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Sample records for improves protein digestive

  1. Improvement of Automatic In-Gel Digestion by in Situ Alkylation of Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Yokono, Takeshi; Mineki, Reiko; Taka, Hikari; Kotaniguchi, Hiroto; Murayama, Kimie

    2003-01-01

    We have recently improved the automation of an in-gel digestion system, DigestPro 96, using in situ alkylation of proteins with acrylamide, conducted during one-dimensional (1D) SDS-PAGE. The improved method included the processes of destaining, dehydration, trypsin digestion, and extraction but excluded the reduction and alkylation steps following staining of proteins with CBB. The extracted peptide mixtures were directly loaded onto a micro C18 LC column of the mass spectrometer. The result...

  2. High Hydrostatic Pressure Pretreatment of Whey Protein Isolates Improves Their Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle M. Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI and native (nWPI whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Therefore, irradiation could serve as a possible processing method for protein utilization improvement in defatted Jatropha curcas seeds before using as a protein supplement in animal feed

  4. Antinutritional factors and in vitro protein digestibility of improved haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties grown in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu Shimelis, Emire; Kumar Rakshit, Sudip

    2005-09-01

    The antinutrient (raffinose oligosaccharides, tannins, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors) composition and in vitro protein digestibility of eight improved varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Ethiopia were determined. Stachyose was the predominant alpha-galactosides in all haricot bean samples. Raffinose was also present in significant quantities but verbascose, glucose and fructose were not detected at all in the samples. The concentrations observed for the protein digestibility and antinutritional factors, varied significantly (Pfood and export type of haricot beans in the Ethiopian context, because of their higher protein digestibility, lower antinutrtional factors and other beneficial nutritional parameters. Roba variety can be used by local food processors for the production of value-added bean-based products especially to combat the problem of protein energy malnutrition and related diseases which are very common in developing countries. PMID:16361179

  5. In vitro digestibility and immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Andrew B; Williams, Kristina; Toomer, Ondulla T

    2016-01-01

    Current models of digestibility solely utilize pepsin stability to assess the safety of allergenic food proteins. However, in vivo complete protein digestion requires acid denaturation and pepsin, trypsin, and/or chymotrypsin cleavage. This study aimed to identify the immunoreactivity and allergenicity of stable bovine milk proteins, using an improved digestibility model to simulate physiological gastric and intestinal conditions in vitro. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis were used to determine protein stability and immunoreactivity, respectively. Immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins, ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) and casein (CN) was greatly diminished with gastric simulation (0-60 min), but some proteins were stable and immunoreactive with simulated intestinal digestive conditions (0-60 min). This study demonstrates the need for improved digestibility models for more accurate assessment of the behavior of food allergens in vivo. PMID:26213013

  6. Canine pancreatic responses to intestinally perfused proteins and protein digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J H; Kelly, G A

    1976-09-01

    Pancreatic bicarbonate and protein secretory responses to intestinally perfused proteins or digests of proteins were measured in dogs with chronic gastric and pancreatic fistulas when luminalpancreatic protease concentrations were reduced to undetectable levels. Protein digests were analyzed for amino acid content, and various other indirect met-ods were used to assess the composition of the digest mixtures. Of five undigested proteins, none evoked more pancreatic secretion than a control perfusion with saline. Peptic digestion of these same proteins converted four of them to polypeptides that were poten stimuli of a pancreatic juice similar in HCO3-/protein ratios to that evoked by luminal amino acids. Dialyzed peptic digests of one of the proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA), retained potency. Likewise, digestion of BSA with endogenous or exogenous pancreatic proteases converted the protein to a stimulus about equipotent with the peptic digest, though the composition of the pancreatic digests differed markedly from that of the peptic digests. We conclude that a) luminal peptides of four or more amino acids can stimulate the pancreas and b) during protein alimentation a wide array of luminal protein products may evoke pancreatic secretion. PMID:970450

  7. A bifunctional monolithic column for combined protein preconcentration and digestion for high throughput proteomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Si; Tang, Xiaoting; Kaiser, Nathan K; Bruce, James E

    2007-04-15

    Enzymatic digestion of proteins is a key step in protein identification by mass spectrometry (MS). Traditional solution-based protein digestion methods require long incubation times and are limitations for high throughput proteomics research. Recently, solid phase digestion (e.g. trypsin immobilization on solid supports) has become a useful strategy to accelerate the speed of protein digestion and eliminate autodigestion by immobilizing and isolating the enzyme moieties on solid supports. Monolithic media is an attractive support for immobilization of enzymes due to its unique properties that include fast mass transfer, stability in most solvents, and versatility of functional groups on the surfaces of monoliths. We prepared immobilized trypsin monolithic capillaries for on-column protein digestion, analyzed the digested peptides through LC/FTICR tandem MS, and compared peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF-MS. To further improve the digestion efficiency for low abundance proteins, we introduced C4 functional groups onto the monolith surfaces to combine on-column protein enrichment and digestion. Compared with immobilized trypsin monolithic capillaries without C4, the immobilized trypsin-C4 monolith showed improved digestion efficiency. A mechanism for increased efficiency from the combination of sample enrichment and on-column digestion is also proposed in this paper. Moreover, we investigated the effects of organic solvent on digestion and detection by comparing the observed digested peptide sequences. Our data demonstrated that all columns showed good tolerance to organic solvents and maintained reproducible enzymatic activity for at least 30 days. PMID:17150420

  8. Protein digestibility (in vitro) of chickpea and blackgram seeds as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, S; Chauhan, B M; Kapoor, A C

    1989-06-01

    Protein digestibility (in vitro) of grains of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and blackgram (Vigna mungo) cultivars varied from 48 to 53% and 52 to 58%, respectively. Soaking, cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds), autoclaving and sprouting improved significantly the protein digestibility of all the cultivars of chickpea and blackgram. Autoclaving was found to be most effective followed by cooking and sprouting; cooking of sprouts had only marginal effect. Protein digestibility was higher when soaked instead of unsoaked grains were cooked. PMID:2762243

  9. IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    Želmíra Balážová; Milan Ch?apek; Eva Palen?árová; Zdenka Gálová

    2012-01-01

    In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of t...

  10. Functionalizing Microporous Membranes for Protein Purification and Protein Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinlan; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2015-07-01

    This review examines advances in the functionalization of microporous membranes for protein purification and the development of protease-containing membranes for controlled protein digestion prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Recent studies confirm that membranes are superior to bead-based columns for rapid protein capture, presumably because convective mass transport in membrane pores rapidly brings proteins to binding sites. Modification of porous membranes with functional polymeric films or TiO2 nanoparticles yields materials that selectively capture species ranging from phosphopeptides to His-tagged proteins, and protein-binding capacities often exceed those of commercial beads. Thin membranes also provide a convenient framework for creating enzyme-containing reactors that afford control over residence times. With millisecond residence times, reactors with immobilized proteases limit protein digestion to increase sequence coverage in mass spectrometry analysis and facilitate elucidation of protein structures. This review emphasizes the advantages of membrane-based techniques and concludes with some challenges for their practical application.

  11. Comparative evaluation of fast protein enzymatic digestion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dy?ka, Filip; Bobá?, P.; Bobálová, Janette

    2011. s. 166. ISBN 978-972-99358-9-3. [International Congress on Analytical Proteomics /2./. 18.07.2011-20.07.2011, Ourense] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ?R IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : in-gel digestion * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  12. Pepsin digestibility of proteins in sorghum and other major cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Mertz, Edwin T.; Hassen, Mohamed M.; Cairns-Whittern, Carleen; Kirleis, Allen W.; Tu, Lichuan; Axtell, John D.

    1984-01-01

    We have shown previously that sorghum is highly digestible in the rat. However, other workers have shown that sorghum is much less digestible than wheat, maize, and rice in young children. Because the rat does not show these digestibility differences, we developed an empirical pepsin digestion method, first reported in 1981, which simulates the digestion values found in children. In this report the method has been improved and used to analyze wheat, maize, rice, millet, and sorghum and certai...

  13. Protein digestibility of the same protein preparations by human and rat assays and by in vitro enzymic digestion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodwell, C E; Satterlee, L D; Hackler, L R

    1980-03-01

    The apparent and true digestibilities of the same preparations of six proteins (spray dried whole egg, cottage cheese, canned tuna, peanut flour, soy isolate, and wheat gluten) were estimated in four to five men and in rats and compared to estimates of digestibility from three different in vitro enzymic digestion procedures. For all six proteins, the correlation coefficient was 0.46 between true digestibility in humans and in rats; with values for tuna excluded, r = 0.96. With all six proteins, none of the in vitro values was significantly correlated with values from humans or rats. However, with either the three animal proteins alone or the three plant proteins alone, correlations were high (r greater than 0.90) between one or more of the in vitro estimates and the observed true or apparent human and rat digestibilities. The differences in the relationship between enzymic digestion estimates and the human digestibility estimates for plant or animal proteins suggest that for accurate prediction of protein digestibility in humans by these enzymic methods, different equations would have to be used for plant and animal proteins. For protein sources containing both plant and animal protein, use of the in vitro enzymic procedures would give only an approximate estimate of digestibility in humans. PMID:6986763

  14. The efficient approaches for enzymatic digestion of plant proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dy?ka, Filip

    2012-01-01

    In this work the fast and efficient methods applying ultrasound and infrared radiation were employed for in-gel digestion of proteins extracted from Hordeum vulgare. These techniques can be used instead of time consuming conventional protocol prior mass spectrometry analysis. The comparative study indicates that the examined protocols are able to enhance digestion efficiency and protein identification.

  15. Improving digestibility of feather meal by steam flash explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Poultry feathers are available in large quantities. However, natural feathers have poor digestibility and are often considered as solid wastes. To improve the digestibility of poultry feathers, steam flash explosion (SFE) was applied to duck feathers at different pressures ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 MPa for 1 min. The pepsin digestibility, disulfide bond content, and major secondary structure component (?-sheets) of duck feathers before and after the process were examined. The results showed that SFE could effectively increase pepsin digestibility of feather meal. Under the optimal conditions (1.8 MPa for 1 min), the pepsin digestibility of exploded feather meal achieved approximately 91%, which was about 9 times higher than that of the original feathers. The pepsin digestibility was highly correlated with the degree of reduction of disulfide bonds (R(2) = 0.98) and slightly negatively correlated with ?-sheet structure. SFE is an effective method to improve the bio-utilization of feather meal. PMID:24617674

  16. In vitro amino acid digestibility of food proteins as measured by the digestion cell technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, L; Charbonneau, R; Parent, G

    1989-01-01

    The digestibility of proteins and individual amino acids of nineteen selected foods was determined by an in vitro assay. Samples were hydrolysed with pepsin for 30 minutes in an acidic medium; the pH was then raised to 7.5 and the mixture poured into the dialysis bag (molecular weight cut-off 1000) of a digestion cell with pancreatin. Digestion products, mixtures of free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides which pass through the dialysis membrane, were collected for 6 hours by sodium phosphate buffer circulation. All proteins from animal sources displayed a digestibility similar to casein, except for breakfast sausage. Vegetable proteins showed intermediate digestibility, except for cereals (lower) or peanut butter (higher). Target amino acids of enzymes were generally more readily hydrolysed. However, compared to other animal proteins, glycine in milk products, valine, isoleucine, methionine and lysine in breakfast sausage and hot dog, and histidine in tuna were more easily released. Overheating of non-fat dried milk not only reduced the lysine digestibility, but also that of methionine, phenylalanine, histidine and cystine. Among vegetable proteins, wheat products were characterized by a relatively greater release of threonine, isoleucine and histidine, and peas by a lower digestibility of methionine and lysine. Proline of soy isolate and isoleucine of pinto bean were resistant to hydrolysis while arginine of pinto beans and of rice-wheat-gluten was easily released. PMID:2496404

  17. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.

  18. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira, Vidal; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Elias Nunes, Martins; Tadeu Orlandi, Xavier; Mariana, Michelato; Themis Sakaguti, Graciano.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were use [...] d. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III) as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP) of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1) = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900) of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710), reducing the crude protein content and quality.

  19. Nanocomplexation between curcumin and soy protein isolate: influence on curcumin stability/bioaccessibility and in vitro protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Ping; Li, Bian-Sheng; Tang, Chuan-He

    2015-04-01

    The complexation of nanoparticles in unheated and heated (at 75-95°) soy protein isolate (SPI) with curcumin and the effects on curcumin stability/bioaccessibility and in vitro protein digestibility were investigated. The nanoparticles did not display noticeable changes in size and morphology upon nanocomplexation with curcumin, except their surface hydrophobicity. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin progressively decreased with increasing initial curcumin concentration in the dispersion, while the load amount linearly increased. The solubility of curcumin in water was enhanced by the complexation above 98000-fold (vs free curcumin in water). The formation of the nanocomplexes considerably improved the storage stability of curcumin. In vitro simulated digestion experiments indicated that the complexation also improved the bioaccessibility of curcumin; the bioaccessibility was greatly impaired by hydrolysis-induced protein aggregation. Addtionally, the nanocomplexation significantly improved the in vitro protein digestibility of both unheated and heated SPI. PMID:25779681

  20. Effect of simulated gastric and intestinal digestion on temporal stability and immunoreactivity of peanut, almond, and pine nut protein allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomer, Ondulla T; Do, Andrew; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina

    2013-06-19

    Current models of digestibility utilize pepsin stability to assess the safety of allergenic versus nonallergenic food proteins. Dietary protein digestion in vivo, however, requires acid denaturation and protease cleavage by pepsin, trypsin, and/or chymotrypsin. The ability of this approach to identify food protein stability in the mammalian gut may be limited. We determined the temporal stability and immunoreactivity of almond, pine nut, and peanut allergenic proteins under simulated physiologic gastric and intestinal digestive conditions in vitro. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses were used to determine protein stability and immunoreactivity, respectively. Peanut, almond, and pine nut proteins were pepsin- and pancreatin-stable and immunoreactive for up to 1 h after initiation of digestion. Moreover, successive acid denaturation and pepsin and pancreatin cleavage were necessary to hydrolyze these allergenic proteins and reduce their IgG- and IgE-binding capacity, which suggests that digestibility models must be improved for more accurate safety assessment of food allergens. PMID:23742710

  1. Extracellular protease digestion to evaluate membrane protein cell surface localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besingi, Richard N; Clark, Patricia L

    2015-12-01

    Membrane proteins have crucial roles in signaling and as anchors for cell surface display. Proper secretion of a membrane protein can be evaluated by its susceptibility to digestion by an extracellular protease, but this requires a crucial control to confirm membrane integrity during digestion. This protocol describes how to use this approach to determine how efficiently a protein is secreted to the outer surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Its success relies upon careful selection of an appropriate intracellular reporter protein that will remain undigested if the membrane barrier remains intact, but that is rapidly digested when cells are lysed before evaluation. Reporter proteins that are resistant to proteases (e.g., maltose-binding protein) do not return accurate results; in contrast, proteins that are more readily digested (e.g., SurA) serve as more sensitive reporters of membrane integrity, yielding more accurate measurements of membrane protein localization. Similar considerations apply when evaluating membrane protein localization in other contexts, including eukaryotic cells and organelle membranes. Evaluating membrane protein localization using this approach requires only standard biochemistry laboratory equipment for cell lysis, gel electrophoresis and western blotting. After expression of the protein of interest, this procedure can be completed in 4 h. PMID:26584447

  2. Effects of enzymatic dephosphorylation on infant in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dasong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yun; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Peng

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of dephosphorylation extent on infant in vitro gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate. Dephosphorylation was affected by phosphatase type and incubation pH. A series of milk protein concentrate with 0-69% dephosphorylation were obtained by incubation with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase at pH 6.5 for 0-420min. Both ?- and ?s1-caseins in the modified milk protein concentrate showed multiply dephosphorylated isoforms with different numbers of phosphate groups depending on the extent of dephosphorylation. With increased dephosphorylation of milk protein concentrate, the gastric clotting extent decreased and the gastrointestinal digestibility increased under infant in vitro conditions. These results suggested the potential of developing a dephosphorylated milk protein concentrate, with improved gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility, to simulate the multiply phosphorylated patterns of human casein and hence to further the humanization of infant formula on a molecular level. PMID:26617031

  3. Effects of different industrial heating processes of milk on site-specific protein modifications and their relationship to in vitro and in vivo digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Heating processes are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. However, how differences in "industrial" thermal treatments affect protein digestibility is still equivocal. In this study, raw milk was subjected to pasteurization, three kinds of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment, and in-can sterilization and was investigated by in vitro and in vivo digestion and proteomic methods. In-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples, showed a rapid decrease in protein bands during the course of digestion. However, protein digestibility determined by a Kjeldahl procedure showed insignificant differences. Proteomic analysis revealed that lactulosyllysine, which reflects a decrease in protein digestibility, in ?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, and caseins was higher in in-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples. Thus, industrial heating may improve the digestibility of milk proteins by denaturation, but the improvement is likely to be offset by heat-derived modifications involved in decreased protein digestibility. PMID:24720734

  4. Effects of protein level and digestibility on the growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaratne, G P; Drew, M D

    2011-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein level and protein digestibility on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers from 1 to 35 d of age. Broiler chickens (n = 320) were fed 4 different ideal protein-balanced, isocaloric diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of protein [high protein (HiPro; 20 and 18% or 200 and 180 g/kg) and low protein (LoPro; 18 and 16% or 180 and 160 g/kg) on d 1 to 14 and d 15 to 35, respectively] and 2 levels of protein digestibility [high digestibility (HiDig) and low digestibility (LoDig); approximately 85% and 80% CP digestibility, respectively]. The HiDig diets were formulated using soybean meal and fishmeal, whereas the LoDig diets used wheat distillers dried grains with solubles and meat and bone meal as the primary protein sources. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of the wheat distillers dried grains with solubles and meat and bone meal (56.5 and 72.0% SID for lysine, respectively) were measured before the experiment to improve the accuracy of the diet formulations. During the starter phase, the interaction was significant for ADG; birds fed the LoPro-LoDig diet grew slower than birds fed the other 3 diets (P < 0.05). During the grower phase, the interaction was significant for ADFI; birds fed the LoPro-LoDig diet had the lowest ADFI compared with those fed the other 3 diets. The interaction between protein level and digestibility was significant for the SID of most of the AA and was significantly higher for birds fed the HiPro-HiDig diet compared with those fed the other 3 diets. Total breast meat yield was significantly higher in birds fed the HiPro diets than in those fed the LoPro diets, whereas birds fed the HiDig diets had significantly more abdominal fat than those fed the LoDig diets. The results suggest that low-protein diets can support growth performance equal to high-protein diets when highly digestible ingredients are used. However, maximum breast meat yield requires a high-protein diet and is not affected by ingredient digestibility. PMID:21325230

  5. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume...... reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR....

  6. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in vitro digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio.

  7. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

    OpenAIRE

    Schaafsma, G.

    2000-01-01

    The protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been adopted by FAO/WHO as the preferred method for the measurement of the protein value in human nutrition. The method is based on comparison of the concentration of the first limiting essential amino acid in the test protein with the concentration of that amino acid in a reference (scoring) pattern. This scoring pattern is derived from the essential amino acid requirements of the preschool-age child. The chemical score obtain...

  8. Pea proteins for piglets: effects on digestive processes.

    OpenAIRE

    le Guen, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    White-flowered pea ( Pisum sativum ) contains 20 to 25% crude protein (Nx6.25). The pea proteins consist in globulins (60%) and albumins (25%). Because the pea albumin proteins have biological activities due to their metabolic roles in the seed, some of them are called antinutritional factors (ANFs) for monogastric animals. These are mainly protease inhibitors and lectins. The apparent ileal digestibility of N and amino acids of raw peas fed to piglets was low. The N apparent ileal digestibil...

  9. Studies of protein metabolism in digestive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is fairly common to observe in gastrointestinal diseases such blood protein changes as hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and sometimes hypogammaglobulinaeminia. In the last few years, extensive studies have been carried out in many patients with these disorders by means of labelled plasma proteins or labelled protein-like substances. Much has been learned in this field. This paper gives the data obtained in the study of diseases affecting the stomach, the small intestine, the colon and the liver and contains a review of major findings made in studies of protein metabolism in malignant diseases

  10. Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of the cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop the mathematical description based on a master-equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome specie, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation ...

  11. ENZYME DIGEST AND ACID HYDROLYZED INDEX OF PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Mohammadiha P. Mostafavi

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A pancreatopeptidase (Elastase digest index was devised for a rapid and accurate estimation of protein quality. This index was calculated on the basis of all the amino acids released by an in-vitro Elastase digestion, acid hydrolyses of same sample and the residue of enzyme hydrolyzed. The amino acids were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography. Samples used were cooked white kidneybeans, cooked and over-heated soybean powder, and skimmed milk powder. Good correlation was observed between elastase index value and their biological values reported in the literature from feeding trials. The pattern of aminoacids released by acid and by enzyme hydrolysis was about the same.

  12. Dry anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic and protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam M Kabir; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh; Ilona Sárvári Horváth

    2015-01-01

    Utilisation of wheat straw and wool textile waste in dry anaerobic digestion (AD) process was investigated. Dry-AD of the individual substrates as well as co-digestion of those were evaluated using different total solid (TS) contents ranging between 6 to 30%. Additionally, the effects of the addition of nutrients and cellulose- or protein-degrading enzymes on the performance of the AD process were also investigated. Dry-AD of the wheat straw resulted in methane yields of 0.081 – 0.200 Nm3CH4/...

  13. In vivo rat assay for true protein digestibility: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, F E; Steinke, F H; Sarwar, G; Eggum, B O; Bressani, R; Huth, P J; Barbeau, W E; Mitchell, G V; Phillips, J G

    1990-01-01

    Eight laboratories participated in a collaborative study to estimate precision of a standardized rat assay for determining true protein digestibility in selected animal, fish, and cereal products. Each of 7 test protein sources (casein, tuna fish, macaroni/cheese, pea protein concentrate, rolled oats, pinto beans, and nonfat dried milk) was fed as the sole source of protein at a 10% protein level in mixed diets. Each diet was fed to 2 replicate groups of 4 rats each for a 4-day acclimation period and a 5-day balance period. Mean digestibilities ranged from 98.6% for casein to 72.6% for pinto beans. Repeatability standard deviations ranged from 0.5 to 2.0%; the mean relative standard deviation for repeatability was 0.9% (range 0.5-2.8%). Reproducibility standard deviations ranged from 1.2 to 3.2%, and the mean relative standard deviation for reproducibility was 2.4% (range 1.3-4.4%). The method has been approved interim official first action for determining true protein digestibility in foods and ingredients. PMID:2273008

  14. [Digestibility and protein quality of quinua: comparative study of quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa) seed and flour in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Romaña, G; Graham, G G; Rojas, M; MacLean, W C

    1981-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the digestibility of quinua seed is the limiting factor in the utilization of nutrients from this staple, two quinua-based diets were prepared using quinua seeds and quinua flour. Theses diets were offered to children recovering from malnutrition. The digestibility and protein quality of the quinua diets were compared to those of a casein control diet by analyzing the children's metabolic balance. Results showed that digestibility of the quinua diets were compared to those of a casein control diet by analyzing the children's metabolic balance. Results showed that digestibility of the quinua seed is the limiting factor in the protein and energy utilization, and that milling improves significantly the digestibility of fat and carbohydrates. Findings also confirmed that the protein quality of quinua seeds is adequate for human consumption. PMID:6807239

  15. Improving composting as a post-treatment of anaerobic digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yang; De Guardia, Amaury; Dabert, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    This work investigated the influences of practical parameters upon composting of digestate. The yardsticks for evaluation were digestate stabilization, nitrogenous emissions mitigation and self-heating potential. The results suggest choosing an "active" bulking agent like dry wood chips (WC) which served as free-water and nitrogen sink through composting. At an optimal volumetric WC:digestate mixing ratio of 4:1, nearly 90% of the initial NH4(+)/NH3 were fixed, which reduced significantly nitrogenous emissions. This mixing ratio also improved the stabilization and self-heating potential. Using small particle size WC increased narrowly O2 consumption and reduced NH3 emission. Storing used WC prior to recycling reduced 40% N2O emission compared to directly recycled WC. Recycling compost helped to decrease NH3 emission, but quadrupled N2O emission. The optimal aeration rate (15Lh(-1)kg OM0) which was lower compared to composting of organic waste, was enough to ensure the O2 supply and ameliorate the self-heating potential through composting of digestate. PMID:26684176

  16. Microbial Delignification with White Rot Fungi Improves Forage Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, D. E.; Sethuraman, A.; Morrison, W H; Martin, S. A.; Eriksson, K.-E. L.

    1993-01-01

    Three wild-type white rot fungi and two cellulase-less mutants developed from Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3 (formerly Sporotrichum pulverulentum) were tested for their ability to delignify grass cell walls and improve biodegradation by rumen microorganisms. Fungal-treated and control stems of Bermuda grass were analyzed for their content of ester- and ether-linked aromatics by using alkali extraction and gas chromatography, for in vitro dry weight digestion and production of volatile fatty ...

  17. Rapid and efficient protein enzymatic digestion: An experimental comparison.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dy?ka, Filip; Bobá?, P.; Mazanec, Karel; Bobálová, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 33, ?. 2 (2012), s. 288-295. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ?R IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : in-gel digestion * MALDI-TOF MS * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.261, year: 2012

  18. Dry anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic and protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M Kabir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of wheat straw and wool textile waste in dry anaerobic digestion (AD process was investigated. Dry-AD of the individual substrates as well as co-digestion of those were evaluated using different total solid (TS contents ranging between 6 to 30%. Additionally, the effects of the addition of nutrients and cellulose- or protein-degrading enzymes on the performance of the AD process were also investigated. Dry-AD of the wheat straw resulted in methane yields of 0.081 – 0.200 Nm3CH4/kgVS with the lowest and highest values obtained at 30 and 21% TS, respectively. The addition of the cellulolytic enzymes could significantly increase the yield in the reactor containing 13% TS (0.231 Nm3CH4/kg VS. Likewise, degradation of wool textile waste was enhanced significantly at TS of 13% with the addition of the protein-degrading enzyme (0.131 Nm3CH4/kg VS. Furthermore, the co-digestion of these two substrates showed higher methane yields compared with the methane potentials calculated for the individual fractions at all the investigated TS contents due to synergetic effects and better nutritional balance.

  19. Effects of Industrial Heating Processes of Milk-Based Enteral Formulas on Site-Specific Protein Modifications and Their Relationship to in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Heat treatments are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. Types of heating processes may have different effects on protein modifications, leading to different protein digestibility. In this study, milk-based liquid nutritional formulas (simulating enteral formulas) were subjected to steam injection ultra-high-temperature treatment or in-can sterilization, and the formulas were investigated by proteomic methods and in vitro and in vivo digestion assays. Proteomic analyses revealed that in-can sterilization resulted in higher signals for N(?)-carboxymethyllysine and dephosphorylation of Ser residues in major milk proteins than in steam-injected formula, reflecting the more severe thermal process of in-can sterilization. In vitro and in vivo digestion assays indicated that steam injection improved protein digestibility, supposedly by denaturation, while the improvement seemed to be overwhelmed by formation of aggregates that showed resistance to digestion in in-can sterilized formula. Adverse effects of heat treatment on protein digestibility are more likely to be manifested in milk-based formulas than in cow's milk. Although the differences might be of limited significance in terms of amino acid bioavailability, these results emphasize the importance of protein quality of raw materials and selection of heating processes. PMID:26161498

  20. Prediction of crude protein digestibility of animal by-product meals for dogs by the protein solubility in pepsin method*

    OpenAIRE

    Kawauchi, Iris M.; Nilva K. Sakomura; Pontieri, Cristiana F. F.; Rebelato, Aline; Putarov, Thaila C.; Malheiros, Euclides B.; Gomes, Márcia de O. S.; Castrillo, Carlos; Carciofi, Aulus C.

    2014-01-01

    Animal by-product meals have large variability in crude protein (CP) content and digestibility. In vivo digestibility procedures are precise but laborious, and in vitro methods could be an alternative to evaluate and classify these ingredients. The present study reports prediction equations to estimate the CP digestibility of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PM) using the protein solubility in pepsin method (PSP). Total tract CP digestibility of eight MBM and eight PM sam...

  1. Digestion and absorption of protein along ovine gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digestion and absorption of protein were determined in ovine gastrointestinal tract with cerium-141 as an unabsorbed reference substance. Nitrogen flows changed little in rumen and reticulum, but in the proximal small intestine flows increased because of secretion of .9 g nitrogen per day per kg body weight. This secretion included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidases A and B; maximal activity was in proximal segments of the small intestine and decreased with distance from the pylorus. Activity of chymotrypsin decreased more rapidly than that of trypsin. Amino acid flows reflected the influx of protein in the duodenum; absorption was approximately 55% in the terminal ileum. No major changes of proportions of individual amino acids were observed. Overall nitrogen absorption was 72.6% of which 6% was in the large intestine. The major soluble protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract consisted of peptides with molecular weight 7,000 to 14,000 daltons. Soluble high molecular weight protein was observed only in rumen and duodenum. Low molecular weight peptides and amino acids accumulated only in the proximal small intestine. Solubilization of protein and breakdown of peptides of 7,000 to 14,000 molecular weight appear to be rate limiting for protein absorption in sheep

  2. Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magalli Costa Barbosa, Lima e Silva; Priscila Aiko, Hiane; José Antônio, Braga Neto; Maria Ligia Rodrigues, Macedo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart.) is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional [...] factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein), tests (bacuri almond flours) and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV), (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds) when compared to the control group (92.3%). The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

  3. Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalli Costa Barbosa Lima e Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart. is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein, tests (bacuri almond flours and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV, (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds when compared to the control group (92.3%. The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

  4. Effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on improvement of anaerobic digestive characteristic of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study was made about main anaerobic digestive characteristics of sludge which was subjected to a 60Co gamma-irradiation pretreatment. The results showed the gamma-irradiation pretreatment can clearly improve anaerobic digestibility of sludge and pick up the anaerobic digestion speed of sludge. (authors)

  5. Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet p...

  6. Growth of Nile tilapia post-larvae from broodstock fed diet with different levels of digestible protein and digestible energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silia Maria de Negreiros Sousa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different levels of digestible energy and digestible protein in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus broodstock on offspring growth during sex reversal stage. A total of 2,700 post-larvae (8.2±0.001 mg derived from breeders fed nine diets with distinct levels of digestible protein (28, 34 and 40% DP and digestible energy (2,800; 3,400; and 4,000 kcal DE.kg-1 were stored in twenty-seven 70 L tanks. After 30 days of growth, their average final weight (AFW, g, average weight gain (AWG, g, final standard length (SL, cm, condition factor (CF, specific growth rate (SGR, %/day, stock uniformity (UNI, %, survival (SUR, % and sex reversal rate (SRR, % were measured. Although female nutrition is thought to influence the performance or quality of progeny during early life stages, no influence of diets supplied to broodstock was detected on any parameter. Nonetheless, the offspring presented commercially satisfactory growth rates. Thus, diets containing 28% of digestible protein and 2,800 kcal of digestible energy.kg of diet-1 can be used to feed Nile tilapia broodstock without jeopardizing offspring performance during the sex reversal phase.

  7. Effect of Phytase Supplementation on the Digestibility of Crude Protein, Amino Acids and Phosphorus of Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata) in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Eustace A. Iyayi

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea contains phytate-P and other nutrients like amino acids which are poorly digested in broilers. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve digestibility of these nutrients. In 2 experiments the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein, amino acids and P of cowpea in broilers were investigated. Experiment One, had 6 diets in which 0, 150 or 300 g kg-1 cowpea replaced maize starch and 0 or 500 units of phytase enzyme (Natupho...

  8. Relação lisina digestível: proteína digestível em rações para tilápias-do-nilo Digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio in diets for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a melhor relação lisina digestível:proteína digestível em rações para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo. As tilápias (11,0 ± 0,43 g foram distribuídas em 36 aquários (250 litros numa densidade de seis peixes/aquário. Foram formuladas 12 rações com 22,0; 26,0 ou 30,0% de proteína digestível, com base na composição em aminoácidos digestíveis, e 4,5; 6,0; 7,5 ou 9,0% de lisina, em relação à proteína digestível, fornecidas à vontade durante 60 dias. Houve interação significativa dos fatores lisina digestível/proteína digestível para o ganho de peso, uma vez que o aumento dos níveis de lisina em rações com 26,0 e 30,0% de proteína digestível promoveu aumento linear desse parâmetro. Os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com os níveis de 26,0 e 30,0% proteína digestível, que determinaram aumento do consumo diário de proteína digestível. O nível de lisina promoveu redução linear da conversão alimentar e aumento linear da taxa de eficiência proteica. O nível de 26,0% de proteína digestível pode ser utilizado em rações para juvenis de tilápiado-nilo, entretanto essas rações devem ser formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis e relação lisina digestível/proteína digestível de 6,0%. Quando utilizados níveis superiores a 26,0% de proteína digestível, o nível máximo de 7,5% de lisina digestível em relação à proteína digestível melhora o ganho de peso na espécie.This study was carried out to determine the best digestible protein/digestible lysine ratio that should be present in feed fed to Nile tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen tilapias (11.0 ± 0.43g were distributed in 36 fish tanks (205 L at a density of 6 fish/tank. Twelve feeds were formulated with three different digestible protein (DP levels 22.0; 26.0 and 30.0% (based on digestible amino acids and four different lysine percentages of 4.5; 6.0; 7.5 or 9.0% in relation to digestible protein. The fish were fed ad libtum during a 60-day period. There was significant effect of the digestible protein and digestible lysine ratio on weight gain, because the increase in lysine levels in feeds with 26 and 30% DP promoted linear increase in this parameter. The best values for feed conversion were obtained at the levels 26 and 30% DP that increased the daily consumption of digestible protein. The lysine level caused a linear reduction in feed conversion and linear increase in the protein efficiency rate. The results suggested that the 26% DP level might be used in ration to feed Nile tilapia juveniles; however, these should contain digestible amino acids and the digestible lysine/digestible protein ratio should be 6.0%. However, for levels higher than 26% DP, a maximum digestible lysine level of 7.5% DP improved weight gain for the species.

  9. Co-digestion of municipal sewage sludge and solid waste: modelling of carbohydrate, lipid and protein content influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielfa, A; Cano, R; Pérez, A; Fdez-Polanco, M

    2015-03-01

    Solid wastes from industrial, commercial and community activities are of growing concern as the total volume of waste produced continues to increase. The knowledge of the specific composition and characteristics of the waste is an important tool in the correct development of the anaerobic digestion process. The problems derived from the anaerobic digestion of sole substrates with high lipid, carbohydrate or protein content lead to the co-digestion of these substrates with another disposed waste, such as sewage sludge. The kinetic of the anaerobic digestion is especially difficult to explain adequately, although some mathematical models are able to represent the main aspects of a biological system, thus improving understanding of the parameters involved in the process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the experimental biochemical methane potential on the co-digestion of sewage sludge with different solid wastes (grease; spent grain and cow manure) through the implementation of four kinetic models. The co-digestion of grease waste and mixed sludge obtained the best improvements from the sole substrates, with additional positive synergistic effects. The Gompertz model fits the experimental biochemical methane potential to an accuracy of 99%, showing a correlation between the percentage of lipid in the substrates and co-digestions and the period of lag phase. PMID:25698789

  10. A highly digestible sorghum mutant cultivar exhibits a unique folded structure of endosperm protein bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Oria, Maria P.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Axtell, John D.; Huang, Chia-Ping

    2000-01-01

    The endosperm of a sorghum mutant cultivar, with high in vitro uncooked and cooked protein digestibilities, was examined by transmission electron microscopy and ?-, ?-, and ?-kafirins (storage proteins) were localized within its protein bodies. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed that these protein bodies had a unique microstructure related to high protein digestibility. They were irregular in shape and had numerous invaginations, often reaching to the central area of the pr...

  11. Porous layer open tubular columns with immobilized trypsin for protein digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Knob, R.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a monolithic porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column with immobilized trypsin for protein digestion. The PLOT column was prepared in a 10 (mikro)m ID fused silica capillary. Trypsin was immobilized on the monolithic surface and the developed enzyme reactor was used for protein digestion followed by on-line ESI/MS analysis.

  12. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hymøller, Lone; Larsen, M. K.; Lund, P.; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility ...

  13. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

    2015-01-01

    A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived. PMID:25568377

  14. The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the Venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B; Brautigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas Franck; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested to assimilate nutrients as the plants......, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from...... defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about its prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition....

  15. HEMOGLOBIN AND PLASMA PROTEIN PRODUCTION : VARIOUS PROTEINS, CONCENTRATES, AND DIGESTS INFLUENCE BLOOD PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN ANEMIA AND HYPOPROTEINEMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robscheit-Robbins, F S; Miller, L L; Whipple, G H

    1946-05-31

    Given healthy dogs, fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets, with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia due to bleeding, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneousiy new hemoglobin and plasma protein. The reserve stores of blood protein-producing materials in this way are largely depleted, and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for considerable periods of time. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and to injury by many poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. These incomplete experiments are not recorded in the present paper but give supporting evidence in harmony with those tabulated. Under these conditions (double depletion) the dogs use effectively the proteins listed above-egg, lactalbumin, meat, beef plasma, and digests of various food proteins and hemoglobin. Egg protein at times seems to favor slightly the production of plasma protein when compared with the average response (Tables 1 and 2). Various digests and concentrates compare favorably with good food proteins in the production of new hemoglobin and plasma protein in these doubly depleted dogs. Whole beef plasma by mouth is well utilized and the production of new hemoglobin is, if anything, above the average-certainly plasma protein production is not especially favored. "Modified" beef plasma by vein causes fatal anaphylaxis (Table 4). Hemoglobin digests are well used by mouth to form both hemoglobin and plasma protein. Supplementation by amino acids is recorded. Methionine in one experiment may have been responsible for a better protein output and digest utilization (Table 7). PMID:19871543

  16. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR.

  17. The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the Venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested to assimilate nutrients as the plants grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about its prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition.

  18. The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-11-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition. PMID:22891002

  19. The Protein Composition of the Digestive Fluid from the Venus Flytrap Sheds Light on Prey Digestion Mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Waltraud X.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D.; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R.; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition. PMID:22891002

  20. HPTLC/DESI-MS Imaging of Tryptic Protein Digests Separated in Two Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasilis, Sofie P [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Schorcht, Susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

    2008-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated as a method to detect and identify peptides from two-dimensional separations of cytochrome c and myoglobin tryptic digests on ProteoChrom HPTLC Cellulose sheets. Data-dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired during lane scans across the TLC plates. Peptides and the corresponding proteins were identified using a protein database search software. Two-dimensional distributions of identified peptides were mapped for each separated protein digest. Sequence coverages for cytochrome c and myoglobin were 81% and 74%, respectively. These compared well to those determined using the more standard HPLC/ESI-MS/MS approach (89% and 84%, respectively). Preliminary results show that use of more sensitive instrumentation has the potential for improved detection of peptides with low Rf values and improvement in sequence coverage. However, less multiple charging and more sodiation were seen in HPTLC/DESI-MS spectra relative to HPLC/ESI-MS spectra, which can affect peptide identification by MS/MS. Methods to increase multiple charging and reduce the extent of sodiation are currently under investigation.

  1. Variability in phytic acid content and protein digestibility of grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, U; Vimala, V; Singh, U; Geervani, P

    1995-02-01

    Several genotypes, number given within parenthesis, of chickpea, pigeonpea, urd bean, mung bean and soybean, differing in seed characteristics were analyzed for phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), protein, total phosphorus, and seed size. Phytic acid contents and IVPD values differed significantly among and within these species. Phytic acid content (mg/g) was the highest in soybean (36.4) followed by urd bean (13.7), pigeonpea (12.7), mung bean (12.0) and chickpea (9.6). On an average, phytic acid constituted 78.2 percent of the total phosphorus content and this percentage figure was the highest in soybean and the lowest in mung bean. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of pigeonpea and chickpea genotypes varied from 60.4 to 74.4 percent and 65.3 to 79.4 percent, respectively. The IVPD values of genotypes of mung bean, urd bean and soybean ranged from 67.2 to 72.2 percent, 55.7 to 63.3 percent and 62.7 to 71.6 percent, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between phytic acid and IVPD of these genotypes. Phytic acid was significantly and positively correlated with protein but the magnitude of correlation was very low in chickpea and pigeonpea. Results indicate that the genotypes of pulses with low phytic acid content could be identified and used in breeding program to improve their nutritive value and utilization. PMID:7792265

  2. Unconventional anaerobic digester designs for improving methane yields from sea kelp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fannin, K.F.; Srivastava, V.J.; Chynoweth, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were performed as part of an ongoing comprehensive research program to develop and optimize the anaerobic digestion process for producing methane from sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Laboratory-scale studies focused on digester design and operating techniques applicable toward the goal of increasing methane yields and production rates over those observed in previous studies using conventional stirred tank reactors (STR). Two unconventional anaerobic digesters, an upflow solids reactor and a baffle flow reactor, were used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of kelp; both digesters permit solids retention times that are longer than the hydraulic retention times. The performance of the unconventional digesters was compared with that of the STR on the basis of methane yield and process stability. These studies demonstrated that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp variability, the methane yield in both unconventional digesters exceeded 70% of the theoretical yield and was substantialy higher than that of the STR. Utilization of simple digester designs that promoted long solids retention times improved the anaerobic digester performance significantly over that observed in conventional anaerobic digestion processes.

  3. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by exogenous fibrolytic enzymes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.F.J., van de Vyver; B.A., Useni.

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), crude protein (CP) and on the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in sheep of a milled substrate consisting of a 50 : 50 mixture of l [...] ucerne hay (LH) and wheat straw (WS). Four cannulated Döhne-Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two groups in a 2 x 2 cross-over experiment. Additional to the in situ study, the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled LH and WS were determined. The substrate was pre-treated with distilled water (control) or EFE (treatment) 12 hours prior to incubation to allow interaction between the substrate and enzyme. Adding EFE significantly improved the in vitro cumulative gas production (GP), but it did not affect the in vitro MPS measured as purine derivates of the GP residues. The enzyme significantly increased the in vitro DM and NDF disappearances after 36 hours. However, the in situ disappearances of DM, NDF and CP of the roughage mixture were not affected by the EFE. Further, the in situ MPS was increased significantly with the EFE treatment of the mixed substrate. It is concluded that the improved ruminal digestion of DM, NDF and CP is not only due to direct enzyme hydrolysis, but also due to the improvement of MPS.

  4. Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C

    2014-07-01

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet potato proteins were incubated with pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin and protein breakdown was visualized with SDS-PAGE. After pepsin digestion, samples were assayed for amylase inhibitory activity. Sporamin, the major storage protein in sweet potatoes, which functions as a trypsin inhibitor as well, exhibited resistance to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Sporamin from blanched peel of orange sweet potatoes was less resistant to pepsin digestion than sporamin from outer peel and from extract of the white-skinned Caiapo sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitory activity remained after simulated gastric digestion, with the Caiapo potato protein and peel samples exhibiting higher inhibitory activity compared to the blanched peel sample. Amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was not present in any of the samples after digestion. PMID:25473492

  5. FRACTIONATION OF DIGESTIVE PROTEINASES FROM TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) LARVAE AND ROLE IN PROTEIN DIGESTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases were purified and characterized by gel filtration chromatography combined with activity electrophoresis. Cysteine proteinases, consisting of at least six distinct activities, were found in three chromatographic peaks in anterior and posterior midgut chro...

  6. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K M; Christensen, Erik Ilsø

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the stronge...

  7. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N; Sprenger, Richard Remko

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mass spectrometry-based protein quantification studies uses peptide-centric analytical methods and thus strongly relies on efficient and unbiased protein digestion protocols for sample preparation. We present a novel objective approach to assess protein digestion efficiency using a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitativ...

  8. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    L Hartati; Agus, A.; BP Widyobroto; LM Yusiati

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO) and fish oil (FO) and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digest...

  9. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula.Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro

  10. Integrative effects of feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance and digestibility in broilers: promotion muscle protein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed A; Amber, Khairy; El-Magd, Mohammed A; Atta, Mostafa S; Mohammed, Ahmed A; Ragab, Mohamed M; Abd El-Kader, Hanaa

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA + FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15 d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% FOS, and combined of 0.05% AA and 0.05% FOS. Results from measurement of growth performance and digestibility revealed a significant increase in the body weight gain with improved feed conversion rate in the experimental groups. Interestingly, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude protein utilization (CPU) were improved. In addition, plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, while plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by feeding AA, FOS, and AA + FOS. Expressions of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were increased in experimental groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of either Aspergillus awamori or fructooligosaccharide or both improves digestibility and growth performance probably by promoting skeletal muscle protein metabolism. PMID:24895630

  11. Evaluation Protein Digestibility, Metabolic Energy of Autoclaved Komak Beans (Lablab purpureus L sweet on Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Wahyu Ayuning Tyas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to evaluate protein digestibility and metabolic energy of autoclaved komak beans on broilers. The material used consisted of basal feed, komak bean, local soybean, imported soybean, twenty thirty-seven-day broilers, and metabolic henhouse. The methods in the research implemented completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (Lablab Purpureus or LP0: basal diet; LP1: 15% local soybean; LP2: 15% imported soybean; LP3: 15% komak beans; LP4: 15% autoclaved of komak beans. The variables observed in this research were the protein digestibility, Nitrogen retention, Apparent Metabolic Energy, and Apparent Metabolic Energy corrected Nitrogen. The results showed that protein digestibility, nitrogen retention, AME and AMEN of autoclaved komak beans were not significant (P>0.05 on 37 days old broilers. It concluded that the protein digestibility, nitrogen retention, AME and AMEn in autoclaved komak beans had the same effectiveness as soybean.

  12. Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2013-09-18

    Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments. PMID:23964718

  13. Digestion kinetics of potato protein isolates in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Spelbrink, Robin E J; Witteman, Ben J; Giuseppin, Marco L F

    2013-11-01

    Recently, an industrial process was developed to isolate native protein fractions from potato: a high (HMW) and a low (LMW) molecular weight fraction. Digestion kinetics of HMW and LMW was studied in vitro and in vivo and compared with reference proteins. Under simulated conditions, highest digestion was found for whey protein, followed by soy, pea, HMW, casein and LMW. Ingestion of 20 g of proteins by eight healthy subjects (following a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design) induced a slow and moderate increase with HMW and LMW, while a peaked and high increase with whey protein, in postprandial plasma amino acid levels. Casein gave a similar profile as HMW, with higher levels. Contrary to whey and casein, HMW and LMW did not result in any changes in plasma insulin or glucose levels. This study provides insights in digestion of native potato protein isolates to assist their use as protein sources in food applications. PMID:23713493

  14. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils B; Reitelseder, Søren; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Holst, Jens J; van Hall, Gerrit; Madsbad, Sten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance...... RYGB. CONCLUSIONS: RYGB accelerates caseinate digestion and amino acid absorption, resulting in faster and higher but more transient postprandial elevation of plasma amino acids. Changes are likely mediated by accelerated intestinal nutrient entry and clearly demonstrate that protein digestion is not...

  15. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected. PMID:14641959

  16. Stability and immunogenicity of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes during in vitro pepsin digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Davis, Jack P; Foegeding, E Allen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated during simulated in vitro gastric digestion. When digested with pepsin, the basic subunit of the peanut allergen Ara h 3 was more rapidly hydrolyzed in peanut protein-cranberry or green tea polyphenol complexes compared to uncomplexed peanut flour. Ara h 2 was also hydrolyzed more quickly in the peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complex than in uncomplexed peanut flour. Peptides from peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complexes and peanut protein-green tea polyphenol complexes were substantially less immunoreactive (based on their capacity to bind to peanut-specific IgE from patient plasma) compared to peptides from uncomplexed peanut flour. These results suggest that peanut protein-polyphenol complexes may be less immunoreactive passing through the digestive tract in vivo, contributing to their attenuated allergenicity. PMID:26007692

  17. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3 d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility

  18. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Weisbjerg, M R; Hymøller, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Nielsen, M O

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility. PMID:24835962

  19. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating prices of cereals have led to an interest in alternative ingredients for feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation and the addition of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)–degrading enzymes on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients of a diet based on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of ?-glucanase + xylanase + pectinase (FLF+Enz). The FLF was prepared by mixing feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) and, once daily, replacing 50% of the mixture with an equal amount of fresh feed and water. The diets were fed to 8 ileal cannulated barrows in a double Latin square design. Ileal digesta and feces were collected after an adaption period of 10 d. Results showed microbiologically good-quality fermented diets. The levelsof Enterobacteriaceae were 5.1 to 5.4 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the ileum and 5.1 to 5.2 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the feces. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP was increased by fermentation (73.2% in FLF vs. 69.0% in nFLF; P = 0.033), and digestibility of P showed a tendency (P = 0.073) toward an increase. Addition of the enzyme mixture resulted in a pronounced reduction of dietary NSP compared with FLF (12.8% total NSP in FLF+Enz vs. 15.9% total NSP in FLF; P < 0.001), which also led to increased apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total and insoluble NSP (total NSP, 31.1% in FLF+Enz vs. 13.6% in FLF; P = 0.002). The Control did not, in general, show higher digestibility values than the experimental diet. However, in the cases were it did, fermentation and enzyme addition brought the digestibility to the level of the Control. In conclusion, fermentation increased the ATTD of CP and the AID of P, with the same tendency (P ? 0.07)for the ATTD. Addition of NSP-degrading enzymes resulted in a pronounced reduction in the concentration of NSP in the feed along with increased AID of NSP. Hence, the experimental diet seems to be a possible alternative to a traditional diet for pigs.

  20. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 oC and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TSadded was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TSadded and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TSadded were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  1. Improving conversion of Spartina alterniflora into biogas by co-digestion with cow feces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guangyin; Fang, Caixia; Zou, Xingxing; Zhang, Jibiao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zheng, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, Shiguan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Engineering Laboratory of Biomass Power Generation Equipment, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Anaerobic mono-digestion of Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) at initial volatile solid loading (VSL) of 4.0%, 6.0% and 8.0% as well as co-digestion of S. alterniflora and cow feces at cow feces proportions from 12.5% to 87.5% of volatile solid (VS) were investigated. A maximum methane yield of 0.19 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} from mono-digestion of S. alterniflora was obtained at initial VSL of 6.0% and the average methane content was 63.29%. Furthermore, co-digestion of S. alterniflora and cow feces in varying proportions was investigated at constant initial VSL of 7.0%. The addition of cow feces decreased the carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio from 21.82 to 14.19 in the feedstock. Co-digestion improved the biodegradability of S. alterniflora, and thus increased the methane yield by 7.09-44.26%, leading to a lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration of less than 800 mg/L (only about one third of S. alterniflora digested alone) in the solution and higher pH value in comparison to S. alterniflora digested alone. Although the VFA concentration was lower than S. alterniflora digested alone, the biogas yield was increased and the biogas yield peak was advanced for about 15 days. (author)

  2. Tracking the fate of pasta (T. Durum semolina) immunogenic proteins by in vitro simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mackie, Alan

    2015-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the celiacogenic/immunogenic proteins and peptides released during digestion of pasta (Triticum durum semolina). Cooked pasta was digested using a harmonized in vitro static model of oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. The course of pasta protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE, and gluten proteins were specifically analyzed by Western blot using sera of celiac patients. Among the allergens, nonspecific lipid-transfer protein was highly resistant to gastro-duodenal hydrolysis, while other digestion-stable allergens such as ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were not detected being totally released in the pasta cooking water. To simulate the final stage of intestinal degradation, the gastro-duodenal digesta were incubated with porcine jejunal brush-border membrane hydrolases. Sixty-one peptides surviving the brush-border membrane peptidases were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including several gluten-derived sequences encrypting different motifs responsible for the induction of celiac disease. These results provide new insights into the persistence of wheat-derived peptides during digestion of cooked pasta samples. PMID:25682706

  3. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating prices of cereals have led to an interest in alternative ingredients for feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation and the addition of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)–degrading enzymes on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients of a diet based on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermente...

  4. Protein digestion in red aak borer larvae, Enaphalodes rufulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, a recent outbreak of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), contributed to the death of tens of thousands of red oaks. To better understand nutrient digestion in E. rufulus larvae, biochemical analyses were used to characterize dige...

  5. Accelerated enzymatic digestion for the analysis of plant proteins.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dy?ka, Filip; Bobá?, P.; Bobálová, Janette

    2011. P211. [Advances in Metabolic Profiling & Mass Spec Europe /3./. 08.11.2011-09.11.2011, Dublin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ?R IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ultrasonic * infrared * digestion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  6. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses. PMID:20977230

  7. Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaogang; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Fangyu; Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, ?-helix, and ?-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains. PMID:24941451

  8. Enrichment and desalting of tryptic protein digests and the protein depletion using boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischnaller, Martin; Köck, Rainer; Bakry, Rania, E-mail: rania.bakry@uibk.ac.at; Bonn, Günther K.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Protein tryptic digests were desalted and enriched utilizing hexagonal boron nitride. • Phosphopeptides were desalted with high recovery rates. • Boron nitride exhibits high wettability allowing fast sample preparation. • Boron nitride shows protein depletion capability applied for peptide purification. - Abstract: Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in modern bioanalysis and the interest in new efficient solid phase extraction (SPE) materials still remains high. In this work, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is introduced as a new SPE material for the isolation and enrichment of peptides. The h-BN is isoelectronic and structurally similar to graphite. It has remarkable properties including good thermal conductivity, excellent thermal and chemical stability and a better oxidation resistance than graphite. BN attracts increasing interest because of its wide range of applicability. In the present work, the great potential of h-BN, as a new SPE-material, on the enrichment, preconcentration and desalting of tryptic digest of model proteins is demonstrated. A special attention was dedicated to the efficient enrichment of hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Two elution protocols were developed for the enrichment of peptides compatible for subsequent MALDI-MS and ESI-MS analysis. In addition, the recoveries of 5 peptides and 3 phosphopeptides with wide range of pI values utilizing h-BN materials with different surface areas were investigated. 84–106% recovery rate could be achieved using h-BN materials. The results were compared with those obtained using graphite and silica C18 under the same elution conditions, and lower recoveries were obtained. In addition, h-BN was found to have a capability of protein depletion, which is requisite for the peptide profiling.

  9. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. PMID:26948633

  10. Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J.; Heaven, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the...

  11. Kernel Composition, Starch Structure, and Enzyme Digestibility of Opaque-2 Maize and Quality Protein Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how opaque-2 (o2) mutation and quality protein maize (QPM) affect maize kernel composition and starch structure, property, and enzyme digestibility. Kernels of o2 maize contained less protein (9.6−12.5%) than those of the wild-type (WT) counterparts (12...

  12. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, G V; Jensen, B B; Bach Knudsen, K E; Canibe, N

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating prices of cereals have led to an interest in alternative ingredients for feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation and the addition of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients of a diet based on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of ?-glucanase + xylanase + pectinase (FLF+Enz). The FLF was prepared by mixing feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) and, once daily, replacing 50% of the mixture with an equal amount of fresh feed and water. The diets were fed to 8 ileal cannulated barrows in a double Latin square design. Ileal digesta and feces were collected after an adaption period of 10 d. Results showed microbiologically good-quality fermented diets. The levels of Enterobacteriaceae were 5.1 to 5.4 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the ileum and 5.1 to 5.2 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the feces. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP was increased by fermentation (73.2% in FLF vs. 69.0% in nFLF; P = 0.033), and digestibility of P showed a tendency (P = 0.073) toward an increase. Addition of the enzyme mixture resulted in a pronounced reduction of dietary NSP compared with FLF (12.8% total NSP in FLF+Enz vs. 15.9% total NSP in FLF; P< 0.001), which also led to increased apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total and insoluble NSP (total NSP, 31.1% in FLF+Enz vs. 13.6% in FLF; P = 0.002). The Control did not, in general, show higher digestibility values than the experimental diet. However, in the cases were it did, fermentation and enzyme addition brought the digestibility to the level of the Control. In conclusion, fermentation increased the ATTD of CP and the AID of P, with the same tendency (P ? 0.07) for the ATTD. Addition of NSP-degrading enzymes resulted in a pronounced reduction in the concentration of NSP in the feed along with increased AID of NSP. Hence, the experimental diet seems to be a possible alternative to a traditional diet for pigs. PMID:26020320

  13. [Effect of extrusion on the activity of anti-nutritional factors and in vitro digestibility of protein and starch in flours of Canavalia ensiformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Nelson C

    2003-09-01

    The effect of the extrusion (155 degrees C, 20% moisture, screw speed 75 rpm, feed speed 205 g min-1) on antinutritional factors of Canavalia ensiformis was studied. In vitro protein and starch digestibilities were assessed. The extrusion not affect protein content (23%) in the flours, but significantly (P moisture content. The protein digestibility values were improved from 57.5 to 89.5%, these values were lower than casein (98.19%). The digestibility of starch values were improved from 37.7 to 53%. The protease inhibitors activities (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity were reduced by 95%. The haemagglutinating activity was eliminated as result of the high temperature employed during the extrusion process. The canavanine content in the flours were not affect by the treatment of extrusion. PMID:14694814

  14. Fast and efficient protein enzymatic digestion in proteomics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dy?ka, Filip; Bobá?, P.; Bobálová, Janette

    Koszeg, 2010. s. 49. ISBN 978-963-7067-20-4. [IMMS. Informal Meeting on Mass Spectrometry /28./. 02.05.2010-06.05.2010, Koszeg] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ?R IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : digestion * microwave * ultrasonic * infrared radiation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. Evaluation of single cell protein from pulp mills: laboratory analyses and in vivo digestibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellems, R.O.; Aseltine, M.S.; Church, D.C.

    1981-12-01

    Single cell protein (SCP) derived from secondary clarifiers of pulp mills is a potential commercial protein supplement in many areas. Samples of SCP were collected from several pulp mills in the Pacific Northwest and evaluated by laboratory procedures. Six in vivo digestion trials were conducted to determine the relative nutritive value of SCP that was dewatered by centrifugation or by the addition of a polyacrylamide polymer before being put through a belt press and dried with a sonic dehydrator. Amino acid analyses showed that SCP was higher in methionine than was cottonseed meal (CSM) and had a similar level of lysine. True protein, based upon amino acids recovered in SCP samples, ranged from 51.6 to 65.9% of the crude protein (CP). Pepsin digestibility of the CP ranged from 16.2 to 36.8%. Pepsin digestibility increased by 6.3 to 11.3 percentage units when SCP were incubated in a buffered rumen fluid for 24 hours. Solubility of the nitrogenous components in 10% Burroughs' buffer solution ranged from 12.4 to 36.5%. The range in mineral composition was : P, .62 to 1.55%; Ca, .14 to .99%; K, .21 to 5.52%; Mg, .07 to .59%. The concentration of trace minerals and heavy metals varied considerably from sample to sample. Digestion trials were conducted with sheep to compare SCP with CSM; 20 to 50% of the total CP was provided by the SCP sources. The CP digestibilities of the centrifuged and the polymer-dewatered SCP were 70.5 to 70.8% and 66.3 to 69.9%, respectively, of that observed for CSM. In all digestion trials, sheep consumed the SCP diets readily, and no digestive disturbances were observed. On the basis of laboratory and in vivo results, pulp mill SCP has the potential to be a viable protein supplement for livestock.

  16. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduces the allergic reactivity of shrimp extract proteins and tropomyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, Ma Paz; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, Ma Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-04-15

    Shrimp are highly allergenic foods. Current management are limited to the avoidance of foods. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a safe and effective therapy using modified allergens. This study focuses on assessing the potential for modification of the allergenicity of shrimp proteins following heat treatment or simulated gastric digestion. Shrimp proteins do not reduce their IgE reactivity after heat treatment but it is reduced by simulated gastric digestion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tropomyosin in shrimp extract is worse digested than purified tropomyosin. After 60 min of 10 U/?g pepsin digestion, a strong inhibition was produced in the in vivo skin reactivity of shrimp extracts and in activation of basophils from allergic patients. Immunisation experiments performed in rabbits demonstrated that digested boiled shrimp extract is able to induce IgG antibodies that block the IgE binding to the untreated boiled shrimp extract in shrimp-allergic patients. Building on our observations, digestion treatment could be an effective method for reducing shrimp allergenicity while maintaining the immunogenicity. PMID:25466048

  17. Solubility and digestibility of milk proteins in infant formulas exposed to different heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudloff, S; Lönnerdal, B

    1992-07-01

    There are presently several fundamentally different technologies to produce infant formulas (IF), such as sterilization, spray-drying, and treatment at ultrahigh temperature (UHT). The effects of heat treatment on milk proteins in IF were analyzed by column chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and Kjeldahl analysis, revealing strong protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in processed milk. These interactions were more pronounced in conventionally (in-can) sterilized than in spray-dried (powdered) and UHT products confirming their temperature dependency. Analysis of raw materials, intermediate and end products of IF processing revealed that after homogenization the first indications of protein denaturation occurred, but that in-can sterilization as the final heat treatment caused irreversible denaturation of proteins and strong protein-lipid interactions. Lowering of the pH to 4-5, which is physiological for the stomach of young infants, enhanced the interactions. Support for an impairment of protein digestibility was given by in vitro analysis of protein digestibility, demonstrating significantly lower digestibility of in-can sterilized IF compared to their spray-dried and UHT counterparts. To investigate the effect of heat treatment on chemical reactions, i.e., occurrence of Maillard products, we showed by a fluorimetric assay that the amount of "available" lysine is lower in sterilized than in powdered IF. Our findings suggest that a more differentiated view regarding the protein quality of IF is needed. PMID:1403447

  18. Investigation of protein digestibility and amino acid absorption in different segments of porcine digestive tract. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 4 pigs (live weight 63 kg) with re-entrance cannulae in the duodenum as well as in the ileocecal region intake, excretion and flow rate of protein, methionine and 35S were measured after supplementary oral application of 35S-methionine to a wheat-wheat gluten-lysine diet and a protein-free diet, respectively, over a period of 7 days. For both the N and the methionine metabolism patterns were outlined according to the measured values and with the aid of a compartment model. The endogenous and exogenous levels of proteins and methionine in the duodenum, ileum and feces were estimated

  19. The efficient approaches for enzymatic digestion of plant proteins.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dy?ka, Filip; Bobá?, P.; Bobálová, Janette

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ?R, v. v. i, 2012 - (Foret, F.; K?enková, J.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.; Bo?ek, P.), s. 267-270 ISBN 978-80-904959-1-3. [CECE 2012. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /9./. Brno (CZ), 01.11.2012-02.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : ultrasonic * infrared * digestion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0215222

  20. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Analía Verónica Fernández Gimenez; Ana Cristina Díaz; Susana María Velurtas; Jorge Lino Fenucci

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate) and plant (soybean meal) ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with th...

  1. Quantifying raft proteins in neonatal mouse brain by 'tube-gel' protein digestion label-free shotgun proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tint G Stephen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low concentration and highly hydrophobic nature of proteins in lipid raft samples present significant challenges for the sensitive and accurate proteomic analyses of lipid raft proteins. Elimination of highly enriched lipids and interfering substances from raft samples is generally required before mass spectrometric analyses can be performed, but these procedures often lead to excessive protein loss and increased sample variability. For accurate analyses of the raft proteome, simplified protocols are needed to avoid excessive sample handling and purification steps. Results We have devised a simple protocol using a 'tube-gel' protein digestion that, when combined with mass spectrometry, can be used to obtain comprehensive and reproducible identification and quantitation of the lipid raft proteome prepared from neonatal mouse brain. Lipid rafts (detergent-resistant membranes using Triton X-100 extraction prepared from neonatal mouse brain were directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide tube-gel matrix without prior protein separation. After in-gel digestion of proteins, nanospray LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the extracted peptides, and the resulting spectra were searched to identify the proteins present in the sample. Using the standard 'label-free' proteomics approach, the total number of MS/MS spectra for the identified proteins was used to provide a measure of relative protein abundances. This approach was successfully applied to lipid rafts prepared from neonatal mouse brain. A total of 216 proteins were identified: 127 proteins (58.8% were predicted to be membrane proteins, or membrane-associated proteins and 175 proteins (~80% showed less than a 2-fold variation in the relative abundance in replicate samples. Conclusion The tube-gel protein digestion protocol coupled with nanospray LC-MS/MS (TubeGeLC-MS/MS offers a simple and reproducible method for identifying and quantifying the changes of relative abundances in lipid raft proteins from neonatal mouse brain and could become a useful approach for studying lipid raft proteins from various tissues.

  2. Improvement of fruit and vegetable waste anaerobic digestion performance and stability with co-substrates addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallagui, H; Lahdheb, H; Ben Romdan, E; Rachdi, B; Hamdi, M

    2009-04-01

    The effect of fish waste (FW), abattoir wastewater (AW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) addition as co-substrates on the fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) anaerobic digestion performance was investigated under mesophilic conditions using four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR) with the aim of finding the better co-substrate for the enhanced performance of co-digestion. The reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 2.46-2.51 g volatile solids (VS)l(-1)d(-1), of which approximately 90% were from FVW, and a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. It was observed that AW and WAS additions with a ratio of 10% VS enhanced biogas yield by 51.5% and 43.8% and total volatile solids removal by 10% and 11.7%, respectively. However FW addition led to improvement of the process stability, as indicated by the low VFAs/Alkalinity ratio of 0.28, and permitted anaerobic digestion of FVW without chemical alkali addition. Despite a considerable decrease in the C/N ratio from 34.2 to 27.6, the addition of FW slightly improved the gas production yield (8.1%) compared to anaerobic digestion of FVW alone. A C/N ratio between 22 and 25 seemed to be better for anaerobic co-digestion of FVW with its co-substrates. The most significant factor for enhanced FVW digestion performance was the improved organic nitrogen content provided by the additional wastes. Consequently, the occurrence of an imbalance between the different groups of anaerobic bacteria which may take place in unstable anaerobic digestion of FVW could be prevented. PMID:19117663

  3. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the strongest inhibitor. Mercuric chloride was also administered to rats in vivo for 5 to 8 months. Renal lysosomal enzymes from these animals also had a decreased ability to digest the two substrate proteins. Furthermore, the digestion of lysozyme intravenously injected into mercury-intoxicated rats was decreased in renal cortical slices incubated in vitro. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that intravenously injected labeled lysozyme was located primarily over lysosomes in proximal tubule cells 1 hour after injection in both control animals and mercury-intoxicated rats. These results suggest a decreased catabolism of low molecular weight proteins in the kidney during chronic mercury intoxication

  4. Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft; Young, Clifford; Poulsen, Flemming Martin; Nielsen, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be...

  5. Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Veny; Bains, Kiran

    2012-04-01

    Germination of legumes followed by hydrothermal treatments is an effective mean of improving nutritive value of legumes. The protein content of mungbean, chickpea and cowpea increased by 9-11, 11-16 and 8-11% after germination. A significant (p???0.05) decrease in protein content was observed on pressure cooking and microwaving in all three legumes. The carbohydrates decreased by 1 to 3% during soaking and 2 to 6% during germination. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) was observed after soaking as well as after three germination periods. Germination resulted in an increase in IVPD from 15 to 25% in mungbean, 6 to 17% in chickpea and 6 to 17% in cowpea. A significant (p???0.05) increase in IVPD was observed when raw sprouts of three legumes were subjected to pressure cooking and microwaving. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) increased significantly (p???0.05) after germination, the percent increase being 8 to 12% in mungbean, 9 to 11% in chickpea and 10 to 13% in cowpea. The duration of germination had significant (p???0.05) effect on IVSD. A significant (p???0.05) improvement in IVSD was observed when legume sprouts were subjected to pressure cooking and microwave cooking. PMID:23572840

  6. Multifunctional protein processing chip with integrated digestion, solid-phase extraction, separation and electrospray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Jemere, Abebaw B; Harrison, D Jed

    2010-11-01

    We describe a microfluidic device in which integrated tryptic digestion, SPE, CE separation and electrospray ionization for MS are performed. The chip comprised of 10 × 30 ?m channels for CE, and two serially connected 150??m deep, 800??m wide channels packed with 40 to 60 ?m diameter beads, loaded with either immobilized trypsin, reversed-phase packing or both. On-chip digestion of cytochrome c using the trypsin bed showed complete consumption of the protein in 3 min, in contrast to the 2 h required for conventional solution phase tryptic digestion. SPE of 0.25 ?g/mL solutions of the peptides leu-enkephalin, angiotensin II and LHRH gave concentration enhancements in the range of 4.4-12, for a ten times nominal volume ratio. A 100 nM cytochrome c sample concentrated 13.3 times on-chip gave a sequence coverage of 85.6%, with recovery values ranging from 41.2 to 106%. The same sample run without SPE showed only five fragment peaks and a sequence coverage of 41.3%. When both on-chip digestion and SPE (13.3 volume ratio concentration enhancement) were performed on 200 nM cytochrome c samples, a sequence coverage of 76.0% and recovery values of 21-105% were observed. Performing on-chip digestion alone on the same sample gave only one significant fragment peak. The above digestion/peptide concentration step was compared to on-chip protein concentration by SPE followed by on-chip digestion with solution phase trypsin. Both procedures gave similar recovery results; however, much larger trypsin autodigestion interference in the latter approach was apparent. PMID:20967777

  7. Variation in crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestion of wheat forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture bloat can be a serious problem for ruminant livestock grazing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Decreased gains with nonlethal bloat episodes, yearly herd deaths up to 2%, and the cost and risk of active intervention reduce profi ts. Wheat has high digestibility, crude protein (CP), and s...

  8. A simple MALDI plate functionalization by Vmh2 hydrophobin for serial multi-enzymatic protein digestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Sara; Gravagnuolo, Alfredo Maria; Funari, Riccardo; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Pane, Francesca; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Marino, Gennaro; Giardina, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The development of efficient and rapid methods for the identification with high sequence coverage of proteins is one of the most important goals of proteomic strategies today. The on-plate digestion of proteins is a very attractive approach, due to the possibility of coupling immobilized-enzymatic digestion with direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The crucial step in the development of on-plate immobilization is however the functionalization of the solid surface. Fungal self-assembling proteins, the hydrophobins, are able to efficiently functionalize surfaces. We have recently shown that such modified plates are able to absorb either peptides or proteins and are amenable to MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. In this paper, the hydrophobin-coated MALDI sample plates were exploited as a lab-on-plate for noncovalent immobilization of enzymes commonly used in protein identification/characterization, such as trypsin, V8 protease, PNGaseF, and alkaline phosphatase. Rapid and efficient on-plate reactions were performed to achieve high sequence coverage of model proteins, particularly when performing multiple enzyme digestions. The possibility of exploiting this direct on-plate MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis has been investigated on model proteins and, as proof of concept, on entire whey milk proteome. PMID:25395204

  9. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Vázquez-Ortiz, Francisco A; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54), and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47), boiled beef (score = 75) and hamburger (score = 82). The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91) and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%). Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%). Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs. PMID:23822687

  10. DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND CHELATING ACTIVITY OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES FROM SPIRULINA (Arthrospira maxima OBTAINED BY SIMULATED GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Martínez-Palma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of two Spirulina samples (SpRPh: Spirulina reduced of pholyphenols and PCBEx: extract of phycobiliproteins, subjected both to sequential hydrolysis with pepsin and pancreatin. At the end of the enzymatic action, extensive hydrolysates with a degree of hydrolysis (% DH of 31.4 and 36.7%, for SpRPh and PCBEx respectively, were obtained. By determining the electrophoretic profiles, the degradation of characteristic bands of Spirulina proteins and the release of smaller peptides were observed. As a general trend, the antioxidant activity determined by different methods improved after simulating gastrointestinal digestion. On the other hand, protein hydrolysates from both groups showed Cu2+ and Fe2+ chelating activity.

  11. Rapid Online Non-Enzymatic Protein Digestion Analysis with High Pressure Superheated ESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Kinoshita, Masato; Noda, Masato; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, we reported a new ESI ion source that could electrospray the super-heated aqueous solution with liquid temperature much higher than the normal boiling point ( J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 1862-1869). The boiling of liquid was prevented by pressurizing the ion source to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The maximum operating pressure in our previous prototype was 11 atm, and the highest achievable temperature was 180°C. In this paper, a more compact prototype that can operate up to 27 atm and 250°C liquid temperatures is constructed, and reproducible MS acquisition can be extended to electrospray temperatures that have never before been tested. Here, we apply this super-heated ESI source to the rapid online protein digestion MS. The sample solution is rapidly heated when flowing through a heated ESI capillary, and the digestion products are ionized by ESI in situ when the solution emerges from the tip of the heated capillary. With weak acid such as formic acid as solution, the thermally accelerated digestion (acid hydrolysis) has the selective cleavage at the aspartate (Asp, D) residue sites. The residence time of liquid within the active heating region is about 20 s. The online operation eliminates the need to transfer the sample from the digestion reactor, and the output of the digestive reaction can be monitored and manipulated by the solution flow rate and heater temperature in a near real-time basis.

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and digestible crude protein of poultry excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the chemical composition, digestible crude protein and cell-wall constituents for two types of excreta of laying hens were studied. In type I, excreta were dried at 170-180 C for 10 minutes whereas in type II dried at 55-60 C for several days. Each type was divided into two parts, the first stored for 3 months with the control. The second part was irradiated by gamma irradiation at 100 KGy and stored for 3 months with the control. The results indicated that here was significant decrease in the crude fibre (CF), NDF and ADF between the samples and the control, for the types I and II where CF, NDF and ADF values, before and after storage, decreased by 12%, 5% and 6%, respectively, ADL values decreased by 8% (I) and 3%(II). Hemicellulose and soluble carbohydrate (NFE) values increased by 5% and 7% for types I and II respectively as a result of irradiation in comparison to the control before and after storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and digested crude protein for types I and II before and after storage. Drying type I at high temperature in comparison to type II, before and after storage, decreased the crude protein values by 16%. Digested crude protein and CF, decreased 12% and NDF by 7%. Storage of excreta after drying had no effect on the chemical changes due to irradiation for types I and II. (author). 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. PMID:26227428

  14. Effect of carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol on lipid and protein oxidation in an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Katleen; Doolaege, Evelyne H A; Deman, Steven; Vossen, Els; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-03-01

    Carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol are well-known antioxidants in many biological systems. However, their antioxidative effect during food digestion against lipid and protein oxidation is not well known. Therefore, in this study, an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model was used to investigate their stability during gastrointestinal conditions and their antioxidative properties during low pH digestion. In general, the stability of the antioxidants in the different steps of digestion was in the order of ?-tocopherol > quercetin >?carnosic acid. Salivary components, as well as the acidity of the gastric juice, were responsible for the reduction in antioxidants. Both ?-tocopherol and quercetin were able to lower lipid oxidation during digestion, while the effect on protein oxidation was not clear. In contrast, carnosic acid did not have any effect on lipid oxidation and tended to stimulate protein oxidation. This study clearly demonstrated that the environmental conditions are of major importance to the properties of antioxidant compounds. PMID:25578758

  15. Studies on voltammetric determination of cadmium in samples containing native and digested proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@ch.pw.edu.pl; Malinowska, El?bieta

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Proteins exhibit diverse impact on the DPASV cadmium signals. • Proteins subjected to HNO{sub 3} introduce less interference, than the native ones. • Optimal amount of SDS depends on the kind of protein. • Presence of thiolated coating agents of QDs do not influence the analysis. - Abstract: This work focuses on determination of cadmium ions using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on thin film mercury electrode in conditions corresponding to those obtained after digestion of cadmium-based quantum dots and their conjugates. It presents the impact of selected proteins, including potential receptors and surface blocking agents on the voltammetric determination of cadmium. Experiments regarding elimination of interferences related to proteins presence using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are also shown. Effect of SDS on selected analytical parameters and simplicity of analyses carried out was investigated in the framework of current studies. The significant differences of influence among tested proteins on ASV cadmium determination, as well as the variability in SDS effectiveness as the antifouling agent were observed and explained. This work is especially important for those, who design new bioassays and biosensors with a use of quantum dots as electrochemical labels, as it shows what problems may arise from presence of native and digested proteins in tested samples.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of carbohydrate and protein-based wastewaters in fluidized bed bioreactors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Fuentes; N. J., Scenna; P. A., Aguirre; M. C., Mussati.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on evaluating the anaerobic digestion of complex substrates (proteins and carbohydrates) in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs). In a previous paper, an AFBR model was adjusted using only the experimental data obtained during the acclimatization stage (glucose and ac [...] etate-based feeding) of two mesophilic bioreactors. Here, the sensitivity of that model to represent the digestion processes of proteins such as gelatin and albumin, and sucrose as a carbohydrate, is analyzed. Some kinetic expressions and parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis processes need to be modified to represent the real behavior of bioreactors. Under the analyzed operating conditions, a hydraulic retention time higher than 1 day is suggested to ensure good system efficiency.

  17. Improved biogas production from food waste by co-digestion with de-oiled grease trap waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste (FW) and de-oiled grease trap waste (GTW) to improve the biogas production. A lab-scale mesophilic digester (MD), a temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) and a TPAD with recycling (TPAD-R) were synchronously operated under mono-digestion (FW) and co-digestion (FW+de-oiled GTW). Co-digestion increased the biogas yield by 19% in the MD and TPAD-R, with a biogas yield of 0.60L/g VS added. Specific methanogenic activity in the TPAD-R was much higher than that in the MD. In addition to methane, hydrogen at a yield of approximately 1mol/mol hexose was produced in the TPAD-R. Alkalinity was consumed more in the co-digestion than in mono-digestion. Co-digestion resulted in more lipid accumulation in each digester. The MD favored the degradation of lipid and conversion of long-chain fatty acids more than the TPAD and TPAD-R. PMID:26679046

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on ruminal protein degradation and intestinal digestibility of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry matter of cottonseed meal (CSM) was determined by freeze-drying 1 g sample in duplicate. Based on this value, sufficient water was added to increase the moisture content of 2.5 kg of CSM to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was carried out in a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 deg. C. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.37 Gy/s. Three polyethylene packages of samples were irradiated in a gamma cell for total doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy in the presence of air. Prior to sealing in plastic bags, samples were allowed to air equilibrate for 2 h, then refrigerated (4 deg. C). Duplicate nylon bags of untreated or irradiated CSM were suspended in the rumen of four non-lactating Holstein cows for up to 48 h, and in situ resulting data were fitted to non-linear degradation model to calculate degradation parameters of crude protein. Proteins of untreated and treated CSM bag residues were fractionated by gel electrophoresis. Intestinal digestibility of crude protein was measured using the mobile nylon bag technique. As shown, gamma irradiation of CSM resulted in decreasing of crude protein disappearance in the rumen. This is beneficial effect for high producing ruminants, which need high amount of escaped protein from rumen to intestine. Fitting disappearance data to non-linear degradation model showed that the wash out fraction and degradation rate of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01), but the potentially degradable fraction increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increases in irradiation doses. As a consequence, the effective degradability of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as doses increased. Intestinal digestibility of ruminally undegraded crude protein increased linearly (P < 0.01) as irradiation doses increased. Three major protein components were observed: globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S. Electrophoretic results indicated that globulin 9S in untreated cottonseed meal (whereas globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S in gamma irradiated cottonseed meal) make the bulk of escaped protein. In gamma irradiated CSM, there were cross-linked products of the degraded protein molecules that could not penetrate the running gels. Gamma irradiation of protein will result in denaturation of protein and probably transform the proteins to a more resistant structure. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation of cottonseed meal appeared to be an effective means of increasing digestible rumen undegradable protein content. (author)

  19. Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.

  20. Digestibility and structural properties of thermal and high hydrostatic pressure treated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minjie; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed the effects of thermal (40, 60, 80, 100 and 127 °C) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 200, 400 and 600 MPa) treatments on the in vitro digestibility and structural properties of sweet potato protein (SPP). The results showed that the in vitro digestibility of SPP increased significantly with increasing heating temperature and heating time (0-60 min), while HHP treatment had little or no effect. Native SPP denaturation temperature (T d ) and enthalpy change (?H) were 89.0 °C and 9.6 J/g, respectively. Thermal and HHP treated SPP had T d of 84.6-88.9 °C and 86.4-87.6 °C, respectively. ?H of thermal treated SPP was 3.6-6.4 J/g, while that of HHP treated SPP was 5.9-7.8 J/g. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that HHP and thermal treatments both significantly reduced SPP thermodynamic stability. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that native SPP contains ?-helixes, ?-sheets and random coils (4.3, 48.0 and 47.7%, respectively). After thermal treatment at 127 °C for 20 min, the content of ?-helixes and turns increased significantly (13.2 and 27.6%, respectively), whereas the content of ?-sheets decreased significantly (12.3%). In contrast, HHP treatment increased the content of ?-sheets, but decreased the content of random coils. This study suggested that the SPP structure changes might be the main reason affecting the in vitro digestibility of SPP, and thermal treatment was more effective at changing SPP secondary structures and improving in vitro SPP digestibility than HHP treatment. PMID:24913513

  1. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Research 2013 August 2013 Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development of vitiligo may protect against—or even reverse—the pigmentation ...

  2. Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft; Young, Clifford; Poulsen, Flemming Martin; Nielsen, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be...... optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require...... several preparation steps, which prolongs any parallel operation and high-throughput interaction analysis. Gnd-HCl allow the efficient elution and subsequent fast digestion of PPIs to provide a convenient high-throughput methodology for affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. To...

  3. Effects of Dietary Protein, Lipid, and Digestible Carbohydrate Levels on the Weight Gain, Feed Conversion Efficiency, and Protein Efficiency Ratio of Tilapia nilotica

    OpenAIRE

    Teshima, Shin-ichi; Kanazawa, Akio; UCHIYAMA, Yoshihiro; ???, ????; ????, ???; ????, ????; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

    1985-01-01

    Feeding trials using purified diets, designed as 2-way layout experiments, were conducted to examine the effects of dietary protein (casein), lipid (a 1 to 1 mixture of soybean oil and pollack liver oil), and digestible carbohydrate (dextrin) on the growth of Tilapia nilotica in terms of weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and protein efficiency ratios. Tilapia fingerlings grew best on diets containing 40% protein, 12% lipid and 30% digestible carbohydrate. When the dietary lipi...

  4. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  5. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheepâ??s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Mawati; S. Soedarsono; S Sunarso; Agung Purnomoadi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep�s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep�s, 6 � 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78%) were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component...

  6. Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests

    OpenAIRE

    Pace Umberto; Bishara-Shieban Janette; Glickstein Hava; Braitbard Ori; Stein Wilfred D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i) products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic) digestion of the protein to be identifi...

  7. The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve anaerobic digestion of activated sludge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Machnicka; K, Gr& #369; bel; J, Suschka.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracellular and extracellular components are set free and are immediately availabl [...] e for biological degradation which leads to an improvement of the subsequent anaerobic process. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge results in organic matter and a polymer transfer from the solid phase to the liquid phase, and an increase in COD value of 284 mg??-1 was observed, i.e. from 42 mg??-1 to 326 mg??-1. In addition the degree of disintegration changed from 14% after 15 min disintegration to 54% after 90 min of disintegration. A disruption of bacterial cells by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. The cells of the activated sludge micro-organisms rupture and addition to the digestion process leads to increased biogas production. The hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge leads to a higher degree of degradation and higher biogas production. Adding the disintegrated sludge (10%, 20% and 30% of volume) to fermentation processes resulted in an improvement in biogas production of about 22%, 95% and 131% respectively.

  8. Protein improvement in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  9. Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins using proteinase K digestion and competition ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Theo; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins is useful to achieve and maintain a high degree of consistency of reagents used in research and diagnostic setting. Unfortunately, existing protocols and commercial kits suffer from a number of shortcomings that limit their usefulness. Here, we describe a simple protocol that overcomes the limitations of current assays. A robust competition ELISA was developed that is easy to carry out, uses no specialized equipment other than a standard plate reader for absorbance measurements and only reagents that are commonly available. The protocol uses a proteinase K digestion step of a sample of biotinylated protein to eliminate multivalency issues and sterical hindrance from bulky proteins. Furthermore, the use of an anti-biotin antibody instead of streptavidin results in a convenient range of sensitivity, avoiding million-fold dilutions that may impair precision. The resulting assay typically consumes about 1?gof biotinylated protein. PMID:26795634

  10. Tandem mass spectral libraries of peptides in digests of individual proteins: Human Serum Albumin (HSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Yan, Xinjian; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Liang, Yuxue; Mirokhin, Yuri A; Roth, Jeri S; Rudnick, Paul A; Stein, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    This work presents a method for creating a mass spectral library containing tandem spectra of identifiable peptide ions in the tryptic digestion of a single protein. Human serum albumin (HSA(1)) was selected for this purpose owing to its ubiquity, high level of characterization and availability of digest data. The underlying experimental data consisted of ?3000 one-dimensional LC-ESI-MS/MS runs with ion-trap fragmentation. In order to generate a wide range of peptides, studies covered a broad set of instrument and digestion conditions using multiple sources of HSA and trypsin. Computer methods were developed to enable the reliable identification and reference spectrum extraction of all peptide ions identifiable by current sequence search methods. This process made use of both MS2 (tandem) spectra and MS1 (electrospray) data. Identified spectra were generated for 2918 different peptide ions, using a variety of manually-validated filters to ensure spectrum quality and identification reliability. The resulting library was composed of 10% conventional tryptic and 29% semitryptic peptide ions, along with 42% tryptic peptide ions with known or unknown modifications, which included both analytical artifacts and post-translational modifications (PTMs) present in the original HSA. The remaining 19% contained unexpected missed-cleavages or were under/over alkylated. The methods described can be extended to create equivalent spectral libraries for any target protein. Such libraries have a number of applications in addition to their known advantages of speed and sensitivity, including the ready re-identification of known PTMs, rejection of artifact spectra and a means of assessing sample and digestion quality. PMID:24889059

  11. Behaviour of whey protein emulsion gel during oral and gastric digestion: effect of droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Ye, Aiqian; Lad, Mita; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-06-21

    A set of whey protein stabilized-emulsion gels with different droplet size distributions (D4,3 = ?1, 6 and 12 ?m) was produced, and the mechanical properties of the gels in the linear viscoelastic region and at large deformation were measured, along with the physicochemical and structural changes of the gels during oral mastication and gastric digestion. The gels containing 1 ?m oil droplets had an aggregated particle structure with proteins coating at oil droplets whereas the gels containing 12 ?m oil droplets had a particle-filled structure with spatially continuous matrix. During oral processing, the release of oil droplets from the gels increased as the droplet size increased, with coalescence being seen in gels containing oil droplets of 6 and 12 ?m diameter. Under gastric digestion, high degrees of coalescence and phase separation of oil droplets occurred in the gels containing 6 and 12 ?m oil droplets because of oil droplet release from the gel matrix; this led to slow gastric emptying. The gels were finally broken down into peptide aggregates and oil droplets (or free oil). The gels, containing 1 ?m oil droplets disintegrated into various particles of several to several tens of microns with a low degree of oil droplet release and coalescence. Protein breakdown was slower in these gels, suggesting that the protein structures of the gel matrices were affected by the sizes of the incorporated oil droplets. PMID:24763731

  12. Effects of protein source on nitrogen metabolism in continuous culture and intestinal digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Stern, M D; Firkins, J L

    1995-06-01

    Eight dual flow continuous culture fermenters were used in four replicated periods to study the effects of protein supplements on ruminal fermentation and CP digestion. A basal diet was supplemented with isonitrogenous amounts of urea and tryptone (control; CTRL), soybean meal (SBM), lignosulfonate-treated SBM (LSBM), corn gluten meal (CGM), blood meal (BM), hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM), fish meal (FM), or meat and bone meal (MBM). Digestion of DM, OM, and carbohydrates was not affected by treatment. Ammonia N concentration was highest (P < .05) for CTRL and lowest (P < .05) for LSBM, CGM, BM, HFM, and FM. Nonammonia N flow was lowest (P < .05) for CTRL. Dietary N flow was lowest (P < .05) for CTRL, intermediate for SBM, and highest (P < .05) for LSBM, CGM, BM, HFM, FM, and MBM. Total N flow, bacterial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected by treatment. Protein degradation was highest (P < .05) for CTRL. Flow of total amino acids (AA) was lowest (P < .05) for CTRL, SBM, and MBM. Diets containing BM provided the largest (P < .05) amounts of essential AA and lysine, and FM provided the largest (P < .05) amounts of methionine in fermenter effluent. Supplementation of diets with proteins low in ruminal degradability increased flows of nonammonia N, dietary N, and total and essential AA and modified the AA profile flowing out of fermenters. PMID:7673077

  13. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  14. Improvement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of agri-food waste by addition of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles, Jose A; Chica, Arturo F; Martin, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is a promising alternative to manage agri-food waste rather than landfilling, composting or incineration. But improvement of methane yield and biodegradability is often required to optimize its economic viability. Biomethanization of agri-food solid waste presents the disadvantage of a slow hydrolytic phase, which might be enhanced by adding a readily digestible substrate such as glycerol. In this study, strawberry extrudate, fish waste and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing are mixed at a proportion of 54:5:41, in VS (VS, total volatile solids), respectively. The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion at lab-scale of the mixture was stable at loads lower than 1.85 g VS/L, reaching a methane yield coefficient of 308 L CH4/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm) and a biodegradability of 96.7%, in VS. Moreover, the treatment capacity of strawberry and fish waste was increased 16% at adding the crude glycerol. An economic assessment was also carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed process. Even in a pessimistic scenario, the net balance was found to be positive. The glycerol adding implied a net saving in a range from 25.5 to 42.1 €/t if compared to landfill disposal. PMID:24726968

  15. Improving recombinant protein purification yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of adequate amounts of recombinant proteins is essential for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. It’s technologically challenging and a limiting factor for tung oil research because analytical reagents such as high qua...

  16. Using HPTLC/DESI-MS for Peptide Identification in 1D Separations of Tryptic Protein Digests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasilis, Sofie P [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Schorcht, Susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

    2008-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was investigated as a method to detect and identify peptides from tryptic digests of cytochrome c and myoglobin separated on ProteoChrom HPTLC Silica gel 60 F254s plates and ProteoChrom HPTLC Cellulose sheets. Both full scan mass spectra and data-dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired in separate plate scans and used to identify peptide ions. Peptide distributions along the development lane were mapped for each separated protein digest. Signal levels ranged over several orders of magnitude. In general, highest signal levels were obtained for the peptides with the highest Rf values on a plate, while peptides with very low Rf values were often not detected. Sequence coverages for cytochrome c were 58% for the digest separated on the silica gel plate and 72% for the separation on the cellulose sheet; myoglobin sequence coverages were 62% and 68% on silica gel and cellulose, respectively. Weak correlations between peptide hydrophilicity and Rf values on the silica gel and cellulose plates were found, with more hydrophilic peptides having lower Rf values.

  17. The Compare Improvement of Ultrasonic Treatment to Dewatering and Digestion in Aerobic and Anaerobic Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kargar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Backgrounds and Objectives: Large quantities of sludge are produced in biological wastewater treatment. Because this sludge is highly rotten, it should be stabilized before its disposal. Aerobic and anaerobic digestion is widely considered as stabilization techniques. Because of high retention time and sludge dewatering difficulties, reduction in retention time, operation and maintenance should be given into consideration. Ultrasonic process increases the enzymatic activity, so decreases the hydrolysis time, a limiting factor in digestion process, and contributes to the decrease of the detention time. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of ultrasound in improving dewatering and stabilization of aerobic and anaerobic digested sludge. In addition, the impact of ultrasonic treatment on improvement of sludge dewatering and aerobic and anaerobic digestion is compared.Materials and Methods: In this survey, samples of aerobic and anaerobic digestion were collected from local full-scale Garb Town and Tehran South wastewater treatment plant, respectively. The grab samples were collected for 4 month from July to October 2010. Total numbers of 20 samples were collected biweekly for each type of digestion. Each sample was sonicated for 15, 30, 60, and 90 min under 35 and 131 kHz frequencies separately. Total solids, volatile solids , pH, temperature , total COD, dissolved COD and settle able solids were measured. Ultrasound bath of the solution in a 300 mL glass reactor was performed as a bath reactor with power of 500 W.Result: The results showed that the application of ultrasonic wave increased dissolved COD and temperature and decreased volatile solid, pH and settle able solids. Application of ultrasonic wave with frequency of 131 kHz decreased the VS and increased the dewatering of sludge more effective than the 35 kHz frequency and the highest performance was at 15 min of time and 131 kHz of frequency. Also sonication method showed better efficiency for anaerobic sludge samples compared to the aerobic sludge samples.                 Conclusion: The results obtained showed that digestion and dewatering properties of sludge improved by ultrasonic application. Therefore it can be used as an alternative method for the sludge treatment. st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  18. Polydopamine-assisted immobilization of trypsin onto monolithic structures for protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, José G; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2012-06-01

    Inspired by the catechol-rich adhesive proteins of the mussel foot, we report a simple and versatile aqueous approach for the immobilization of trypsin onto silica and titania monolithic supports. The method involves in-situ coating of the monolithic substrates with a catechol-containing biomimetic polymer (polydopamine) derived from the polymerization of dopamine under alkaline pH, followed by conjugation of trypsin to the polydopamine polymer coating. The trypsin immobilization efficiency onto the monolithic materials was investigated as a function of different preparation parameters such as dopamine concentration and coating time. The enzymatic activity of the immobilized trypsin reactors was evaluated, and mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis was demonstrated by digestion of a model protein. The method presented in this manuscript has broad potential for immobilization of trypsin and other enzymes onto a wide variety of monolithic supports, due to the ability of polydopamine to act as a primer for covalent immobilization of proteins. PMID:22740262

  19. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Koprucu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

  20. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Analía Verónica, Fernández Gimenez; Ana Cristina, Díaz; Susana María, Velurtas; Jorge Lino, Fenucci.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula) e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja) em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações conten [...] do 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P Abstract in english This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate) and plant (soybean meal) ingredients. Three replicate groups of [...] prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (P

  1. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where...... was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the...

  2. Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin ?- and ?-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously

  3. Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigter, E.C.A. [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.c.a.stigter@uu.nl; Jong, G.J. de; Bennekom, W.P. van [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-07-07

    On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin {beta}- and {alpha}-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously.

  4. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hymøller, Lone; Larsen, M. K.; Lund, P.; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2014-01-01

    of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood......The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4...

  5. Can electromagnetic fields influence the structure and enzymatic digest of proteins? A critical evaluation of microwave-assisted proteomics protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Damm, Markus; Nusshold, Christoph; Cantillo, David; Rechberger, Gerald N; Gruber, Karl; Sattler, Wolfgang; Kappe, C. Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This study reevaluates the putative advantages of microwave-assisted tryptic digests compared to conventionally heated protocols performed at the same temperature. An initial investigation of enzyme stability in a temperature range of 37–80 °C demonstrated that trypsin activity declines sharply at temperatures above 60 °C, regardless if microwave dielectric heating or conventional heating is employed. Tryptic digests of three proteins of different size (bovine serum albumin, cytochrome c and ...

  6. In vitro crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens insect meals and its correlation with chemical composition traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Marono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between in vitro crude protein digestibility coefficients of insect meals from Tenebrio molitor (TI and Hermetia illucens (HI and their chemical composition traits as well as to develop regression equations able to estimate the in vitro crude protein digestibility (CPd from proximate analysis of insect meals. Twelve samples of insect meals (6 from TM larvae, TM 1-6 and 6 from HI larvae, HI 1-6 were obtained from different producers and analysed for chemical composition and in vitro crude protein digestibility by a two-step enzymatic method (digestion with pepsin and trypsin-enriched pancreatin. For both insect meal samples, CPd was negatively correlated to ADF and chitin contents, while just for HI there was a positive correlation (P<0.01 between CP percentage of the samples and CPd. For both insect meals the former variable chosen in the stepwise analysis was the chitin, explaining the 79.45% of CPd variability for Tenebrio molitor samples and the 98.30% for Hermetia illucens. In the second step, the amount of protein linked to ADF was added in the model for T. molitor and CP for H. illucens samples. The coefficients chitin is the main constituent of insect body able to affect the crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens larvae meals estimated by an in vitro enzymatic method.

  7. Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed.

  8. Protein improvement in cereals and mungbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cereal and legumes are the main sources of protein in developing countries such as Pakistan. Efforts are being made to improve the quantity and quality of cereal and mungbean proteins through conventional and mutation breeding techniques. Some mutants of wheat, triticale and mungbean are under trial for their agronomic performance and for protein evaluation. The results from studies of these mutants and some other promising lines are presented. (author)

  9. Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation had influence on in vitro protein digestibility and minerals availability of peanut. • Total mineral and protein content of peanut were not changed after treatments. • The treatment decreased the in vitro protein digestibility of peanut. • The irradiation of peanut resulted in increment of its minerals availability

  10. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  11. Improved coverage of cDNA-AFLP by sequential digestion of immobilized cDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlovsky Petr

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background cDNA-AFLP is a transcriptomics technique which does not require prior sequence information and can therefore be used as a gene discovery tool. The method is based on selective amplification of cDNA fragments generated by restriction endonucleases, electrophoretic separation of the products and comparison of the band patterns between treated samples and controls. Unequal distribution of restriction sites used to generate cDNA fragments negatively affects the performance of cDNA-AFLP. Some transcripts are represented by more than one fragment while other escape detection, causing redundancy and reducing the coverage of the analysis, respectively. Results With the goal of improving the coverage of cDNA-AFLP without increasing its redundancy, we designed a modified cDNA-AFLP protocol. Immobilized cDNA is sequentially digested with several restriction endonucleases and the released DNA fragments are collected in mutually exclusive pools. To investigate the performance of the protocol, software tool MECS (Multiple Enzyme cDNA-AFLP Simulation was written in Perl. cDNA-AFLP protocols described in the literatur and the new sequential digestion protocol were simulated on sets of cDNA sequences from mouse, human and Arabidopsis thaliana. The redundancy and coverage, the total number of PCR reactions, and the average fragment length were calculated for each protocol and cDNA set. Conclusion Simulation revealed that sequential digestion of immobilized cDNA followed by the partitioning of released fragments into mutually exclusive pools outperformed other cDNA-AFLP protocols in terms of coverage, redundancy, fragment length, and the total number of PCRs. Primers generating 30 to 70 amplicons per PCR provided the highest fraction of electrophoretically distinguishable fragments suitable for normalization. For A. thaliana, human and mice transcriptome, the use of two marking enzymes and three sequentially applied releasing enzymes for each of the marking enzymes is recommended.

  12. Uric Acid Determination in Poultry Excreta and its Application to Correcting Protein Digestibility Values: Spectrophotometry with Ultraviolet Detection vs HPLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Marquardt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of uric acid contents of poultry excreta was examined for use in the estimation of apparent protein digestibility. Uric acid was determined either by high-performance liquid chromatography or by spectrophotometric method. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was used with absorbance measured at 285 nm. The method used a reverse-phase system with a C18-bonded column (250*4.6 mm, i.d.. The mobile phase was distilled deionized water. Injection volume was 20 l with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Correlation (r between the two methods for uric acid content of excreta from birds fed diets with different methionine levels was 0.976. The uric acid values were then used to determine apparent protein digestibility. The apparent protein digestibility values, when corrected for uric acid nitrogen, were comparable with those calculated from amino acid analysis.

  13. Digesting pythons quickly oxidize the proteins in their meals and save the lipids for later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A

    2015-07-01

    Pythons digesting rodent meals exhibit up to 10-fold increases in their resting metabolic rate (RMR); this increase in RMR is termed specific dynamic action (SDA). Studies have shown that SDA is partially fueled by oxidizing dietary nutrients, yet it remains unclear whether the proteins and the lipids in their meals contribute equally to this energy demand. We raised two populations of mice on diets labeled with either [(13)C]leucine or [(13)C]palmitic acid to intrinsically enrich the proteins and lipids in their bodies, respectively. Ball pythons (Python regius) were fed whole mice (and pureed mice 3 weeks later), after which we measured their metabolic rates and the ?(13)C in the breath. The ?(13)C values in the whole bodies of the protein- and lipid-labeled mice were generally similar (i.e. 5.7±4.7‰ and 2.8±5.4‰, respectively) but the oxidative kinetics of these two macronutrient pools were quite different. We found that the snakes oxidized 5% of the protein and only 0.24% of the lipids in their meals within 14?days. Oxidation of the dietary proteins peaked 24?h after ingestion, at which point these proteins provided ?90% of the metabolic requirement of the snakes, and by 14?days the oxidation of these proteins decreased to nearly zero. The oxidation of the dietary lipids peaked 1 day later, at which point these lipids supplied ?25% of the energy demand. Fourteen days after ingestion, these lipids were still being oxidized and continued to account for ?25% of the metabolic rate. Pureeing the mice reduced the cost of gastric digestion and decreased SDA by 24%. Pureeing also reduced the oxidation of dietary proteins by 43%, but it had no effect on the rates of dietary lipid oxidation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that pythons are able to effectively partition the two primary metabolic fuels in their meals. This approach of uniquely labeling the different components of the diet will allow researchers to examine new questions about how and when animals use the nutrients in their meals. PMID:25987734

  14. Amaranth-protein interaction in food system and its impact on tryptic digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranth, a food color, is used in variety of food products to attract consumers, especially children. The purpose of the present study was to identify the component present in the food system which acts as a carrier of color and its distribution. The protein is the most possible candidate for color-conjugates and this was first explored by staining the resolved food proteins on PAGE simultaneously and separately with Amaranth as well as by Coomassie brilliant blue R250. It is the most widely used dye for protein assay. The color intensity of the Amaranth-protein complexes was slightly less than those of Coomassie brilliant blue R250, although the bands stained by Amaranth were very sharp, clearly separated and distinct. The staining procedure followed for Amaranth was quick. The impact of tryptic digestibility on amaranth-protein complexes has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect. The possible moode of conjugation between amino acid and azo-bond is also discussed. (author)

  15. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2. gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Improved anaerobic digestion performance and biogas production from poultry litter after lowering its nitrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos

    2015-11-01

    Poultry litter (PL) was pre-treated in order to reduce its nitrogen content and to increase the C/N ratio. The pre-treatment consisted of a first anaerobiosis phase of about 60days in order to accumulate ammonia nitrogen, followed by an ammonia stripping phase by heating the substrate at 80°C for 24h. The digestion was performed with PL and pre-treated PL (TPL) after ammonia stripping as mono-substrate under four total solids loads, i.e. 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The TPL after ammonia stripping displayed lower ammonia (62-73%) and VFA (41-65%) concentrations compared to digesters with raw PL, while bio-methane yield increased about 8-124%. Bio-methane yields in the series with TPL after ammonia stripping were about 193, 196, 215 and 147 [Formula: see text] /kgCOD, based on the COD added, for 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% TS load, respectively. The results indicate that lowering nitrogen content using the suggested process improves bio-methane yields significantly. PMID:26227571

  17. Effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of two indigenous varieties of Indian tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens Var. utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhuraju, P; Becker, K

    2001-06-01

    The effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and starch fractions and in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of white and black varieties of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis was studied. Cooking or autoclaving of both raw seeds and presoaked seeds in different solutions (water, tamarind extract, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of total phenolics, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities, and L-dopa compared to soaking or dry heating techniques. The germination processes (24 and 48 h) were also effective in the reduction of various antinutrients, although this reduction appeared to be more pronounced in a prolonged period of germination (72 h). Water soaking followed by dehusking was found to be ineffective in the reduction of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities in both varieties. All of the treatments were effective in significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the resistant starch content in the presently investigated samples. Cooking as well as autoclaving brought about a more significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the digestibility of protein and starch compared to germination and dry heat treatment. Moreover, among the different processing techniques, soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution followed by cooking (29.6-34.8%) or autoclaving (33.0-37.2%) seemed to be the best method for improving starch digestibility. PMID:11410009

  18. In vitro crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens insect meals and its correlation with chemical composition traits

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Marono; Giovanni Piccolo; Rosa Loponte; Carmelo Di Meo; Attia, Youssef A.; Antonino Nizza; Fulvia Bovera

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between in vitro crude protein digestibility coefficients of insect meals from Tenebrio molitor (TI) and Hermetia illucens (HI) and their chemical composition traits as well as to develop regression equations able to estimate the in vitro crude protein digestibility (CPd) from proximate analysis of insect meals. Twelve samples of insect meals (6 from TM larvae, TM 1-6 and 6 from HI larvae, HI 1-6) were obtained from different producers a...

  19. Effect of processing on protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization of millet and legume based infant mixes and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geervani, P; Vimala, V; Pradeep, K U; Devi, M R

    1996-04-01

    Effect of combinations of millet and legume and processing on digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization was evaluated using albino rats. The millets and legumes selected for the study include sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, chickpea and green gram (P radiatus). The processes tested include dehulling, boiling, roasting, malting and baking. Among the combinations tested, the sorghum-chickpea combination had significantly (p < 0.05) higher digestibility. Between the processes tested, roasting resulted in significantly higher net protein utilization. Results of biological study on biscuits prepared by using millet and legume combination flours, indicated the biscuits to be of good protein quality. PMID:8865331

  20. Effects of synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen on fermentation, nutrient utilization and total tract digestibility in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Birgul Bozan; Gulay Deniz; Bulent Haluk Gulmez; Hakan Biricik; Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen; Hidir Gencoglu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of synchronizing the dietary starch and crude protein (CP) degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization, fermentation, and total tract digestibility in sheep. The four diets were formulated with different rates of starch and CP release in the rumen but with similar metabolic energy, starch, and CP. The diets were slowly degradable starch, slowly degradable protein; slowly degradable starch, rapidly degradable protein; rapidly...

  1. Digestible protein and energy value of fish meal, dextrin, fish oil and soybean oil for Thai sharpunti (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker)

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M A; Rahman, M. M.; Chakraborty, S.C

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory trial was conducted to determine the digestible protein and energy value of fish meal, dextrin, fish oil and soybean oil for Thai sharpunti (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker). A reference diet containing 35% protein was formulated in which fish meal was the sole source of protein. Five test diets were formulated using reference diet and individual test ingredients (fish meal, dextrin, fish oil and soybean oil). Each treatment had three replicates with 15 fish per replicate. Fish were f...

  2. In vitro pH-Stat protein hydrolysis of feed ingredients for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. 2. In vitro protein digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Tibbetts, S.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Lall, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using enzyme fractions isolated from the pyloric caeca of farmed Atlantic cod, the in vitro degree of protein hydrolysis (DH) of numerous conventional and novel feed ingredients were measured by a closed-system pH-Stat assay. Regression equations describing the relationship between in vivo apparent protein digestibility (ADC) and in vitro protein DH were used to predict in vitro protein ADC. The equations resulted in good correlation (

  3. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Verónica Fernández Gimenez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate and plant (soybean meal ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (PO objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações contendo 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P<0,05. A farinha de peixe apresentou a maior digestibilidade (92%, enquanto valores intermediários de digestibilidade (83% foram encontrados para a farinha de carne e ossos. A ração contendo farinha de soja e concentrado de proteína de lula resultou em menor digestibilidade (63%. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de digestibilidade in vitro para as rações testadas. Estes resultados indicam a limitação inerente dos ensaios enzimáticos in vitro, os quais poderiam ser complementados com estudos in vivo.

  4. Kernel composition, starch structure, and enzyme digestibility of opaque-2 maize and quality protein maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Scott, M Paul; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2009-03-11

    Objectives of this study were to understand how opaque-2 (o2) mutation and quality protein maize (QPM) affect maize kernel composition and starch structure, property, and enzyme digestibility. Kernels of o2 maize contained less protein (9.6-12.5%) than those of the wild-type (WT) counterparts (12.7-13.3%). Kernels of a severe o2 mutant B46o2 also contained less starch (66.9%) than those of B46wt (73.0%). B46o2 and QPM starches contained less amylose (28.0 and 26.0%, respectively) than others (31.9-33.7%). The B46o2 starch also consisted of amylopectin with the fewest branch chains of DP 13-24. Thus, the B46o2 starch was the most susceptible to porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) hydrolysis. Starches of the dry-ground o2 maize and QPM were hydrolyzed faster than that of the dry-ground WT maize, resulting from the reduced protein content of the o2-maize kernels and the reduced amylose content of the B46o2 and QPM starch. Starch in the dry-ground maize sample was hydrolyzed faster by PPA (85-91%) than was the isolated starch (62-71%), which could be attributed to the presence of mechanically damaged starch granules and endogenous amylases in the dry-ground maize samples. These results showed that o2 maize and QPM had highly digestible starch and could be desirable for feed and ethanol production. PMID:19206469

  5. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (2): Protein and starch hydrolyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemejane, C; Denis, S; Marsset-Baglieri, A; Alric, M; Aymard, P; Michon, C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of protein and/or fibre enrichment on the nutritional properties of biscuits was studied in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Biscuits were digested using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system that simulates the main physiological digestive functions of the upper tract of healthy adult humans: the TIM-1. A control biscuit and three biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres were digested under the same conditions. Samples were collected in each compartment of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at different times of digestion and analysed in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Results indicate that both formulation and processing impacted the digestive fate of the biscuits. Incorporating proteins or fibres in biscuits lowered or delayed proteolysis. Moreover a protein-plus-fibre additional or synergic effect was observed. Biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres displayed a higher amylolysis degree than the control biscuit, probably due to lower starch amounts and higher gelatinization degrees. PMID:26212956

  6. Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ferriani Branco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéicos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR, na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta. A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável.The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were evaluated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pepsin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29 had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

  7. The Protein Composition of the Digestive Fluid from the Venus Flytrap Sheds Light on Prey Digestion Mechanisms*

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, W.X.; K. W. Sanggaard; I. Kreuzer; Knudsen, A. D.; F. Bemm; Thogersen, I B; A. Brautigam; L. R. Thomsen; S. Schliesky; T. F. Dyrlund; M. Escalante-Perez; Becker, D.; Schultz, J.; H. Karring; Weber, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the pr...

  8. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  9. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation and plasma protein interaction of white, green, and black tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-02-15

    The gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation, and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from a single tea cultivar at different stages of processing (white, green, and black teas) were simulated. The salivary phase contained 74.8-99.5% of native polyphenols, suggesting potential bioavailability of significant amounts of antioxidants through the oral mucosal epithelium that might be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. White tea had the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability for catechins. Since most of native catechins were not absorbed, they were expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular glucose and cholesterol uptake was assumed. The permeated catechins (approximately, 2-15% of intestinal levels) significantly bound (about 37%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. White tea and its potential nutraceuticals could be effective in the regulation of plasma glucose and cholesterol levels. PMID:25236233

  10. Crosslinking food proteins for improved functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchert, Johanna; Ercili Cura, Dilek; Ma, Hairan; Gasparetti, Chiara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Faccio, Greta; Mattinen, Maija; Boer, Harry; Partanen, Riitta; Selinheimo, Emilia; Lantto, Raija; Kruus, Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    Different possibilities for protein crosslinking are examined in this review, with special emphasis on enzymatic crosslinking and its impact on food structure. Among potential enzymes for protein crosslinking are transglutaminase (TG) and various oxidative enzymes. Crosslinking enzymes can be applied in cereal, dairy, meat, and fish processing to improve the texture of the product. Most of the current commercial applications are based on TG. The reaction mechanisms of the crosslinking enzymes differ, which in turn results in different technological properties. PMID:22129332

  11. Laser-improved protein crystallization screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of laser irradiation on freshly prepared protein drops was explored and found to be a viable tool to induce nucleation. In our experiment, the number of positive crystallization hits during the screening process increased. In some instances the speed of crystal growth, the size of the crystals and the resolution of X-ray diffraction showed a marked improvement after laser exposure. Under optimized laser settings, in no case was the laser detrimental to crystal growth. Screening of proteins for crystallization under laser irradiation was investigated using six proteins: ribonuclease B, glucose dehydrogenase, lysozyme, sorbitol dehydrogenase, fructose dehydrogenase and myoglobin. Shining 532 nm green circularly polarized laser light with a picosecond pulse and 6 mW power for 30 s on newly set-up protein drops showed a marked improvement in the number of screen conditions amenable for crystal growth compared with control drops under identical conditions but without laser exposure. For glucose dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, larger and better quality crystals were formed and the resolution of X-ray diffraction was improved. The speed of crystallization increased in the case of ribonuclease B, lysozyme and sorbitol dehydrogenase. During laser irradiation, the amount of precipitation in the screened drops increased, indicating a transient decrease in protein solubility. At the optimized laser settings, there was no deleterious effect of the laser on crystal growth or on the protein. In the cases of ribonuclease B and lysozyme the crystal packing did not change owing to the laser exposure

  12. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg 15N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the 15N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect of CT astringency on the availability of protein post-ruminally is minimal. (author)

  13. Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft

    2013-01-01

    Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can be optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require several preparation steps, which prolongs any parallel operation and high-throughput interaction analysis. Gnd-HCl allow the efficient elution and subsequent fast digestion of PPIs to provide a convenient high-throughput methodology for affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. To validate the Gnd-HCl approach, label-free PPI analysis of several GFP-tagged yeast deubiquitinating enzymes was performed. The identification of known interaction partners demonstrates the utility of the optimized Gnd-HCl protocol that is also scalable to the 96 well-plate format.

  14. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4 ± 2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P  0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response. PMID:23096766

  15. Effects of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, P; Wanapat, M; Anantasook, N

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS) and urea-treated (3%) rice straw (UTRS), and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: long form rice straw (LFR) and chopped (4 cm) rice straw (CHR). The steers were offered the concentrate at 0.5% body weight (BW) /d and rice straw was fed ad libitum. DM intake and nutrient digestibility were increased (p0.05), except propionic acid (C3) was increased (p<0.05) in UTRS fed group. Nitrogen (N) balance was affected by urea treatment (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis (MCP) synthesis were greater by UTRS and CHR group (p<0.05). The efficiency of microbial N synthesis was greater for UTRS than for RS (p<0.05). From these results, it can be concluded that using the long form combined with urea treatment of rice straw improved feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial N synthesis in crossbred dairy steers. PMID:25049759

  16. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

    2007-06-15

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  17. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  18. Thermal wet oxidation improves anaerobic biodegradability of raw and digested biowaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of solid biowaste generally results in relatively low methane yields of 50-60% of the theoretical maximum. Increased methane recovery from organic waste would lead to reduced handling of digested solilds, lower methane emissions to the environment, and higher green energy profits. The objective of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane yields from different biowastes (food waste, yard waste, and digested biowaste already treated in a full-scale biogas plant (DRANCO, Belgium)) by assessing thermal wet oxidation. The biodegradability of the waste was evaluated by using biochemical methane potential assays and continuous 3-L methane reactors. Wet oxidation temperature and oxygen pressure (T, 185-220 degreesC; O-2 pressure, 0-12 bar; t, 15 min) were varied for their effect on total methane yield and digestion kinetics of digested biowaste. Measured methane yields for raw yard waste, wet oxidized yard waste, raw food waste, and wet oxidized food waste were 345, 685, 536, and 571 mL of CH4/g of volatile suspended solids, respectively. Higher oxygen pressure during wet oxidation of digested biowaste considerably increased the total methane yield and digestion kinetics and permitted lignin utilization during a subsequent second digestion. The increase of the specific methane yield for the full-scale biogas plant by applying thermal wet oxidation was 35-40%, showing that there is still a considerable amount of methane that can be harvested from anaerobic digested biowaste.

  19. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Bello-Pérez; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H.; Deisy Hervert-Hernández; Isabel Goñi; Grajales-García, Eva M.; Perla Osorio-Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher ...

  20. DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND CHELATING ACTIVITY OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES FROM SPIRULINA (Arthrospira maxima) OBTAINED BY SIMULATED GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTION

    OpenAIRE

    N. Martínez-Palma; A. Martínez-Ayala; G. Dávila-Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of tw...

  1. Environmental sustainability of an energy self-sufficient sewage treatment plant: improvements through DEMON and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Dewulf, Jo; Boeckx, Pascal; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    It is still not proven that treatment of sewage in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is (in every case) environmentally friendly. To address this matter, we have applied a state-of-the-art life cycle assessment (LCA) to an energy self-sufficient WWTP in Strass (Austria), its supply chain and the valorization of its 'products': produced electricity out of biogas from sludge digestion and the associated stabilized digestate, applied as agricultural fertilizer. Prominent aspects of our study are: a holistic environmental impact assessment, measurement of greenhouse gas emissions (including N2O), and accounting for infrastructure, replacement of conventional fertilizers and toxicity of metals present in the stabilized digestate. Additionally, the environmental sustainability improvement by implementing one-stage partial nitritation/anammox (e.g. DEMON(®)) and co-digestion was also assessed. DEMON on the digesters reject water leads to a considerable saving of natural resources compared to nitritiation/denitritation (about 33% of the life cycle resource input), this through the lowering of sludge consumption for N-removal, and thus increasing electricity production via a higher sludge excess. However, its N2O emission could be restrained through further optimization as it represents a large share (30-66%) of the plants' damaging effect on human health, this through climate change. The co-substrate addition to the digester resulted in no significant improvement of the digestion process but induced net electricity generation. If respective amounts of conventional fertilizers are replaced, the land application of the stabilized digestate is environmentally friendly through prevention of natural resource consumption and diversity loss, but possibly not regarding human health impact due the presence of toxic heavy metals, mainly Zn, in the digestate. The outcomes show that the complete life cycle results in a prevention of resource extraction from nature and a potential mitigation of diversity loss (though for some impact categories no quantification of associated diversity loss is possible) but it also leads to a damaging effect on human health, mainly via climate change and heavy metal toxicity. Since it is for now impossible to aggregate the impact to these different aspects in a sound manner, it is not yet possible to consider in this case the studied system as environmentally friendly. Generally, the field of LCA needs further development to present a better and single outcome. PMID:25727156

  2. Comparative study on chemical pretreatment methods for improving enzymatic digestibility of crofton weed stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Dehua

    2008-06-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng), a potential pathway was proposed by using it as a feedstock for production of fermentable sugars. Three chemical pretreatment methods were used for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem. Mild H2SO4 pretreatment could obtain a relatively high yield of sugars in the pretreatment (32.89%, based on initial holocellulose), however, it led to only a slight enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. NaOH pretreatment could obtain a higher enzymatic conversion ratio of cellulose compared with H2SO4 pretreatment. Peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment seemed to be the most effective for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem in the three chemical pretreatment methods under the same conditions. The conversion ratio of cellulose in the sample pretreated by PAA under the "optimal" condition was increased to 50% by cellulase loading of 80 FPU/g cellulose for 72 h incubation. A number of empirical quadratic models were successfully developed according to the experimental data to predict the yield of sugar and degree of delignification. PMID:17709243

  3. Improving decoy databases for protein folding algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Lindsey, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 ACM. Predicting protein structures and simulating protein folding are two of the most important problems in computational biology today. Simulation methods rely on a scoring function to distinguish the native structure (the most energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing redundant structures. We test our approach on 17 different decoy databases of varying size and type and show significant improvement across a variety of metrics. We also test our improved databases on a popular modern scoring function and show that they contain a greater number of native-like structures than the original databases, thereby producing a more rigorous database for testing scoring functions.

  4. Decoy Database Improvement for Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy; Lindsey, Aaron; Wu, Chih-Peng; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M

    2015-09-01

    Predicting protein structures and simulating protein folding are two of the most important problems in computational biology today. Simulation methods rely on a scoring function to distinguish the native structure (the most energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing redundant structures. We test our approach on 20 different decoy databases of varying size and type and show significant improvement across a variety of metrics. We also test our improved databases on two popular modern scoring functions and show that for most cases they contain a greater or equal number of native-like structures than the original databases, thereby producing a more rigorous database for testing scoring functions. PMID:26258648

  5. A Comparative Study of In-Gel Digestions Using Microwave and Pressure-Accelerated Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Rudy; Tran, Diana; Ching, Bonnie; Brett S. Phinney

    2010-01-01

    One of the most popular methods to prepare tryptic peptides for bottom-up proteomic analysis is in-gel digestion. To date, there have been few studies comparing various digestion methods. In this study, we compare the efficiency of several popular in-gel digestion methods, along with new technologies that may improve digestion efficiency, using a human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysate protein standard. The efficiency of each protocol was based on the average number of proteins identified and ...

  6. Identification and characterization of antioxidant peptides obtained by gastrointestinal digestion of amaranth proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini Delgado, María C; Nardo, Agustina; Pavlovic, Marija; Rogniaux, Hélène; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2016-04-15

    The objective of the present work was to separate and identify antioxidant peptides from a simulated gastrointestinal digest (Id) from Amaranthus mantegazzianus proteins (I), which has previously been demonstrated to have this activity. I and Id were separated by preparative RP-HPLC. Fractions were evaluated by the ORAC method and the more active ones were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Each fraction presented diverse peptides from different proteins, most of them from the 11S globulin. After grouping the peptides from 11S globulin according to their overlapping sequences, and based on previous information about structure-activity relationships, ten sequences were synthesized, in order to evaluate their antioxidant activity. Four peptides presented interesting activity: AWEEREQGSR>YLAGKPQQEH?IYIEQGNGITGM?TEVWDSNEQ. They exhibited some of the structural characteristics already known to demonstrate this activity, all of them containing at least one bulky aromatic residue. All belonged to little structured, internal or exposed regions of the acid subunit of the 11S globulin. PMID:26675853

  7. Structural analysis of a MIP family protein from the digestive tract of Cicadella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuron, F; Le Cahérec, F; Guillam, M T; Cavalier, A; Garret, A; Tassan, J P; Delamarche, C; Schultz, P; Mallouh, V; Rolland, J P

    1995-07-21

    Homopteran insects, and especially Cicadella viridis, display in their digestive tract a specialized epithelial differentiation, the filter chamber (FC) acting as a water-shunting complex. The main intrinsic membrane protein of the FC is a 25,000-Da polypeptide (P25). In this paper we demonstrate that this P25 polypeptide is a member of the MIP family of membrane channel proteins, and that P25 forms homotetramers in the native membranes. Using polymerase chain reaction, a 360-base pair cDNA, named cic, was isolated from RNA of the FC. cic encodes a 119-amino acid polypeptide (CIC) whose homologies with MIP26, AQP1 (CHIP), AQP2, and gamma-TIP are 38, 38, 34, and 20%, respectively. Using a specific antibody raised against a 15-amino acid peptide from the CIC sequence, we concluded that CIC and P25 are identical entities, and hence that P25 belongs to the MIP family. We investigated the quaternary structure of P25 in the membranes of the FC using biophysical analysis of P25 nondenaturing detergent micelles, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and image processing of conventional transmission electron microscopic images. All those different approaches converged to the conclusion that P25 exists as an homotetramer forming a regular two-dimensional array in the membranes. PMID:7542238

  8. / Development of a bench scale system for anaerobic acidogenic digestion of wastewater from isolated soy protein

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.S., Cassini; I.C., Tessaro; L.D.F., Marczak.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Wastewater from isolated soy protein (ISP) production is characterized by high organic load. A complex primary wastewater treatment system has been studied: an anaerobic acidogenic reactor, a tubular reactor and a sedimentation tank. Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process; the control of temp [...] erature, pH, alkalinity, TSS/VSS and COD is fundamental. The objective was to develop and compare the efficiency of a bench scale anaerobic acidogenic reactor, followed by the precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation steps, with an existing industrial ISP wastewater treatment system. The results obtained with bench system (reaction time of 6 h, 48 °C) were very close to the industrial ones: pH reduction of 4.5 to 3.7 (indicating the protein hydrolysis), high VFA accumulation (1,300 and 2,650 mg.L-1 minimum and maximum concentration), no methane production and increase in TSS/VSS. This study gives an insight of the industrial primary wastewater treatment system and can be useful in future researches.

  9. Review of feedstock pretreatment strategies for improved anaerobic digestion: From lab-scale research to full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Hélène; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Affes, Rim; Passos, Fabiana; Battimelli, Audrey; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Ferrer, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    When properly designed, pretreatments may enhance the methane potential and/or anaerobic digestion rate, improving digester performance. This paper aims at providing some guidelines on the most appropriate pretreatments for the main feedstocks of biogas plants. Waste activated sludge was firstly investigated and implemented at full-scale, its thermal pretreatment with steam explosion being most recommended as it increases the methane potential and digestion rate, ensures sludge sanitation and the heat needed is produced on-site. Regarding fatty residues, saponification is preferred for enhancing their solubilisation and bioavailability. In the case of animal by-products, this pretreatment can be optimised to ensure sterilisation, solubilisation and to reduce inhibition linked to long chain fatty acids. With regards to lignocellulosic biomass, the first goal should be delignification, followed by hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis, alkali or biological (fungi) pretreatments being most promising. As far as microalgae are concerned, thermal pretreatment seems the most promising technique so far. PMID:26384658

  10. Vegetable processing wastes addition to improve swine manure anaerobic digestion: Evaluation in terms of methane yield and SEM characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate for swine manure anaerobic digestion. ? Two hydraulic retention times of 25 and 15 d, respectively. ? SEM characterization of anaerobic sludges to observe microbial composition. ? Vegetable waste as co-substrate increases methane yields up to three times. ? Microbial composition changes after 120 d of digestion. -- Abstract: The effect of adding vegetable waste as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of swine manure was investigated. The study was carried out at laboratory scale using semi-continuous stirred tank reactors working at 37 °C. Organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.4 and 0.6 g VS L?1 d?1 were evaluated, corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 25 and 15 d, respectively. The addition of vegetable wastes (50% dw/dw) resulted in an improvement of 3 and 1.4-fold in methane yields at HRTs of 25 and 15 d, respectively. Changes on microbial morphotypes were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Samples analyzed were sludge used as inoculum and digestate obtained from swine manure anaerobic reactors. SEM pictures demonstrated that lignocellulosic material was not completely degraded. Additionally, microbial composition was found to change to cocci and rods morphotypes after 120 d of anaerobic digestion.

  11. Thermal wet oxidation improves anaerobic biodegradability of raw and digested biowaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; De Baere, L.; Verstraete, W.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of solid biowaste generally results in relatively low methane yields of 50-60% of the theoretical maximum. Increased methane recovery from organic waste would lead to reduced handling of digested solilds, lower methane emissions to the environment, and higher green energy...... profits. The objective of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane yields from different biowastes (food waste, yard waste, and digested biowaste already treated in a full-scale biogas plant (DRANCO, Belgium)) by assessing thermal wet oxidation. The biodegradability of the...... waste was evaluated by using biochemical methane potential assays and continuous 3-L methane reactors. Wet oxidation temperature and oxygen pressure (T, 185-220 degreesC; O-2 pressure, 0-12 bar; t, 15 min) were varied for their effect on total methane yield and digestion kinetics of digested biowaste...

  12. Improving anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by implementation of a hyper-thermophilic prehydrolysis step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jingquan; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on a two-step process for treatment and stabilisation of primary sludge. The process consists of a hyperthermophilic hydrolysis step operated at 70 degrees C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 clays followed by a thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion step...... at a HRT of 13 days. A one-step anaerobic digester operated at 55 degrees C and 15 days HRT Was used as a reference process. The two-step process was characterized by a 12% higher organic suspended solids removal efficiency and better pathogen reduction effect than the conventional one-step digestion....... The microbial community of the digester fed with pre-treated sludge was characterised by it higher activity compared to that of the digester treating raw sludge. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the primary sludge resulted up to 48% increase of the methane potential (20.09 and 13.56 mmol CH4 g(-)VS(-1...

  13. In situ ruminal degradability and intestinal digestion of raw and extruded legume seeds and soya bean meal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanas, E; Castrillo, C; Balcells, J; Guada, J A

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of extrusion and carbohydrate addition on rumen degradation and intestinal digestion of raw legume seeds and solvent extracted soya bean meal (SBM) protein. Whole soya beans (WSB) without or with maize added (75:25) (WSB-M), peas, lupins and SBM were extruded at 140 degrees C. Protein rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of unprocessed and extruded protein sources were measured by in sacco and mobile bag procedures, respectively, in two dairy cows cannulated in rumen and duodenum. Between 12 and 15 polyester bags with 4 g of each protein source were incubated in rumen for 12 h and the residues, pooled by feed, were introduced into the duodenum in small nylon bags after pre-incubation in a pepsin solution, and recovered from faeces the day after. Extrusion significantly (p extrusion on rumen N degradation, from 88.2% to 52.6%. Residues from rumen incubation of extruded feeds showed a higher (p digestibility except for SBM (87.0%, 82.9%, 66.3%, 85.0% and 97.2%, and 99.1%, 95.8%, 96.8%, 97.8% and 98.7%, respectively, for non-extruded and extruded, peas, lupins, WSB, WSB-M and SBM). In conclusion, the extrusion of studied legume seeds and SBM promotes a clear and significant increase of their metabolizable protein value, particularly in peas, and the inclusion of a source of carbohydrates before extrusion increase this response. PMID:15787989

  14. Protein digestion in cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) as a target for plant defence by endogenous proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Prashant; Bandani, Ali R; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2011-07-01

    Gut extracts from cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) showed significant levels of proteolytic activity, which was inhibited by reagents specific for cysteine proteases and chymotrypsin-like proteases. Gut tissue contained cDNAs encoding cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinases, similar to those identified in the closely related pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Analysis of honeydew (liquid excreta) from cereal aphids fed on diet containing ovalbumin showed that digestion of ingested proteins occurred in vivo. Protein could partially substitute for free amino acids in diet, although it could not support complete development. Recombinant wheat proteinase inhibitors (PIs) fed in diet were antimetabolic to cereal aphids, even when normal levels of free amino acids were present. PIs inhibited proteolysis by aphid gut extracts in vitro, and digestion of protein fed to aphids in vivo. Wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, which was found to inhibit serine and cysteine proteinases, was more effective in both inhibitory and antimetabolic activity than wheat cystatin, which inhibited cysteine proteases only. Digestion of ingested protein is unlikely to contribute significantly to nutritional requirements when aphids are feeding on phloem, and the antimetabolic activity of dietary proteinase inhibitors is suggested to result from effects on proteinases involved in degradation of endogenous proteins. PMID:21477592

  15. An ELISA-based procedure for assaying proteins in digests of human leukocytes and cell lines, using specifically selected peptides and appropriate antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Pace Umberto; Kott-Gutkowski Miriam; Glickstein Hava; Bishara-Shieban Janette; Braitbard Ori; Rund Deborah G; Stein Wilfred D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We describe the application of an ELISA-based assay (the Peptidomatrix) that can be used to simultaneously identify and quantitate a number of proteins in biological samples. The biological sample (blood component, biopsy, culture or other) is first lysed to release all the proteins, without any additional separation. The denatured proteins in the sample are then digested in bulk with the desired proteolytic enzyme(s). The peptides in the digest are then assayed by appropr...

  16. Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

    2013-04-01

    Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant differences among treatments were registered in the above ground maize biomass. Molecular analysis conducted on microbial soil communities suggested that the application of digested residues to soil contributes to substantial modifications of both bacterial and fungal community structure. Soil organic C and total N increased in soils treated with digested residues addition, with no significant differences between the two doses of digestate. Cation exchange capacity did not show significant differences among treatments, remaining stable during the maize vegetative cycle. Differently, some variations occurred in the exchangeable cation pool. In particular, K content increased under digestate treatments, while Na and Mg contents increased with time irrespective of the fertilization treatment. No significant variations were observed in soil microelement levels, except for an increase in Zn content at the highest digestate dose. Moreover, digested residue addition had a positive impact on aggregates stability. From the first results, the absence of negative effects in plant productivity and soil fertility after residues application, at both doses, is a promising indication for the potential use of anaerobic digestate as substitute of mineral fertilizers.

  17. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  18. Can electromagnetic fields influence the structure and enzymatic digest of proteins? A critical evaluation of microwave-assisted proteomics protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Markus; Nusshold, Christoph; Cantillo, David; Rechberger, Gerald N; Gruber, Karl; Sattler, Wolfgang; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-10-22

    This study reevaluates the putative advantages of microwave-assisted tryptic digests compared to conventionally heated protocols performed at the same temperature. An initial investigation of enzyme stability in a temperature range of 37-80 °C demonstrated that trypsin activity declines sharply at temperatures above 60 °C, regardless if microwave dielectric heating or conventional heating is employed. Tryptic digests of three proteins of different size (bovine serum albumin, cytochrome c and ?-casein) were thus performed at 37 °C and 50 °C using both microwave and conventional heating applying accurate internal fiber-optic probe reaction temperature measurements. The impact of the heating method on protein degradation and peptide fragment generation was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Time-dependent tryptic digestion of the three proteins and subsequent analysis of the corresponding cleavage products by MALDI-TOF provided virtually identical results for both microwave and conventional heating. In addition, the impact of electromagnetic field strength on the tertiary structure of trypsin and BSA was evaluated by molecular mechanics calculations. These simulations revealed that the applied field in a typical laboratory microwave reactor is 3-4 orders of magnitude too low to induce conformational changes in proteins or enzymes. PMID:22889711

  19. The Prospect of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal as Ruminant Feeds Through Protein Quality Improvement by Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Prayitno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste of the broiler processing (feather is a potential source for animal feed. However the presence of keratins cause limited of feather use. Before using, therefore, feather must be treated to hydrolyze cysteine disulfide bound dominating keratins protein. Enzymatic (biological treatment using microbes will produce specific feather hydrolyzed and does not have negative impact on environment. The research objected to get the microbes which degradated selected keratins, improve protein quality of feather meal and find out the best ration formulation true in vitro the basic information to formulate in vivo ration. The research has been done in Laboratory of Animal Feedstuff Faculty of Animal Science UNSOED for eight months. Fermentation trial was done on liquid media with bath system. In vitro trial used of Tilley and Terry methods with parameter observe was dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, protein degradation, total VFA and solubility in pepsin. Based on all parameter, on fermentation trial with Bacillus licheniformis decides broiler chicken feather had good prospect to be developed on feed protein source. In vitro trial recommended ration with formulation of fermented feather meal concentrate (15 percent, soybeans meal (5 percent, rice bran (20 percent, molasses (4 percent, mineral mix (1 percent, with forage: concentrate ratio 40 : 60 could be used as in vivo ration. (Animal Production 5(1: 19-24 (2003 Key words : Hydrolyze, Feather, Keratin, Digestibility, Ruminant

  20. Defining full-scale Anaerobic Digestion Stability: The Case of Central Weber Sewer Improvement District

    OpenAIRE

    Morris E. Demitry; McFarland, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge was monitored for one hundred days. A chemical oxygen demand, COD, and volatile solids (VS), and mass balance were conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing methane gas. The COD mass balance could account for nearly 90% of the methane gas produced while the VS mass balance showed that 91% of the organic matter removed resulted in biogas formation. Other parameters moni...

  1. [Ruminal digestion and intestinal absorption of lupine proteins extruded in the lactating cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R; Vernay, M

    1991-01-01

    Four lactating cows fitted with permanent ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae were used to study the effect of extrusion of whole lupin seeds at 195 degrees C (Lupinus albus cv Lublanc) on organic matter (OM) and nitrogen (N) degradation in the rumen and their flow to and absorption from the small intestine. Raw whole lupin seeds (RWLS) and extruded whole lupin seeds (EWLS) were fed in diets containing 15.5% crude protein and composed of 22.6% whole lupin seeds, 56.5% corn silage, 10.2% corn grain and 10.7% Italian ray-grass on a DM basis, supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Chromium ethylenediaminotetraacetic (Cr-EDTA) and ytterbium chloride (YbCl3) were used as liquid and particulate markers respectively, while purines and 15N ammonium sulfate were utilized as bacterial markers. Cows fed EWLS had a similar ruminal ammonia N and volatile fatty acid concentrations and efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis compared to those fed the RWLS diet. Total tract OM and N digestion were not affected by inclusion of EWLS instead of RWLS; the corresponding mean values were 70 and 71%. Apparent degradation of OM and N in the rumen were 44 and 64% for diets containing RWLS, and 40 and 39% for EWLS diets. Feeding diets including EWLS both increased non ammonia N and dietary N flow to the duodenum compared with diets containing RWLS (472 vs 357 g/d) and (263 vs 153 g/d) respectively. Absorption from the small intestine (g/d and % entering) of dietary N was higher for EWLS diets (146 vs 62 g/d; 34 vs 15%). The PDIA, PDIE and PDIN contents (g/kg of DM) of RWLS were 18, 94 and 245 respectively; the corresponding values after extrusion were 145, 220 and 220. PMID:1777057

  2. Absence of protein G-Fc interaction in ficin-derived mouse IgG1 digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Alexander S; Wask-Rotter, Elzbieta; Sommer, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Typical procedure for IgG fragmentation is based on proteolytic cleavage at the hinge region and usually involves a post-digestion purification step. In mice, IgG1 has been found to bind poorly to protein A. As a result, protein G chromatography could be considered as an alternative for Fc removal. Protein G is generally expected to bind specifically to the Fc region of IgG, but applying protein G for the purification of Fab2 fragment of mouse monoclonal IgG1 under standard physiological conditions, we obtained reproducible clone-independent negligible protein G-Fc reactivity and strong protein G-Fab2 interaction. PMID:12953975

  3. Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangrat Chookird

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

  4. Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felix Walter, Gutierrez; Máximo, Quispe; Luz, Valenzuela.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

  5. In Vivo and in Vitro Protein Digestibility of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1972) Fed Steam Pressured or Extruded Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Fenerci, Satiye; , Erdal ?ener

    2005-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed four different commercial feeds produced by means of extrusion or steam pressure methods was examined. At the end of the feeding trials, the live weight gain (LWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed consumption (FC) were examined. According to the results at the end of the feeding trials, the difference between the feed consumption values was found significant (P?0.05). T...

  6. Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes / True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Ferriani, Branco; Sabrina Marcantonio, Coneglian; Fábio José, Maia; Kátia Cylene, Guimarães.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV) com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéi [...] cos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR), na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta). A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável. Abstract in english The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were eva [...] luated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in the small intestine was estimated by pepsin or pepsin/pancreatin incubation with or without previous ruminal incubation. Out of 30 evaluated feeds, ruminal incubation decreased the true protein digestibility in the small intestine of 24 feeds, increased that of feather meal, black oat, 2.5-mm particle size corn grain, and oat and Tifton hays and had no effect on sunflower meal. These results showed that the small intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein from most analyzed feeds was lower than that of the original feed protein. With the exception of black oat, all remaining feeds (29) had greater true small intestinal protein digestibility after incubation with pepsin plus pancreatin showing the contribution of abomasal digestion on feed protein. Because true small intestinal protein digestibility differed among feeds, is important to take it into account on diet formulation in order to accurately determine the requirements of metabolizable protein of ruminants.

  7. Eco-efficient post treatment of digestate from farm and collective biogas plants to improve nutrients (N&P) recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémier, Anne; Béline, Fabrice; Déchaux, Claire; Aissan, Lynda; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Thomsen, Marianne

    opportunity to improve nutrient recycling from organic waste through the development of an eco-effi cient post-treatment system. In this context, LCA was applied to evaluate the sustainability of diff erent raw digestate post-treatment technologies regarding recycling of nutrients from agricultural and...... organic waste to agricultural soils for decreased resource depletion and climate mitigation. Substitution of the use of N and P mineral fertilizers with recycled soil health improver or organic fertilizers products as function of fi ve diff erent post-treatment technologies and raw digestate...... characteristics was evaluated. A particular attention was carried to (1) the gaseous emissions (NH3 and N2O) from process (post-treatment) but also after land spreading and (2) the carbon cycle considering the CO2 carbon costs of fertiliser production and the soil carbon sequestration benefit....

  8. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... in a 2×2 factorial design in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Ruminal degradabilities were 14.9 and 18.6%, and intestinal digestibilities were 98.9 and 68.3%, respectively, for CP in blood meal and feather meal. Treatment effects on ruminal digestibilities were small. Protein supplementation increased...... total N intake by 29%, duodenal AA N flow by 39%, and AA N absorbed by 37%; absorption of Leu and Lys increased 60 and 33%, and absorption of ne and Met increased 11 and 7%, respectively. Measured duodenal AA N flow (Cr2O3 marker) was 33% higher in cows cannulated adjacent to the pylorus compared with...

  9. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 ?mol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 ?mol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  10. Digestion of high rate activated sludge coupled to biochar formation for soil improvement in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansubuga, Irene; Banadda, Noble; Ronsse, Frederik; Verstraete, Willy; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-09-15

    High rate activated sludge (HRAS) is well-biodegradable sludge enabling energy neutrality of wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion. However, even through successful digestion a notable residue still remains. Here we investigated whether this residue can be converted to biochar, for its use as a fertilizer or as a solid fuel, and assessed its characteristics and overall process efficiency. In a first phase, HRAS was anaerobicaly digested under mesophilic conditions at a sludge retention time of 20 days. HRAS digested well (57.9 ± 6.2% VS degradation) producing on average 0.23 ± 0.04 L CH4 per gram VS fed. The digestate particulates were partially air-dried to mimic conditions used in developing countries, and subsequently converted to biochar by fixed-bed slow pyrolysis at a residence time of 15 min and at highest heating temperatures (HHT) of 300 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C. Subsequently, the produced chars were characterized by proximate analysis, CHN-elemental analysis, pH in solution and bomb calorimetry for higher heating value. The yield and volatile matter decreased with increasing HHT while ash content and fixed carbon increased with increasing HHT. The produced biochar showed properties optimal towards soil amendment when produced at a temperature of 600 °C with values of 5.91 wt%, 23.75 wt%, 70.35% on dry basis (db) and 0.44 for volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash content and H/C ratio, respectively. With regard to its use for energy purposes, the biochar represented a lower calorific value than the dried HRAS digestate likely due to high ash content. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion of HRAS and its subsequent biochar formation at HHT of 600 °C represents an attractive route for sludge management in tropic settings like in Uganda, coupling carbon capture to energy generation, carbon sequestration and nutrient recovery. PMID:26072019

  11. Improved identification of wheat gluten proteins through alkylation of cysteine residues and peptide-based mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Brunnbauer, Markus; Delcour, Jan A; Koehler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and composition of wheat gluten proteins and the presence, concentration and location of cysteine residues therein are important for wheat flour quality. However, it is difficult to identify gluten proteins, as they are an extremely polymorphic mixture of prolamins. We here present methods for cysteine labeling of wheat prolamins with 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and iodoacetamide (IDAM) which, as compared to label-free analysis, substantially improve identification of cysteine-containing peptides in enzymic prolamin digests by electrospray ionization--tandem mass spectrometry. Both chymotrypsin and thermolysin yielded cysteine-containing peptides from different gluten proteins, but more proteins could be identified after chymotryptic digestion. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, we were the first to label prolamins with isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT), which are commonly used for quantitative proteomics. However, more peptides were detected after labeling gluten proteins with 4-VP and IDAM than with ICAT. PMID:23880742

  12. Improving anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by implementation of a hyper-thermophilic prehydrolysis step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingquan; Gavala, Hariklia N; Skiadas, Ioannis V; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2008-09-01

    The present study focuses on a two-step process for treatment and stabilisation of primary sludge. The process consists of a hyper-thermophilic hydrolysis step operated at 70 degrees C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days followed by a thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion step at a HRT of 13 days. A one-step anaerobic digester operated at 55 degrees C and 15 days HRT was used as a reference process. The two-step process was characterized by a 12% higher organic suspended solids removal efficiency and better pathogen reduction effect than the conventional one-step digestion. The microbial community of the digester fed with pre-treated sludge was characterised by a higher activity compared to that of the digester treating raw sludge. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the primary sludge resulted up to 48% increase of the methane potential (20.09 and 13.56 mmol CH(4)g(-)VS(-1) with and without pre-treatment, respectively) and up to 115% increase of the methane production rate. Finally it was shown that the extra energy requirements for the operation of a pre-treatment step would be covered by the energy produced from the extra methane production and in addition there would be a significant energy surplus of 2.17 kJ d(-1) for the system tested. PMID:17686567

  13. Improving anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by implementation of a hyper-thermophilic prehydrolysis step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jingquan; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on a two-step process for treatment and stabilisation of primary sludge. The process consists of a hyperthermophilic hydrolysis step operated at 70 degrees C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 clays followed by a thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion step at a HRT of 13 days. A one-step anaerobic digester operated at 55 degrees C and 15 days HRT Was used as a reference process. The two-step process was characterized by a 12% higher organic suspended solids removal efficiency and better pathogen reduction effect than the conventional one-step digestion. The microbial community of the digester fed with pre-treated sludge was characterised by it higher activity compared to that of the digester treating raw sludge. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the primary sludge resulted up to 48% increase of the methane potential (20.09 and 13.56 mmol CH4 g(-)VS(-1) with and Without pre-treatment respectively) and up to 115% increase of the methane production rate. Finally it was shown that the extra energy requirements for the operation of a pre-treatment step would be covered by the energy Produced from the extra methane production and in addition there would be it significant energy Surplus of 2.17 kJ d(-1) For the system tested.

  14. Role of protein, amino acids, and enzyme activity on odor production from anaerobically digested and dewatered biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew J; Adams, Gregory; Chen, Yen-Chih; Erdal, Zeynep; Forbes, Robert H; Glindemann, Dietmar; Hargreaves, J Ronald; McEwen, David; Murthy, Sudhir N; Novak, John T; Witherspoon, Jay

    2008-02-01

    The main objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that bioavailable protein and, more specifically, the sulfur-containing amino acids within the protein, can be degraded by proteolytic enzymes to produce odor-causing compounds--mainly volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs)--during biosolids storage. To achieve these objectives, samples of digester effluent and cake solids were collected at 11 different wastewater treatment plants in North America, and the samples were analyzed for protein and amino acid content and general protein-degrading enzyme activity. At the same time, cake samples were stored using headspace bottles, the concentration of VSCs were measured using gas chromatography, and olfactometry measurements were made by a trained odor panel. The results showed that the bound cake protein content and methionine content was well-correlated with VSC production and the detection threshold measured by the odor panel. PMID:18330222

  15. Research on crude protein and digestibility of Arnica montana L. using conventional NIR spectrometry and hyperspectral imaging NIR

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Laura; Fernandez, Juan Antonio; Vermeulen, Philippe; Lecler, Bernard; Bogdan, Anca Dorina; Florin PACURAR; Ioan ROTAR; Thewis, André; Vincent BAETEN

    2012-01-01

    Arnica montana L. (AM) is considered a medicinal plant, used as hay in feed ration. The aim of this study is to assess the prediction of protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility value in grass mixtures containing Arnica montana L., and in a second step to check if these values have a positive or negative influence in the mixtures. Crude protein has been selected because it is one of the most important quality parameters of forages as nutritional element used in animal feeding...

  16. Improved efficiency and stable digestion of biomass in non-mixed upflow solids reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Fannin, K.F.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Frank, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR), which permitted longer solids than hydraulic retention times, was used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The performance of the USR was compared to that of the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at different organic loading rates in terms of methane yield, methane production rate, and process stability. Results showed that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp compositional variability, methane yields and production rates in the USR were significantly higher than those observed with the CSTR. Results also showed that volatile acid concentrations, which are generally inversely related to digester stability, were significantly lower in the USR than in the CSTR. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Strategies in protein sequencing and characterization: Multi-enzyme digestion coupled with alternate CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.palermo@unifg.it; Natale, Anna; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Multi-enzyme digestion for protein sequencing and characterization by CID/ETD. • Simultaneous use of trypsin/chymotrypsin for the maximization of sequence. • Identification of PTMs, sequence variants and species-specific residues. • Increase of accuracy in sequence assignments by orthogonal fragmentation techniques. - Abstract: A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

  18. The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects. PMID:25284010

  19. Strategies in protein sequencing and characterization: Multi-enzyme digestion coupled with alternate CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multi-enzyme digestion for protein sequencing and characterization by CID/ETD. • Simultaneous use of trypsin/chymotrypsin for the maximization of sequence. • Identification of PTMs, sequence variants and species-specific residues. • Increase of accuracy in sequence assignments by orthogonal fragmentation techniques. - Abstract: A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

  20. Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: intake, digestibility and microbial protein production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Aparecida Soares, Saraiva; Severino, Gonzaga Neto; Maria Fernanda Soares, Queiroz; Lara Toledo, Henriques; Edilson Paes, Saraiva; Rômulo Pontes de Freitas, Albuquerque; Vinicius de França Carvalho, Fonseca; George Vieira do, Nascimento.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried to evaluate the effect of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay [EGH], corn straw [CS], hay of cassava shoots [HCS], fresh sugarcane bagasse [FSB], and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse [HSB]) on intake, apparent digestibility and macrobiotic protein p [...] roduction of cows. Five cows with 265 kg average body weight, 4.95 kg average daily milk yield and 5.22 kg 4% fat-corrected milk yield were randomly allocated to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals fed cactus associated with CS, EGH and HCS showed higher intake of DM and nutrients. However, regarding the digestibility, diets with sugarcane bagasse showed higher digestibility compared with those with CS and hay. For microbial protein, the excretion of purine derivatives, synthesis of microbial N and microbial protein production were higher in the treatment with CS than in the treatment with sugarcane bagasse. On the other hand, the treatment with EGH and HCS did not have statistical differences compared with the other cases. The mean efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of the experiment was 131 g microbial crude protein/kg of TDN. The treatment with CS showed better efficiency; however, it was statistically superior only compared with FSB. The other treatments did not show statistical difference compared with the other cases. Diets with cactus associated with corn straw, hay of elephant grass or hay of cassava shoots provide higher intake of dry matter and nutrients and better metabolic response compared with diets with cactus associated with sugarcane bagasse for lactating Sindhi cows.

  1. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon fed protein deficient diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys and methionine (Met on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4: i CP-adequate (16.63% diet; ii CP-deficient (13.77% diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv CP-deficient diet with 3 g/kg Lys and 2 g/kg Met. The digestibility of dry matter P<0.01, organic matter (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01, serum albumin (P<0.01, and total protein (P<0.01 concentrations of groups receiving CP-adequate or Met supplementation were improved. The average daily gain (P=0.10, gain to feed ratio (P=0.07, the digestibility of acid (P=0.07 and neutral detergent fibre (P=0.09, and the serum globulin (P=0.08 concentrations had a tendency to increase as the Met or CP level increased. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen (P<0.01 and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 were decreased for CP-deficient, but no response to Met-added diets; aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04 depressed for both CP-deficient and Met-added diets. Therefore, amino acids added to CP-deficient diets show high efficiency: they remain among the simplest ways for growth performance, while cutting down environmental waste and economic consumption.

  2. Improvement of anaerobic digester performance by wastewater recirculation through an aerated membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine wastewater from an anaerobic digester was recirculated through a silicone hose located in an external aeration chamber to determine its effect on wastewater malodorants and biogas composition. The silicone hose acted as a semipermeable membrane for the passage of small molecules. In the first...

  3. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ? 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (? 50%) or lower (? 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ? 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. PMID:26341827

  4. Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (P<0.05). EB irradiation was more effective than GR irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA (P<0.05). EB and GR treatments at a dose of 75 kGy increased in vitro digestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM. - Highlights: ? Irradiation was effective on reducing ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal. ? Ionizing radiations, especially electron beam, lessened ruminal degradability of amino acid substantially. ? Irradiation processing could be used as a safe and efficient method in improving nutritional value of cottonseed meal.

  5. Quantificação de Polifenóis e Digestibilidade Protéica de Famílias de Feijoeiro Comum Polyphenol quantification and protein digestibility in common bean lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Viviane C. Egg Mendonça

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão é um dos alimentos encontrados em maior quantidade em todo o território nacional e é cultivado em quase todos os Estados. É uma importante fonte protéica na dieta do povo brasileiro, estando presente na alimentação da população rural e urbana. No presente trabalho, quantificaram-se os polifenóis e determinaram-se os níveis de digestibilidade protéica de cem famílias de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. obtidas do cruzamento entre os genótipos Amarelinho e CI 107. Os polifenóis afetam a qualidade do feijão, causando escurecimento, endurecimento e, ainda, podem reduzir a digestibilidade protéica. Pelos resultados obtidos, pôde-se encontrar 13 famílias com teores reduzidos de polifenóis e boa digestibilidade protéica in vitro, as quais poderão ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento dessa importante cultura.Common beans are one of the most important food crops in Brazil and are cultivated in almost all Brazilian states. It is an important protein source for Brazilian people in both rural and urban areas. The present work performed the quantification of phenolic compounds and in vitro protein digestibility of one hundred common bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L. obtained by crossing the genotypes "Amarelinho" and CI 107. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds affected bean cooking traits and quality through darkening and hardening of the seed coat. Phenolic compounds also influenced the in vitro protein digestibility. It was observed that all 13 lines presented low levels of phenolic compounds and good in vitro protein digestibility and, as a result, must be incorporated in the breeding programs for this important crop.

  6. The influence of irradiation treatment on gossypol and protein digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal for Broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effect of gamma irradiation (5-20 kGy) on the chemical composition, soluble protein, available lysine, gossypol, in-vitro and in vivo digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal (CSM) and the performance of broilers fed processed CSM were investigated. Radiation treatment of CSM at dose levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy did not affect moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and NFW content. However, the treatment reduced soluble protein by 4.18, 7.82, 10.91, 13.46%, respectively. Fluorodinitrobenzene-available lysine concentration reduced by 4.48, 8.12, 17.65 and 21.29% respectively. The concentrations of total gossypol decreased by 7.97, 15.78, 19.92 and 25.39% and free gossypol by 3.74, 7.85, 18.43 and 28.01%, respectively. The digestibility of CSM protein was increased by 5.3, 9.0, 16.6 and 17.2%, for in-vitro digestibility and by 4.8, 7.3, 9.4 and 12.9% for in-vivo due to treatment with 5,10, 15 and 20 kGy, respectively. From 7 to 42 days, arbor acres broilers were freely given iso energetic and iso nitrogenous : corn-soy control diet or diets containing 300 g kg-1 raw or irradiated CSM at 4, 15 or 20 kGy. Intake of raw CSM affected growth, feed intake and feed conversion as compared with birds receiving the control diet

  7. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs. PMID:25521700

  8. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Covalent Chromatography After Solid Phase Derivatization of Protein Digests on Reversed Phase Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Heinz; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Hawke, David H

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of the phosphopeptide constituents from phosphoprotein digests is prerequisite to facilitate the mass spectrometric characterization of phosphorylation events. Here, we describe a chemical proteomics approach which combines solid phase derivatization of phosphoprotein digests with phosphopeptide enrichment by covalent chromatography. The use of the solid phase support for derivatization ensures for speed and completeness of reactions. The isolates proved highly suitable for mapping of the sites of phosphorylation by collisionally induced dissociation (CID). The method combines robustness with simplicity of operation using equipment available in biological laboratories, and may be readily extended to map the sites of O-glycosylation. PMID:26584917

  9. Measurement of the Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein Using Different Methods and Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Liu, Xiaolan; Kopparapu, N. K.; Xin, Hangshu; Liu, J.; Guo, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Four methods were adopted, including the mobile nylon bag (MNB) method, modified three-step in vitro (MTS) method, original three-step in vitro (OTS) method, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) estimating method, to evaluate the intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (DRUP) of 10 types of concentrates and 7 types of roughages. After correlation analysis to determine the DRUP values using the MNB, MTS, OTS, and ADIN methods, the study aimed to find out appropriate methods to replace the MNB method due to its disadvantages such as high price, long time period, and use of a duodenal T-fistula. Three dairy cows with a permanent ruminal fistula and duodenal T-fistula were used in a single-factor experimental design. The results showed that the determined DRUP values using the MNB method for soybean meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, corn germ meal, corn, rice bran, barley, wheat bran, corn fiber feed, Alfalfa (Zhao dong), Alfalfa (Long mu 801), Alfalfa (Long mu 803), grass (North), Grass (Inner Mongolia), corn silage and corn straw were 98.13%, 87.37%, 88.47%, 82.60%, 75.40%, 93.23%, 69.27%, 91.27%, 72.37%, 79.03%, 66.72%, 68.64%, 73.57%, 50.47%, 51.52%, 54.05%, and 43.84%, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.964) of the results between the MTS method and the MNB method was higher than that (R2 = 0.942) between the OTS method and the MNB method. The coefficient of determination of the DRUP values of the concentrates among the in vitro method (including the MTS and OTS methods) and the MNB method was higher than that of the roughage. There was a weak correlation between the determined DRUP values in concentrates obtained from the ADIN method and those from the MNB method, and there was a significant correlation (pvalues of the roughage obtained from the MNB method and those obtained from ADIN method. The DRUP values were significantly correlated with the nutritional ingredients of the feeds. The regression equation was DRUP =100.5566+0.4169CP ? 0.4344SP ? 0.7102NDF ? 0.7950EE (R2 = 0.8668, pvalues and the former method was more effective. Only the ADIN method could be used to predict the values of the roughages but conventional nutritional ingredients were available for all of the samples’ DRUP. PMID:26323402

  10. Measurement of the Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein Using Different Methods and Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhang, Y G; Liu, Xiaolan; Kopparapu, N K; Xin, Hangshu; Liu, J; Guo, Jianhua

    2015-10-01

    Four methods were adopted, including the mobile nylon bag (MNB) method, modified three-step in vitro (MTS) method, original three-step in vitro (OTS) method, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) estimating method, to evaluate the intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (DRUP) of 10 types of concentrates and 7 types of roughages. After correlation analysis to determine the DRUP values using the MNB, MTS, OTS, and ADIN methods, the study aimed to find out appropriate methods to replace the MNB method due to its disadvantages such as high price, long time period, and use of a duodenal T-fistula. Three dairy cows with a permanent ruminal fistula and duodenal T-fistula were used in a single-factor experimental design. The results showed that the determined DRUP values using the MNB method for soybean meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, corn germ meal, corn, rice bran, barley, wheat bran, corn fiber feed, Alfalfa (Zhao dong), Alfalfa (Long mu 801), Alfalfa (Long mu 803), grass (North), Grass (Inner Mongolia), corn silage and corn straw were 98.13%, 87.37%, 88.47%, 82.60%, 75.40%, 93.23%, 69.27%, 91.27%, 72.37%, 79.03%, 66.72%, 68.64%, 73.57%, 50.47%, 51.52%, 54.05%, and 43.84%, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R (2) = 0.964) of the results between the MTS method and the MNB method was higher than that (R (2) = 0.942) between the OTS method and the MNB method. The coefficient of determination of the DRUP values of the concentrates among the in vitro method (including the MTS and OTS methods) and the MNB method was higher than that of the roughage. There was a weak correlation between the determined DRUP values in concentrates obtained from the ADIN method and those from the MNB method, and there was a significant correlation (pextract). It was concluded that both the MTS method and the OTS may suitable to replace the MNB method for determining the DRUP values and the former method was more effective. Only the ADIN method could be used to predict the values of the roughages but conventional nutritional ingredients were available for all of the samples' DRUP. PMID:26323402

  11. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others

  12. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  13. Recombinant immobilized rhizopuspepsin as a new tool for protein digestion in hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Martial; Man, Petr; Brandolin, Gérard; Forest, Eric; Pelosi, Ludovic

    2009-11-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange coupled to mass spectrometry is nowadays routinely used to probe protein interactions or conformational changes. The method has many advantages, e.g. very low sample consumption, but offers limited spatial resolution. One way to higher resolution leads through the use of different proteases or their combinations. In the present work we describe recombinant production, purification and use of aspartic protease zymogen from Rhizopus chimensis, protease type XVIII (EC 3.4.23.6), commonly referred to as rhizopuspepsinogen (Rpg). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded and purified to homogeneity. A typical yield was approximately 100 mg of pure enzyme per 1 L of original bacterial culture. The kinetics of protease activation, i.e. removal of the propeptide achieved by autolysis in an acidic environment, was followed by mass spectrometry. The digestion efficiency was tested for the protease in solution as well as for the immobilized enzyme. Apomyoglobin was successfully digested under all conditions tested and the protease displayed very low or no autodigestion. The results outperformed those obtained with commercial protease where the digestion of apomyoglobin was incomplete and accompanied by many contaminating peptides. Taken together, the recombinant protease type XVIII can be considered as a new and highly efficient tool for H/D exchange followed by mass spectrometry. PMID:19827048

  14. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U?>?5), a 5-kDa permeate (U?digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p?digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells. PMID:26307493

  15. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  16. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality. PMID:17009215

  17. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. PMID:25465633

  18. Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pace Umberto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. Results In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual data in some model systems. Conclusion The data suggest that the peptides bind to the plastic substratum in more than one conformation and that, once bound, the peptide displays different affinities for the antibody, depending on how it has bound to the plate

  19. Functional and anti-nutritional properties, in-vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition of dehulled afzelia africana seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of Afzelia africana seed flour showed that the seeds possessed high water absorption capacity (128.31%), good oil absorption capacity (588.49%) and fairly good emulsion property (35.25%). However, it had the Least gelation concentration (6 .00% w/v) and foaming properties ( 8.00%,3 .00%). Anti-nutritional factors were very low, with the highest being phytate (13.59/o) and tannin the least (0.43%). Total amino acid composition was 796.6 mg/g protein. Essentiaal amino acids (48.5%)w ere in high proportion with in-vitro digestibility of 71.5%. (author)

  20. Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskyt?, Ernesta; Ramanauskait?, Jovita; Leskauskait?, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

  1. Infogest: an international network for improving health properties of food by sharing our knowledge on the digestive process

    OpenAIRE

    Léonil, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    Establishing the links between food and human health was a top research priority for Europe. EU legislation, as advised by EFSA, now demands proper scientific data in nutrition and health claims. There is a lot of data being generated on the link between the food digestion and human health and a significant effort continues to be expended separately in each EU country on optimizing food for preventing the development of food-related diseases. The main objective of the COST Action “Improving...

  2. Anaerobic digestion of cattle offal: protein and lipid-rich substrate degradation and population dynamics of acidogens and methanogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonyeob; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle offal was investigated in batch reactors at 35 °C to determine the feasibility of using cattle offal as a feedstock. The organic content [i.e., volatile solids (VS)] of the cattle offal was mainly composed of protein (33.9 %) and lipids (46.1 %). Hydrolysis along with acidogenesis was monitored to investigate the substrate degradation and generation of intermediate products (e.g., volatile fatty acids, ammonia). Acetate (2.03 g/L), propionate (0.60 g/L), n-butyrate (0.39 g/L), and iso-valerate (0.37 g/L) were major acidogenesis products (91 % of total volatile fatty acid concentration). Overall protein and lipid degradation were 82.9 and 81.8 %, respectively. Protein degraded first, and four times faster (0.28 day(-1)) than lipid (0.07 day(-1)). Methane yields were 0.52 L CH4/g VSadded and 0.65 L CH4/g VSremoved, indicating that anaerobic digestion of the offal was feasible. A quantitative QPCR assay was conducted to understand the microbial dynamics. The variation patt erns in the gene concentrations successfully indicated the population dynamics of proteolytic and lipolytic acidogens. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta approximation was used to determine the kinetics of the acidogens. The molecular biotechnology approach was appropriate for the evaluation of the acidogenic biokinetics. The maximum growth rate, ? m, halfsaturation coefficients, K s, microbial yield coefficient, Y, cell mass decay rate coefficient, k d, of the proteolytic acidogens were 9.9 day(-1), 37.8 g protein/L, 1.1 × 10(10) copies/g protein, and 3.8 × 10(-1), respectively. Those for the lipolytic acidogens were 1.2 × 10(-1) day(-1), 8.3 g lipid/L, 1.5 × 10(9) copies/g lipid, and 9.9 × 10(-3) day(-1), respectively. PMID:26376817

  3. Improving health properties of food by sharing our knowledge on the digestive process

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions are provided by the Actions directly via e-COST. The Science Policy Briefing n°36 jointly published by ESF and COST in March 2009 clearly stated that the links between food and human health was a top research priority for Europe. EU legislation, as advised by EFSA, now demands proper scientific data in nutrition and health claims. There is a lot of data being generated on the link between the food digestion and human health and a significant effort continues to be expended se...

  4. Non Starch Polysaccharidase - A Potent tool in improving fibre digestibility in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancy Mary Issac

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of rumen fermentation by using feed additives has been gaining popularity in ruminant nutrition in recent years. One such approach is the use of fibrolytic enzymes in the treatment of feedstuffs to enhance their digestibility. The better understanding of the production techniques, enzyme activity, mode of enzyme action and application techniques of commercial non starch polysaccharidase enzymes can help the scientific community for competent utilization of these biotechnological products for efficient utilization of the available feed resources. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 142-144

  5. Studies on the digestibility of microbial cell protein in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digestibility of cell wall, cell contents and mixed whole 35S-rumen bacteria and 14C-protozoal cells was determined in buffalo calves. The intact cells as well as their fractions were injected in a single dose into the rumen after treating with formaldehyde to protect degradation in the rumen and radioactivity excreted in the faeces was measured for six consecutive days. The indigestibility of mixed whole rumen bacteria, cell wall and cell contents was observed to be 87.13 +- 0.61, 92.77 +- 0.83 and 83.62 +- 1.10 percent, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of mixed whole rumen protozoa, cell wall, cell content and Holotrics were 90.95 +- 0.39, 94.39 +- 1.08, 89.01 +- 0.97 and 93.16 +- 0.69 percent, respectively. (auth.)

  6. Predicting Levels of Crude Protein, Digestibility, Lignin and Cellulose in Temperate Pastures Using Hyperspectral Image Data

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Thulin; Hill, Michael J.; Alex Held; Simon Jones; Peter Woodgate

    2014-01-01

    ±5% digestibility, which constitutes approximately 30% of the measured range. The cellulose and lignin models with the highest CV’s also had similar confidence intervals but the slopes of the prediction lines were substantially less than 1:1 indicating reduced sensitivity. The predictive relationships established here could be applied to categorizing pasture quality into range classes and to determine whether pastures are above or below for example threshold values for...

  7. Histology-guided protein digestion/extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pressure ulcer biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Domenico; Pollins, Alonda C; Nanney, Lillian B; Sindona, Giovanni; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    Herein we present a simple, reproducible and versatile approach for in situ protein digestion and identification on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. This adaptation is based on the use of an enzyme delivery platform (hydrogel discs) that can be positioned on the surface of a tissue section. By simultaneous deposition of multiple hydrogels over select regions of interest within the same tissue section, multiple peptide extracts can be obtained from discrete histological areas. After enzymatic digestion, the hydrogel extracts are submitted for LC-MS/MS analysis followed by database inquiry for protein identification. Further, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is used to reveal the spatial distribution of the identified peptides within a serial tissue section. Optimization was achieved using cutaneous tissue from surgically excised pressure ulcers that were subdivided into two prime regions of interest: the wound bed and the adjacent dermal area. The robust display of tryptic peptides within these spectral analyses of histologically defined tissue regions suggests that LC-MS/MS in combination with IMS can serve as useful exploratory tools. PMID:26440596

  8. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P?0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P?0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P?0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P?0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P?0.01. Significant (P?0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  9. Environment specific substitution tables improve membrane protein alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jamie R.; Kelm, Sebastian; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Membrane proteins are both abundant and important in cells, but the small number of solved structures restricts our understanding of them. Here we consider whether membrane proteins undergo different substitutions from their soluble counterparts and whether these can be used to improve membrane protein alignments, and therefore improve prediction of their structure. Results: We construct substitution tables for different environments within membrane proteins. As data is scarce, we...

  10. Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwar Rupinder K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC, heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested and digested (Enprocal D selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells. Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80, MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-? and up-regulated IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies.

  11. An improved Bradford protein assay for collagen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J M; Imperial, S; Valderrama, R; Navarro, S

    1993-10-29

    A modification of the protein determination method of Bradford adapted for collagen-rich samples is described. The use of Coomassie-based protein determination methods is limited by the great variation in colour yield obtained for different proteins. This is especially important in samples containing significant amounts of collagen where direct application of the methods of Lowry and Bradford results in underestimated values. Addition of small amounts of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (0.0035%) to the diluted solutions of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G used as dye reagent in the Bradford colorimetric assay caused a 4-fold increase in the colour response of three collagen proteins (Col I, III and IV) and a decrease in absorbance for various non-collagen proteins. The presence of SDS in the reagent did not result in a significant metachromatic shift of the collagen-dye complexes. This simple modification in the preparation of the reagent for the Bradford assay allows similar response curves to be obtained for collagen and non-collagen proteins, making the modified assay of potential use for protein determination in collagen-rich samples such as pancreatic extracts. PMID:8287563

  12. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  13. Protein fraction and digestibility of marandu, xaraes and campo grande grasses in monocropping and intercropping systems under different sowing methods - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welma Santos Crunivel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the protein fraction and in vitro dry matter digestibility of marandu, xaraes grasses and campo grande in monocropping and intercropping systems under different planting methods, for a period of two years. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications. The treatments consisted of the following crop systems: campo grande in monocropping; xaraés grass in monocropping; marandu grass in monocropping; xaraés intercropped with campo grande in rows; xaraés intercropped with campo grande, broadcast; marandu grass intercropped with campo grande in rows; and marandu intercropped with campo grand, broadcast. The evaluations were conducted for two years, consisting of seasonal evaluations (autumn, winter, spring and summer in the same plots, with repeated measurements over time. The results showed that xaraes and marandu grasses were similar between crop systems, indicating that both can be intercropped with campo grande. The intercropping of campo grande with Brachiaria brizantha cultivars improved the protein fraction and digestibility. The row method of planting provided better protein fractions and in vitro dry matter digestibility.

  14. Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igo Gomes Guimarães

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of gross energy and dry matter (DM and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal in compound diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582, and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

  15. Effect of different drying methods on the myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile profile of squid fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun; Luo, Yali; Wang, Yuegang; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-03-15

    The impacts of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (AD), and heat pump drying (HPD) on myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile compounds of squid (Todarodes pacificus) fillets were evaluated. Freeze-dried squids showed similar amino acid composition to that of raw squids, but differed from that of AD and HPD samples. The percentage of in vitro digestibility followed the order of FD (76.81%)>HPD (70.51%)>raw (67.99%)>AD (61.47%) samples. AD caused more damage to squid myosin structure than HPD, while FD effectively retained the myosin integrity. Drying decreased total number of volatile compounds, but increased the content of total volatile compounds based on GC × GC-TOFMS results. HPD and AD samples had the highest and lowest total numbers and contents of volatiles, respectively. In general, FD provided squids with the best quality, followed by HPD. Considering the production cost and product quality, HPD demonstrated the potential for industrial application. PMID:25308657

  16. Apparent nutrient digestibility and mineral availability of protein-rich ingredients in extruded diets for Nile tilapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Igo Gomes, Guimarães; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Rosângela do Nascimento, Fernandes.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and dry matter (DM) and mineral availability were evaluated for eight protein-rich ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal at 280.0 and 380.0 g/kg, poultry by-product meal, meat meal, fish meal and feather meal) in compou [...] nd diets for Nile tilapia. Chromic oxide was used as inert digestibility marker. Higher ADC values of DM and energy were, respectively, 0.862 and 0.881 for corn gluten meal, 0.811 and 0.888 for poultry by-product meal; 0.729 and 0.731 for feather meal; 0.666 and 0.754 for fish meal; 0.578 and 0.642 for soybean meal; 0.476 and 0.652 for meat meal at 450.0 g/kg; 0.352 and 0.449 for cottonseed meal at 380 g/kg; and 0.251 and 0.324 for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. The highest average mineral availability was for poultry by-product meal (0.582), and the lowest calcium and phosphorus availability were recorded for cottonseed meal at 280.0 g/kg. Therefore, poultry by-product meal appears to be the best ingredient for using in Nile tilapia diets.

  17. Improvement of protein content in winter wheat with physicochemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation is one of the approaches to improve the protein content of wheat. In present experiments the wheat mutation contained high protein, gluten and lysine were obtained by means of treating dry seeds with different physicochemical mutation. The procedure of breeding for improving the qiality of wheat was found

  18. Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pancreas. The alimentary canal (also called the digestive tract ) is the long tube of organs — including the ... from the mouth to the anus. An adult's digestive tract is about 30 feet long. Continue How Digestion ...

  19. Digestive diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which is sometimes called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In digestion, food and drink are broken down into small parts (called nutrients) that ...

  20. Use of the mobile nylon bag technique for determination of apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U; Sauer, W C; Ahrens, F; Jørgensen, Henry; Mosenthin, R

    2011-01-01

    /l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from the......Three digestibility experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of determination of apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) by the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) using 21 feedstuffs and three mixed diets. In two conventional digestibility...... conclusion, the potential of the MNBT to determine AID of CP and AA is rather limited. Differences in coefficients of AID of CP and AA were attributed to several factors such as diffusion of sample particles or endogenous protein through the nylon bags as well as to the presence of anti-nutritional factors...

  1. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  2. Stability of Trans-Resveratrol Encapsulated in a Protein Matrix Produced Using Spray Drying to UV Light Stress and Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Clarissa C; Andrade, Juan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-02-01

    Trans-resveratrol has demonstrated the potential to provide both therapeutic and preventive activities against chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. The incorporation of trans-resveratrol into food products would allow for broader access of this bioactive compound to a larger population. However, this strategy is limited by instability of trans-resveratrol under environmental conditions and within the digestive system leading to isomerization of trans-resveratrol (bioactive form) to cis-resveratrol (bio-inactive form). Studies in the stabilization of trans-resveratrol into protein microparticles are presented. Trans-resveratrol was encapsulated using whey protein concentrate (WPC) or sodium caseinate (SC), with or without anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Binding of resveratrol and aromatic residues in protein was estimated utilizing the Stern-Volmer equation and the number of tryptophan residues. The stability of encapsulated resveratrol was evaluated after exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light and 3-stage in vitro digestion. After UVA light exposure, SC-based microcapsules maintained a higher trans:cis resveratrol ratio (0.63, P < 0.05) than WPC-based microcapsules (0.43) and unencapsulated resveratrol (0.49). In addition, encapsulation of resveratrol in both protein microparticles led to an increased digestive stability and bioaccessibility in comparison to unencapsulated resveratrol (47% and 23%, respectively, P < 0.05). SC-based microcapsules provided a higher digestive stability and bioaccessibility (86% and 81%; P < 0.05) compared to WPC-based microcapsules (71% and 68%). The addition of AMF to the microcapsules did not significantly change the in vitro digestion values. In conclusion, SC-based microencapsulation increased the stability of trans-resveratrol to UVA light exposure and simulated digestion conditions. This encapsulation-system-approach can be extended to other labile, bioactive polyphenols. PMID:26677808

  3. Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo para beta (Betta splendens. Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens. Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

  4. Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta / Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio, Zuanon; Hamilton, Hisano; Dario Rocha, Falcon; Fernanda Garcia, Sampaio; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB) e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe) e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo) para beta (Betta splendens). Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários [...] de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário) para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held [...] in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium) for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

  5. Apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acid in feedstuffs used in Nile Tilapia feed as determined by the technique of dissection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Moisés, Quadros; Patrícia de Souza Lima, Cunha; Sylvia Sanae, Takishita; Rafael Alves, Vianna.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal) in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of the Thai strain during the growt [...] h phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time) into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus) using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.

  6. Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobedo-Lozano, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitated and characterized. 496 g of demineralized exoskeleton were obtained from 1 kg of shrimp shell; out of these, 376 g corresponded to chitin and 120 g corresponded to protein Total protein content was 33.80 ± 0.34 %. The digestible protein fractions were 26.7 g and 92.1 g were insoluble proteins. Of this latter fraction, the largest proportion belonged to the scleroprotein type. The amino acid profile analysis from the recovered proteins indicated that there were present nine amino acids out of the ten essential ones, being leucine the one with the highest proportion. In vitro digestibility was shown to be up to an 83.7 %. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the recovery of digestibleproteins from shrimp exoskeleton may be useful in diet formulation.

  7. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (Pdogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

  8. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas práticas com diferentes relações energia: proteína em juvenis de pirarucu / Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Akifumi, Ono; Érica da Silva Santiago, Nunes; Jimmy Carlos Campos, Cedano; Manoel, Pereira Filho; Rodrigo, Roubach.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e energia de dietas para juvenis de pirarucu, Arapaima gigas. Foram testadas oito dietas, contendo quatro relações energia:proteína (11, 10,1, 9, 8 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta) e duas fontes de [...] energia não-protéica (óleo de soja e gordura de aves), em esquema fatorial 4x2, com três repetições. Foram estocados 240 juvenis de pirarucu com peso de 96,8±2,3 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques cilíndricos com fundo cônico, adaptados para a coleta de fezes (sistema Guelph modificado). Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade aparente com as dietas experimentais contendo 0,5% de óxido de cromo, como marcador inerte para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. As dietas com a relação energia:proteína de 9 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta apresentaram os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrativo não nitrogenado. O maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da gordura foi obtido com o uso do óleo de soja. A relação energia:proteína na dieta influencia os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos macronutrientes e energia no pirarucu. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of diets for pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) juveniles. Eight experimental diets containing four energy:protein ratios (11, 10.1, 9, 8 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein) and two non-protein energy [...] sources (soybean oil and poultry fat) were tested in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in triplicates. Two hundred and forty pirarucu juveniles weighting 96.8±2.3 g were distributed in 24 cylindrical-conical fiberglass tanks, adapted for feces collection (modified Guelph system). Fish were fed twice a day to apparent satiation, with experimental diets containing 0.5% of chromium oxide as inert marker in order to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients. Diets containing an energy:protein ratio of 9 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein resulted in significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, crude protein and non-nitrogenous extract. The highest apparent digestibility coefficients for crude fat was obtained with soybean oil. The dietary energy:protein ratio influences the nutrient and energy apparent digestibility coefficients to pirarucu juveniles.

  9. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas práticas com diferentes relações energia: proteína em juvenis de pirarucu Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Akifumi Ono

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e energia de dietas para juvenis de pirarucu, Arapaima gigas. Foram testadas oito dietas, contendo quatro relações energia:proteína (11, 10,1, 9, 8 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta e duas fontes de energia não-protéica (óleo de soja e gordura de aves, em esquema fatorial 4x2, com três repetições. Foram estocados 240 juvenis de pirarucu com peso de 96,8±2,3 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques cilíndricos com fundo cônico, adaptados para a coleta de fezes (sistema Guelph modificado. Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia até a saciedade aparente com as dietas experimentais contendo 0,5% de óxido de cromo, como marcador inerte para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. As dietas com a relação energia:proteína de 9 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta apresentaram os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrativo não nitrogenado. O maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da gordura foi obtido com o uso do óleo de soja. A relação energia:proteína na dieta influencia os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos macronutrientes e energia no pirarucu.The objective of this work was to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of diets for pirarucu (Arapaima gigas juveniles. Eight experimental diets containing four energy:protein ratios (11, 10.1, 9, 8 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein and two non-protein energy sources (soybean oil and poultry fat were tested in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in triplicates. Two hundred and forty pirarucu juveniles weighting 96.8±2.3 g were distributed in 24 cylindrical-conical fiberglass tanks, adapted for feces collection (modified Guelph system. Fish were fed twice a day to apparent satiation, with experimental diets containing 0.5% of chromium oxide as inert marker in order to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients. Diets containing an energy:protein ratio of 9 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein resulted in significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, crude protein and non-nitrogenous extract. The highest apparent digestibility coefficients for crude fat was obtained with soybean oil. The dietary energy:protein ratio influences the nutrient and energy apparent digestibility coefficients to pirarucu juveniles.

  10. Characterization of Tannin and Study of in vitro Protein Digestibility and Mineral Profile of Sudanese and Indian Sorghum Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem; G. Muralikrishna; A.H. EL Tinay; A.I. Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, mineral profile, tannin content, and effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility , and separation and identification of free and bound phenolic acids of Sudanese sorghum cultivar (namely feterita) and Indian sorghum cultivar (namely CSH5). Chemical composition of the two sorghum cultivars was determined. Sudanese cultivar showed significantly (p<0.05) high moisture, ash, protein, and fat while Indian cultivar was signific...

  11. Digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets containing non conventional vegetable proteins fed to pigs of genetic strains suitable for outdoor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, L.; M. Simioli; R. Paganelli; Martelli, G; L. Rizzi

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate on growing pigs kept in metabolism crates, either belonging to a “traditional” cross-breed (Duroc x Large White – DLW) or a local breed (Cinta Senese – CS), the digestibility and the nitrogen balance of non-conventional vegetable protein sources (field beans, pea and sunflower cake) when compared to soybean meal. The four diets were formulated so as to supply the same crude protein amount. CS pigs showed lower apparent digestibilit...

  12. Nutritive value of digested cattle slurry from a biogas plant in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, K.K.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    When animal waste is processed through an anaerobic digester, the quality and quantity of protein improves during fermentation because of the increase in the microbial population in the digested slurry, making the slurry a potential animal feed. Tests indicate that oven-dried as well as sun-dried slurry was palatable when mixed with wheat bran and could be fed to sheep in a maintenance ration of up to 30% slurry without any adverse effects. The digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients of the slurry were 7 and 40%, respectively. Furthermore, the slurry showed no evidence of pathogenic organisms.

  13. Improved Design of Anaerobic Digesters for Household Biogas Production in Indonesia: One Cow, One Digester, and One Hour of Cooking per Day

    OpenAIRE

    Usack, Joseph G.; Wiratni Wiratni; Largus T. Angenent

    2014-01-01

    A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3?m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ?1?h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor...

  14. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  15. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  16. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Dye; David Chesters; Peter Allan; Elaine Howarth; Jenny Walton; Alexa Hoyland; Lawton, Clare L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (

  17. Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p?=?0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p?=?0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619. PMID:24330605

  18. Improved detection specificity for plasma proteins by targeting cysteine-containing peptides with photo-SRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, Quentin; Girod, Marion; Simon, Romain; Jeudy, Jérémy; Chirot, Fabien; Salvador, Arnaud; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Lemoine, Jérôme

    2013-03-01

    Targeted mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) has emerged as an alternative to immunoassays for protein quantification owing to faster development time and higher multiplexing capability. However, the SRM strategy is faced with the high complexity of peptide mixtures after trypsin digestion of whole plasma or the cellular proteome that most of the time causes contamination, irremediably, by interfering compounds in the transition channels monitored. This problem becomes increasingly acute when the targeted protein is present at a low concentration. In this work, the merit of laser-induced photo-dissociation in the visible region at 473 nm implemented in an hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer (photo-SRM) was evaluated for detection specificity of cysteine-containing peptides in a group of plasma proteins after tagging with a dabcyl chromophore. Compared with conventional SRM, photo-SRM chromatograms have improved detection specificity for most of peptides monitored. Comparison of the signals obtained for the best proteotypic peptides in SRM mode and those recorded by photo-SRM of cysteine-containing peptides for the same proteins reveals either increased (up to 10-fold) or similar signal to photo-SRM detection. Finally, photo-SRM has extended response linearity across a calibration plot obtained by diluting human plasma in rat plasma, down to the lowest concentrations. Hence, photo-SRM may advantageously complement conventional SRM in assay of proteins in complex biological matrices. PMID:23325399

  19. Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Rodriguez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das frações solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73% e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%. O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16% e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%. Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado. Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten, com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue.This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. The soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73% and highest intestinal digestibility (98%. Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16% and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously. Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility. Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

  20. Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 2. Digestão pós-ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína / Protein concentrates for bovines: 2. Post-ruminal digestion of protein and dry matter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.M., Rodriguez; J.F.C., Moreira; P.C.C., Fernandes; C.M., Veloso; E.O.S., Saliba; I., Borges; L.C., Gonçalves; A.L.C.C., Borges.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestão pós-ruminal de fontes protéicas. Utilizou-se a técnica de sacos de náilon móveis introduzidos no duodeno e colhidos nas fezes. Os alimentos introduzidos no intestino foram anteriormente incubados em sacos de náilon no rúmen ou foram separados das fraç [...] ões solúveis em água. O farelo de soja foi a fonte protéica de maior degradabilidade ruminal (73%) e altíssima digestibilidade intestinal (98%). O glúten de milho foi a fonte protéica menos degradada no rúmen (16%) e sua parcela sobrepassante foi altamente digerida no intestino (95%). Os farelos de algodão e de mamona mostraram características semelhantes com digestibilidade total da proteína de 95% e em torno de 65% de degradabilidade ruminal. O farelo de palmiste foi menos digerido (87% digestibilidade total quando incubado). Farinhas de origem animal foram menos digeridas no intestino e também no rúmen (fora o glúten), com digestibilidades totais de 75% para farinha de carne e ossos, 85% para farinha de penas e vísceras e farinha de peixe I, 67% para farinha de peixe II e apenas 46% para farinha de sangue. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate post ruminal digestion of protein sources, by mobile nylon bags introduced in the duodenum of fistulated steers and collected from faeces. The feedstuffs were previously incubated in the rumen or separated the water soluble fraction before the intestinal digestion test. T [...] he soybean meal at 5% passage rate showed the highest ruminal protein degradability (73%) and highest intestinal digestibility (98%). Gluten meal was the least rumen degradable protein (16%) and showed a high digestible undegradable protein (95% if rumen incubated previously). Cottonseed meal and castorbean meal had similar patterns of digestion with total digestible protein of 95% and about 70% of rumen degradability. Rumen incubated palmist meal was less digestible (87% of total digestibility). Animal origin meals were less digestible either in the rumen or in the intestine, with total digestibility of 75% for meat and bone meal, 85% for feather and viscera meal and for fish meal I, 67 % for fish meal II and only 46% for blood meal.

  1. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  2. Improvement of seed protein in rice through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutants selected from an M4 generation on the basis of high yield potential and high grain protein content were grown in a preliminary yield trial. The two parent varieties, Faya Theresa and Kihogo Red, were grown as controls. Thirteen mutants originating from Faya Theresa and three mutants derived from Kihogo Red were found to be equal or superior in yield to the controls. The best improvement in protein content through mutagen treatment was 44% increase in a Faya Theresa mutant and 35% increase in a Kihogo Red mutant. The protein values obtained for the same mutants in the M3, M4 and M5 generations were found to be consistently higher than in the check varieties. Correlations between grain yield and yield attributes including seed protein per cent and protein per grain showed that these were mutagen-dependent. Grain yield showed negative correlations with protein per cent and protein per grain. However, a few mutants were found which combined high grain yield and high protein per cent. The correlation between protein per cent and protein per grain was positive and very highly significant. It was concluded that despite the high negative correlations between grain protein per cent and grain yield screening for high protein per cent in high-yielding mutants provides a great scope for the identification of the correlation breakers which combine high grain yield potential and high protein content. (author)

  3. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. PMID:26788245

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz; Marta Pokora; Ewelina Eckert; Marek Szo?tysik; Anna D?browska; Józefa Chrzanowska; Tadeusz Trziszka

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properti...

  5. Evaluation of bromine and iodine content of milk whey proteins combining digestion by microwave-induced combustion and ICP-MS determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sabrina Vieira; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes; Wagner, Roger; dos Santos Richards, Neila Silvia Pereira; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2016-01-01

    The bromine and iodine content of whey protein concentrate (WPC), hydrolysate (WPH), and isolate (WPI) was evaluated combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination. MIC digestion allowed the decomposition of up to 500 mg of samples using diluted NH4OH solution (25 mmol L(-1)) for absorption of analytes, assuring the compatibility with ICP-MS determination. Accuracy was evaluated using milk powder certified reference material (NIST 8435) with good agreements for Br and I (102% and 105%, respectively). For Br and I, the limit of quantification obtained by ICP-MS was 7 and 281 times lower in comparison with ion chromatography determination, respectively. Iodine could be enriched in whey protein production and up to 70% of the tolerable upper intake level was found, thus revealing the need to monitor it in whey proteins. On the other hand, the concentration of Br was below its acceptable daily intake. PMID:26212983

  6. Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by mobile bag incubated with or without pepsin-HCl and three-step techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Paengkoum; S., Traiyakun; S., Paengkoum.

    Full Text Available Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted [...] with permanent rumen and duodenal cannulae. Intestinal digestibility was measured using the mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique with or without incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution, and a three-step in vitro technique. The rate of ruminal disappearances of DM and CP, and the potential degradation of CP from nylon bags of both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than that for leucaena fodder. Potential degradation (A+B) values of CP were 45.6%, 54.2% and 52.8% for leucaena, Madras thorn and moringa fodders, respectively. Average DM and CP digestibility in the intestine and total tract for both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than for leucaena fodder. Average digestibility of DM and CP in the intestine and total tract measured using MNB without pepsin-HCl solution was significantly lower than with pepsin-HCl and with the three-step methods. These data suggest that the results of in vivo and in vitro methods for estimating intestinal digestibility are similar, though in all methods the incubation in a pepsin-HCl solution is necessary.

  7. Dewaterability of thermophilically digested biosolids: effects of temperature and cellular polymeric substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermophilic processes digest sludge at high temperatures to produce Class A biosolids.Recent research work revealed that digestion temperature is the predominant factor affecting dewaterability of thermophilic biosolids. This paper presents findings of a laboratory study that investigated how various digestion temperatures affect dewaterability of digested biosolids, studied the phase partition of the substances affecting dewaterability in digested biosolids, and tested the role of cellular polymeric substances in affecting dewaterability.Secondary sludges were digested at 40-70oC or 22oC for up to 12 days. Centrate from thermophilically digested biosolids were treated with protease and boiling. This study found that, during the first few hours of digestion, higher temperatures resulted in more rapid and more significant deterioration in dewaterability than lower digestion temperatures. Continued digestion resulted in either improved (60oC or 70oC), or unchanged (40oC or 50oC), or gradually deteriorated dewaterability (22oC). The substances affecting dewaterability were primarily located in the liquid phase of thermophilically digested biosolids. Boiling treatment did not result in significant changes in dewaterability. Protease treatment of the liquid phase of thermophilic biosolids improved dewaterability by 13-19%. Such an improvement confirmed the role of proteins in affecting dewaterability. (author)

  8. Bean husks as a supplemental fiber for ruminants: potential use for activation of fibrolytic rumen bacteria to improve main forage digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwe, Tin; Nukui, Yoko; Oyaizu, Shinya; Takamoto, Genki; Koike, Satoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroki; Kondo, Seiji; Kobayashi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of easily digested fiber sources as a supplemental fiber to improve overall fiber digestion in ruminants. First, the degradation of five fibrous feedstuffs and the stimulatory effects on rumen bacteria were examined in situ. Chickpea and lablab bean husks were selected for their potential use due to their large degradable fraction (>94%), which had a stimulatory effect on fibrolytic rumen bacteria such as Fibrobacter succinogenes. Second, a possible improvement in the digestibility of rice straw diet by husk supplementation was monitored in vivo. Four dietary treatments comprising RS (rice straw and concentrate), CHM (RS supplemented with Myanmar chickpea husk), CHE (RS with Egyptian chickpea husk) and LH (RS with lablab bean husk) were allocated to four wethers. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber was 3.1-5.5% greater in CHM and LH than RS. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher in LH than other treatments. Acetate proportion was higher in LH than RS. Ruminal abundance of F. succinogenes was 1.3-1.5 times greater in CHM and LH than RS. These results suggest that bean husk supplementation, especially lablab bean husk, might improve the nutritive value of rice straw diet by stimulating fibrolytic bacteria. PMID:22250738

  9. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2015-01-01

    Mussels cultured on lines for nine months and harvested in March were boiled to removeshells and processed into a dry meal or a silage acidified by formic acid. Starfish mealwas prepared from starfish caught in May, and a starfish juice fraction was obtained bypressing fresh starfish. Commercial fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131–162 g CP/kg and 5 g chromicoxide/kg. Endogenous losses of protein and AA were estimated by feeding an N-free diet.On a dry matter (DM) basis, mussel meal contained 605 g, mussel silage 575 g, starfish meal700 g, starfish juice 393 g, and fish silage 776 g CP/kg. The ratio of AA to CP ranged from0.83 to 0.87. The content of crude fat was high in the mussel products (157–161 g/kg DM),and the starfish meal and juice were high in ash (203 and 474 g/kg DM) with one-fourthbeing calcium. The AID of CP was 0.74, 0.81, 0.70, and 0.61 for mussel meal, mussel silage,starfish meal, and fish silage. The SID of CP was 0.83, 0.87, 0.80, and 0.68 for mussel meal,mussel silage, starfish meal, and fish silage. For both CP and AA digestibility, the lowest(P<0.05) was found in fish silage and the highest (P<0.05) in mussel silage. In conclusion,both mussel and starfish products showed chemical characteristics arguing for their use asfeedstuffs in pig diets. Processing into silage rather than meal increased the SID of CP andAA, and both mussel products and starfish meal had greater SID compared to commercialfish silage.

  10. Water, fixed charge density, protein contents, and lysine incorporation into protein in chymopapain-digested intervertebral disc of rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, S; Tsuji, H; Hirano, N; Sano, A; Terahata, N

    1989-11-01

    Chymopapain (Discase) was injected at a dose of 0.125 nanokatal unit into the intervertebral discs of rabbits, and sequential changes in the metabolism of water, proteoglycan, collagen, and noncollagenous protein were investigated separately in the nucleus pulposus, anterior, and posterior anulus fibrosus. One week after chymopapain injection, the water and proteoglycan content was lower in all of the fractionated tissues of the anterior and posterior anulus and nucleus pulposus of the discs than in the control discs. In the anterior and posterior anulus, the proteoglycan content recovered after 12 weeks, but there was no recovery in the nucleus pulposus. The collagen content continued to increase up to the 12th week in the nucleus pulposus, while the noncollagenous protein content decreased in all tissue fractions after 1 week. In the anterior and posterior anulus, the content of noncollagenous protein recovered after 3 to 6 weeks, but there was no recovery in the nucleus pulposus. The lysine incorporation in collagen and noncollagenous protein was inhibited in all tissue fractions after 12 weeks, suggesting a decrease in synthetic activity. The intradiscal pressure calculated from proteoglycan hydration at 1 to 6 weeks after chymopapain injection showed a marked decrease to 0.8 to 0.9 atm, but it recovered to 1.6 atm after 12 weeks. PMID:2513652

  11. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  12. 'Stealth' lipid-based formulations: poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated digestion inhibition improves oral bioavailability of a model poorly water soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Orlagh M; Williams, Hywel D; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-10-28

    For over 20years, stealth drug delivery has been synonymous with nanoparticulate formulations and intravenous dosing. The putative determinants of stealth in these applications are the molecular weight and packing density of a hydrophilic polymer (commonly poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)) that forms a steric barrier at the surface of the nanoparticle. The current study examined the potential translation of the concepts learned from stealth technology after intravenous administration to oral drug delivery and specifically, to enhance drug exposure after administration of oral lipid-based formulations (LBFs) containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). MCT LBFs are rapidly digested in the gastrointestinal tract, typically resulting in losses in solubilisation capacity, supersaturation and drug precipitation. Here, non-ionic surfactants containing stealth PEG headgroups were incorporated into MCT LBFs in an attempt to attenuate digestion, reduce precipitation risk and enhance drug exposure. Stealth capabilities were assessed by measuring the degree of digestion inhibition that resulted from steric hindrance of enzyme access to the oil-water interface. Drug-loaded LBFs were assessed for maintenance of solubilising capacity during in vitro digestion and evaluated in vivo in rats. The data suggest that the structural determinants of stealth LBFs mirror those of parenteral formulations, i.e., the key factors are the molecular weight of the PEG in the surfactant headgroup and the packing density of the PEG chains at the interface. Interestingly, the data also show that the presence of labile ester bonds within a PEGylated surfactant also impact on the stealth properties of LBFs, with digestible surfactants requiring a PEG Mw of ~1800g/mol and non-digestible ether-based surfactants ~800g/mol to shield the lipidic cargo. In vitro evaluation of drug solubilisation during digestion showed stealth LBFs maintained drug solubilisation at or above 80% of drug load and reduced supersaturation in comparison to digestible counterparts. This trend was also reflected in vivo, where the relative bioavailability of drug after administration in two stealth LBFs increased to 120% and 182% in comparison to analogous digestible (non-stealth) formulations. The results of the current study indicate that self-assembled "stealth" LBFs have potential as a novel means of improving LBF performance. PMID:25058571

  13. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow and digestibility, although nutrient flow was lower and nutrient digestibility was greater in cows when sampled by the omasal technique compared with the reticular technique. Cows fed FG diets had greater ruminal propionate, lower acetate:propionate ratio, and lower pH. Feeding NS diets increased milk and protein yields and feeding finely ground corn increased ruminal propionate concentration. PMID:25468693

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 ?molGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  15. Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility / Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia Oliveira, Sant' Ana; Fabrícia Queiroz, Mendes; Christiano Vieira, Pires; Maria Goreti de Almeida, Oliveira.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento [...] é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS), quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to es [...] timate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP), quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.

  16. Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility Influência da extração de lipídio de diferentes fontes protéicas na digestibilidade in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Oliveira Sant'Ana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to estimate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP, quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.As proteínas são as macromoléculas mais abundantes nas células vivas, tendo como principal função na dieta suprir o organismo de aminoácidos indispensáveis em quantidades adequadas para síntese e manutenção dos tecidos corporais. Desse modo, a determinação da digestibilidade proteica de um alimento é um fator importante para estimar a sua qualidade, sendo o método in vitro uma alternativa rápida e fácil. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência dos lipídios na digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de origem animal e vegetal. Foram utilizadas as seguintes fontes de proteína: aveia, carnes: bovina, de frango, de peixe e suína, feijão vermelho, leite em pó, proteína texturizada de soja (PTS, quinoa e cinco variedades de soja. As proteínas de origem animal apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade in vitro que as de origem vegetal, exceto a proteína texturizada de soja que apresentou maior digestibilidade, em razão do processamento a que foi submetido. No presente trabalho, não houve diferença estatística entre diferentes conteúdos de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade proteica. Desse modo, sugere-se não ser preciso desengordurar as amostras antes de analisar a digestibilidade in vitro, usando o sistema enzimático contendo as enzimas trispisna e pacreatina, tornando-se ainda mais fácil a utilização desses métodos para alimentos com alto teor de lipídio em indústrias de alimentos.

  17. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  18. Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, L.; Ruiz-Moreno, M.; Stern, M. D.; Martinsson, K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in hempseed cake (HC) that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or 130°C, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ residue using a three-step in vitro procedure. AA content was determined for the HC samples (heat treated and untreated) of the intact feed, the 16 h in situ residue and the residue after the three-step procedure. There was a linear increase in RUP (p = 0.001) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (p = 0.003) with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The 130°C treatment increased RUP from 259 to 629 g/kg CP, while intestinal digestibility increased from 176 to 730 g/kg RUP, compared to the control. Hence, the intestinal available dietary CP increased more than eight times. Increasing temperatures during heat treatment resulted in linear decreases in ruminal degradability of total AA (p = 0.006) and individual AA (p<0.05) and an increase in intestinal digestibility that could be explained both by a linear and a quadratic model for total AA and most individual AA (p<0.05). The 130°C treatment decreased ruminal degradability of total AA from 837 to 471 g/kg, while intestinal digestibility increased from 267 to 813 g/kg of rumen undegradable AA, compared with the control. There were differences between ruminal AA degradability and between intestinal AA digestibility within all individual HC treatments (p<0.001). It is concluded that moist heat treatment at 130°C did not overprotect the CP of HC and could be used to shift the site of CP and AA digestion from the rumen to the small intestine. This may increase the value of HC as a protein supplement for ruminants. PMID:25049517

  19. Improvements in growth performance, bone mineral status and nutrient digestibility in pigs following the dietary inclusion of phytase are accompanied by modifications in intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres; O'Shea, Cormac J; Browne, John A; O'Doherty, John V

    2014-09-14

    Phytase (PHY) improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility and bone structure in pigs; however, little is known about its effects on intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. In the present study, a 44 d experiment was carried out using forty-eight pigs (11·76 (sem 0·75) kg) assigned to one of three dietary treatment groups to measure growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID), coefficient of apparent total tract nutrient digestibility (CATTD) and intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. Dietary treatments during the experimental period were as follows: (1) a high-P (HP) diet containing 3·4 g/kg available P and 7·0 g/kg Ca; (2) a low-P (LP) diet containing 1·9 g/kg available P and 5·9 g/kg Ca; (3) a PHY diet containing LP diet ingredients+1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of PHY. The PHY diet increased the average daily gain (Pfeed conversion ratio (Pfeeding a diet supplemented with PHY improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility as well as increases the gene expression of the peptide transporter PEPT1. PMID:24998244

  20. Nutrient digestibility and growth of five breeds of sheep under different levels of undegradable protein

    OpenAIRE

    Yulistiani D; Naufaliah N; Kardaya D; Subandriyo . .

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of rumen undegradable protein (UDP) in concentrate on performance of five breeds of sheep. Namely: Compass Agrinak (CA); Garut Composite breed (KG); Barbados Cross breed (BC); St Croix breed (SC); and Local Garut (GL) breed. Ten heads of sheep were used from each breed, in which each breed was grouped into 5 groups according to their body weight, and each sheep in each group was assigned to one of two treatments diet. Th...

  1. Exigência de treonina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Digestible threonine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings using ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações com 1,35% de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos de tilápia, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial de 1,64 ± 0,03 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições, e doze peixes por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações com diversas relações treonina:lisina digestível (69,0; 74,0; 79,0; 84,0 e 89,0% e relação metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 70,0% e uma ração com relação treonina:lisina digestível de 84,0% e de metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 75,0%, todas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais, e alimentados à vontade, seis vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a composição corporal, as deposições de proteína e gordura e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. O consumo de ração, o teor de proteína corporal e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com a relação treonina:lisina na ração, contudo, não foram influenciados pelo aumento da relação metionina + cistina:lisina da ração. Os níveis de treonina total ou digestível que proporcionaram os melhores resultados de desempenho em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo foram de 1,11 e 0,99%, enquanto os níveis que promoveram melhor deposição de proteína corporal foram de 1,43 e 1,28%, que correspondem às relações treonina:lisina total de 71,0 e 69,0% e treonina:lisina digestível de 90,0 e 89,0%.The effects of digestible threonine levels, based on ideal protein concept in diets with 1.35% of digestible lysine on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings performance. Four hundred thirty two reverted Nile tilapia, Thailand strain, with initial weight of 1.64 ± 0.03 g, were allotted to completely randomized design, with six diets and six replications with twelve fishes each. The five diets, isoenergetic isoproteic, consisted of various threonine:digestible lysine ratio (69.0, 74.0, 79.0, 84.0, and 89.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine ratio of 70.0% and one diet with threonine:digestible lysine of 84.0% and methionine + cystine:digestible lysine of 75.0%. The fish were kept in 36 aquariums of 130 L, equipped with water supply, controlled temperature and individual aeration, and ad libitum fed six times a day for 30 days. Performance, body composition, protein and fat depositions and nitrogen retention efficiency of fishes were evaluated. Consumption of feed, body protein content and body protein deposition increased in a linear fashion in accordance to threonine:digestible lysine in the diet, however, was not affected by the increase of dietary methionine + cystine:digestible lysine. Total or digestible threonine levels that provided the best results of performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings were 1.11 and 0.99%, while the levels that promoted better body protein deposition were 1.43 and 1.28%, which correspond to threonine:total lysine ratio of 71.0 and 69.0% and threonine:digestible lysine of 90.0 and 89.0%.

  2. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, U; Singh, U; Rao, P V

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed Indian pulses and soybean. Germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. Fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. Autoclaving and roasting were more effective in reducing phytic acid in chickpea and pigeonpea than in urd bean, mung bean, and soybean. Germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). IVPD was only slightly increased by roasting and autoclaving of all legumes. Germination and fermentation also remarkably decreased the total dietary fiber (TDF) in all legumes. Autoclaving and roasting resulted in slight increases in TDF values. All the processing treatments had little effect on calcium, magnesium and iron contents. PMID:8983057

  3. Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

    2011-09-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Improving anaerobic digestion of pig manure by adding in the same reactor a stabilizing agent formulated with low-grade magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struvite precipitation and pig manure anaerobic digestion were coupled in the same reactor in order to mitigate the inhibitory effect of free ammonia and avoid precipitator costs. The stabilizing agent used to facilitate struvite precipitation was formulated with low-grade magnesium oxide by-product; an approach that would notably reduce struvite processing costs. The interaction between pig manure and stabilizing agent was analyzed in batch experiments, on a wide range of stabilizing agent additions from 5 to 100 kg m?3. The monitoring of the pH and ammonia removal during 24 h showed the high capacity of the stabilizing agent to remove ammonia; removal efficiencies above 80% were obtained from 40 kg m?3. However, a long-term anaerobic digester operation was required to assess the feasibility of the process and to ensure that the stabilizing agent does not introduce any harmful compound for the anaerobic biomass. In this vein, the addition of 5 and 30 kg m?3 of the stabilizing agent in a pig manure continuous digester resulted in a 25% (0.17 m3 kg?1) and a 40% (0.19 m3 kg?1) increase in methane production per mass of volatile solid, respectively, when compared with the reference digester (0.13 m3 kg?1). Moreover, the stability of the process during four hydraulic retention times guarantees that the stabilizing agent did not exert a negative effect on the consortium of microorganisms. Finally, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of struvite as well as two precipitation mechanisms, struvite precipitation on the stabilizing agent surface and in the bulk solution. - Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and struvite precipitation were satisfactorily coupled. • The stabilizing agent showed high ammonia removals efficiencies. • The stabilizing agent improved the methane production of a pig manure digester. • The stabilizing agent does not introduce harmful compound for the anaerobic biomass. • Struvite precipitation in the liquid phase and on the stabilization agent particles

  5. Protein biofortified sorghum: effect of processing into traditional african foods on their protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janet; Taylor, John R N

    2011-03-23

    Protein biofortification into crops is a means to combat childhood protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in developing countries, by increasing the bioavailability of protein in staple plant foods and ensuring sustainability of the crop. Protein biofortification of sorghum has been achieved by both chemically induced mutation and genetic engineering. For this biofortification to be effective, the improved protein quality in the grain must be retained when it is processed into staple African foods. Suppression of kafirin synthesis by genetic engineering appeared to be superior to improved protein digestibility by chemical mutagenesis, because both the lysine content and protein digestibility were substantially improved and maintained in a range of African foods. For the genetically engineered sorghums, the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score was almost twice that of their null controls and considerably higher than the high protein digestibility sorghum type. Such protein biofortified sorghum has considerable potential to alleviate PEM. PMID:21338110

  6. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO3 or the mixture HNO3/H2O2 and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (II) without H2O2 and with heating to dryness; (III) with H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H2O2 and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 μg g-1

  7. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, I; González-Costas, J M; Bendicho, C

    2007-05-22

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO3 or the mixture HNO3/H2O2 and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (II) without H2O2 and with heating to dryness; (III) with H2O2 and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H2O2 and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 degrees C for 30 min in 6M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 microg g(-1). PMID:17481413

  8. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavilla, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Gonzalez-Costas, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, C. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)]. E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2007-05-22

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO{sub 3} or the mixture HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and without heating to dryness; (II) without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and with heating to dryness; (III) with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 {mu}g g{sup -1}.

  9. Effects of digestible protein to energy ratios on growth and carcass chemical composition of siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Antunes de Lemos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion in the market of ornamental fish depends on the intensification of production systems and the generation of appropriate technologies. Therefore, it is necessary to know the nutritional requirements of each species for the formulation of nutritionally balanced diets. A 30-day feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different dietary digestible protein to energy ratio in diets for Betta splendens fingerlings. Fifty-six all-male B. splendens with 1.03 ± 0.11 g average weight were randomly stocked into 56 1L-aquaria in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, comprising eight treatments and seven replication. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Diets were formulated to contain 28.0, 35.0, 42.0 and 49.0% DP and 3,600 and 3,200 kcal/kg DE. The growth parameters evaluated in this trial were weight gain (WG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and specific growth rate (SGR. No difference (P > 0.05 was observed for WG, FCR and SGR. However, a higher FI was observed for fish fed diets containing 42.0% DP (P < 0.05. A positive effect of DP and DE on PER was observed in this study. Generally, according to the increase of DE levels, a reduction on PER was observed. Based on this experimental condition, we recommend the use of 28.0% DP and 3,200 kcal/kg DE in diets for B. splendens.

  10. Discrimination of outer membrane proteins with improved performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jing

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer membrane proteins (OMPs perform diverse functional roles in Gram-negative bacteria. Identification of outer membrane proteins is an important task. Results This paper presents a method for distinguishing outer membrane proteins (OMPs from non-OMPs (that is, globular proteins and inner membrane proteins (IMPs. First, we calculated the average residue compositions of OMPs, globular proteins and IMPs separately using a training set. Then for each protein from the test set, its distances to the three groups were calculated based on residue composition using a weighted Euclidean distance (WED approach. Proteins from the test set were classified into OMP versus non-OMP classes based on the least distance. The proposed method can distinguish between OMPs and non-OMPs with 91.0% accuracy and 0.639 Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC. We then improved the method by including homologous sequences into the calculation of residue composition and using a feature-selection method to select the single residue and di-peptides that were useful for OMP prediction. The final method achieves an accuracy of 96.8% with 0.859 MCC. In direct comparisons, the proposed method outperforms previously published methods. Conclusion The proposed method can identify OMPs with improved performance. It will be very helpful to the discovery of OMPs in a genome scale.

  11. Ileal digestibility of broilers fed diets supplemented with exogenous enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei André Arruda Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme efficiency in diets with and without nutrient reduction on the ileal digestibility of broilers. A total of 1440 male broiler chicks (Cobb ® were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments in a factorial 2 x 2 (two control diets versus supplemented or not with enzyme with 8 replicates of 45 birds in each experimental unit. The control diets were: positive control (with nutritional levels recommended in the literature for each phase and a negative control (with reduced energy, calcium and phosphorus. Enzyme supplementation consisted of a combination of enzymes, phytase (100g/t and complex of amylase, protease and xylanase (500g/t. We evaluated the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy of birds of age 22 and 43 days old. The reduction of nutrients in the diets caused a reduction in the negative control digestible energy and protein digestibility, however, the addition of enzyme mix in the negative control increased the digestible energy in two phases, and the digestibility of protein at 22 days old. The addition of enzymes improved the digestibility of nutrients in diets with nutrient reduction.

  12. AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadchikov V. G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition their transformation in net milk protein, lysine and methionine accordingly amounted to 0.67, 0,83 and 0,82. The most significant changes in the concentration of methionine, proline, glutamate, glutamine, glycine were observed in cows before calving and immediately after birth, stabilization of their level starts with a 24 lactation day, that is connected with the peculiarities of the feeding behavior of the cows and the gradual intensification of the processes of metabolism and milk production. To control the status of protein metabolism we have offered benchmarks compositions of free amino acids in cows’ blood plasma phases: 21-0 days before calving, 0-21 and 22-120 days after calving

  13. Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia de Miguel Amistá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternativos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados.Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as those suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

  14. Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa / The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Júlia de Miguel, Amistá; Olga Luisa, Tavano.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternati [...] vos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados. Abstract in english Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as t [...] hose suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days) and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

  15. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source. PMID:26254527

  16. An ELISA-based procedure for assaying proteins in digests of human leukocytes and cell lines, using specifically selected peptides and appropriate antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pace Umberto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the application of an ELISA-based assay (the Peptidomatrix that can be used to simultaneously identify and quantitate a number of proteins in biological samples. The biological sample (blood component, biopsy, culture or other is first lysed to release all the proteins, without any additional separation. The denatured proteins in the sample are then digested in bulk with the desired proteolytic enzyme(s. The peptides in the digest are then assayed by appropriate antibodies, using a competition ELISA protocol. Results As an example of its use, the present paper applies the Peptidomatrix to the assay of four membrane proteins MDR1 (P-glycoprotein or ABCB1, MRP1 (ABCC1, BCRP/MXR (ABCG2 and the alpha subunit of the Na, K_ATPase (ATP1A1, present in a number of cell lines and in human lymphocytes. We show that we can detect and quantitate these proteins, using a series of peptide-antibody pairs, and that we can differentiate between cell lines or cell preparations that express the target proteins and those that do not. Conclusion We have devised a simple, ELISA-based proteomics assay that enables the quantitation of designated proteins in a cell or tissue sample, and that can be used in any laboratory, with minimal specialized equipment.

  17. Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Schaitl Thon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte e seus efeitos no desempenho das aves dos 7 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de arginina digestível (1,363; 1,463; 1,563 e 1,663% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (20 e 22%, totalizando oito tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de 15 aves. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, o índice de conversão alimentar, a biometria dos órgãos do trato gastrintestinal e a digestibilidade e retenção de matéria seca e nitrogênio. O maior ganho de peso na fase de 1 a 14 dias de idade foi obtido com a ração com 22% de proteína bruta. Os níveis de arginina digestível tiveram efeito quadrático na conversão alimentar na fase de 1 a 10 dias de idade. O peso do esôfago e inglúvio foi maior nas aves alimentadas com a ração com 20% de proteína bruta, no entanto, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina digestível sobre o comprimento do intestino aos 10 dias de idade e sobre o peso do esôfago + inglúvio aos 3 dias de idade. Houve interação entre os níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível para o peso relativo do fígado aos 14 dias, que respondeu de forma quadrática ao nível de 20% de proteína bruta, e para o comprimento de intestino, cujo maior valor foi obtido com os níveis de 22% de proteína bruta e 1,603% de arginina digestível. O balanço e a retenção de nitrogênio foram maiores no nível de 22% de proteína bruta. O nível de 1,363% de arginina digestível atende às exigências nutricionais dos frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial.This experiment was carried out to evaluate levels of crude protein and digestible arginine in pre-starter broiler ration and their effects on the performance of the broilers from 7 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663% and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22% with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.

  18. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  19. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L-1) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L-1 HNO3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L-1. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L-1) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  20. DETERMINATION OF ROMANIAN ALFALFA CRUDE PROTEIN AND CRUDE FIBER CONTENTS AS WELL AS IN VITRO ORGANIC MATTER DIGESTIBILITY BY NIR SPECTROMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Laura M; Thewis, André; Ioan ROTAR; Christelle BOUDRY; Vidican, Roxana; Malinas, Anamaria; Vasile FLORIAN; Lecler, Bernard; Agneessens, Richard; Juan A. FERNÁNDEZ PIERNA; Vincent BAETEN

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high quality forage which has been used worldwide. The superiority of alfalfa lies in its high yield, high protein content and high digestibility. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, fast and non­destructive method, named Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to determinate alfalfa quality. To realize this study, alfalfa samples were obtained from Manaútur Experimental Station – Farm Cojocna in 2008–2009, in one experiment carried out using randomizati...

  1. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; P. Rowlinson; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of...

  2. Effects of Physical Form and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Steers

    OpenAIRE

    Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS) and urea-treated (3%) rice straw (UTRS), and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: lon...

  3. Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  4. Improving accuracy of protein-protein interaction prediction by considering the converse problem for sequence representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of genome-sequencing technologies, protein sequences are readily obtained by translating the measured mRNAs. Therefore predicting protein-protein interactions from the sequences is of great demand. The reason lies in the fact that identifying protein-protein interactions is becoming a bottleneck for eventually understanding the functions of proteins, especially for those organisms barely characterized. Although a few methods have been proposed, the converse problem, if the features used extract sufficient and unbiased information from protein sequences, is almost untouched. Results In this study, we interrogate this problem theoretically by an optimization scheme. Motivated by the theoretical investigation, we find novel encoding methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. Our new methods exploit sufficiently the information of protein sequences and reduce artificial bias and computational cost. Thus, it significantly outperforms the available methods regarding sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recall with cross-validation evaluation and reaches ~80% and ~90% accuracy in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively. Our findings here hold important implication for other sequence-based prediction tasks because representation of biological sequence is always the first step in computational biology. Conclusions By considering the converse problem, we propose new representation methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. The results show that our method significantly improves the accuracy of protein-protein interaction predictions.

  5. Protein-carbohydrate supplements improve muscle protein balance in muscular dystrophy patients after endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Ørngreen, Mette C; Preisler, Nicolai; Jeppesen, Tina D; Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; van Hall, Gerrit; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    In healthy individuals, postexercise protein supplementation increases muscle protein anabolism. In patients with muscular dystrophies, aerobic exercise improves muscle function, but the effect of exercise on muscle protein balance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated 1) muscle protein balance...... before, during, and after exercise and 2) the effect of postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation on muscle protein balance in patients with muscular dystrophies. In 17 patients [7 women and 10 men, aged 33 ± 11 yr (18-52), body mass index: 22 ± 3 kg/m(2) (16-26)] and 8 healthy matched controls...... [3 women and 5 men, age 33 ± 13 years (19-54), body mass index: 23 ± 3 kg/m(2) (19-27)], muscle protein synthesis, breakdown, and fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured across the leg using tracer dilution methodology on two occasions, with and without oral postexercise protein...

  6. Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment and a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap. The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de-açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia/sulfato de amônio para conterem 10% de proteína bruta. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 240 kg ± 15 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 5 × 5. Foram realizadas coletas totais de fezes, abomasal e dois esvaziamentos pela manhã. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho apresentaram maiores digestibilidades ruminal da proteína e intestinal do extrato etéreo, taxas de ingestão, passagem e de digestão da matéria seca, justificando os maiores consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp. As maiores taxas de passagem nos animais alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura justificam os maiores consumos de matéria seca e FDNcp em relação ao observado com o fornecimento de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Animais consumindo dietas contendo silagem de milho apresentam maiores taxas de passagem da matéria seca e digestão da FDNcp. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, armazenada ou não, favorecem o consumo e a taxa de passagem da matéria seca, em relação a dietas com cana ensilada. O uso de cal na ensilagem não melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem a taxa de passagem da dieta. A cana-de-açúcar armazenada por 72 horas possui características digestíveis semelhantes às da cana-de-açúcar in natura.

  7. Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage / Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Felipe Antunes, Magalhães; Rilene Ferreira Diniz, Valadares; Lays Débora, Mariz; Edenio, Detmann; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Maria Ignez, Leão.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de- [...] açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia/sulfato de amônio para conterem 10% de proteína bruta. Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 240 kg ± 15 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 5 × 5. Foram realizadas coletas totais de fezes, abomasal e dois esvaziamentos pela manhã. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho apresentaram maiores digestibilidades ruminal da proteína e intestinal do extrato etéreo, taxas de ingestão, passagem e de digestão da matéria seca, justificando os maiores consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp). As maiores taxas de passagem nos animais alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura justificam os maiores consumos de matéria seca e FDNcp em relação ao observado com o fornecimento de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Animais consumindo dietas contendo silagem de milho apresentam maiores taxas de passagem da matéria seca e digestão da FDNcp. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, armazenada ou não, favorecem o consumo e a taxa de passagem da matéria seca, em relação a dietas com cana ensilada. O uso de cal na ensilagem não melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem a taxa de passagem da dieta. A cana-de-açúcar armazenada por 72 horas possui características digestíveis semelhantes às da cana-de-açúcar in natura. Abstract in english It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment a [...] nd a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap). The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.

  8. Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. These countries experience serious shortages of animal feeds and fodders of the conventional type. Natural forages are very variable both in quality and quantity, conventional agro-industrial by-products are scarce and vary seasonal, and grains are required almost exclusively for human consumption. The small farmers in developing countries have limited resources available to them for feeding their ruminant livestock. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Providing adequate good-quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Recent advances in ration balancing include manipulation of feed to increase the quantity and quality of protein and energy delivered to the small intestine. Selection of feeds based on high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with the high dry matter digestibility, and development of feeding strategies based on high efficiency as well as high microbial protein synthesis in the rumen will lead to higher supply of protein post-ruminally. The strategy for improving production has therefore been to maximize the efficiency of utilization of available feed resources in the rumen by providing optimum conditions for microbial growth and thereby supplementing dietary nutrients to complement and balance the products of rumen digestion to the animal's requirement

  9. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria of the genus Caldicellusiruptor and Dictyoglomus. In a reactor experiment inoculation of a 68°C pretreatment reactor with Caldicellusiruptor resulted in a 93% increase in the methane yield of the pre-trea...

  10. Evaluation of the effect of commercially available plant and animal protein sources in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): digestive and metabolic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartviksen, Mali; Bakke, Anne Marie; Vecino, José G; Ringø, Einar; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of various alternative diet ingredients partially replacing fishmeal (FM) on digestive and metabolic parameters in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts (initial body mass 305 ± 69 g) following 12 weeks of feeding. Experimental diets containing 20 % extracted sunflower (ESF), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soy protein concentrate (SPC), feather meal (FeM) and poultry by-product (PBY) were compared to a reference diet containing FM as the main protein source. For the different intestinal compartments trypsin, lipase, bile salts, dry matter and chyme-associated leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were measured from the content and LAP was measured in the tissue. Selected metabolites were measured in plasma samples. In general, use of plant proteins resulted in low C-LAP activity, low plasma cholesterol and high plasma magnesium. The plasma levels of cholesterol and Mg reflecting were most likely reflections of the composition of the diet, while the LAP activity in chyme may indicate lower epithelial cell turnover. Other responses varied depending on the plant protein source. Results from the animal protein substitution also varied both between diets and compartments; however, both materials increased lipase activity in DI. FeM resulted in a significant increase in both total and specific LAP activities suggesting an attempt to increase the digestive capacity in response to low digestibility of the diet while PBY showed very little difference from the FM-fed control fish. The present trial indicates that 20 % PPC, SPC and PBY can partially replace FM in diets for Atlantic salmon. The qualities of ESF and FeM used in this trial show little promise as FM replacement at 20 % inclusion level. PMID:24962539

  11. Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima) submetidas a diferentes processamentos / Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) submitted to different processing methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana de Paula, Naves; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Custódio Donizete dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, a [...] tividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE) por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados. Abstract in english Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglu [...] tinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein digestibility. Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) were submitted to the following treatments, which were carried out in quadruplicate: used raw; boiled for 5, 10, and 15 minutes; and steamed for 10 minutes. Next, the seeds were freeze-dried, grinded, and stored at room temperature until the analyses were completed. There was no significant difference among the treatments as for the levels of polyphenols. The raw seeds showed the highest content of cyanide, smallest level of trypsin inhibitor, and smallest protein digestibility. The 10-minute boiling resulted in the lowest content of saponins and greatest protein digestibility. No Hemaglutinin activity was detected in the samples. It can be concluded that the 10-minute boiling was the treatment that produced better results.

  12. Identifying proper agitation interval to prevent floating layers formation of corn stover and improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Libin; Zou, Dexun; Yuan, Hairong; Wang, Linfeng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiujin

    2015-06-01

    Floating tests were conducted in anaerobic digestion with different OLR of corn stover to investigate formation of floating layers and to find proper agitation interval for preventing floating layer formation. Floating layers were formed in the early stage of no-agitation period. The daily biogas production was decreased by 81.87-87.90% in digesters with no agitation and feeding compared with digesters having agitation. Reduction of biogas production was mainly attributed to poor contact of substrate-microorganisms. Agitation intervals of 10 h, 6 h, and 2 h were found to be proper for eliminating floating layer at OLR of 1.44, 1.78 and 2.11 g(TS) L(-1) d(-1), respectively. The proper agitation interval was further validated by anaerobic experiments. It showed that proper agitation interval could not only prevent floating layer formation and achieve high biogas production but also increase energy efficiency of anaerobic digestion. The finding is useful for operating anaerobic digester with corn stover in a cost-effective way. PMID:25795528

  13. A novel bio-orthogonal cross-linker for improved protein/protein interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nury, Catherine; Redeker, Virginie; Dautrey, Sébastien; Romieu, Anthony; van der Rest, Guillaume; Renard, Pierre-Yves; Melki, Ronald; Chamot-Rooke, Julia

    2015-02-01

    The variety of protein cross-linkers developed in recent years illustrates the current requirement for efficient reagents optimized for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. To date, the most widely used strategy relies on commercial cross-linkers that bear an isotopically labeled tag and N-hydroxysuccinimid-ester (NHS-ester) moieties. Moreover, an enrichment step using liquid chromatography is usually performed after enzymatic digestion of the cross-linked proteins. Unfortunately, this approach suffers from several limitations. First, it requires large amounts of proteins. Second, NHS-ester cross-linkers are poorly efficient because of their fast hydrolysis in water. Finally, data analysis is complicated because of uneven fragmentation of complex isotopic cross-linked peptide mixtures. We therefore synthesized a new type of trifunctional cross-linker to overrule these limitations. This reagent, named NNP9, comprises a rigid core and bears two activated carbamate moieties and an azido group. NNP9 was used to establish intra- and intermolecular cross-links within creatine kinase, then to map the interaction surfaces between ?-Synuclein (?-Syn), the aggregation of which leads to Parkinson's disease, and the molecular chaperone Hsc70. We show that NNP9 cross-linking efficiency is significantly higher than that of NHS-ester commercial cross-linkers. The number of cross-linked peptides identified was increased, and a high quality of MS/MS spectra leading to high sequence coverage was observed. Our data demonstrate the potential of NNP9 for an efficient and straightforward characterization of protein-protein interfaces and illustrate the power of using different cross-linkers to map thoroughly the surface interfaces within protein complexes. PMID:25522193

  14. Efeitos da fonte de proteína da dieta sobre a digestão de amido em bovinos Effects of diet protein source on starch digestion in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de três fontes de proteína: uréia (UR, farinha de penas (FPE e farelo de glúten de milho (FGM sobre a digestão ruminal, intestinal e total do amido em bovinos. Utilizaram-se três bovinos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, castrados, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental quadrado latino 3 x 3. Não houve efeito da fonte protéica (P > 0,05 sobre os parâmetros de digestão avaliados com relação à matéria seca, bem como a composição química microbiana e pH ruminal. A dieta UR apresentou maior produção ruminal de amônia seguida pelas dietas FGM e FPE (P The effect of three protein sources, urea (UR, feather meal (FM and corn gluten meal (CGM on ruminal, intestinal and total starch digestion in cattle was evaluated. Three Holstein steers implanted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae, in a 3x3 Latin square design, were used. Protein source (p > 0.05 did not affect dry matter evaluations, chemical microbial composition and ruminal pH. UR diet showed highest ruminal ammonium production, followed by CGM and FM diets (P < 0.05. The apparent and true microbial efficiency was higher in CGM diet (P < 0.05 and identical to UR and FM diets. Protein source did not affect intestinal digestibility starch. Total digestibility coefficient (% of starch failed to show any significant difference, albeit total digestion of starch (g/day was higher (P < 0.05 in UR and FM diets.

  15. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lidia Ferreira, Miranda; Norberto Mario, Rodriguez; Elzânia Sales, Pereira; Augusto César de, Queiroz; Roberto Daniel, Sainz; Patrícia Guimarães, Pimentel; Miguel Marques, Gontijo Neto.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP), total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), cassava (Manihot esculenta), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and rami [...] e (Boehmeria nivea), and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP) and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation). For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  16. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  17. Immunoreactivity of hen egg allergens: influence on in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the presence of other egg white proteins and of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Gustavo; López-Fandiño, Rosina; Molina, Elena

    2013-01-15

    Hen egg white comprises of a complex mixture of proteins, which greatly differ in their physicochemical characteristics and relative abundance. We aimed to identify potential undiscovered egg allergens within the egg white proteome and investigated the existence of matrix effects on the proteolytic stability and resultant IgE-binding of the allergenic proteins. In addition to the main egg allergens: ovalbumin (OVA), ovomucoid (OM) and lysozyme (LYS), two minor egg white proteins, tentatively identified as ovoinhibitor and clusterin, were found to react with serum IgE from egg-allergic patients. Egg white exhibited residual immunoreactivity after gastrointestinal digestion due to the presence of intact OVA and LYS, as well as of several IgE-binding peptides derived from OVA. The presence of egg yolk slightly increased the susceptibility to hydrolysis of egg white proteins and abrogated bile salt-induced precipitation of LYS in the duodenal medium. However, the resultant immunoreactivity against IgE of egg white proteins after in vitro digestion was not significantly modified by the presence of yolk components. PMID:23122126

  18. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously.

  19. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  20. Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel / Intestinal protein digestibility of by-products from biodiesel industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.S., Couto; J.C., Silva Filho; A.D., Corrêa; E.A., Silva; R.M.P., Pardo; C., Esteves.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI) da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não deg [...] radados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR), proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR). A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine intestinal protein digestibility (ID) of some biodiesel by-products in the form of cakes and the meals. Eight by-products were: cakes and meals of physic nut, turnip, lupine, cotton cake, cottonseed meal. The by-products were incubated in the rumen for [...] 16 hours, were the undegradable rumen residues were submitted to enzymatic digestion with pepsin and pancreatin solution for the determination of ID. In the incubation residues the following was also determined: dry matter degradability (RD), rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP). The intestinal protein digestibility of biodiesel by-products ranged from 2.4 to 48.6%. All the by-products evaluated in this study were characterized as high protein sources and were considered high-RDP. The by-products presented low intestinal protein digestibility. The ID protein of biodiesel by-products was higher in the cakes than the meals. The by-products evaluated, the cottonseed cake and meal presented the highest ID coefficients.

  1. Effect of different dietary crude protein levels on performance, N digestibility and some blood parameters in Kivircik lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keser Onur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 45 weaned Kivircik male lambs with an average initial body weight ŠBW¹ of 26.23 kg were randomly assigned to five experimental groups (G10, G12, G14, G16, G18 fed 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 % crude protein (CP, respectively. It was observed that G16 had higher BW than the first three groups (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences between G16 and G18. G16 had higher daily body weight gain ŠBWG¹ than other groups. During the study, when compared with first three groups, G16 had significantly higher BWG (p<0.05, but no significant difference was observed between G16 and G18. The lowest DMI was observed in G10 (p<0.05, however, there were no differences between G14, G16 and G18. The best and the lowest feed efficiency were observed in G16 and G10, respectively. When the analysis results of faeces samples were compared, the lowest nitrogen (N excretion was detected in G10 and G12, and the highest N excretion was detected in G18 (p<0.05. However, there were no significant differences between G14 and G16. Percentages of N digestibility's of G16 and G18 were higher than those of other groups (p<0.05. There were no significant differences between G16 and G18, and between G10, G12 and G14. The analysis results of serum samples obtained from experimental groups showed that, except for serum urea and albumin levels, there were no significant differences between the level of other metabolites. G10 had lowest serum albumin level (p<0.05, and there were no significant differences between the other groups. Serum urea levels of G14, G16, G18 were similar and higher than those of G10 and G12 (p<0.05. The lowest serum urea level was determined in G10 (p<0.05. Consequently, when it was considered that feeding Kivircik lambs with higher protein level than 16 % had no advantage for performance and would be cause of economic loss, it can be said that 16 % CP was optimal.

  2. Detecting Protein Complexes by an Improved Affinity Propagation Algorithm in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks is important in understanding cellular processes. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm, named by Overlapped Affinity Propagation (OAP, which is based on Affinity Propagation algorithm (AP to detect protein complexes. First, AP algorithm is adopted to obtain a hard partition of the network. Then the candidate overlapping proteins for each community are identified. Finally, a strategy is constructed with an immediate purpose to filter noise in these detected protein complexes. We apply the OAP to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPI network, and the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can discover protein complexes with high precision by compared with the AP, MCL, CoAch and CPM algorithms. Our proposed method is validated as an effective algorithm in identifying protein complexes and can provide more insights for future biological study.

  3. Desempenho de cordeiros e estimativa da digestibilidade do amido de dietas com diferentes fontes protéicas / Lamb performance and estimation of starch digestibility of diets with different protein sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário Adriano Ávila, Queiroz; Ivanete, Susin; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Clayton Quirino, Mendes; Renato Shinkai, Gentil; Omer Cavalcanti, Almeida; Rafael Camargo do, Amaral; Gerson Barreto, Mourão.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de fontes protéicas sobre desempenho, características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros confinados, e estimar a digestibilidade do amido de rações com alta proporção de grãos. Foram distribuídos 28 cordeiros Santa Inês, em blocos completos ao acaso [...] , de acordo com o peso vivo e a idade, no início do experimento. As fontes protéicas foram os farelos de: soja, amendoim, canola e algodão, em dietas isonitrogenadas com 90% de concentrado e 10% de volumoso (feno de coast-cross). Na determinação da digestibilidade, foram utilizados quatro borregos em delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4, e a digestibilidade do amido foi estimada a partir do teor de amido fecal. Não houve diferenças (p>0,05) quanto ao consumo de matéria seca, ganho de peso vivo médio, conversão alimentar, características da carcaça e da carne, entre as fontes protéicas avaliadas. A digestibilidade do amido apresentou coeficiente de determinação de 93%. Independentemente da fonte protéica utilizada, o teor de amido nas fezes é um indicador eficiente na estimativa da digestibilidade do amido de dietas com alta proporção de concentrado para cordeiros. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of protein sources on feedlot lambs performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and to estimate starch digestibility of high grain diets. Twenty eight Santa Inês ram lambs were selected in a complete randomized block design, according to bo [...] dy weight and age in the beginning of the experiment. Protein sources were the following meals: soybean, peanut, canola, and cottonseed in isonitrogenous diets with 90% concentrate and 10% roughage (coast-cross hay). Four ram lambs (48 kg) were used to determine starch digestibility in a 4x4 latin square design, and starch digestibility was estimated by fecal concentration of starch. There were no differences (p>0.05) for dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed conversion, carcass characteristics and meat quality, among the protein sources evaluated. Determination coefficient for starch digestibility was 93%. Fecal starch content is an accurate indicator of the starch digestibility estimation in lambs feeding high grain diets, independently of the protein source used.

  4. Linker engineering for fusion protein construction: Improvement and characterization of a GLP-1 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yuelin; Tong, Yue; Gao, Mingming; Chen, Chen; Gao, Xiangdong; Yao, Wenbing

    2016-01-01

    Protein engineering has been successfully applied in protein drug discovery. Using this technology, we previously have constructed a fusion protein by linking the globular domain of adiponectin to the C-terminus of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog. Herein, to further improve its bioactivity, we reconstructed this fusion protein by introducing linker peptides of different length and flexibility. The reconstructed fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using nickel affinity chromatography. Their agonist activity towards receptors of GLP-1 and adiponectin were assessed in vitro by using luciferase assay and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) immunoblotting, respectively. The effects of the selected fusion protein on glucose and lipid metabolism were evaluated in mice. The fusion protein reconstructed using a linker peptide of AMGPSSGAPGGGGS showed high potency in activating GLP-1 receptor and triggering AMPK phosphorylation via activating the adiponectin receptor. Remarkably, the optimized fusion protein was highly effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the bioactivity of this GLP-1 fusion protein can be significantly promoted by linker engineering, and indicate that the optimized GLP-1 fusion protein is a promising lead structure for anti-diabetic drug discovery. PMID:26672455

  5. Common Prairie feeds with different soluble and insoluble fractions used for CPM diet formulation in dairy cattle: impact of carbohydrate-protein matrix structure on protein and other primary nutrient digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship of carbohydrates molecular spectral characteristics to rumen degradability of primary nutrients in Prairie feeds in dairy cattle. In total, 12 different types of feeds were selected, each type of feed was from three different source with total 37 samples. Six types of them were energy-sourced feeds and the others were protein-sourced feeds. The carbohydrates molecular spectral intensity of various functional groups were collected using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FT/IR) spectroscopy. In the in situ study, the results showed that the rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of primary nutrients (DM, OM, NCP, and CP) were significantly different (Pfeeds. The spectral bands features were significantly different (Pfeeds. Spectral intensities of A_Cell, H_1415 and H_1370 were weakly positively correlated with in situ rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of DM, OM and NCP. Spectral intensities of H_1150, H_1015, A_1, and A_3 were weakly negatively associated with in situ rumen degradation of CP. Spectral intensities of A_1240 and H_1240, mainly associated with cellulosic compounds, were correlated with rumen CP degradation. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the spectral intensities of A_3 and H_1415 played the most important role and could be used as a potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feeds in dairy cattle. In conclusion, this study showed that the carbohydrates as a whole have an effect on protein rumen degradation, rather than cellulose alone, indicating carbohydrate-protein matrix structure impact protein utilization in dairy cattle. The non-invasive molecular spectral technique (ATR-FT/IR) could be used as a rapid potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feedstuffs by using molecular spectral bands intensities in carbohydrate fingerprint region. PMID:24216152

  6. Digestive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven articles concern the digestive system cancer, mixing of images, toxicity of the chemoradiotherapy, comparison of dosimetry tools, pancreas cancer, rectum cancer, treated by chemoradiotherapy. (N.C.)

  7. Estrategias para mejorar los resultados academicos para las latinas (Strategies for Improving the Educational Outcomes of Latinas). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    The educational experiences of Latinas are affected by the interaction of many factors, including poverty, racism, sexual harassment, and lack of English language proficiency. This Spanish-language digest presents a range of strategies that schools can employ to promote the academic achievement of Latinas. Schools should communicate that Hispanic…

  8. Bayesian Proteoform Modeling Improves Protein Quantification of Global Proteomic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Datta, Susmita; Payne, Samuel H.; Kang, Jiyun; Bramer, Lisa M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Tardiff, Mark F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Pounds, Joel G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2014-12-01

    As the capability of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has matured, tens of thousands of peptides can be measured simultaneously, which has the benefit of offering a systems view of protein expression. However, a major challenge is that with an increase in throughput, protein quantification estimation from the native measured peptides has become a computational task. A limitation to existing computationally-driven protein quantification methods is that most ignore protein variation, such as alternate splicing of the RNA transcript and post-translational modifications or other possible proteoforms, which will affect a significant fraction of the proteome. The consequence of this assumption is that statistical inference at the protein level, and consequently downstream analyses, such as network and pathway modeling, have only limited power for biomarker discovery. Here, we describe a Bayesian model (BP-Quant) that uses statistically derived peptides signatures to identify peptides that are outside the dominant pattern, or the existence of multiple over-expressed patterns to improve relative protein abundance estimates. It is a research-driven approach that utilizes the objectives of the experiment, defined in the context of a standard statistical hypothesis, to identify a set of peptides exhibiting similar statistical behavior relating to a protein. This approach infers that changes in relative protein abundance can be used as a surrogate for changes in function, without necessarily taking into account the effect of differential post-translational modifications, processing, or splicing in altering protein function. We verify the approach using a dilution study from mouse plasma samples and demonstrate that BP-Quant achieves similar accuracy as the current state-of-the-art methods at proteoform identification with significantly better specificity. BP-Quant is available as a MatLab ® and R packages at https://github.com/PNNL-Comp-Mass-Spec/BP-Quant.

  9. Effect of exogenous cellulase enzyme on feed digestibility in lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous enzyme on digestibility and N retention in lamb. Eight lambs were randomly allocated to 2 experiment group in group comparison design trial. Experimental treatments were: 1) CTL (No enzyme) and 2 50NZ (Mixed enzyme with high cellulase at 50g/100kg.feed). The digestibility study showed that Exogenous enzyme increased (P<0.05) dry matter and crude protein digestibility of treated lamb compared to those of control. A similar trend (P=0.11) was observed for the NDF digestibility. Mean values for dry matter digestibility were 57.86 and 69.83% and for protein digestibility were 64.76 and 73.38%, for CTL and 50NZ, respectively). The N intake was similar among treatment, averaging 22.57g/head/day. Percent N retained of 50 NZ treated lambs was higher (P<.05) than those of CTL group (mean value were 47.74 and 59.07 for CTC and 50NZ, respectively). Feed efficiency or feed conversion ratio was numerically improved for enzyme-treated groups. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence that mixed cellulase enzyme can be used to improver performance of lambs as compare to non-enzyme diet.

  10. Characterization of quinoa seed proteome combining different protein precipitation techniques: Improvement of knowledge of nonmodel plant proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    A shotgun proteomics approach was used to characterize the quinoa seed proteome. To obtain comprehensive proteomic data from quinoa seeds three different precipitation procedures were employed: MeOH/CHCl3 /double-distilled H2 O, acetone either alone or with trichloroacetic acid; the isolated proteins were then in-solution digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. However, since quinoa is a nonmodel plant species, only a few protein sequences are included in the most widely known protein sequence databases. To improve the data reliability a UniProt subdatabase, containing only proteins of Caryophillales order, was used. A total of 352 proteins were identified and evaluated both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. This combined approach is certainly useful to increase the final number of identifications, but no particular class of proteins was extracted and identified in spite of the different chemistries and the different precipitation protocols. However, with respect to the other two procedures, from the relative quantitative analysis, based on the number of spectral counts, the trichloroacetic acid/acetone protocol was the best procedure for sample handling and quantitative protein extraction. This study could pave the way to further high-throughput studies on Chenopodium Quinoa. PMID:25580831

  11. Improving the Performance of an HMM for Protein Family Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hamza El-Sayed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hidden Markov model for protein modelling consists of sub-models for alpha-helix, beta-sheets, coil and possibly more. It is described how to estimate the model parameters as a whole from labeled sequences instead of estimating the parameters from the individual parts independently from subsequences. It is argued that the standard maximum likelihood ML estimation is not the optimal for training such model. In this study a new method is used where instead of estimating the parameters of model that maximizing the probability of the protein sequences (ML, we maximize the probability of the correct labels prediction, such a criterion is called conditional maximum likelihood CML. The advantage of this method is to optimize recognition of model. We tested our method on some of protein families such as L-asparagines, we noted that the performance of HMM is improved in prediction process.

  12. Seed protein improvement in wheat by mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several nutritional surveys conducted in different areas in Pakistan have shown the prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition, especially among young children. However, there is no evidence of overall deficiency of protein resources in the country on a national basis. The available data are entirely inadequate to draw a definite conclusion about the extent of malnutrition in the country, and to plan a strategy for improving the diet of vulnerable groups. The common meal of the low income groups consists of Dal-Roti, which is a spiced pulse soup and pan bread. It is therefore essential to improve the protein content of the pulses and wheat in order to overcome malnutrition. The average yield per acre of pulses in Pakistan is very low, and it is particularly important to evolve high yielding, improved grain quality varieties of the popular pulses which have been hitherto largely neglected. Studies on the improvement of various local and exotic varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mung (Phaseolus aureus), through induced mutation, have yielded several high yielding and high protein mutants. These mutant lines are being further investigated for the confirmation of their variant traits. Single plant selections of mung bean made from the M2 generation on the basis of their plant type, habit of growth, maturity time, grain yield and disease resistance are under critical observation. Other pulses, e.g. Cicer arietinum, Lens esculenta and Phaseolus mungo have also been included in the programme; however the breeding work on these crops is still in the preliminary stages. (author)

  13. Improving protein coreference resolution by simple semantic classification

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Ngan; Kim Jin-Dong; Miwa Makoto; Matsuzaki Takuya; Tsujii Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Current research has shown that major difficulties in event extraction for the biomedical domain are traceable to coreference. Therefore, coreference resolution is believed to be useful for improving event extraction. To address coreference resolution in molecular biology literature, the Protein Coreference (COREF) task was arranged in the BioNLP Shared Task (BioNLP-ST, hereafter) 2011, as a supporting task. However, the shared task results indicated that transferring core...

  14. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9±0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4±1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9±1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have the capability to digest and absorb the additional nutrients with a higher plane of nutrition during the first week of postnatal life. PMID:26723121

  15. Degradação ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína bruta de alimentos para bovinos / Rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in feeds for cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Inácio, Marcondes; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Edenio, Detmann; Rilene Ferreira Diniz, Valadares; Luiz Fernando Costa e, Silva; Mozart Alves, Fonseca.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com os objetivos de determinar as frações A e B e a taxa de degradação ruminal (Kd) da matéria seca (MS) e da proteína bruta (PB) de 27 alimentos e avaliar a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína nãodegradada no rúmen pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três está [...] gios. Os alimentos avaliados foram farelos de arroz, babaçu, gérmen de milho e trigo; milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, milho desintegrado com sabugo, milho, polpa cítrica, sorgo, amireia, farelos de algodão com 28, 38 e 46% de PB, farelos de amendoim, girassol e soja; feijão-bandinha, glúten de milho, grão de soja, levedura, promil, refinazil, cascas de cacau, café e soja e silagens de capim-elefante e milho. Para obtenção da degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB dos alimentos, utilizaram-se sacos de náilon de 10 × 20 cm e os tempos de incubação de 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 e 72 horas. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os dados de degradação ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína bruta, em sua maioria, estão de acordo com a literatura. A técnica dos três estágios não estimou de forma satisfatória a digestibilidade interstinal de todos os alimentos estudados em conjunto, mas foi adequada para os alimentos proteicos. A maioria dos alimentos possui aproximadamente 90% de digestibilidade da PB, com exceção das cascas de soja, café e cacau e das silagens de milho e capimelefante. A técnica de três estágios estimou corretamente a digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos proteicos, mas recomenda-se a utilização da equação DIPB (%) = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X para corrigir a digestibilidade obtida pela técnica dos três estágios para alimentos não-proteicos. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to determine the A and B fractions and the rumen degradation rate (Kd) of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) in 27 feeds and determine the intestinal digestibility of non-degraded rumen protein by the three steps and mobile nylon bag techniques. Rice meal, [...] babassu meal, wheat and corn germ, ground corn cobs and straw, ground corn cobs, corn, citrus pulp, sorghum, starea and cottonseed meal with 28, 38 and 46% CP, peanut meal, sunflower meal, soybean meal, bean byproduct, corn gluten, soybean grain, dry yeast, corn gluten meal, cacao hulls, coffee hulls, soybean hulls, elephant-grass silage and corn silage were sampled. To obtain the ruminal degradation of DM and CP, 10 × 20 cm nylon bags with incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours were used. The intestinal digestibility was determined by the three steps and the mobile nylon bag techniques. The ruminal degradation data of the dry matter and crude protein were similar to the literature. The three step technique did not estimate properly the intestinal digestibility of all the feeds evaluated, excepted for the protein feeds. Most feeds had total CP digestibility close to 90%, excepted for soybean, coffee and cacao hulls and elephant-grass and corn silage. The three step technique correctly estimated the intestinal digestibility of the protein feeds, but the equation IDCP (%) = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X is recommended to correct the digestibility obtained by the three steps technique for non-protein feeds.

  16. The Effect of Soybean Hulls Substitution Levels to Corn in The Ration on Energy and Protein Digestibility and on Sheep Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Iriyanti

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean hulls levels substitution in to corn as ration in twenty seven rams. The animal had a mean of live weight of 12.86 ± 1.94 kg. Levels of substitution were 0, 50, and 100% or 0, 25, and 50% ration dry matter basis and rations were iso-nitrogeneous. Analysis of variance were conducted for completely randomized design and polynomial orthogonal test were applied for the statistical analysis. Inclusion of soybean hulls in 50% ration dry matter had no effect on daily gain (99.71 ± 22.97 g, and digestible crude protein (62.43 ± 6.56 %. However, dry matter consumption tended to increase linearly and as soybean hulls level increase in the ration (P<0.01. The digestible energy significantly decrease linearly (P<0.01, whereas intake of the energy had same was 1.27 ± 0.33, 1.44 ± 0.17, and 1.23 ± 0.19 Mcal/day for ration containing 0, 25, 50% of soybean hulls, respectively. It was concluded that the soybean hulls may be substituted for corn. (Animal Production 2(2: 98-103 (2000 Key words : soybean hulls, corn, digestibility, daily gain.

  17. Ammonia treatment of wheat straw. 2. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial protein pool size and turnover, and small intestinal protein digestion in sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Oosting, S.J.; Viets, T.C.; Lammers-Wienhoven, S.C.W.; Van Bruchem, J

    1993-01-01

    Ammonia-treated wheat straw (AWS) was compared with untreated wheat straw (UWS) and untreated wheat straw supplemented with urea (SWS) in an experiment with 6 wether sheep. Microbial protein synthesis increased after ammonia treatment due to the higher intake of rumen degradable organic matter (OM). The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was low for all diets, averaging 22.1 g N/kg apparently rumen degradable OM and was not significantly affected by ammonia treatment. Estimates of micr...

  18. A flexible protein linker improves the function of epitope-tagged proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Sabourin, Michelle; Tuzon, Creighton T; Fisher, Timothy S.; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2007-01-01

    Epitope tagging permits the detection of proteins when protein-specific antibodies are not available. However, the epitope tag can reduce the function of the tagged protein. Here we describe a cassette that can be used to introduce an eight amino acid flexible linker between multiple Myc epitopes and the open reading frame of a given gene. We show that inserting the linker improves the in vivo ability of the telomerase subunits Est2p and Est1p to maintain telomere length. The methods used her...

  19. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, P.J., van der; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vitro method that mimics digestive processes in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. An experiment was designed to use this method for predicting site, rate and extent of starch digestion i...

  20. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to improve recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Feng, Xinjun; Ding, Yamei; Zhao, Guang; Liu, Huizhou; Xian, Mo

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most widely used strains for recombinant protein production. However, obstacles also exist in both academic researches and industrial applications, such as the metabolic burden, the carbon source waste, and the cells' physiological deterioration. This article reviews recent approaches for improving recombinant protein production in metabolic engineering, including workhorse selection, stress factor application, and carbon flux regulation. Selecting a suitable host is the first key point for recombinant protein production. In general, it all depends on characteristics of the strains and the target proteins. It will be triggered cells physiological deterioration when the medium is significantly different from the cell's natural environment. Coexpression of stress factors can help proteins to fold into their native conformation. Carbon flux regulation is a direct approach for redirecting more carbon flux toward the desirable pathways and products. However, some undesirable consequences are usually found in metabolic engineering, such as glucose transport inhibition, cell growth retardation, and useless metabolite accumulation. More efficient regulators and platform cell factories should be explored to meet a variety of production demands. PMID:26399416

  1. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable protein in diets of Holstein cows: 1. Feed intake, digestibility and milk production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Afzalzadeh; H., Rafiee; A.A., Khadem; A., Asadi.

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) on lactation responses, digestion and dry matter intake (DMI), nine multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows, averaging 171 ± 17 days in milk and 24.1 ± 3.3 kg of milk/d were assigned to a 3 [...] × 3 Latin square design. The total mixed rations (TMR) included 45% forage on a dry matter (DM) basis and 55% concentrates. The RDP (g/kg of DM) and NFC : RDP ratios of diets were respectively: 1) 98 and 4.10 (LRDP), 2) 108 and 3.71 (MRDP), 3) 118 and 3.34 (HRDP). Ratios were achieved through altering the RDP content of the diets while the NFC was held constant at 401 g/kg of DM. Urea was supplemented as a source of RDP to decrease the ratio. DMI and organic matter intake (OMI) were affected by treatment and tended to decrease linearly from LRDP to HRDP. Crude protein intake (CPI) increased linearly as the amount of RDP in the diets increased. Apparent organic matter digestion in the total tract decreased significantly in the HRDP diet. Percentage of protein and solid non-fat (SNF) and concentration of milk urea-nitrogen (MUN) in milk increased linearly when cows were fed diets with the higher amounts of RDP. Results showed that low producing cows are less likely to respond to altering NFC : RDP ratios than high producing cows, but digestibility in the MRDP treatment was higher and RDP level equal to 108 (g/kg of DM). A NFC : RDP ratio equal to 3.71 was useful and recommendable for mid-lactation dairy cow.

  2. Improving digestive utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs in pigs and poultry by processing and enzyme technologies: A review

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, S; Pustjens, A.M.; Schols, H.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing technologies, whether or not combined with cell wall degrading enzymes, on the physicochemical properties of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and the resulting effects on NSP degradation in both pigs and poultry were reviewed. Evaluation of the effects of processing technologies on digestion of NSP is hampered by the potential shift of polysaccharides recovered in the fiber fractions of common, gravimetric, fiber analysis methods. Results from in vivo studies describ...

  3. Breeding for improved plant architecture and high protein yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been increasingly recognized that the problem of protein malnutrition in many developing countries is closely correlated with inadequate intake of calories. Breeding for higher grain yields, therefore, continues to be a major objective of agricultural research in these countries. It follows that studies on nutritional improvement of foodgrains must also be planned with the objective of harvesting more protein per hectare combined with high grain yields. As far as cereal crops like wheat and rice are concerned, significant advances have been made in recent years in developing high yielding cultivars, which show an improved plant type marked by resistance to lodging and a high harvest index. Experimental approaches that can be used to increase the protein content of grains in these varieties are reviewed. The position in the case of grain legumes is quite different. The foremost requirement in their case is to develop high-yielding varieties similar to those of the cereal crops and the possibilities that exist in this regard are very great. The concept of improved plant type is even more relevant for increasing their yields. The existing cultivars of these crops have been selected more for adaptation to stress conditions rather than for high yields and in this process they have acquired a bushy, spreading and indeterminate growth habit combined with late maturity. A major requirement is to reconstruct the plant type to improve the grain-straw ratio, generate response to higher plant populations per unit area, and to fit these crops into multiple and inter-cropping patterns. Using these concepts it has been possible to evolve new ideotypes and improve the yields of several species of grain legumes both through hybridization and induced mutations. Some of these results are reviewed. (author)

  4. An improved method for scoring protein-protein interactions using semantic similarity within the gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Shobhit

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semantic similarity measures are useful to assess the physiological relevance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs. They quantify similarity between proteins based on their function using annotation systems like the Gene Ontology (GO. Proteins that interact in the cell are likely to be in similar locations or involved in similar biological processes compared to proteins that do not interact. Thus the more semantically similar the gene function annotations are among the interacting proteins, more likely the interaction is physiologically relevant. However, most semantic similarity measures used for PPI confidence assessment do not consider the unequal depth of term hierarchies in different classes of cellular location, molecular function, and biological process ontologies of GO and thus may over-or under-estimate similarity. Results We describe an improved algorithm, Topological Clustering Semantic Similarity (TCSS, to compute semantic similarity between GO terms annotated to proteins in interaction datasets. Our algorithm, considers unequal depth of biological knowledge representation in different branches of the GO graph. The central idea is to divide the GO graph into sub-graphs and score PPIs higher if participating proteins belong to the same sub-graph as compared to if they belong to different sub-graphs. Conclusions The TCSS algorithm performs better than other semantic similarity measurement techniques that we evaluated in terms of their performance on distinguishing true from false protein interactions, and correlation with gene expression and protein families. We show an average improvement of 4.6 times the F1 score over Resnik, the next best method, on our Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPI dataset and 2 times on our Homo sapiens PPI dataset using cellular component, biological process and molecular function GO annotations.

  5. Effect of low-protein diets and single sex on production performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and nitrogen excretion in 1- to 48-day-old broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; López, M; Martínez, S; Megías, M D; Catalá, P; Madrid, J

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of low-CP diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids, according to an ideal amino acid ratio, on the performance, plasma metabolites, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and water intake in male and female chickens from 1 to 48 d of age using a 4-phase feeding program: prestarter (1-7 d), starter (8-21 d), grower (22-35 d), and finisher (36-48 d). Three experimental diets were formulated for each phase: a control diet with a CP level of 24.5, 23.0, 21.5, and 20.5%, respectively, and medium- and low-CP diets containing 1.5 and 3% less than that of the control, respectively, but the same ME and digestible lysine levels. In experiment 1, in males, the reduction in dietary protein content by 3% increased the feed conversion ratio (P protein content linearly decreased water consumption in both sexes (P protein by 1.5 or 3% reduced nitrogen excretion to the environment by 9.5 and 17% in males and by 11.8 and 14.6% in females, respectively. In summary, the low-CP 4-phase feeding reduced water intake and nitrogen excretion with an adverse effect on the feed conversion ratio in males but not in females. So, single-sex rearing could be used to reduce the environmental impact of chicken farms. PMID:22334744

  6. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed proteins are providing the basis for future plant breeding strategies. The Symposium concluded with reviews of the possible use of cell cultures and genetic transformations for seed protein improvement and a consideration of prospects for future developments of food and feed materials. Increased scientific knowledge and the application of molecular biology and genetic engineering techniques will have an undoubted influence upon the course and speed of future progress. However, the solution of the immediate nutritional problems of the poor and the hungry is very much dependent upon the vigorous and intelligent application of existing knowledge and techniques to produce and promote the use of plant genotypes with improved nutritional value. Until there is a market value for nutritional quality such varieties will have to be at least equal in yield and all other characteristics to the varieties commonly grown. (author)

  7. Bile Salt–Stimulated Lipase and Pancreatic Lipase-Related Protein 2 Are the Dominating Lipases in Neonatal Fat Digestion in Mice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaonan; Lindquist, Susanne; Lowe, Mark; NOPPA, LAILA; Hernell, Olle

    2007-01-01

    During infancy, the basic conditions for digestion of dietary fat differ from later in life. The bile salt–stimulated lipase (BSSL) is an enzyme expressed in the exocrine pancreas and in some species (including human) also in the lactating mammary gland and secreted with the milk. The aim of this study was to compare the ontogeny of four pancreatic lipases [BSSL, pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PL), pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2)] in one species that ...

  8. EFFECT OF VARIOUS NON PROTEIN NITROGEN SOURCES ON IN VITRO DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITY, AMMONIA PRODUCTION, MICROBIAL GROWTH AND pH CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. ALI, T. KHALIQ1, M. SARWAR, A. JAVAID, M. A. SHAHZAD, M. NISA AND S. ZAKIR2

    2008-01-01

    Four slow releasing non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources viz. urea-straw (US), urea-starch (UST), biuret-straw (BS) and biuret-starch (BST) were compared with cotton seed meal (CSM) as control nitrogen source. In all experiments, 2% nitrogen level on DM basis in contents of each fermentation flask were maintained through replacing 30, 50 and 70% of CSM by respective NPN source. Four in vitro experiments were `conducted to see the effects of various NPN sources on dry matter digestibility (DMD),...

  9. Intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silage with additives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emilyn Midori, Maeda; Lucia Maria, Zeoula; Clóves Cabreira, Jobim; Ulysses, Cecato; Luiz Paulo, Rigolon; Ricardo, Kazama; Guido, Jacobi; Acir Felipe Grolli, Carvalho.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intake and total and ruminal digestibility, ruminal characteristics and microbial synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silages treated with microbial additive Lactobacillus buchneri (inoculate) and the addition of: cassava byproduct meal at 250 g/kg; soybean hulls at 250 g/kg; [...] and urea at 33 g/kg, in natural matter were evaluated. The forage:concentrate ratio was 600:400 g/kg. Bubaline body weight (BW) was 403±49 kg and bovine BW was 492±10 kg. The experimental design consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The average DM intake did not differ between species, and the diet with urea showed lowest intake (13 g/kg BW). Among the diets, the one with soybean hulls addition increased the total digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), while addition of urea reduced the DM, OM and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) total digestibility in both species. Bovines have higher ruminal digestibility of NFC in the diet with addition of inoculate, inoculate + soybean meal and inoculate + urea diets than bubaline. Ruminal liquid pH was higher for bubaline (6.61) than bovines (6.48). Diets with addition of cassava byproduct and soybean hulls presented higher ruminal short chain fatty acids concentrations. Ruminal ammonia concentration (N-NH3) did not differ between species and the treatment with urea presented the highest value of N-NH3 (17.25 mg/100 mL). Liquid passage rate was higher for bubaline (12.9%/h) than bovines (9.9%/h). Bubaline has higher microbial synthesis efficiency than bovine: 35.1 vs 24.6 g of N-microbial/kg OM of the total rumen digestibility, regardless of the diet.

  10. Intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silage with additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilyn Midori Maeda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intake and total and ruminal digestibility, ruminal characteristics and microbial synthesis efficiency in bovine and bubaline fed sugar cane silages treated with microbial additive Lactobacillus buchneri (inoculate and the addition of: cassava byproduct meal at 250 g/kg; soybean hulls at 250 g/kg; and urea at 33 g/kg, in natural matter were evaluated. The forage:concentrate ratio was 600:400 g/kg. Bubaline body weight (BW was 403±49 kg and bovine BW was 492±10 kg. The experimental design consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The average DM intake did not differ between species, and the diet with urea showed lowest intake (13 g/kg BW. Among the diets, the one with soybean hulls addition increased the total digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, while addition of urea reduced the DM, OM and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC total digestibility in both species. Bovines have higher ruminal digestibility of NFC in the diet with addition of inoculate, inoculate + soybean meal and inoculate + urea diets than bubaline. Ruminal liquid pH was higher for bubaline (6.61 than bovines (6.48. Diets with addition of cassava byproduct and soybean hulls presented higher ruminal short chain fatty acids concentrations. Ruminal ammonia concentration (N-NH3 did not differ between species and the treatment with urea presented the highest value of N-NH3 (17.25 mg/100 mL. Liquid passage rate was higher for bubaline (12.9%/h than bovines (9.9%/h. Bubaline has higher microbial synthesis efficiency than bovine: 35.1 vs 24.6 g of N-microbial/kg OM of the total rumen digestibility, regardless of the diet.

  11. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, leading to the conclusion, that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  12. Protein depth calculation and the use for improving accuracy of protein fold recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Protein structure and function are largely specified by the distribution of different atoms and residues relative to the core and surface of the molecule. Relative depths of atoms therefore are key attributions that have been widely used in protein structure modeling and function annotation. However, accurate calculation of depth is time consuming. Here, we developed an algorithm which uses Euclidean distance transform (EDT) to convert the target protein structure into a 3D gray-scale image, where depths of atoms in the protein can be conveniently and precisely derived from the minimum distance of the pixels to the surface of the protein. We tested the proposed EDT-based method on a set of 261 non-redundant protein structures, which shows that the method is 2.6 times faster than the widely used method proposed by Chakravarty and Varadarajan. Depth values by EDT method are highly accurate with a Pearson's correlation coefficient ?1 compared to the calculations from exhaustive search. To explore the usefulness of the method in protein structure prediction, we add the calculated residue depth to the scoring function of the state of the art, profile-profile alignment based fold-recognition program, which shows an additional 3% improvement in the TM-score of the alignments. The data demonstrate that the EDT-based depth calculation program can be used as an efficient tool to assist protein structure analysis and structure-based function annotation. PMID:23992298

  13. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BangsØ Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria of the genus Caldicellusiruptor and Dictyoglomus. In a reactor experiment inoculation of a 68°C pretreatment reactor with Caldicellusiruptor resulted in a 93% increase in the methane yield of the pre-treatment reactor for a period of 18 days, but gave only a slight increase in the overall methane yield of the two-stage setup.

  14. Improving classification in protein structure databases using text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones David T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classification of protein domains in the CATH resource is primarily based on structural comparisons, sequence similarity and manual analysis. One of the main bottlenecks in the processing of new entries is the evaluation of 'borderline' cases by human curators with reference to the literature, and better tools for helping both expert and non-expert users quickly identify relevant functional information from text are urgently needed. A text based method for protein classification is presented, which complements the existing sequence and structure-based approaches, especially in cases exhibiting low similarity to existing members and requiring manual intervention. The method is based on the assumption that textual similarity between sets of documents relating to proteins reflects biological function similarities and can be exploited to make classification decisions. Results An optimal strategy for the text comparisons was identified by using an established gold standard enzyme dataset. Filtering of the abstracts using a machine learning approach to discriminate sentences containing functional, structural and classification information that are relevant to the protein classification task improved performance. Testing this classification scheme on a dataset of 'borderline' protein domains that lack significant sequence or structure similarity to classified proteins showed that although, as expected, the structural similarity classifiers perform better on average, there is a significant benefit in incorporating text similarity in logistic regression models, indicating significant orthogonality in this additional information. Coverage was significantly increased especially at low error rates, which is important for routine classification tasks: 15.3% for the combined structure and text classifier compared to 10% for the structural classifier alone, at 10-3 error rate. Finally when only the highest scoring predictions were used to infer classification, an extra 4.2% of correct decisions were made by the combined classifier. Conclusion We have described a simple text based method to classify protein domains that demonstrates an improvement over existing methods. The method is unique in incorporating structural and text based classifiers directly and is particularly useful in cases where inconclusive evidence from sequence or structure similarity requires laborious manual classification.

  15. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by trace metal elements supplementation and reduced metals dosage by green chelating agent [S, S]-EDDS via improving metals bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of trace metals on methane production from food waste and examining the feasibility of reducing metals dosage by ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) via improving metals bioavailability. The results indicated that the effects of metal elements highly depended on the supplemental concentrations. Trace metals supplemented under moderate concentrations greatly enhanced the methane yield. However, the excessive supplementation of Fe (1000 mg/L) and Ni (50 mg/L) exhibited the obvious toxicity to methanogens. The combinations of trace metals exhibited remarkable synergistic effects. The supplementation of Fe (100 mg/L) + Co (1 mg/L) + Mo (5 mg/L) + Ni (5 mg/L) obtained the greatest methane yield of 504 mL/g VSadded and the highest increment of 35.5% compared to the reactor without metals supplementation (372 mL/g VSadded). The changes of metals speciation showed the reduction of metals bioavailability during anaerobic digestion, which might weaken the stimulative effects of trace metals. However, the addition of EDDS improved metals bioavailability for microbial uptake and stimulated the activity of methanogens, and therefore, strengthened the stimulative effects of metals on anaerobic digestion of food waste. The batch and semi-continuous experiments confirmed that the addition of EDDS (20 mg/L) bonded to trace metals prior to their supplementation could obtain a 50% reduction of optimal metals dosage. This study provided a feasible method to reduce trace metals dosage without the degeneration of process performance of anaerobic digestion. PMID:26253897

  16. VOLUNTARY INTAKE, APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY AND DIGESTA KINETICS OF THREE PROTEIN-LEVEL FORAGES FED TO SHEEP CONSUMO VOLUNTÁRIO, DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE E CINÉTICA DIGESTIVA DE TRÊS FORRAGEIRAS EM OVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibe Luiz Abdalla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the voluntary intake, apparent digestibility and digesta kinetics of three protein-level forages fed to Santa Inês sheep. Six sheep (LW = 40 ± 5.7 kg fitted with rumen cannulas were used. Lucerne (LUC, signalgrass (SIG and Tifton-85 grass (TIF hays were chosen due to their crude protein (CP content (respectively, 191, 29 and 75 g kg-1 DM. Treatments and animals were fitted in a double Latin square (3 treatments, 3 periods, 6 animals. To measure the voluntary intake, animals were kept in individual stall with free access to water and food, during the first phase of each period. The feed consisted exclusively of LUC, SIG or TIF and mineral supplementation. Apparent digestibility was determined by total faeces collection. Digesta kinetics was estimated using Co-EDTA and Cr mordant fibre as markers to liquid and solid phases, respectively. Means were compared by Tukey test. Dry matter voluntary intake of treatment LUC was higher (P < 0.05 than treatments SIG and TIF and it reflected the strong relationship between intake and protein content in the diet. Dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficients were superior (P < 0.05 for LUC. Crude protein apparent digestibility showed differences (P < 0.05 between the three treatments, being LUC (0.694 the highest observed followed by TIF (0.500. Crude protein apparent digestibility of SIG was practically null (0.001, indicating intense protein deficit. Dry matter voluntary intake and digestibility of tested feeds were influenced by chemical composition and digestion kinetics. Low protein feeds had a prejudicial effect in nutrient apparent digestibi-lity, decreasing until nullity for protein of treatment SIG.

    Key-words: Lucerne, marker, nutrition, ruminant, signalgrass, Tifton.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo voluntário, a digestibilidade aparente e a cinética diges-tiva de três forragens, com teores protéicos distintos, em ovinos. Utilizaram-se  seis ovinos da raça Santa Inês (PV = 40 ± 5,7 kg, machos adultos, castrados e providos de cânulas ruminais. Optou-se pelo uso de fenos de alfafa (ALF, de braquiária (BRA e de capim Tifton-85 (TIF pelos seus teores de proteína bruta (PB, respectivamente, 191, 29 e 75 g kg-1 MS. Alocaram-se os tratamentos e os animais em delineamento de dois quadrados latinos (três tratamentos, três períodos e seis animais. As dietas consistiam exclusivamente de ALF, BRA ou TIF e mistura mineral, oferecida separadamente. O ensaio de consumo voluntário foi realizado em baias individuais e os de digestibilidade e cinética digestiva, em gaiolas de metabolismo. Determinou-se a digestibilidade aparente por coleta total de fezes. Estimou-se a cinética digestiva mediante o uso de Co-EDTA e fibra Cr-mordantada como marcadores das fases líquida e sólida, respectivamente. Compararam-se as médias por teste de Tukey. O consumo voluntário de MS do tratamento ALF foi maior (P < 0,05 que os tratamentos BRA e TIF, o que refletiu a forte relação entre consumo e teor de proteína na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS e da MO também foram superiores (P < 0,05 para ALF. A digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta mostrou diferenças (P < 0,05 entre os três tratamentos, sendo ALF (0,694 a mais alta que se observou, seguida por TIF (0,500. Para o tratamento BRA, essa variável foi praticamente nula (0,001, indicando déficit protéico intenso. O consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente dos alimentos testados receberam influência da composição química e da cinética digestiva. Alimentos com baixo teor protéico prejudicaram a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes, diminuindo, próximo à nulidade, para a proteína do tratamento BRA.

    Palavras-chaves:  Alfafa, braquiária, marcadores, nutrição, ruminantes, Tifton.

  17. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  18. Bulgur processes increase nutrition value: possible role in in-vitro protein digestability, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor activity and mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erta?, Nilgün; Türker, Selman

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the chemical constituents and nutritive quality of chickpea bulgur process, were studied in seeds that were soaked at different time (2, 8 and 12 h), different soaking water pH (pH 4, 6 and 8). Soaking in pH 8 soaking water and 12 h soaking time significantly (p?bulgur samples. Compared to the raw material, the protein content and in-vitro protein digestibility increased, but starch, crude fiber, fat and energy values decreased and trypsin inhibitor activity was completely eliminated by bulgur process. As the soaking time increased, the phytic acid content also decreased. The highest total phenolic content was determinated with bulgur samples soaked in pH 4 soaking water. The P, Ca, and K values decreased with increasing soaking time. The HCl-extractability of P, Ca, Mg, Fe and K present in chickpea bulgur samples were significantly higher than the raw chickpea seeds. PMID:24966437

  19. Fermentation of Sugarcane Sludge to Improve Dry- and and Organic Matters Digestibility and Rumen Parameters In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Widodo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the utilization of fungi and yeast on sugarcane sludge fermentation. The treatments of the first experiment were P0= sugarcane sludge without fermentation; P1= fermentation by Saccharomyces cereviceae; P2 = fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae; P3 = fermentation by Aspergillus niger; P4= fermentation by Rhizopus orryzae. Treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomised Design. The treatments of the second experiments were R0 = basic rations, R1 = R0 + 5% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R2 = R0 + 10% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R3 = R0 + 15% fermented of sugarcane sludge, R4 = R0 + 20% fermented of sugarcane sludge. Treatments have significant effects (P<0.05 on VFA and NH3 parameters. Based on these parameters, fermentation of sugarcane sludge using Saccharomyces cereviceae had better results compared to others. The treatments had significant effect (P<0.05 on NH3, and based on polynomial orthogonal test the treatments had linear curve of Y= 4,035 +0,237X. However, treatments had no significant effects on VFA and organic matters digestibility. The dry matters digestibility parameters were significantly affected (P<0.05, and the curve response was linear with equation of Y=45,964 - 0,294X. (Animal Production 10(1: 30-33 (2008 Key Words: Sugarcane sludge processing, fungi, yeast, in vitro

  20. Biogas production improvement and C/N control by natural clinoptilolite addition into anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lieyu; Xi, Beidou; Sun, Wenjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Zhu, Chaowei; He, Xiaosong; Li, Mingxiao; Yang, Tianxue; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhonglei

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (A co-D) performance of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste with addition of clinoptilolite (one main kind of zeolite) was investigated to evaluate the improvement of biogas/methane production and internal mechanism of nitrogen and organics control. A better biogas/methane production was observed by 10% clinoptilolite (v/v) than bentonite and diatomite, with the shortest lag phase of 0.070d(-1), the max rate of 15.89L/(kgVSday) and ultimate biogas production of 308.2L/kgVS as the modified Gompertz equation predicted. Accordingly, the content of methane in the biogas was increased from 44.10% to 65.30%. Furthermore, the clinoptilolite inhibited the acidification of digestion liquid (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and enhanced the VFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) destruction. Moreover, 10% of clinoptilolite optimally enhanced the microbial utilization of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), controlled the C/N ratio, and improved the biogas production as well as NH3-N/NO3-N inhibition efficiency. PMID:25603527

  1. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  2. Use of the mobile nylon bag technique for determination of apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U

    2011-01-01

    Three digestibility experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of determination of apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) by the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) using 21 feedstuffs and three mixed diets. In two conventional digestibility experiments (Exp. 1 and 2), AID were determined using in total 10 barrows (BW 35 kg) fitted with simple T-cannulas at the terminal ileum. For the MNBT studies, four pigs were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the proximal duodenum and a Post-Valve T-Caecum (PVTC) cannula at the terminal ileum. The MNBT studies included the feedstuffs (n = 10) from Exp. 1 and 2 as well as 14 further feedstuffs and mixed diets in which AID coefficients had been determined in previous trials. For each feedstuff 60 nylon bags were used. In vitro digestion of the bags was carried out in pepsin-HCl solution with 450 IU pepsin/l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from the nylon bags during the in vitro and in vivo phase. In comparison with AID determined by the conventional method, AID of CP was on average 2.4% lower, whereas AID of lysine was on average 8.5% higher when determined by the MNBT. There was no significant (P > 0.05) correlation between AID coefficients of CP and AA determined by the conventional method and the MNBT, when all feedstuffs were taken into account. However, in cereals (n = 11), the correlation between AID coefficients determined by both methods was significant (P < 0.05) for CP (r = 0.61) and some AA (r ranging between 0.62 and 0.72). In conclusion, the potential of the MNBT to determine AID of CP and AA is rather limited. Differences in coefficients of AID of CP and AA were attributed to several factors such as diffusion of sample particles or endogenous protein through the nylon bags as well as to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (e.g. in legume seeds and oilseed meals).

  3. Using support vector machine for improving protein-protein interaction prediction utilizing domain interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, Mudita; Shah, Anuj R.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2010-10-02

    Understanding protein interactions is essential to gain insights into the biological processes at the whole cell level. The high-throughput experimental techniques for determining protein-protein interactions (PPI) are error prone and expensive with low overlap amongst them. Although several computational methods have been proposed for predicting protein interactions there is definite room for improvement. Here we present DomainSVM, a predictive method for PPI that uses computationally inferred domain-domain interaction values in a Support Vector Machine framework to predict protein interactions. DomainSVM method utilizes evidence of multiple interacting domains to predict a protein interaction. It outperforms existing methods of PPI prediction by achieving very high explanation ratios, precision, specificity, sensitivity and F-measure values in a 10 fold cross-validation study conducted on the positive and negative PPIs in yeast. A Functional comparison study using GO annotations on the positive and the negative test sets is presented in addition to discussing novel PPI predictions in Salmonella Typhimurium.

  4. Effects of duration of moderate increases in grain feeding on endotoxins in the digestive tract and acute phase proteins in peripheral blood of yearling calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaizier, J C; Li, S; Le Sciellour, M; Schurmann, B L; Górka, P; Penner, G B

    2014-11-01

    Effects of duration of grain feeding on the concentration of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in digesta throughout the digestive tract and on acute phase proteins and LPS in peripheral blood were determined in Holstein yearling calves. Twenty-five Holstein yearling steer calves received either a forage-based diet containing 92% hay and 8% of a mineral and vitamin pellet on a dry matter basis (CON) or a moderate-grain diet, obtained by replacing 41.5% of the hay in the forage-based diet with barley grain, for 3 (MG3), 7 (MG7), 14 (MG14), or 21 d (MG21) before slaughter. Immediately before slaughter, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Immediately after slaughter, digesta samples were collected from the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum. Rumen liquid digesta, digesta from the intestines, and peripheral blood plasma were analyzed for LPS. Peripheral blood plasma and serum were analyzed for the acute phase proteins amyloid A, haptoglobin, and LPS-binding protein. Feeding the grain diet increased the LPS concentration in rumen fluid linearly from 15,488 endotoxin units (EU)/mL for CON to 70,146 EU/mL for MG7. Concentrations of LPS in rumen fluid in MG14 and MG21 were 61,944 and 56,234 EU/mL, respectively, and did not differ. The LPS concentrations in jejunal digesta were much lower than that in digesta elsewhere in the digestive tract, which suggests that ruminal LPS is broken down in the abomasum or proximal jejunum. The concentration of digesta LPS in the ileum was higher than that of digesta elsewhere in the intestines and similar to that in rumen fluid. The duration of grain feeding increased the LPS concentration in digesta in the ileum and cecum and tended to increase that in the colon cubically. Concentrations of LPS in this part of the digestive tract were highest in the MG3 and MG21 groups. The highest concentrations of LPS in digesta in the cecum, colon, and rectum were 3.7, 3.8, and 5.6 times higher than that in CON, respectively. Grain feeding and the increase in LPS in digesta were not accompanied by an acute phase response or a detectable concentration of LPS in peripheral blood. The absence of LPS in peripheral blood and the lack of increase in acute phase proteins indicated that the grain feeding protocol used in the current study and the accompanying changes in LPS concentrations of the digesta did not result in systemic inflammation. PMID:25242427

  5. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Pprotein content. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (Pprotein secondary structure makeup. All processing applications increased ?-helix:?-sheet ratio, with the largest (Pprotein within the green (r=-0. 86) and yellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas. PMID:26188704

  6. Direct Analysis of Reversed-Phase HPTLC Separated Tryptic Protein Digests using a Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe/ESI-MS System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emory, Joshua F [ORNL; Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Minarik, susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

    2010-01-01

    The sampling, ionization and detection of tryptic peptides separated in one-dimension on reversed phase HPTLC plates was performed using liquid microjunction surface sampling probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Tryptic digests of five proteins (cytochrome c., myoglobin, beta-casein, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin) were spotted on reversed phase HPTLC RP-8 F254s and HPTLC RP-18 F254s plates. The plates were then developed using 70/30 methanol/water with 0.1 M ammonium acetate. A dual purpose extraction/electrospray solution containing 70/30/0.1 water/methanol/formic acid was infused through the sampling probe during analysis of the developed lanes. Both full scan mass spectra and data dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired for each development lane to detect and verify the peptide distributions. Data dependent tandem mass spectra provided both protein identification and sequence coverage information. Highest sequence coverages were achieved for cytochrome c. and myoglobin (62.5% and 58.3%, respectively) on reversed phase RP-8 plates. While the tryptic peptides were separated enough for identification, the peptide bands did show some overlap with most peptides located in the lower half of the development lane. Proteins whose peptides were more separated gave higher sequence coverage. Larger proteins such as beta-casein and BSA which were spotted in lower relative amounts gave much lower sequence coverage than the smaller proteins.

  7. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production. PMID:26897414

  8. EFECTO DEL SEXO DE LA RATA (Sprague Dawley SOBRE LA DIGESTIBILIDAD Y RAZÓN NETA DE PROTEÍNA EN ALIMENTOS DE DISTINTA CALIDAD PROTEICA EFFECT OF RAT (Sprague Dawley SEX ON DIGESTIBILITY AND NET PROTEIN RATIO IN FOODS OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Falcón-Villa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del agrupamiento por sexo de las ratas Sprague Dawley fue evaluada al determinar la calidad proteica en tres alimentos. Los bioensayos realizados fueron digestibilidad de materia seca (DMsec, digestibilidad de nitrógeno aparente y verdadera (DNap y DNver y razón neta de proteína (NPR. Las muestras empleadas fueron alimentos de distinta calidad proteica: leche en polvo, soya texturizada y cereal, obtenidas del comercio local y caseína como control. Se utilizó un diseño experimental por grupos: mixto, hembras y machos. Se colectaron datos cada tercer día: alimento consumido, el total de heces y el incremento en peso de cada individuo. Se concluye de manera general, que el agrupamiento por sexo de la rata no tiene efecto significativo sobre la respuesta de estos bioensayos evaluados en los alimentos probados, a excepción del cereal que presentó diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro de DNver, sugiriendo que es factible utilizar ratas de diferente sexo en estas evaluaciones de calidad proteicaThe effect of grouping by sex Sprague Dawley rats on protein quality evaluation of three foods was studied. Bioassays performed were dry matter digestibility (DMD, apparent and true nitrogen digestibility (AND y TND and net protein ratio (NPR. Foods of different protein quality used were dry whole milk, texturized soybean and high fiber breakfast cereal obtained from the local market. Casein was used as control. An experimental block design where the blocks were the groups of rats classified as mixed, female and male was used. Data of consumed diet, total feces and weight gain of each rat was recorded every third day. It was concluded that with the exception of the high fiber breakfast cereal, which showed significant differences between males and females in the true nitrogen digestibility parameter, in general grouping by sex did not have a significant effect on dry matter, AND, TND and NPR responses. These results suggest the possibility of using rats from either sex in these protein quality evaluation tests

  9. EFECTO DEL SEXO DE LA RATA (Sprague Dawley) SOBRE LA DIGESTIBILIDAD Y RAZÓN NETA DE PROTEÍNA EN ALIMENTOS DE DISTINTA CALIDAD PROTEICA / EFFECT OF RAT (Sprague Dawley) SEX ON DIGESTIBILITY AND NET PROTEIN RATIO IN FOODS OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN QUALITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María del Refugio, Falcón-Villa; Grelda Acela, Yáñez-Farías; Jesús Manuel, Barrón-Hoyos.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del agrupamiento por sexo de las ratas Sprague Dawley fue evaluada al determinar la calidad proteica en tres alimentos. Los bioensayos realizados fueron digestibilidad de materia seca (DMsec), digestibilidad de nitrógeno aparente y verdadera (DNap y DNver) y razón neta de proteína (NPR [...] ). Las muestras empleadas fueron alimentos de distinta calidad proteica: leche en polvo, soya texturizada y cereal, obtenidas del comercio local y caseína como control. Se utilizó un diseño experimental por grupos: mixto, hembras y machos. Se colectaron datos cada tercer día: alimento consumido, el total de heces y el incremento en peso de cada individuo. Se concluye de manera general, que el agrupamiento por sexo de la rata no tiene efecto significativo sobre la respuesta de estos bioensayos evaluados en los alimentos probados, a excepción del cereal que presentó diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro de DNver, sugiriendo que es factible utilizar ratas de diferente sexo en estas evaluaciones de calidad proteica Abstract in english The effect of grouping by sex Sprague Dawley rats on protein quality evaluation of three foods was studied. Bioassays performed were dry matter digestibility (DMD), apparent and true nitrogen digestibility (AND y TND) and net protein ratio (NPR). Foods of different protein quality used were dry whol [...] e milk, texturized soybean and high fiber breakfast cereal obtained from the local market. Casein was used as control. An experimental block design where the blocks were the groups of rats classified as mixed, female and male was used. Data of consumed diet, total feces and weight gain of each rat was recorded every third day. It was concluded that with the exception of the high fiber breakfast cereal, which showed significant differences between males and females in the true nitrogen digestibility parameter, in general grouping by sex did not have a significant effect on dry matter, AND, TND and NPR responses. These results suggest the possibility of using rats from either sex in these protein quality evaluation tests

  10. Improvement of Foreign-Protein Production in Aspergillus niger var. awamori by Constitutive Induction of the Unfolded-Protein Response

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Mari; Ward, Michael; Wang, Huaming; Penttilä, Merja; Saloheimo, Markku

    2003-01-01

    Unfolded-protein response (UPR) denotes the upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone and foldase genes and numerous other genes involved in secretory functions during the accumulation of unfolded proteins into the ER. Overexpression of individual foldases and chaperones has been used in attempts to improve protein production in different production systems. We describe here a novel strategy to improve foreign-protein production. We show that the constitutive induction of ...

  11. Integrative Effects of Feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on Growth Performance and Digestibility in Broilers: Promotion Muscle Protein Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Khairy Amber; El-Magd, Mohammed A.; Atta, Mostafa S.; Mohammed, Ahmed A.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Hanaa Abd El-Kader

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA?+?FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15?d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% F...

  12. Linhagens de feijão (phaseolus vulgaris L.): composição química e digestibilidade protéica / Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrício Rivelli, Mesquita; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Rafaella Araújo Zambaldi, Lima; Angela de Fátima Barbosa, Abreu.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão representa a principal fonte de proteínas para as populações de baixa renda, todavia a digestibilidade dessas proteínas é relativamente baixa. Por isto, os programas de melhoramento genético vêm trabalhando em busca de novas linhagens com níveis protéicos mais elevados. Assim, com a finalid [...] ade de fornecer informações aos melhoristas, neste trabalho foram analisadas 21 linhagens de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), quanto à composição centesimal e mineral, digestibilidade protéica, compostos fenólicos e inibidor de tripsina. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 21 tratamentos (linhagens) e três repetições. O teor de proteína bruta variou de 22,34 a 36,28 g/100 g de matéria seca (MS); o de fibra detergente neutro de 7,56 a 20,91g/100 g MS; o de extrato etéreo de 0,53 a 2,55 g/100 g MS e o de cinzas de 2,97 a 4,87 g/100 g MS. Os teores, em g/100 g MS, de P, K, Ca, Mg e S variaram de 0,45 a 0,72; 1,51 a 2,48; 0,03 a 0,28; 0,18 a 0,34 e 0,28 a 0,45, respectivamente. Já os teores de Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe, em mg/kg MS, variaram de 11,37 a 17,73; 14,93 a 28,90; 36,67 a 69,90 e 71,37 a 126,90, respectivamente. A digestibilidade protéica in vitro variou de 18,03% a 48,32%. Os teores de compostos fenólicos variaram de 0,28 a 1,08 mg de ácido tânico/100 g MS e os de inibidor de tripsina de 59,93 a 151,07UTI/mg MS. Entre as linhagens com maiores teores protéicos a "ESAL 569" (bege com rajas marrons) apresentou a maior digestibilidade protéica e também níveis consideráveis de minerais. A "P-180" (bege com rajas marrons) ficou entre as linhagens com teores mais elevados de proteína bruta e entre as de maiores digestibilidades, além de ter apresentado teores elevados para a maioria dos minerais. Não foi observada nenhuma relação entre a digestibilidade da proteína e os teores de compostos fenólicos e inibidor de tripsina. Abstract in english Bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, though the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying [...] information to the researchers, in this work 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28g of crude protein/100g of dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91g of neutral detergent fiber/100g DM; 0.53 to 2.55g of fat/100g DM and 2.97 to 4.87g of ashes/100g DM. The levels, in g/100g DM, of P, K, Ca, Mg and S varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe, the levels in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18,03% to 48,32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08mg of acid tanic/100g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 TIU/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and also considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relationship between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds and trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  13. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, leading to the conclusion, that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitising capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. However, this dependents on the given allergen. In conclusion, reviewing existing digestibility data shows that no absolute correlation between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential exist. Therefore stability to digestion may not necessarily be a good parameter for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins. Even very small peptides from food allergens may retain both IgE-binding, eliciting and sensitising capacity. As a consequence immunological studies should be performed when evaluating the digestibility of protein allergens.

  14. Composição, digestibilidade protéica e desaminação em cultivares brasileiras de soja submetidas à radiação gama / Composition, protein digestibility and deamidation in Brazilian soy cultivars subjected to gamma radiation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taís Carolina Franqueira de, Toledo; Solange Guidolin Canniatti, Brazaca; Valter, Arthur; Sônia Maria de Stefano, Piedade.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A soja é reconhecidamente um alimento rico em proteínas e lipídios e sua inclusão na alimentação humana no Brasil tem se tornado cada vez maior. Devido à importância comercial e nutricional da soja, possíveis alterações promovidas por métodos de conservação aplicados a ela devem ser estudadas. O pre [...] sente trabalho visa avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas e a porcentagem de desaminação de grãos de cinco diferentes cultivares de soja (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, BRS 231 e E48) submetidas à irradiação (doses de 2, 4 e 8 kGy). Dentro da composição química foram encontrados valores para cinza que variaram de 4,90 a 6,08%, para proteína de 21,23 a 36,99%, para lipídeos de 19,22 a 24,84%, para fibras solúveis de 1,37 a 4,03% e para fibras insolúveis de 15,97 a 18,87%. A porcentagem de desaminação nas diferentes amostras variou de 17,34 a 57,79% e a digestibilidade in vitro de 84,45 a 89,11%. O tratamento de irradiação nas doses utilizadas não promoveu alterações na composição centesimal e na digestibilidade, mas promoveu aumento na porcentagem de desaminação das amostras conforme aumento das doses. Abstract in english Soy is known to be rich in proteins and lipids and its inclusion in the diet of Brazil's population is increasing. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soy, possible alterations resulting from the methods of conservation to which they are subjected must be studied. The present work ev [...] aluated the chemical composition, the in vitro digestibility of proteins and the percentage of deamidation of grains of five different soy cultivars (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48) subjected to irradiation (doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy). The chemical composition showed ashes varying from 4.90 to 6.08%, proteins from 21.23 to 36.99%, lipids from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble fibers from 1.37 to 4.03%, and insoluble fibers from 15.97 to 18.87%. The percentage of deamidation in the various samples varied from 17.34 to 57.79% and the in vitro digestibility from 84.45 to 89.11%. Irradiation treatment in the doses applied here did not change the chemical composition or digestibility, but increased the percentage of deamidation of the samples as the dosage increased.

  15. Composição, digestibilidade protéica e desaminação em cultivares brasileiras de soja submetidas à radiação gama Composition, protein digestibility and deamidation in Brazilian soy cultivars subjected to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Carolina Franqueira de Toledo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A soja é reconhecidamente um alimento rico em proteínas e lipídios e sua inclusão na alimentação humana no Brasil tem se tornado cada vez maior. Devido à importância comercial e nutricional da soja, possíveis alterações promovidas por métodos de conservação aplicados a ela devem ser estudadas. O presente trabalho visa avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas e a porcentagem de desaminação de grãos de cinco diferentes cultivares de soja (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, BRS 231 e E48 submetidas à irradiação (doses de 2, 4 e 8 kGy. Dentro da composição química foram encontrados valores para cinza que variaram de 4,90 a 6,08%, para proteína de 21,23 a 36,99%, para lipídeos de 19,22 a 24,84%, para fibras solúveis de 1,37 a 4,03% e para fibras insolúveis de 15,97 a 18,87%. A porcentagem de desaminação nas diferentes amostras variou de 17,34 a 57,79% e a digestibilidade in vitro de 84,45 a 89,11%. O tratamento de irradiação nas doses utilizadas não promoveu alterações na composição centesimal e na digestibilidade, mas promoveu aumento na porcentagem de desaminação das amostras conforme aumento das doses.Soy is known to be rich in proteins and lipids and its inclusion in the diet of Brazil's population is increasing. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soy, possible alterations resulting from the methods of conservation to which they are subjected must be studied. The present work evaluated the chemical composition, the in vitro digestibility of proteins and the percentage of deamidation of grains of five different soy cultivars (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48 subjected to irradiation (doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy. The chemical composition showed ashes varying from 4.90 to 6.08%, proteins from 21.23 to 36.99%, lipids from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble fibers from 1.37 to 4.03%, and insoluble fibers from 15.97 to 18.87%. The percentage of deamidation in the various samples varied from 17.34 to 57.79% and the in vitro digestibility from 84.45 to 89.11%. Irradiation treatment in the doses applied here did not change the chemical composition or digestibility, but increased the percentage of deamidation of the samples as the dosage increased.

  16. Níveis de proteína na dieta de novilhas da raça Pantaneira: desempenho e digestibilidade aparente / Increasing levels of protein in the diet of heifers of Pantaneira Breed: performance and digestibility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L., Teodoro; M.V.M., Oliveira; F.M., Vargas Junior; R.S., Juliano; M.L., Longo; L.O., Seno; C.A.L., Oliveira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a influência de níveis crescentes de proteína dietética sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade aparente e concentrações de uréia plasmática e urinária, em bovinos da raça Pantaneira. Os dados foram obtidos de 15 novilhas, com 18 meses de idade e peso corporal in [...] icial de 146 kg, recebendo dietas com 11; 13; 15 e 17 % de proteína bruta (PB). Os animais permaneceram confinados por 114 dias e em intervalos de 28 dias foram pesados e realizadas coletas de sangue, de fezes na ampola retal e de urina na forma spot. O aumento do teor de PB não influenciou o consumo de matéria seca (MS) e o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD); porém melhorou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, elevou os níveis de nitrogênio no sangue e promoveu maior excreção de uréia urinária. Observou-se, em média, consumos de 5,13 kg MS/animal/dia; GMD de 570 g; coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de 40,9; 59,6; 39,2; 41,3 e 34,0 % para MS, PB, carboidrato total (CT), fibra detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), respectivamente; concentração de uréia plasmática de 49,6 mg/dL; e perda de uréia urinária de 110,0 g/animal/dia. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to verify the influence of increasing levels of dietary protein on performance, apparent digestibility and plasma and urinary urea in Pantaneira breed. The data were obtained from 15 heifers, 18 months old and 146 kg initial body weight, fed diets containing 11, [...] 13, 15 and 17 % of crude protein (CP). The animals were confined for 114 days. At intervals of 28 days they were weighed and blood samples and spot samples of feces from the rectum and of urine were taken. The increase in dietary CP content did not influenced dry matter (DM) intake and average daily weight gain (ADG), but improved nutrient digestibility, increased blood nitrogen levels and increased excretion of urinary urea. A mean intake of 5.13 kg DM/animal/day and an ADG of 570 g were observed. Apparent digestibility values of 40.9, 59.6, 39.2, 41.3 and 34,0 % for DM, CP, total carbohydrate, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, respectively, were found. Plasma urea concentration was 49.6 mg/dL; and an urinary urea loss of 110,0 g/animal/day was observed.

  17. Resolution Improvement in Multidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with both liquid-state and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Most of this work is devoted to the investigation by solid-state NMR of C13-enriched compounds with the principal aim of presenting techniques devised for further improving the spectral resolution in multidimensional NMR of microcrystalline proteins. In fully C13-labelled compounds, the J-coupling induces a broadening of the carbon lineshapes. We show that spin-state-selective technique called IPAP can be successfully combined with standard polarisation transfer schemes in order to remove the J-broadening in multidimensional solid-state NMR correlation experiments of fully C13-enriched proteins. We present subsequently two techniques tailored for liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. The carbon directly detected techniques provide chemical shift information for all backbone hetero-nuclei. They are very attracting for the study of large bio-molecular systems or for the investigation of paramagnetic proteins. In the last part of this thesis, we study the spin-echo J-modulation for homonuclear two-spin 1/2 systems. Under magic-angle spinning, the theory of J-induced spin-echo modulation allows to derive a set of modulation regimes which give a spin-echo modulation exactly equal to the J-coupling. We show that the chemical-shift anisotropy and the dipolar interaction tend to stabilize the spin-echo J-modulation. The theoretical conclusions are supported by numerical simulations and experimental results obtained for three representative samples containing C13 spin pairs. (author)

  18. Analysis and Improved Recognition of Protein Names Using Transductive SVM

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Murata; Tomohiro Mitsumori; Kouichi Doi

    2008-01-01

    We first analyzed protein names using various dictionaries and databases and found five problems with protein names; i.e., the treatment of special characters, the treatment of homonyms, cases where the protein-name string may be a substring of a different protein-name string, cases where one protein exists in different organisms, and the treatment of modifiers. We confirmed that we could use a machine-learning approach to recognizing protein names to solve these problems. Thus, machine-learn...

  19. Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and of gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gianini Abimorad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus, é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão, Guelph e Guelph modificado, e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por intermédio do coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína bruta de uma dieta-referência para o pacu. Não houve diferença entre os métodos de coleta de fezes; já os intervalos de tempo das coletas apresentaram diferenças, podendo interferir nos resultados de digestibilidade da proteína. Em uma segunda etapa, para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da proteína e da energia de cinco concentrados protéicos de origem animal, cinco de origem vegetal e quatro energéticos, foram utilizadas rações elaboradas com 69,5% de uma dieta-referência, 30% do ingrediente teste e 0,5% de Cr2O3, utilizando o método de extrusão manual para a coleta de fezes. Os valores de digestibilidade da proteína da maioria dos alimentos apresentaram-se altos e não variaram estatisticamente, de 93,89 a 75,73% para o farelo de trigo e a farinha de penas, respectivamente. Entretanto, a farinha de sangue e a levedura apresentaram valores de digestibilidade da fração protéica significativamente inferiores (57,72 e 68,86%, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da energia dos alimentos variaram consideravelmente, apresentando altos valores (acima de 90% para o sorgo, o farelo de arroz e as sojas crua e tostada, e baixos valores (menores que 70% para as farinhas de vísceras e de sangue, os farelos de soja e de algodão e a levedura. Quanto aos métodos de coleta de fezes, conclui-se que qualquer um pode ser adotado para a determinação de digestibilidade, desde que sejam rigorosamente aplicados. De maneira geral, a maioria dos concentrados protéicos pode ser utilizada como ótimas fontes de proteína, com exceção da farinha de sangue e a levedura, enquanto os alimentos energéticos confirmaram-se como excelentes fontes de energia em dietas para o pacu.To improve the pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus feeding in the growth phase, it's necessary to know the digestibility of the ingredients used in his diets. Initially, four fecal collection methods were analyzed (dissection, stripping, Guelph and modified Guelph, based on precision and versatility and also the most efficient time among fecal collection of the Guelph sedimentation systems, through crude protein digestibility coefficient of pacu basic diet. There was no difference among the fecal collection methods while the intervals of time among the collections were significantly different, which may interfere in the protein digestibility results. In a second stage, five proteins concentrated of animal origin, five of vegetable origin and four energetic were studied for estimating protein and energy digestibility coefficients using the stripping method. The rations contained 69.5% of a reference diet, 30.0% of the ingredient test and 0.5% of Cr2O3. In a general way, crude protein digestibility coefficients were high and did not differ from the wheat meal (93.89% and feather flour (75.73%, respectively. However, blood and yeast showed lower crude protein digestibility (57.72% and 68.86%, respectively. Gross energy digestibility coefficients varied considerably among the feedstuffs, showing high values (above 90% for the sorghum, rice meal and raw and toasted soy and lower values (smaller than 70% for poultry by-product and blood meal, soybean meal, cotton and yeast. However, with regard to the fecal collection methods, the results showed that anyone can be adopted with safety for digestibility determination, if used accurately. In a general way, most of protein concentrate can be used as a very good protein source, except for blood meal and the yeast. The energy concentrate revealed to be a source of energy in pacu diets.

  20. Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) / Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and of gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Gianini, Abimorad; Dalton José, Carneiro.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus), é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão [...] , Guelph e Guelph modificado), e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por intermédio do coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína bruta de uma dieta-referência para o pacu. Não houve diferença entre os métodos de coleta de fezes; já os intervalos de tempo das coletas apresentaram diferenças, podendo interferir nos resultados de digestibilidade da proteína. Em uma segunda etapa, para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da proteína e da energia de cinco concentrados protéicos de origem animal, cinco de origem vegetal e quatro energéticos, foram utilizadas rações elaboradas com 69,5% de uma dieta-referência, 30% do ingrediente teste e 0,5% de Cr2O3, utilizando o método de extrusão manual para a coleta de fezes. Os valores de digestibilidade da proteína da maioria dos alimentos apresentaram-se altos e não variaram estatisticamente, de 93,89 a 75,73% para o farelo de trigo e a farinha de penas, respectivamente. Entretanto, a farinha de sangue e a levedura apresentaram valores de digestibilidade da fração protéica significativamente inferiores (57,72 e 68,86%, respectivamente). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da energia dos alimentos variaram consideravelmente, apresentando altos valores (acima de 90%) para o sorgo, o farelo de arroz e as sojas crua e tostada, e baixos valores (menores que 70%) para as farinhas de vísceras e de sangue, os farelos de soja e de algodão e a levedura. Quanto aos métodos de coleta de fezes, conclui-se que qualquer um pode ser adotado para a determinação de digestibilidade, desde que sejam rigorosamente aplicados. De maneira geral, a maioria dos concentrados protéicos pode ser utilizada como ótimas fontes de proteína, com exceção da farinha de sangue e a levedura, enquanto os alimentos energéticos confirmaram-se como excelentes fontes de energia em dietas para o pacu. Abstract in english To improve the pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus) feeding in the growth phase, it's necessary to know the digestibility of the ingredients used in his diets. Initially, four fecal collection methods were analyzed (dissection, stripping, Guelph and modified Guelph), based on precision and versatility an [...] d also the most efficient time among fecal collection of the Guelph sedimentation systems, through crude protein digestibility coefficient of pacu basic diet. There was no difference among the fecal collection methods while the intervals of time among the collections were significantly different, which may interfere in the protein digestibility results. In a second stage, five proteins concentrated of animal origin, five of vegetable origin and four energetic were studied for estimating protein and energy digestibility coefficients using the stripping method. The rations contained 69.5% of a reference diet, 30.0% of the ingredient test and 0.5% of Cr2O3. In a general way, crude protein digestibility coefficients were high and did not differ from the wheat meal (93.89%) and feather flour (75.73%), respectively. However, blood and yeast showed lower crude protein digestibility (57.72% and 68.86%), respectively. Gross energy digestibility coefficients varied considerably among the feedstuffs, showing high values (above 90%) for the sorghum, rice meal and raw and toasted soy and lower values (smaller than 70%) for poultry by-product and blood meal, soybean meal, cotton and yeast. However, with regard to the fecal collection methods, the results showed that anyone can be adopted with safety for digestibility determination, if used accurately. In a general way, most of protein concentrate can be used as a very good protein source, except for blood meal and the yeast. The energy concentrate revealed to be a source of

  1. Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. in anaerobic digestion wastewater for improved nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhou, Yuguang; Pang, Aiping; Ning, Li; Rodgers, Kibet; Liu, Ying; Dong, Renjie

    2015-05-01

    Desmodesmus sp. was used in anaerobically digested wastewater (ADW) for nutrients removal and the biodiesel production was measured and compared using fed-batch cultivation was investigated and compared with batch cultivation. The Desmodesmus sp. was able to remove 236.143, 268.238 and 6.427 mg/L of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P respectively after 40 d of fed-batch cultivation, while in batch cultivation the quantities of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P removed were 33.331, 37.227 and 1.323 mg/L. Biomass production of Desmodesmus sp. was also enhanced in fed-batch cultivation, when ADW loading was carried out every 2 days; the biomass concentration peaked at 1.039 g/L, which was three times higher than that obtained in batch cultivation (0.385 g/L). The highest lipid production (261.8 mg/L) was also recorded in fed-batch cultivation as compared to batch cultivation (83.3 mg/L). Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. could provide effective control of nutrients limitation and/or ammonia inhibition on microalgae cultivation. PMID:25451775

  2. Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276 l(N) kg VS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286 l(N) kg VS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140°C and a retention time of 60 min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process. PMID:25549903

  3. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cu2+-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd2+-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd2+, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 ?g/L Cu2+ or Cd2+. Both metals, in particular Cd2+, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu2+ also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd2+ for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd2+-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd2+ and Cu2+ affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms

  4. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytharopoulou, S.; Kournoutou, G.G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Leotsinidis, M. [Laboratory of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Georgiou, C.D. [Department of Biology, Section of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kalpaxis, D.L., E-mail: dimkal@med.upatras.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd{sup 2+}, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 ?g/L Cu{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+}. Both metals, in particular Cd{sup 2+}, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu{sup 2+} also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd{sup 2+} for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd{sup 2+}-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms.

  5. Improvement of protein structure comparison using a structural alphabet.

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; De Brevern, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The three dimensional structure of a protein provides major insights into its function. Protein structure comparison has implications in functional and evolutionary studies. A structural alphabet (SA) is a library of local protein structure prototypes that can abstract every part of protein main chain conformation. Protein Blocks (PBs) is a widely used SA, composed of 16 prototypes, each representing a pentapeptide backbone conformation defined in terms of dihedral angles. Through this descri...

  6. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: â–º This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. â–º Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. â–º Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. â–º Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. â–º It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  7. Effect of Different Processing Methods, on Nutrient Composition, Antinutrional Factors, and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Dolichos Lablab Bean [Lablab purpuresus (L) Sweet

    OpenAIRE

    Magdi A. Osman

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different traditional processing methods, soaking, cooking roasting, autoclaving and germination on the nutrient composition antinutritional factor, and in-vitro digestibility in Dolichos lablab seeds were investigated. Germination significantly increased the protein and moisture content, whereas roasting and autoclaving decreased their contents. Crude lipid content, was significantly reduced by various processing. Ash content varied significantly between raw and processe...

  8. Directed evolution methods for improving polypeptide folding and solubility and superfolder fluorescent proteins generated thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-09-18

    The current invention provides methods of improving folding of polypeptides using a poorly folding domain as a component of a fusion protein comprising the poorly folding domain and a polypeptide of interest to be improved. The invention also provides novel green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and red fluorescent proteins that have enhanced folding properties.

  9. Effect of Soaking, Sprouting and Cooking on Chemical Composition, Bioavailability of Minerals and in vitro Protein Digestibility of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Abu El Gasim A. Yagoub; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Asma A. Abu Baker

    2008-01-01

    Chemical composition, bioavailability of minerals and in vitro digestibility of proteins in karkade seed (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) as affected by soaking, sprouting and cooking were studied. The different methods showed varied deviation of nutrients and antinutrients from the raw seeds. Sprouting and cooking significantly increased protein content and decreased starch and soluble carbohydrates levels. K, Na and all the trace elements studied were decreased by processing methods. Cooking...

  10. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  11. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive. Microbial N supply was not affected by wood ash treatment. It is concluded that wood ash treatment is a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in acacia leaves, although additional energy is needed to ensure utilisation of the available N. (author)

  12. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive. Microbial N supply was not affected by wood ash treatment. It is concluded that wood ash treatment is a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in acacia leaves, although additional energy is needed to ensure utilisation of the available N. (author)

  13. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly, little has been done to determine which processes serve as rate-limiting steps for protein accumulation. In other expression systems, as Escherichia coli, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and insect cells, recombinant protein accumulation can be hampered by cell's inability to fold the target polypeptide into the native state, resulting in aggregation and degradation. To determine if chloroplasts' ability to oxidize proteins that require disulfide bonds into a stable conformation is a rate-limiting step of protein accumulation, three recombinant strains, each expressing a different recombinant protein, were analyzed. These recombinant proteins included fluorescent GFP, a reporter containing no disulfide bonds; Gaussia princeps luciferase, a luminescent reporter containing disulfide bonds; and an immunotoxin, an antibody-fusion protein containing disulfide bonds. Each strain was analyzed for its ability to accumulate proteins when supplemented with selenocystamine, a small molecule capable of catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds. Selenocystamine supplementation led to an increase in luciferase and immunotoxin but not GFP accumulation. These results demonstrated that selenocystamine can increase the accumulation of proteins containing disulfide bonds and suggests that a rate-limiting step in chloroplast protein accumulation is the disulfide bonds formation in recombinant proteins native structure. PMID:26137911

  14. Digestible tryptophan levels in diets for pigs weighing 15 to 30 kg

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lourdes Romão, Apolônio; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Rita Flávia Miranda de, Oliveira; Alysson, Saraiva; Francisco Carlos de Oliveira, Silva; Aloízio Soares, Ferreira; Anderson Lazarini, Lima; João Luís, Kill.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary tryptophan levels on performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs, a total of 60 crossbred castrated male pigs, with average initial and final body weights of 15.50 ± 1.15 and 30.60 ± 1.35 kg were used. Pigs were allotted in a complet [...] ely randomized block design, with five dietary treatments (0.149, 0.158, 0.168, 0.177, and 0.187% digestible tryptophan, corresponding to digestible tryptophan:lysine relations of 16.0, 17.0, 18.0, 19.0, and 20.0%), six replicates, and two animals per experimental unit, which was represented by the pen. Experimental diets and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The average maximum and minimum temperatures inside the rooms were of 21.5 ± 1.12°C and 26.4 ± 1.91°C, respectively. There was no effect of digestible tryptophan on daily feed intake or protein deposition of pigs. Body weight gain increased quadratically with increasing digestible tryptophan in the diets up to 0.175% maximum response. Increasing digestible tryptophan in the diets linearly improved feed conversion of pigs. The greatest weight gain of 15 to 30 kg castrated male pigs is obtained at 0.175% digestible tryptophan, corresponding to a digestible tryptophan:lysine relation of 18.82% and an estimated daily intake of 2.32 grams of digestible tryptophan.

  15. Bovine milk proteome in the first 9 days: protein interactions in maturation of the immune and digestive system of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the milk proteome and its changes from colostrum to mature milk, samples taken at seven time points in the first 9 days from 4 individual cows were analyzed using proteomic techniques. Both the similarity in changes from day 0 to day 9 in the quantitative milk proteome, and the differences in specific protein abundance, were observed among four cows. One third of the quantified proteins showed a significant decrease in concentration over the first 9 days after calving, especially in the immune proteins (as much as 40 fold). Three relative high abundant enzymes (XDH, LPL, and RNASE1) and cell division and proliferation protein (CREG1) may be involved in the maturation of the gastro-intestinal tract. In addition, high correlations between proteins involved in complement and blood coagulation cascades illustrates the complex nature of biological interrelationships between milk proteins. The linear decrease of protease inhibitors and proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune system implies a protective role for protease inhibitor against degradation. In conclusion, the results found in this study not only improve our understanding of the role of colostrum in both host defense and development of the newborn calf but also provides guidance for the improvement of infant formula through better understanding of the complex interactions between milk proteins. PMID:25693162

  16. The Growth Rate and Efficiency of Rumen Microbial Protein Digestion of Red Clover Silage (Trifolium pratense cv. Sabatron)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Trifolium pratense cv. Sabatron). Red clover silage supplemented with different level of carbohydrates has been examined using the in-vitro gas production technique. Cumulative gas production, hydro.gen sulfite production, and ammonia was followed and used as indicators of microbial growth rate and extent of protein degradation. Microbial nitrogen production, VFA, and efficiency microbial production was used as indicator of nitrogen use efficiency. 15N was used as a microbial marker to estimate the amount of nitrogen incorporation into microbial protein. Supplementation of Red clover with increasing 5 levels; 0 g; 0.625 g; 0.15 g; 0.225 g and 0.3 g of maize starch led to graded increase in microbial growth and protein degradation. This was reflected in the increasing gas production and the accumulation of hydrogen sulfite. Diurnal change in ammonia production reflected the microbial utilization of ammonia for protein synthesis. Protein microbe (P<0.001) as VFA (P<0.001) increased due to carbohydrate addition as well as utilization of nitrogen (P<0.001). There was also the efficiency of nitrogen utilization which increased significantly. This result suggested that energy supply can increased efficiency of nitrogen use in the rumen and may reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. (author)

  17. Lipid transfer protein: A pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Asero, R.; Mistrello, G.; Roncarolo, D.; Vries, S.C., de; Gautier, M F; Ciurana, C.L.; Verbeek, E; Mohammadi, T.; Knul-Brettlova, V.; Akkerdaas, J.H.; Bulder, I.; Aalberse, R C; Ree, R. van

    2001-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small molecules of approximately 10 kD that demonstrate high stability. They have recently been identified as allergens in the Rosaceae subfamilies of the Prunoideae (peach, apricot, plum) and of the Pomoideae (apple). They belong to a family of structurally highly conserved proteins that are also present in non-Rosaceae vegetable foods. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-reactivity to non-Rosaceae LTPs, and to study the role of pr...

  18. Mutations in the P. falciparum Digestive Vacuole Transmembrane Protein PfCRT and Evidence for Their Role in Chloroquine Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Fidock, David A.; Nomura, Takashi; Talley, Angela K.; Cooper, Roland A.; Dzekunov, Sergey M.; Ferdig, Michael T.; Ursos, Lyann M. B.; Sidhu, Amar Bir Singh; Naudé, Bronwen; Kirk W. Deitsch; Su, Xin-zhuan; Wootton, John C.; Roepe, Paul D.; Thomas E. Wellems

    2000-01-01

    The determinant of verapamil-reversible chloroquine resistance (CQR) in a Plasmodium falciparum genetic cross maps to a 36 kb segment of chromosome 7. This segment harbors a 13-exon gene, pfcrt, having point mutations that associate completely with CQR in parasite lines from Asia, Africa, and South America. These data, transfection results, and selection of a CQR line harboring a novel K76I mutation point to a central role for the PfCRT protein in CQR. This transmembrane protein localizes to ...

  19. Improved plant transformation vectors for fluorescent protein tagging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Silin; Lin, Zhefeng; Fray, Rupert G.; Grierson, Don

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent protein labelling technologies enable dynamic protein actions to be imaged in living cells and can also be used in conjunction with other methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer and biomolecular fluorescence complementation. In this report, we describe the generation of a series of 23 novel GATEWAY-compatible vectors based on pGreenII and pDH51 backbones with the latest fluorescent protein tags (Cerulean, EGFP and Venus) and the choice of three in planta selection marker...

  20. Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar Rupinder K; Kanwar Jagat R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentra...

  1. Allerginicity of wheat proteins: the effect of thermal processing (baking and cooking), high pressure treatment and enzymatic digestion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kitanovi?ová, Andrea; Janatková, I.; Houska, M.; Tu?ková, Ludmila

    Latina : Allergy data laboratories, 2007, s. 43-43. [International Symposium on Molecular Allergology /2./. Roma (IT), 22.04.2007-24.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA310/05/2245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food allergy * wheat proteins * thermal processing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Identifying Gel-Separated Proteins Using In-Gel Digestion, Mass Spectrometry, and Database Searching: Consider the Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Jessica C.; Dassenko, David J.; Mohamed, Essa A.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is an important bioanalytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. This is an especially powerful tool when combined with gel separation of proteins and database mining using the mass spectral data. Currently, few hands-on…

  3. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone Brumano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de 12 alimentos protéicos para aves. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos Leghorne adultos cecectomizados, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os alimentos estudados foram: farelo de glúten de milho 22%, farelo de glúten de milho 60%, concentrado protéico de soja, soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada, farinha de carne e ossos 36%, farinha de carne e ossos 45%, farinha de peixe, farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura, farinha de penas, plasma sangüíneo 70%, plasma sangüíneo 78% e hemácias. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, foram, respectivamente, 83,32 e 87,20 para o farelo de glúten de milho 22%; 92,90 e 94,86 para o farelo de glúten de milho 60%; 91,10 e 90,19 para o concentrado protéico de soja; 88,90 e 88,91 para a soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada; 88,63 e 85,94 para a farinha de carne e ossos 36%; 87,80 e 85,00 para a farinha de carne e ossos 45%; 89,39 e 87,32 para a farinha de peixe; 79,22 e 74,36 para a farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura; 85,89 e 82,32 para a farinha de penas; 87,22 e 87,78 para o plasma sangüíneo 70%; 90,42 e 91,40 para o plasma sangüíneo 78%; e 95,25 e 94,31 para as hemácias.The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid digestibility of 12 protein meals were determined in Leghorn cecectomized roosters by the "forced feed" method. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with 12 treatments, six replicates and one rooster per experimental unit. The studied feedstuffs were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, corn gluten meal 60%, soybean protein concentrate, partially defatted extruded whole soybean, meat and bone meal 36%, meat and bone meal 45%, fish meal, full fat poultry by-product meal, feather meal, spray-dried plasma 70%, spray-dried plasma 78% and erythrocytes. The average values of essential and non essential true amino acids digestibility coefficients, in percentage, were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, 83.32 and 87.20; corn gluten meal 60%, 92.90 and 94.86; soybean protein concentrate, 91.10 and 90.19; partially defatted extruded whole soybean: 88.90 and 88.91, meat and bone meal, 36%, 88.63 and 85.94; meat and bone meal 45%, 87.80 and 85.00; fish meal, 89.39 and 87.32; full fat poultry by-product meal, 79.22 and 74.36; feather meal, 85.89 and 82.32; spray-dried plasma 70%, 87.22 and 87.78; spray-dried plasma 78%, 90.42 and 91.40; and erythrocytes, 95.25 and 94.31.

  4. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados / True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladstone, Brumano; Paulo Cezar, Gomes; Horacio Santiago, Rostagno; Luiz Fernando Teixeira, Albino; Marlene, Schmidt; Rafaela Antônia Ramos, Generoso.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de 12 alimentos protéicos para aves. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos Leghorne adultos cecectomizados, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 [...] tratamentos, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os alimentos estudados foram: farelo de glúten de milho 22%, farelo de glúten de milho 60%, concentrado protéico de soja, soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada, farinha de carne e ossos 36%, farinha de carne e ossos 45%, farinha de peixe, farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura, farinha de penas, plasma sangüíneo 70%, plasma sangüíneo 78% e hemácias. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, foram, respectivamente, 83,32 e 87,20 para o farelo de glúten de milho 22%; 92,90 e 94,86 para o farelo de glúten de milho 60%; 91,10 e 90,19 para o concentrado protéico de soja; 88,90 e 88,91 para a soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada; 88,63 e 85,94 para a farinha de carne e ossos 36%; 87,80 e 85,00 para a farinha de carne e ossos 45%; 89,39 e 87,32 para a farinha de peixe; 79,22 e 74,36 para a farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura; 85,89 e 82,32 para a farinha de penas; 87,22 e 87,78 para o plasma sangüíneo 70%; 90,42 e 91,40 para o plasma sangüíneo 78%; e 95,25 e 94,31 para as hemácias. Abstract in english The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid digestibility of 12 protein meals were determined in Leghorn cecectomized roosters by the "forced feed" method. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with 12 treatments, six replicates and one rooster per exp [...] erimental unit. The studied feedstuffs were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, corn gluten meal 60%, soybean protein concentrate, partially defatted extruded whole soybean, meat and bone meal 36%, meat and bone meal 45%, fish meal, full fat poultry by-product meal, feather meal, spray-dried plasma 70%, spray-dried plasma 78% and erythrocytes. The average values of essential and non essential true amino acids digestibility coefficients, in percentage, were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, 83.32 and 87.20; corn gluten meal 60%, 92.90 and 94.86; soybean protein concentrate, 91.10 and 90.19; partially defatted extruded whole soybean: 88.90 and 88.91, meat and bone meal, 36%, 88.63 and 85.94; meat and bone meal 45%, 87.80 and 85.00; fish meal, 89.39 and 87.32; full fat poultry by-product meal, 79.22 and 74.36; feather meal, 85.89 and 82.32; spray-dried plasma 70%, 87.22 and 87.78; spray-dried plasma 78%, 90.42 and 91.40; and erythrocytes, 95.25 and 94.31.

  5. Addition of unsaturated fatty acids improves digestion of mid lactating dairy cows / Adição de ácidos graxos insaturados melhora os processos digestivos de vacas leiteiras no terço médio de lactação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.E., Freitas Júnior; F.P., Rennó; J.R., Gandra; L.N., Rennó; A.C., Rego; M. V., Santos; M.D.S., Oliveira; C.S., Takiya.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o uso de fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados nas rações de vacas leiteiras sobre o balanco de nutrientes e o perfil de ácidos graxos do leite. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas Holandesas no terco médio de lactação (média de 128 dias) e (580 kg de peso corpóreo) com produçã [...] o média de leite de 25 kg/ dia distribuidas aleatoriamente em três quadrados latinos balanceados 4x4 alimentadas com as seguintes dietas: 1) controle (CO); 2) óleo de soja refinado; (SO); 3) grão de soja integral (WS) e; 4) sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos insaturados (CSFA). A produção de leite obtida foi de 26,6; 26,4; 24,1 e 25,7 kg/dia para as dietas CO, SO, WS e CSFA respectivamente. As vacas alimentadas com as dietas OS, GS e SCAG apresentaram menores consumos diários de MS, MO, PB, EE, CT, CNF e NDT em relação às vacas do tratamento CO. Os animais alimentados com as dietas contendo ácidos graxos apresentaram maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS e EE em relação a dieta CO. A suplementação de ácidos graxos aumentou os valores de pH e as concentrações de N-NH3 no rúmen. As excreções de alantoína, ácido úrico, alatoína do leite, derivados totais de purinas, total de purinas absorvidas, nitrogênio microbiano, e eficiência microbiana não diferiram entre as dietas experimentais. O uso de ácidos graxos insaturados na dieta de vacas leiteiras altera a eficiência digestiva da dieta dependendo da forma suplementada. Abstract in english The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of different unsaturated fatty acids supplementation sources on digestive metabolism, including nutrient intake and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Twelve Holst [...] ein mid lactating cows (580±20 kg of body weight; mean±SD, with average of 128 days in milk, and milk yield of 25 kg/d), were assigned randomly into three 4x4 Latin squares, fed the following diets: 1) control (CO); 2) refined soybean oil (SO); 3) whole raw soybean (WS) and; 4) calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA). Milk yields were 26.6; 26.4; 24.1 and 25.7 for cows fed CO, SO, WS and CSFA, respectively. Cows fed SO, WS and CSFA had lesser intake of DM, OM, CP, EE, TC, NFC and TDN than cows fed CO. Animals fed unsaturated fatty acids supplementation had higher DM and EE digestibility, when compared to cows fed CO. Fatty acids supplementation increased ruminal pH and decreased NH3-N concentrations, when compared to animals fed CO. Daily allantoin excretion, uric acid, milk allantoin, total purine derivatives, absorbed purines, microbial nitrogen, and microbial efficiency did not differ among cows fed different experimental diets. Diets with whole raw soybeans and soybean oil improved digestive metabolism and increased the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in milk.

  6. Improving protein function prediction methods with integrated literature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabow Aaron P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the function of uncharacterized proteins is a major challenge in the post-genomic era due to the problem's complexity and scale. Identifying a protein's function contributes to an understanding of its role in the involved pathways, its suitability as a drug target, and its potential for protein modifications. Several graph-theoretic approaches predict unidentified functions of proteins by using the functional annotations of better-characterized proteins in protein-protein interaction networks. We systematically consider the use of literature co-occurrence data, introduce a new method for quantifying the reliability of co-occurrence and test how performance differs across species. We also quantify changes in performance as the prediction algorithms annotate with increased specificity. Results We find that including information on the co-occurrence of proteins within an abstract greatly boosts performance in the Functional Flow graph-theoretic function prediction algorithm in yeast, fly and worm. This increase in performance is not simply due to the presence of additional edges since supplementing protein-protein interactions with co-occurrence data outperforms supplementing with a comparably-sized genetic interaction dataset. Through the combination of protein-protein interactions and co-occurrence data, the neighborhood around unknown proteins is quickly connected to well-characterized nodes which global prediction algorithms can exploit. Our method for quantifying co-occurrence reliability shows superior performance to the other methods, particularly at threshold values around 10% which yield the best trade off between coverage and accuracy. In contrast, the traditional way of asserting co-occurrence when at least one abstract mentions both proteins proves to be the worst method for generating co-occurrence data, introducing too many false positives. Annotating the functions with greater specificity is harder, but co-occurrence data still proves beneficial. Conclusion Co-occurrence data is a valuable supplemental source for graph-theoretic function prediction algorithms. A rapidly growing literature corpus ensures that co-occurrence data is a readily-available resource for nearly every studied organism, particularly those with small protein interaction databases. Though arguably biased toward known genes, co-occurrence data provides critical additional links to well-studied regions in the interaction network that graph-theoretic function prediction algorithms can exploit.

  7. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments with colostomized broiler hens apparent digestibility of the crude nutrients of the ration after straw meal supplements of 20, 30 and 40 g per animal was determined. In addition, the 15N digestibility of straw meal and wheat was ascertained on the basis of straw meal supplements. The digestibility of the crude nutrients of the rations decreased significantly (P 15N excess (15N') of the wheat was, at 86 +- 1%, largely independent of the straw meal intake. The apparent digestibility of the straw 15N excess in broiler hens of 42 +- 8 to 55 +- 2% is surprisingly high. (author)

  8. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the...... accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high...

  9. Effect of salseed-meal tannins on protein synthesis, 35S incorporation and cellulose digestibility by rumen microbes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannins from seed-meal of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) were fractionated after treatments into ethyl acetate (EA) and lead acetate (LA) fractions. In trial 1, incorporation of 35S from (NH4)235SO4 into microbial protein declined due to the effect of both 2% EA and LA fractions as compared to control. Microbial protein synthesis was depressed significantly (P 35S incorporation and cellulolysis at all levels of both the tannin fractions. It may be inferred that both the tannin fractions from salseed-meal showed antimicrobial activity and LA fraction seems to be more deleterious than EA fraction for rumen metabolism. The experiments were conducted in vitro using rumen liquor of a non-pregnant dry cow having permanent rumen fistula. (auth.)

  10. Proteínas do feijão preto sem casca: digestibilidade em animais convencionais e isentos de germes (germ-free Proteins of dehulled black beans: digestibility in conventional and germ-free animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Angelina dos Santos PEREIRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. é uma leguminosa de grande importância para a dieta da população brasileira. No entanto, um de seus maiores problemas é representado pelo baixo valor nutricional de suas proteínas, decorrente, por um lado, da sua baixa digestibilidade e, de outro, do teor e biodisponibilidade reduzidos de aminoácidos sulfurados. Com o objetivo de avaliar a digestibilidade das proteínas albumina e globulina do feijão preto sem casca, foram realizados ensaios biológicos com camundongos isentos de germes e convencionais e com ratos (Wistar, recém-desmamados, com idade de 21 a 25 dias. Avaliou-se ainda o Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína. A digestibilidade verdadeira no experimento com camundongos isentos de germes foi de 90,21 e 90,00%, no teste com camundongos convencionais foi de 85,53 e 86,73%, e no experimento com ratos foi de 82,62 e 68,53%, para albumina e globulina, respectivamente. O Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína foi de 61,00% para a albumina e 51,00% para a globulina. A digestibilidade determinada em animais isentos de germes foi superior aos valores encontrados em animais convencionais, sugerindo que a flora intestinal esteja contribuindo para elevar o teor de nitrogênio nas fezes dos animais convencionais, e, portanto, esteja sendo subestimada a digestibilidade verdadeira do feijão.The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. is a legume of great importance in the Brazilian typical diet. Nevertheless, it presents a low protein quality due to its poor digestibility and low levels and bioavailability of its sulfur aminoacids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility of albumin and globulin protein fractions of dehulled black beans in conventional and germ-free mice and also in weaning rats (Wistar of 21 to 25 days of age. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score was also determined. True digestibility values in germ-free mice were 90.21 and 90.00%, in conventional mice were 85.53 and 86.73%, and in rats were 82.62 and 68.53%, for albumin and globulin respectively. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score was 61.00% for albumin and 51.00% for globulin. True digestibility values in germ-free mice were higher than those obtained with conventional animals. This fact suggests that intestinal flora is contributing to increase fecal nitrogen output in conventional animals, and, therefore, true digestibility of beans is being underestimated.

  11. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven al...

  12. Improving Protein Fold Recognition by Deep Learning Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Taeho; Hou, Jie; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2015-12-01

    For accurate recognition of protein folds, a deep learning network method (DN-Fold) was developed to predict if a given query-template protein pair belongs to the same structural fold. The input used stemmed from the protein sequence and structural features extracted from the protein pair. We evaluated the performance of DN-Fold along with 18 different methods on Lindahl’s benchmark dataset and on a large benchmark set extracted from SCOP 1.75 consisting of about one million protein pairs, at three different levels of fold recognition (i.e., protein family, superfamily, and fold) depending on the evolutionary distance between protein sequences. The correct recognition rate of ensembled DN-Fold for Top 1 predictions is 84.5%, 61.5%, and 33.6% and for Top 5 is 91.2%, 76.5%, and 60.7% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of single DN-Fold (DN-FoldS), which showed the comparable results at the level of family and superfamily, compared to ensemble DN-Fold. Finally, we extended the binary classification problem of fold recognition to real-value regression task, which also show a promising performance. DN-Fold is freely available through a web server at http://iris.rnet.missouri.edu/dnfold.

  13. Analysis and Improved Recognition of Protein Names Using Transductive SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Murata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We first analyzed protein names using various dictionaries and databases and found five problems with protein names; i.e., the treatment of special characters, the treatment of homonyms, cases where the protein-name string may be a substring of a different protein-name string, cases where one protein exists in different organisms, and the treatment of modifiers. We confirmed that we could use a machine-learning approach to recognizing protein names to solve these problems. Thus, machine-learning methods have recently been used in research to recognize protein names. A classifier trained in a specific domain, however, can cause overfitting and be so inflexible that it can only be used in that domain. We therefore developed a new corpus on breast cancer and investigated the flexibility of classifiers trained on the GENIA [1] or the breast-cancer corpora. We used a transductive support vector machine (SVM to avoid overfitting, and we evaluated the effect of transductive learning. We found that transductive SVM prevented overfitting in experiments and yielded higher accuracies than were obtained from the conventional SVM. The transductive SVM increased the F-scores (70.46 to 79.64 and 70.63 to 74.61 in our two experiments for the criterion of “Sub” that we define in this paper.

  14. Improving Protein Fold Recognition by Deep Learning Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Taeho; Hou, Jie; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    For accurate recognition of protein folds, a deep learning network method (DN-Fold) was developed to predict if a given query-template protein pair belongs to the same structural fold. The input used stemmed from the protein sequence and structural features extracted from the protein pair. We evaluated the performance of DN-Fold along with 18 different methods on Lindahl's benchmark dataset and on a large benchmark set extracted from SCOP 1.75 consisting of about one million protein pairs, at three different levels of fold recognition (i.e., protein family, superfamily, and fold) depending on the evolutionary distance between protein sequences. The correct recognition rate of ensembled DN-Fold for Top 1 predictions is 84.5%, 61.5%, and 33.6% and for Top 5 is 91.2%, 76.5%, and 60.7% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of single DN-Fold (DN-FoldS), which showed the comparable results at the level of family and superfamily, compared to ensemble DN-Fold. Finally, we extended the binary classification problem of fold recognition to real-value regression task, which also show a promising performance. DN-Fold is freely available through a web server at http://iris.rnet.missouri.edu/dnfold. PMID:26634993

  15. Seed protein improvement in wheat and pulses through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma rays and chemical mutagens (sodium azide and ethyl methane sulphonate) were used separately to induce mutations in wheat, triticale and mungbean. An increased variation in yield and protein content, determined by dye-binding capacity and the micro-Kjeldahl method, was observed in the M3 and M4 generations as compared with controls. In fertilizer trials an increase in grain yield and protein percentage was found invariably in all the treatments given at different stages in split applications. The genetic diversity was observed in the collections from northern areas of Pakistan regarding the protein content and morphological and physiological characters. (author)

  16. Digestibilidade aparente de alguns alimentos protéicos pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent digestibility of some protein sources for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um ensaio de digestibilidade para determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CD da matéria seca (MS, energia bruta (EB e proteína bruta (PB da farinha de peixe (FP, farinha de vísceras de aves (FV, glúten de milho (GM e levedura de álcool spray dried (LS pela tilápia do Nilo, da linhagem tailandesa. Foram utilizados 100 peixes revertidos sexualmente, (peso médio de 37,6 ± 5,0 g acondicionados em dois tanques de alimentação de 500 L e duas cubas cilíndricas com fundo cônico, de 150 L, para coleta de fezes. A determinação dos CD foi feita por intermédio da metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 0,1% de óxido crômico (Cr2O3, como indicador. As médias de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica durante o período experimental foram de 25,8 ± 1,0ºC; 3,2 ± 1,4 mg/L; 6,8 ± 0,1; e 205,7 ± 16,6 µS/cm, respectivamente. Os CD da PB, EB e MS foram respectivamente de 90,66; 89,53 e 87,63 para FP; 82,03; 72,09 e 62,21 para FV; 97,61; 93,52 e 91,01 para GM; 77,39; 62,77 e 58,68 para LS. Os valores de proteína (% e energia (kcal/kg digestíveis, na matéria natural, de 53,01 e 3568,0 para FP; 47,65 e 3650,9 para FV; 65,34 e 5036,7 para GM e 32,19 e 2706,9 para LS.A digestibility trial was carried out to determine the dry matter (MS, gross energy (EB and crude protein (PB apparent digestibility coefficients (CD for fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, gluten meal (GM and alchool spray dried yeast (LV for Thai Nile tilapia fingerlings. A hundred sexually reverted fishes (average weight 37.6 ± 5.0 g were assigned to two 500-L feeding tanks and two 150-L cylindrical tanks with conical bottom, to feces collection . CD analysis was performed by the indirect method, using 0.1% chromic oxide (Cr2O3, as marker. Average water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were 25.8 ± 1.0ºC; 3.2 ± 1.4 mg/L; 6.8 ± 0.1; and 205.7 ± 16.5 µS/cm, respectively. CD of PB, EB and MS were 90.66, 89.53 and 87.63 for FP; 82.03, 72.09 and 62.21 for FV; 97.61, 93.52 and 91.01 for GM; 77.39, 62.77 and 58.68 for LS, respectively. The digestible values of protein (% and energy (kcal/kg, as fed basis, were 53.01 and 3568.0 for FP; 47.65 and 3650.9 for FV; 65.34 and 5036.7 for GM; and 32.19 and 2706.9 for LS.

  17. Rice protein improvement through mutation breeding techniques, advance evaluations. Part of a coordinated programme on use of nuclear techniques for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma radiations for improving protein content of rice variety Pelita I/1 yielded mutants which were consistently high in protein level. However, only a very few have a good TD value. One is mutant 627/5-PsJ which has a good chance to be officially released because it is resistant to BPH, has high yielding potential, good eating quality, early maturity and high tolerance to salinity. The environmental conditions, such as heterogeneity of soil, amount of N-fertilizer and reproducibility of method for protein determination have significant effects on the variability of protein content in certain genotypes of rice. (author)

  18. Interaction of sorghum tannins with wheat proteins and effects on in vitro starch digestibility in wheat flour tortillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess calorie intake and associated disease risks are a major problem in many parts of the world. Carbohydrates contribute the most calories in the diet, making starch-based foods a logical target for improvement. This study investigated the potential interaction of sorghum bran proanthocyanidins (...

  19. Outer Membrane Proteins of Fibrobacter succinogenes with Potential Roles in Adhesion to Cellulose and in Cellulose Digestion?

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Hyun-Sik; Qi, Meng; Gong, Joshua; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E.; Forsberg, Cecil W.

    2007-01-01

    Comparative analysis of binding of intact glucose-grown Fibrobacter succinogenes strain S85 cells and adhesion-defective mutants AD1 and AD4 to crystalline and acid-swollen (amorphous) cellulose showed that strain S85 bound efficiently to both forms of cellulose while mutant Ad1 bound to acid-swollen cellulose, but not to crystalline cellulose, and mutant Ad4 did not bind to either. One- and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of outer membrane cellulose binding proteins and of outer membr...

  20. Open-tubular capillary electrochromatography with bare gold nanoparticles-based stationary phase applied to separation of trypsin digested proteins.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Lacinová, Kate?ina; Zmatlíková, Zde?ka; Sedláková, Pavla; Král, V.; Sýkora, D.; ?ezanka, P.; Kaši?ka, Václav

    Olomouc : Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 2012 - (Maier, V.; Šev?ík, J.), s. 16-17 ISBN 978-80-244-3115-4. ISSN 0232-0061. [International Symposium Advances in Chromatography and Electrophoresis and Chiranal. Olomouc (CZ), 11.06.2012-14.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/0675; GA ?R(CZ) GAP206/12/0453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : open-tubular capillary electrochromatography * gold nanoparticles * glycation of proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  1. Protein engineering to explore and improve affinity ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Linhult, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In order to produce predictable and robust systems forprotein purification and detection, well characterized, small,folded domains descending from bacterial receptors have beenused. These bacterial receptors, staphylococcal protein A (SPA)and streptococcal protein G (SPG), possess high affinity to IgGand / or HSA. They are composed of repetitive units in whicheach one binds the ligand independently. The domains foldindependently and are very stable. Since the domains also havewellknown three-...

  2. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  3. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  4. Digestibilidade total e parcial e balanço nitrogenado em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementos com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Total and partial digestibility and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein and, or true protein nitrogen during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes relações entre proteína verdadeira e nitrogênio não-proteico sobre a digestibilidade, a síntese de proteína microbiana e o balanço de compostos nitrogenados em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês × Zebu, castrados, com peso vivo inicial de 335±35 kg fistulados no rúmen e no abomaso. Os tratamentos foram: controle (somente pasto; e suplementos com ureia; com 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; com 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; e com albumina. Foram fornecidos 200 g/dia de proteína bruta (PB a partir dos suplementos. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 5 × 5, com cinco períodos experimentais, cada um de 15 dias. A suplementação não afetou os coeficientes de digestibilidade total nem o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais da dieta; elevou as estimativas do coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente ruminal da PB, que migraram de negativa, no tratamento controle, para positivas, porém não diferentes de zero, nos tratamentos envolvendo suplementação. O fornecimento de suplementos elevou a concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal. O balanço de compostos nitrogenados aumentou com a suplementação. A substituição de ureia por albumina influenciou de forma cúbica o balanço de compostos nitrogenados, cuja estimativa foi maior para o suplemento com 1/3 de PB oriunda da ureia. A eficiência de síntese microbiana no rúmen não foi influenciada pelo fornecimento ou pela composição dos suplementos. A suplementação de bovinos em pastejo com fontes de compostos nitrogenados degradáveis durante o período das águas amplia a eficiência de uso do pasto, principalmente por ampliar a retenção de compostos nitrogenados no organismo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different true protein:non-protein nitrogen ratios in supplements on digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body weight and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullae were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams of crude protein (CP were daily supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. Supplementation did not affect the total digestibility coefficients or the diet content of total digestible nutrients. Supplementation increased ruminal apparent digestibility coefficient of CP, which moved from negative for the control treatment to positive, but not different from zero, for treatments involving supplementation. Supplementation increased the rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration. Nitrogen balance was enhanced by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin caused a cubic effect on the nitrogen balance, with the higher value obtained at 1/3 of supplemental CP as urea. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not influenced by supplementation or supplement composition. Supplementation with ruminal degradable nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during the rainy season increases the efficiency of use of pasture mainly by improving the body nitrogenous compounds retention.

  5. Digestibilidade total e parcial e balanço nitrogenado em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementos com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira / Total and partial digestibility and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein and, or true protein nitrogen during the rainy season

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli, Costa; Edenio, Detmann; Mário Fonseca, Paulino; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Lara Toledo, Henriques; Isabela Pena Carvalho de, Carvalho.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes relações entre proteína verdadeira e nitrogênio não-proteico sobre a digestibilidade, a síntese de proteína microbiana e o balanço de compostos nitrogenados em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandê [...] s × Zebu, castrados, com peso vivo inicial de 335±35 kg fistulados no rúmen e no abomaso. Os tratamentos foram: controle (somente pasto); e suplementos com ureia; com 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; com 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; e com albumina. Foram fornecidos 200 g/dia de proteína bruta (PB) a partir dos suplementos. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 5 × 5, com cinco períodos experimentais, cada um de 15 dias. A suplementação não afetou os coeficientes de digestibilidade total nem o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais da dieta; elevou as estimativas do coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente ruminal da PB, que migraram de negativa, no tratamento controle, para positivas, porém não diferentes de zero, nos tratamentos envolvendo suplementação. O fornecimento de suplementos elevou a concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal. O balanço de compostos nitrogenados aumentou com a suplementação. A substituição de ureia por albumina influenciou de forma cúbica o balanço de compostos nitrogenados, cuja estimativa foi maior para o suplemento com 1/3 de PB oriunda da ureia. A eficiência de síntese microbiana no rúmen não foi influenciada pelo fornecimento ou pela composição dos suplementos. A suplementação de bovinos em pastejo com fontes de compostos nitrogenados degradáveis durante o período das águas amplia a eficiência de uso do pasto, principalmente por ampliar a retenção de compostos nitrogenados no organismo. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different true protein:non-protein nitrogen ratios in supplements on digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body wei [...] ght and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullae were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture), and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams of crude protein (CP) were daily supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. Supplementation did not affect the total digestibility coefficients or the diet content of total digestible nutrients. Supplementation increased ruminal apparent digestibility coefficient of CP, which moved from negative for the control treatment to positive, but not different from zero, for treatments involving supplementation. Supplementation increased the rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration. Nitrogen balance was enhanced by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin caused a cubic effect on the nitrogen balance, with the higher value obtained at 1/3 of supplemental CP as urea. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not influenced by supplementation or supplement composition. Supplementation with ruminal degradable nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during the rainy season increases the efficiency of use of pasture mainly by improving the body nitrogenous compounds retention.

  6. Detailed insight into the expression of hordeins in different cultivars with high protein content to improve feed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkiewicz, Agnieszka Ewa; Vincze, Éva

    2010-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a very important plant used in feeding monogastric animals. Barley grain provides a high amount of energy sources (starch), vitamins and although low level proteins but in highly digestible form. Unfortunately the amino acid composition of the grain of feed cultivars is not favorable for pigs which are extensively produced in Denmark and the rest of Europe. Hordeins which are the main storage proteins of barley grain, are mostly responsible for unfavorable amino acid ...

  7. Evaluation of the digestibility of nutrients in pigs by ileal cannulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi-Galátai, M; Fébel, H; Szegedi, B; Zsolnai-Harczi, I; Huszár, S

    1996-01-01

    A simple T-cannula was surgically inserted into the ileum of growing female Large White x Dutch Landrace swine. Chymus samples collected with the help of the cannula were analysed to determine the apparent digestibility of different dietary nutrients such as dry matter, crude protein and starch, as well as of some essential amino acids. The following three experiments were conducted: (I) of the cereals, the "Tewo" triticale variety fed alone and in 1:1 concentrate mixtures with wheat or maize was studied; (II) waxy maize hybrids and maize hybrids of normal endosperm were compared without treatment and after treatment by the Bocchi technology; (III) untreated and extruded maize supplemented either with extracted soybean or with extracted sunflower was also tested. The ileal digestibility of protein, amino acids and starch was determined and compared with values obtained by conventional (faecal) analysis. When feeding triticale alone or in combination with wheat or maize, the ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids increased as a result of feeding the cereal combinations (e.g. crude protein 72-79%, lysine 75-79%, threonine 63-78%, methionine 74-86%). Comparison of the two maize hybrids revealed that, with the exception of methionine, lysine and tyrosine, the amino acids of the waxy hybrid had higher ileal digestibility. Treatment of the normal hybrid by the Bocchi technology caused a significant improvement in the ileal digestibility of cystine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, and dry matter. This treatment also improved the faecal digestibility of all test nutrients but methionine. Bocchi treatment of the waxy hybrid significantly improved the ileal digestibility of isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tyrosine and valine, and the faecal digestibility of cystine, dry matter, and crude protein. No major variety- or treatment-related differences were found in the digestibility of starch. As a result of extrusion, the digestibility of nutrients of the soybean + maize mixture increased from 61.6% to 70.3% (crude protein), from 41.1% to 59.4% (threonine), from 60.1 to 72.0% (methionine), and from 70.7% to 82.7% (lysine). The same treatment of the sunflower + maize mixture increased the digestibility of crude protein from 80.6% to 84.5%, that of threonine from 78.1% to 80.6%, that of methionine from 79.7% to 84.3%, while that of lysine from 61.4% to 72.3%. The ileal digestibility of starch was 97-98% for both mixtures. As a result of extrusion, most of the faecal digestibility values showed a significant improvement for both the soybean- and the sunflower-containing mixtures. The favourable effect exerted by extrusion on the digestibility of nutrients is markedly influenced by the feed components. PMID:9141278

  8. Analysis of the role of the gene coding the Amyloid-Precursor Protein Binding Protein 1 (APP-BP1) in the radio-sensitivity of epidermoid carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract infected by the human papillomavirus; Analyse du role du gene codant l'Amyloid-Precursor Protein Binding Protein 1 (APP-BP1) dans la radiosensibilite des carcinomes epidermoides des voies aero-digestives superieures infectees par le papillomavirus humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihard, S.; Altmeyer, A.; Ramolu, L.; Macabre, C.; Abecassis, J.; Noel, G.; Jung, A.C. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-10-15

    As the human papillomavirus (HPV) is at the origin of 25% of upper aero-digestive tract cancers, and as these tumours present an increased radio-sensitivity compared to other tumours, probably due to a greater transcriptional activity of p53, the authors report the study on the influence of a decrease of the expression of the APP-BP1 in these tumours which could favour a radio-induced apoptosis. By using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), they assessed the APP-BP1 expression levels as well as expression levels of transcriptions coding onco-proteins known to be over-expressed in HPV+ tumours. They compared the radio-sensitivities of HPV+ and HPV- cells, the first one appearing to be greater than the second one. Short communication

  9. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37°C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20°C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion. PMID:26760266

  10. Composição centesimal, lisina disponível e digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de fórmulas para nutrição oral ou enteral / Proximate composition, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of proteins in formulae for oral or enteral nutrition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edma M., Araújo; Hilary C., Menezes.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultimamente tem-se verificado aumento do uso de nutrição enteral (NE) em domicílio, objetivando reduzir custos e melhorar a qualidade de vida. Contudo, é importante monitorar o valor nutricional das dietas. Nesse estudo foram avaliadas as formulações F1 e F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999) contendo carne b [...] ovina, ovo (F1), chicória, cenoura, fubá de milho, extrato hidrossolúvel de soja, óleo de soja, Nidex® e sal, para uso em NE ou oral domiciliar, objetivando obter dados mais confiáveis e seguros. Foram determinadas: composição centesimal, digestibilidade in vitro e lisina disponível. As composições centesimais (base seca) foram as seguintes: F1: calorias 454,69, umidade 79,29±0,07, proteína 17,04±0,06, lipídios 14,85±0,11, carboidratos 63,22, fibra alimentar solúvel 0,67±0,66 e insolúvel 1,65±0,73, cinzas 2,57±0,01; F2: calorias 463,92, umidade 78,96±0,09, proteína 16,56±0,09, lipídios 15,12±0,20, fibra alimentar solúvel 1,09±0,11 e insolúvel 1,84±0,09, carboidratos 65,40 e cinzas 2,63±0,08. A distribuição calórica mostrou-se adequada. Os teores de lisina eram 80 mg/g de proteína para F1 e 139 para F2. A digestibilidade (%) das proteínas foi 95 para F1 e 93 para F2. As formulações são factíveis de preparo em domicílio, possuem fontes de proteína de boa qualidade, baixo custo, podendo atender às necessidades nutricionais de indivíduos em terapia nutricional domiciliar e promover a recuperação nutricional. Abstract in english Recently the use of home enteral nutrition (EN) has increased, aimed at reducing costs and improving the quality of life. Monitoring the nutritional value of these diets is therefore important. In this study the formulations F1 and F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999) containing beef, egg (F1), chicory, carr [...] ot, corn grits, ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex® and salt, ere evaluated for use in home EN, aiming at obtaining more reliable, safer data. The follo ing ere determined: proximate composition, in vitro digestibility and available lysine. The proximate compositions (d b) of the formulations ere: F1: 454.69Kcal, moisture 79.29±0.07, protein 17.04±0.06, lipids 14.85±0.11, carbohydrates 63.22, soluble 0.67±0.66 and insoluble 1.65±0.73 fiber and ash 2.57±0.01; F2: 463.92Kcal, moisture 78.96±0.09, protein 16.56±0.09, lipids 15.12±0.20, soluble 1.09±0.11 and insoluble 1.84±0.09 fiber, carbohydrates 65.40 and ash 2.63±0.08. The caloric distribution as sho n to be adequate. The lysine contents in mg/g of protein ere 80 for F1 and 139 for F2 and % protein digestibility as 95% for F1 and 93% for F2. The formulations ere adequate for domestic preparation and contained good quality, lo cost protein sources, capable of attending the nutritional requirements of individuals using home EN, promoting nutritional recovery.

  11. Composição centesimal, lisina disponível e digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de fórmulas para nutrição oral ou enteral Proximate composition, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of proteins in formulae for oral or enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma M. Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultimamente tem-se verificado aumento do uso de nutrição enteral (NE em domicílio, objetivando reduzir custos e melhorar a qualidade de vida. Contudo, é importante monitorar o valor nutricional das dietas. Nesse estudo foram avaliadas as formulações F1 e F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999 contendo carne bovina, ovo (F1, chicória, cenoura, fubá de milho, extrato hidrossolúvel de soja, óleo de soja, Nidex® e sal, para uso em NE ou oral domiciliar, objetivando obter dados mais confiáveis e seguros. Foram determinadas: composição centesimal, digestibilidade in vitro e lisina disponível. As composições centesimais (base seca foram as seguintes: F1: calorias 454,69, umidade 79,29±0,07, proteína 17,04±0,06, lipídios 14,85±0,11, carboidratos 63,22, fibra alimentar solúvel 0,67±0,66 e insolúvel 1,65±0,73, cinzas 2,57±0,01; F2: calorias 463,92, umidade 78,96±0,09, proteína 16,56±0,09, lipídios 15,12±0,20, fibra alimentar solúvel 1,09±0,11 e insolúvel 1,84±0,09, carboidratos 65,40 e cinzas 2,63±0,08. A distribuição calórica mostrou-se adequada. Os teores de lisina eram 80 mg/g de proteína para F1 e 139 para F2. A digestibilidade (% das proteínas foi 95 para F1 e 93 para F2. As formulações são factíveis de preparo em domicílio, possuem fontes de proteína de boa qualidade, baixo custo, podendo atender às necessidades nutricionais de indivíduos em terapia nutricional domiciliar e promover a recuperação nutricional.Recently the use of home enteral nutrition (EN has increased, aimed at reducing costs and improving the quality of life. Monitoring the nutritional value of these diets is therefore important. In this study the formulations F1 and F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999 containing beef, egg (F1, chicory, carrot, corn grits, ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex® and salt, ere evaluated for use in home EN, aiming at obtaining more reliable, safer data. The follo ing ere determined: proximate composition, in vitro digestibility and available lysine. The proximate compositions (d b of the formulations ere: F1: 454.69Kcal, moisture 79.29±0.07, protein 17.04±0.06, lipids 14.85±0.11, carbohydrates 63.22, soluble 0.67±0.66 and insoluble 1.65±0.73 fiber and ash 2.57±0.01; F2: 463.92Kcal, moisture 78.96±0.09, protein 16.56±0.09, lipids 15.12±0.20, soluble 1.09±0.11 and insoluble 1.84±0.09 fiber, carbohydrates 65.40 and ash 2.63±0.08. The caloric distribution as sho n to be adequate. The lysine contents in mg/g of protein ere 80 for F1 and 139 for F2 and % protein digestibility as 95% for F1 and 93% for F2. The formulations ere adequate for domestic preparation and contained good quality, lo cost protein sources, capable of attending the nutritional requirements of individuals using home EN, promoting nutritional recovery.

  12. Digestibilidade e retenção de nitrogênio de alimentos para papagaios verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva) / Digestibility and protein retention of foods for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado, Saad; Walter Motta, Ferreira; Flávia Maria de Oliveira, Borges; Leonardo Boscoli, Lara.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 34 papagaios verdadeiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas e distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em 17 tratamentos (T1 - ração referência, T2 - semente de girassol, T3 - aveia, T4 - gema de ovo, T5 - ovo integral, T6 - clara de ovo, T7 - germe de trigo, T8 - farelo de trigo, T9 - milho mo [...] ído, T10 - milho gelatinizado, T11- farelo de girassol, T12 - levedura, T13 - polpa cítrica, T14 - mamão, T15 - banana, T16 - farelo de soja, T17 - soja micronizada), durante três períodos de colheita, totalizando seis repetições (102 unidades experimentais). Para avaliação dos alimentos utilizou-se a técnica de substituição. Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS) e matéria orgânica (MO) e a retenção de nitrogênio dos alimentos, comparando os tratamentos dois a 17, sendo que o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 16 tratamentos, três períodos experimentais e seis repetições. O tratamento um (ração referência) foi utilizado apenas para os cálculos de substituição, não fazendo parte das análises estatísticas. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Scott-Knott. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1 - Os papagaios apresentaram alta digestibilidade da MS e MO para os alimentos: milho gelatinizado, gema de ovo, semente de girassol, aveia, ovo integral, milho moído, mamão e banana, podendo ser considerados como boas opções de escolha para a composição de uma dieta completa; 2 - alimentos como a polpa cítrica e o farelo de girassol apresentaram baixas digestibilidades aparente e verdadeira da MS e MO, e devem ser utilizados em níveis baixos e com moderação na formulação de rações para estas aves; 3 - a retenção de nitrogênio verdadeiro foi positiva para todas as aves, sugerindo que ainda estejam em anabolismo, entretanto, devido ao alto coeficiente de variação, esta medida parece não ser adequada para expressar o coeficiente real de retenção de nitrogênio para papagaios. Abstract in english Were used 34 blue fronted parrot, distributed in blocks with 17 treatments (T1 - reference diet, T2 - sunflower seed, T3 - oat, T4 - egg yolk, T5 - integral egg, T6 - egg white, T7 - wheat germen, T8 - wheat bran, T9 - triturated corn, T10 - jellied corn, T11 - sunflower bran, T12 - yeast, T13 - cit [...] ric pulp, T14 - papaya, T15 - banana, T16 - soy bran, T17 - extruded soy) during three periods, totaling six repetitions (102 experimental units). For foods evaluation the substitution methodology was used. They were appraised the digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) and the protein retention of the evaluated foods. Were compared the treatments two to 17. The treatment 1 (reference diet) it was just used for the substitution calculations, not being part of the statistical analyses. The averages were compared by the test Scott-Knott. The obtained results allowed to conclude that: 1 - foods as the jellied corn, the egg yolk and the sunflower seed, as well as the oat, integral egg, triturated corn, papaya and banana, they possess high DM and OM digestibility for parrots, could be considered as good choice options for the composition of a complete diet; 2 - foods as the citric pulp and the sunflower bran presented low apparent and true digestibility of the DM and OM and they should be used in low levels and with moderation in the formulation of rations for these birds; 3 - the true nitrogen retention was positive for all the birds, what suggests that the same ones can be depositing still tissues, however, due to the high variation coefficient, this measured it seems not to be adapted to express the real nitrogen retention coefficient for parrots.

  13. Improved protein labeling by stannous tartrate reduction of pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed whereby small amounts of protein - specifically human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G - can be labeled with Tc-99m. Artifactual problems associated with electrolytic and stannous chloride labeling procedures are virtually eliminated. The procedure is satisfactory for labeling human serum albumin, normal goat immunoglobulin G, and goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoglobulin G

  14. Latest improvements in CIEF: From proteins to microorganisms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Ji?í; Kubesová, Anna; Horká, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 12, 19-20 (2012), s. 2927-2936. ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : CIEF * proteins * microbiology Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.132, year: 2012

  15. Advances in improving mammalian cells metabolism for recombinant protein production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Altamirano; Julio, Berrios; Mauricio, Vergara; Silvana, Becerra.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: The production of recombinant proteins for therapeutic use represents a great impact on the biotechnology industry. In this context, established mammalian cell lines, especially CHO cells, have become a standard system for the production of such proteins. Their ability to properly config [...] ure and excrete proteins in functional form is an enormous advantage which should be contrasted with their inherent technological limitations. These cell systems exhibit a metabolic behaviour associated with elevated cell proliferation which involves a high consumption of glucose and glutamine, resulting in the rapid depletion of these nutrients in the medium and the accumulation of ammonium and lactate. Both phenomena contribute to the limitation of cell growth, the triggering of apoptotic processes and the loss of quality of the recombinant protein. Results: In this review, the use of alternative substrates and genetic modifications (host cell engineering) are analyzed as tools to overcome those limitations. In general, the results obtained are promising. However, metabolic and physiological phenomena involved in CHO cells are still barely understood. Thus, most of publications are focused on specific modifications rather than giving a systemic perspective. Conclusions: A deeper insight in the integrated understanding of metabolism and cell mechanisms is required in order to define complementary strategies at these two levels, so providing effective means to control nutrients consumption, reduce by-products and increase process productivity.

  16. Genetic improvement of soybean seed proteins by ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although soybeans have the highest protein content among seed crops, the protein quality is poor due to the low content of the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Soybean 7S globulin and 11S globulin are the two major protein components, accounting for about 70% of the total seed protein. The 11S globulin contains three to four times more methionine and cysteine per unit protein than that of the 7S globulin. Furthermore, the two globulins show considerable differences in food processing properties such as gel-making ability and emulsifying capacity. The 7S globulin is composed of three kinds of polypeptides, designated as ?, ?' and ? subunits. A variety of soybean cv. Keburi, which lacks ?' subunit was identified in a germplasm collection. An induced mutant line which lacks both ? and ?' subunits, was recently identified in the progeny of ?-ray-irradiated seeds from a line lacking ?' subunit. On the other hand, the 11S globulin is composed of the A1aB2, A1bB1b, A2B1a, A3B4 and A4A5B3 subunits. It has become possible to breed soybeans with markedly modified protein composition from extremely high to extremely low 7S : 11S ratios using mutant genes for the subunits of the two globulins. Lipoxygenase catalyzes the hydroperoxydation of unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated lipids. Soybean seeds contain three lipoxygenase isozymes, called L-1, L-2 and L-3, which are responsible for the generation of grassy-beany and bitter tastes, limiting the use of whole soybeans and soy proteins in certain food products. In the early 1980s, three types of spontaneous mutant soybean varieties lacking L-1, L-2 or L-3 were detected. Soybean cultivars having the lipoxygenase-null traits could become economically valuable for the manufacture of soy products such as soy milk due to their low levels of beany taste and their enhanced storage stability. (J.P.N.)

  17. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  18. Screening of Protease Producing Fungi for Microbial Digestion of Seed Proteins and Synthesis of Amino Acids-metalnutrient Chelates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of metalnutrient deficiency is becoming more serious with the introduction of modern agricultural practices. As a result, metalnutrient deficiency is recognized as one of the critical yield limiting factors. Metalnutrients are generally offered in their sulphate or oxide forms. However, it is reported that organically bound minerals generally have a higher bioavailability than inorganic minerals. Chelation makes otherwise unavailable metalnutrients plant available. Amino acids are well known among various chelating agents. In present investigation the fungus Paecilomyces variotii PR-4 was isolated from soil and was used for production of protease and determination of its activity. Proteins from germinating seeds of chick pea, mung bean, soybean and cowpea were hydrolyzed for the production of amino acids. Amino acids were recovered, estimated and utilized for chelation of metalnutrients viz., Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, B and Mo. The resultant chelates were employed to detect with Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR analysis. The peaks of most intensive bands in the IR spectra of ligands recorded were present in the intervals of the wave numbers 3500-3300 and 1720-1700 cm-1. Chelation of metalnutrients led to the broadening of peak and changes of the peak position of hydroxyl groups, which indicated the binding of the carboxylic groups and primary amine groups of amino acids to the metalnutrients. The resultant amino acids-metalnutrient chelates can be utilized as organic fertilizer.

  19. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and pr