volume were determined. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, CP, ether extract (EE), N-free extract (NFE), and GE, and ME content were calculated using the methods of TFC, AIA, and CF. Data were analyzed as a 2 by 2 by 3 split-split-plot design (?-mannanase, protein source, and digestibility calculation procedure). There were interactions between protein source and ?-mannanase (P 0.05) fecal texture. Results indicated that values for ATTD of energy and nutrients in diets containing sbm are not different if they are calculated based on TFC, AIA, or CF, but use of AIA may result in an overestimation of values for ATTD of energy and nutrients in diets containing PBM. PMID:22585789

Félix, A P; Gabeloni, L R; Brito, C B M; Oliveira, S G; Silva, A V F; Maiorka, A

2012-05-14

276

New technologies in proteomics: automated excision and digestion of fluorescently stained protein gel spots and identification of proteins by MALDI-QTOF mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This presentation is an overview of the techniques and systems we use for large-scale proteomics in plants. This includes a variety of 2D gel electrophoresis methods, and automation of spot-cutting, in-gel digestion, nanoLC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry and SEQUEST based protein identification. Examples and applications of several new technologies will also be shown, including the use of a robotic spot cutter in conjunction with high sensitivity fluorescent protein staining and the identification of proteins by redundant peptide identification in a high-throughput fashion using a hybrid MALDI-Qtof mass spectrometer

2001-01-01

277

Comparative study of mechanical, hydrothermal, chemical and enzymatic treatments of digested biofibers to improve biogas production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic waste such as manure is an important resource for biogas production. The biodegradability of manures is however limited because of the recalcitrant nature of the biofibers it contains. To increase the biogas potential of the biofibers in digested manure, we investigated physical treatment (milling), chemical treatment (CaO), biological treatment (enzymatic and partial aerobic microbial conversion), steam treatment with catalyst (H(3)PO(4) or NaOH) and combination of biological and steam treatments (biofibers steam-treated with catalyst were treated with laccase enzyme). We obtained the highest methane yield increase through the chemical treatment that resulted in 66% higher methane production compared to untreated biofibers. The combination of steam treatment with NaOH and subsequent enzymatic treatment increased the methane yield by 34%. To choose the optimal treatment, the energy requirements relative to the energy gain as extra biogas production have to be taken into account, as well as the costs of chemicals or enzymes. PMID:20638274

Bruni, Emiliano; Jensen, Anders Peter; Angelidaki, Irini

2010-07-16

278

Comparative study of mechanical, hydrothermal, chemical and enzymatic treatments of digested biofibers to improve biogas production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organic waste such as manure is an important resource for biogas production. The biodegradability of manures is however limited because of the recalcitrant nature of the biofibers it contains. To increase the biogas potential of the biofibers in digested manure, we investigated physical treatment (milling), chemical treatment (CaO), biological treatment (enzymatic and partial aerobic microbial conversion), steam treatment with catalyst (H(3)PO(4) or NaOH) and combination of biological and steam treatments (biofibers steam-treated with catalyst were treated with laccase enzyme). We obtained the highest methane yield increase through the chemical treatment that resulted in 66% higher methane production compared to untreated biofibers. The combination of steam treatment with NaOH and subsequent enzymatic treatment increased the methane yield by 34%. To choose the optimal treatment, the energy requirements relative to the energy gain as extra biogas production have to be taken into account, as well as the costs of chemicals or enzymes.

Bruni E; Jensen AP; Angelidaki I

2010-11-01

279

Effects of coextrusion of flaxseed and field pea on the digestibility of energy, ether extract, fatty acids, protein, and amino acids in grower-finisher pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal and total tract digestibility of individual fatty acids, ether extract, energy, protein, and AA in a mix of flax and field pea (FP) and to determine whether extrusion improves the nutritive value of this mix. Five barrows (23-kg initial BW) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets at 3 times the maintenance energy requirement according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design: a wheat and soybean meal control diet and 4 diets containing 30% raw or coextruded FP plus 70% control diet and chromic oxide as an indigestible marker. The 4 extrusion treatments included the following: 1) FP0, ground, nonextruded; 2) FP1, single-screw extruded; 3) FP2, twin-screw extruded with low intensity (screw speed 120 rpm; die temperature 110 degrees C; water input 5 kg/h); and 4) FP3, twin-screw extruded with high intensity (300 rpm; 125 degrees C; 11 kg/h). The ether extract concentration was 17.8, 19.6, 17.7, and 17.3% (as fed) in FP0, FP1, FP2, and FP4, respectively. The ADF concentration was 13.2, 11.1, 11.4, and 13.7% (as fed) in FP0, FP1, FP2, and FP4, respectively. After a 7-d acclimation, feces were collected for 2 d, and then ileal digesta was collected for 2 d. Energy digestibility in the test ingredients was calculated using the difference method. Extrusion of FP did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of DM, OM, and CP for grower-finisher pigs. Extrusion increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD of GE and ether extract and the DE content of FP, and the AID of the Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val, and total fatty acids. Extrusion tended to increase (P < 0.10) the AID of linolenic acid. Single-screw extrusion resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of GE, OM, ether extract, and DE content of FP and AID of SFA than twin-screw extrusion. Single-screw extrusion resulted in a trend for greater (P < 0.10) AID of linolenic acid and total fatty acids than twin-screw extrusion. Twin-screw extrusion at high intensity resulted in less (P < 0.05) AID of SFA than twin-screw extrusion at low intensity, indicating that equipment and conditions should be carefully controlled for the extrusion of FP. In conclusion, coextrusion of FP increased digestibility of ether extract, fatty acids, energy, and AA.

Htoo JK; Meng X; Patience JF; Dugan ME; Zijlstra RT

2008-11-01

280

Thermophilic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol: process performance and digestate stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely used to enhance biogas production of digesters and, therefore, to improve the anaerobic plants economic feasibility. In the present study, glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, was used as a co-substrate for pig manure. The results showed that the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure supplemented with 3% of glycerol, on weight basis, was satisfactory. The specific biogas production of the co-digester was 180% higher than the one obtained by the reference digester, which was only fed with pig manure. The improvement was related to the double of the organic loading rate, the high biodegradability of the crude glycerol, the slight reduction of the free ammonia concentration and the optimisation of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the organic matter (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers) of the influent and the effluent of both digesters together with their biogas flow rates indicated that the microorganisms in the co-digester obtained large amounts of nutrients from the glycerol, whereas the microorganisms of the reference digester mainly produced biogas from the particulate matter. However, the digestate obtained from the co-digester cannot be directly applied as soil fertiliser or conditioner due to the presence of high levels of biodegradable matter, which may exert negative impacts on the plant-soil system. Thus, a longer hydraulic retention time, a reduction of the glycerol concentration and/or a post-treatment is required if the digestate is to be used as soil fertiliser or conditioner. In contrast, pig manure digestate can be directly applied on land. PMID:23685137

Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J

2013-05-10

 
 
 
 
281

In vitro pH-Stat protein hydrolysis of feed ingredients for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. 2. In vitro protein digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using enzyme fractions isolated from the pyloric caeca of farmed Atlantic cod, the in vitro degree of protein hydrolysis (DH) of numerous conventional and novel feed ingredients were measured by a closed-system pH-Stat assay. Regression equations describing the relationship between in vivo apparent protein digestibility (ADC) and in vitro protein DH were used to predict in vitro protein ADC. The equations resulted in good correlation (<4 percentage points difference) between ‘measured’ and ‘predicted’ protein ADC in the majority of cases (r=0.90-0.99; R2=0.88-0.99), while some ingredients were either over- or under-estimated (6–7 percentage points) which appears related to high ash or chitin content (r=0.75; R2=0.61) and may indicate the need for an acid pre-hydrolysis phase and full account of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content. The ‘predicted’ in vitro protein ADC were above 95% for wheat gluten meal, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and whole krill meal; relatively high (85-95%) for soybean meal, white lupin meal, herring meal, anchovy meal, canola protein concentrate, pea protein concentrate and poultry by-product meal; mid-range (75-85%) for crab meal, shrimp meal and canola meal; and low (<75%) for hydrolyzed feather meal and flaxseed meal. Further research is needed on the development of a two-stage hydrolysis assay for gadoids involving an acid (gastric) pre-digestion step prior to this assay to further increase agreement between in vivo protein ADC and in vitro protein DH.

Tibbetts SM; Verreth JAJ; Lall SP

2011-10-01

282

Effects of different sampling intervals on apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients by juvenile oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus)  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients (soybean meal, fish meal, wheat meal and corn) by juvenile oscars using two different sampling intervals (30 min. and 12h). The 160 juvenile oscar fish tested (22.37 ± 3.06 g BW) were divided into four cylindrical plastic net cages, each one placed in a 1000 L feeding tank. The experiment was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial design (2 feces collection intervals and 4 feed ingredients) with four replications. The statistical tests did not detect an interaction effect of sampling interval and type of ingredient on digestibility coefficients. Sampling interval did not affect protein and energy digestibility. The physical characteristics of juvenile oscar feces likely make them less susceptible to nutrient loss by leaching and can therefore be collected at longer intervals. Protein digestibility of the different ingredients was similar, showing that apparent digestibility of both animal and plant ingredients by juvenile oscars was efficient. Energy digestibility coefficients of fish meal and soybean meal were higher than those of wheat meal and corn. Carbohydrate-rich ingredients (wheat meal and corn) had the worst energy digestibility coefficients and are therefore not used efficiently by juvenile oscars.

Thiago Matias Torres do Nascimento; Thiago El Hadi Perez Fabregat; Laurindo André Rodrigues; Nilva Kazue Sakomura; João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes

2012-01-01

283

The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources  

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Full Text Available Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef); Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa); Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay, 200 g fishmeal. The concentrations of the amino-acids threonine, iso-leucine, leucine and arginine were increased in the total ration when lucerne hay replaced the tef hay while fishmeal supplementation increased the methionine and lysine contents, which provided a wide range of concentrations of digestible amino-acids in each of the 4 rations.

F.E. Van Niekerk; C.H. Van Niekerk

2012-01-01

284

Cathepsin A protein from the accessory sex gland of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) plays a key role in spermatophore digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accessory sex gland (ASG) secretory proteins of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) can effectively digest the spermatophore wall. In order to identify which proteins participate in spermatophore wall digestion, a 50-kDa protein secreted from the ASG was purified to homogeneity by a series of isolation steps, including ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-25 S gel-filtration, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sephacel column and Sephacryl S-200 gel-filtration. The purified protein was effective in spermatophore wall rupture, and the subsequent HPLC-ESI-MS/MS shotgun analysis showed the digestive protein to be cathepsin A (cathA). This finding was also confirmed by Western blot analysis and a cathA inhibitor digestion experiment. ELISA analysis showed that cathA enzymatic activity from ASG secretions increased during its purification process. Furthermore, enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the mating period of E. sinensis parallel to the latest developmental stage of the gland. Moreover, analysis from a cathA inhibitor that inhibits spermatophore wall digestion showed that cathA is the main enzyme involved. Hence, we first report the characterization of cathA from the ASG, which might play a key role in digesting the spermatophore wall of E. sinensis. PMID:23871752

Wang, Juan; Fang, Di-An; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yuan-Li; Cheng, Lin; He, Lin; Wang, Qun

2013-07-19

285

Cathepsin A protein from the accessory sex gland of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) plays a key role in spermatophore digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accessory sex gland (ASG) secretory proteins of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) can effectively digest the spermatophore wall. In order to identify which proteins participate in spermatophore wall digestion, a 50-kDa protein secreted from the ASG was purified to homogeneity by a series of isolation steps, including ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-25 S gel-filtration, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sephacel column and Sephacryl S-200 gel-filtration. The purified protein was effective in spermatophore wall rupture, and the subsequent HPLC-ESI-MS/MS shotgun analysis showed the digestive protein to be cathepsin A (cathA). This finding was also confirmed by Western blot analysis and a cathA inhibitor digestion experiment. ELISA analysis showed that cathA enzymatic activity from ASG secretions increased during its purification process. Furthermore, enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the mating period of E. sinensis parallel to the latest developmental stage of the gland. Moreover, analysis from a cathA inhibitor that inhibits spermatophore wall digestion showed that cathA is the main enzyme involved. Hence, we first report the characterization of cathA from the ASG, which might play a key role in digesting the spermatophore wall of E. sinensis.

Wang J; Fang DA; Wang Y; Wang YL; Cheng L; He L; Wang Q

2013-09-01

286

Alkali treatment affects in vitro digestibility and bile acid binding activity of rice protein due to varying its ratio of arginine to lysine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To elucidate whether the alkali treatment, which is a common process for rice protein extraction, is responsible for the regulation of digestibility and bile acid binding of rice protein, the effects of different degree of alkali treatment (from 0.1% to 0.3% of NaOH), as well as different ratio of arginine (Arg) to lysine (Lys) by 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0, which was induced by the addition of Arg to rice protein, on the in vitro digestibility and the bile acid binding activity were investigated. The present study clearly demonstrates the alkali treatment plays a major role in controlling the digestibility and the bile acid binding of rice protein through the modification of amino acid composition. Results indicate that the digestibility and the bile acid binding activity of rice protein are closely varying with the ratio of Arg to Lys. This shows the inhibition of digestibility and stimulation of bile acid binding are enhanced by the increase Arg/Lys ratio through the addition of Arg to rice protein. The present study suggests the Arg/Lys ratio controlled by the concentration of Arg and the alkali treatment may be the main modulator responsible for the physiological function of rice protein involved in cholesterol metabolism.

Yang L; Chen JH; Zhang H; Qiu W; Liu QH; Peng X; Li YN; Yang HK

2012-05-01

287

Pellet digestion: a simple and efficient sample preparation technique for LC-MS/MS quantification of large therapeutic proteins in plasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a need for a simple and efficient sample preparation technique for LC-MS/MS quantification of large therapeutic proteins in plasma. RESULTS: The sample preparation technique presented here is based upon trypsin digestion of the pellet obtained following precipitation of the protein analyte from plasma. The pellet digestion technique was shown to facilitate efficient digestion of large therapeutic proteins, with concomitant removal of a substantial amount of potentially problematic plasma phospholipids. The technique was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of a large therapeutic protein. CONCLUSION: This simple sample preparation approach will be beneficial to bioanalytical laboratories engaged in the LC-MS/MS quantification of large therapeutic proteins in biological matrices.

Ouyang Z; Furlong MT; Wu S; Sleczka B; Tamura J; Wang H; Suchard S; Suri A; Olah T; Tymiak A; Jemal M

2012-01-01

288

Effect of feed intake level on ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in diets for piglets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to determine the effect of graded levels of feed intake on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibilities of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in diets for piglets. The piglets were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum. The cornstarch-casein-soybean meal-based diets were fed at three graded levels of feed intake corresponding to 30, 45 and 60 g kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day. RESULTS: The AID and SID of most AA were quadratically affected by the feed intake level (P?0.05). Initially, both AID and SID of most AA increased up to 1.9 percentage units as the feed intake level was increased from 30 to 45 g kg(-1) BW. Thereafter, these AID and SID values decreased by 2.6 and 2.7 percentage units, respectively, as the feed intake level was further increased from 45 to 60 g kg(-1) BW. CONCLUSION: Because the voluntary feed intake is highly variable in piglets after weaning, comparison of ileal AA digestibilities between and within studies may be confounded by variations in feed intake level. Thus, when designing digestibility studies with piglets, a standardization of feed intake should be taken into consideration.

Goerke M; Eklund M; Sauer N; Rademacher M; Piepho HP; Börner C; Mosenthin R

2012-04-01

289

Effect of feed intake level on ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in diets for piglets  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to determine the effect of graded levels of feed intake on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibilities of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in diets for piglets. The piglets were surgically fitted with simple T?cannulas at the distal ileum. The cornstarch–casein–soybean meal?based diets were fed at three graded levels of feed intake corresponding to 30, 45 and 60 g kg?1 body weight (BW) per day. RESULTS: The AID and SID of most AA were quadratically affected by the feed intake level (P?0.05). Initially, both AID and SID of most AA increased up to 1.9 percentage units as the feed intake level was increased from 30 to 45 g kg?1 BW. Thereafter, these AID and SID values decreased by 2.6 and 2.7 percentage units, respectively, as the feed intake level was further increased from 45 to 60 g kg?1 BW. CONCLUSION: Because the voluntary feed intake is highly variable in piglets after weaning, comparison of ileal AA digestibilities between and within studies may be confounded by variations in feed intake level. Thus, when designing digestibility studies with piglets, a standardization of feed intake should be taken into consideration.

Goerke M; Eklund M; Sauer N; Rademacher M; Piepho H; Börner C; Mosenthin R

2012-04-01

290

Recombinant immobilized rhizopuspepsin as a new tool for protein digestion in hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange coupled to mass spectrometry is nowadays routinely used to probe protein interactions or conformational changes. The method has many advantages, e.g. very low sample consumption, but offers limited spatial resolution. One way to higher resolution leads through the use of different proteases or their combinations. In the present work we describe recombinant production, purification and use of aspartic protease zymogen from Rhizopus chimensis, protease type XVIII (EC 3.4.23.6), commonly referred to as rhizopuspepsinogen (Rpg). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded and purified to homogeneity. A typical yield was approximately 100 mg of pure enzyme per 1 L of original bacterial culture. The kinetics of protease activation, i.e. removal of the propeptide achieved by autolysis in an acidic environment, was followed by mass spectrometry. The digestion efficiency was tested for the protease in solution as well as for the immobilized enzyme. Apomyoglobin was successfully digested under all conditions tested and the protease displayed very low or no autodigestion. The results outperformed those obtained with commercial protease where the digestion of apomyoglobin was incomplete and accompanied by many contaminating peptides. Taken together, the recombinant protease type XVIII can be considered as a new and highly efficient tool for H/D exchange followed by mass spectrometry.

Rey M; Man P; Brandolin G; Forest E; Pelosi L

2009-11-01

291

Recombinant immobilized rhizopuspepsin as a new tool for protein digestion in hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange coupled to mass spectrometry is nowadays routinely used to probe protein interactions or conformational changes. The method has many advantages, e.g. very low sample consumption, but offers limited spatial resolution. One way to higher resolution leads through the use of different proteases or their combinations. In the present work we describe recombinant production, purification and use of aspartic protease zymogen from Rhizopus chimensis, protease type XVIII (EC 3.4.23.6), commonly referred to as rhizopuspepsinogen (Rpg). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded and purified to homogeneity. A typical yield was approximately 100 mg of pure enzyme per 1 L of original bacterial culture. The kinetics of protease activation, i.e. removal of the propeptide achieved by autolysis in an acidic environment, was followed by mass spectrometry. The digestion efficiency was tested for the protease in solution as well as for the immobilized enzyme. Apomyoglobin was successfully digested under all conditions tested and the protease displayed very low or no autodigestion. The results outperformed those obtained with commercial protease where the digestion of apomyoglobin was incomplete and accompanied by many contaminating peptides. Taken together, the recombinant protease type XVIII can be considered as a new and highly efficient tool for H/D exchange followed by mass spectrometry. PMID:19827048

Rey, Martial; Man, Petr; Brandolin, Gérard; Forest, Eric; Pelosi, Ludovic

2009-11-01

292

Comparative study of in vitro digestibility of major allergen, tropomyosin and other proteins between Grass prawn (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Stability in simulated gastric fluid is supposed to be an important parameter for the estimation of food allergenicity. In the present study, the digestive stability of allergenic protein tropomyosin (TM) and other food proteins from Grass prawn and Pacific white shrimp in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) digestion assay system was investigated and comparatively studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), western blotting, and inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: In the SGF system, proteins such as actin and myosin heavy chain (MHC) were rapidly degraded within a short period of time, while TM was relatively resistant to pepsin digestion. In the SIF system, MHC was also easily decomposed, while TM and actin were resistant to digestion. Western blotting using a specific polyclonal antibody against TM indicated that the degradation pattern of shrimp TM by SGF and SIF was almost unaffected by the presence of other myofibrillar proteins. Further study by IgE immunoblotting and inhibition ELISA using sera from crustacean-allergic patients indicated that IgE binding of TM was decreased. CONCLUSION: Proteinase digestion is effective in reducing IgE binding of shrimp TM. It is also of interest to notice that Pacific white shrimp TM had higher digestion stability than Grass prawn TM. However, Pacific white shrimp TM revealed enhanced IgE binding over that of TM from Grass prawn and thus it is possibly more allergenic.

Liu GM; Huang YY; Cai QF; Weng WY; Su WJ; Cao MJ

2011-01-01

293

Assessment of dry matter and protein digestibilities of selected raw ingredients by discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciata) using in vivo and in vitro methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reliability of several in vitro steps as compared with the conventional in vivo method to determine the dry matter and protein digestibilities of several raw ingredient by discus juveniles was assessed. In vitro studies were conducted based on a 12-h digestion method and measurement of pH drop involving four different substrate-enzyme mixtures, namely the Lazo single enzyme, Hsu multi-enzyme, Saterlee multi-enzyme and discus extract enzyme system. Results from both methods showed that fishmeal was highly digestible in terms of dry matter (67.22-87.52%) and protein (76.8-91.18%). With the exception of poultry offal meal, findings also indicate that discus digests dry matter in feedstuffs of animal origin (fish meal and beef heart) more efficiently compared with plant materials (soybean and wheat meal) with no obvious trend observed for protein digestibility in any of the ingredients tested. Apparent digestibility coefficients of not less than 40% suggest that all the ingredients tested were potential ingredients for development of formulated feed for discus culture. A comparison between the different in vitro enzyme systems tested showed that the Saterlee method, which used commercial mammalian and bacterial enzymes, was best in terms of its ability to differentiate the digestibilities of the various ingredients and correlation (r2 = 0.85-0.90) with the in vivo results. The use of a crude enzyme extract from discus digestive tract also provided values consistent with in vivo and Saterlee in vitro methods (r2 = 0.72-0.87), indicating the potential and need for further investigation to develop a more accurate in vitro assay based on discus digestive enzymes.

Chong ASC; Hashim R; Ali AB

2002-09-01

294

The role of anaerobic sludge recycle in improving anaerobic digester performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solids retention time (SRT) is a critical parameter for the performance of anaerobic digesters (AD) in wastewater treatment plants. AD SRT should increase when active biomass is input to the AD by recycling anaerobic sludge via the wastewater-treatment tanks, creating a hybrid aerobic/anaerobic system. When 85% of the flow through the AD was recycled in pilot-scale hybrid systems, the AD SRT increased by as much as 9-fold, compared to a parallel system without anaerobic-sludge recycle. Longer AD SRTs resulted in increased hydrolysis and methanogenesis in the AD: net solids yield decreased by 39-96% for overall and 23-94% in the AD alone, and AD methane yield increased 1.5- to 5.5-fold. Microbial community assays demonstrated higher, more consistent Archaea concentrations in all tanks in the wastewater-treatment system with anaerobic-sludge recycle. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that AD-sludge recycle increased AD SRT, solids hydrolysis, and methane generation. PMID:23265819

Young, Michelle N; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Liu, Wenjun; Doyle, Michael L; Rittmann, Bruce E

2012-11-28

295

Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

1992-01-01

296

Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

1992-12-01

297

Protein degradation in anaerobic digestion: Influence of volatile fatty acids and carbohydrates on hydrolysis and acidogenic fermentation of gelatin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydrolysis and fermentation of gelatin in the presence of a carbohydrate by gelatin-adapted mixed anaerobic bacterial populations in putatively carbon-limited chemostat cultures is investigated. It was shown that the degradation of the protein is progressively retarded with increasing dilution rates, as well as with increased concentrations of carbohydrates present in the feed as a second substrate. That this is not due to high concentrations of fermentation products in the reactor was established. Moreover, the carbohydrate is totally fermented at all dilution rates. It is concluded that for optimal performance of an anaerobic digestion system purifying waste waters containing carbohydrate/protein mixtures, fermentation of carbohydrates should be spatially separated from hydrolysis and fermentation of the protein.

Breure, A.M.; Mooijman, K.A.; Andel, J.G. van

1986-08-01

298

Enriching C-terminal peptide from endopeptidase ArgC digest for protein C-terminal analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This Letter describes a method for enriching C-terminal peptide of protein for C-terminal sequence analysis. This method employs endopeptidase ArgC digestion and C-terminal peptide enrichment using m-aminophenylboronic acid-agarose as an arginine-capture material. The selectively recovered C-terminal peptide incorporates no artificial derivatization. Therefore, the widely used functional groups (e.g. ?-NH(2) and ?-COOH) can be used for any necessary transformation. In this research, a TMPP mass tag was attached to the ?-NH(2) group to clarify the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal peptide.

Kuyama H; Nakajima C; Tanaka K

2012-12-01

299

Enriching C-terminal peptide from endopeptidase ArgC digest for protein C-terminal analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Letter describes a method for enriching C-terminal peptide of protein for C-terminal sequence analysis. This method employs endopeptidase ArgC digestion and C-terminal peptide enrichment using m-aminophenylboronic acid-agarose as an arginine-capture material. The selectively recovered C-terminal peptide incorporates no artificial derivatization. Therefore, the widely used functional groups (e.g. ?-NH(2) and ?-COOH) can be used for any necessary transformation. In this research, a TMPP mass tag was attached to the ?-NH(2) group to clarify the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal peptide. PMID:23079528

Kuyama, Hiroki; Nakajima, Chihiro; Tanaka, Koichi

2012-09-27

300

Functional and anti-nutritional properties, in-vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition of dehulled afzelia africana seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of Afzelia africana seed flour showed that the seeds possessed high water absorption capacity (128.31%), good oil absorption capacity (588.49%) and fairly good emulsion property (35.25%). However, it had the Least gelation concentration (6 .00% w/v) and foaming properties ( 8.00%,3 .00%). Anti-nutritional factors were very low, with the highest being phytate (13.59/o) and tannin the least (0.43%). Total amino acid composition was 796.6 mg/g protein. Essentiaal amino acids (48.5%)w ere in high proportion with in-vitro digestibility of 71.5%. (author)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Isolation of a specific mu-opiate receptor peptide, morphiceptin, from an enzymatic digest of milk proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Specific radioimmunoassays have been developed for the measurement of naturally occurring morphiceptin and beta-casomorphin. These peptides and related exorphins were isolated from an enzymatic digest of caseins by chromatographic techniques including gel filtration, hydrophobic column and multiple-step high pressure liquid chromatography. Three exorphins were purified and characterized in their radioimmunological, biological, and chemical properties. They were identified as morphiceptin, beta-casomorphin, and 8-prolyl-beta-casomorphin. Since morphiceptin is a highly specific mu-agonist and can be derived from a milk protein, it is possible that morphiceptin is an exogenous opioid ligand specific for mu-receptors in the brain and gastrointestinal tract.

Chang KJ; Su YF; Brent DA; Chang JK

1985-08-01

302

Cold-set whey protein microgels containing immobilised lipid phases to modulate matrix digestion and release of a water-soluble bioactive.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract This study investigated the in-vitro digestibility of cold-set whey protein (WP) microgels prepared by two gelation methods (external and internal) containing lipids (0%, 10% or 20% w/w). The incorporation of lipids into these matrices achieved higher entrapment of the bioactive vitamin riboflavin, as well as significant reductions in rates of both the digestion of the protein matrix, and the subsequent diffusion of the water-soluble bioactive. A biexponential model accounted for the contribution of digestion- and diffusion-driven mechanisms in describing the release of riboflavin into enzyme containing simulated gastrointestinal fluids. In particular, for external gelation microgels, as the lipid load within the matrices increased, the contribution of a faster diffusion-driven release was almost completely negated by a slower digestion-assisted release. Lipid loads provided a composite matrix capable of alternating from a burst to a sustained release of bioactive.

Egan T; Jacquier JC; Rosenberg Y; Rosenberg M

2013-08-01

303

Optimizing feeding composition and carbon-nitrogen ratios for improved methane yield during anaerobic co-digestion of dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the possibilities of improving methane yield from anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates, using a mixture of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and wheat straw (WS), based on optimized feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Co-digestion of DM, CM and WS performed better in methane potential than individual digestion. A larger synergetic effect in co-digestion of DM, CM and WS was found than in mixtures of single manures with WS. As the C/N ratio increased, methane potential initially increased and then declined. C/N ratios of 25:1 and 30:1 had better digestion performance with stable pH and low concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen and free NH(3). Maximum methane potential was achieved with DM/CM of 40.3:59.7 and a C/N ratio of 27.2:1 after optimization using response surface methodology. The results suggested that better performance of anaerobic co-digestion can be fulfilled by optimizing feeding composition and the C/N ratio. PMID:22784956

Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

2012-06-26

304

Optimizing feeding composition and carbon-nitrogen ratios for improved methane yield during anaerobic co-digestion of dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the possibilities of improving methane yield from anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates, using a mixture of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and wheat straw (WS), based on optimized feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Co-digestion of DM, CM and WS performed better in methane potential than individual digestion. A larger synergetic effect in co-digestion of DM, CM and WS was found than in mixtures of single manures with WS. As the C/N ratio increased, methane potential initially increased and then declined. C/N ratios of 25:1 and 30:1 had better digestion performance with stable pH and low concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen and free NH(3). Maximum methane potential was achieved with DM/CM of 40.3:59.7 and a C/N ratio of 27.2:1 after optimization using response surface methodology. The results suggested that better performance of anaerobic co-digestion can be fulfilled by optimizing feeding composition and the C/N ratio.

Wang X; Yang G; Feng Y; Ren G; Han X

2012-09-01

305

Nutritional studies on East African herbivores. 1. Digestibilities of dry matter , crude fibre and crude protein in antelope, cattle and sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. A series of digestibility trials was done using four animals of each of the following species: Friesian cattle (Bos taurus), Boran zebu cattle (Bos indicus), Corriedale sheep, fat-tailed sheep, eland (Taurotragus oryx Pallas), Coke's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei Günther), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii Günther) and bush duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia L.). 2. Two batches of pelleted food were prepared from ground maize cobs, cassava, whs (A-E) were prepared containing 65 (A)-135 (E) g crude protein (nitrogen times 6-25)/kg dry matter. The crude-fibre contents of all the diets were similar (120-138 g/kg dry matter). 3. The animals were given the high-protein diet (E), then given diets with decreasing protein contents finishing with the low-protein (A). The antelope and half the sheep were given diets from the first batch of pelleted food, the other four sheep and all the cattle were given diets from the second batch of food. 4. In sheep, there were significant differences in digestibility between the two batches of food. 5. There were no significant differences in the over-all mean digestibilities of all diets when given to cattle (both species) and sheep. However, with diet E, dry-matter digestibility was higher in sheep than in cattle (P smaller than 0-05): the reverse was true with diet A (P smaller than 0-001). Crude-fibre and crude-protein digestibilities followed a similar pattern. The differences between Corriedale and fat-tailed sheep were not significant. The only significant difference between the two species of cattle was the higher digestibility of crude protein in Borans given diet E (P smaller than 0-05). 6. The over-all mean digestibility of the dry matter was higher (P smaller than 0-001) in hartebeest and duiker than in sheep; in Thomson's gazelle (P smaller than 0-01) and eland (P smaller than 0-001) it was lower than in sheep. The values for crude-fibre digestibilities varied in a similar way. 7. The mean apparent digestibility of crude protein was higher (P smaller than 0-001) in eland, hartebeest and duiker than in sheep and gazelle. 8. The results are discussed in relation to the feeding habits and digestive physiology of the various species.

Arman P; Hopcraft D

1975-03-01

306

Relationship between digestibility and secondary structure of raw and thermally treated legume proteins: a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The secondary structure of proteins in legumes, cereals, milk products and chicken meat was studied by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy in the region of the amide I band. Major secondary structure components ( ?-sheets, random coil, ?-helix, turns), together with the low- and high-frequency side contributions, were resolved and related to the in vitro digestibility behaviour of the different foods. A strong inverse correlation between the relative spectral weights of the ?-sheet structures and in vitro protein digestibility values was measured. Structural modifications in legume proteins induced by autoclaving were monitored by the changes in the amide I spectra. The results indicate that the ?-sheet structures of raw legume proteins and the intermolecular ?-sheet aggregates, arising upon heating, are primary factors in adversely affecting the digestibility.

Carbonaro M; Maselli P; Nucara A

2012-08-01

307

Digestive System  

Science.gov (United States)

... Body's Fuel Source What's the first step in digesting food? Believe it or not, the digestive process ... certain foods. People with celiac disease have difficulty digesting the nutrients from their food because eating things ...

308

Improving cultivation processes for recombinant protein production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An new cascade control system is presented that reproducibly keeps the cultivation part of recombinant protein production processes on its predetermined track. While the system directly controls carbon dioxide production mass and carbon dioxide production rates along their setpoint profiles in fed-batch cultivation, it simultaneously keeps the specific biomass growth rates and the biomass profiles on their desired paths. The control scheme was designed and tuned using a virtual plant environment based on the industrial process control system SIMATIC PCS 7 (Siemens AG). It is shown by means of validation experiments that the simulations in this straightforward approach directly reflect the experimentally observed controller behaviour. Within the virtual plant environment, it was shown that the cascade control is considerably better than previously used control approaches. The controller significantly improved the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the fermentations. Experimental tests confirmed that it is particularly suited for cultivation processes suffering from long response times and delays. The performance of the new controller is demonstrated during its application in Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivations as well as in animal cell cultures with CHO cells. The technique is a simple and reliable alternative to more sophisticate model-supported controllers.

Kuprijanov A; Schaepe S; Aehle M; Simutis R; Lübbert A

2012-03-01

309

Studies on the digestibility of microbial cell protein in buffalo calves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The digestibility of cell wall, cell contents and mixed whole 35S-rumen bacteria and 14C-protozoal cells was determined in buffalo calves. The intact cells as well as their fractions were injected in a single dose into the rumen after treating with formaldehyde to protect degradation in the rumen and radioactivity excreted in the faeces was measured for six consecutive days. The indigestibility of mixed whole rumen bacteria, cell wall and cell contents was observed to be 87.13 +- 0.61, 92.77 +- 0.83 and 83.62 +- 1.10 percent, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of mixed whole rumen protozoa, cell wall, cell content and Holotrics were 90.95 +- 0.39, 94.39 +- 1.08, 89.01 +- 0.97 and 93.16 +- 0.69 percent, respectively. (auth.)

1979-02-24

310

Physicochemical Content, Metabolizable Energy and In-vitro Protein Digestibility of Wheat Screening Diet on Growth Rate of Broiler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In competitions by monogastric animal particular in poultry by consumption human food sources, high attempt should be made to find out new sources of feed that is not consumed by human. Wheat screening is one of the these sources of feed which need to be considered. Determination of physicochemical content, metabolizable energy (ME) and protein digestibility may lead to elucidate the quality of this feed as well as arrangement in feed formulation of broiler ration. Physical content of two types of wheat screening (W. S.) were tested by seed sorting system (grad 1 and 2), lots of straw, sand, dust, soil and none cereal seed were observed in wheat screening grads 2 compared with wheat screening grade 1. In addition 80% of wheat screening includes wheat screening grads 1 which content less Straw, soil, sand and none cereal seed. Otherwise metabolizable energy which was estimated by Sibbaled method was significantly higher (PIn-vitro protein digestibility 81.7% and digestible energy 2352.73 kcal/kg in wheat screening grad 1 were quiet desirable which evaluated by Fuller method. The effect of wheat screening grad 1 on growth rate of broiler, was examined by carried out an experiment which includes 320 day old unsexed Ross broiler chicken with (0, 10, 20 and 30% W. S.). No significantly differences were found in daily feed intake (DFI), daily growth rate (DGR), uniformity (UF) and production index (PI) in concern to different levels of wheat screening. The result of this study have shown that, it is possible to use wheat screening grad 1 in broiler ration, but the exact amount of this unconvencial feed source need to be clarify by further investigation.

A.A. Saki; A. Alipana

2005-01-01

311

M13 bacteriophage coat proteins engineered for improved phage display.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This chapter describes a method for increasing levels of protein fusions displayed on the surfaces of M13 bacteriophage particles. By introducing mutations into the anchoring M13 coat protein, protein display levels can be increased by up to two orders of magnitude. Experimental methods are presented for the design, construction, and screening of phage-displayed libraries for improved protein display.

Sidhu SS; Feld BK; Weiss GA

2007-01-01

312

Apparent Digestibility of Feed Nutrients, Total Tract and Ileal Amino Acids of Broiler Chicken Fed Quality Protein Maize (Obatampa) and Normal Maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two hundred and forty Ross Broiler chicken were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the apparent digestibility of Obatampa, a quality protein maize (QPM) and normal maize (NM) nutrients with respect to crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract, as...

P.A. Onimisi; I.I. Dafwang; J.J. Omage; J.E. Onyibe

313

Improved mass spectrometric analysis of membrane proteins based on rapid and versatile sample preparation on nanodiamond particles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have developed a novel streamlined sample preparation procedure for mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of membrane proteins using surface-oxidized nanodiamond particles. The platform consists of solid-phase extraction and elution of the membrane proteins on nanodiamonds, concentrating the membrane proteins on the nanodiamonds and separating out detergents, chaotropic agents, and salts, and other impurities that are often present at high concentrations in solubilized membrane preparations. In this manner, membrane-protein extracts are transformed into MS-ready samples in minutes. The protocol is not only fast, but also widely adaptable and highly effective for preparing generic membrane protein samples for both MALDI-MS studies of membrane-protein complexes and shotgun membrane proteomics studies. As proof of concept, we have demonstrated substantial improvements in the MALDI-MS analysis of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) complex, a three-subunit transmembrane protein solubilized in various detergent buffers. Enzymatic digestions of membrane proteins are also greatly facilitated since the proteins extracted on to the nanodiamonds are exposed on the surface of the nanoparticles rather than in SDS gels or in detergent solutions. We illustrate the effectiveness of nanodiamonds for SDS removal in the preparation of membrane proteins for MS analysis on the proteome level by examining the quality of the tryptic peptides prepared by on-surface nanodiamond digestion of an E. coli membrane fraction for shotgun proteomics.

Pham MD; Yu SS; Han CC; Chan SI

2013-07-01

314

Improved mass spectrometric analysis of membrane proteins based on rapid and versatile sample preparation on nanodiamond particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a novel streamlined sample preparation procedure for mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of membrane proteins using surface-oxidized nanodiamond particles. The platform consists of solid-phase extraction and elution of the membrane proteins on nanodiamonds, concentrating the membrane proteins on the nanodiamonds and separating out detergents, chaotropic agents, and salts, and other impurities that are often present at high concentrations in solubilized membrane preparations. In this manner, membrane-protein extracts are transformed into MS-ready samples in minutes. The protocol is not only fast, but also widely adaptable and highly effective for preparing generic membrane protein samples for both MALDI-MS studies of membrane-protein complexes and shotgun membrane proteomics studies. As proof of concept, we have demonstrated substantial improvements in the MALDI-MS analysis of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) complex, a three-subunit transmembrane protein solubilized in various detergent buffers. Enzymatic digestions of membrane proteins are also greatly facilitated since the proteins extracted on to the nanodiamonds are exposed on the surface of the nanoparticles rather than in SDS gels or in detergent solutions. We illustrate the effectiveness of nanodiamonds for SDS removal in the preparation of membrane proteins for MS analysis on the proteome level by examining the quality of the tryptic peptides prepared by on-surface nanodiamond digestion of an E. coli membrane fraction for shotgun proteomics. PMID:23763332

Pham, Minh D; Yu, Steve S-F; Han, Chau-Chung; Chan, Sunney I

2013-06-27

315

Acid and rennet gels exhibit strong differences in the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid bioavailability.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at determining the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid absorption after ingestion by six multi-canulated mini-pigs of two gelled dairy matrices having the same composition, similar rheological and structural properties, but differing by their mode of coagulation (acidification/renneting). Duodenal, mid-jejunal effluents and plasma samples were collected at different times during 7h after meal ingestion. Ingestion of the acid gel induced a peak of caseins and ?-lactoglobulin in duodenal effluents after 20min of digestion and a peak of amino acids in the plasma after 60min. The rennet gel induced lower levels of both proteins in the duodenum (with no defined peak) as well as much lower levels of amino acids in the plasma than the acid gel. Plasma ghrelin concentrations suggested a potentially more satiating effect of the rennet gel compared to the acid gel. This study clearly evidences that the gelation process can significantly impact on the nutritive value of dairy products. PMID:24054204

Barbé, Florence; Ménard, Olivia; Gouar, Yann Le; Buffière, Caroline; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Laroche, Béatrice; Feunteun, Steven Le; Rémond, Didier; Dupont, Didier

2013-07-27

316

Acid and rennet gels exhibit strong differences in the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid bioavailability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed at determining the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid absorption after ingestion by six multi-canulated mini-pigs of two gelled dairy matrices having the same composition, similar rheological and structural properties, but differing by their mode of coagulation (acidification/renneting). Duodenal, mid-jejunal effluents and plasma samples were collected at different times during 7h after meal ingestion. Ingestion of the acid gel induced a peak of caseins and ?-lactoglobulin in duodenal effluents after 20min of digestion and a peak of amino acids in the plasma after 60min. The rennet gel induced lower levels of both proteins in the duodenum (with no defined peak) as well as much lower levels of amino acids in the plasma than the acid gel. Plasma ghrelin concentrations suggested a potentially more satiating effect of the rennet gel compared to the acid gel. This study clearly evidences that the gelation process can significantly impact on the nutritive value of dairy products.

Barbé F; Ménard O; Gouar YL; Buffière C; Famelart MH; Laroche B; Feunteun SL; Rémond D; Dupont D

2014-01-01

317

Protein switches identified from diverse insertion libraries created using S1 nuclease digestion of supercoiled-form plasmid DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We demonstrate that S1 nuclease converts supercoiled plasmid DNA to unit-length, linear dsDNA through the creation of a single, double-stranded break in a plasmid molecule. These double-stranded breaks occur not only in the origin of replication near inverted repeats but also at a wide variety of locations throughout the plasmid. S1 nuclease exhibits this activity under conditions typically employed for the nuclease's single-stranded nuclease activity. Thus, S1 nuclease digestion of plasmid DNA, unlike analogous digestion with DNaseI, effectively halts after the first double-stranded break. This property makes easier the construction of large domain insertion libraries in which the goal is to insert linear DNA at a variety of locations throughout a plasmid. We used this property to create a library in which a circularly permuted TEM1 ?-lactamase gene was inserted throughout a plasmid containing the gene encoding Escherichia coli ribose binding protein. Gene fusions that encode allosteric switch proteins in which ribose modulates ?-lactamase catalytic activity were isolated from this library using a combination of a genetic selection and a screen.

Tullman J; Guntas G; Dumont M; Ostermeier M

2011-11-01

318

Protein switches identified from diverse insertion libraries created using S1 nuclease digestion of supercoiled-form plasmid DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate that S1 nuclease converts supercoiled plasmid DNA to unit-length, linear dsDNA through the creation of a single, double-stranded break in a plasmid molecule. These double-stranded breaks occur not only in the origin of replication near inverted repeats but also at a wide variety of locations throughout the plasmid. S1 nuclease exhibits this activity under conditions typically employed for the nuclease's single-stranded nuclease activity. Thus, S1 nuclease digestion of plasmid DNA, unlike analogous digestion with DNaseI, effectively halts after the first double-stranded break. This property makes easier the construction of large domain insertion libraries in which the goal is to insert linear DNA at a variety of locations throughout a plasmid. We used this property to create a library in which a circularly permuted TEM1 ?-lactamase gene was inserted throughout a plasmid containing the gene encoding Escherichia coli ribose binding protein. Gene fusions that encode allosteric switch proteins in which ribose modulates ?-lactamase catalytic activity were isolated from this library using a combination of a genetic selection and a screen. PMID:21618478

Tullman, Jennifer; Guntas, Gurkan; Dumont, Matthew; Ostermeier, Marc

2011-06-15

319

The effect of starch-protein interaction in wheat on the glycemic response and rate of in vitro digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the effect on blood glucose of removal of protein from wheat products, healthy volunteers took test meals of white bread made from either regular or gluten-free flour. After bread made from gluten-free flour, the blood-glucose rise was significantly greater. This corresponded with a significantly more rapid rate of digestion in vitro and reduced starch malabsorption in vivo as judged by breath-H2 measurements. Addition of gluten to the gluten-free bread mix did not reverse these effects. Factors associated with unprocessed wheat flour, such as the natural starch-protein interaction, may therefore be important in wheat products in reducing both their rate of absorption and glycemic response. They may have implications in the dietary management both of diabetes and of diseases where small intestinal absorptive capacity is impaired.

Jenkins DJ; Thorne MJ; Wolever TM; Jenkins AL; Rao AV; Thompson LU

1987-05-01

320

Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 digests fats in human milk and formula in concert with gastric lipase and carboxyl ester lipase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dietary fats must be digested into fatty acids and monoacylglycerols prior to absorption. In adults, colipase-dependent pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) contributes significantly to fat digestion. In newborn rodents and humans, the pancreas expresses low levels of PTL. In rodents, a homologue of PTL, pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2), and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) compensate for the lack of PTL. In human newborns, the role of PLRP2 in dietary fat digestion is unclear. To clarify the potential of human PLRP2 to influence dietary fat digestion in newborns, we determined PLRP2 activity against human milk and infant formula. METHODS: The activity of purified recombinant PLRP2, gastric lipase (GL), and CEL against fats in human milk and formula was measured with each lipase alone and in combination with a standard pH-stat assay. RESULTS: Colipase added to human milk stimulated fat digestion. PLRP2 and CEL had activity against human milk and formula. Predigestion with GL increased PLRP2 activity against both substrates. Together, CEL and PLRP2 activity was additive with formula and synergistic with human milk. CONCLUSION: PLRP2 can digest fats in human milk and formula. PLRP2 acts in concert with CEL and GL to digest fats in human milk in vitro.

Johnson K; Ross L; Miller R; Xiao X; Lowe ME

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of phytase supplementation to diets for weanling pigs on the digestibilities of crude protein, amino acids, and energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted with weanling pigs fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, to determine the effect of phytase supplementation to four diets on the apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of CP and AA, and the apparent total-tract digestibilities (ATTD) of CP and DE. Phytase (Natuphos, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, The Netherlands) was supplemented at rates of 0, 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg to the four diets. A 20% CP (as-fed basis) corn-soybean meal diet was used in Exp. 1; a 20% CP wheat-soybean meal diet in Exp. 2; a 20% CP wheat-soybean meal-canola meal diet in Exp. 3; and a 19% CP barley-peas-canola meal diet in Exp. 4. In each experiment, six barrows, fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, were fed the basal plus phytase-supplemented diets according to a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period comprised 14 d. The piglets were at fed 0800 and 2000 daily, equal amounts for each meal, at a daily rate of at least 2.4 times the maintenance requirement for ME. Feces were collected from 0800 on d 8 until 0800 on d 12 of each experimental period. Ileal digesta were collected from 0800 to 2000 on d 12, 13, and 14. Chromic oxide was used as the digestibility marker. The average initial and final BW (average of all experiments) were 7.9 and 16.5 kg, respectively. Phytase supplementation did not improve the AID of CP and AA in Exp. 1, 2, and 4; however, there were improvements (P microbial phytase supplementation depends on diet composition. PMID:15705759

Liao, S F; Sauer, W C; Kies, A K; Zhang, Y C; Cervantes, M; He, J M

2005-03-01

322

Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner  

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This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period follo...

Clare L. Lawton; Jenny Walton; Alexa Hoyland; Elaine Howarth; Peter Allan; David Chesters; Louise Dye

323

Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

Clare L. Lawton; Jenny Walton; Alexa Hoyland; Elaine Howarth; Peter Allan; David Chesters; Louise Dye

2013-01-01

324

Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

Lawton CL; Walton J; Hoyland A; Howarth E; Allan P; Chesters D; Dye L

2013-04-01

325

Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC), heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. RESULTS: Enprocal (undigested) and digested (Enprocal D) selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int) and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells). Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated) maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER) assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80), MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells)-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) and up-regulated IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-10. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.

Kanwar JR; Kanwar RK

2009-01-01

326

Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC), heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested) and digested (Enprocal D) selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int) and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells). Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated) maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER) assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80), MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells)-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) and up-regulated IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.

Kanwar Jagat R; Kanwar Rupinder K

2009-01-01

327

Characterization of Tannin and Study of in vitro Protein Digestibility and Mineral Profile of Sudanese and Indian Sorghum Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, mineral profile, tannin content, and effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility , and separation and identification of free and bound phenolic acids of Sudanese sorghum cultivar (namely feterita) and Indian sorghum cultivar (namely CSH5). Chemical composition of the two sorghum cultivars was determined. Sudanese cultivar showed significantly (p0.05) high moisture, ash, protein, and fat while Indian cultivar was significantly higher (P0.05) in fiber and carbohydrate contents. Cupper, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium were determined for the two cultivars. Results revealed that, Sudanese cultivar was significantly higher (P0.05) in cupper, calcium, iron, and sodium while Indian cultivar was significantly higher (P0.05) in phosphorus and potassium content. Tannin content in Sudanese cultivar was significantly (P0.05) higher compared to Indian cultivar. Effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility revealed that cooking significantly (P0.05) reduced the in vitro protein digestibility of the two sorghum cultivars. The phenolic acids (PAs) as free and bound form content were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the two sorghum cultivars. Syringic, p-coummaric, ferulic acid were detected as free form of phenolic acids of Indian cultivar while gallic , protocatechuic, gentisic, caffeic, p-coummaric , and ferulic acids were detected in free form of Sudanese cultivar. Gallic, protocatechuic , gentisic, and p-coummaric were not detected in free form in Indian cultivar while syringic acid was not detected in Sudanese cultivar in free form. Indian cultivar contained high caffeic and ferulic acid in free form compared to Sudanese cultivar. Syringic , caffeic, p- coummaric and ferulic acids were detected in bound form in Indian cultivar while gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coummaric and ferulic acid were detected in bound form in Sudanese cultivar. Gallic, protocatechuic and gentisic acids were not detected in free and bound form in Indian cultivar while p-coummaric acid was only detected in bound form in Indian cultivar. Syringic, caffeic, p-coummaric and ferulic acids content in bound form were high in Indian cultivar than Sudanese cultivar. Generally phenolic acids of the two cultivars exist mostly in bound form.

Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem; G. Muralikrishna; A.H. EL Tinay; A.I. Mustafa

2009-01-01

328

Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction that is both undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine. Indigestibility values of RUR were lower than in intact feeds, suggesting that the feed ingredients used in this experiment contain a protein fraction that is indigestible in the intestine but partly degradable in the rumen or digestible in the intestine after rumen incubation, or both. PMID:19923609

Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

2009-12-01

329

Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small molecules of approximately 10 kD that demonstrate high stability. They have recently been identified as allergens in the Rosaceae subfamilies of the Prunoideae (peach, apricot, plum) and of the Pomoideae (apple). They belong to a family of structurally highly conserved proteins that are also present in non-Rosaceae vegetable foods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-reactivity to non-Rosaceae LTPs, and to study the role of protein stability in allergenicity. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with a positive SPT to Rosaceae fruit extracts enriched for LTP were characterized by interview and SPT. To investigate IgE cross-reactivity between Rosaceae and non-Rosaceae LTPs, RAST and RAST inhibition as well as ELISA and ELISA inhibition were performed, using whole food extracts and purified LTPs. Both purified natural LTPs (peach, carrot and broccoli) and Pichia pastoris recombinant LTPs (carrot and wheat) were included. Pepsin digestion was used to address the role of stability in the allergenicity of LTPs. RESULTS: IgE antibodies to Rosaceae LTPs reacted to a broad range of vegetable foods, including Gramineae (cereals), Leguminosae (peanut), Juglandaceae (walnut), Anacardiaceae (pistachio), Brassicaceae (broccoli), Umbelliferae (carrot, celery), Solanaceae (tomato), Cucurbitaceae (melon), and Actinidiaceae (kiwi). Binding and inhibition studies with purified natural and recombinant LTPs confirmed their role in this cross-reactivity. Many of these cross-reactivities were accompanied by clinical food allergy, frequently including systemic reactions. Antibody binding to LTP was shown to be resistant to pepsin treatment of whole extract or purified LTP. CONCLUSION: LTP is a pan-allergen with a degree of cross-reactivity comparable to profilin. Due to its extreme resistance to pepsin digestion, LTP is a potentially severe food allergen.

Asero R; Mistrello G; Roncarolo D; de Vries SC; Gautier MF; Ciurana CL; Verbeek E; Mohammadi T; Knul-Brettlova V; Akkerdaas JH; Bulder I; Aalberse RC; van Ree R

2000-05-01

330

Improving the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digester through recirculation of low hydrogen biogas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biogas recirculation was conducted to improve the performance of two thermophilic anaerobic sequenced batch reactors (ASBRs), in which high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were accumulated. To accelerate degradation of VFAs, facilitating acetate consumption via syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (SAO-HM) was expected to be effective. Hence, to promote the SAO-HM pathway, hydrogen was removed to create low hydrogen partial pressure (pH2) in reactor RH, yet in reactor RB, hydrogen was not treated. The performance of RB and RH on VFAs degradation and methane production processes was compared at steady stage; the VFAs and soluble microbial products (SMP) in the effluents were monitored. The results showed that low pH2 intensified the SAO reaction, thereby accelerating conversion of acetate to methane, as well as acetate production from glucose and VFAs. Glucose fermentation type was also influenced. VFAs and SMP in the effluents were reduced after the introduction of biogas mixing, which proceeded much faster in RH with low pH2. Recirculation of low hydrogen biogas with SAO-HM pathway being promoted should be more effective to alleviate high acid level stress and to improve the reactor performance.

Hao LP; Lü F; Shao LM; He PJ

2013-01-01

331

Improvement of protein content in winter wheat with physicochemical mutagens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation is one of the approaches to improve the protein content of wheat. In present experiments the wheat mutation contained high protein, gluten and lysine were obtained by means of treating dry seeds with different physicochemical mutation. The procedure of breeding for improving the qiality of wheat was found

1985-01-01

332

Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and dry matter (DM) and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal) in compound diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582), and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

Igo Gomes Guimarães; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Margarida Maria Barros; Rosângela do Nascimento Fernandes

2012-01-01

333

Energy utilization of sodium hydroxide treated or untreated straw supplemented with protein or concentrates by adult sheep. 2. Rumen digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

NaOH treated (T) or untreated (UT) barley straws were supplemented either with protein (P) or with concentrates based on maize (M) or beet pulp (BP), the two last at rates of 25 and 50% of the diet. Each of the 10 diets was fed to two sheep ad libitum. Two diets were also fed at limited intakes. For these 12 diets in sacco cellulolytic activity in the rumen and ruminal fermentation were measured. Cellulolytic activity was measured with the studied straws, so that their digestion rate was also determined. NaOH treatment increased rate of digestion of straw, while high levels of concentrates decreased it. In contrast NaOH treatment and high levels of concentrate decreased cellulolytic activity but neither type of concentrate nor limitation of intake altered it. NaOH treatment only slightly modified pH because a higher level of VFA in rumen balanced NaOH presence. An important negative effect on pH of high levels of concentrate was observed, but there was no effect or type of concentrate or limitation of intake. Fermentation pattern was only slightly influenced by studied factors: +2.2 units of butyric acid and -2.1 units of acetic acid with treated straw; lower level of acetic acid occurred when concentrate was increased, especially for maize. Limitation of intake increased acetic acid molar proportion. PMID:3446093

Dulphy, J P; Grenet, E; Vermorel, M

1987-09-01

334

Energy utilization of sodium hydroxide treated or untreated straw supplemented with protein or concentrates by adult sheep. 2. Rumen digestion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

NaOH treated (T) or untreated (UT) barley straws were supplemented either with protein (P) or with concentrates based on maize (M) or beet pulp (BP), the two last at rates of 25 and 50% of the diet. Each of the 10 diets was fed to two sheep ad libitum. Two diets were also fed at limited intakes. For these 12 diets in sacco cellulolytic activity in the rumen and ruminal fermentation were measured. Cellulolytic activity was measured with the studied straws, so that their digestion rate was also determined. NaOH treatment increased rate of digestion of straw, while high levels of concentrates decreased it. In contrast NaOH treatment and high levels of concentrate decreased cellulolytic activity but neither type of concentrate nor limitation of intake altered it. NaOH treatment only slightly modified pH because a higher level of VFA in rumen balanced NaOH presence. An important negative effect on pH of high levels of concentrate was observed, but there was no effect or type of concentrate or limitation of intake. Fermentation pattern was only slightly influenced by studied factors: +2.2 units of butyric acid and -2.1 units of acetic acid with treated straw; lower level of acetic acid occurred when concentrate was increased, especially for maize. Limitation of intake increased acetic acid molar proportion.

Dulphy JP; Grenet E; Vermorel M

1987-09-01

335

Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen undegradable protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: I. Soybean meal and SoyPlus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in rumen undegradable protein (RUP-AA) in soybean meal (SBM) and expeller SBM (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA; SP) and to determine if these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Three samples of SBM and 3 samples of SP were obtained from the Feed Analysis Consortium Inc. (Savoy, IL). To obtain the RUP fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of AA in the intact feeds and RUP-AA. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x [(100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)]/100]. Results indicated that standardized digestibility of feed-AA was similar to standardized digestibility of RUP-AA for SBM and SP samples and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differed within samples. Standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were lowest for Lys and Cys and highest for Trp and Met. Results also indicated that SBM and SP did not contain a constant protein fraction that was both undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine. Indigestibility values of RUR were lower than in intact feeds, suggesting that SBM and SP contain a protein fraction that is indigestible in the intestine but partly degradable in the rumen, digestible in the intestine after ruminal incubation, or both. PMID:19700710

Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

2009-09-01

336

Development of a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for a PEGylated adnectin in cynomolgus monkey plasma using protein precipitation and trypsin digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for a PEGylated adnectin therapeutic protein in cynomolgus monkey plasma. The validated method was performed using protein precipitation coupled with trypsin digestion, followed by LC-MS/MS detection of a surrogate peptide generated from the PEGylated adnectin protein. A tryptic peptide generated from a PEGylated adnectin protein analog was used as the internal standard to standardize the digestion, extraction, and quantitation processes. The protein precipitation extraction of the protein from cynomolgus plasma was performed using an acidic 2-propanol organic solution. Following the extraction, the supernatant was removed and a 45min trypsin digestion was performed at 60°C on the supernatant layer. The linear dynamic range of the assay was 50.0-25,000ng/mL. Chromatographic separation was performed with an Acquity BEH C18 (1.7?m particle size, 2.1mm×50mm) column using gradient elution. The assay proved to have robust accuracy, precision, and stability for the representative surrogate peptide of the PEGylated adnectin protein being evaluated. The validated method was implemented as a high throughput assay for a PEGylated adnectin protein using a similar PEGylated adnectin therapeutic protein as the internal standard that can be used for future monkey toxicokinetic (TK) studies. PMID:23891912

Dawes, Michelle L; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Jian; Schuster, Alan E; Haulenbeek, Jonathan

2013-07-11

337

Bioinsecticidal activity of Talisia esculenta reserve protein on growth and serine digestive enzymes during larval development of Anticarsia gemmatalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants synthesize a variety of molecules to defend themselves against an attack by insects. Talisin is a reserve protein from Talisia esculenta seeds, the first to be characterized from the family Sapindaceae. In this study, the insecticidal activity of Talisin was tested by incorporating the reserve protein into an artificial diet fed to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, the major pest of soybean crops in Brazil. At 1.5% (w/w) of the dietary protein, Talisin affected larval growth, pupal weight, development and mortality, adult fertility and longevity, and produced malformations in pupae and adult insects. Talisin inhibited the trypsin-like activity of larval midgut homogenates. The trypsin activity in Talisin-fed larvae was sensitive to Talisin, indicating that no novel protease-resistant to Talisin was induced in Talisin-fed larvae. Affinity chromatography showed that Talisin bound to midgut proteinases of the insect A. gemmatalis, but was resistant to enzymatic digestion by these larval proteinases. The transformation of genes coding for this reserve protein could be useful for developing insect resistant crops.

Macedo ML; Freire Md; Kubo CE; Parra JR

2011-01-01

338

Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS). Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P P P P P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action.

Yang Lin; Chen Jia-Hou; Lv Jie; Wu Qiong; Xu Tong; Zhang Hua; Liu Qiao-Hong; Yang Hong-Kun

2012-01-01

339

A comparison of different biotinylation reagents, tryptic digestion procedures, and mass spectrometric techniques for 2-D peptide mapping of membrane proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

2-D peptide mapping is a novel technique for the relative quantification of membrane proteins (Scheurer S. et al., Proteomics 2005, in press). Using closely related metastatic and nonmetastatic teratocarcinoma cell lines as a model system, we have performed a comparative analysis of different biotinylation reagents, tryptic digestion procedures, and mass spectrometric techniques, with the aim to increase the number of proteins identified by 2-D peptide mapping. Our experience indicates that the LC-MALDI TOF/TOF technique is superior to LC-ESI MS/MS in terms of the number of proteins identified and confidence in protein identification. Furthermore, the best results were obtained by tryptic digestion of proteins eluted from a streptavidin column using a cleavable biotin derivative.

Scheurer SB; Roesli C; Neri D; Elia G

2005-08-01

340

Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and in Vitro Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra) were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich fraction) roasting, boiling, pressure cooking & germination respectively. Processing had little effect on the total dietary fiber (TDF) content in both varieties; however the bran rich fraction showed highest TDF content of around 29%. Tannins effectively lowered upon boiling and pressure cooking respectively, but significantly increased (P ? 0.05) upon germination. Although the % IVPD of the millet (45.5 – 49.3 g/100g) was low, it significantly increased upon milling (bran rich fraction), roasting and germination respectively.

Florence Suma Pushparaj; Asna Urooj

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Improvement of sewage sludge quality: Combination of ozone and anaerobic digestion processes for the removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH5) present in sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land application of sewage sludge is a choice disposal route for sustainable development. However, sludge quality has to be controlled in order to limit potential risks owing to the accumulation in agricultural soil of trace metals or trace organic pollutants. Amongst these organic compounds, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are particularly monitored because of their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Previous results have shown the partial removal of PAHs (50%) during anaerobic sludge stabilisation. The aim of this study was to optimize PAHs removal by combining anaerobic digestion with ozonation. Ozonation of anaerobically digested sludge improved the PAHs removal rate (61%). An additional enhancement of the PAHs removal rate was obtained by the addition of hydrogen peroxide during ozonation process. Similar performances (up to 81%) ware achieved by the use of surfactants which improved PAHs solubility in the aqueous phase. Finally, in order to evaluate the feasibility of the combination of the anaerobic digestion with ozonation, the biodegradability of the digested sludge ozonized in presence of surfactants and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was measured. (author)

Bernal-Martinez, A.; Carrere, H.; Patureau, D.; Delgenes, J.P.

2003-07-01

342

Compositions and methods for improved protein production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

Bodie, Elizabeth A. (San Carlos, CA); Kim, Steve (San Francisco, CA)

2012-07-10

343

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB) e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe) e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo) para beta (Betta splendens). Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário) para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium) for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon; Hamilton Hisano; Dario Rocha Falcon; Fernanda Garcia Sampaio; Margarida Maria Barros; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

2007-01-01

344

Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta/ Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB) e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe) e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo) para beta (Betta splendens). Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário) para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes (more) de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium) for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coeff (more) icients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

Zuanon, Jener Alexandre Sampaio; Hisano, Hamilton; Falcon, Dario Rocha; Sampaio, Fernanda Garcia; Barros, Margarida Maria; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo

2007-08-01

345

The effects of basic substances and acidic ionophores on the digestion of exogenous and endogenous proteins in mouse peritoneal macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basic substances and acidic ionophores that increase the lysosomal pH in cultured macrophages (Ohkuma, S., and B. Poole, 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 75:3327-3331; Poole, B., and S. Ohkuma, 1981, J. Cell Biol., 90:665-669) inhibited the digestion of heat-denatured acetylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) taken up by the cells. For several substances, the shift in pH sufficed to explain the inhibition of proteolysis. Additional effects, presumably on enzyme activities, have to be postulated for tributylamine, amantadine, and chloroquine. Sodium fluoride (10 mM) had no significant effect on the breakdown of BSA by macrophages. The breakdown of endogenous macrophage proteins, whether short lived or long lived, was inhibited approximately 40% by 10 mM NaF and 30%, or sometimes less in the case of long-lived proteins, by 100 microM chloroquine. When the cells were supplied with BSA, a mixture of cell proteins, or even inert endocytosible materials, the breakdown of endogenous long-lived proteins and the inhibitory effect of chloroquine on this process were selectively reduced. Inhibition of endocytosis by cytochalasins B or D did not affect the chloroquine-sensitive breakdown of endogenous proteins, indicating that the proteins degraded by this process were truly endogenous and not taken in from the outside by cellular cannibalism. On the other hand, when macrophage proteins were supplied extracellularly, their breakdown occurred at the same rate for short-lived and long-lived proteins, and it was strongly inhibited by chloroquine and not by NaF. It is concluded from these results that the breakdown of endogenous proteins, both short-lived and long-lived, probably takes place partly (approximately 30%) in lysosomes and partly through one or more nonlysosomal mechanism(s) unaffected by chloroquine and presumably susceptible to inhibition by fluoride. A difference must exist between short-lived and long-lived proteins in the manner in which they reach lysosomes or are handled by these organelles; this difference would account for the selective effect of the supply of endocytosible materials on the lysosomal processing of long-lived proteins. PMID:3949884

Ohkuma, S; Chudzik, J; Poole, B

1986-03-01

346

The effects of basic substances and acidic ionophores on the digestion of exogenous and endogenous proteins in mouse peritoneal macrophages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Basic substances and acidic ionophores that increase the lysosomal pH in cultured macrophages (Ohkuma, S., and B. Poole, 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 75:3327-3331; Poole, B., and S. Ohkuma, 1981, J. Cell Biol., 90:665-669) inhibited the digestion of heat-denatured acetylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) taken up by the cells. For several substances, the shift in pH sufficed to explain the inhibition of proteolysis. Additional effects, presumably on enzyme activities, have to be postulated for tributylamine, amantadine, and chloroquine. Sodium fluoride (10 mM) had no significant effect on the breakdown of BSA by macrophages. The breakdown of endogenous macrophage proteins, whether short lived or long lived, was inhibited approximately 40% by 10 mM NaF and 30%, or sometimes less in the case of long-lived proteins, by 100 microM chloroquine. When the cells were supplied with BSA, a mixture of cell proteins, or even inert endocytosible materials, the breakdown of endogenous long-lived proteins and the inhibitory effect of chloroquine on this process were