WorldWideScience

Sample records for impervious soils

  1. Depleted soil carbon and nitrogen pools beneath impervious surfaces

    Urban soils and vegetation contain large pools of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and may sequester these elements at considerable rates; however, there have been no systematic studies of the composition of soils beneath the impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas. This has made it impossible to reliably estimate the net impact of urbanization on terrestrial C and N pools. In this study, we compared open area and impervious-covered soils in New York City and found that the C and N content of the soil (0–15 cm) under impervious surfaces was 66% and 95% lower, respectively. Analysis of extracellular enzyme activities in the soils suggests that recalcitrant compounds dominate the organic matter pool under impervious surfaces. If the differences between impervious-covered and open area soils represent a loss of C and N from urban ecosystems, the magnitude of these losses could offset sequestration in other parts of the urban landscape. - The soils beneath impervious surfaces are depleted in C and N, which may have implications for the energy and nutrient balance of urban ecosystems.

  2. Density and Stability of Soil Organic Carbon beneath Impervious Surfaces in Urban Areas

    Wei, Zongqiang; WU, SHAOHUA; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those i...

  3. Density and stability of soil organic carbon beneath impervious surfaces in urban areas.

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0-20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (Pdensities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks. PMID:25299685

  4. Elevated soil CO2 efflux at the boundaries between impervious surfaces and urban greenspaces

    Wu, XiaoGang; Hu, Dan; Ma, ShengLi; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Zhen; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-09-01

    Impervious surfaces and greenspaces have significant impacts on ecological processes and ecosystem services in urban areas. However, there have been no systematic studies of how the interaction between the two forms of land cover, and especially their edge effects, influence ecosystem properties. This has made it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of urban greenspace design in meeting environmental goals. In this study, we investigated edge effects on soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in Beijing and found that soil CO2 flux rates were averagely 73% higher 10 cm inwards from the edge of greenspaces. Distance, soil temperature, moisture, and their interaction significantly influenced soil CO2 flux rates. The magnitude and distance of edge effects differed among impervious structure types. Current greening policy and design should be adjusted to avoid the carbon sequestration service of greenspaces being limited by their fragmentation.

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of urban environment based on the vegetation-impervious surface-soil model

    Guo, Huadong; Huang, Qingni; Li, Xinwu; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores a spatiotemporal comparative analysis of urban agglomeration, comparing the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) of Canada and the city of Tianjin in China. The vegetation-impervious surface-soil (V-I-S) model is used to quantify the ecological composition of urban/peri-urban environments with multitemporal Landsat images (3 stages, 18 scenes) and LULC data from 1985 to 2005. The support vector machine algorithm and several knowledge-based methods are applied to get the V-I-S component fractions at high accuracies. The statistical results show that the urban expansion in the GTHA occurred mainly between 1985 and 1999, and only two districts revealed increasing trends for impervious surfaces for the period from 1999 to 2005. In contrast, Tianjin has been experiencing rapid urban sprawl at all stages and this has been accelerating since 1999. The urban growth patterns in the GTHA evolved from a monocentric and dispersed pattern to a polycentric and aggregated pattern, while in Tianjin it changed from monocentric to polycentric. Central Tianjin has become more centralized, while most other municipal areas have developed dispersed patterns. The GTHA also has a higher level of greenery and a more balanced ecological environment than Tianjin. These differences in the two areas may play an important role in urban planning and decision-making in developing countries.

  6. Changing spatial patterns of evapotranspiration and deep drainage in response to the interactions among impervious surface arrangement, soil characteristics, and weather on a residential parcel.

    Voter, C. B.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The introduction impervious surfaces in urban areas is a key driver of hydrologic change. It is now well understood that the amount of "effective" impervious area directly connected to the storm sewer network is a better indicator of hydrologic behavior than the total amount of impervious area. Most studies in urban hydrology have focused on the relationship between impervious connectivity and stormwater runoff or other surface water flows, with the result that the effect on subsurface flow is not as well understood. In the field, we observe differences in soil moisture availability that are dependent on proximity to impervious features and significant from a root water uptake perspective, which indicates that parcel-scale subsurface and plant water fluxes may also be sensitive to fine-scaled heterogeneity in impervious surface arrangement and connectivity. We use ParFlow with CLM, a watershed model with fully integrated variably-saturated subsurface flow, overland flow, and land-surface processes, to explore the extent to which soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and deep drainage vary under various impervious surface arrangement and soil condition scenarios, as well as under a range of precipitation regimes. We investigate the effect of several impervious surface and soil characteristics, including general lot layout, downspout disconnect, and direction of driveway/sidewalk slope, and soil compaction. We show that that some impervious connectivity schemes transfer more water from impervious areas to pervious ones and promote localized recharge by developing well-defined, fast-moving wetting fronts that are able to penetrate the root zone. Enhanced infiltration is translated more directly to recharge in normal to wet years but partitioned more often to transpiration in dry years, leading to a nonlinear relationship among precipitation, runoff and recharge.

  7. Impacts of impervious surface expansion on soil organic carbon--a spatially explicit study.

    Yan, Yan; Kuang, Wenhui; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Chunbo

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of impervious surface areas (ISA) threatens soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in urbanized areas globally. The paucity of field observations on SOC under ISA (SOCISA), especially in dryland areas has limited our ability to assess the ecological impacts of ISA expansion. Based on systematically measured SOCISA (0-80 cm depth) of a dryland city, and land-use and land-cover change data derived from remotely sensed data, we investigated the magnitude and vertical/horizontal patterns of SOCISA and mapped the impact of ISA expansion on SOC storage. The mean SOCISA in the city was 5.36 ± 0.51 kg C m(-2), lower than that observed in humid cities but much higher than that assumed in many regional carbon assessments. SOCISA decreased linearly as the soil depth or the horizontal distance from the open area increased. SOCISA accounted for over half of the city's SOC stock, which decreased by 16% (primarily in the converted croplands) because of ISA expansion from 1990 to 2010. The impacts of the ISA expansion varied spatially, depending on the land- use and converted land-cover type. PMID:26642831

  8. Impacts of impervious surface expansion on soil organic carbon - a spatially explicit study

    Yan, Yan; Kuang, Wenhui; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Chunbo

    2015-12-01

    The rapid expansion of impervious surface areas (ISA) threatens soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in urbanized areas globally. The paucity of field observations on SOC under ISA (SOCISA), especially in dryland areas has limited our ability to assess the ecological impacts of ISA expansion. Based on systematically measured SOCISA (0-80 cm depth) of a dryland city, and land-use and land-cover change data derived from remotely sensed data, we investigated the magnitude and vertical/horizontal patterns of SOCISA and mapped the impact of ISA expansion on SOC storage. The mean SOCISA in the city was 5.36 ± 0.51 kg C m-2, lower than that observed in humid cities but much higher than that assumed in many regional carbon assessments. SOCISA decreased linearly as the soil depth or the horizontal distance from the open area increased. SOCISA accounted for over half of the city’s SOC stock, which decreased by 16% (primarily in the converted croplands) because of ISA expansion from 1990 to 2010. The impacts of the ISA expansion varied spatially, depending on the land- use and converted land-cover type.

  9. Percent of Impervious Cover

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  10. A case study on the urban impervious surface distribution based on a BCI index

    Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Genyun; Wang, Zhenjie

    2015-12-01

    Endmember selection is the key to success in pixel unmixing which plays an important role in urban impervious surface abundance extraction. During the extraction, however, there has been a problem for the discrimination of impervious surfaces and soils because of their similarity in spectral. This increase the difficulty in distinguishes impervious surface and soil in endmember selection. To address this issue, in the current study, the biophysical composition index (BCI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) were introduced to enhance the information of impervious surface and bare soil in the study area. Then, by selecting high albedo, low albedo, soil and vegetation endmembers with the utilization of the histogram of the indices and minimum noise fraction (MNF) scatter plot, we applied spectral mixture analysis (SMA) to extract impervious surface abundance. The scene of multispectral Landsat TM image was acquired allowing for the interpretation and analysis of impervious surfaces distribution. Experiments and comparisons indicate that this method performs well in estimating subpixel impervious surface distribution with relatively high precision and small bias.

  11. Improvement of Urban Impervious Surface Estimation in Shanghai Using Landsat7 ETM+ Data

    YUE Wenze

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the potential to improve the impervious surface estimation accuracy using a multi-stage approach on the basis of vegetation-impervious surface-soil (V-I-S) model. In the first stage of Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) process, pixel purity index, a quantitative index for defining endmember quality, and a 3-dimensional endmember selection method were applied to refining endmembers. In the second stage, instead of obtaining impervi-ous surface fraction by adding high and low albedo fractions directly, a linear regression model was built between im-pervious surface and high/low albedo using a random sampling method. The urban impervious surface distribution in the urban central area of Shanghai was predicted by the linear regression model. Estimation accuracy of spectral mix-ture analysis and impervious surface fraction were assessed using root mean square (RMS) and color aerial photogra-phy respectively. In comparison with three different research methods, this improved estimation method has a higher overall accuracy than traditional Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA) method and the normalized SMA model both in root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE). However, the model has a tendency to overestimate the impervious surface distribution.

  12. Semi Impervious Subsurface Barrier for Water Conservation in Lateritic Formations

    Udayakumar, G.; Mayya, S. G.

    2014-09-01

    The coastal districts of Karnataka in west coast of India experience acute shortage of drinking water during dry season in spite of heavy monsoon rains. Though sufficient recharge of ground water takes place, depletion of water table is very quick, once the rain recedes. It is mainly attributed to the presence of porous and highly permeable laterites and lateritic soils. The hydraulic conductivity of these soils varies in the range of 10-4 to 10-5 cm/s. The conventional water harvesting methods fail to solve the problem. It is necessary to explore innovative method to regulate the lateral subsurface flow and maintain a high water table over a prolonged period of time. The present work is an attempt to explore the possibility of using semi impervious Subsurface Barrier (SSB) to regulate and control the lateral flow of water in the unconfined aquifer in lateritic formations. Appropriate barrier material is arrived at using the locally available soil and the required properties are established. A SSB is built in a suitable location in an identified microwatershed using lateritic soil and the composite soil prepared by mixing requisite percentage of lateritic soil and clay. The hydraulic conductivity of these soils is maintained in the range of 10-6 to 10-7 cm/s so as to behave as semi impervious. The performance analysis is carried out by observing water levels in selected open observation wells before and after the construction of the barrier. The results have shown the successful performance of SSB in maintaining a high water table over a prolonged period of time during summer months, both in u/s and d/s of the barrier.

  13. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  14. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  15. Rerouting Urban Waters: A Historic Examination of the Age of Imperviousness

    Hopkins, K. G.; Bain, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    also created new flooding issues downstream of outfalls. Improvements to transit networks also increased mobility and connected towns together facilitating the expansion of development. Significant losses of urban tree canopy cover and the loss of water storage capacity in soils compounded issues, dramatically increasing effective imperviousness. From 1940 - 1960 concerns over polluted waterways resulted in the re-routing of sewage networks from streams to treatment facilities, decreasing sewage subsidies to effective imperviousness. However, connection of stormwater drainage networks to sewage infrastructure designed for earlier flow regimes and the increasing effective imperviousness resulted in frequent overflows of sewage directly to local waterways. Currently, aging infrastructure presents the opportunity to incorporate low impact development techniques in infrastructure repair. This has the potential to reduce effective imperviousness in urban areas by re-establishing lost hydrologic flow paths. This research indicates imperviousness as a parameter incorporates a complicated mix of processes. Examining the causal, mechanistic links between these systems can provide additional perspective on water impairments in urban landscapes throughout the course of landscape evolution.

  16. Performance of heterogeneous earthfill dams under earthquakes: optimal location of the impervious core

    S. López-Querol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthfill dams are man-made geostructures which may be especially damaged by seismic loadings, because the soil skeleton they are made of suffers remarkable modifications in its mechanical properties, as well as changes of pore water pressure and flow of this water inside their pores, when subjected to vibrations. The most extreme situation is the dam failure due to soil liquefaction. Coupled finite element numerical codes are a useful tool to assess the safety of these dams. In this paper the application of a fully coupled numerical model, previously developed and validated by the authors, to a set of theoretical cross sections of earthfill dams with impervious core, is presented. All these dams are same height and have the same volume of impervious material at the core. The influence of the core location inside the dam on its response against seismic loading is numerically explored. The dams are designed as strictly stable under static loads. As a result of this research, a design recommendation on the location of the impervious core is obtained for this type of earth dams, on the basis of the criteria of minor liquefaction risk, minor soil degradation during the earthquake and minor crest settlement.

  17. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Percent Impervious for the Conterminous United States

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset shows the percentage of Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit hydrologic unit (HUC) that is classified as impervious by the 2006 National Land...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  2. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  5. Effect and relevance of the artificial drainage system when assessing the hydrologic impact of the imperviousness distribution within the watershed

    Thenoux, M.; Gironas, J. A.; Mejia, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cities and urban growth have relevant environmental and social impacts, which could eventually be enhanced or reduced during the urban planning process. From the point of view of hydrology, impermeability and natural soil compaction are one of the main problems that urbanization brings to watershed. Previous studies demonstrate and quantify the impacts of the distribution of imperviousness in a watershed, both on runoff volumes and flow, and the quality and integrity of streams and receiving bodies. Moreover, some studies have investigated the optimal distribution of imperviousness, based on simulating different scenarios of land use change and its effects on runoff, mostly at the outlet of the watershed. However, these studies typically do not address the impact of artificial drainage system associated with the imperviousness scenarios, despite it is known that storm sewer coverage affects the flow accumulation and generation of flow hydrographs. This study seeks to quantify the effects and relevance of the artificial system when it comes to assess the hydrological impacts of the spatial distribution of imperviousness and to determine the characteristics of this influence. For this purpose, an existing model to generate imperviousness distribution scenarios is coupled with a model developed to automatically generate artificial drainage networks. These models are applied to a natural watershed to generate a variety of imperviousness and storm sewer layout scenarios, which are evaluate with a morphoclimatic instantaneous unit hydrograph model. We first tested the ability of this approach to represent the joint effects of imperviousness (i.e. level and distribution) and storm sewer coverage. We then quantified the effects of these variables on the hydrological response, considering also different return period in order to take into account the variability of the precipitation regime. Overall, we show that the layout and spatial coverage of the storm sewer system

  6. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii 201301 TIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  7. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010),...

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska 201301 TIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  9. Remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces for pluvial flood modelling

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Drews, Martin

    This paper investigates the accuracy of medium resolution (MR) satellite imagery in estimating impervious surfaces for European cities at the detail required for pluvial flood modelling. Using remote sensing techniques enables precise and systematic quantification of the influence of the past 30...

  10. How does imperviousness develop and affect runoff generation in an urbanizing watershed?

    Gerald Krebs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness associated with urbanization remains one of the biggest challenges in sustainable urban design. The replacement of forests, marshlands, buffers, and wetlands with impervious surfaces, strongly influences hydrological processes in urbanizing areas. This study analyzed the contribution of four constructed surfaces types – roofs, yards, roads, and an international airport – to surface runoff within a 21 km2 watershed, and presents the development over five decades (1977−2030. The land-cover model, used to assess watershed imperviousness in 2030, utilized coefficients between impervious areas generating surface runoff and the floor area, developed during the study. The conducted imperviousness analysis allowed the evaluation of land-use development impacts on the stream network, and the identification of hydrologically active areas for urban planning and stormwater management. Research revealed the importance of yard imperviousness related to suburban residential housing for stormwater runoff generation, and the impacts of transport-related imperviousness on stormwater runoff.

  11. Integrating seasonal optical and thermal infrared spectra to characterize urban impervious surfaces with extreme spectral complexity: a Shanghai case study

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Xinfeng; Ji, Minhe

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent rapid advancement in remote sensing technology, accurate mapping of the urban landscape in China still faces a great challenge due to unusually high spectral complexity in many big cities. Much of this complication comes from severe spectral confusion of impervious surfaces with polluted water bodies and bright bare soils. This paper proposes a two-step land cover decomposition method, which combines optical and thermal spectra from different seasons to cope with the issue of urban spectral complexity. First, a linear spectral mixture analysis was employed to generate fraction images for three preliminary endmembers (high albedo, low albedo, and vegetation). Seasonal change analysis on land surface temperature induced from thermal infrared spectra and coarse component fractions obtained from the first step was then used to reduce the confusion between impervious surfaces and nonimpervious materials. This method was tested with two-date Landsat multispectral data in Shanghai, one of China's megacities. The results showed that the method was capable of consistently estimating impervious surfaces in highly complex urban environments with an accuracy of R2 greater than 0.70 and both root mean square error and mean average error less than 0.20 for all test sites. This strategy seemed very promising for landscape mapping of complex urban areas.

  12. EFFECT OF BROKEN IMPERVIOUS IRON LAYER ON WATER AVAILABILITY TO SEMI-ARID NORTHERN GHANAIAN FERRIC LIXISOLS

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater is not readily available to sandy loam Ghanaian ferric lixisols. In an attempt to increase water availability to Nyankpala ferric lixisols, their impervious iron pan was broken. Average yield (number of bags of maize from ferric lexisol with ironpan broken was compared with that with iron pan unbroken. At an average annual rainfall of 64.125 to 106.775 mm for Nyampkala, ferric lexisol with or without iron pan broken yielded similar quantity (20-25bgs/ha of maize. Breaking of ironpan alone cannot increase water availability to Nyankpala ferric lixisols. Measures other than the breaking of iron pan are needed to increase water availability to ferreiclesisols and similar soils. Research into sustainable technologies such as permanent amendments for increased soil water availability to ferric lixisol and similar soils is required.

  13. Procedure to detect impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (lidar) data

    Rodríguez-Cuenca, B.; Alonso-Rodríguez, M. C.; Domenech-Tofiño, E.; Valcárcel Sanz, N.; Delgado-Hernández, J.; Peces-Morera, Juan José; Arozarena-Villar, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The detection of impervious surfaces is an important issue in the study of urban and rural environments. Imperviousness refers to water's inability to pass through a surface. Although impervious surfaces represent a small percentage of the Earth's surface, knowledge of their locations is relevant to planning and managing human activities. Impervious structures are primarily manmade (e.g., roads and rooftops). Impervious surfaces are an environmental concern because many processes that modify the normal function of land, air, and water resources are initiated during their construction. This paper presents a novel method of identifying impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The inputs for the procedure are SPOT images formed by four spectral bands (corresponding to red, green, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths), a digital terrain model, and an .las file. The proposed method computes five decision indexes from the input data to classify the studied area into two categories: impervious (subdivided into buildings and roads) and non-impervious surfaces. The impervious class is divided into two subclasses because the elements forming this category (mainly roads and rooftops) have different spectral and height properties, and it is difficult to combine these elements into one group. The classification is conducted using a decision tree procedure. For every decision index, a threshold is set for which every surface is considered impervious or non-impervious. The proposed method has been applied to four different regions located in the north, center, and south of Spain, providing satisfactory results for every dataset.

  14. Experimental and discrete element numerical analysis of side slope instability induced by fissure water underlying impervious bed

    LIU; Bingshan; LI; Shihai; ZHANG; Lei

    2005-01-01

    When the sliding mass contains impervious bed, rainfall can infiltrate into mountain via crevices and form higher artesian aquifer at impervious bed inferior. This will decrease slip resistance and increase sliding forces of the sliding mass, thus lowering the safety factor, and inducing landslide disasters. In this paper, a landslide experimental apparatus is designed for experimental studies on the mechanism of this type of landslides. Meanwhile, the non-dimensional parameters in the model experiment are taken into account using dimensional analysis. The experimental results show that (1) the ratio of the cleft water pressure to the overlying pressure is a crucial parameter affecting the stability of the slope; (2) when the shut-in pressure reaches 80% of the normal component of the pressure on the slip surface made up of rock and soil, landslide will occur; (3) the whole slope will start to slide when the shut-in pressure is equal to the normal component of the pressure formed by the overlying rock and soil on the upper 30% area. In this article, a discrete element method simulation is used to investigate the influence of cleft water pressure and shearing strength on the landslide stability. It can be concluded that the critical value of Ccr, ψcr, which determines the slide mass stability,increases with the increase of the water pressure; if the water pressure reaches a high level, the stability of the slide mass depends mainly on C, while the influence of ψ becomes smaller than C.

  15. A tetrahedron-based endmember selection approach for urban impervious surface mapping.

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The pixel purity index (PPI and two-dimensional (2-D scatter plots are two popular techniques for endmember extraction in remote sensing spectral mixture analysis, yet both suffer from one major drawback, that is, the selection of a final set of endmembers has to endure a cumbersome process of iterative visual inspection and human intervention, especially when a spectrally-complex urban scene is involved. Within the conceptual framework of a V-H-L-S (vegetation-high albedo-low albedo-soil model, which is expanded from the classic V-I-S (vegetation-impervious surface-soil model, a tetrahedron-based endmember selection approach combined with a multi-objective optimization genetic algorithm (MOGA was designed to identify urban endmembers from multispectral imagery. The tetrahedron defining the enclosing volume of MNF-transformed pixels in a three-dimensional (3-D space was algorithmically sought, so that the tetrahedral vertices can ideally match the four components of the adopted model. A case study with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ satellite imagery in Shanghai, China was conducted to verify the validity of the method. The method performance was compared with those of the traditional PPI and 2-D scatter plots approaches. The results indicated that the tetrahedron-based endmember selection approach performed better in both accuracy and ease of identification for urban surface endmembers owing to the 3-D visualization analysis and use of the MOGA.

  16. Rationale for the use of protective gaskets made of geotextiles and permeability evaluation of impervious coatings made of geomembranes

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design rationale for the use of protective pads of geotextiles and geomembranes permeability of PD using these pads. In order to justify the use of protective pads made of geotextile for reducing the defectiveness geomembrane soil fractions, the existing formulas to determine the thickness of the film element of impervious devices were examined. The calculations according to the formulas show that HDPE geomembrane with a minimum thickness of 1,0 mm, the protective lining of the geotextile should be applied at the average diameter fractions of soil of more than 6,5 mm, and for geomembranes HDPE - at a diameter of soil fractions of over 15,5 mm. In order to estimate the permeability of the TFG geomembrane using additional protective linings of geotextile in the scientific article the basic design schemes of such coatings with one and two layers of protective linings of geotextiles were considered. The evaluation results of water permeability of impervious surfaces with geotextile and for comparison - without geotextiles are given in a table. As it is shown by the data presented for the design scheme with a single layer of geotextile geomembrane at the base (in the presence of small holes in the geomembrane the decrease the effectiveness of an anti-covering is more than 268,0 %, and for the settlement scheme covering with two layers of geotextile there will be a very large reduction in the efficiency, which almost completely reduces the effectiveness of the coating to the value of the geomembrane permeability of a soil layer without geomembrane with the filtration flow rate of 71,75 m /day, against water permeability of the geomembrane cover - 38,52 m /day. From the foregoing, it can be concluded that the application of a coating design of well filtering gaskets made of geotextile is justified in terms of protecting the geomembrane from mechanical damage, but greatly reduces the effectiveness of impervious cover in

  17. An Integrated Method for Mapping Impervious and Pervious Areas in Urban Environments Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Hashemi Beni, L.; McArdle, S.; Khayer, Y.

    2014-11-01

    As urbanization continues to increase and extreme climatic events become more prevalent, urban planners and engineers are actively implementing adaptive measures to protect urban assets and communities. To support the urban planning adaptation process, mapping of impervious and pervious areas is essential to understanding the hydrodynamic environment within urban areas for flood risk planning. The application of advance geospatial data and analytical techniques using remote sensing and GIS can improve land surface characterization to better quantify surface run-off and infiltration. This study presents a method to combine airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data for classifying pervious (e.g. vegetation, gravel, and soil) and impervious (e.g. asphalt and concrete) areas within road allowance areas for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. Hyperspectral data was acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) at 1 m ground spatial resolution, consisting of 72 spectral bands, and LiDAR data acquired from Leica Airborne LiDAR system at a density of 20 points/m2. A spectral library was established using 10 cm orthophotography and GIS data to identify surface features. In addition to spectral functions such as mean and standard deviation, several spectral indices were developed to discriminate between asphalt, concrete, gravel, vegetation, and shadows respectively. A spectral analysis of selected endmembers was conducted and an initial classification technique was applied using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The classification results (i.e. shadows) were improved by integrating LIDAR data with the hyperspectral data.

  18. Prediction of stormwater particle loads from impervious urban surfaces based on a rainfall detachment index.

    Brodie, I M

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes use of Non-Coarse Particle (NCP) data collected from three different impervious surfaces in Toowoomba, Australia. NCP is defined as suspended solids less than 500 microm in size. NCP loads (in mg/m(2)) were derived for 24 storms from a galvanized iron roof, a concrete car park and a bitumen road pavement. A scatter plot analysis was used to identify potential correlations between NCP loads and basic rainfall parameters such as rainfall depth and intensity. An exponential-type trend, consistent with many washoff models, was evident between load and average rainfall intensity for all surfaces. However, load data for some storms did not fit this general trend. Various indices, comprising different combinations of basic rainfall parameters, were evaluated as an alternative to rainfall intensity. A composite index, referred to as the Rainfall Detachment Index, was found to be better than average rainfall intensity in explaining a relationship between NCP load and storm rainfall characteristics. The selected rainfall index utilizes 6-minute rainfall intensities and is a variant of the well known Rainfall Erosivity Index (EI30) used for soil erosion estimation. PMID:17425071

  19. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The...

  20. Estimating the extent of impervious surfaces and turf grass across large regions

    Claggett, Peter R.; Irani, Frederick M.; Thompson, Renee L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of researchers to accurately assess the extent of impervious and pervious developed surfaces, e.g., turf grass, using land-cover data derived from Landsat satellite imagery in the Chesapeake Bay watershed is limited due to the resolution of the data and systematic discrepancies between developed land-cover classes, surface mines, forests, and farmlands. Estimates of impervious surface and turf grass area in the Mid-Atlantic, United States that were based on 2006 Landsat-derived land-cover data were substantially lower than estimates based on more authoritative and independent sources. New estimates of impervious surfaces and turf grass area derived using land-cover data combined with ancillary information on roads, housing units, surface mines, and sampled estimates of road width and residential impervious area were up to 57 and 45% higher than estimates based strictly on land-cover data. These new estimates closely approximate estimates derived from authoritative and independent sources in developed counties.

  1. A study of selected textural features usefulness for impervious surface coverage estimation using Landsat images

    Bernat, Katarzyna; Drzewiecki, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our research was to evaluate the applicability of textural measures for sub-pixel impervious surfaces estimation using Landsat TM images based on machine learning algorithms. We put the particular focus on determining usefulness of five textural features groups in respect to pixel- and sub-pixel level. However, the two-stage approach to impervious surfaces coverage estimation was also tested. We compared the accuracy of impervious surfaces estimation using spectral bands only with results of imperviousness index estimation based on extended classification features sets (spectral band values supplemented with measures derived from various textural characteristics groups). Impervious surfaces coverage estimation was done using decision and regression trees based on C5.0 and Cubist algorithms. At the stage of classification the research area was divided into two categories: i) completely permeable (imperviousness index less than 1%) and ii) fully or partially impervious areas. At the stage of sub-pixel classification evaluation of percentage impervious surfaces coverage within single pixel was done. Based on the results of cross-validation, we selected the approaches guaranteeing the lowest means errors in terms of training set. Accuracy of the imperviousness index estimation was checked based on validation data set. The average error of hard classification using spectral features only was 6.5% and about 4.4% for spectral features combining with absolute gradient-based characteristics. The root mean square error (RMSE) of determination of the percentage impervious surfaces coverage within a single pixel was equal to 9.46% for the best tested classification features sets. The two-stage procedure was utilized for the primary approach involving spectral bands as the classification features set and for the approach guaranteeing the best accuracy for classification and regression stage. The results have shown that inclusion of textural measures into

  2. Occurrence, Fate and Transport Behaviors of Pesticides on Urban Impervious Surfaces

    Jiang, Weiying

    2012-01-01

    Urban and residential areas are covered by impervious surfaces such as concrete. During rainfalls and irrigations, these surfaces transfer runoff directly to surface water through urban sewage. Impervious surfaces are highly possible to be contaminated with pesticides, through direct treatments or through indirect deposits from surrounding areas (e.g., lawns) via wind- or water-aided movements. Although pesticides have been widely found in urban watersheds, their persistence and runoff potent...

  3. Combining Spectral and Texture Features Using Random Forest Algorithm: Extracting Impervious Surface Area in Wuhan

    Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Song, Yang; Peng, Minjun

    2016-06-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) is one of the most important indicators of urban environments. At present, based on multi-resolution remote sensing images, numerous approaches have been proposed to extract impervious surface, using statistical estimation, sub-pixel classification and spectral mixture analysis method of sub-pixel analysis. Through these methods, impervious surfaces can be effectively applied to regional-scale planning and management. However, for the large scale region, high resolution remote sensing images can provide more details, and therefore they will be more conducive to analysis environmental monitoring and urban management. Since the purpose of this study is to map impervious surfaces more effectively, three classification algorithms (random forests, decision trees, and artificial neural networks) were tested for their ability to map impervious surface. Random forests outperformed the decision trees, and artificial neural networks in precision. Combining the spectral indices and texture, random forests is applied to impervious surface extraction with a producer's accuracy of 0.98, a user's accuracy of 0.97, and an overall accuracy of 0.98 and a kappa coefficient of 0.97.

  4. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  5. An approach for mapping large-area impervious surfaces: Synergistic use of Landsat-7 ETM+ and high spatial resolution imagery

    Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Homer, C.G.; Wylie, B.K.; Coan, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of urban ecosystem studies, including urban hydrology, urban climate, land use planning, and resource management, require current and accurate geospatial data of urban impervious surfaces. We developed an approach to quantify urban impervious surfaces as a continuous variable by using multisensor and multisource datasets. Subpixel percent impervious surfaces at 30-m resolution were mapped using a regression tree model. The utility, practicality, and affordability of the proposed method for large-area imperviousness mapping were tested over three spatial scales (Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Richmond, Virginia, and the Chesapeake Bay areas of the United States). Average error of predicted versus actual percent impervious surface ranged from 8.8 to 11.4%, with correlation coefficients from 0.82 to 0.91. The approach is being implemented to map impervious surfaces for the entire United States as one of the major components of the circa 2000 national land cover database.

  6. Monitoring urban land cover change by updating the national land cover database impervious surface products

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 is widely used as a baseline for national land cover and impervious conditions. To ensure timely and relevant data, it is important to update this base to a more recent time period. A prototype method was developed to update the land cover and impervious surface by individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season from both 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, impervious surface was estimated for areas of change by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain a variety of metropolitan areas. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of impervious surface changes associated with urban developments were accurately captured and updated. The approach optimizes mapping efficiency and can provide users a flexible method to generate updated impervious surface at national and regional scales. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  7. Urban impervious surface information extracting and its eco-environment effect analysis

    Gao, Zhihong; Wu, Naiming

    2015-12-01

    Urban impervious surface is not only a major indicator of urbanization but also a key factor for environmental quality evaluation. NDISI is applied for enhancing and extracting impervious surface information in this study. NDVI derived from measurements of the optical imagery reflectance of sunlight in the red and near-infrared wavelengths, can reveal the vegetation cover condition. LST plays an important role in energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to extract the urban impervious surface information and its eco-envionment effect. Experiment results indicate that NDISI is effective and easy-to-use. And the correlation coefficient among NDISI, NDVI and LST are -0.82, 0.95 and -0.7. Combined with the field survey meteorological site data, this study reveals that the urban impervious surface area has a strong positive exponential relationship with the LST. This suggests that the areas with high NDISI value will accelerate the increase in LST much more than the areas with low NDISI value. And urban impervious surface area is the most important factor contributing to the development of the UHI while vegetation cover (high NDVI area) can significantly reduce the LST.

  8. Extraction of impervious surface in Hai Basin using remote sensing%流域尺度的不透水面遥感提取

    王浩; 吴炳方; 李晓松; 卢善龙

    2011-01-01

    Impervious surface coverage in a region is not only an indicator of the degree of urbanization but also a major indicator of environmental quality. Most of the existing methods of extracting impervious surface based on remote sensing concentrate on an urban scale, but the rapid and accurate methods of extracting impervious surfaces in a basin scale are nearly nonexistent in China and abroad. In this study, we used Landsat images acquired in same season covering the entire Hai Basin as data source, and generated a mask for removing the non-impervious surfaces using a land-use data set of roads, and urban, rural, and industrial land. Then,by selecting bright and dark vegetation endmember, high albedo and low albedo impervious surface endmember, and dry and wet soil endmember, we applied a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) model to extract impervious surfaces in the basin scale. The accuracy assessment results showed high accuracy, in that the mean relative error (MRE) and correlation coefficient (R) of all samples were 12. 1% and 0.83, respectively, which indicated that the method of extracting impervious surfaces in a basin scale was feasible.%一个地区的不透水面覆盖度不仅是该地区城镇化程度重要指示因子,也是该地区生态环境状况的重要指示因子.现有的不透水面遥感提取方法,多集中在城区尺度上.而流域尺度上快速、准确的不透水面遥感提取方法在国内外还鲜有研究.本研究以覆盖海河流域同一季节的Landsat影像为数据源,利用已有土地利用数据集中的道路、城市、农村和工业用地对非不透水区进行掩膜,通过选取亮暗植被、高低反照度不透水面、干湿土壤端元,采用多端元光谱混合分解模型提取了流域尺度上的不透水面.精度评价结果显示,该方法估算的不透水面与真实结果之间的平均相对误差为12.1%,相关系数为0.83,精度较高.适合于流域尺度的不透水面提取.

  9. Synergistic using medium-resolution and high-resolution remote sensing imagery to extract impervious surface for Dianci Basin

    Hong, Liang; Yang, Kun; Deng, Ming; Liu, Cun

    2014-03-01

    The knowledge of impervious surfaces, especially the magnitude, location, geometry, spatial pattern of impervious surfaces, is significant to urban ecosystem studies, including urban hydrology, urban climate, land use planning and resource management.Impervious surface area (ISA) is considered a key indicator of environmental quality and can be used to address complex urban environmental issues, particularly those related to the health of urban watersheds. ISA is also an indicator of non-point source pollution or polluted runoff. Remote sensing offers a consistent framework for representing spatial patterns and rates of urbanization over time through accurate observations of impervious surface area. Most of the existing methods of extracting impervious surface based on remote sensing concentrate on an urban scale, but the rapid and accurate methods of extracting impervious surfaces in a basin scale are nearly nonexistent in China and abroad. In recent years,with the rapid urbanization especially surrounding the Dianchi water body, the impervious surface coverage rate also grows rapidly and results in severe degradation of basin water environment within Dianchi watershed. In this study, we developed an approach to extract impervious surface for Dianci Basin by synergistic using medium-resolution and high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Subpixel percent impervious surfaces at Thematic Mapper (TM) images were mapped using the classification and regression tree(CART) algorithm. Sub-pixel impervious surfaces at 30m resolution were mapped in this study area through regression tree models. The estimated ISA results were evaluated through independent ISA reference data derived from high resolution QuickBird. The results prove the suitability of the approach for a widely automated and mapping of impervious surfaces in a basin scale.

  10. Synergistic using medium-resolution and high-resolution remote sensing imagery to extract impervious surface for Dianci Basin

    The knowledge of impervious surfaces, especially the magnitude, location, geometry, spatial pattern of impervious surfaces, is significant to urban ecosystem studies, including urban hydrology, urban climate, land use planning and resource management.Impervious surface area (ISA) is considered a key indicator of environmental quality and can be used to address complex urban environmental issues, particularly those related to the health of urban watersheds. ISA is also an indicator of non-point source pollution or polluted runoff. Remote sensing offers a consistent framework for representing spatial patterns and rates of urbanization over time through accurate observations of impervious surface area. Most of the existing methods of extracting impervious surface based on remote sensing concentrate on an urban scale, but the rapid and accurate methods of extracting impervious surfaces in a basin scale are nearly nonexistent in China and abroad. In recent years,with the rapid urbanization especially surrounding the Dianchi water body, the impervious surface coverage rate also grows rapidly and results in severe degradation of basin water environment within Dianchi watershed. In this study, we developed an approach to extract impervious surface for Dianci Basin by synergistic using medium-resolution and high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Subpixel percent impervious surfaces at Thematic Mapper (TM) images were mapped using the classification and regression tree(CART) algorithm. Sub-pixel impervious surfaces at 30m resolution were mapped in this study area through regression tree models. The estimated ISA results were evaluated through independent ISA reference data derived from high resolution QuickBird. The results prove the suitability of the approach for a widely automated and mapping of impervious surfaces in a basin scale

  11. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Landsat Global Land Survey Data

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R. E.; Tan, B.; Tilton, J.; Smith, S.; Phillips, J.; Wang, P.; Ling, P.; Zhan, J.; Xu, X.; Taylor, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (~2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  12. Urban percent impervious surface and its relationship with land surface temperature in Yantai City, China

    This study investigated percent impervious surface area (PISA) extracted by a four-endmember normalized spectral mixture analysis (NSMA) method and evaluated the reliability of PISA as an indicator of land surface temperature (LST). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for Yantai city, eastern China obtained from USGS were used as the main data source. The results demonstrated that four-endmember NSMA method performed better than the typical three-endmember one, and there was a strong linear relationship between LST and PISA for the two images, which suggest percent impervious surface area provides an alternative parameter for analyzing LST quantitatively in urban areas

  13. Experimental study of water and dissolved pollutant runoffs on impervious surfaces

    肖洋; 张涛涛

    2016-01-01

    The water and dissolved pollutant runoffs on impervious surfaces are the essential factor to be considered in design methods to minimize the impacts of the diffuse water pollution. In this paper, experiments are conducted to study the water and dissolved pollutant runoffs on impervious surfaces for different rainfall intensities and surface roughnesses. It is shown that a larger rainfall intensity and a smaller surface roughness reduce the time of concentration and increase the pollutant transport rate. Most of the pollutant runoffs take place at the initial stage of the rainfall. The pollutant transport rate rapidly reaches a peak and then gradually drops to zero.

  14. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001, (LaMotte and Wieczorek,...

  15. Enhancing endmember selection in multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) for urban impervious surface area mapping using spectral angle and spectral distance parameters

    Fan, Fenglei; Deng, Yingbin

    2014-12-01

    Successful retrieval of urban impervious surface area is achieved with remote sensing data using the multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA). MESMA is well suited for studying the urban impervious surface area because it allows the number and types of the endmembers to vary on a per-pixel basis, thereby, allowing the control of the large spectral variability. However, MESMA must calculate all potential endmember combinations of each pixel to determine the best-fit one. Therefore, it is a time-consuming and inefficient unmixing technology, especially for hyperspectral images because these images have more complicated endmember categories. Hence, in this paper, we design an improved MESMA (SASD-MESMA: spectral angle and spectral distance MESMA) to enhance the computational efficiency of conventional MESMA, and we validate this new method by analyzing the Hyperion image (Jan-2011) and the field-spectra data of Guangzhou (China). In SASD-MESMA, the parameters of spectral angle (SA) and spectral distance (SD) are used to evaluate the similarity degree between library spectra and image spectra in order to identify the most representative endmember combination for each pixel. Results demonstrate that the SA and SD parameters are useful to reduce misjudgment in selecting candidate endmembers and effective for determining the appropriate endmembers in one pixel. Meanwhile, this research indicates that the proposed SASD-MESMA performs very well in retrieving impervious surface area, forest, grass and soil distributions on the sub-pixel level (the overall root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.15 and the correlation coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.68).

  16. A comparative study of Landsat TM and RapidEye imagery for two-stage impervious surface coverage estimation

    Bernat, Katarzyna; Drzewiecki, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents accuracy comparison of sub-pixel classification based on medium resolution Landsat data and high resolution RapidEye satellite images, performed using machine learning algorithms built on decision and regression trees method (C.5.0 and Cubist). The research was conducted in southern Poland for the catchment of the Dobczyce Reservoir. The aim of the study was to obtain image of percentage impervious surface coverage and assess which data sets can be more applicable for the purpose of impervious surface coverage estimation. Imperviousness index map generation was a two-stage procedure. The first step was classification, which divided the study area into two categories: a) completely permeable (imperviousness index less than 1%) and b) fully or partially impervious areas. For pixels classified as impervious, the percentage of impervious surface coverage within a single pixel was estimated. Decision and regression trees models construction was done based on training data set derived from Landsat TM pixels as well as for fragments of RapidEye images corresponding to the same Landsat TM training pixels. In order to obtain imperviousness index maps with the minimum possible error we did the estimation of models accuracy based on the results of cross-validation. The approaches guaranteeing the lowest means errors in terms of training set using C5.0 and Cubist algorithm for Landsat and RapidEye images were selected. Accuracy of the final imperviousness index maps was checked based on validation data sets. The root mean square error of determination of the percentage of the impervious surfaces within a single Landsat pixel was 9.9% for C.5.0/Cubist method. However, the root mean square error specified for RapidEye test data was 7.2%. The study has shown that better results of two-stage imperiousness index map estimation using RapidEye satellite images can be obtained.

  17. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Impervious surfaces (IS) are a key indicator of environmental quality, and mapping of urban IS is important for a wide range of applications including hydrological modelling, water management, urban and environmental planning and urban climate studies. This paper addresses the accuracy and...

  18. Evaluating the Accuracy of Common Runoff Estimation Methods for New Impervious Hot-Mix Asphalt

    Accurately predicting runoff volume from impervious surfaces for water quality design events (e.g., 25.4 mm) is important for sizing green infrastructure stormwater control measures to meet water quality and infiltration design targets. The objective of this research was to quan...

  19. 基于线性光谱模型的城市不透水面遥感估算%Estimation of urban impervious surfaces by linear spectral mixture analysis

    杨朝斌; 何兴元; 张树文; 唐俊梅; 卜坤; 于灵雪; 颜凤芹

    2016-01-01

    城市不透水面是评估城市生态环境和社会经济的关键指示性因子,对于城市规划和资源管理有着重要意义。本研究以长春市为例,使用2014年Landsat 8影像,基于“植被-不透水面-土壤”理论模型,采用多端元优化的提取方法,依据研究区实际土地覆被特点,选取了高反照度、低反照度、植被、裸土、耕地等五个端元,利用线性光谱模型求算长春市不透水面,利用高分辨率遥感影像高分一号对估算结果进行验证,并对其空间分布格局进行分析。结果表明:基于几何顶点的端元提取方法得到的城市不透水面比例的RMSE为0.126,误差范围在−0.366 —0.387,而基于多端元优化提取方法获取结果的RMSE为0.079,误差范围在−0.319 — 0.265,且超过80%样本的绝对误差小于0.1,精度有显著提升;长春市绕城高速范围内平均城市不透水面比例为47.4%,整体分布呈现“三角形”特征,南部不透水面分布面积明显高于北部区域。从城市外环到内部一环,城市不透水面比例有明显的递增趋势,三环内比例超过66.7%,不透水面分布密集。总体来说,在城市区域尺度上,采用多端元优化提取方法,利用中等空间分辨率多光谱遥感数据提取城市不透水面精度令人满意。%Background, aim, and scope Urban impervious surface, defined as any surface that can prevent water from infiltrating into the soil, such as roads, parking lots, rooftops, is one of the most important indicators to characterize the degree of urbanization and environmental quality, and is playing an important role in urban planning and resource management. With rapid urbanization, increasing proportions of landscapes have been converted into urban impervious surface. In addition, the expansion of urban impervious surface have great effects of urban thermal environment, urban hydrology and many other fields

  20. Updating the 2001 National Land Cover Database Impervious Surface Products to 2006 using Landsat Imagery Change Detection Methods

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype method was developed to update the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 to a nominal date of 2006. NLCD 2001 is widely used as a baseline for national land cover and impervious cover conditions. To enable the updating of this database in an optimal manner, methods are designed to be accomplished by individual Landsat scene. Using conservative change thresholds based on land cover classes, areas of change and no-change were segregated from change vectors calculated from normalized Landsat scenes from 2001 and 2006. By sampling from NLCD 2001 impervious surface in unchanged areas, impervious surface predictions were estimated for changed areas within an urban extent defined by a companion land cover classification. Methods were developed and tested for national application across six study sites containing a variety of urban impervious surface. Results show the vast majority of impervious surface change associated with urban development was captured, with overall RMSE from 6.86 to 13.12% for these areas. Changes of urban development density were also evaluated by characterizing the categories of change by percentile for impervious surface. This prototype method provides a relatively low cost, flexible approach to generate updated impervious surface using NLCD 2001 as the baseline. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the conterminous US

    P. V. Caldwell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are essential to aquatic ecosystem and societal sustainability, but are increasingly impacted by water withdrawals, land-use change, and climate change. The relative and cumulative effects of these stressors on continental river flows are relatively unknown. In this study, we used an integrated water balance and flow routing model to evaluate the impacts of impervious cover and water withdrawal on river flow across the conterminous US at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC watershed scale. We then estimated the impacts of projected change in withdrawals, impervious cover, and climate under the B1 "Low" and A2 "High" emission scenarios on river flows by 2060. Our results suggest that compared to no impervious cover, 2010 levels of impervious cover increased river flows by 9.9% on average with larger impacts in and downstream of major metropolitan areas. In contrast, compared to no water withdrawals, 2005 withdrawals decreased river flows by 1.4% on average with larger impacts in heavily irrigated arid regions of Western US. By 2060, impacts of climate change were predicted to overwhelm the potential gain in river flow due to future changes in impervious cover and add to the potential reduction in river flows from withdrawals, decreasing mean annual river flows from 2010 levels by 16% on average. However, increases in impervious cover by 2060 may offset the impact of climate change during the growing season in some watersheds. Large water withdrawals will aggravate the predicted impact of climate change on river flows, particularly in the Western US. Predicted ecohydrological impacts of land cover, water withdrawal, and climate change will likely include alteration of the terrestrial water balance, stream channel habitat, riparian and aquatic community structure in snow-dominated basins, and fish and mussel extirpations in heavily impacted watersheds. These changes may also require new infrastructure to support increasing anthropogenic

  2. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 1, Northwest United States: IMPV01_1

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  3. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 3, Southwest United States: IMPV01_3

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  4. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development

    The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate...

  5. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 4, Southeast United States: IMPV01_4

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  6. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 2, Northeast United States: IMPV01_2

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  7. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; A. R. Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious ...

  8. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    Seo, Y.; N.-J. Choi; A. R. Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervi...

  9. Improved methods to estimate the effective impervious area in urban catchments using rainfall-runoff data

    Ebrahimian, Ali; Wilson, Bruce N.; Gulliver, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Impervious surfaces are useful indicators of the urbanization impacts on water resources. Effective impervious area (EIA), which is the portion of total impervious area (TIA) that is hydraulically connected to the drainage system, is a better catchment parameter in the determination of actual urban runoff. Development of reliable methods for quantifying EIA rather than TIA is currently one of the knowledge gaps in the rainfall-runoff modeling context. The objective of this study is to improve the rainfall-runoff data analysis method for estimating EIA fraction in urban catchments by eliminating the subjective part of the existing method and by reducing the uncertainty of EIA estimates. First, the theoretical framework is generalized using a general linear least square model and using a general criterion for categorizing runoff events. Issues with the existing method that reduce the precision of the EIA fraction estimates are then identified and discussed. Two improved methods, based on ordinary least square (OLS) and weighted least square (WLS) estimates, are proposed to address these issues. The proposed weighted least squares method is then applied to eleven urban catchments in Europe, Canada, and Australia. The results are compared to map measured directly connected impervious area (DCIA) and are shown to be consistent with DCIA values. In addition, both of the improved methods are applied to nine urban catchments in Minnesota, USA. Both methods were successful in removing the subjective component inherent in the analysis of rainfall-runoff data of the current method. The WLS method is more robust than the OLS method and generates results that are different and more precise than the OLS method in the presence of heteroscedastic residuals in our rainfall-runoff data.

  10. Mapping Impervious Surface Distribution with Integration of SNNP VIIRS-DNB and MODIS NDVI Data

    Wei Guo; Dengsheng Lu; Yanlan Wu; Jixian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Data from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Line-scan System are often used to map impervious surface area (ISA) distribution at regional and global scales, but its coarse spatial resolution and data saturation produce high inaccuracy in ISA estimation. Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite’s Day/Night Band (VIIRS-DNB) with its high spatial resolution and dynamic data range may provide new insights but has not ...

  11. Annual dynamics of impervious surface in the Pearl River Delta, China, from 1988 to 2013, using time series Landsat imagery

    Zhang, Lei; Weng, Qihao

    2016-03-01

    Information on impervious surface distribution and dynamics is useful for understanding urbanization and its impacts on hydrological cycle, water management, surface energy balances, urban heat island, and biodiversity. Numerous methods have been developed and successfully applied to estimate impervious surfaces. Previous methods of impervious surface estimation mainly focused on the spectral differences between impervious surfaces and other land covers. Moreover, the accuracy of estimation from single or multi-temporal images was often limited by the mixed pixel problem in coarse- or medium-resolution imagery or by the intra-class spectral variability problem in high resolution imagery. Time series satellite imagery provides potential to resolve the above problems as well as the spectral confusion with similar surface characteristics due to phenological change, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term changes of vegetation. Since Landsat time series has a long record with an effective spatial resolution, this study aimed at estimating and mapping impervious surfaces by analyzing temporal spectral differences between impervious and pervious surfaces that were extracted from dense time series Landsat imagery. Specifically, this study developed an efficient method to extract annual impervious surfaces from time series Landsat data and applied it to the Pearl River Delta, southern China, from 1988 to 2013. The annual classification accuracy yielded from 71% to 91% for all classes, while the mapping accuracy of impervious surfaces ranged from 80.5% to 94.5%. Furthermore, it is found that the use of more than 50% of Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off images after 2003 did not substantially reduced annual classification accuracy, which ranged from 78% to 91%. It is also worthy to note that more than 80% of classification accuracies were achieved in both 2002 and 2010 despite of more than 40% of cloud cover detected in these two years. These results suggested that the

  12. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management

    Beck, Scott M.; McHale, Melissa R.; Hess, George R.

    2016-07-01

    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m2) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds.

  13. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    Y. Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute to direct runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA, IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  14. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    Y. Seo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA, IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  15. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  16. Importance of High-Resolution LiDAR Data in Modeling Runoff Levels Over Impervious Surfaces

    Melosh, C.; Rao, M.

    2013-12-01

    Directly connected impervious areas collect and deliver unfiltered runoff to modified and impacted waterways. Modeling water flow over the landscape is an effective method of observing drainage patterns and predicting pollutant and sediment loadings. Improved models applying high-resolution elevation data can identify key areas with high pollutant output. This is a crucial issue in the Lake Tahoe Basin where lakeshore urban development has increased and lake clarity has been declining for years. This study aims to evaluate an integrated LiDAR and GIS-based modeling approach that uses a fine-scaled ground surface and impervious surface connectivity to predict the pollutant load in the Lake Tahoe Basin This study produced a fine-scaled surface model of nine subset catchments in the South Tahoe basin, including areas of low (below 20%), medium (30% to 50%) and high (above 50%) impervious surface cover. Our method integrated LiDAR, multispectral imagery, and GIS data to develop accurate terrain models, hydrologic routing, and directly connected impervious area layers for the Lake Tahoe basin. The high-density ground and object elevation data collected using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) creates an accurate picture of water flow over the land, and obstacles to the flow such as buildings. High-resolution LiDAR data was obtained from the Round 10 Lake Tahoe Southern Nevada Public Land Management capital program from the year 2010. This data was processed to create a digital elevation model of the ground surface. Land use classification used object height information from the LiDAR cloud, NAIP 4-band images with 1-meter resolution and a normalized difference vegetation index image derived from the NAIP imagery. The US Army Core of Engineers hydrologic modeling system (HEC-HMS) will be used to model runoff. Based on long-term simulations the effect of directly connected impervious area on rainfall-runoff characteristics for the South Lake Tahoe catchments will be

  17. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management.

    Beck, Scott M; McHale, Melissa R; Hess, George R

    2016-07-01

    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m(2)) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds. PMID:27094440

  18. Enabling high-quality observations of surface imperviousness for water runoff modelling from unmanned aerial vehicles

    Tokarczyk, Piotr; Leitao, Joao Paulo; Rieckermann, Jörg; Schindler, Konrad; Blumensaat, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual sub-catchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we evaluate the model

  19. High-quality observation of surface imperviousness for urban runoff modelling using UAV imagery

    P. Tokarczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling rainfall–runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo. After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual subcatchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we

  20. Mapping Impervious Surface Distribution with Integration of SNNP VIIRS-DNB and MODIS NDVI Data

    Wei Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Line-scan System are often used to map impervious surface area (ISA distribution at regional and global scales, but its coarse spatial resolution and data saturation produce high inaccuracy in ISA estimation. Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite’s Day/Night Band (VIIRS-DNB with its high spatial resolution and dynamic data range may provide new insights but has not been fully examined in mapping ISA distribution. In this paper, a new variable—Large-scale Impervious Surface Index (LISI—is proposed to integrate VIIRS-DNB and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data for mapping ISA distribution. A regression model was established, in which LISI was used as an independent variable and the reference ISA from Landsat images was a dependent variable. The results indicated a better estimation performance using LISI than using a single VIIRS-DNB or MODIS NDVI variable. The LISI-based approach provides accurate spatial patterns from high values in core urban areas to low values in rural areas, with an overall root mean squared error of 0.11. The LISI-based approach is recommended for fractional ISA estimation in a large area.

  1. Remote sensing of impervious surface growth: A framework for quantifying urban expansion and re-densification mechanisms

    Shahtahmassebi, Amir Reza; Song, Jie; Zheng, Qing; Blackburn, George Alan; Wang, Ke; Huang, Ling Yan; Pan, Yi; Moore, Nathan; Shahtahmassebi, Golnaz; Sadrabadi Haghighi, Reza; Deng, Jing Song

    2016-04-01

    A substantial body of literature has accumulated on the topic of using remotely sensed data to map impervious surfaces which are widely recognized as an important indicator of urbanization. However, the remote sensing of impervious surface growth has not been successfully addressed. This study proposes a new framework for deriving and summarizing urban expansion and re-densification using time series of impervious surface fractions (ISFs) derived from remotely sensed imagery. This approach integrates multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA), analysis of regression residuals, spatial statistics (Getis_Ord) and urban growth theories; hence, the framework is abbreviated as MRGU. The performance of MRGU was compared with commonly used change detection techniques in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. The results suggested that the ISF regression residuals were optimal for detecting impervious surface changes while Getis_Ord was effective for mapping hotspot regions in the regression residuals image. Moreover, the MRGU outputs agreed with the mechanisms proposed in several existing urban growth theories, but importantly the outputs enable the refinement of such models by explicitly accounting for the spatial distribution of both expansion and re-densification mechanisms. Based on Landsat data, the MRGU is somewhat restricted in its ability to measure re-densification in the urban core but this may be improved through the use of higher spatial resolution satellite imagery. The paper ends with an assessment of the present gaps in remote sensing of impervious surface growth and suggests some solutions. The application of impervious surface fractions in urban change detection is a stimulating new research idea which is driving future research with new models and algorithms.

  2. Remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces for hydrological modelling of changes in flood risk during high-intensity rainfall events

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of medium resolution (MR) remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces (IS) for urban land cover change analysis. Landsat-based vegetation indices (VI) are found to provide fairly accurate measurements of sub-pixel imperviousness for urban...... areas at different geographical locations within Europe, and to be applicable for cities with diverse morphologies and dissimilar climatic and vegetative conditions. Detailed data on urban land cover changes can be used to examine the diverse environmental impacts of past and present urbanisation...

  3. Soils

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  4. Grouting of soils

    Lees, W.A.

    1971-12-14

    A process is described for the stabilization of soil by treating it, particularly by injection, with an inorganic substance capable of forming a gel which, in conjunction with the soil, hardens to form a substantially coherent and impervious mass. A method is provided for the stabilization of soil, which consists of impregnating the soil with an aqueous silica sol, optionally containing a gelation accelerator, and causing the sol to gel. The term soil is used to mean any geological matter having sufficient porosity to permit of impregnation by this method. However, the treatment of subterranean strata of finely porous structure, such as sandstone, by injection under pressure is very useful. The silica sols employed are silicic acid hydrosols, which are articles of commerce and may be prepared in any of the known ways. (1 claim)

  5. Soil structural behaviour of flooded soils

    The objectives of this presentation are to: identify factors determining of the structural behaviour of flooded soils, as compared to those acting in upland soils; analyse the influence of reductive processes on aggregate stabilising agents; discuss mechanisms of structural deterioration and recovery during the flooding-drying cycle, on the basis of a case study: cattle trampling effects in the flooding Pampa of Argentina. Flooded soils, now known as Hydric soils, are characteristic of wetlands and irrigated fields cropped to rice (paddy soils). In them, water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year. Hydric soils belong to different taxa of the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map (2000). Fluvisols, Planosols and Gleysols are widespread distributed in the globe. The generation of redoximorphic features is due to different causes in each of them. Fluvisols are covered part of the year by surface water from river overflows; Planosols are soils having an impervious Bt horizon, supporting perched water during short periods; and Gleysols are soils affected by stagnant water tables during long periods

  6. Effects of impervious pavements on reducing runoff in an arid urban catchment

    Epshtein, O.; Turnbull, L.; Earl, S.

    2011-12-01

    The progressive urbanization of US arid and semi-arid southwestern territories has transformed undeveloped aridlands into dynamic, radially expanding metropolitan centers. As these mature, infill development further reduces undeveloped area, inversely coupling surface imperviousness to infiltration rates, with a subsequent increase in runoff generation. Intensified runoff carries undesirable environmental consequences, magnifying urban flooding events and concentrations, transport, and propagation of contaminants. Pervious pavements offer one potential solution for decreased urban infiltration. At present, the application potential of pervious pavements as an effective urban infiltration management tool exceeds its exploitation. While entirely eliminating urban Total Impervious Area is not a feasible solution, pervious pavements significantly reduce Effective Impervious Area at costs competitive with traditional Best Management Practices. Previous research into pervious pavements has largely consisted of laboratory prototypes or small-scale field experiments, with a heavy bias towards parking lots. In this study we explore the effectiveness of pervious pavements in increasing infiltration, thus decreasing runoff volume during summer monsoonal and winter convective rainfall events in an 8 ha residential catchment in Scottsdale, Arizona. Analysis focuses on the interaction dynamics between surface area of pervious pavement application and its net effect on runoff response at the catchment level. Hydrological response was modeled using MAHLERAN (Model for Assessing Hillslope-Landscape Erosion, Runoff and Nutrients), a spatially explicit, event-based model, parameterized at a spatial resolution of 0.25 sq m. Data for model parameterization was obtained from analysis of aerial imagery and field-based monitoring of surface properties. The model was tested against measurements of flow at the catchment outlet for multiple rainfall events with total event rainfall ranging

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100...

  8. High-quality observation of surface imperviousness for urban runoff modelling using UAV imagery

    Tokarczyk, P.; Leitao, J. P.; Rieckermann, J.; Schindler, K.; Blumensaat, F.

    2015-10-01

    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment, particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the catchment area as model input. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increases as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data are often unavailable. Modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) allow one to acquire high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility of deriving high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and of using this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is proposed and evaluated in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study (Lucerne, Switzerland), we compare imperviousness maps generated using a fixed-wing consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their overall accuracy, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyse the surface runoff of the 307 individual subcatchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak

  9. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set represents imperviousness for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and

  10. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    to be applicable for cities with dissimilar climatic and vegetative conditions. The VI/IS relationship across cities is examined by quantifying the MAEs and MBEs between all combinations of models and urban areas. Also, regional regression models are developed by compiling data from multiple cities...... to examine the potential for developing and applying a single regression model to estimate IS fractions for numerous urban areas without reducing the accuracy considerably. Our findings indicate that the models can be applied broadly for multiple urban areas, and that the accuracy is reduced only...... Vegetation Index (SAVI) are converted to IS fractions using a regression modelling approach. Also, NDVI is used to estimate fractional vegetation cover (FR), and consequently IS fractions. All three indices provide fairly accurate estimates (MAEs ≈ 10%, MBE’s < 2%) of sub-pixel imperviousness, and are found...

  11. Analytical Solutions for Radial and Vertical Consolidation of Composite Foundation with Impervious Pile under Ramp Loading%线性加载条件下不排水桩复合地基径竖向固结解析解

    张绍勇; 许波; 吴深; 腾杰

    2015-01-01

    现有不排水桩复合地基固结微分方程由Carrilo定理组合得到,即地基径向和竖向固结是组合固结。为此,基于现有砂井轴对称固结模型,根据等竖向应变假设,采用分离变量法和Fourier正弦级数方法,推导了线性加载条件下不排水桩复合地基径竖向同时固结完整解,克服了传统不排水复合地基固结微分方程通过Carrilo定理组合不适用线性加载这一缺点。分析了线性加载工况下桩土压缩模量比,加载历时和竖向固结系数对固结的影响,并对比了不排水桩复合地基与天然地基固结速率。计算结果表明,桩土压缩模量比越大固结速率越快;线性加载速率越慢固结越慢,瞬时加载固结速率最快;未扰动土体竖向渗透系数对地基固结速率影响显著,不排水桩复合地基固结速率远快于天然地基。%Existing differential equation for impervious pile composite consolidation is established by Carrillo’s equation , which is a combination of radial and vertical consolidation .Therefore ,Based on the axisymmetric consolidation model of sand-wells and on the assumption of equal vertical strain ,the explicit solutions of impervious pile composite foundation vertical and horizontal consolidation under ramp loading were obtained through variable separation method and Fourier sine series method .The solutions overcame the disadvantage of conventional consolidation differential equations of imper-vious pile composite foundation ,which was not suitable for ramp loading when combined with Carrillo’s equation .The influences of pile-soil compression modulus ,loading period and vertical coefficient on the consolidation under ramp load-ing were analyzed ,and consolidation rate was compared between impervious pile composite foundation and natural founda-tion .The calculation results indicate that with the increase of the pile-soil compression modulus ,the composite founda

  12. Urban and Suburban Influences on Water Chemistry in Washington DC: Impervious Surfaces and Urban Stream Syndrome

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Petersen, E.

    2015-12-01

    Among the challenges facing urban rivers are water stormwater runoff problems and changing water chemistry, not only from air and water pollution sources, but also from altered geology with the development of "urban karst". Seventy five percent of the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. is urban or impervious. The Anacostia River experiences environmental challenges similar to those of other urban industrial rivers (heavy metal, PCB and PAH contamination). It also has Ca/Sr ratios above 200, and Na concentrations higher than Ca, and elevated ionic strength, all associated with extended chemical interaction with concrete. While these chemical characteristics have been documented in the urban areas within DC, they have not been examined in the largely suburban/mixed development tributaries of the Anacostia. Here we examine the base-flow geochemistry of the Anacostia River and its suburban tributaries (6 locations) over a year (November 2014- August 2015), concentrating on the following water chemistry variables: pH, hardness, SAR, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Ba, Ni, total P, S, Sr, NO3-, NH4+, PO43-. NO3- and NH4+ were generally lowest in at all sites in January, but rose to between 0.5 and 2.4 mg/L in June, with highest NO3- concentrations in suburban areas. Na and Cl concentrations were 5x higher in suburban areas than urban areas during the winter months. Ca/Sr concentration ratios, were between 120 and 200 for suburban sites but increased as the sites became more urban (to a high of 240 for the most urban site). These trends have been observed in other urban streams, and correlate with percent impervious area. The data follow patterns expected for "urban stream syndrome" and dissolution of concrete. Suburban areas, with their relatively small streams, show greater winter salting effects than more urban areas down stream. Suburban areas also show higher NO3- (and occasionally higher NH4+) than urban areas except in winter. The data presented here

  13. An Integrated Method for Mapping Impervious and Pervious Areas in Urban Environments Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Hashemi Beni, L.; McArdle, S; Khayer, Y.

    2014-01-01

    As urbanization continues to increase and extreme climatic events become more prevalent, urban planners and engineers are actively implementing adaptive measures to protect urban assets and communities. To support the urban planning adaptation process, mapping of impervious and pervious areas is essential to understanding the hydrodynamic environment within urban areas for flood risk planning. The application of advance geospatial data and analytical techniques using remote sensing a...

  14. A simple statistical method for analyzing flood susceptibility with incorporating rainfall and impervious surface

    Chiang, Shou-Hao; Chen, Chi-Farn

    2016-04-01

    Flood, as known as the most frequent natural hazard in Taiwan, has induced severe damages of residents and properties in urban areas. The flood risk is even more severe in Tainan since 1990s, with the significant urban development over recent decades. Previous studies have indicated that the characteristics and the vulnerability of flood are affected by the increase of impervious surface area (ISA) and the changing climate condition. Tainan City, in southern Taiwan is selected as the study area. This study uses logistic regression to functionalize the relationship between rainfall variables, ISA and historical flood events. Specifically, rainfall records from 2001 to 2014 were collected and mapped, and Landsat images of year 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2014 were used to generate the ISA with SVM (support vector machine) classifier. The result shows that rainfall variables and ISA are significantly correlated to the flood occurrence in Tainan City. With applying the logistic function, the likelihood of flood occurrence can be estimated and mapped over the study area. This study suggests the method is simple and feasible for rapid flood susceptibility mapping, when real-time rainfall observations can be available, and it has potential for future flood assessment, with incorporating climate change projections and urban growth prediction.

  15. Sub-Pixel Classification of MODIS EVI for Annual Mappings of Impervious Surface Areas

    Narumasa Tsutsumida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring of expanding impervious surfaces areas (ISAs in urban areas is highly desirable. MODIS data can meet this demand in terms of frequent observations but are lacking in spatial detail, leading to the mixed land cover problem when per-pixel classifications are applied. To overcome this issue, this research develops and applies a spatio-temporal sub-pixel model to estimate ISAs on an annual basis during 2001–2013 in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Indonesia. A Random Forest (RF regression inferred the ISA proportion from annual 23 values of MODIS MOD13Q1 EVI and reference data in which such proportion was visually allocated from very high-resolution images in Google Earth over time at randomly selected locations. Annual maps of ISA proportion were generated and showed an average increase of 30.65 km2/year over 13 years. For comparison, a series of RF per-pixel classifications were also developed from the same reference data using a Boolean class constructed from different thresholds of ISA proportion. Results from per-pixel models varied when such thresholds change, suggesting difficulty of estimation of actual ISAs. This research demonstrated the advantages of spatio-temporal sub-pixel analysis for annual ISAs mapping and addresses the problem associated with definitions of thresholds in per-pixel approaches.

  16. Examining Urban Impervious Surface Distribution and Its Dynamic Change in Hangzhou Metropolis

    Longwei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of urban distribution and its expansion using remote sensing data has received increasing attention in the past three decades, but little research has examined spatial patterns of urban distribution and expansion with buffer zones in different directions. This research selected Hangzhou metropolis as a case study to analyze spatial patterns and dynamic changes based on time-series urban impervious surface area (ISA datasets. ISA was developed from Landsat imagery between 1991 and 2014 using a hybrid approach consisting of linear spectral mixture analysis, decision tree classifiers, and post-processing. The spatial patterns of ISA distribution and its dynamic changes in eight directions—east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest, north, and northeast—at the temporal scale were analyzed with a buffer zone-based approach. This research indicated that ISA can be extracted from Landsat imagery with both producer and user accuracies of over 90%. ISA in Hangzhou metropolis increased from 146 km2 in 1991 to 868 km2 in 2014. Annual ISA growth rates were between 15.6 km2 and 48.8 km2 with the lowest growth rate in 1994–2000 and the highest growth rate in 2005–2010. Urban ISA increase before 2000 was mainly due to infilling within the urban landscape, and, after 2005, due to urban expansion in the urban-rural interfaces. Urban expansion in this study area has different characteristics in various directions that are influenced by topographic factors and urban development policies.

  17. Long-range cross-correlation between urban impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua; Man, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The thermal effect of urban impervious surfaces (UIS) is a complex problem. It is thus necessary to study the relationship between UIS and land surface temperatures (LST) using complexity science theory and methods. This paper investigates the long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST with detrended cross-correlation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, utilizing data from downtown Shanghai, China. UIS estimates were obtained from linear spectral mixture analysis, and LST was retrieved through application of the mono-window algorithm, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data for 1997-2010. These results highlight a positive long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST across People's Square in Shanghai. LST has a long memory for a certain spatial range of UIS values, such that a large increment in UIS is likely to be followed by a large increment in LST. While the multifractal long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST was observed over a longer time period in the W-E direction (2002-2010) than in the N-S (2007-2010), these observed correlations show a weakening during the study period as urbanization increased.

  18. Understanding the effects of the impervious surfaces pattern on land surface temperature in an urban area

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that urban impervious surface (IS) has a warming effect on urban land surface temperature (LST). However, the influence of an IS's structure, components, and spatial distribution on LST has rarely been quantitatively studied within strictly urban areas. Using ETM+ remote sensing images from the downtown area of Shanghai, China in 2010, this study characterized and quantified the influence of the IS spatial pattern on LST by selecting the percent cover of each IS cover feature and ten configuration metrics. The IS fraction was estimated by linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA), and LST was retrieved using a mono-window algorithm. The results indicate that high fraction IS cover features account for the majority of the study area. The high fraction IS cover features are widely distributed and concentrated in groups, which is similar with that of high temperature zones. Both the percent composition and the configuration of IS cover features greatly affect the magnitude of LST, but the percent composition is a more important factor in determining LST than the configuration of those features. The significances and effects of the given configuration variables on LST vary greatly among IS cover features.

  19. Spatial pattern of impervious surfaces and their impacts on land surface temperature in Beijing, China

    XIAO Rong-bo; OUYANG Zhi-yun; ZHENG Hua; LI Wei-feng; SCHIENKE Erich W; WANG Xiao-ke

    2007-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), which is heavily influenced by urban surface structures, is a significant parameter in urban environmental analysis. This study examined the effect impervious surfaces (IS) spatial patterns have on LST in Beijing, China. A classification and regression tree model (CART) was adopted to estimate IS as a continuous variable using Landsat images from two seasons combined with QuickBird. LST was retrieved from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image to examine the relationships between IS and LST. The results revealed that CART was capable of consistently predicting LST with acceptable accuracy (correlation coefficient of 0.94 and the average error of 8.59%). Spatial patterns of IS exhibited changing gradients across the various urban-rural transects, with LST values showing a concentric shape that increased as you moved from the outskirts towards the downtown areas.Transect analysis also indicated that the changes in both IS and LST patterns were similar at various resolution levels, which suggests a distinct linear relationship between them. Results of correlation analysis further showed that IS tended to be positively correlated with LST, and that the correlation coefficients increased from 0.807 to 0.925 with increases in IS pixel size. The findings identified in this study provide a theoretical basis for improving urban planning efforts to lessen urban temperatures and thus dampen urban heat island effects.

  20. The Integrated Use of DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light and MODIS Data for Monitoring Large-Scale Impervious Surface Dynamics: A Case Study in the Yangtze River Delta

    Zhenfeng Shao; Chong Liu

    2014-01-01

    The timely and reliable estimation of imperviousness is essential for the scientific understanding of human-Earth interactions. Due to the unique capacity of capturing artificial light luminosity and long-term data records, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)’s Operational Line-scan System (OLS) nighttime light (NTL) imagery offers an appealing opportunity for continuously characterizing impervious surface area (ISA) at regional and continental scales. Although different level...

  1. Automated mapping of sub-pixel impervious surface area from landsat imagery

    Kamphaus, Benjamin D.

    The past few decades have seen rapid, global urbanization. Remotely sensed imagery is the best source of information about the extent of urbanization, but extracting urban extent from remotely sensed imagery is often an intensive, supervised task for analysts to perform. This project presents a fully automated method to extract impervious surface area (ISA), an important component of urban expansion, from Landsat TM and similar sensors. These moderate resolution sensors have a multi-decade collection archive, sub-monthly revisit rate and have served as a model for other national and commercial programs. The unsupervised methodology proposed herein, termed the PEEL process (pre-processing, endmember extraction and labeling), is an SMA (spectral mixture analysis) technique that uses as inputs endmembers that have been labeled by a SVM (support vector machine) classification through the fusion of the PanTex GLCM-based texture measure and endmembers drawn from the SMACC (sequential maximum angle convex cone) algorithm. Labels are provided to endmembers with an overall accuracy of 94% across 13 Landsat scenes from different sensor types and of several regions and urban forms. Multiple unmixing methods are tested, with BNMESMA (brightness normalized multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis) performing the best with a RMSE of 0.276. Caution is given regarding the value of RMSE as a metric for comparing method accuracy and more detailed error metrics are introduced. The method is shown as a viable template for mapping ISA across multiple scenes and as a useful framework for analyzing large archives of imagery with a common, automatable methodology.

  2. Urban Impervious Surface Extraction from Remote Sensing Image Based on Nonlinear Spectral Mixture Model%基于非线性光谱混合模型的遥感影像提取城市不透水层

    夏俊士; 杜培军; 曹文

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at overcoming the limitations in extracting impervious surface by traditional methods, two non-linear spectral mixture models, Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF)and Multi-Layer Perceptron(MLP) neural network, are used to decompose all pixels to the four fraction images representing the abundance of four endmembers. In these models, MTMF performs a "partial" unmixing by only finding the abundance of a single, user-defined endmember, by maximizing the response of the endmember of interest and minimizing the response of the composite unknown background. The MLP is a hierarchical structure of several perceptrons, and capable of learning a rich variety of nonlinear decision surfaces. The Maximum Noise Fraction(MNF) is used to transform the six bands of TM image into a new feature space and the first three components accounting for the majority (more than 90%) of total information content are used to endmember extraction. After that, the Pure Pixel Index(PPI) is used to select pure pixels. The N-dimensional visualizer is used for assisting selection of four endmembers: vegetation, high-albedo objects, low-albedo objects and soil. The fraction images are derived to represent the abundance of the above four endmember. Impervious surface is estimated by analyzing high-albedo and low-albedo fraction images. QuickBird multi-spectral image is used to evaluate the accuracy of impervious surface extraction by different methods.Experimental results indicate that the accuracy of artificial neural network is higher than others,which means non-linear spectral mixture models is also effective to impervious area extraction,even better than linear models.%针对传统方法在提取城市不透水层中的许多局限性,采用两种非线性光谱混合分解模型,包括混合调谐匹配滤波和多层感知器神经网络,通过混合像元分解获取城市不透水层.混合调谐匹配滤波利用用户选择的端元,通过最大化端元响应并减少未知背

  3. Estimating Urban Impervious Surface Based on Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data and a Spectral Mixture Analysis Model%基于热红外遥感数据和光谱混合分解模型的城市不透水面估算

    李波; 黄敬峰; 吴次芳

    2012-01-01

    不透水面的迅速增长是城市化的显著特征之一,针对大范围的城市监测,运用遥感技术迅速提取城市不透水面是当前国内外研究的热点。论文选用Landsat 7的ETM+影像,基于光谱混合分解模型,结合热红外遥感数据反演生成的地表温度,研究杭州市的不透水面分布信息的提取。通过高、低反照率、植被及土壤4类光谱端元的线性组合来表征不同城市土地类型,并利用地表温度和土壤分量分别剔除高、低反照率分量中的"噪声",综合修正后的高反照率分量和低反照率分量估算杭州市不透水面分布。结果显示,研究区中均方根误差的平均值为0.003 6,不透水面分布结果与同期Google earth上的高分辨率影像和SPOT 4影像的解译结果对比分析,绝大多数样本的估算值与解译值之差落在±0.15区间内,精度令人满意。研究表明,热红外遥感数据和光谱混合分解模型相结合,可以实现对不透水面进行快速、精确的估算。%The rapid growth of impervious surface is one of the remarkable characteristics of urbanization.Rapid extraction of urban impervious surface using remote sensing has been a hotspot research at home and abroad for large-scale urban monitoring.This paper explored extraction of impervious surface information of Hangzhou from a Landsat 7 ETM+ image based on the integration of a spectral mixture analysis model and land surface temperature generated by thermal infrared images.The linear combination of high albedo,low albedo,vegetation and soil fraction was used to characterize the different types of urban land.The land surface temperature was considered as a mask to remove the "noise" from low albedo fraction,and soil fraction was used to remove the "noise" from high albedo fraction.The modified high albedo fraction and low albedo fraction were adopted to estimate impervious surface distribution of Hangzhou.The result showed that the average RMSE

  4. Study of the Permeability of Foam Conditioned Soils with Laboratory Tests

    Luca Borio; Daniele Peila

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: EPB tunneling requires that the excavated soil has a plastic and pulpy behavior to be able to apply a stabilizing pressure to the face, but it should also be impervious to counteract filtration forces that could develop ahead of the face. The evaluation of this parameter in granular soil, before and after conditioning, is therefore of key importance for a correct conditioning agents choice. Approach: A new laboratory procedure for testing the permeability of conditioned soi...

  5. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF STREAMFLOW FLASHINESS WITH POPULATION DENSITY, IMPERVIOUSNESS, AND PERCENT URBAN LAND COVER IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    Methods: This study is an examination of the relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, degree of urban development, and population density for 150 watersheds with long-term USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) histori...

  6. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201301 TIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100...

  7. Influence of cracking in the desiccation process of clay soils

    Levatti, Hector Ulises; Prat Catalán, Pere; Ledesma Villalba, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that clayey soils undergoing desiccation tend to shrink and eventually crack. Analysis of the behaviour and influence of cracks in these types of soils is very important in several engineering fields such as mine tailing dams, long-term radioactive waste storage, impervious core of earth dams, and in any situation where clay is used as a barrier to fluid flow. Loss of humidity and cracking changes the permeability of such barriers that may no longer work properly and pose pot...

  8. Engineering a Healthier Watershed: Middle School Students Use Engineering Design to Lessen the Impact of Their Campus' Impervious Surfaces on Their Local Watershed

    Gardner, Elizabeth Claire

    It is important that students understand not only how their local watershed functions, but also how it is being impacted by impervious surfaces. Additionally, students need experience exploring the scientific and engineering practices that are necessary for a strong STEM background. With this knowledge students can be empowered to tackle this real and local problem using engineering design, a powerful practice gaining momentum and clarity through its prominence in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education. Twenty classes of suburban sixth-graders participated in a new five-week Watershed Engineering Design Unit taught by their regular science teachers. Students engaged in scientific inquiry to learn about the structure, function, and health of their local watersheds, focusing on the effects of impervious surfaces. In small groups, students used the engineering design process to propose solutions to lessen the impact of runoff from their school campuses. The goal of this evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of the curriculum in terms of student gains in understanding of (1) watershed function, (2) the impact of impervious surfaces, and (3) the engineering design process. To determine the impact of this curriculum on their learning, students took multiple-choice pre- and post-assessments made up of items covering the three categories above. This data was analyzed for statistical significance using a lower-tailed paired sample t-test. All three objectives showed statistically significant learning gains and the results were used to recommend improvements to the curriculum and the assessment instrument for future iterations.

  9. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  10. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 2, Northeast United States: IMPV01_2

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp.. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  11. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 1, Northwest United States: IMPV01_1

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp.. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  12. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 4, Southeast United States: IMPV01_4

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp.. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  13. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 3, Southwest United States: IMPV01_3

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp.. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  14. Risk security and soil loss mitigation: the EU case study of the Sufalnet Project

    Marina Rigillo

    2014-01-01

    Former and abandoned landfills represent a good opportunity for producing new impervious surfaces for the urban environment, contrasting soil loss (specially the agricultural one) and improving the recovery of brownfield. From such perspective, landfill redevelopment could be intended as the beginning of a new life cycle for the site, corresponding to a kick off action for achieving environmental and socio-economic development. This is the purpose of the Sufalnet Project (Sustainable Use of F...

  15. Soil Monitor: an open source web application for real-time soil sealing monitoring and assessment

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Giannecchini, Simone; Iamarino, Michela; Munafò, Michele; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Soil sealing is one of the most important causes of land degradation and desertification. In Europe, soil covered by impermeable materials has increased by about 80% from the Second World War till nowadays, while population has only grown by one third. There is an increasing concern at the high political levels about the need to attenuate imperviousness itself and its effects on soil functions. European Commission promulgated a roadmap (COM(2011) 571) by which the net land take would be zero by 2050. Furthermore, European Commission also published a report in 2011 providing best practices and guidelines for limiting soil sealing and imperviousness. In this scenario, we developed an open source and an open source based Soil Sealing Geospatial Cyber Infrastructure (SS-GCI) named as "Soil Monitor". This tool merges a webGIS with parallel geospatial computation in a fast and dynamic fashion in order to provide real-time assessments of soil sealing at high spatial resolution (20 meters and below) over the whole Italy. Common open source webGIS packages are used to implement both the data management and visualization infrastructures, such as GeoServer and MapStore. The high-speed geospatial computation is ensured by a GPU parallelism using the CUDA (Computing Unified Device Architecture) framework by NVIDIA®. This kind of parallelism required the writing - from scratch - all codes needed to fulfil the geospatial computation built behind the soil sealing toolbox. The combination of GPU computing with webGIS infrastructures is relatively novel and required particular attention at the Java-CUDA programming interface. As a result, Soil Monitor is smart because it can perform very high time-consuming calculations (querying for instance an Italian administrative region as area of interest) in less than one minute. The web application is embedded in a web browser and nothing must be installed before using it. Potentially everybody can use it, but the main targets are the

  16. Soils - Soil Data Viewer

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil Data Viewer is a tool built as an extension to ArcMap that allows a user to create soil-based thematic maps. The application can also be run independent of...

  17. Toward a geoinformatics framework for understanding the social and biophysical influences on urban nutrient pollution due to residential impervious service connectivity

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Water sustainability has been recognized as a fundamental problem of science whose solution relies in part on high-performance computing. Stormwater management is a major concern of urban sustainability. Understanding interactions between urban landcover and stormwater nutrient pollution requires consideration of fine-scale residential stormwater management, which in turn requires high-resolution LIDAR and landcover data not provided through national spatial data infrastructure, as well as field observation at the household scale. The objectives of my research are twofold: (1) advance understanding of the relationship between residential stormwater management practices and the export of nutrient pollution from stormwater in urbanized ecosystems; and (2) improve the informatics workflows used in community ecohydrology modeling as applied to heterogeneous urbanized ecosystems. In support of these objectives, I present preliminary results from initial work to: (1) develop an ecohydrology workflow platform that automates data preparation while maintaining data provenance and model metadata to yield reproducible workflows and support model benchmarking; (2) perform field observation of existing patterns of residential rooftop impervious surface connectivity to stormwater networks; and (3) develop Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) models for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program); these models will be used to simulate nitrogen loading resulting from both baseline residential rooftop impervious connectivity and for disconnection scenarios (e.g. roof drainage to lawn v. engineered rain garden, upslope v. riparian). This research builds on work done as part of the NSF EarthCube Layered Architecture Concept Award where a RHESSys workflow is being implemented in an iRODS (integrated Rule

  18. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS IMPERVIOUS in the North Pacific Ocean and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 08 July 1964 to 30 September 1964 (NODC Accession 6400360)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS IMPERVIOUS in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  19. Soil compaction in forest soils

    TURGUT, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Soil compaction is a widespread degradation process in forest sites. Soil degradation occurring on the structural formation of a natural soil system by rainfall or mechanical outer forces generally results in soil particles to be rearranged tighter than its previous status. In this case, soil compaction -defined as the increase in bulk density of soil- develops with negative effects on soil-plant-water relations. With the compaction, the density of soil increases while the porosity rate decre...

  20. 河网城市不透水面的河流生态系统响应:方法论框架%River Ecosystem Response of Impervious Surface in River Network City: A Framework of Methodology

    赵军; 单福征; 许云峰; 钱光人

    2012-01-01

    The rapid expanding of impervious surface in river network city has became a more and more important factor effecting the river ecosystem health, so understanding the pressure response relationship between the impervious surface and river ecosystem is of fully necessary. The interna- tional research history of impervious surface and its effect on river ecosystem has already past 40 years, and perfect theory and method system has already established, however, our current re- search is still at its initial stage. Focusing on overseas research, this paper reviews the main ad- vances of impervious surface as the following three aspects: firstly the identification technical ap- proach of impervious surface, then the pressure response relationship between river basin impervi- ous surface and river ecosystem conditions, finally the application of impervious surface threshold in river basin land use planning regulation and river management, in particular a detailed analysis on the threshold effect of impervious surface is summarized in literature from 1960s. From four as- pects including the research perspective, research methods, study area and decision-making ap- plications, the current problems in the literature was diagnosed. Considering the special hydro-ge- omorphic characteristics of river network area, this paper puts forward the main task in river net- work city, propose methods to solve the key technical issues advanced by the authors, such as the field survey of impervious surface and how to transition it to effective impervious surface, the hydrological units and its multi-scale system, pressure response system, as well as the data analy- sis methods and so on. Finally, the typical river network city Shanghai was taken as a case, and at riparian scale the relationship between impervious surface and river ecosystem was detected, in which the result showed there was an obvious non-linear relationship. The framework in this paper would be expected to provide

  1. How well can calibrated Thornthwaite Mather models predict the variability in soil moisture observed in green infrastructure facilities?

    Yu, Z.; Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Soil moisture patterns influence hydrologic fluxes (infiltration/percolation, evapotranspiration, runoff) as well the biogeochemical processes (nutrient transformations, redox potential, etc), and ecosystem functions and services that depend on them. A new generation of urban water management practices (e.g. green infrastructure technologies) alter soil moisture patterns in potentially dramatic ways, for example by retrofitting soil media into and onto formerly impervious surfaces, and/or by routing impervious surface runoff to vegetated areas. However, the hydrologic models typically used to predict the impact of these new practices rarely track the soil moisture state. In this study, we use the Thornthwaite Mather (T/M) approach to simulate the variability in soil moisture observed in green roofs and urban tree pits. Soil moisture was monitored continuously at hourly time steps using Decagon soil moisture probes installed at three different depths in a green roof (for six months) and in a tree pit (for two months). Tipping bucket precipitation gages were also installed on each site. T/M models were constructed for each system, and calibrated separately to each of three different weeks of observations by adjusting the porosity, field capacity, and wilting point, as well as the mathmatical form of the soil moisture decay function until the lowest possible standard error was achieved. We present the variability in the best fit hydrologic properties derived from the three separate calibration exercises for each system. We then use the models to generate soil moisture time series over the entire periods of observation, and use this validation exercise to discuss the potential usefullness of the T/M approach in urban green infrastructure studies.

  2. Exploring the Influence of Impervious Surface Density and Shape on Urban Heat Islands in the Northeast USA Using MODIS and Landsat

    Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouri; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) signature and its relationship to settlement size and shape, development intensity distribution, and land cover composition for 42 urban settlements embedded in forest biomes in the Northeastern United States. Development intensity zones, based on percent ISA, are defined for each urban area emanating outward from the urban core to nearby rural areas and are used to stratify land surface temperature. The stratification is further constrained by biome type and elevation to insure objective intercomparisons between urban zones within an urban settlement and between settlements. Stratification based on ISA allows the definition of hierarchically ordered urban zones that are consistent across urban settlements and scales. In addition to the surrounding ecological context, we find that the settlement size and shape as well as the development intensity distribution significantly influence the amplitude of summer daytime UHI. Within the Northeastern US temperate broadleaf mixed forest, UHI magnitude is positively related to the logarithm of the urban area size. Our study indicates that for similar urban area sizes, the development intensity distribution is one of the major drivers of UHI. In addition to urban area size and development intensity distribution, this analysis shows that both the shape of the urban area and the land cover composition in the surrounding rural area play an important role in modulating the UHI magnitude in different urban settlements. Our results indicate that remotely sensed urban area size and shape as well as the development intensity distribution influence UHI amplitude across regional scales.

  3. RNDSI: A ratio normalized difference soil index for remote sensing of urban/suburban environments

    Deng, Yingbin; Wu, Changshan; Li, Miao; Chen, Renrong

    2015-07-01

    Understanding land use land cover change (LULCC) is a prerequisite for urban planning and environment management. For LULCC studies in urban/suburban environments, the abundance and spatial distributions of bare soil are essential due to its biophysically different properties when compared to anthropologic materials. Soil, however, is very difficult to be identified using remote sensing technologies majorly due to its complex physical and chemical compositions, as well as the lack of a direct relationship between soil abundance and its spectral signatures. This paper presents an empirical approach to enhance soil information through developing the ratio normalized difference soil index (RNDSI). The first step involves the generation of random samples of three major land cover types, namely soil, impervious surface areas (ISAs), and vegetation. With spectral signatures of these samples, a normalized difference soil index (NDSI) was proposed using the combination of bands 7 and 2 of Landsat Thematic Mapper Image. Finally, a ratio index was developed to further highlight soil covers through dividing the NDSI by the first component of tasseled cap transformation (TC1). Qualitative (e.g., frequency histogram and box charts) and quantitative analyses (e.g., spectral discrimination index and classification accuracy) were adopted to examine the performance of the developed RNDSI. Analyses of results and comparative analyses with two other relevant indices, biophysical composition index (BCI) and enhanced built-up and bareness Index (EBBI), indicate that RNDSI is promising in separating soil from ISAs and vegetation, and can serve as an input to LULCC models.

  4. Soils - NRCS Web Soil Survey

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  5. Study of the Permeability of Foam Conditioned Soils with Laboratory Tests

    Luca Borio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: EPB tunneling requires that the excavated soil has a plastic and pulpy behavior to be able to apply a stabilizing pressure to the face, but it should also be impervious to counteract filtration forces that could develop ahead of the face. The evaluation of this parameter in granular soil, before and after conditioning, is therefore of key importance for a correct conditioning agents choice. Approach: A new laboratory procedure for testing the permeability of conditioned soil with foam has been proposed. The tests have been carried out at different hydraulic loads, chosen to be 0.1 bars and 1 bar. Results: The proposed procedure has been applied to determine the behavior of differently conditioned granular soils: a fluvial sand and a pozzolanic soil and has shown that an increasing of the FIR induces a relative increase in the time required by water to pass through a standard sample, emphasizing, in this way, the effectiveness of the conditioning on impermeability of the soil. Conclusion: The tests have shown the laboratory procedure adequately captures the behavior of the conditioned soil. Further, the proposed test may also be used as an index for the preliminary definition of the quality of the soil conditioning and suitability for EPB tunneling.

  6. Gully Growth Patterns and Soil Loss under Rainfall at Urban Underground Drainage Construction Site, Uyo

    O.E. Essien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, evaluated and modeled patterns of growth of gully morphometric dimension and soil loss volume under prevailing rainfall on the slopes of land graded for the construction of underground drainage at Uyo but delayed in completion. Land grading at underground (tunnel drainage construction site rendered the exposed surface very impervious but young ephemeral gullies developed due to delays in completion. Data on gully morphometric dimension, soil loss and depth of rainfall were analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 statistical package. Mean gully growth in length, width and depth were different at 2.54±0.86, 0.923±0.29 and 0.41±0.11 m, respectively, yielding 3.87±0.08 m2 as mean volume of soil loss at full stage. Cubic polynomial was best-fit model for growth in length (R2 = 79% and width (R2 = 69% using weekly rainfall for an annual season. All gully sites had constant depth change, better predicted by quadratic (R2 = 13% than linear (R2 = 9% functions. Mean volume of soil loss per unit rainfall amount varied with low, medium and high rainfall amount and was highest at slope bottom (33 cm3/cm and least at the crest (6.99 cm3/cm with R2 = 38-34%. Land grading to impervious sublayer produced constant depth change in all gullies at the sites. The models for morphometric incremental growth and soil loss volume under the rainfall effect was significantly improved (p<0.05 by bifurcating the lumped annual curve into two growth periods in a year: the periods for increasing rainfall (from week 10-30 and for receding rainfall (from week 31-43 in a year and applying quadratic regressing functions on each (R2 = 91-99%. Rainfall was the principal gully factor and construction delays should be avoided.

  7. Modeling urban heat islands in heterogeneous land surface and its correlation with impervious surface area by using night-time ASTER satellite data in highly urbanizing city, Delhi-India

    Mallick, Javed; Rahman, Atiqur; Singh, Chander Kumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an assessment and identification of urban heat island (UHI) in the environment of one of the fastest urbanizing city of India, Delhi Metropolis, employing satellite image of ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM+ in the thermal infrared region 3-14 μm. Temporal (2001 and 2005) ASTER datasets were used to analyze the spatial structure of the thermal urban environment subsequently urban heat island (UHI) in relation to the urban surface characteristics and land use/land cover (LULC). The study involves derivation of parameters governing the surface heat fluxes, constructing statistics of ASTER thermal infrared images along with validation through intensive in situ measurements. The average images reveal spatial and temporal variations of land surface temperature (LST) of night-time and distinct microclimatic patterns. Central Business District (CBD) of Delhi, (Connaught Place, a high density built up area), and commercial/industrial areas display heat islands condition with a temperature greater than 4 °C compared to the suburbs. The small increase in surface temperature at city level is mainly attributed to cumulative impact of human activities, changes in LULC pattern and vegetation density. In this study the methodology takes into account spatially-relative surface temperatures and impervious surface fraction value to measure surface UHI intensity between the urban land cover and rural surroundings. Both the spatial and temporal variation in surface temperature associated with impervious surface area (ISA) has been evaluated to assess the effect of urbanization on the local climate.

  8. Progress and Perspective of the Research on Hydrological Effects of Urban Impervious Surface on Water Environment%城市不透水表面的水环境效应研究进展

    刘珍环; 李猷; 彭建

    2011-01-01

    The environmental change impacted by rapid urbanization is a hot topic to global environmental change. In this area, research on water environmental effects of urbanization focuses on water quality, water quantity change and hydrological process and feedback disturbance. This paper reviews the mechanism between water environment change and urbanization, and summarizes the research issues we have face in this area, the methods we need, and how water environmental change responds to urban impervious surface. We also discuss the problems in the research of water environmental effects of urban impervious surface. Obviously, urbanization often directly changes natural land cover to impervious surface, but how to link urban land cover change with hydrological process and water quality is still a critical problem. The index of impervious surface area (ISA) was used to characterize land cover in urban area, and was a hot landscape indicator used to combine water environmental effects and urbanization processes. This paper indicates that the impacts of impervious surface on urban hydrology are mainly in two aspects. One is that it can increase the ratio of nmoff and the amount of precipitation in a rainfall process in a short period, and the other is that it also can subsequently increase the higher runoff peaks and total volume of runoff in receiving waters and decrease the lag times in a long period. Changing natural land cover to impervious surface cover can obviously increase non-point pollution loadings and degrade water quality. In many urban areas, we depend on urban hydrological and water quality monitoring to link the relationship, and use urban hydrological and water quality model to simulate the impacts. However, the mechanism of impervious surface impact on urban water environment is still not clear. To solve this critical problem needs to know the impacting mechanism of non-point pollution loadings and to develop hydrological and water quality model suitable

  9. Extraction and Analysis of Impervious Surfaces Based on a Spectral Un-Mixing Method Using Pearl River Delta of China Landsat TM/ETM+ Imagery from 1998 to 2008

    Renrong Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impervious surface area (ISA is considered as an indicator of environment change and is regarded as an important input parameter for hydrological cycle simulation, water management and area pollution assessment. The Pearl River Delta (PRD, the 3rd most important economic district of China, is chosen in this paper to extract the ISA information based on Landsat images of 1998, 2003 and 2008 by using a linear spectral un-mixing method and to monitor impervious surface change by analyzing the multi-temporal Landsat-derived fractional impervious surface. Results of this study were as follows: (1 the area of ISA in the PRD increased 79.09% from 1998 to 2003 and 26.88% from 2003 to 2008 separately; (2 the spatial distribution of ISA was described according to the 1998/2003 percentage respectively. Most of middle and high percentage ISA was located in northwestern and southeastern of the whole delta, and middle percentage ISA was mainly located in the city interior, high percentage ISA was mainly located in the suburban around the city accordingly; (3 the expanding direction and trend of high percentage ISA was discussed in order to understand the change of urban in this delta; High percentage ISA moved from inner city to edge of urban area during 1998–2003 and moved to the suburban area that far from the urban area mixed with jumpily and gradually during 2003–2008. According to the discussion of high percentage ISA spatial expanded direction, it could be found out that high percentage ISA moved outward from the centre line of Pearl River of the whole delta while a high ISA percentage in both shores of the Pearl River Estuary moved toward the Pearl River; (4 combining the change of ISA with social conditions, the driving relationship was analyzed in detail. It was evident that ISA percentage change had a deep relationship with the economic development of this region in the past ten years. Contemporaneous major sport events (16th Asia Games of

  10. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  11. Groundwater Dynamics in Drained Soils of the Biđ-fi eld District

    Ivan Mustać

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of five-year stationary investigations (2001-2006 was to assess groundwater dynamics in the Biđ-field district, as well as the type of soil moistening of agricultural soils spreading over 5838 ha. Detailed hydropedological investigations were carried out in 2000 and a soil map of the region was produced (scale = 1:10000 using universal kriging. Soil investigations identified six pedosystematic units: alluvial-gley, semigley-pseudogley, eugley hypogley, humogley, eugley amphigley and drained soils. Based on permanent monitoring of piezometer groundwater (piezometer depth up to 4.0 m in the period from 2001 to 2006, the following major soil moistening types and subtypes of the separated soil units were determined: semigley-pseudogely, hypogley, humogley, amphigley and drained. Using the correlation method, more intensive groundwater communication was determined in the studied soil profiles with the River Biđ water (r = 0.65-0.69 than with the River Sava water (r = 0.23-0.69, notably in hypogley soils, which cover 54.3% of the studied area. Analysis of the obtained piezometer water level curves indicated a very strong mutual correlation between the groundwater level dynamics in monitored hydrogeological piezometers of 9 m depth (r = 0.87-0.98, as well as a strong correlation (r = 0.75-0.94 between hydrogeological and hydropedological piezometers of 4 m depth. A particularly strong correlation (r = 0.85-0.94 was recorded between hydrogeological and hydropedological piezometers installed in hypogley soil. These data confirm marked vertical communication of groundwater in the deep aquifer with water of the shallow soil aquifer, indicating that the surface layer of the studied area, mainly made up of silty clay loams to silty clays, is not impervious.

  12. Applied satellite remote sensing to runoff analysis: Through the effective depth of soil layer

    The thickness of the soil layers in which tree roots are able to develop freely influences forest composition and growth. Trees growing in shallow soil are usually less well supplied with water and mineral nutrients than those growing in deeper soil. A soil may be deep in an absolute sense but, because of a relatively impervious layer, such as hardpan or because of a high water-table, may be shallow in a physiological sense. Penetrability measurements have been found useful in evaluating the influence of different forest types on the physical properties of soils. Commonly the penetrability of soils can be measured by using the Hasegawa-formed soil penetrometer and can be judged as the soil softness content (SSC). Previous studies report soil with more than 1.9 cm/drop of SSC to be highly permeable and therefore roots are more likely to be extensively developed. Based upon this theory the depth of soil layer with more than 1.9 cm/drop of SSC can be defined as the Effective Depth of Soil Layer (EDSL). We examined the relationship between the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and the EDSL and established a 'Runoff Simulation Model (RSM)' based upon the theory of the Storage Function Model method. The conclusions are that (1) a strong positive correlation between the RVI (ground measured) and the EDSL was given, (2) applying results of conclusion (1) to satellite analysis a similar correlation between the RVI (satellite analysis of JERS 1/OPS data) and the EDSL was observed and (3) the simulated storm-runoff hydro graph coincides with the observed one well

  13. Soil friability

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used by...... scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  14. Impacts of soil erosion

    Dorren, Luuk; De la Rosa, Diego; Theocharopoulos, Sid. P.

    2004-01-01

    3.1 Definition of soil functions, soil quality and quality targets The identification of soil functions, properties and processes which are affected by soil erosion is needed to evaluate the impacts of erosion on the soil system. Definition of soil loss tolerance according to soil types and environmental characteristics. 3.2 Development of criteria and indicators to assess soil sustainable use and soil protection measures What are the impacts of soil erosion on soil...

  15. Soils electroremediation

    This paper presents data on decontamination experiments performed with soils contaminated by long-lived radioactive caesium isotopes. The contamination was formed about 30 years ago during an accident in the first nuclear power station in the former Czechoslovakia. Because of the large soil quantities that make excavation and storage of these soils in nuclear waste repositories inconvenient from economical and spatial point of view, various methods for in situ or ex situ remediation were sought and tested. For soil contamination by caesium, the time of contact of caesium with the soil is crucial because the caesium ions diffuse inside the crystalline structures of clay minerals where they are virtually irreversibly bound. For such materials, the efficiency of the classic 'soft' decontamination methods, such as leaching, phytoremediation etc., is rather low. Electrochemical decontamination was proposed as the decontamination technique for ex situ application. The method is based on electrolysis at a relatively high current density in a suitable electrolyte. The soil is kept in suspension close to the anode, and owing to the high acidity together with both the high temperature and ion flux, the soil structures are opened or partially disrupted and caesium ions are released. The ions can be separated from the solution, e.g., by using selective ion exchangers. The experimental electrolytic cell was designed for the treatment of thin soil layers containing about 3 g of the soil and about 100 mL of electrolyte. The influence of various system parameters, such as electrolyte composition, current-voltage, temperature, and time, on the decontamination efficiency was examined. In the most efficient configuration, a 99+% decontamination level was achieved. For the next step, a bench-scale apparatus was designed that should allow treatment of batches of up to 0.5 kg of soil in one step. (author)

  16. Risk security and soil loss mitigation: the EU case study of the Sufalnet Project

    Marina Rigillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Former and abandoned landfills represent a good opportunity for producing new impervious surfaces for the urban environment, contrasting soil loss (specially the agricultural one and improving the recovery of brownfield. From such perspective, landfill redevelopment could be intended as the beginning of a new life cycle for the site, corresponding to a kick off action for achieving environmental and socio-economic development. This is the purpose of the Sufalnet Project (Sustainable Use of Former and Abandoned Landfill that defines a new approach for landfill redevelopment in form of model strategy by which reducing both the risk of the project failure and of the environmental pollution. Model strategy acts as cultural device for managing redevelop- ment process and its complexity.

  17. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    The Iron Park Superfund site, North Billerica, Massachusetts, is located within a 553 acre operating industrial complex and railyard located approximately 20 miles northwest of Boston. Fifteen acres of this site are designated as the Wastewater Lagoon Area containing lagoons and materials previously dredged from those lagoons. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the Iron Horse Park facility on its National Priorities List in 1984, and a Remedial Investigation (RI) for the site as a whole began n 1985. In September 1988, responding to the presence of these site contaminants, the EPA issued the first Superfund Record of Decision (ROD) in EPA Region I that specified bioremediation as the remedial technology. Specifically, the EPA stipulated biological land treatment cell with an impervious lower liner. In this form of biotreatment, sludges and contaminated soil are placed in the cell in lifts (i.e. layers approximately one foot thick) and the lifts are frequently aerated by tilling while nutrients are applied at optimal levels to stimulate the degradation of organic contaminants by indigenous microorganisms. In its Administrative Order (September 1989), the EPA stipulated cleanup goals to be achieved, and required that a Predesign Evaluation be initiated to ascertain which soil/sludge piles would require treatment. The design and execution of this remediation-focused site evaluation by ENSR forms the subject of this paper

  18. SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

  19. Estimativa de área impermeabilizada diretamente conectada e sua utilização como coeficiente de escoamento superficial Estimate of directly connected impervious areas and its use as runoff coefficient

    Leonardo Monteiro Garotti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo realizou-se a caracterização do uso e ocupação do solo na cidade de Ribeirão Preto (SP, além da análise detalhada da impermeabilização urbana e conectividade hidráulica dos lotes. Também foi avaliado o coeficiente de escoamento superficial (C para seis sub-bacias, utilizando-se três métodos com diferentes níveis de precisão. Utilizando-se o Método Racional com os valores estimados de C, calcularam-se os picos de vazão para as sub-bacias. Identificou-se que a impermeabilização cresce com a redução da área do lote. As estimativas de C resultam em diferenças importantes em seus valores, refletindo na previsão da vazão. A utilização de tabelas com C detalhado e no seu limite superior se aproxima dos valores estimados por C AIDC. Recomenda-se estimar C AIDC a partir da área do lote ou pesquisa de campo.This paper presents a study of characterization of land occupation and its use in the city of Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, as well as a detailed analysis of the urban imperviousness and hydraulic connectivity of the plots. The runoff coefficient (C for siz sub-basins was evaluated on the basis of three different definitions. The peaks of outflow for the sub-basins were calculated using the Rational Method with the estimated values of C. It was identified that the imperviousness increases as the area of the plot decreases. The estimative of the C show important differences in its values, influencing the outflow. The use of tables with detailed and maximal C values beyond its superior limitation is equivalent to the values estimated with C DCIA. It is recommended that the C DCIA relative to the area be estimated based on the plot or field researches.

  20. Soil mechanics

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Bromwell, L. G.; Durgunoglu, H. T.; Hovland, H. J.; Treadwell, D. D.; Costes, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil on the Descartes slopes, and the Cayley Plains in the vicinity of the LM for Apollo 16. The soil mechanics data were derived form (1) crew commentary and debriefings, (2) television, (3) lunar surface photography, (4) performance data and observations of interactions between soil and lunar roving vehicle, (5) drive-tube and deep drill samples, (6) sample characteristics, and (7) measurements using the SRP. The general characteristics, stratigraphy and variability are described along with the core samples, penetrometer test results, density, porosity and strength.

  1. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Williams, J.R. [Reclamation Technology, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  2. Construction of Plastic Concrete Impervious Wall with Permanent Mould%使用永久性胎模的现浇塑性混凝土防渗心墙施工

    奉丽玲; 姜泽侯; 韩春秀; 赵发宾; 张玮

    2013-01-01

    Through the description to Wuding Jiyi Reservoir on plastic concrete impervious wall construction, expounds on the use of the new technology of permanent masonry template of the plastic concrete anti-seepage wall. The construction of plastic concrete anti-seepage wall, reduces the concrete disturbance destroy of roller compaction, and the difficulty of concrete pouring. Not only speeds up the progress, but also saves the cost, solves the problem of road construction, and brings better economic benefit.%  通过对武定己衣水库塑性混凝土防渗墙施工的描述,阐述使用永久性浆砌石模板的塑性混凝土防渗墙的新技术,这种塑性混凝土防渗墙施工方式,减少了碾压对混凝土的扰动破坏,降低了混凝土浇筑的难度。既加快了进度,还节省了成本,而且解决了场内施工道路的问题,带来良好的经济效益。

  3. 三峡工程二期围堰防渗墙塑性混凝土特性%Characterisitics of plastic concrete for impervious core wall of TGP cofferdam Ⅱ

    王迎春; 李家正; 朱冠美; 周守贤

    2001-01-01

    根据三峡工程二期围堰结构要求,提出了防渗墙墙体材料的技术指标。通过墙体材料筛选优化,推荐的塑性混凝土具有能适应堰体要求的各种性能。并对塑性混凝土进行了三轴测试和应力-应变计算分析以及现场监测,结果表明其性能达到了设计要求。经过一年多的运行考验,塑性混凝土防渗墙是安全的。%According to structural features of Three Gorges Project(TGP) cofferdam Ⅱ,technical indices of materials used for impervious core wall are presented. Through selecting and optimizing,the mix proportion of plastic concrete for core wall was recommended.Triaxial shear tests and stress-strain behaviour analysis were carried out on this material.In addition,laboratory study and in-situ monitoring results concluded that the properties of plastic concrete achieved all design requirements.Normal operation over one year proved the plastic concrete cut-off wall being safe.

  4. Physical properties as indicators of oil penetration in soils, contaminated with oil lakes in the Greater Burgan oil fields, Kuwait

    Measurements were made on 60 samples to determine the physical properties of the soil profiles contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields which include 80% of the Greater Burgan oil wells in southern Kuwait. The two soil profiles have similar saturation percentages, field capacities, wilting coefficients, low available water capacities due to statificiation and very low matric potential, and high bulk densities due to compaction by vehicle wheels. The fluviatile origin, relatively poor sorting and unstable structure of the Burgan soil layers have led to lower hydraulic conductivity and permeability, thereby restricting oil penetration mainly to the upper 25-45 cm layer. In contrast, the eolian origin, excellent sorting and stable structure of Al-Ahmadi soil layers have resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity and permeability, and hence allowed the spreading of oil over much greater depths (down to 150 cm). The very low values of the hydraulic conductivities and available water capacities of the zone(s) lying below the impervious Gatch (caliche) layer in the two soil profiles suggest that this layer could act as a moisture barrier impeding any further downward oil penetration. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    California Department of Resources — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  6. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  7. Influence of soil moisture on soil respiration

    Fer, Miroslav; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Klement, Ales; Jelenova, Klara

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe an impact of soil moisture on soil respiration. Study was performed on soil samples from morphologically diverse study site in loess region of Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The original soil type is Haplic Chernozem, which was due to erosion changed into Regosol (steep parts) and Colluvial soil (base slope and the tributary valley). Soil samples were collected from topsoils at 5 points of the selected elevation transect and also from the parent material (loess). Grab soil samples, undisturbed soil samples (small - 100 cm3, and large - 713 cm3) and undisturbed soil blocks were taken. Basic soil properties were determined on grab soil samples. Small undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. During experiments performed in greenhouse dry large undisturbed soil samples were wetted from below using a kaolin tank and cumulative water inflow due to capillary rise was measured. Simultaneously net CO2 exchange rate and net H2O exchange rate were measured using LCi-SD portable photosynthesis system with Soil Respiration Chamber. Numerical inversion of the measured cumulative capillary rise data using the HYDRUS-1D program was applied to modify selected soil hydraulic parameters for particular conditions and to simulate actual soil water distribution within each soil column in selected times. Undisturbed soil blocks were used to prepare thin soil sections to study soil-pore structure. Results for all soil samples showed that at the beginning of soil samples wetting the CO2 emission increased because of improving condition for microbes' activity. The maximum values were reached for soil column average soil water content between 0.10 and 0.15 cm3/cm3. Next CO2 emission decreased since the pore system starts filling by water (i.e. aggravated conditions for microbes

  8. Gardening in Clay Soils

    Wagner, Katie; Kuhns, Michael; Cardon, Grant

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet covers the basics of clay, silt and sand soils with an emphasis on gardening in soils with a high clay content. It includes information on the composition of clay soils, gardening tips for managing clay soils, and the types of plants that grow best in clay soils.

  9. Gardening in Sandy Soils

    Wagner, Katie; Kuhns, Michael; Cardon, Grant

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet covers the basics of clay, silt and sand soils with an emphasis on gardening in soils with a high sand content. It includes information on the composition of sandy soils, gardening tips for managing sandy soils, and the types of plants that grow best in sandy soils.

  10. Soil compaction and soil tillage - studies in agricultural soil mechanics

    Keller, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with various aspects of soil compaction due to agricultural field traffic, the draught force requirement of tillage implements and soil structures produced by tillage. Several field experiments were carried out to study the mechanical impact of agricultural machines. It was shown that the stress interaction from the different wheels in dual and tandem wheel configurations is small and these wheels can be considered separate wheels with regard to soil stress. Hence, soil stre...

  11. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  12. A parameter study of the two-phase ground water transport in the soil surrounding a growing hemispherical in situ vitrification melt

    Numerical simulation is used to test the effect of several parameters on the water balance and pressure field surrounding a growing hemispherical In Situ Vitrification (ISV) melt. In the current project, a hemispherical annulus of unsaturated soil contained between a growing melt and an impervious wall is modeled. Water vapor vents to atmospheric conditions. The soil is considered a porous media; consequently, fluid velocity can be modeled by Darcy's equation. The capillary pressure and relative permeability are modeled using the equations derived by van Genuchten. The computer model employs a grid which adapts to the transient boundary of the growing melt. The parameters considered include: initial liquid saturation, soil permeability, and melt growth rate. The combined effect of capillary pressure and permeability is also studied. The variation of these parameters in a Hanford soil are studied for their effect on pressure history at the melt interface and total liquid mass history. Transport of heat and mass in the soil is illustrated graphically in terms of the saturation and pressure fields as well as mass flux of liquid and vapor water

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  14. Detailed Soils 24K

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  15. Dutch soil management and soil fertility

    Sukkel, Wijnand

    2011-01-01

    The organic sector depends heavily on its soils. In the Netherlands, relatively little acreage is available per farm compared to other countries. This means that the soil has to be kept in optimal shape for production, be it vegetables, cereals, potatoes or animal feed and grassland. To facilitate organic farmers, Wageningen UR and Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at soil management and soil fertility. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirati...

  16. Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics

    Milstead, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

  17. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  18. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  19. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over croplands using airborne hyperspectral data

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Bel, Liliane; Lefebvre, Josias; Chehdi, Kacem

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the Prostock-Gessol3 and the BASC-SOCSENSIT projects, dedicated to the spatial monitoring of the effects of exogenous organic matter land application on soil organic carbon storage. It aims at identifying the potential of airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soils comprise hortic or glossic luvisols, calcaric, rendzic cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks which were georeferenced. Tracks were atmospherically corrected using a set of 22 synchronous field spectra of both bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. Atmospherically corrected track tiles were mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution resulting in a 66 Gb image. A SPOT4 satellite image was acquired the same day in the framework of the SPOT4-Take Five program of the French Space Agency (CNES) which provided it with atmospheric correction. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then NDVI calculation and thresholding enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. All 18 sampled sites known to be bare at this very date were correctly included in this map. A total of 85 sites sampled in 2013 or in the 3 previous years were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples. The use of the total sample including 27 sites under cloud shadows led to non-significant results. Considering 43 sites outside cloud shadows only, median

  20. MILESTONES IN SOIL PHYSICS

    This special issue of “Soil Science“ celebrates the enormous accomplishments made during the past century or more in the field of soil science, including some of the key articles published in Soil Science during its 90 years of existence. In this article, we focus on the contributions in soil physic...

  1. Visual soil evaluation

    Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic...... nutrient leaching, and for diagnosing and rectifying erosion and compaction in soils....

  2. Triazine Soil Interactions

    The fate of triazine herbicides in soils is controlled by three basic processes: transformation, retention, and transport. Sorption of triazines on surfaces of soil particles is the primary means by which triazines are retained in soils. Soils are very complex mixtures of living organisms, various t...

  3. Fundamentals of soil science

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  4. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  5. Soil organic matter studies

    The use of isotopes in soil organic matter studies is reviewed. Such studies include measuring the input of organic carbon into soils, the decomposition of isotope-labelled materials such as organic compounds and microbial and plant material in soils, the characterization of soil organic matter and the availability of nutrients released from organic residues. (U.K.)

  6. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  7. Soil organic matter studies

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  8. Soil water management

    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  9. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  10. Classification of Ferrallitic Soils in Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    2000-01-01

    The development of the classification of ferrallitic soils in China is reviewed and the classification of Ferralisols and Ferrisols in Chinese Soil Taxonomy is introduced in order to discuss the correlation between the ferrallitic soil classification in the Chinese Soil Taxonomy and those of the other soil classification systems. In the former soil classification systems of China, the ferrallitic soils were classified into the soil groups of Latosols, Latosolic red soils, Red soils, Yellow soils and Dry red soils, according to the combination of soil forming conditions, soil-forming processes, soil features and soil properties. In the Chinese Soil Taxonomy, most of ferrallitic soils are classified into the soil orders of Ferralisols and Ferrisols based on the diagnostic horizons and/or diagnostic characteristics with quantitatively defined properties. Ferralisols are the soils that have ferralic horizon, and they are merely subdivided into one suborder and two soil groups. Ferrisols are the soils that have LAC-ferric horizon but do not have ferralic horizon, and they are subdivided into three suborders and eleven soil groups. Ferralisols may correspond to part of Latosols and Latosolic red soils. Ferrisols may either correspond to part of Red soils, Yellow soils and Dry red soils, or correspond to part of Latosols and Latosolic red soils.

  11. Cross-cutting activities: Soil quality and soil metagenomics

    Motavalli, Peter P.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports on the work of the SANREM CRSP cross-cutting activities "Assessing and Managing Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems" and "Soil Metagenomics to Construct Indicators of Soil Degradation." The introduction gives an overview of the extensiveness of soil degradation globally and defines soil quality. The objectives of the soil quality cross cutting activity are: CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  12. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  13. The soils of Bhutan

    Caspari, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is based on a Bhutanese-German collaboration. The main objective is to extend the present knowledge about the soils of temperate Bhutan. Its main parts comprise • the first systematic pedogeochemical characterisation of Bhutanese soils. Results show that even high altitude soils are highly weathered. The examined soils largely reflect the underlying geology, and there is no evidence for allochthonous aeolian materials. • the analysis of two particular soil forming processes....

  14. Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    GONG Zitong; LEI Wenjin; CHEN Zhicheng; GAO Yixin; ZENG Shenggeng; ZHANG Ganlin; XIAO Duning; LI Shugang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Soil is a kind of natural resources on which human survival relies. Because the soil is always in a state of uneven continuum, it is difficult to have a complete set of unified standards for its classification. China is a country unparallelly rich in types of soil resources in the world, so the formulation of a soil classification is not only conducive to the sustainable agricultural development and eco-environment reconstruction in China, but also a contribution to the world soil research.

  15. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils.

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K

    2016-05-01

    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on water/air interfaces, the latter gives an impression of surfactant adsorption to a hydrophobic surface and illustrates the importance of the CMC for the adsorption process. Then attention is paid to the most important types of soil particles: humic and fulvic acids, silica, metal oxides and layered aluminosilicates. Information is provided on their structure, surface properties and primary (proton) charge characteristics, which are all important for surfactant binding. Subsequently, the adsorption of different types of surfactants on these individual soil components is discussed in detail, based on mainly experimental results and considering the specific (chemical) and electrostatic interactions, with hydrophobic attraction as an important component of the specific interactions. Adsorption models that can describe the features semi-quantitatively are briefly discussed. In the last part of the paper some trends of surfactant adsorption on soils are briefly discussed together with some complications that may occur and finally the consequences of surfactant adsorption for soil colloidal stability and permeability are considered. When we seek to understand the fate of surfactants in soil and aqueous environments, the hydrophobicity and charge density of the soil or soil particles, must be considered together with the structure, hydrophobicity and charge of the surfactants, because these factors affect the adsorption. The pH and ionic strength are important parameters with respect to the charge density of the particles. As surfactant adsorption influences soil structure and permeability, insight in surfactant adsorption to soil particles is useful for good soil management. PMID

  16. Effect of soil mulching on soil temperature

    Nine different plastic films for ground covering were used. The soil temperature was measured into soil at deep 10 cm. Minimal average daily soil temperature at deep 10 cm was measured for uncovered soil (control treatment B1) and was 28.33 deg C. Increasing of average soil daily temperature under plastic film, compared with uncovered soil varied in interval 2.51 deg C (B3), up to 4.49 deg C (B10). Temperature regime in conditions of ground covering in early morning hours (6 h -6,30 h) and in the midday hours (13,30 h -14 h) were analyzed. Measuring were carried out in two cycles

  17. Soil micromorphology, soil structure stability and soil hydraulic properties

    Kodešová, R.; Rohošková, M.; Žigová, Anna; Kodeš, V.; Kutílek, M.

    Bratislava : Ústav hydrológie SAV, 2006 - (Ivančo, J.; Pavelková, D.; Gomboš, M.; Tall, A.), s. 0-0 ISBN 80-89139-09-4. [Vedecká konferencia s medzinárodnou účasťou Vplyv Antropogénnej činnosti na vodný režim nížinného územia /6./ ; Slovensko-česko-poľský seminár Fyzika vody v pode /16./. Bratislava -Michalovce-Vinianske jazero (SK), 06.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil micromorphological properties * soil structure stability * soil porous system * soil hydraulic properties Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  18. Mass Transport within Soils

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  19. Study on Soil Magnetic Effect

    YIYAN-LI; LIUXIAO-YI

    1995-01-01

    A study on the effect of applied magnetic field was performed with six types of soils collected from northeastern China.Magnetic field was found to cause changes of soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activities.An appropriate applied magnetic field could cut down soil zeta-potential,soil specific surface,soil water potential and soil swelling capacity;raise the charge density on soil colloids and the activities of invertase,hydrogen peroxidase and amylase in the soils;enhance soil aggregation and improve soil structural status and soil water-releasing capability.

  20. Soil Structure Interaction in Nonlinear Soil

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) model of a building supported by a semi-circular flexible foundation embedded in nonlinear soil is analyzed. The building, the foundation, and the soil have different physical properties. The model is excited by a half-sine SH wave pulse, which travels toward the foundation. The results show that the spatial distribution of permanent, nonlinear strain in the soil depends upon the incident angle, the amplitude, and the duration of the pulse. If the wave h...

  1. Soil washing technology evaluation

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  2. CONSIDERATIONS ON URBAN SOILS

    Radu Lacatusu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban soil is an material that has been manipulated, disturbed or transported by man’s activities in the urban environment and is used as a medium for plant growth and for constructions. The physical, chemical, and biological properties are generally less favorable as a rooting medium than soil found on the natural landscape. The main characteristics of urban soils are: great vertical and spatial variability; modified soil structure leading to compaction; presence of a surface crust; modified soil reaction, usually elevated; restricted aeration and water drainage; modified abundance of chemical elements, interrupted nutrient cycling and soil organism activity; presence of anthropic materials contaminants and pollutants; modified soil temperature regime. The urbic horizon is designated as U (always capital letter and for indication of processes are used different small letters. It is necessary elaboration a new classification of urban soils for our country.

  3. Soil and Litter Animals.

    Lippert, George

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan for soil study utilizes the Tullgren extraction method to illustrate biological concepts. It includes background information, equipment, collection techniques, activities, and references for identification guides about soil fauna. (MCO)

  4. Soil properties controlling infiltration in volcanic soils

    Neris, Jonay; Tejedor, Marisa; Jiménez, Concepción

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is an important process whose behaviour depends on external factors and soil properties that vary depending on the type of soil. The soil parameters affecting the infiltration capacity of six soil orders all formed on volcanic materials (andisols, vertisols, alfisols, aridisols, inceptisols, and entisols) and contribute to the differences between them were studied in this paper. A total of 108 sites were selected on the island of Tenerife (Spain). The main soil properties were analysed and the steady-state infiltration rate measured using a double-ring infiltrometer. The relationship between the soil properties and infiltration was modelled using statistical Principal Components Analysis and regressions. The research concludes that the relation between structural development and texture play a decisive role. The high structural development of non-vitric andisols, due to the high organic matter and short-range-order mineral content, leads to an extremely fast infiltration rate. The structural instability and fine texture of aridisols produce low infiltration. In less developed soils (entisols and vitric andisols) where aggregate formation is minimal or non-existent, the coarse grain size is the relevant factor determining their very fast and extremely fast infiltration. In vertisols and alfisols, which have strong aggregation but low stability, clay type and content play an important role and lead to a moderate and moderately fast steady-state infiltration rate, respectively. In the most typic inceptisols, with moderate structural development and stability, the balance of the properties is largely responsible for the intermediate infiltration rate observed.

  5. Soil organic matter mineralization in frozen soils

    Harrysson Drotz, S.; Sparrman, T.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M.; Öquist, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are frozen for a large part of the year and soil organic matter mineralization during this period has been shown to significantly influence the C balance of boreal forest ecosystems. Mineralization proceeds through heterotrophic microbial activity, but the understanding of the environmental controls regulating soil organic matter mineralization under frozen conditions is poor. Through a series of investigations we have addressed this issue in order to elucidate to what extent a range of environmental factors control mineralization processes in frozen soils and also the microbial communities potential to oxidize organic substrates and grow under such conditions. The unfrozen water content in the frozen soils was shown to be an integral control on the temperature response of biogenic CO2 production across the freezing point of bulk soil water. We found that osmotic potential was an important contributor to the total water potential and, hence, the unfrozen water content of frozen soil. From being low and negligible in an unfrozen soil, the osmotic potential was found to contribute up to 70% of the total water potential in frozen soil, greatly influencing the volume of liquid water. The specific factors of how soil organic matter composition affected the unfrozen water content and CO2 production of frozen soil were studied by CP-MAS NMR. We concluded that abundance of aromatics and recalcitrant compounds showed a significant positive correlation with unfrozen water content and these were also the major soil organic fractions that similarly correlated with the microbial CO2 production of the frozen soils. Thus, the hierarchy of environmental factors controlling SOM mineralization changes as soils freeze and environmental controls elucidated from studies of unfrozen systems can not be added on frozen conditions. We have also investigated the potential activity of soil microbial communities under frozen conditions in order to elucidate temperature

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ON URBAN SOILS

    Radu Lacatusu

    2005-01-01

    Urban soil is an material that has been manipulated, disturbed or transported by man’s activities in the urban environment and is used as a medium for plant growth and for constructions. The physical, chemical, and biological properties are generally less favorable as a rooting medium than soil found on the natural landscape. The main characteristics of urban soils are: great vertical and spatial variability; modified soil structure leading to compaction; presence of a surface crust; modified...

  7. Iodine dynamics in soil

    Hassan Shetaya, Waleed Hares Abdou

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this investigation was to understand the transformation and reaction kinetics of iodide and iodate added to soil in relation to soil properties. In addition, to integrate the data into a predictive model of iodide and iodate sorption kinetics parameterised by soil properties. Solid phase fractionation coupled with solution phase speciation (HPLC-ICPMS) was used to follow the assimilation of 129I- and 129IO3- spikes into ‘steady state’ soil microcosms. The extract...

  8. Determinants of Soil Capital

    Ekbom, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines knowledge from soil science and economics to estimate economic determinants of soil capital. Explaining soil capital facilitates a better understanding of constraints and opportunities for increased agricultural production and reduced land degradation. This study builds on an unusually rich data set that combines data on soil capital (represented by chemical and physical properties) and economic data on household characteristics, labor supply, crop allocation, and conserva...

  9. Vanadium in soils

    Larsson, Maja A

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium is a redox-sensitive metal that is released to soils by weathering and anthropogenic emissions. Swedish metallurgical slags are naturally high in vanadium and used as soil amendments and in road materials. However, understanding of vanadium chemistry and bioavailability in soils is limited. The aim of this thesis was to provide knowledge of vanadium in soils in terms of sorption, toxicity and speciation, in order to enable improved environmental risk assessments. Vanadium sorption to...

  10. Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics

    Delage, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this general report, experimental systems and procedures of investigating the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils are commented and linked to various physical parameters and properties of the soils. Techniques of controlling suction are described together with their adaptation in various laboratory testing devices. Some typical features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented within an ela...

  11. Restoration of contaminated soils

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author)

  12. Bioindication with soil microfauna

    The state of a soil can be characterised through its inhabitant micro-, meso-, and macrofauna. For an appropriate assessment of soil quality at least one representative of each of these size categories should be studied (e.g. testacea, mites, earthworms). This contribution summarizes the insights gained from microscopic soil fauna in this context. The following practical examples are discussed: pesticides, organic and artificial fertilisers, soil compaction, ecological and conventional farming, recolonisation. The 'weighted cenosis index' represents a quantitative measure for the influence of anthropogenic activity on a soil. (orig.)

  13. Soil organic matter studies

    The dependence of plant production and humus formation, the interaction of soil organic matter with the mineral part of soil for plant nutrition and some physical and chemical properties of soil were discussed, as were the significance of climatic and hydrological data in that context. Isotope techniques (14C and 15N) were utilized in various studies. Papers were presented on the turnover of plant residues, mineralization of organic compounds, nitrogen economy, biodegradation and biochemical transformations of soil organic matter, contributions to the formation of humic substances, soil organic matter and plant metabolism, and the interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter. The use of municipal sludge on agricultural land was also considered

  14. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    A new book that is particularly relevant as tropical countries experience increased pressure on land resources to improve agricultural production. To ensure sustainable land use, the potentials and limitations of different kinds of tropical soils must be known in relation to crop production...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...... and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...

  15. Effect of passages on the soil onto soil tillage quality

    Kos, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Effect of passages on the soil onto soil tillage quality in this study was assessed by selected parameters of soil tillage quality, which were soil aggregates diameter, cross surface soil, soil surface roughness, level of incorporation of crop residues, cover the surface of plant residues and soil penetration resistance. Variants were evaluated with controlled traffic on land, option without traffic and the option with random traffic. The results revealed that traffic should primarily affect ...

  16. Soil Organic Carbon in the Soil Scapes of Southeastern Tanzania

    Rossi, Joni

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is well known to maintain several functions. On the one hand, being the major component of soil organic matter (SOM),it is a determinant of soil physical and chemical properties, an important proxy for soil biological activity and a measure of soil productivity. Land use management that will enhance soil carbon (C) levels is therefore important for farmers and land use planners, particularly in semiarid and sub-humid Africa where severe soil degradation and desertifi...

  17. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Rattan Lal

    2015-01-01

    Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions bet...

  18. Radiogeochemistry of Kamchatka soils

    Zakharikhina, L. V.; Litvinenko, Yu. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background concentrations of Th and U in volcanic soils (Andosols) of Kamchatka are much lower than their clarkes in continental soils. The dose rate of gamma radiation above the soil surface (10-11.5 µR/h in the south and 8-9.5 [m]R/h in the north of Kamchatka Peninsula) is lower than the natural level of this index for the mountainous areas in the boreal zone of Russia. The natural radiogeochemical background of Kamchatka soils is controlled by the petrochemical composition of volcanic ash composing the mineral basis of Kamchatka soils. It is higher in the southern soil province, where soils develop from acidic ashes, in comparison with the northern province, with a predominance of soils developing from ashes of basic and intermediate composition. This agrees with Th and U clarkes for the corresponding types of volcanic rocks and explains the natural origin of the elevated radiogeochemical background in the southern part of Kamchatka as compared with its northern part. The soils of the northern province developing from relatively fresh volcanic ashes show a lower Th/U ratio as compared to the soils of southern Kamchatka because of higher uranium content in the newly deposited ashes.

  19. Soil Heat Flow Model

    Varas, E.; Nunez, C.; Meza, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Penman-Monteith method for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) has been recommended by FAO. This method requires measures of temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and heat flow in the soil. This last variable is rarely available. Soil heat flow is generally small compared to the net radiation, and many times is ignored in the energy balance. Nevertheless, the addition or subtraction of this amount in the energy balance equation should be considered for evapo-transpiration calculation. Penman-Monteith method suggests approximate estimates of soil heat flows as the difference between the maxima and minimum daily temperatures multiplied by a convenient coefficient. However, such approach ignores important variations in this parameter occurring during the day, and could influence the accuracy of the result. This work proposes to estimate soil heat flows by means of a mathematical model that includes the estimate of soil temperatures profiles and heat flows as a function of thermal properties of the soil, such as difussivity and conductivity coefficients. The model calculates soil heat flows in three stages. The first estimates hourly air temperature based on the average daily temperature and Fourier series coefficients. The obtained hourly air temperature constitutes an input variable for the second stage of the model. Surface soil temperature is assumed to be equal to air temperature. The second stage, applies heat transfer principles, using the thermal properties of the soil in order to obtain the soil temperature profile in a one meter depth soil stratum. Finally, the results of the second stage are used to calculate the hourly heat flow in the soil and compare this estimate with other methods and with measured values. Calculated hourly temperatures reproduced observed values closely. Correlation coefficients between observed and calculated values for the three summer months are 0.98, 0.96 and 0.97. Hourly soil heat fluxes are also closely estimated, showing

  20. How Can Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements Control Soil Pollution?

    Mohammad Reza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soil pollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and arsenic, herbicides, pesticides, oils, tars, PCBs and dioxins. Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC is one of the soil physical properties w hich have a good relationship with the other soil characteristics. As measuring soil electrical conductivity is easier, less expensive and faster than other soil properties measurements, using a detector that can do on the go soil EC measurements is a good tool for obtaining useful information about soil pollution condition.

  1. Percutaneous absorption from soil.

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some natural sites, as a result of contaminants emitted into the air and subsequently deposited in soil or accidental industrial release, have high levels of organic and non-organic chemicals in soil. In occupational and recreation settings, these could be potential sources of percutaneous exposure to humans. When investigating percutaneous absorption from soil - in vitro or vivo - soil load, particle size, layering, soil "age" time, along with the methods of performing the experiment and analyzing the results must be taken into consideration. Skin absorption from soil is generally reduced compared with uptake from water/acetone. However, the absorption of some compounds, e.g., pentachlorophenol, chlorodane and PCB 1254, are similar. Lipophilic compounds like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, benzo[A]pyrene, and metals have the tendency to form reservoirs in skin. Thus, one should take caution in interpreting results directly from in vitro studies for risk assessment; in vivo validations are often required for the most relevant risk assessment. PMID:25205703

  2. Advances in soil dynamics

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal was to...... abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....

  3. Soil in the Anthropocene

    Richter, Daniel deB; Bacon, Allan R.; Brecheisen, Zachary; Mobley, Megan L.

    2015-07-01

    With scholars deliberating a new name for our geologic epoch, i.e., the Anthropocene, soil scientists whether biologists, chemists, or physicists are documenting significant changes accruing in a majority of Earth's soils. Such global soil changes interact with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere (i.e., Earth's Critical Zone), and these developments are significantly impacting the Earth's stratigraphic record as well. In effect, soil scientists study such global soil changes in a science of anthropedology, which leads directly to the need to transform pedostratigraphyinto an anthro-pedostratigraphy, a science that explores how global soil change alters Earth's litho-, bio-, and chemostratigraphy. These developments reinforce perspectives that the planet is indeed crossing into the Anthropocene.

  4. Soil function and "malfunction"

    Elio Coppola

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the scientists define soil from an “agronomic” point of view as the natural system delegated to sustain plantgrowth and agricultural productions on the whole. In this paper soil importance, even in “environmental and social”terms, is pointed out, considering soil as a natural body with its own functional characteristics, regardless ofits agronomic role and productive ability. Some studies show that soil acts as a thermal buffer and detoxifies thecirculating liquid phase. Actually soil is also the depository of the cultural heritage of the society who used it, bothas keeper of relics and manufactured products and as an expression of transformation processes and evolution trendcaused by man’s action itself.The need to protect and preserve soil has to be emphasized by stating its main importance not only as a maintenancesource for all the living beings but also as a factor of environmental control.

  5. Acidification of Forest Soils

    Kauppi, P.; Kaemaeri, J.; Posch, M; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E.

    1986-01-01

    Acidification is considered to be an unfavourable process in forest soil. Timber logging, natural accumulation of biomass in the ecosystem, and acidic deposition are known sources of acidification. Acidification causes a risk of damage to plant roots and subsequent risk of a decline in ecosystem productivity. A dynamic model is introduced for describing the acidification of forest soils. In 1-year time steps the model calculates the soil pH as a function of the acid stress and the buff...

  6. Soil contamination by radionuclides

    The soil is the first link in the food chain. Soil contamination by individual radionuclides significantly affects the level of terrestrial radiation in the locality. The authors mapped situation of post-Chernobyl 137Cs soil contamination in Slovakia and European countries. Samples were collected in three layers of agriculturally cultivated area. Even a few years after the Chernobyl accident authors can say that elevated 137Cs values were recorded in the samples from Austria and Germany, in all layers of collection. (authors)

  7. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consists of spherical, or cylindrical or plane aggregates, which do not represent the individual aggregates of the soil, however. The radii of the spheres, cylinders or plane sheets represent different le...

  8. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.;

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  9. soil organic matter fractionation

    Osat, Maryam; Heidari, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Carbon is essential for plant growth, due to its effects on other soil properties like aggregation. Knowledge of dynamics of organic matter in different locations in the soil matrix can provide valuable information which affects carbon sequestration and soil the other soil properties. Extraction of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions has been a long standing approach to elucidating the roles of soil organic matter in soil processes. Several kind fractionation methods are used and all provide information on soil organic matter function. Physical fractionation capture the effects on SOM dynamics of the spatial arrangement of primary and secondary organomineral particles in soil while chemical fractionation can not consider the spatial arrangement but their organic fractions are suitable for advanced chemical characterization. Three method of physical separation of soil have been used, sieving, sedimentation and densitometry. The distribution of organic matter within physical fractions of the soil can be assessed by sieving. Sieving separates soil particles based strictly on size. The study area is located on north central Iran, between 35° 41'- 36° 01' N and 50° 42'- 51° 14' E. Mean annual precipitation about 243.8 mm and mean annual air temperature is about 14.95 °C. The soil moisture and temperature regime vary between aridic-thermic in lower altitudes to xeric-mesic in upper altitudes. More than 36 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected according to land-use map units. After preliminary analyzing of samples 10 samples were selected for further analyses in five size fractions and three different time intervals in September, January and April 2008. Fractionation carried out by dry sieving in five classes, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 270 μm-0.5mm, 53-270 μm and soil organic matter to humic acid and fulvic acid shows that there is a better correlation between humic acid contents and soil organic matter (R2 = 0.86) than fulvic acid and organic matter (R2=0.5). The

  10. Soil physics and agriculture

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    California Department of Resources — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. TRANSLATING AVAILABLE BASIC SOIL DATA INTO MISSING SOIL HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Soil hydraulic pedotransfer functions transfer simple-to-measure soil survey information into soil hydraulic characteristics, that are otherwise costly to measure. Examples are presented of different equations describing hydraulic characteristics and of pedotransfer functions used to predict paramet...

  13. Soils - Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Data for Montana

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These data sets are digital soil surveys and generally are the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents) explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density) under different land...

  15. Investigation of Wetland Soil Properties affecting Optimum Soil Cultivation

    Babatunde, O. O.; K.A. Adeniran

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on wetland (fadama) soil properties affecting optimum soil cultivation. A cone penetrometerand a shear vane apparatus (19 mm) were used to determine the cone index and the torque that cause the soil to shearat different moisture contents. The study shows that the cone index and shear vane of fadama soils increased with depth anddecreased with increase in moisture content. High moisture content reduced the soil cohesion. The internal frictional angleof the soil...

  16. How Can Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements Control Soil Pollution?

    Mohammad Reza; R. Alimardani and A. Sharifi

    2010-01-01

    Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soil pollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and arsenic), herbicides, pesticides, oils, tars, PCBs and dioxins. Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC) is one of the soil physical properties w hich have a good relationship with the other soil characteristics. As measuring soil electrical condu...

  17. Classiology and soil classification

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  18. Correlation Between Soil Water Retention Capability and Soil Salt Content

    2000-01-01

    The soil moisture retention capability of Chao soil and coastal saline Chao soil in Shandong and Zhejiang provinces were measured by pressure membrane method. The main factors influencing soil moisture retention capability were studied by the methods of correlation and path analyses. The results indicated that < 0.02mm physical clay and soil salt content were the main factors influencing soil moisture retention capability. At soil suction of 30~50 kPa, the soil salt content would be the dominant factor.

  19. KBRA OPWP Soil Rooting Depth

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina

    2010-05-01

    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management

  1. Creative Soil Conservation

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  2. Soil Health Educational Resources

    Hoorman, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…

  3. The Global Soil Partnership

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  4. Enzymes in Forest Soils

    Baldrian, Petr; Štursová, Martina

    Heidelberg, Dordrecht, NY: Springer, 2011 - (Shukla, G.; Varma, A.), s. 61-73 ISBN 978-3-642-14225-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0751; GA MŠk OC08050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : forest soils * soil ecology * enzymes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  6. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  7. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  8. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kristensen, Iben Vernegren; Ribeiro, Alexandra J. B.; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Villumsen, Arne

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra...

  9. Climate-smart soils

    Paustian, Keith; Lehmann, Johannes; Ogle, Stephen; Reay, David; Robertson, G. Philip; Smith, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Soils are integral to the function of all terrestrial ecosystems and to food and fibre production. An overlooked aspect of soils is their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Although proven practices exist, the implementation of soil-based greenhouse gas mitigation activities are at an early stage and accurately quantifying emissions and reductions remains a substantial challenge. Emerging research and information technology developments provide the potential for a broader inclusion of soils in greenhouse gas policies. Here we highlight ‘state of the art’ soil greenhouse gas research, summarize mitigation practices and potentials, identify gaps in data and understanding and suggest ways to close such gaps through new research, technology and collaboration.

  10. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene;

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra...

  11. Soil Classification Using GATree

    Bhargavi, P

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the application of a genetic programming framework for classification of decision tree of Soil data to classify soil texture. The database contains measurements of soil profile data. We have applied GATree for generating classification decision tree. GATree is a decision tree builder that is based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). The idea behind it is rather simple but powerful. Instead of using statistic metrics that are biased towards specific trees we use a more flexible, global metric of tree quality that try to optimize accuracy and size. GATree offers some unique features not to be found in any other tree inducers while at the same time it can produce better results for many difficult problems. Experimental results are presented which illustrate the performance of generating best decision tree for classifying soil texture for soil data set.

  12. Relaxometry in soil science

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non

  13. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  14. Experimental measurement of diffusive extinction depth and soil moisture gradients in dune sand of Western Saudi Arabia

    Mughal, I.; Jadoon, K. Z.; Mai, P. M.; Al-Mashharawi, S.; Missimer, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    In arid lands, a major contribution to water loss is by soil water evaporation. Desert sand dunes in arid regions are devoid of runoff and have high rates of infiltration and water is commonly stored within them because of the low hydraulic conductivity soils within the underlying desert pavement. In such cases, moisture is confined in the sand dune below a depth, termed as the "extinction depth", where it is protected from evaporation during the long dry periods. The stored moisture below the extinction depth can be utilized to support desert agriculture and the subsurface areas below this depth can serve as potential sites for storage of surface runoff or treated waste water by artificial recharge. In this study, field experiments were conducted in Western Saudi Arabia to monitor the soil moisture gradients and determine the diffusive extinction depth of dune sand. A barrel with a diameter 150 cm and a height of 150 cm was installed underground in the field and was filled with dune sand. The sand was saturated with water and was exposed to natural conditions (evaporation and precipitation) for thirty days. The decline of the water level in the sand column was continuously recorded by using transducers and sensors installed at different depths to monitor the temporal variation of temperature and moisture content within the sand. The moisture content gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement. The effect of the diurnal variation of temperature was observed by the sensors installed in the upper 75 cm and was negligible at greater depths. The water level decline stabilized after twenty days and the extinction depth was established at 85 cm. In the field, a similar extinction depth was observed in the region where sand dunes overlay an impervious basement.

  15. Effects of forested floodplain soil properties on phosphorous concentrations in two Chesapeake Bay sub-watersheds, Virginia, USA.

    Odhiambo, B K; Ricker, M C; Le Blanc, L M; Moxey, K A

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are known to undergo fluctuations in nutrient levels as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Changes in both extrinsic and intrinsic fluvial dynamics necessitate constant monitoring as anthropogenic alterations exert new pressures to previously stable river basins. In this study, we analyzed stream water and riparian zone soil phosphorous (P) dynamics in two third-order sub-watersheds of the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, USA. The Ni River is predominantly forested (70 % forested), and Sugarland Run is a more human impacted (>45 % impervious surfaces) sub-watershed located in the suburbs of Washington D.C. Total stream P concentrations were measured during both high and low flows and Mehlich-3 methods were used to evaluate potential P fluxes in riparian soils. The results show total stream P concentrations in Sugarland Run ranged from 0.002 to 0.20 ppm, with an average of 0.054 ppm. In contrast, the forested Ni River had typical stream P concentrations soil P was significantly higher in the more urbanized Sugarland Run basin (23.8 ± 2.1 ppm) compared to the Ni River basin (16 ± 3.7 ppm). Average stream bank erosion rates and corresponding cut-bank P flux rates were estimated to be 7.98 cm year(-1) and 361 kg P year(-1) for Ni River and 9.84 cm year(-1) and 11,600 kg P year(-1) for Sugarland Run, respectively. The significantly higher values of total P in the stream water and floodplain cut-banks of Sugarland Run suggests erosion and resuspension of previously deposited legacy sediments is an important processes in this human-impacted basin. PMID:27146543

  16. Why is the influence of soil macrofauna on soil structure only considered by soil ecologists ?

    Bottinelli, N.; Jouquet, Pascal; Capowiez, Y.; Podwojewski, Pascal; Grimaldi, Michel; Peng, X

    2015-01-01

    These last twenty years have seen the development of an abundant literature on the influence of soil macrofauna on soil structure. Amongst these organisms, earthworms, termites and ants are considered to play a key role in regulating the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soils. Due to these influential impacts, soil ecologists consider these soil macro-invertebrates as ‘soil engineers’ and their diversity and abundance are nowadays considered as relevant bioindi...

  17. Influence of Soil Type and Placement Conditions on Soil Suction in Compacted Expansive Soils

    Zein, Abdul Karim Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the type of soil, compaction moisture content and dry density on soil suction in impact compacted expansive soils. Many samples which were obtained from five highly expansive soil types were tested. The soil types considered in this study included two natural from Sudan and three natural/artificial soil mixtures. An apparatus based on the axis-translation technique of suction measurement was developed and successfully used for laboratory...

  18. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Springael, D.; Bastiaens, L.; Carpels, M.; Mergaey, M.; Diels, L.

    1996-09-18

    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  19. A computer model for predicting two-phase ground water transport in the soil surrounding a growing melt in the in situ vitrification process

    Two different computer models are tested for their usefulness in predicting the water balance and pressure field surrounding a growing hemispherical In Situ Vitrification (ISV) melt. The melt is centered under the flat surface of a hemisphere of soil contained by an impervious wall. The control volume method is employed for balancing heat, and mass in each model. The soil is considered a porous media; consequently, fluid velocity can be modeled by Darcy's equation. Both computer models employ grids which adapt to the transient boundary of the growing melt. Computational Grid I (CGI) adapts with the melt boundary by contracting in the radial direction only. In addition to adapting to the melt boundary, Computational Grid II (CGII) also adapts to the liquid-vapor interface which moves outward from the 1,700 C melt in response to the formation of Vapor. CGII has been devised in order to attempt to reduce, at a reasonable CPU cost, the numerical pressure oscillation which arises when the grid is too coarse. A very fine CGI is used as a benchmark to test CGII and a coarser version of CGI. Results from the two CGI and the one CGII cases are presented graphically to illustrate the mass flux of liquid and vapor water and the build-up in pressure as the melt boundary approaches the impermeable wall

  20. Fixation Status of Acid Soils

    Six acid soil series from different benchmark sites; Rangsit soil (Sulfic Tropaquepts) (two acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Korat soil (Oxic Paleustults), Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic paleustults) and Boundary grey soil and two Thai phosphate rocks (P R) (Lampun P R and Ratchabuie P R) had been characterized in the laboratory by isotope techniques (E, value Part 1). Triple superphosphate (TSP) was used as a standard fertilizer. R P and TSP with 50 mg P Kg-1 soil were incubated for 30 days to examine the fixing capacity of the acid soils. The results showed that Rangsit Soil which is acid sulfate had high fixing capacity. Pakchong soil retained higher P fixation ability than Korat and Warin soil series. The highest fixation capacity among 7 acid soils were Grey Soil and Mae Taeng soil series. The solubility of TSP was decreased when incorporated with soil after incubation for 30 days. P R from Ratchaburi showed higher effectiveness than Lamphun P R

  1. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  2. Vietnam workshop on soil quality: Soil biology and chemistry

    G. B. Reddy

    2007-01-01

    This presentation was presented during the Soil Quality workshop held at Nong Lam University, June 2007. It shows the importance of biological diversity as a gauge of good soil quality. Furthermore, criteria of healthy chemical balances in soil is also explained. Simple measures of biological and chemical indices of soil health are summarized.

  3. Soil washing treatability study

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  4. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Rattan Lal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  5. Soil washing treatability study

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  6. Iodine in soil

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129I uptake to plants

  7. Iodine in soil

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  8. The Influence of Soil Particle on Soil Condensation Water

    Hou Xinwei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment results showed that the indoor experiment formed from the volume of soil hygroscopic water increased gradually with decreasing size of soil particles. In the outdoor experiments, the results showed that the formed condensation water in medium sand was greater than it was in fine sand; the soil hot condensation water was mainly formed in the top layer of soil between 0-5 cm. We also found that covering the soil surface with stones can increase the volume of formed soil condensate water, reduce the evaporation and maintain relatively high moisture content in the top layer of soil.

  9. SOIL Geo-Wiki: A tool for improving soil information

    Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly being used as a way of collecting data for scientific research, e.g. species identification, classification of galaxies and unravelling of protein structures. The WorldSoilProfiles.org database at ISRIC is a global collection of soil profiles, which have been 'crowdsourced' from experts. This system, however, requires contributors to have a priori knowledge about soils. Yet many soil parameters can be observed in the field without specific knowledge or equipment such as stone content, soil depth or color. By crowdsourcing this information over thousands of locations, the uncertainty in current soil datasets could be radically reduced, particularly in areas currently without information or where multiple interpretations are possible from different existing soil maps. Improved information on soils could benefit many research fields and applications. Better soil data could enhance assessments of soil ecosystem services (e.g. soil carbon storage) and facilitate improved process-based ecosystem modeling from local to global scales. Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool that was developed at IIASA for land cover validation using satellite imagery. Several branches are now available focused on specific aspects of land cover validation, e.g. validating cropland extent or urbanized areas. Geo-Wiki Pictures is a smart phone application for collecting land cover related information on the ground. The extension of Geo-Wiki to a mobile environment provides a tool for experts in land cover validation but is also a way of reaching the general public in the validation of land cover. Here we propose a Soil Geo-Wiki tool that builds on the existing functionality of the Geo-Wiki application, which will be largely designed for the collection and sharing of soil information. Two distinct applications are envisaged: an expert-oriented application mainly for scientific purposes, which will use soil science related language (e.g. WRB or any other global reference

  10. Non-volcanic andic soils - a new soil type?

    Bäumler, Rupert

    2014-05-01

    Numerous sites are described all over the world with soils fulfilling all requirements of andic soil properties developed in non-volcanic and non-allophanic parent materials, and in different bioclimatic zones. Up to now these soils are mainly assigned to Andisols/Andosols or andic Inceptisols in WRB and US Soil Taxonomy. Common factors and properties of this group of soils are in general acid parent materials, advanced soil development, comparably high amounts of oxidic Fe and Al compounds, leaching environment, and a probably underestimated role of iron with respect to the specific soil properties, e.g. extremely stabile, pseudo-sand like micro-aggregates. Considering the worldwide occurrence of these soils and the specificity of their physicochemical properties, I suggest soil forming processes and a new soil type clearly different from Andosols/Andisols in a narrow sense.

  11. Improvement of Soil Physical Properties with Soil Conditioners

    ZHAOBING-ZI; XUFU-AN

    1995-01-01

    Effects of non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM),anionic polyacrylamide(PHP),cationic polyacrylamide(PCAM),non-ionic polyvinylalcohol(PVA),anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile(HPAN)and polyethleneoxide(PEO)on the physical properties of three different soil stpes were studied.content of water-stable aggregates larger than 0.25mm increased to varying extents for different soils and soil conditioners,Among the six kinds of condiftioners,non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM) was the most effective for red soil while polyethyleneoxide(PEO)the least effective for Chao soil,red soil and yellow-brown soil.Water-stable aggregates with the molecular weight of PEO within a certain range.Only evaporation rate of Chao soil decreased after aplication of PAM and HPAN to Chao soil and red soil.

  12. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  13. Effects of sustanaible soil management on soil quality

    Scotti, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    The declining of soil fertility due to intensive agriculture represents the main constraint to agricultural productivity. Sustainability of agriculture may be threatened by the progressive reduction of soil organic matter without adequate restoration. Appropriate soil management practices can improve soil quality by utilizing organic amendments as an alternative to mineral fertilizers for increasing soil productivity and plant growth and improve biological fertility. The use of indicators, li...

  14. Termites : the neglected soil engineers of tropical soils

    Jouquet, Pascal; Bottinelli, Nicolas; Shanbhag, R. R.; Bourguignon, T.; Traoré, S.; S.A. Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Termites are undoubtedly key soil organisms in tropical and subtropical soils. They are soil engineers in influencing the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils and, consequently, water dynamics in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. To appreciate the effect of termites on soil, there is a need for a thorough understanding of the ecological needs and building strategies of termites and the mechanisms regulating termite diversity at local and regional scales. Termite impacts o...

  15. SoilEffects - start characterization of the experimental soil

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riley, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the establishment, experimental plan and initial soil characteristics of the field experiment linked to the project “Effects of anaerobically digested manure on soil fertility - establishment of a long-term study under Norwegian conditions” (SoilEffects, 2010-14). The aim of the SoilEffects project is to identify potential risks and benefits for soil fertility when animal manure is anaerobically digested for biogas production. The field experiment was established on T...

  16. Soil Microbes and soil microbial proteins: interactions with clay minerals

    Bacterial enumeration in soil environments estimates that the population may reach approximately 1010 g-1 of soil and comprise up to 90% of the total soil microbial biomass. Bacteria are present in soils as single cells or multicell colonies and often strongly adsorb onto mineral surfaces such as sand and clay. The interactions of microbes and microbial biomolecules with these minerals have profound impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. (Author)

  17. Mycotoxins in the soil environment

    Elmholt, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper outlines the current knowledge concerning fate of mycotoxins in the soil environment, including - outline of mycotoxins addressed (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin) - routes by which the mycotoxins enter the soil environment - routes by which they are immobilised or removed from the soil environment - mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the soil environment

  18. SCALING METHODS IN SOIL PHYSICS

    Soil physical properties are needed to understand and manage natural systems spanning an extremely wide range of scales. Much of soil data are obtained from small soil samples and cores, monoliths, or small field plots, yet the goal is to reconstruct soil physical properties across fields, watershed...

  19. The Soil Mobilome

    Luo, Wenting

    Soil is considered a reservoir of diverse bacterial cellular functions, of which resistance mechanisms towards biological antimicrobial agents are of substantial interest to us. Previous findings report that the long-term accumulation of copper in an agricultural soil significantly affects the......-selected for among natural bacterial populations. One possible explanation is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes among soil bacteria mediated by mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, integrons, transposons and bacteriophages, of which copper and antibiotic resistance genes can be linked on the...... same mobile elements. To test this hypothesis, we collected non-polluted and CuSO4- contaminated soil samples and attempted to describe the co-selection of plasmid-encoded copper and antimicrobial resistance via both an endogenous plasmid isolation approach as well as a plasmid metagenomic approach...

  20. Soil Organic Chemistry.

    Anderson, G.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is presented of some of the organic compounds and reactions that occur in soil. Included are nitrogenous compounds, compounds of phosphorus and sulfur, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids. (BB)

  1. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Rattan Lal

    2014-01-01

    The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing freque...

  2. Degradation and resilience of soils

    Lal, R.

    1997-01-01

    Debate on global soil degradation, its extent and agronomic impact, can only be resolved through understanding of the processes and factors leading to establishment of the cause-effect relationships for major soils, ecoregions, and land uses. Systematic evaluation through long-term experimentation is needed for establishing quantitative criteria of (i) soil quality in relation to specific functions; (ii) soil degradation in relation to critical limits of key soil properties and processes; and...

  3. Towards indicators of soil health

    Janvier, C; Villeneuve, F.; Edel Hermann, V.; Mateille, Thierry; Alabouvette, C.; Steinberg, C

    2009-01-01

    Soil is a finite and dynamic living resource. Soil health arises from multiple interactions between physicochemical and biological components, including microbial communities, of primary importance for soil functioning. Facing the threat of soilborne pathogens, cultural practices, as "ecological" crop protection methods, are more and more used. Their aim is to modify the soil microbial equilibrium. In order to measure soil health and to propose cultural practices to improve it, it is necessar...

  4. Towards indicators of soil health

    Janvier, Celine; Villeneuve, François; Edel-Hermann, Veronique; Mateille, Thierry; ALABOUVETTE, Claude; Steinberg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Soil is a finite and dynamic living resource. Soil health arises from multiple interactions between physicochemical and biological components, including microbial communities, of primary importance for soil functioning. Facing the threat of soilborne pathogens, cultural practices, as "ecological" crop protection methods, are more and more used. Their aim is to modify the soil microbial equilibrium. In order to measure soil health and to propose cultural practices to improve it, it is ne...

  5. Soil function and "malfunction"

    Elio Coppola

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the scientists define soil from an “agronomic” point of view as the natural system delegated to sustain plant
    growth and agricultural productions on the whole. In this paper soil importance, even in “environmental and social”
    terms, is pointed out, considering soil as a natural body with its own functional characteristics, regardless of
    its agronomic role and productive ability. Some studies show that soil acts as a thermal buffer and detoxifies the
    circulating liquid phase. Actually soil is also the depository of the cultural heritage of the society who used it, both
    as keeper of relics and manufactured products and as an expression of transformation processes and evolution trend
    caused by man’s action itself.
    The need to protect and preserve soil has to be emphasized by stating its main importance not only as a maintenance
    source for all the living beings but also as a factor of environmental control.

  6. Soil classifcation and user-friendly soilmaps

    Nyborg, Åge Arild; Olsen, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Soil names from the soil classi cation systems are too complicated to decipher for most of our soil map users. To reach out to potential users of soil information, apart from people working with soil erosion related issues, we translated WRB unit names into user friendly map information, that shows soil quality and limiting soil properties on farmland.

  7. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  8. Soil Fragmentation and Friability. Effects of Soil Water and Soil Management

    Munkholm, Lars J

    2002-01-01

    Soil fragmentation is a primary aim in most tillage operations in order to create a soil environment favourable for crop establishment and growth. Soils vary around the world from those exhibiting a self-mulching nature to those of a hardsetting nature. These extremes have been reported for Australian and other tropical and subtropical soils. In humid temperate climates, soil tillage is generally needed in order to produce a favourable environment for crop establishment and growth. The ease o...

  9. The effects on soil physical properties of long term soil tillage and soil compaction

    Fahnbulleh, Cassius G. V.

    2014-01-01

    Soil degradation in crop production is becoming increasingly important because of the growing concern it poses on soil functions. Prominent among the degradation factors is soil compaction. It impairs soil productivity by impeding the soil conductivity potential and moisture retention ability, thereby preventing root penetrability and nutrients uptake among other things. This paper is concerned with identifying and characterizing the degree of compaction that may result in dele...

  10. Pesticide-soil microflora interactions in flooded rice soils

    Isotope studies revealed that gamma and beta isomers of HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) decomposed rapidly in nonsterile soils capable of attaining redox potentials of -40 to -100mV within 20 days after flooding. Degradation was slow, however, in soils low in organic matter and in soils with extremely low pH and positive potentials, even after several weeks of flooding. Under flooded conditions, endrin decomposed to six metabolites in most soils. There is evidence that biological hydrolysis of parathion is more widespread than hitherto believed, particularly under flooded soil conditions. Applications of benomyl (fungicide) to a simulated-oxidized zone of flooded soils favoured heterotrophic nitrification. (author)

  11. The Influence of Soil Particle on Soil Condensation Water

    Hou Xinwei; Chen Hao; Li Xiangquan; Cui Xiaomei; Liu Lingxia; Wang Zhenxing

    2013-01-01

    The experiment results showed that the indoor experiment formed from the volume of soil hygroscopic water increased gradually with decreasing size of soil particles. In the outdoor experiments, the results showed that the formed condensation water in medium sand was greater than it was in fine sand; the soil hot condensation water was mainly formed in the top layer of soil between 0-5 cm. We also found that covering the soil surface with stones can increase the volume of formed soil condensat...

  12. Seasonal variability of soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    Jirků, V.; Kodešová, R.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Žigová, Anna

    Brisbane : International Union of Soil Sciences.; Australian Society of Soil Science, 2010 - (Gilkes, R.; Pragongkep, N.), s. 145-148 ISBN 978-0-646-53783-2. [World Congress of Soil Science /19./. Brisbane (AU), 01.08.2010-06.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil structure * aggregate stability * soil hydraulic properties * micromorphological images * temporal variability Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science http://www.iuss.org/19th%20WCSS/symposium/pdf/0483.pdf

  13. Degradation kinetics of ptaquiloside in soil and soil solution

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Ovesen, Rikke Glerup; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a carcinogenic norsesquiterpene glycoside produced in bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn), a widespread, aggressive weed. Transfer of PTA to soil and soil solution eventually may contaminate groundwater and surface water. Degradation rates of PTA were quantified in soil...... and soil solutions in sandy and clayey soils subjected to high natural PTA loads from bracken stands. Degradation kinetics in moist soil could be fitted with the sum of a fast and a slow first-order reaction; the fast reaction contributed 20 to 50% of the total degradation of PTA. The fast reaction...

  14. Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration

    K. Tamai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a an evergreen forest with mature soil and (b a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil properties on soil respiration rates were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects were compared between the deciduous and evergreen forests. In the evergreen forest with mature soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soil moisture and soil temperature. These results may be explained by different properties of soils that matured under different environments. Thus, we argue that the low soil respiration rates in Plot L of the evergreen forest resulted from soil properties and not from wet soil conditions. In the deciduous forest, soil respiration rates were more strongly affected by soil moisture and soil temperature than by soil properties, which were likely due to the immaturity of the forest soil.

  15. Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    soil samples from two different tillage treatments (soil from below the depth of a harrow treatment and soil from within a moldboard plowed plow layer) was estimated based on concentration profiles using a newly developed method. The method makes use of multiple tracers (two sets of counterdiffusing......Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...... tracers) for a better determination of the diffusivity. The diffusivity was higher in the below-till soil than the plowed soil at the same soil water matric potential due to higher water content but also due to higher continuity and lower tortuosity of the soil pores. We measured identical solute...

  16. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  17. Soil Microbial Mineralization of Cellulose in Frozen Soils

    Segura, J.; Haei, M.; Sparrman, T.; Nilsson, M. B.; Schleucher, J.; Oquist, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon pool. In boreal forests, the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter by soil heterotrophic activity can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances depend on whether soil microorganisms can utilize the more complex, polymeric substrates in SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.524 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.008 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. Thus, freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming microbial growth also in the frozen soil matrix. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero. This also involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of soils of high-latitude ecosystems.

  18. Soil mechanics and analysis of soils overlying cavitose bedrock

    The stability of the residual soils existing at the West Chestnut Ridge Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, was evaluated. The weathered bedrock below this residual soil contains numerous solution cavities, and several karst features were identified. The West Chestnut Ridge site was evaluated with respect to deformation and collapse of the residual soil into the bedrock cavities. A finite element analysis investigated the effects of bedrock cavity radius, thickness of soil overburden, and surface surcharge upon the deformational and stability characteristics of the residual soil. The results indicate that for small cavity radii, the thickness of the soil cover has little effect on the zone of yielded soil. For large cavity radii, a smaller zone of distressed soil occurs under thick soil cover than under thin soil cover. Dimensionless curves are presented to enable the prediction of the vertical extent of the zone of yielded soil for a range of site geometries. Although the thick soil deposits (100 feet or greater) typically found on the ridges result in high stresses adjacent to the cavity, the area of the distressed or yielded soil is small and unlikely to extend to the surface. In addition, the surface deformation or subsidence is expected to be minimal. Thus, the siting of waste facilities on the ridges where the overburden is maximum would tend to reduce the effects of deformation into the cavities. 29 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Remediation of contaminated soils

    At least three types of zones of contamination exist whenever there is a chemical release. The impact of Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (NAPL) on soils and groundwater, together with the ultimate transport and migration of constituent chemicals in their dissolved or sorbed states, had led environmentalists to develop several techniques for cleaning a contaminated soil. Zone 1 represents the unsaturated zone which could be contaminated to retention capacity by both Dense Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPL) and Light Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (LNAPL). Zone 2 represents residual DNAPL or LNAPL contamination found below the groundwater table in the saturated zone. Zone 3 is represented by either the presence of NAPL dissolved in the aqueous phase, volatilized in the unsaturated zone or sorbed to either saturated or unsaturated soils. Cleanup of petroleum contaminated soils is presented in this paper. Among several techniques developed for this purpose, in-situ biological remediation is discussed in detail as a technique that does not involve excavation, thus, the costs and disruption of excavating soil are eliminated

  20. Engineering Properties of Expansive Soil

    DAI Shaobin; SONG Minghai; HUANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    The components of expansive soil were analyzed with EDAX, and it is shown that the main contents of expansive soil in the northern Hubei have some significant effects on engineering properties of expansive soil. Furthermore, the soil modified by lime has an obvious increase of Ca2+ and an improvement of connections between granules so as to reduce the expansibility and contractility of soil. And it also has a better effect on the modified expansive soil than the one modified by pulverized fuel ash.

  1. Soil water repellency of Antarctic soils (Elephant Point). First results

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz Fernández, Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Hydrophobicity it is a natural properties of many soils around the world. Despite the large body of research about soil water hydrophobicity (SWR) in many environments, little information it is available about Antarctic soils and their hydro-geomorphological consequences. According to our knowledge, no previous work was carried out on this environment. Soil samples were collected in the top-soil (0-5 cm) and SWR was analysed according to the water drop penetration test. The preliminary results showed that all the soils collected were hydrophilic, however further research should be carried out in order to understand if SWR changes with soil depth and if have implications on soil infiltration during the summer season.

  2. Soil compaction: Evaluation of stress transmission and resulting soil structure

    Naveed, Muhammad; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas;

    Accurate estimation of stress transmission and resultant deformation in soil profiles is a prerequisite for the development of predictive models and decision support tools for preventing soil compaction. Numerous studies have been carried out on the effects of soil compaction, whilst relatively few...... studies have focused on the cause (mode of stress transmission in the soil). We have coupled both cause and effects together in the present study by carrying out partially confined compression tests on (1) wet aggregates, (2) air dry aggregates, and (3) intact soils to quantify stress transmission and...... compaction-resulted soil structure at the same time. Stress transmission was quantified using both X-ray CT and Tactilus sensor mat, and soil-pore structure was quantified using X-ray CT. Our results imply that stress transmission through soil highly depends on the magnitude of applied load and aggregate...

  3. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  4. Soil cultivation in vineyards alters interactions between soil biota and soil physical and hydrological properties

    Zaller, Johann G.; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Winter, Silvia; Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Stiper, Katrin; Potthoff, Martin; Guernion, Muriel; Scimia, Jennifer; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Several ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from interactions between soil organisms and soil parameters. However, to what extent different soil cultivation intensities in vineyards compromise soil organisms and their interactions between soil physical and hydrological properties is not well understood. In this study we examined (i) to what extent different soil management intensities affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (earthworms, Collembola, litter decomposition), and (ii) how soil physical and hydrological properties influence these interactions, or vice versa. Investigating 16 vineyards in Austria, earthworms were assessed by hand sorting, Collembola via pitfall trapping and soil coring, litter decomposition by using the tea bag method. Additionally, soil physical (water infiltration, aggregate stability, porosity, bulk density, soil texture) and chemical (pH, soil carbon content, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorus) parameters were assessed. Results showed complex ecological interactions between soil biota and various soil characteristics altered by management intensity. These investigations are part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers and will ultimately lead into management recommendations for various stakeholders.

  5. Diagenetic variation in the Oregon Coast Range: Implications for rock strength, soil production, hillslope form, and landscape evolution

    Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2014-06-01

    The mechanisms by which lithology modulates geomorphic processes are poorly known. In the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), rhythmically bedded sandstones of the Eocene Tyee Formation underlie steep, soil-mantled hillslopes, with relatively uniform ridge-valley spacing. These characteristic landforms are perturbed where diagenetic variations manifest as resistant cliffs. Here we use petrology, rock mechanics, and lidar to characterize grain-scale variations in rock properties and their influence on rock strength, hillslope processes, and landscape morphology in two adjacent watersheds. Petrographic analyses suggest that a suite of diagenetic products in the "resistant" bedrock account for a 2.5 times increase in tensile strength relative to "typical" Tyee bedrock. Our reference catchment exhibits negligible resistant outcrops, and consistent hillslope gradients and longitudinal valley profiles. By contrast, the adjacent catchment teems with resistant, 1 to 10 m thick, noncontiguous sandstone beds that form hanging valleys with gentle upstream hillslopes and anomalously narrow valleys. Mechanical and topographic analyses suggest that the low fracture density characteristic of these resistant beds may render them relatively impervious to comminution by tree root activity, the dominant OCR soil production mechanism. Based on both hillslope gradient- and hilltop curvature-erosion models, we estimate that hillslopes perched above resistant beds erode at approximately half the pace of hillslopes unencumbered by downstream knickpoints. The diagenetic variations likely influence relief at the watershed scale. Depositional position and diagenetic processes appear to control the occurrence of resistant beds, providing a framework to quantify how seemingly subtle variations in rock properties can impose first-order controls on landscape form and evolution.

  6. Use of Landsat imagery to detect land cover changes for monitoring soil sealing; case study: Bologna province (Italy)

    Casciere, Rossella; Franci, Francesca; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Landsat archives (made accessible by USGS at no charge since 2011) have made available to the scientific community a large amount of satellite multispectral images, providing new opportunities for environmental information, such as the analysis of land use/cover changes, which represent important tools for planning and sustainable land management. Processing a time series images, the creation of land cover maps has been improved in order to analyze phenomena such as the soil sealing. The main topic of this work is in fact the detection of roads and buildings construction or everything that involve soil removing. This subject is highly relevant, given the impact of the phenomenon on land use planning, environmental sustainability, agricultural policies and urban runoff. The analysis, still in progress, has been applied to Bologna Province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy) that covers 3703 Km2. This area is strongly urbanized: 8,9% of the total surface is sealed against a national value of 6,7%, with the soil sealing rate which has been defined from recent studies as the fourth Italian value in the 2001/2011 period. Other information available for this territory derive from CORINE Land Cover and Copernicus Projects. In the first one, the minimum mapping unit is 25 ha and the one for change is 5 ha; these values are too large for an accurate detection of the soil sealing dynamics. On the other hand, the Copernicus Project provides an imperviousness layer with a better resolution (20x20 m2), but its maps start from 2006. Therefore, the potential of multispectral remote sensing analysis over large areas and the multitemporal Landsat availability have been combined for a better knowledge about land cover changes. For this work, Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images have been acquired between 1987 and 2013, according to basic requirements as low cloud cover and a common acquisition season (summer). A supervised pixel-based classification has been performed, with maximum likelihood

  7. Effects of Land Cover / Land Use, Soil Texture, and Vegetation on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated

  8. Predicting Radiocaesium Sorption with Soil Chemical Properties in Japanese Soils

    The soil-to-plant transfer mechanism of radiocaesium (137Cs) in the Fukushima accident affected area is not fully understood. The sorption of 137Cs in soils holds a key to evaluating the variation of transfer of 137Cs to plant among different soil types. This study aims to investigate how differences in 137Cs adsorption in different soils can be explained by soil chemical and mineralogical properties. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP), a parameter for quantifying immediate 137Cs adsorption, and the soil texture were determined for 52 surface soils covering a wide range of texture classes collected from the area contaminated by the Fukushima accident. These soils include Andosols, Fluvisols, Gleysols, and Cambisols. In addition, we are currently performing analyses for other soil chemical properties (i.e. exchangeable cation, CEC, pH, organic matter content, etc) and for the properties affecting 137Cs sorption in soils (i.e. Frayed Edge Site capacity, K+ and NH4+ selectivity, effect of wet-dry cycles, etc). The average RIP varied from 80 to 4300 mmol kg-1 between soils. Contrary to what was found for temperate region soils by Absalom et al., the RIP (log(RIP)) and soil clay content were not significantly correlated (R2= 0.066). These initial results seem to indicate that the 137Cs sorption is affected by the clay mineralogy in soils. We postulate that by considering also the differences in clay K content, the relationship will improve since the frayed edges are formed at high K content in the clay. This knowledge could improve the prediction of RIP for different Japanese soil groups. Further analysis of the data will explore the relationship between RIP and other soil chemical properties. In our study, we will take specific note of Andosols (range of average RIP from 80 to 2400 mmol kg-1), typical soils in Japan originated from volcanic ash. It is expected that soil properties ruling the 137Cs sorption for Japanese Andosols will differ compared to other

  9. Predicting Radiocaesium Sorption with Soil Chemical Properties in Japanese Soils

    Uematsu, Shinichiro [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Sweeck, Lieve; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Smolders, Erik [Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The soil-to-plant transfer mechanism of radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) in the Fukushima accident affected area is not fully understood. The sorption of {sup 137}Cs in soils holds a key to evaluating the variation of transfer of {sup 137}Cs to plant among different soil types. This study aims to investigate how differences in {sup 137}Cs adsorption in different soils can be explained by soil chemical and mineralogical properties. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP), a parameter for quantifying immediate {sup 137}Cs adsorption, and the soil texture were determined for 52 surface soils covering a wide range of texture classes collected from the area contaminated by the Fukushima accident. These soils include Andosols, Fluvisols, Gleysols, and Cambisols. In addition, we are currently performing analyses for other soil chemical properties (i.e. exchangeable cation, CEC, pH, organic matter content, etc) and for the properties affecting {sup 137}Cs sorption in soils (i.e. Frayed Edge Site capacity, K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} selectivity, effect of wet-dry cycles, etc). The average RIP varied from 80 to 4300 mmol kg{sup -1} between soils. Contrary to what was found for temperate region soils by Absalom et al., the RIP (log(RIP)) and soil clay content were not significantly correlated (R2= 0.066). These initial results seem to indicate that the {sup 137}Cs sorption is affected by the clay mineralogy in soils. We postulate that by considering also the differences in clay K content, the relationship will improve since the frayed edges are formed at high K content in the clay. This knowledge could improve the prediction of RIP for different Japanese soil groups. Further analysis of the data will explore the relationship between RIP and other soil chemical properties. In our study, we will take specific note of Andosols (range of average RIP from 80 to 2400 mmol kg{sup -1}), typical soils in Japan originated from volcanic ash. It is expected that soil properties ruling

  10. Stress transmission in soil

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals. The......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near the...... soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  11. Radon mitigation in soils

    Radon is produced in soil by radium decay, Ra-226 for radon (Rn-222) and Ra-224 for thoron (Rn-220). The radium content is about 40 Bq.kg-1 in crustal rocks and soils, 70 Bq.kg-1 in granite and only about 8 Bq.kg-1 in limestone. Being the heaviest gas in atmosphere, radon presents high concentration at surface and it is accumulating in closed or poorly ventilated places, both in underground cavities (caves or mines) and in dwelling. In comparison with the average radon concentration in atmospheric air of 8 Bq.m-3, the average indoor radon concentration reaches 10-100 Bq.m-3. International statistics indicate that radon contribution on natural irradiation is about 60%. The main sources of indoor radon are: radium content of the soil and of the concretes, water supply and natural gases

  12. Soil macrofauna webmasters of ecosystem

    Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The role of plant roots and microflora in shaping many ecosystem processes is generally appreciated in the contrary rho role of soil mcrofauna in this context is assumed to be negligible and rather anecdotic. But more than half of the litter fall is consumed by soil fauna and soil fauna can also consume and or translocation substantial amount of soil. Here we demonstrate on example of post mining chronosequences how site colonization by soil fauna affect composition of whole soil biota community, plant succession and soil formation. Filed and laboratory experiments show that decomposition of fauna feces may be sped up compare to litter at the very beginning but in long term fauna feces decompose slower than litter. This is also supported by micro morphological observation which shows that fauna feces form substantial part of soil. Fauna feces also induce lover or even negative priming effect when introduced in soil in comparison with litter that triggers positive priming effect. Laboratory experiment show that fauna effect is context sensitive and is more pronounced in systems already affected by soil fauna. Soil mixing by soil fauna consequently affect environmental conditions in soils such as water holding capacity or nutrient availability, it also affect composition of decomposer food web including microbial community (fungal bacterial ratio) which feed back in alternation of plant community composition during succession This fauna activity is not constant everywhere the higher effect of fauna activity on litter layer was observed in temperate soils of deciduous forests and with litter having CN between 20-30. In conclusion soil fauna use directly only small proportion of energy in the litter but can substantially affect soil carbon turnover, soil formation, decomposer food web and plant community.

  13. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Choi, Yong Suk; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  14. Dynamic Stresses in Foundation Soils from Soil-Structure Interaction

    Heidarzadeh, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Stresses in Foundation Soils from Soil-Structure Interaction byBahareh HeidarzadehDepartment of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of California, Los Angeles, Fall 2015Professor Jonathan P. Stewart, ChairProfessor George Mylonakis, Co-ChairThis research concerns the impacts of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) on the seismic stress demands in soil materials beneath the foundation, referred to as ‘foundation soils’. Engineering procedures for evaluation of these stress demand...

  15. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation

  16. Wood-soil interactions in soil bioengineering slope stabilization works

    Moscatelli MC; Romagnoli M; Cenfi S; Lagomarsino A; Di Tizio A; Spina S; Grego S

    2009-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of soil quality indicators with the aim of assessing the environmental impact of soil bioengineering works. This study was carried out in central Italy where soil bioengineering slope stabilization works were established using chestnut wood. In particular the goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of a wood-effect, that is changes of soil properties due to the presence of decomposing logs in two sites characterized by different time span since works...

  17. Soil microbial diversity and related soil functioning in urban parks

    Bourgerie, S.; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Limam, I.; Yengue, Jean-Louis; Morabito, D.

    2014-01-01

    International audience The main thrust of this work was to improve the knowledge conerning soil biodiversity and related ecosystem services in soils from urban parks in several cities of the Région Centre, France. In this work, the pedological, geochemical and microbiological characteritics of surface soil were investigated in order to make an inventory of soil fertility in several urban parks of the major cities of the région Centre, France. The effects of agricultural practices on biomas...

  18. Working with Soil - Soil science in the field

    Hannam, Jacqueline; Lacelles, Bruce; Owen, Jason; Thompson, Dick; Jones, Bob; Towers, Willie

    2015-04-01

    Working with Soil is the Professional Competency Scheme developed by the British Society of Soil Science's Professional Practice Committee, formerly the Institute of Professional Soil Scientists. Ten competency documents cover the required qualifications, skills and knowledge for different aspects of applied soil science. The Society is currently engaged in a five year plan to translate the competency documents into a comprehensive set of training courses. Foundation skills in field-based science are covered by three separate training courses - Exposing and describing a soil profile (Course 1), Soil classification (Course 2), and Soil survey techniques (Course 3). Course 1 has run successfully twice a year since 2013. The other two courses are under development and are scheduled to start in 2015. The primary objective of Foundation Skills Course 1 is to develop confidence and familiarity with field soil investigation and description, understanding the soil underfoot and putting soils into a wider landscape context. Delegates excavate a soil profile pit, and describe and sample the exposed soil to standard protocols. Delegates work in teams of 4 or 5 so that an element of shared learning is part of the process. This has been a very positive aspect of the courses we have run to date. The course has attracted professionals from agricultural and environmental consultancies but is also very popular with research students and has formed a part of an Advanced Training Programme in Soil Science for postgraduates. As there is only one soil science degree course remaining in the UK, many students on their admission do not have a background in field-based pedology and lack an understanding of soil in the context of landscape scale soil functions. Feedback to date has been very positive.

  19. Soil moisture distribution over time in a clay loam soil in Kosovo

    Abdullah Nishori; Besnik Gjongecaj; Deme Abazi

    2013-01-01

    Studying the soil moisture distribution over time in a given soil profile is the object of the present study. The way the soil moisture gets distributed over soil profile depends particularly on the soil texture and on the soil suction gradients developed. However, it changes continuously over time for a given soil depth. The method of determining the soil moisture distribution over time is based on the measuring of soil moisture suctions developed and the soil moisture contents in various ti...

  20. Constructive Similarity of Soils

    Koudelka, Petr

    Singapore : Design, CRC a iTEK CMS Web solutions, 2012 - (Phoon, K.; Beer, M.; Quek, S.; Pang, S.), s. 206-211 ISBN 978-981-07-2218-0. [APS on Structural Reliability and Its Application – Sustainable Civil Infrastructures /5./. Singapore (SG), 23.05.2012-25.05.2012] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/1160 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : model similarity * database of soil properties * soil similarity characteristic * statistical analysis * ultimate limit states Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  1. Soil mechanics experiment

    Mitchell, J. K.; Bromwell, L. G.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 15 soil-mechanics experiment has offered greater opportunity for study of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil than previous missions, not only because of the extended lunar-surface stay time and enhanced mobility provided by the lunar roving vehicle (rover), but also because four new data sources were available for the first time. These sources were: (1) the self-recording penetrometer (SRP), (2) new, larger diameter, thin-walled core tubes, (3) the rover, and (4) the Apollo lunar-surface drill (ALSD). These data sources have provided the best bases for quantitative analyses thus far available in the Apollo Program.

  2. Soil contamination studies

    The objective of this project was to develop a quick screening method that accurately identifies and quantifies the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides in infinitely-thick soil samples using a Frisch grid ionization chamber. An additional objective of the work was to provide the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and its contractors with information on the theoretical and actual measured results of atmospheric testing contamination of soil and water at the Nevada Test Site through a comprehensive search of existing literature

  3. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  4. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    We are pleased to see the letter by Schimel and Chadwick (Front Ecol Environ 2013; 11[8]: 405–06), highlighting the importance of soil characterization in ecological and biogeochemical research and explaining the value of soil taxonomy, and we agree with the authors that reporting soil

  5. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 5 - Soil Geography and Classification

    The system of soil classification developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is called Soil Taxonomy. Soil Taxonomy consists of a hierarchy of six levels which, from highest to lowest, are: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, family, and series. This lesson will focus on bro...

  6. Dependence of sand soil compressibility on soil physical properties

    I.S.Vakhrin; G.P.Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between soil physical properties and its compressibility has been analyzed. The formulae to determine soil density and porosity have been substantiated in compression tests. The regularity of changes in compressibility of thawed sand soils with various degrees of water content has been experimentally identified.

  7. Soils in Schools: Embedding Soil Science in STEM

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Soil science, though relevant to a variety of subjects including science, geography, mathematics, social sciences and history, is typically perceived as a subgenre of agriculture. With a global need for soil scientists, and declining numbers in university soil courses, there's a growing gap between science needs and providers. One way to promote…

  8. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  9. Precision Farming Tools. Soil Electrical Conductivity

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; Holshouser, David Lee, 1963-; Thomason, Wade Everett

    2005-01-01

    Soil electrical conductivity (EC) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements available to precision farmers today. Soil EC measurement can provide more measurements in a shorter amount of time than traditional grid soil sampling.

  10. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  11. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  12. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...

  13. Soil texture; 1 : 500 000

    The characteristics of soil texture are based on an abundant database of the agricultural and forest soils. The character of the texture of the upper soil horizons is assessed. The colour scale represents the classes of texture, and the raster distinguishes the individual classes of stoniness (in mountain ranges) or graveliness in the river alluvia. Soils with at least 10 % of area representation of rock basement are classified as very rocky. Very rocky soils are mostly rankers to Lithosols in the mountain areas of Slovakia. Medium stony are Cambisols to rankers on the crystalline rocks and volcanic complexes. The relatively heaviest soils are to be found in the Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland, the lightest soils occur in the Zahorska nizina Lowland with prevalence of soils on aeolian sands. (authors)

  14. World's soils are under threat

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  15. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  16. Relationships between soil physicochemical, microbiological properties, and nutrient release in buffer soils compared to field soils.

    Stutter, Marc I; Richards, Samia

    2012-01-01

    The retention of nutrients in narrow, vegetated riparian buffer strips (VBS) is uncertain and underlying processes are poorly understood. Evidence suggests that buffer soils are poor at retaining dissolved nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), necessitating management actions if P retention is not to be compromised. We sampled 19 buffer strips and adjacent arable field soils. Differences in nutrient retention between buffer and field soils were determined using a combined assay for release of dissolved P, N, and C forms and particulate P. We then explored these differences in relation to changes in soil bulk density (BD), moisture, organic matter by loss on ignition (OM), and altered microbial diversity using molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism [TRFLP]). Buffer soils had significantly greater soil OM (89% of sites), moisture content (95%), and water-soluble nutrient concentrations for dissolved organic C (80%), dissolved organic N (80%), dissolved organic P (55%), and soluble reactive P (70%). Buffer soils had consistently smaller bulk densities than field soils. Soil fine particle release was generally greater for field than buffer soils. Significantly smaller soil bulk density in buffer soils than in adjacent fields indicated increased porosity and infiltration in buffers. Bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities showed altered diversity between the buffer and field soils, with significant relationships with soil BD, moisture, OM, and increased solubility of buffer nutrients. Current soil conditions in VBS appear to be leading to potentially enhanced nutrient leaching via increasing solubility of C, N, and P. Manipulating soil microbial conditions (by management of soil moisture, vegetation type, and cover) may provide options for increasing the buffer storage for key nutrients such as P without increasing leaching to adjacent streams. PMID:22370402

  17. Soil! Get the Scoop - The Soil Science Society of America's International Year of Soils Campaign

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan; van Es, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Soils are a finite natural resource and are nonrenewable on a human time scale. Soils are the foundation for food, animal feed, fuel and natural fiber production, the supply of clean water, nutrient cycling and a range of ecosystem functions. The area of fertile soils covering the world's surface is limited and increasingly subject to degradation, poor management and loss to urbanization. Increased awareness of the life-supporting functions of soil is called for if this trend is to be reversed and so enable the levels of food production necessary to meet the demands of population levels predicted for 2050. The Soil Science Society of America is coordinating with the Global Soil Partnership and other organizations around the world to celebrate the 2015 International Year of Soils and raise awareness and promote the sustainability of our limited soil resources. We all have a valuable role in communicating vital information on soils, a life sustaining natural resource. Therefore, we will provide resources to learn about soils and help us tell the story of soils. We will promote IYS on social media by sharing our posts from Facebook and Twitter. Additionally SSSA developed 12 monthly themes that reflect the diverse value of soils to our natural environment and society. Each month has information on the theme, a lesson plan, and other outreach activities. All information is available on a dedicated website www.soil.org/IYS. The site will be updated constantly throughout the year.

  18. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    1997-01-01

    This article is written both in English and French International audience This preface of the special issue entitled "Soil Pollutants" (Analusis Magazine 25, M16-M72, 1997) highlights major basic and applied issues about the sources and fate of organic, mineral and radioactive pollutants in soils. Soils have long been considered as a closed and inert medium where wastes can be dumped without impact on living organisms. This is false and we know now that soils play a vital role in ecosys...

  19. Compaction properties of agricultural soils

    TANG, Anh Minh; CUI, Yu Jun; Eslami, Javad; DEFOSSEZ BERTHOUD, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The compaction of field soils due to repeated rolling of agricultural vehicles is one of the main reasons for the agricultural soil degradation. A good understanding of the compaction properties of these soils is essential for an optimum organisation of agricultural activities, and therefore for environmental protection in terms of nitrate migrations. In the present work, the compaction properties of agricultural soils from four sites in France are studied after experimental data ...

  20. Bioremediation of Creosote - contaminated Soil

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied employing the methods of soil microbial biology and using new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analytical approach. The changes of the soil microbial community under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution impact were analyzed and described, as well as the changes during the bioremediation experiments. Laboratory-scale bioremediation experiments using the soil microbial community (consisted of bacteria...

  1. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T; Santos, F. L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; J. M. Reichert; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  2. Remediation and Reuse of Soils

    Zihms, Stephanie; Switzer, Christine; Tarantino, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Links between contaminant remediation and impacts on soil properties have not been explored in a systematic way. Most remediation studies focus on the effectiveness of the remediation process. Contamination and remediation can have significant effects on soil properties and function. Considering that in most remediation cases the soil will be re-used in some way, it is important to understand the effects of the remediation process on soil properties and the post-remediation soil behaviour. This understanding can help to determine the best re-use of the soil and therefore improve post-remediation site development. Laboratory experiments on coal tar contaminated soil treated with smouldering remediation show that thermal treatments affect a variety of soil properties ranging from mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, and pH. Dynamic responses like permeability and shear strength are impacted as well and these responses are linked to the changes in soil properties. Soil permeability, capillary rise, and contact angle change dramatically after this remediation process, indicating some degree of hydrophobicity and significant implications for water movement through the post-remediation soil. The observed changes in permeability are linked to physical changes to the soil grain surface combined with small amounts (residue. Decoupling these effects is essential to understanding the extent of impact remediation processes have on long-term soil function. While chemical residue within the pores can be removed through "polishing" remediation steps, physical changes are likely to be permanent. Physical changes and chemical residue also have important implications with respect to the response of the soil under shear. These observed changes indicate that the remediated soil and its behaviour should be considered by remediation research. Monitoring of soil properties and behaviour during aggressive remediation can improve prediction of changes to infiltration

  3. Agronomy / Soil Microbiology - Purdue University

    Jake R. Carlson

    2011-01-01

    The graduate student interviewed for this data curation profile is studying studying the management strategies for bioenergy crops and their effect on soil structure and the sustainability of soil quality. She collects data on the soil structure and quality through a series of experiments and analysis to identify the effects of a particular soil treatment. Data management issues surround the use of a physical, rather than electronic, lab notebook that is hard to connect to the digital files t...

  4. Nitrification in Dutch heathland soils.

    Boer, de W.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a study on the production of nitrate in Dutch heathland soils. Most of the heathlands are located on acid, sandy soils. Therefore , it has dealt mainly with the occurrence, nature and mechanisms of nitrification in acid soils. In the Netherlands, the production of nitrat

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to improve the knowledge base for facilitating investments in land management technologies that sequester soil organic carbon. While there are many studies on soil carbon sequestration, there is no single unifying volume that synthesizes knowledge on the impact of different land management practices on soil carbon sequestration rates across the world. A meta-a...

  6. Soils and Foundations: A Syllabus.

    Long, Melvin J.

    The teaching guide and course outline for a 12-week course in soils and foundations is designed to help student technicians in a two-year associate degree civil engineering technology program to obtain entry level employment as highway engineering aides, soil testing technicians, soil mappers, or construction inspectors. The seven teaching units…

  7. SOIL PHYSICS AND HYDROLOGY: CONDITIONERS

    Soil conditioners have been used since ancient times, even before the chemical and physical basis of conditioner effectiveness was accurately understood. Soil conditioners have included both organic and mineral materials as well as natural and synthetic materials. Examples of natural organic soil ...

  8. Sensor based soil health assessment

    Quantification and assessment of soil health involves determining how well a soil is performing its biological, chemical, and physical functions relative to its inherent potential. Due to high cost, labor requirements, and soil disturbance, traditional laboratory analyses cannot provide high resolut...

  9. SoilInfo App: global soil information on your palm

    Hengl, Tomislav; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    ISRIC ' World Soil Information has released in 2014 and app for mobile de- vices called 'SoilInfo' (http://soilinfo-app.org) and which aims at providing free access to the global soil data. SoilInfo App (available for Android v.4.0 Ice Cream Sandwhich or higher, and Apple v.6.x and v.7.x iOS) currently serves the Soil- Grids1km data ' a stack of soil property and class maps at six standard depths at a resolution of 1 km (30 arc second) predicted using automated geostatistical mapping and global soil data models. The list of served soil data includes: soil organic carbon (), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg/m3), cation exchange capacity of the fine earth fraction (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105992). New soil properties and classes will be continuously added to the system. SoilGrids1km are available for download under a Creative Commons non-commercial license via http://soilgrids.org. They are also accessible via a Representational State Transfer API (http://rest.soilgrids.org) service. SoilInfo App mimics common weather apps, but is also largely inspired by the crowdsourcing systems such as the OpenStreetMap, Geo-wiki and similar. Two development aspects of the SoilInfo App and SoilGrids are constantly being worked on: Data quality in terms of accuracy of spatial predictions and derived information, and Data usability in terms of ease of access and ease of use (i.e. flexibility of the cyberinfrastructure / functionalities such as the REST SoilGrids API, SoilInfo App etc). The development focus in 2015 is on improving the thematic and spatial accuracy of SoilGrids predictions, primarily by using finer resolution covariates (250 m) and machine learning algorithms (such as random forests) to improve spatial predictions.

  10. Biochar addition impacts soil microbial community in tropical soils

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Fu, Shenglei; Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the effect of biochar on soil microbial activity and community structure in tropical areas are scarce. In this study we report the effect of several types of biochar (sewage sludge biochar, paper mill waste biochar, miscanthus biochar and pinewood biochar) in the soil microbial community of two tropical soils, an Acrisol and an Oxisol. In addition we study the effect of the presence or absence of earthworms in soil microbial community. Soil microbial community was more strongly affected by biochar than by the presence or absence of macrofauna.

  11. A soil science renaissance

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    The renaissance was an intellectually-rich period following a period of stasis in the medieval period. Something analogous appears to be currently taking place in soil science where novel approaches to thought are combined with a revival of ideas from the past. Renewed interest in agriculture (food,

  12. Infiltration in Unsaturated Soils

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Omidvar, M.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution has been established for the well known Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow of transports in soils. Despite the importance of Richards’ equation in geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications, most solutions to the problem are generally based on numerical...

  13. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer

  14. Constipation and Fecal Soiling

    ... such as peer conflicts, academic difficulties, and low self-esteem, all of which can contribute to constipation and soiling. Children respond well to a carefully planned, consistent system of rewards for appropriate behaviors. Parents can develop behavior modifications or reward systems that ...

  15. Remediation for contaminated soils

    Kivekaes, L. [Lohja Envirotec, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    A versatile remediation centre for contaminated soils has operated at Virkkala close to Helsinki since 1998. It is the first regional soil remediation centre in Finland and serves a large area in south- western Finland. Contaminated soils are collected from tens of small and large sites each year and transported to Virkkala for a very high class and environmentally safe treatment under controlled conditions. The centre consists of a 2 ha large hall for storage and treatment of the soils, a 1 ha outside bio-remediation field and a service and truck washing hall. Three treatment technologies are available at the centre: Stabilization/solidification, washing and bio-remediation. With these methods all the most common types of contamination can be treated: Heavy metals, oils, PAHs, creosotes and chlorophenols. Special care has been taken with prevention of environmental emissions, because the centre is located close to a housing area and on a lake-front. All the storage and treatment areas are covered with a double or triple bottom liner system and all environmental emissions are being monitored constantly. EU's Life Environment -fund has supported the project. (orig.)

  16. Improved Biosensors for Soils

    Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Cheng, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbes drive processes in the Earth system far exceeding their physical scale, affecting crop yields, water quality, the mobilization of toxic materials, and fundamental aspects of soil biogeochemistry. The tools of synthetic biology have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbial Earth system processes: for example, synthetic microbes can be be programmed to report on environmental conditions that stimulate greenhouse gas production, metal oxidation, biofilm formation, pollutant degradation, and microbe-plant symbioses. However, these tools are only rarely deployed in the lab. This research gap arises because synthetically programmed microbes typically report on their environment by producing molecules that are detected optically (e.g., fluorescent proteins). Fluorescent reporters are ideal for petri-dish applications and have fundamentally changed how we study human health, but their usefulness is quite limited in soils where detecting fluorescence is challenging. Here we describe the construction of gas-reporting biosensors, which release nonpolar gases that can be detected in the headspace of incubation experiments. These constructs can be used to probe microbial processes within soils in real-time noninvasive lab experiments. These biosensors can be combined with traditional omics-based approaches to reveal processes controlling soil microbial behavior and lead to improved environmental management decisions.

  17. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  18. Soils, Pores, and NMR

    Pohlmeier, Andreas; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Haber, Agnes; Sucre, Oscar; Stingaciu, Laura; Stapf, Siegfried; Blümich, Bernhard

    2010-05-01

    Within Cluster A, Partial Project A1, the pore space exploration by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) plays a central role. NMR is especially convenient since it probes directly the state and dynamics of the substance of interest: water. First, NMR is applied as relaxometry, where the degree of saturation but also the pore geometry controls the NMR signature of natural porous systems. Examples are presented where soil samples from the Selhausen, Merzenhausen (silt loams), and Kaldenkirchen (sandy loam) test sites are investigated by means of Fast Field Cycling Relaxometry at different degrees of saturation. From the change of the relaxation time distributions with decreasing water content and by comparison with conventional water retention curves we conclude that the fraction of immobile water is characterized by T1 samples (Haber-Pohlmeier et al. 2010). Third, relaxometric information forms the basis of understanding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. The general difficulty of imaging in soils are the inherent fast T2 relaxation times due to i) the small pore sizes, ii) presence of paramagnetic ions in the solid matrix, and iii) diffusion in internal gradients. The last point is important, since echo times can not set shorter than about 1ms for imaging purposes. The way out is either the usage of low fields for imaging in soils or special ultra-short pulse sequences, which do not create echoes. In this presentation we will give examples on conventional imaging of macropore fluxes in soil cores (Haber-Pohlmeier et al. 2010), and the combination with relaxometric imaging, as well as the advantages and drawbacks of low-field and ultra-fast pulse imaging. Also first results on the imaging of soil columns measured by SIP in Project A3 are given. Haber-Pohlmeier, S., S. Stapf, et al. (2010). "Waterflow Monitored by Tracer Transport in Natural Porous Media Using MRI." Vadose Zone J.: submitted. Haber-Pohlmeier, S., S. Stapf, et al. (2010). "Relaxation in a

  19. Soil Hydrophobicity in Andisol under Soil Surface Burning

    Obuchi, Atsuko; Mizoguchi, Masaru; Nishimura, Taku; Imoto, Hiromi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    Soil is known to exhibit hydrophobic properties after a forest fire. Experiments conducted by DeBano et al., (1976) showed that the organic compounds in the soil become volatized under high-temperatures, move downward along the soil temperature gradient, and form a hydrophobic layer deep within the soil profile. However, less is known about effects of oxygen atmosphere on morphological changes of organic matter in soil. In this study, we sought to clarify the increase in soil hydrophobicity as well as the changes in carbon and nitrogen content in response to heating of the ground surface in the field and both column and muffle furnace heating in the laboratory. In the muffle furnace burning, soil samples heated under oxygen-deprived conditions exhibited similar carbon and nitrogen dynamics and increased hydrophobicity with temperatures those observed in the field and column experiments. Soil samples under oxygen-deprived condition showed hydrophobicity and some carbon content by heating with 300°C and higher, while almost no carbon remained after heating with 400°C under oxygen available condition. Soil C/N ratio increased by heating with higher temperature under oxygen-deprived condition. Results suggested limited supply of oxygen might have an effect to produce soil hydrophobicity under soil surface burning.

  20. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Soil thermal diffusivity estimated from data of soil temperature and single soil component properties

    Quirijn de Jong Van Lier; Angelica Durigon

    2013-01-01

    Under field conditions, thermal diffusivity can be estimated from soil temperature data but also from the properties of soil components together with their spatial organization. We aimed to determine soil thermal diffusivity from half-hourly temperature measurements in a Rhodic Kanhapludalf, using three calculation procedures (the amplitude ratio, phase lag and Seemann procedures), as well as from soil component properties, for a comparison of procedures and methods. To determine thermal cond...

  2. Bioavailability of radiocaesium in soil: parameterization using soil characteristics

    Syssoeva, A.A.; Konopleva, I.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that radiocaesium availability to plants strongly influenced by soil properties. For the best evaluation of TFs it necessary to use mechanistic models that predict radionuclide uptake by plants based on consideration of sorption-desorption and fixation-remobilization of the radionuclide in the soil as well as root uptake processes controlled by the plant. The aim of the research was to characterise typical Russian soils on the basis of the radiocaesium availability. The parameter of the radiocaesium availability in soils (A) has been developed which consist on radiocaesium exchangeability; CF -concentration factor which is the ratio of the radiocaesium in plant to that in soil solution; K{sub Dex} - exchangeable solid-liquid distribution coefficient of radiocaesium. The approach was tested for a wide range of Russian soils using radiocaesium uptake data from a barley pot trial and parameters of the radiocaesium bioavailability. Soils were collected from the arable horizons in different soil climatic zones of Russia and artificially contaminated by {sup 137}Cs. The classification of soils in terms of the radiocaesium availability corresponds quite well to observed linear relationship between {sup 137}Cs TF for barley and A. K{sub Dex} is related to the soil radiocaesium interception potential (RIP), which was found to be positively and strongly related to clay and physical clay (<0,01 mm) content. The {sup 137}Cs exchangeability were found to be in close relation to the soil vermiculite content, which was estimated by the method of Cs{sup +} fixation. It's shown radiocaesium availability to plants in soils under study can be parameterized through mineralogical soil characteristics: % clay and the soil vermiculite content. (author)

  3. Chemical evaluation of soil-solution in acid forest soils

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-solution chemistry is commonly studied in forests through the use of soil lysimeters.This approach is impractical for regional survey studies, however, because lysimeter installation and operation is expensive and time consuming. To address these problems, a new technique was developed to compare soil-solution chemistry among red spruce stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine. Soil solutions were expelled by positive air pressure from soil that had been placed in a sealed cylinder. Before the air pressure was applied, a solution chemically similar to throughfall was added to the soil to bring it to approximate field capacity. After the solution sample was expelled, the soil was removed from the cylinder and chemically analyzed. The method was tested with homogenized Oa and Bs horizon soils collected from a red spruce stand in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, a red spruce stand in east-central Vermont, and a mixed hardwood stand in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Reproducibility, effects of varying the reaction time between adding throughfall and expelling soil solution (5-65 minutes) and effects of varying the chemical composition of added throughfall, were evaluated. In general, results showed that (i) the method was reproducible (coefficients of variation were generally soil exchange chemistry. Concentrations of expelled solutions varied with the concentrations of added throughfall; the lower the CEC, the more sensitive expelled solution concentrations were to the chemical concentrations of added throughfall. Addition of a tracer (NaBr) showed that the expelled solution was a mixture of added solution and solution that preexisted in the soil. Comparisons of expelled solution concentrations with concentrations of soil solutions collected by zero-tension and tension lysimetry indicated that expelled solution concentrations were higher than those obtained with either type of lysimeter, although there was less difference with tension

  4. 2 D patterns of soil gas diffusivity , soil respiration, and methane oxidation in a soil profile

    Maier, Martin; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Lang, Friederike

    2015-04-01

    The apparent gas diffusion coefficient in soil (DS) is an important parameter describing soil aeration, which makes it a key parameter for root growth and gas production and consumption. Horizontal homogeneity in soil profiles is assumed in most studies for soil properties - including DS. This assumption, however, is not valid, even in apparently homogeneous soils, as we know from studies using destructive sampling methods. Using destructive methods may allow catching a glimpse, but a large uncertainty remains, since locations between the sampling positions cannot be analyzed, and measurements cannot be repeated. We developed a new method to determine in situ the apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient in order to examine 2 D pattern of DS and methane oxidation in a soil profile. Different tracer gases (SF6, CF4, C2H6) were injected continuously into the subsoil and measured at several locations in the soil profile. These data allow for modelling inversely the 2 D patterns of DS using Finite Element Modeling. The 2D DS patterns were then combined with naturally occurring CH4 and CO2 concentrations sampled at the same locations to derive the 2D pattern of soil respiration and methane oxidation in the soil profile. We show that methane oxidation and soil respiration zones shift within the soil profile while the gas fluxes at the surface remain rather stable during a the 3 week campaign.

  5. Nitrification in Dutch heathland soils.

    Boer, de, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a study on the production of nitrate in Dutch heathland soils. Most of the heathlands are located on acid, sandy soils. Therefore , it has dealt mainly with the occurrence, nature and mechanisms of nitrification in acid soils. In the Netherlands, the production of nitrate in acid soils is a matter of great concern because it has become obvious that this process contributes to a continuous acidification of such soils that are exposed to high levels of deposition of...

  6. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  7. Decomposition of Diethylstilboestrol in Soil

    Gregers-Hansen, Birte

    1964-01-01

    The rate of decomposition of DES-monoethyl-1-C14 in soil was followed by measurement of C14O2 released. From 1.6 to 16% of the added C14 was recovered as C14O2 during 3 months. After six months as much as 12 to 28 per cent was released as C14O2.Determination of C14 in the soil samples after the...... inhibit the CO2 production from the soil.Experiments with γ-sterilized soil indicated that enzymes present in the soil are able to attack DES....

  8. Estimating soil moisture and soil thermal and hydraulic properties by assimilating soil temperatures using a particle batch smoother

    Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Ochsner, Tyson E.; Giesen, Nick van de

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the potential of estimating the soil moisture profile and the soil thermal and hydraulic properties by assimilating soil temperature at shallow depths using a particle batch smoother (PBS) using synthetic tests. Soil hydraulic properties influence the redistribution of soil moisture within the soil profile. Soil moisture, in turn, influences the soil thermal properties and surface energy balance through evaporation, and hence the soil heat transfer. Synthetic experiments were used to test the hypothesis that assimilating soil temperature observations could lead to improved estimates of soil hydraulic properties. We also compared different data assimilation strategies to investigate the added value of jointly estimating soil thermal and hydraulic properties in soil moisture profile estimation. Results show that both soil thermal and hydraulic properties can be estimated using shallow soil temperatures. Jointly updating soil hydraulic properties and soil states yields robust and accurate soil moisture estimates. Further improvement is observed when soil thermal properties were also estimated together with the soil hydraulic properties and soil states. Finally, we show that the inclusion of a tuning factor to prevent rapid fluctuations of parameter estimation, yields improved soil moisture, temperature, and thermal and hydraulic properties.

  9. Salt movement in disturbed soils

    A literature review is presented of information on salt movement in disturbed soils, particularly in soils that have been disturbed by pipeline construction. The review has two main objectives: to assess climatic and soil conditions under which salts will move out of the root zone in a disturbed soil and to determine the rate at which salts will move in disturbed soils. A literature base was established using computer database and library searches, and a number of studies were reviewed. Many studies, dealing specifically with salt movement over time in disturbed soils under climatic and salt conditions similar to those found in Alberta, are summarized in tabular form. Data found in the literature tend to be sparse and incomplete, making firm conclusions about rates of salt movement difficult. In the brown soil zone, 5 years may be sufficient time for sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity levels, elevated during construction, to return to pre-construction conditions in coarse to moderately coarse textured soils. In medium to moderately fine textured soils, 10-26 years may be required. In the dark brown soil zone, 5 years is marginal for return to pre-construction conditions. Data in the black soil zone are limited and results inconsistent. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Applications of visual soil evaluation

    Ball, Bruce C; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Batey, Tom

    harmonized scale. Other recommendations were to include coarse textured soils, to consider controlled traffic, to relate sampling location to vegetation and crop conditions and to relate the results of visual evaluation of soil to crop performance. This latter has already been achieved with the VSA test from......Working Group F “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) was formed over 30 years ago within the International Soil & Tillage Research Organisation (ISTRO) on the initiative of Tom Batey. The objectives of the Working Group are to stimulate interest in field methods of visual-tactile soil......., 2006). Ten visual and tactile methods were used to assess soil structure on the same soil. This stimulated significant ongoing cooperation between participants and several authors have since modified and developed their procedures (Mueller et al., 2009 and Shepherd, 2009). Cooperation also led to the...

  11. Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration

    Tamai, K

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a) an evergreen forest with common brown forest soil and (b) a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil properties were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects in the deciduous and evergreen forests were compared. In the evergreen forest with common brown forest soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soi...

  12. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    Ahmed, Ashour; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil < o...

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of soil electrical conductivity related to soil moisture

    José Paulo Molin; Gustavo Di Chiacchio Faulin

    2013-01-01

    Soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a soil quality indicator associated to attributes interesting to site-specific soil management such as soil moisture and texture. Soil ECa provides information that helps guide soil management decisions, so we performed spatial evaluation of soil moisture in two experimental fields in two consecutive years and modeled its influence on soil ECa. Soil ECa, moisture and clay content were evaluated by statistical, geostatistical and regression analyses. Semiv...

  14. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities

    The interaction of the soil with the structure has been largely explored the assumption of material and geometrical linearity of the soil. Nevertheless, for moderate or strong seismic events, the maximum shear strain can easily reach the elastic limit of the soil behavior. Considering soil-structure interaction, the nonlinear effects may change the soil stiffness at the base of the structure and therefore energy dissipation into the soil. Consequently, ignoring the nonlinear characteristics of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) this phenomenon could lead to erroneous predictions of structural response. The goal of this work is to implement a fully nonlinear constitutive model for soils into a numerical code in order to investigate the effect of soil nonlinearity on dynamic soil structure interaction. Moreover, different issues are taken into account such as the effect of confining stress on the shear modulus of the soil, initial static condition, contact elements in the soil-structure interface, etc. During this work, a simple absorbing layer method based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation, which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares, is also presented. The stability conditions of the wave propagation problems are studied and it is shown that the linear and nonlinear behavior are very different when dealing with numerical dispersion. It is shown that the 10 points per wavelength rule, recommended in the literature for the elastic media is not sufficient for the nonlinear case. The implemented model is first numerically verified by comparing the results with other known numerical codes. Afterward, a parametric study is carried out for different types of structures and various soil profiles to characterize nonlinear effects. Different features of the DSSI are compared to the linear case: modification of the amplitude and frequency content of the waves propagated into the soil, fundamental frequency, energy dissipation in

  15. Delineation of colluvial soils in different soil regions

    Zádorová, Tereza; Penížek, Vít; Vašát, Radim

    2015-04-01

    Colluvial soils are considered to be the direct result of accelerated soil erosion in agricultural landscape, resulting in accumulation of humus-rich soil material in terrain depressions and toe slopes. They represent an important soil cover element in landscapes influenced by soil erosion and form an important soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. Delineation of colluvial soils can identify areas with high sediment input and potential deep organic carbon storage and thus improve our knowledge on soil mass and SOC stock redistribution in dissected landscapes. Different prediction methods (ordinary kriging, multiple linear regression, supervised fuzzy classification, artificial neural network, support vector machines) for colluvial soils delineation have been tested in three different soil regions (Cambisol, Luvisol and Chernozem) at two scales (plot and watershed) in the Czech Republic. The approach is based on exploitation of relationship between soil and terrain units and assumes that colluvial soil can be defined by particular range of terrain attributes values. Terrain attributes derived from precise DEMs were used as predictors in applied models. The soil-terrain relationship was assessed using a large dataset of field investigations (300 cores at each plot and 100 cores at each watershed). Models were trained at plot scale (15-33 ha) and the best performing model was then calibrated and validated at watershed scale (25-55 km2). The study proved high potential of terrain variables as predictors in colluvial soil delineation. Support vector machines method was the best performing method for colluvial soil occurrence prediction at all the three sites. However, significant differences in performance have been identified among the studied plots. The best results were obtained in Luvisol region where both determination coefficient and prediction accuracy reached the highest values. The model performance was satisfactory also in Chernozem region. The model showed its

  16. Sensitivity of soil organic matter in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Don, Axel; Freibauer, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance, and little is known on the soil properties causing differences between seemingly similar sites. Furthermore the driving factors for carbon cycling are well studied for both genuine peat and mineral soil, but there is a lack of information concerning soils at the boundary between organic and mineral soils. Examples for such soils are both soils naturally relatively high in soil organic matter (SOM) such as Humic Gleysols and former peat soils with a relative low SOM content due to intensive mineralization or mixing with underlying or applied mineral soil. The study aims to identify drivers for the sensitivity of soil organic matter and therefore for respiration rates of anthropogenically disturbed organic soils, especially those near the boundary to mineral soils. Furthermore, we would like to answer the question whether there are any critical thresholds of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations beyond which the carbon-specific respiration rates change. The German agricultural soil inventory samples all agricultural soils in Germany in an 8x8 km² grid following standardized protocols. From this data and sample base, we selected 120 different soil samples from more than 80 sites. As reference sites, three anthropogenically undisturbed peatlands were sampled as well. We chose samples from the soil inventory a) 72 g kg-1 SOC and b) representing the whole range of basic soil properties: SOC (72 to 568 g kg-1), total nitrogen (2 to 29 g kg-1), C-N-ratio (10 to 80) bulk density (0.06 to 1.41 g/cm³), pH (2.5 to 7.4), sand (0 to 95 %) and clay (2 to 70 %) content (only determined for samples with less than 190 g kg-1 SOC) as well as the botanical origin of the peat (if determinable). Additionally, iron oxides were determined for all samples. All samples were sieved (2 mm) and incubated at standardized water content and

  17. Soil organic matter and soil biodiversity spots in urban and semi urban soils of southeast Mexico

    Huerta, Esperanza

    2015-04-01

    We have observed how the constant use of compost or vermicompost has created spots of soil restoration in urban and semiurban soils of Chiapas (Huitepec and Teopisca), increasing soil organic matter amount, soil moisture and soil porosity, and enhancing then the presence of soil biodiversity; for example, in a Milpa with vermicompost (polyculture of Zea mays with Curcubita pepo, and Fasolius vulgaris) we have found a high density of an epigeic earthworm (640 ind.m2), Dichogaster bolahui, not present in the same type of soil just some meters of distance, in an Oak forest, where soil macroinvertebrates abundance decreased drastically. In another ecosystem within a Persea Americana culture, we found how above and below ground soil biodiversity is affected by the use of vermicompost, having clearly different microcosmos with and without vermicompost (30-50% more micro and macro invertebrates with vermicompost). So now in Campeche, within those soils that are classified by the mayas as tzequel, soils not use for agriculture, we have implemented home gardens and school gardens by the use of compost of vermicomposts in urban and semiurban soils. In school gardens (mainly primary schools) students have cultivated several plants with alimentary purposes; teachers have observed how the increase of soil biodiversity by the use of compost or vermicompost has enhanced the curiosity of children, even has promoted a more friendly behavior among students, they have learned how to do compost and how to apply it. Urban and semiurban soils can be modified by the use of compost and vermicompost, and soil biodiversity has extremely increased.

  18. Soil Carbon Sequestration in India

    With a large land area and diverse ecoregions, there is a considerable potential of terrestrial/soil carbon sequestration in India. Of the total land area of 329 million hectares (Mha), 297 Mha is the land area comprising 162 Mha of arable land, 69 Mha of forest and woodland, 11 Mha of permanent pasture, 8 Mha of permanent crops and 58 Mha is other land uses. The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is estimated at 21 Pg (petagram = Pg = 1 x 1015 g billion ton) to 30-cm depth and 63 Pg to 150-cm depth. The soil inorganic carbon (SIC) pool is estimated at 196 Pg to 1-m depth. The SOC concentration in most cultivated soils is less than 5 g/kg compared with 15 to 20 g/kg in uncultivated soils. Low SOC concentration is attributed to plowing, removal of crop residue and other biosolids, and mining of soil fertility. Accelerated soil erosion by water leads to emission of 6 Tg C/y. Important strategies of soil C sequestration include restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs) of agricultural and forestry soils. Potential of soil C sequestration in India is estimated at 7 to 10 Tg C/y for restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems, 5 to 7 Tg C/y for erosion control, 6 to 7 Tg C/y for adoption of RMPs on agricultural soils, and 22 to 26 Tg C/y for secondary carbonates. Thus, total potential of soil C sequestration is 39 to 49 (44± 5) Tg C/y

  19. Discovering the essence of soil

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of

  20. Chelant soil-washing technology for metal-contaminated soil.

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate here, in a pilot-scale experiment, the feasibility of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)based washing technology for soils contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Acid precipitation coupled to initial alkaline toxic metal removal and an electrochemical advanced oxidation process were used for average recovery of 76 +/- 2% of EDTA per batch and total recycle of water in a closed process loop. No waste water was generated; solid wastes were efficiently bitumen-stabilized before disposal. The technology embodiment, using conventional process equipment, such as a mixer for soil extraction, screen for soil/gravel separation, filter chamber presses for soil/liquid and recycled EDTA separation and soil rinsing, continuous centrifuge separator for removal of precipitated metals and electrolytic cells for process water cleansing, removed up to 72%, 25% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd from garden soil contaminated with up to 6960, 3797 and 32.6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, in nine 60kg soil batches. Concentrations of Pb and Zn remaining in the remediated soil and bioaccessible from the simulated human intestinal phase soil were reduced by 97% and 96% and were brought under the level of determination for Cd. In the most cost-effective operation mode, the material and energy costs of remediation amounted to 50.5 Euros ton(-1) soil and the total cost to 299 Euros ton(-1). PMID:24701937

  1. Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality.

    Wagg, Cameron; Bender, S Franz; Widmer, Franco; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth's biodiversity is literally hidden below ground. Whether reductions of biodiversity in soil communities below ground have consequences for the overall performance of an ecosystem remains unresolved. It is important to investigate this in view of recent observations that soil biodiversity is declining and that soil communities are changing upon land use intensification. We established soil communities differing in composition and diversity and tested their impact on eight ecosystem functions in model grassland communities. We show that soil biodiversity loss and simplification of soil community composition impair multiple ecosystem functions, including plant diversity, decomposition, nutrient retention, and nutrient cycling. The average response of all measured ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality) exhibited a strong positive linear relationship to indicators of soil biodiversity, suggesting that soil community composition is a key factor in regulating ecosystem functioning. Our results indicate that changes in soil communities and the loss of soil biodiversity threaten ecosystem multifunctionality and sustainability. PMID:24639507

  2. Determination of soil hydraulic properties using the soil pedostructure concept

    Braudeau, E.; Mohtar, R. H.

    2003-04-01

    The observed soil water properties such as Field Capacity, Permanent Wilting Point, Water Potential and Hydraulic Conductivity are expressions of the internal soil structure and are all connected to Water Matric Potential. Our research describes these properties in a context of a new concept of the internal hierarchal soil structure and the tension that exists inside the soil matrix due to the presence of clay particles. This concept will be demonstrated using laboratory experiments of simultaneous and continuous measurements of the soil water potential curve and of the shrinkage and swelling curves. The soil shrinkage curve has been used to explain the hydraulic and functional properties of soil with its assembly of swelling aggregates according to the conceptual pedostructure model. In that model two water pools held in two distinguished macro- and micro-porosity are described in addition to specific characteristics of the primary peds such air entry point, maximum swelling, and plasmic porosity. The water potential will be calculated according to these water pools. In this context, the empirical agronomical soil physical properties like wilting point and field capacity, will be defined relative to a particular hydrostructural state of the soil rather than to a hypothetical soil water potential. These properties could then be accurately determined starting from the measured shrinkage curve determined by retractometry.

  3. Soil site response

    The response of stiff quaternary soil sites to strong earthquake shaking is an important factor in the development of seismic siting criteria for nuclear power plants. Analytical methods for estimating this site response are in common use, but there is need for empirical verification of these modeling techniques. There are two dense 3-D strong motion arrays installed and operating in California to directly measure the response of stiff quaternary soil to earthquake shaking. These are the Hollister Earthquake Observatory and the Borrego Valley Downhole Arrays. Site response measurements from these arrays, along with detailed geotechnical and geophysical site investigations, will provide important calibration and confirmation of site response modeling techniques used for seismic siting criteria development. This paper presents an overview of the two arrays and initial results of the measurements. (orig.)

  4. Statistical approach to estimating soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of radionickel in agricultural soils

    Soil-soil solution distribution coefficient (Kd) is an important parameter in radiation dose assessment models for the environmental transfer of radionuclides. Since Kd values vary with soil properties, development of their estimation method using some soil properties is useful. In this study, we estimate Kd values of radionickel using selected soil properties. We determined Kd values of Ni for 142 agricultural soil samples collected throughout Japan and measured such soil properties as pH, cation exchangeable capacity, exchangeable Ca, clay content, concentrations of major elements in soil, and concentrations of major elements in water soluble fractions. The relationship between the Kd of Ni and each soil property was calculated using Spearman's rank correlation test. Then, in order to estimate Kd values of Ni based on soil properties, we used the method which we developed in the previous study for strontium using multiple linear regression analysis. Our results showed that potassium concentration in soil and phosphorus concentration in water soluble fraction were the most important factors contributing to estimation of Kd values. Finally, a predictive expression including three selected variables was created to estimate Kd values of Ni. Predicted Kd values from the expression were in good agreement with observed Kd values. (author)

  5. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when...... designing and operating remediation systems. Simple and accurate models for estimating soil properties from soil parameters that are easy to measure are useful in connection with preliminary remedial investigations and evaluation of remedial technologies. In this work simple models for predicting transport...... properties of undisturbed soil from more easily measurable soil properties are developed. The importance of soil properties with respect to contaminant migration during remediation by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the unsaturated zone was investigated using numerical simulations....

  6. Food, soil, and agriculture

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  7. Soil Wealth in Tanzania

    Kjell Arne Brekke; Vegard Iversen; Jens Aune

    1996-01-01

    Many African countries are richly endowed with land, but the productive potential of the land base has been underutilised in farming systems with low intensity of external inputs and high intensity of labour. At the same time, mining and erosion of soils have been common features of rural Africa in the 1990s. National income, possibly of considerable size, is foregone in countries with pervasive poverty. This paper studies the income and wealth from the agricultural sector in Tanzania. The ga...

  8. Soil physical properties on Venezuelan steeplands: Applications to soil conservation planning

    This paper presents a framework to support decision making for soil conservation on Venezuelan steeplands. The general approach is based on the evaluation of two important land qualities: soil productivity and soil erosion risk, both closely related to soil physical properties. Soil productivity can be estimated from soil characteristics such as soil air-water relationships, soil impedances and soil fertility. On the other hand, soil erosion risk depends basically on soil hydrologic properties, rainfall aggressiveness and terrain slope. Two indexes are obtained from soil and land characteristics: soil productivity index (PI) and erosion risk index (ERI), each one evaluates the respective land quality. Subsequently, a matrix with these two qualities shows different land classes as well as soil conservation priorities, conservation requirements and proposed land uses. The paper shows also some applications of the soil productivity index as an approach to evaluate soil loss tolerance for soil conservation programs on tropical steeplands. (author)

  9. Soils and organic sediments

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  10. Fate and transport of chromium through soil

    Chromium chemistry relevant to the problem facing state of New Jersey (Usa) was examined. Transport of chromium through soil depends on its chemical forms. Transformation of chromium within bulk of soil depends on soil constituents, soil condition, such as pH, Eh and organic compounds applied onto soil or present in soil. Total chromium in soil can be determined. Speciation of chromium based on ionization, hydrolysis, complex formation, redox reactions and adsorption is predicted using MINIQ program

  11. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    New and emerging policies that aim to set standards for protection and sustainable use of soil are likely to require identification of geographical risk/priority areas. Soil degradation can be seen as the change or disturbance in soil quality and it is therefore crucial that soil and soil quality are well understood to protect soils and to meet legislative requirements. To increase this understanding a review of the soil quality definition evaluated its development, with a formal scientific a...

  12. SoilEffects - start characterization of the experimental soil

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun;

    Summary This report describes the establishment, experimental plan and initial soil characteristics of the field experiment linked to the project “Effects of anaerobically digested manure on soil fertility - establishment of a long-term study under Norwegian conditions” (SoilEffects, 2010......-14). The aim of the SoilEffects project is to identify potential risks and benefits for soil fertility when animal manure is anaerobically digested for biogas production. The field experiment was established on Tingvoll research farm in 2011. A biogas plant was built at this farm in 2010, to digest the manure...... from a herd of about 25 organically managed dairy cows. This report describes the initial characterization of the soil biology, chemistry and physics, along with the background of the project, the selection process of the research field and the project design. Effects of the manure treatment...

  13. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye;

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic...... of the hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs...

  14. Characterization of soils containing adipocere.

    Fiedler, S; Schneckenberger, K; Graw, M

    2004-11-01

    The formation of adipocere (commonly known as grave wax), a spontaneous inhibition of postmortem changes, has been extensively analyzed in forensic science. However, soils in which adipocere formation occurs have never been described in detail. Therefore, this study is intended as a first step in the characterization of soils containing adipocere. Two grave soils (Gleyic Anthrosols) that prevent the timely reuse of graves due to the occurrence of adipocere and a control soil (Gleyic Luvisol) were selected from a cemetery in the Central Black Forest (Southwest Germany). Descriptions of soil morphology and a wide assay of physical, chemical, and microbiologic soil characteristics were accomplished. In contrast to the control soil, the grave soils were characterized by lower bulk density and pH. The degradation of the soil structure caused by digging led to a higher water table and the expansion of the reducing conditions in the graves where the prevalent absence of oxygen in range of the coffins inhibited decomposition processes. Although the formation of adipocere led to the conservation of the buried corpses, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and cadavarine leaching from the graves was observed. Microbial biomass and microbial activity were higher in the control soil and hence reflected the inert character of adipocere. The study results clearly show the need for additional approaches in forensic, pedologic, and microbiologic research. PMID:15499507

  15. Permeability of soils in Mississippi

    O'Hara, Charles G.

    1994-01-01

    The permeability of soils in Mississippi was determined and mapped using a geographic information system (GIS). Soil permeabilities in Mississippi were determined to range in value from nearly 0.0 to values exceeding 5.0 inches per hour. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service's State Soil Geographic Data Base (STATSGO) was used as the primary source of data for the determination of area-weighted soil permeability. STATSGO provides soil layer properties that are spatially referenced to mapped areas. These mapped areas are referred to as polygons in the GIS. The polygons arc boundaries of soils mapped as a group and are given unique Map Unit Identifiers (MUIDs). The data describing the physical characteristics of the soils within each polygon are stored in a tabular data base format and are referred to as attributes. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service developed STATSGO to be primarily used as a guide for regional resource planning, management, and monitoring. STATSGO was designed so that soil information could be extracted from properties tables at the layer level, combined by component, and statistically expanded to cover the entire map unit. The results of this study provide a mapped value for permeability which is representative of the vertical permeability of soils in that area. The resultant permeability map provides a representative vertical soil permeability for a given area sufficient for county, multi- county, and area planning, and will be used as the soil permeability data component in the evaluation of the susceptibility of major aquifers to contami- nation in Mississippi.

  16. A Handbook on Artificial Soils for Indoor Photovoltaic Soiling Tests

    Burton, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This manuscript is intended to serve as a practical guide to conducting repeatable indoor soiling experiments for PV applications. An outline of techniques, materials and equipment used in prior studies [1-3] is presented. Additional recommendations and practical guidance has been presented. Major sections include techniques to formulate soil simulants, ('standard grime') and feedstocks from traceable components, spray application, and quantitative measurement methodologies at heavy and minimal soil loadings.

  17. Forest soil disturbance intervals inferred from soil charcoal radiocarbon dates

    Forest soil disturbance intervals are usually too long to measure using plot-based studies, and thus they are poorly understood. The mean soil disturbance interval (MSDI) in an old-growth forest on the west coast of Vancouver Island was estimated from radiocarbon dates of charcoal from organic and mineral soil horizons. Two assumptions are required to estimate the MSDI: charcoal from forest fires is deposited within the organic horizon and eventually mixed into deeper mineral horizons by soil disturbances, and the probability of soil disturbance is spatially homogeneous and affected only by the time since the last fire or the last soil disturbance. The MSDI is then estimated by the rate at which the proportion of undisturbed sample sites (determined by the proportion of sites with charcoal from the most recent fire in the organic horizon) decreases with increasing time since the last fire. Soil charcoal evidence of time since fire was determined at 83 sites using 141 radiocarbon dates. The estimated MSDI was greater on slopes (ca. 2010 years) than on terraces (ca. 920 years). The long periods between soil disturbances, especially on slopes, are consistent with other evidence from the study area that suggests infrequent tree uprooting is the predominant mode of soil disturbance. (author)

  18. Soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil slopes

    ZHAN Liangtong

    2007-01-01

    The intensive soil-water interaction in unsatura- ted expansive soil is one of the major reasons for slope fail- ures. In this paper, the soil-water interaction is investigated with the full-scale field inspection of rainwater infiltration and comprehensive experiments, including wetting-induced softening tests, swelling, and shrinkage tests. It is demonstrat- ed that the soil-water interaction induced by seasonal wetting- drying cycles is very complex, and it involves coupled effects among the changes in water content, suction, stress, deforma- tion and shear strength. In addition, the abundant cracks in the expansive soil play an important role in the soil-water interaction. The cracks disintegrate the soil mass, and more importantly, provide easy pathways for rainfall infiltration. Infiltration of rainwater not only results in wetting-induced softening of the shallow unsaturated soil layers, but also leads to the increase of horizontal stress. The increase of horizontal stress may lead to a local passive failure. The seasonal wetting-drying cycles tend to result in a down-slope creeping of the shallow soil layer, which leads to progressive slope failure.

  19. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume III.- Extremadura

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalized and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. (Author) 50 refs

  20. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume I.-Galicia

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Department de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim. a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary)' source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Galicia

  1. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XV.- Aragon

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Aragon. (Author) 47 refs

  2. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume V.- Madrid

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid. (Author) 39 refs

  3. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  4. Soil Spectroscopy: An Alternative to Wet Chemistry for Soil Monitoring

    Nocita, M.; Stevens, A.; van Wesemael, Bas;

    2015-01-01

    The soil science community is facing a growing demand of regional, continental, and worldwide databases in order to monitor the status of the soil. However, the availability of such data is very scarce. Cost-effective tools to measure soil properties for large areas (e.g., Europe) are required. S...... organizations. The Food and Agriculture Organiza-tion (FAO) of United Nations and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commis-sion are well placed to promote the use of laboratory and field spectrometers for monitoring the state of soils....

  5. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIV.- Cataluna

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Cataluna. (Author) 57 refs

  6. Investigation of Wetland Soil Properties affecting Optimum Soil Cultivation

    O.O. Babatunde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on wetland (fadama soil properties affecting optimum soil cultivation. A cone penetrometerand a shear vane apparatus (19 mm were used to determine the cone index and the torque that cause the soil to shearat different moisture contents. The study shows that the cone index and shear vane of fadama soils increased with depth anddecreased with increase in moisture content. High moisture content reduced the soil cohesion. The internal frictional angleof the soil was 37.90. The following values were obtained for soil cohesion 112 kN/m2, 62 kN/m2, 38 kN/m2, 30 kN/m2, and12 kN/m2 at moisture contents of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively. Moisture content between 10% -15% (dry basisappeared ideal for cultivation of the soil. For this soil the critical moisture content was found to be 23.72%. Moisture contentbeyond the critical level needs to be drained before cultivation is carried out.

  7. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  8. Guidelines for Measuring Bulk Density of Soil

    Bulk density is defined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of undisturbed soil. • Bulk density can be used to give an indication of the porosity and structure of the soil influencing O2 and H2O movement in the soil. • Soils with a bulk density higher than 1.6 g/cm3 may restrict root development. • Bulk density is also a measurement of the degree of compaction of the soil. • Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with soil depth. • Sandy soils tend to have higher bulk density (1.4-1.5 g/cm3) than clay soils (1.2-1/3g/cm3). The measurement of soil bulk density is carried out by collecting undisturbed soil samples through inserting metal rings (with a known volume) into the soil, and determining the weight of the collected soil after drying

  9. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, J.; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (?? SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ?? 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ?? 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ?? 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities. ?? 2006 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of

  10. Dependence of Soil Respiration on Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture in Successional Forests in Southern China

    Xu-Li Tang; Guo-Yi Zhou; Shu-Guang Liu; De-Qiang Zhang; Shi-Zhong Liu; Jiong Li; Cun-Yu Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (± SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0±4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year, ranging from (6.1±3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in early successional forests to (10.7±4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  11. Elastic response of unsaturated soils

    Murillo, Carol; Caicedo, Bernardo; Thorel, Luc; Dano, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The elastic behavior of unsaturated soils subjected to very small strains (smaller than 10−5) was studied in the past years using different experimental devices (mainly resonant columns). The bender elements technique, now extensively used in soil mechanics, offers an efficient alternative to measure elastic properties of soils. Furthermore to enrich the common bender elements testing results providing only shear modulus values, an evolution of the bender elements technique, named bende...

  12. Soil Science and Global Issues

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable management of soil is integral to any rational approach to addressing global issues of the 21st century. A high quality soil is essential to: i) advancing food and nutritional security, ii) mitigating and adapting to climate change, iii) improving quality and renewability of water, iv) enriching biodiversity, v) producing biofuel feedstocks for reducing dependence on fossil fuel, and vi) providing cultural, aesthetical and recreational opportunities. Being the essence of all terrestrial life, soil functions and ecosystem services are essential to wellbeing of all species of plants and animals. Yet, soil resources are finite, unequally distributed geographically, and vulnerable to degradation by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Nonetheless, soil has inherent resilience, and its ecosystem functions and services can be restored over time. However, soil resilience depends on several key soil properties including soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool, plant-available water capacity (PWAC), nutrient reserves, effective rooting depth, texture and clay mineralogy, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc. There is a close inter-dependence among these properties. For example, SOC concentration strongly affects, PWAC, nutrient reserve, activity and species diversity of soil flora and fauna, CEC etc. Thus, judicious management of SOC concentration to maintain it above the threshold level (~1.5-2%) in the root zone is critical to sustaining essential functions and ecosystem services. Yet, soils of some agroecosystems (e.g., those managed by resources-poor farmers and small landholders in the tropics and sub-tropics) are severely depleted of their SOC reserves. Consequently. Agronomic productivity and wellbeing of people dependent on degraded soils is jeopardized. The ecosystem C pool of the terrestrial biosphere has been mined by extractive practices, the nature demands recarbonization of its biosphere for maintenance of its functions and

  13. Soil classes and acceleration response

    It could not enough for determination of only geotechnical properties (soil classification, soil type, bearing capacity etc.) in order to define assessment of areas being settle in terms of suitability of settlement or how settled area is affected from natural disaster and to get necessary precautions. Damages on the engineering structure in the region posses an earthquake hazard are affected one or more site condition from source point to soil of engineering structure

  14. HUMUS SUBSTANCES AND SOIL FERTILITY

    Cecilia Violeta NEAGU; Georgeta OPREA

    2012-01-01

    The humus substances play an important role in obtaining high yields and stable over time. He is permanently double process: the humus improvement of organic material reaching the soil and the mineralization of components at different stages of humus improving, The results of this process is influenced by soil type, climate, irrigation, fertilization. The beneficial effect of humus substances on plant growth may be related to indirect effects (fertilization efficiency or reduce soil compacti...

  15. Atoms for increased soil productivity

    This public relations film describes the activities of the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. Soil is one of mankind's most precious natural resources, but proper management is essential to achieve maximum, sustainable crop production. Isotope and radiation techniques play an important role in solving problems concerning the most efficient use of fertilizers, biological nitrogen fixation, soil water management, and crop physiology

  16. Soil vulnerability for cesium transfer.

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils and the possible impacts on agriculture surrounding nuclear power plants. This article summarizes the knowledge gained after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, on how soil parameters influence soil vulnerability for radiocesium bioavailability, discusses some potential agrochemical countermeasures, and presents some predictions of radiocesium crop concentrations for areas affected by the Fukushima accident. PMID:21608116

  17. Advances in Soil Biology: What does this mean for assessing soil change?

    Black, Helaina; Mele, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    Our interests in soil change are moving away from soil properties and increasingly towards changes in the processes and functioning of soils. Soil organisms are fundamental to dynamics and change in soils through their fundamental role in soil processes [1]. However it is only with recent technical and theoretical advances that we have started to establish quantitative relationships between soil biology and soil change (c.f. [2]). It is this predictive understanding that will enable us to fully integrate soil biology into the effective monitoring and sustainable management of soils. This paper outlines some of the recent advances in soil biology and discusses their relevance to monitoring and management.

  18. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.; Hansen, B. M.; Hendriksen, N. B.; Kroer, N.

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...

  19. Soil Ecosystem Management in Birdlime Utilization

    Mohammed A. Bazgiev; Murad M. Kodzoev; Ahmed M. Tochiev; Beslan B. Mamilov; Valery P. Kalinichenko

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the management of material composition of the soil ecosystem, offers the technology and the technical solution for biological, inorganic substances and pollutants dispersal, passivation of soil pollutants at the depth of the current anthropogenic illuviation of 30–60 cm, works out the device for soil application of substances by rotary inter-soil cultivation providing soil and landscape conditioning.

  20. Effect of soil solarization on soil-borne pathogens

    Author.Soil solarization was conducted at three locations on the Lebanese coast. Maximum soil temperatures recorded were 53 and 48 celsius degrees at Jiyeh, 48.9, 46 and 43 celsius degrees at Naameh and 48, 45 and 43.5 celsius degrees at Khaldeh at 5, 15 and 25cm soil depths respectively. Mean soil temperatures recorded at 3pm were at Jiyeh 51.6, 47 and 46 celsius degrees compared to Naameh 47, 45 and 41 celsius degrees and Khaldeh 44, 42 and 41 celsius degrees at 5, 15 and 25 cm respectively. The mean temperature in solarized soils were 7.3 to 15 celsius degrees higher than those of the nonsolarized soils indicating a sustained increase of soil temperature in the solarized soils. The effect of soil solarization on artificially introduced fungal pathogens in the soil at Khaldeh, resulted in complete destruction of sclerotia of Sclerotinia spp. at three depths studied. However, with respect to the two other pathogens tested, solarization resulted in reduction of the viability of microsclerotia of Verticillium spp. by 99-79% and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis inoculum by 88-54% at 5 and 15 cm respectively, but only by 45% and 14% reduction at 25 cm. This level of control is significant when it is compared to the percentage of control where the level of reduction of inoculum viability did not exceed 10% at any soil depth. As there were contradicting reports in the literature on nematodes, two field trials in greenhouses were conducted to study the possibility of integrating 2 methods for management on nematodes. Soil solarization alone or in combination with biological control of nematodes using Arthrobotrys spp. and Dactyl ella brocophaga to control the root-knot nematodes on two crops, tomato at Naameh and cucumber at Jiyeh were compared to Methyl Bromide treatment. It was evident that, even on a very susceptible crop like cucumber, the integration of biological control and soil solarization gave a good level of control similar to methyl bromide. Neither root

  1. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  2. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.;

    2009-01-01

    . The EU FP6 project ENVASSO (Environmental Assessment of Soil for Monitoring) had the aim to design a single, integrated and operational set of EU-wide criteria and indicators to provide the basis for a harmonised comprehensive soil and land information system for monitoring in Europe. Here, a proposal...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  3. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    and climate change? The first ever European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity uses informative texts, stunning photographs and maps to answer these questions and other issues. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity functions as a comprehensive guide allowing non-specialists to access information about this unseen...... Biodiversity'. Starting with the smallest organisms such as the bacteria, this segment works through a range of taxonomic groups such as fungi, nematodes, insects and macro-fauna to illustrate the astonishing levels of heterogeneity of life in soil. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is more than just...

  4. The Biotoxicity of Mars Soils

    Kerney, Krystal

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence from the Opportunity and Spirit rovers suggests that the soils on Mars might be very high in biotoxic materials induding sulfate salts, chlorides, and acidifying agents. Yet, very little is known about how the chemistries of Mars soils might affect the survival and growth of terrestrial microorganisms. The primary objectives of the proposed research will be to: (1) prepare and characterize Mars analog soils amended with potential biotoxic levels of sulfates, chlorides, and acidifying minerals; (2) use the stimulants to conduct a series of toxicology assays to determine if terrestrial microorganisms from spacecraft or extreme environments can survive direct exposure to the biotoxic soils, and (3) mix soils from extreme environments on Earth into Mars analog soils to determine if terrestrial microorganisms can grow and replicate under Martian conditions. The Mars analog soils will be thoroughly characterized by a wide diversity of soil chemistry assays to determine the exact nature of the soluble biotoxic components following hydration. The microbial experiments will be designed to test the effects of Mars stimulants on microbial survival, growth and replication during direct challenge experiments. Toxicology experiments will be designed to mimic terrestrial microbes coming into contact with biotoxic soils with and without liquid water. Results are expected to help" ... characterize the limits of life in ... planetary environments ... " and may help constrain the search for life on Mars.

  5. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    Peppin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates to accommodate the ice lenses, and a heave regime during which liquid is sucked into the consolidated soil from an external reservoir, and the added volume causes the soil to heave. The ice fraction is found to vary inversely with thefreezing velocity V , while the rate of heave is independent of V , consistent with field and laboratoryobservations. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Carbon storage in forest soil

    The article reviews research on short and long term carbon storage. A Norwegian programme with the objective of increasing knowledge of key processes which govern the carbon storage and loss of CO2 from forest soil in Norway is mentioned. Topics that will be studied are: The production and loss of CO2 from the soil, root ecology, the microorganism ability of degrading organic compounds, transport and loss of organic compounds through the soil to creeks and lakes and the modelling of carbon currents and storage in various forest ecosystems both in the soil and above

  7. Monitor Soil Degradation or Triage for Soil Security? An Australian Challenge

    Andrea Koch; Adrian Chappell; Michael Eyres; Edward Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Australian National Soil Research, Development and Extension Strategy identifies soil security as a foundation for the current and future productivity and profitability of Australian agriculture. Current agricultural production is attenuated by soil degradation. Future production is highly dependent on the condition of Australian soils. Soil degradation in Australia is dominated in its areal extent by soil erosion. We reiterate the use of soil erosion as a reliable indicator of soil condi...

  8. Soil biodiversity assessment, biological indicators and soil ecosystem services - an overview of European approaches

    CREAMER, Rachel; Hamer, Ute; Helder, Johannes; Pelosi, Céline; Pérès, Guénola; Rutgers, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Soil biota are essential for many soil processes and functions, yet there are increasing pressures on soil biodiversity and soil degradation remains a pertinent issue. The sustainable management of soils requires soil monitoring, including biological indicators, to be able to relate land use and management to soil functioning and ecosystem services. Since the 1990s, biological soil parameters have been assessed in an increasing number of field trials and monitoring programmes across Europe....

  9. Understanding and Enhancing Soil Biological Health: The Solution for Reversing Soil Degradation

    R Michael Lehman; Cynthia A. Cambardella; Diane E. Stott; Veronica Acosta-Martinez; Manter, Daniel K; Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Jude E. Maul; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Harold P. Collins; Halvorson, Jonathan J.; Kremer, Robert J.; Lundgren, Jonathan G.; Tom F. Ducey; Jin, Virginia L.; Douglas L. Karlen

    2015-01-01

    Our objective is to provide an optimistic strategy for reversing soil degradation by increasing public and private research efforts to understand the role of soil biology, particularly microbiology, on the health of our world’s soils. We begin by defining soil quality/soil health (which we consider to be interchangeable terms), characterizing healthy soil resources, and relating the significance of soil health to agroecosystems and their functions. We examine how soil biology influences soi...

  10. The moisture response of soil heterotrophic respiration: interaction with soil properties

    Moyano, F E; Vasilyeva, N; Bouckaert, L;

    2012-01-01

    -driven analysis of soil moisture-respiration relations based on 90 soils. With the use of linear models we show how the relationship between soil heterotrophic respiration and different measures of soil moisture is consistently affected by soil properties. The empirical models derived include main effects and...... predictions of the response of soil carbon to future climate scenarios will require the integration of soil-dependent moisture-respiration functions coupled with realistic representations of soil water dynamics....

  11. Role of soil properties in water retention characteristics of main Hungarian soil types

    Brigitta Toth; Andras Mako; Gergely ToTH

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between easily available soil properties and soil water retention at given matric potentials were analysed on brown forest soils, chernozems and meadow soils of Hungarian Detailed Soil Hydrophysical Database (Hungarian acronym: MARTHA). We studied the influence of soil properties displayed on the 1:10000 scale Hungarian soil maps on soil water retention at -0.1, -33, -1500 and -150000 kPa. Continuous (particle size distribution, organic matter content, calcium carbonate content a...

  12. Solos urbanos Urban soils

    Fabrício de Araújo Pedron

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A forte pressão provocada pela expansão urbana desordenada sobre os recursos naturais, principalmente os solos, tem provocado danos, muitas vezes de difícil reparo. A grande concentração populacional em centros urbanos cada vez maiores tem dirigido a atenção de diferentes profissionais para o recurso solo, no sentido de entender sua dinâmica para minimizar sua degradação. No entanto, a falta de conhecimento sobre as propriedades, bem como sobre a aptidão dos solos sob uso urbano tem provocado o seu mau uso, resultando em processos como compactação, erosão, deslizamentos e inundações, assim como poluição com substâncias orgânicas, inorgânicas e patógenos, aumentando os custos do desenvolvimento afetando toda a sociedade. Neste sentido, este texto discute como o conhecimento pedológico pode diminuir os efeitos negativos provocados pelo processo de urbanização.The strong pressure caused by the disordered urban expansion over the natural resources, mainly the soils, has caused damages, many times difficult to repair. The great population concentration in urban centers getting larger and larger has been driving the attention of different professionals to soil resource, in the sense of understanding its dynamics to minimize its degradation. The lack of knowledge related to the soils properties and capability promote their inappropriate use, resultig in degrading processes as compaction, erosion, sliding, floods, and organic, inorganic and patogenic pollution, increasing the cost of development and affecting the whole society. This text discusses how pedologic knowledge can reduce the negative effects caused by the urbanization process.

  13. SOIL moisture data intercomparison

    Kerr, Yann; Rodriguez-Frenandez, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parens, Marie; Molero, Beatriz; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Richaume, Philippe; Bindlish, Rajat; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 6 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underwent significant evolutions as knowledge improved. Other approaches for retrieval at Level 2 over land were also investigated while Level 3 and 4 were initiated. In this présentation these improvements are assessed by inter-comparisons of the current Level 2 (V620) against the previous version (V551) and new products either using neural networks or Level 3. In addition a global evaluation of different SMOS soil moisture (SM) products is performed comparing products with those of model simulations and other satellites (AMSR E/ AMSR2 and ASCAT). Finally, all products were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture (SM). The study demonstrated that the V620 shows a significant improvement (including those at level1 improving level2)) with respect to the earlier version V551. Results also show that neural network based approaches can yield excellent results over areas where other products are poor. Finally, global comparison indicates that SMOS behaves very well when compared to other sensors/approaches and gives consistent results over all surfaces from very dry (African Sahel, Arizona), to wet (tropical rain forests). RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is still an issue even though detection has been greatly improved while RFI sources in several areas of the world are significantly reduced. When compared to other satellite products, the analysis shows that SMOS achieves its expected goals and is globally consistent over different eco climate regions from low to high latitudes and throughout the seasons.

  14. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy

  15. Soil organic matter studies

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 40 are included in Volume I. A number of papers deal with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and make a contribution to increasing agricultural production by proposing improved management practices. Other papers discuss turnover of plant residues, release of plant nutrients through biodegradation of organic compounds, and nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. Separate entries have been prepared for those 8 papers which discuss the use of tracer techniques in soil studies

  16. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  17. Reduction of soil tare by improved uprooting of sugar beet : a soil dynamic approach

    Vermeulen, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    The relative amount of soil in sugar beet lots, called soil tare, should be reduced to curtail the cost and negative aspects of soil tare. Highest soil tare occurs in beet lots harvested out of wet clay soil. The main problem is that commonly-used share lifters press the soil against the beet. There

  18. Adopting soil organic carbon management practices in soils of varying quality

    Merante, Paolo; Dibari, Camilla; Ferrise, Roberto; Sánchez, Berta; Iglesias, Ana; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Kuikman, Peter; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Pete; Bindi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) content can greatly affect soil quality by determining and maintaining important soil physical conditions, properties and soil functions. Management practices that maintain or enhance SOC affect soil quality and may favour the capacity of soils to sequester further organ

  19. Soil fauna and soil functions: a jigsaw puzzle

    MariaJ.I.Briones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecologists and soil modelers have traditionally portrayed the inhabitants of soil as a black box labeled as "soil fauna" or "decomposers or detritivores” assuming that they just merely recycle the deposited dead plant material. Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on Earth and contains one of the most diverse assemblages of living organisms; however, the opacity of this world has severely limited our understanding of their functional contributions to soil processes and to ecosystem resilience. Traditional taxonomy, based on morphological and anatomical aspects, is becoming replaced by rapid processing molecular techniques (e.g. with marker gene-based approaches. However, this may be impracticable in many ecological studies and consequently, the majority of the current knowledge, still contributes little to our understanding of their role in ecosystem functioning. Over the years, different workers have produced several ‘functional classifications’ based on the body width, feeding regime, certain behavioral and reproductive aspects and ecological niches of soil organisms. Unfortunately, the information available is severely restricted to ‘major’ groups. A better physiological and metabolic understanding of when and how a complex community of soil organisms access nutrients, alter their environment and in turn, affect soil processes, will allow a more realistic quantitative evaluation of their ecological roles in the biogeochemical cycles. Here, I review the applicability of the available approaches, highlight future research challenges and propose a dynamic conceptual framework that could improve our ability to solve this functional puzzle.

  20. PESTICIDES IN SOIL: BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS TO SOIL HEALTH

    Pesticides are important components of many agricultural management systems and their effects on soil and its ability to process them should be included when evaluating soil quality. Pesticides help maintain agricultural productivity by controlling pests, however, management thresholds must be esta...

  1. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - I

    The bioavailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  2. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - II

    The bioabailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  3. The effect of soil fauna on carbon sequestration in soil

    Frouz, Jan; Pižl, Václav; Kaneda, Satoshi; Šimek, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2008). ISSN 1029-7006. [EGU General Assembly 2008. 13.04.2008-18.04.2008, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil fauna * carbon sequestration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. New perspectives on the soil erosion-soil quality relationship

    The redistribution of soil has a profound impact on its quality (defined as its ability to function within its ecosystem and within adjacent ecosystems) and ultimately on its productivity for crop growth. The application of 137Cs-redistribution techniques to the study of erosion has yielded major new insights into the soil erosion-soil quality relationship. In highly mechanized agricultural systems, tillage erosion can be the dominant cause of soil redistribution; in other agroecosystems, wind and water erosion dominate. Each causal factor results in characteristic landscape-scale patterns of redistribution. In landscapes dominated by tillage redistribution, highest losses occur in shoulder positions (those with convex downslope curvatures); in water-erosion-dominated landscapes, highest losses occur where slope gradient and length are at a maximum. Major impacts occur through the loss of organically-enriched surface material and through the incorporation of possibly yield-limiting subsoils into the rooting zone of the soil column. The potential impact of surface soil losses and concomitant subsoil incorporation on productivity may be assessed by examining the pedological nature of the affected soils and their position in the landscape. The development of sound conservation policies requires that the soil erosion-quality relationship be rigorously examined in the full range of pedogenic environments, and future applications of the 137Cs technique hold considerable promise for providing this comprehensive global database. (author)

  5. Online Soil Science Lesson 3: Soil Forming Factors

    This lesson explores the five major factors of soil formation, namely: 1) climate; 2) organisms; 3) time; 4) topography; and 5) parent material and their influence in forming soil. The distinction between active and passive factors, moisture and temperature regimes, organism and topographic influen...

  6. Desert soil collection at the JPL soil science laboratory

    Blank, G. B.; Cameron, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Collection contains desert soils and other geologic materials collected from sites in the United States and foreign countries. Soils are useful for test purposes in research related to extraterrestrial life detection, sampling, harsh environmental studies, and determining suitable areas for training astronauts for lunar exploration.

  7. Soil water balance scenario studies using predicted soil hydraulic parameters

    Nemes, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Bouma, J.; Várallyay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have become a topic drawing increasing interest within the field of soil and environmental research because they can provide important soil physical data at relatively low cost. Few studies, however, explore which contributions PTFs can make to land-use planning, in ter

  8. Soil organic matter, soil pH and soil nutrient dynamics in forest stands after fire

    Altun, Lokman; Bilgili, Ertuğrul; SAĞLAM, Bülent; KÜÇÜK, Ömer; Yılmaz, Murat; Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın

    2004-01-01

    Fires burn, spread and release energy. The process of burning not only helps increase the decomposition of organic matters but also causes the plant nutrients bound to vegetation and organic dead material to get into soil and inflicts changes on the physical and chemical properties of soil. Changes taken place in soils and their status over time are extremely important for the success of the vegetation that will establish on the site after fire. This study presents the results of a study cond...

  9. From Soil Survey to Land Use Planning and National Soils Policies New Developments in Soil Science

    Verheye, WH.

    1997-01-01

    The emphasis of soil studies has shifted over the past decades from descriptive inventories towards a more specifie, pragmatic and problem solving approach related to land use and soil conservation. Under conditions of growing population density, land may become a source of conflict between various users : settled farmers, miners, stock breeders, foresters, urban planners, ecologists, ... In such cases, a national soils policy becomes imperative, as it provides a useful planning framework for...

  10. Soil tillage influences on soil mineral nitrogen and nitrate leaching in Swedish arable soils

    Myrbeck, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) is an unwanted effect of agriculture practices which contributes to eutrophication of surface waters. This thesis examined how soil tillage practices affect leaching losses of N from arable fields. This was done directly by measuring N in drainage water and indirectly by studying the dynamics of soil mineral N (SMN) within the soil profile and involved long-term and short-term studies of tillage of different timing and intensity. The impact of time of tillage in autum...

  11. Underestimation of boreal soil carbon stocks by mathematical soil carbon models linked to soil nutrient status

    Ťupek, Boris; Ortiz, Carina A.; Hashimoto, Shoji; Stendahl, Johan; Dahlgren, Jonas; Karltun, Erik; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate estimate of the largest terrestrial carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) stock, is the major source of uncertainty in simulating feedback of climate warming on ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange by process-based ecosystem and soil carbon models. Although the models need to simplify complex environmental processes of soil carbon sequestration, in a large mosaic of environments a missing key driver could lead to a modeling bias in predictions of SOC stock change.We aimed to evaluate SOC stock estimates of process-based models (Yasso07, Q, and CENTURY soil sub-model v4) against a massive Swedish forest soil inventory data set (3230 samples) organized by a recursive partitioning method into distinct soil groups with underlying SOC stock development linked to physicochemical conditions.For two-thirds of measurements all models predicted accurate SOC stock levels regardless of the detail of input data, e.g., whether they ignored or included soil properties. However, in fertile sites with high N deposition, high cation exchange capacity, or moderately increased soil water content, Yasso07 and Q models underestimated SOC stocks. In comparison to Yasso07 and Q, accounting for the site-specific soil characteristics (e. g. clay content and topsoil mineral N) by CENTURY improved SOC stock estimates for sites with high clay content, but not for sites with high N deposition.Our analysis suggested that the soils with poorly predicted SOC stocks, as characterized by the high nutrient status and well-sorted parent material, indeed have had other predominant drivers of SOC stabilization lacking in the models, presumably the mycorrhizal organic uptake and organo-mineral stabilization processes. Our results imply that the role of soil nutrient status as regulator of organic matter mineralization has to be re-evaluated, since correct SOC stocks are decisive for predicting future SOC change and soil CO2 efflux.

  12. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  13. Anthropogenic effects on soil micromycetes

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different authropogenic pollutants (mineral and organic fertilizers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Čačak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and under greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Čapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season, and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg x ha-1 and organic fertilizers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg x ha-1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor, inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  14. ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROMYCETES

    Dragutin A. Đukić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different (mineral and organic fertilisers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Cacak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Czapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg?ha-1 and organic fertilisers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg?ha- 1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  15. Thermal stability of soils and detectability of intrinsic soil features

    Siewert, Christian; Kucerik, Jiri

    2014-05-01

    Soils are products of long term pedogenesis in ecosystems. They are characterized by a complex network of interactions between organic and inorganic constituents, which influence soil properties and functions. However, the interrelations cannot easily be determined. Our search for unifying principles of soil formation focuses on water binding. This approach was derived from water-dependent soil formation. It considers the importance of water binding in theories about the origin of genes, in the structural arrangement and functionality of proteins, and in the co-evolution of organism species and the biosphere during the history of earth. We used thermogravimetry as a primary experimental technique. It allows a simple determi-nation of bound water together with organic and inorganic components in whole soil samples without a special preparation. The primary goal was to search for fingerprinting patterns using dynamics of thermal mass losses (TML) caused by water vaporization from natural soils, as a reference base for soil changes under land use. 301 soil samples were collected in biosphere reserves, national parks and other areas as-sumingly untouched by human activity in Siberia, North and South America, Antarctica, and in several long term agricultural experiments. The results did not support the traditional data evaluation procedures used in classical differ-ential thermogravimetry. For example, peak positions and amplitudes did not provide useful information. In contrast, using thermal mass losses (TML) in prefixed smaller, e.g. 10 °C temperature intervals allowed the determination of the content of carbon, clay, nitrogen and carbonates with high accuracy. However, this approach was applicable for soils and neither for soil-like carbon containing mineral substrates without pedogenetic origin, nor for plant residues or soils containing ashes, cinder, or charcoal. Therefore, intrinsic soil regulation processes are discussed as a possible factor causing

  16. Soil fungi as indicators of pesticide soil pollution

    Mandić Leka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fungi, with their pronounced enzymic activity and high osmotic potential, represent a significant indicator of negative effects of different pesticides on the agroecosystem as a whole. In that respect, a trial was set up on the alluvium soil type with the aim to investigate the effect of different herbicides (Simazine, Napropamid, Paraquat, fungicides (Captan and Mancozeb and insecticides (Fenitrothion and Dimethoate on a number of soil fungi under apple trees. The number of soil fungi was determined during four growing seasons by an indirect method of dilution addition on the Czapek agar. The study results indicate that the fungi belong to the group of microorganisms that, after an initial sensible response to the presence of pesticides in the soil, very rapidly establish normal metabolism enabling them even to increase their number. The fungicides and insecticides applied were found to be particularly effective in that respect.

  17. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over temperate croplands using visible near-infrared airborne hyperspectral imagery and synchronous field spectra

    Vaudour, E.; Gilliot, J. M.; Bel, L.; Lefevre, J.; Chehdi, K.

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at identifying the potential of Vis-NIR airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soil types comprised haplic luvisols, calcaric cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites sampled either in 2013 or in the 3 previous years and in 2015 were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering 74 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g Kg-1 and were ∼4 g Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the calibration models derived either from Kennard-Stone or conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling on smoothed spectra. The most generalizable model leading to lowest RMSE value of 3.73 g Kg-1 at the regional scale and 1.44 g Kg-1 at the within-field scale and low bias was the cross-validated leave

  18. Soil morphology: A key to discovering and understanding the structure and dynamics of soil covers

    Full text: Professor M. Ruellan, Professor Emeritus in Pedology at AgroCampus Rennes, France, visited the SWMCN Subprogramme at IAEA Headquarters on 18 April and presented a seminar on soil morphology, a branch of soil science, studying the forms and arrangement of soil features including soil structures in each soil layer (soil horizon). His presentation reviewed the relationships between soil morphology and physical, chemical and biological processes such as soil biological activities, watershed hydrology and geochemistry, rock weathering, soil formation and erosion, human activities and climatic conditions. The sustainable use of soil resources requires the understanding of soil functions, not only in terms of their physical, chemical and biological properties but also the soil history (i.e. the evolution and functioning of soils), its interaction with nature and its position in the landscape. This understanding is necessary because the spatial diversity of soil structures within a landscape is governed by years of soil evolution and development. (author)

  19. Soil Degradation and Soil Value in Slovakia – Two Problems with Common Denominator

    Radoslav Bujnovskþ

    2011-03-01

    Soil provides many services that in soil science are defined as soil functions. Besides biomass production the soil provides ecological and socio-economic functions. Use of soil and its functions is closely linked to soil ecological, societal and economic values. Preference to economic interests together with reluctance to search compromise solutions is oft en manifesting in soil degradation. Economic valuation of soil and its ecological functions is considered a possible way for improvement of soil protection especially in modification of soil price at its permanent consumption. In spite of that financial values can not be used as a base for forming of ethical values, which are imminently connected with human approach towards soil and its degradation, and which are essentially needed by global society. Ethical human values, based on basic beliefs and convictions, influence of human attitude to the soil, and they influence on soil use can be considered as common denominator of soil degradation and soil value, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of soil structure in the framework of an overall soil quality rating

    Mueller, L; Shepherd, T G; Schindler, U;

    2013-01-01

    Soil structure is an important aspect of agricultural soil quality, and its preservation and improvement are key to sustaining soil functions. Methods of overall soil quality assessment which include visual soil structure information can be useful tools for monitoring and managing the global soil...... resource. The aim of the paper is: (i) to demonstrate the role of visual quantification of soil structure within the procedure of the overall soil quality assessment by the Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (M-SQR), (ii) to quantify the magnitude and variability of soil structure and overall M-SQR on a...... number of agricultural research sites and (iii) to analyse the correlations of soil quality rating results with crop yields. We analysed visual soil structure and overall soil quality on a range of 20 experimental sites in seven countries. To assess visual soil structure we utilised the Visual Soil...

  1. Relating soil biochemistry to sustainable crop production

    Amino acids, amino sugars, carbohydrates, phenols, and fatty acids together comprise appreciable proportions of soil organic matter (SOM). Their cycling contribute to soil processes, including nitrogen availability, carbon sequestration and aggregation. For example, soil accumulation of phenols has ...

  2. Biogeochemistry: Soil carbon in a beer can

    Davidson, Eric A.

    2015-10-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter could be an important positive feedback to climate change. Geochemical properties of soils can help determine what fraction of soil carbon may be protected from climate-induced decomposition.

  3. Probing soil respiration process of grasslands

    2006-01-01

    @@ Soil respiration, which is primarily the only output approach for CO2 exchanges in soils between the global terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere,exerts a direct influence on the speed of carbon turnover rate of the soil.

  4. KBRA OPWP Soil Depth to Water

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Radiological Characterisation Methodology

    This report presents the general methodology and best practice approaches which combine proven existing techniques for sampling and characterisation to assess the contamination of soils prior to remediation. It is based on feedback of projects conducted by main French nuclear stakeholders involved in the field of remediation and dismantling (EDF, CEA, AREVA and IRSN). The application of this methodology will enable the project managers to obtain the elements necessary for the drawing up of files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is applicable to each of the steps necessary for the piloting of remediation work-sites, depending on the objectives targeted (release into the public domain, re-use, etc.). The main part describes the applied statistical methodology with the exploratory analysis and variogram data, identification of singular points and their location. The results obtained permit assessment of a mapping to identify the contaminated surface and subsurface areas. It stakes the way for radiological site characterisation since the initial investigations from historical and functional analysis to check that the remediation objectives have been met. It follows an example application from the feedback of the remediation of a contaminated site on the Fontenay aux Roses facility. It is supplemented by a glossary of main terms used in the field from different publications or international standards. This technical report is a support of the ISO Standard ISO ISO/TC 85/SC 5 N 18557 'Sampling and characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes'. (authors)

  6. Physical soil degradation in the Netherlands

    Boels, D.; Havinga, L.

    1980-01-01

    Soils used in agriculture are subjected to a wide variety of human activities. Soil tillage and soil impravement operations may loose the soil, while soil wetting due to rainfall, and farming operations as sowing, spraying, weed control and harvesting but also grazing cattle may compact the soil. Compaction may also he caused by land levelling, grading and heavy loading from earthmoving machinery in land consolidation schemes.

  7. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated. Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soi...

  8. Soil Respiration: Concept and Measurement Methods

    SANDOR M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is the main element in the carbon cycle that makes possible for plants carbon plants to return inthe atmosphere. The objective of this work was to present and discuss some aspects of the soil CO2 efflux. We definedherein, some terms associated to the soil respiration concept, we tackled some aspects regarding the influence oftemperature, humidity and soil pH on soil respiration and we presented the principle of soil respiration measurement byusing dynamic closed chamber system.

  9. Mitigation of phosphorus leaching from agricultural soils

    Svanbäck, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in crop production, but P losses from agricultural soils are a major contributor to surface water eutrophication. This thesis examined the effects of chemical soil properties and soil structure, as governed by agricultural management practices, on P leaching from agricultural soils and how this leaching can be reduced. An initial investigation on the effect of plant-available P concentration in the soil (P-AL) on topsoil P leaching from five soils clearl...

  10. Soil Architecture and physicochemical functions

    de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Møldrup, Per; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad;

    2012-01-01

    generation of environmentalists, soil scientists, and environmental engineers with the best education possible. The 16 papers in this special section on soil architecture and physicochemical functions in the Vadose Zone Journal contribute to these goals by improving and linking measurement, visualization...

  11. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  12. FAO's programme on soil erosion

    The present situation of land degradation in global basis and its negative impacts on soil fertility are presented. The activities undertaken by FAO on erosion control are described. Some recent trends in soil and water conservation are also included. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Soil remediation process and system

    This patent describes a process for remediation of soil containing up to about 30,000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants. It comprises: providing hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in a divided condition of minus 1 1/2 double-prime to a first confined zone where it is exposed to an open flame; heating while agitating the contaminated soil in an oxidizing atmosphere in the first zone to a temperature below soil ignition within a range of from about 375 degrees F. to about 750 degrees F. for a time sufficient to drive off as vapors a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon vapors from the first zone to a second zone; recovering heat from the hot gases in the second zone to condense a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon vapors as liquid hydrocarbons; recovering the liquid hydrocarbons; and removing the soil from the first zone as remediated soil having below about 1000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants

  14. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils...

  15. The Science of Soil Textures

    Bigham, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Off-road motorcycle racing and ATV riding. Gardening and fishing. What do these high-adrenaline and slower-paced pastimes have in common? Each requires soil, and the texture of that soil has an effect on all of them. In the inquiry-based lessons described here, students work both in the field or laboratory and in the classroom to collect soil…

  16. Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils

    Townsend, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

  17. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  18. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOIL SOLUTION IN STEPPE ZONE SOIL

    A. A. Batukaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs CaCO30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. Calculation method is proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of chestnut solonetz soil complex. Were proposed equations to calculate free and associated forms of ions. To solve the equations were used an iteration, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation on the law of operating masses. Was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association as ratio of ions free form to analytical content ?e = Cass/Can. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layer. Increasing soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. In form of ionic pairs in soil solution are: 11.8-53.8% of Ca2+; 9.4-57.3% of Mg2+; 0.7-11.9% of Na+; 2.2-22.3% of HCO3-, 11.8-62.7% of SO42-. The ion CO32- is high associated, the share of ions in associated form is up to 92.7%. The degree of soil solution saturation was obtained for three level of approximation accounting on analytical concentration, calculated association coefficient, calculated coefficient of association. Relating to thermodynamic solubility product S0, the mathematical product of analytical ionic pairs

  19. The impact of soil degradation on soil functioning in Europe

    Montanarella, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The European Commission has presented in September 2006 its Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.The Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection consists of a Communication from the Commission to the other European Institutions, a proposal for a framework Directive (a European law), and an Impact Assessment. The Communication (COM(2006) 231) sets the frame. It defines the relevant soil functions for Europe and identifies the major threats. It explains why further action is needed to ensure a high level of soil protection, sets the overall objective of the Strategy and explains what kind of measures must be taken. It establishes a ten-year work program for the European Commission. The proposal for a framework Directive (COM(2006) 232) sets out common principles for protecting soils across the EU. Within this common framework, the EU Member States will be in a position to decide how best to protect soil and how use it in a sustainable way on their own territory. The Impact Assessment (SEC (2006) 1165 and SEC(2006) 620) contains an analysis of the economic, social and environmental impacts of the different options that were considered in the preparatory phase of the strategy and of the measures finally retained by the Commission. Since 2006 a large amount of new evidence has allowed to further document the extensive negative impacts of soil degradation on soil functioning in Europe. Extensive soil erosion, combined with a constant loss of soil organic carbon, have raised attention to the important role soils are playing within the climate change related processes. Other important processes are related to the loss of soil biodiversity, extensive soil sealing by housing and infrastructure, local and diffuse contamination by agricultural and industrial sources, compaction due to unsustainable agricultural practices and salinization by unsustainable irrigation practices. The extended impact assessment by the European Commission has attempted to quantify in monetary terms the

  20. Mapping specific soil functions based on digital soil property maps

    Pásztor, László; Fodor, Nándor; Farkas-Iványi, Kinga; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Koós, Sándor

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil functions and services is a great challenge in itself even if the spatial relevance is supposed to be identified and regionalized. Proxies and indicators are widely used in ecosystem service mapping. Soil services could also be approximated by elementary soil features. One solution is the association of soil types with services as basic principle. Soil property maps however provide quantified spatial information, which could be utilized more versatilely for the spatial inference of soil functions and services. In the frame of the activities referred as "Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary" (DOSoReMI.hu) numerous soil property maps have been compiled so far with proper DSM techniques partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of its predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.). The elaborated maps have been further utilized, since even DOSoReMI.hu was intended to take steps toward the regionalization of higher level soil information (secondary properties, functions, services). In the meantime the recently started AGRAGIS project requested spatial soil related information in order to estimate agri-environmental related impacts of climate change and support the associated vulnerability assessment. One of the most vulnerable services of soils in the context of climate change is their provisioning service. In our work it was approximated by productivity, which was estimated by a sequential scenario based crop modelling. It took into consideration long term (50 years) time series of both measured and predicted climatic parameters as well as accounted for the potential differences in agricultural practice and crop production. The flexible parametrization and multiple results of modelling was then applied for the spatial assessment of sensitivity, vulnerability, exposure and adaptive capacity of soils in the context of the forecasted changes in

  1. Determining soil moisture and soil properties in vegetated areas by assimilating soil temperatures

    Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Ochsner, Tyson E.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses two critical barriers to the use of Passive Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) for large-scale, high-resolution monitoring of soil moisture. In recent research, a particle batch smoother (PBS) was developed to assimilate sequences of temperature data at two depths into Hydrus-1D to estimate soil moisture as well as soil thermal and hydraulic properties. However, this approach was limited to bare soil and assumed that the cable depths were perfectly known. In order for Passive DTS to be more broadly applicable as a soil hydrology research and remote sensing soil moisture product validation tool, it must be applicable in vegetated areas. To address this first limitation, the forward model (Hydrus-1D) was improved through the inclusion of a canopy energy balance scheme. Synthetic tests were used to demonstrate that without the canopy energy balance scheme, the PBS estimated soil moisture could be even worse than the open loop case (no assimilation). When the improved Hydrus-1D model was used as the forward model in the PBS, vegetation impacts on the soil heat and water transfer were well accounted for. This led to accurate and robust estimates of soil moisture and soil properties. The second limitation is that, cable depths can be highly uncertain in DTS installations. As Passive DTS uses the downward propagation of heat to extract moisture-related variations in thermal properties, accurate estimates of cable depths are essential. Here synthetic tests were used to demonstrate that observation depths can be jointly estimated with other model states and parameters. The state and parameter results were only slightly poorer than those obtained when the cable depths were perfectly known. Finally, in situ temperature data from four soil profiles with different, but known, soil textures were used to test the proposed approach. Results show good agreement between the observed and estimated soil moisture, hydraulic properties, thermal properties, and

  2. Phytoremediation for Oily Desert Soils

    Radwan, Samir

    This chapter deals with strategies for cleaning oily desert soils through rhizosphere technology. Bioremediation involves two major approaches; seeding with suitable microorganisms and fertilization with microbial growth enhancing materials. Raising suitable crops in oil-polluted desert soils fulfills both objectives. The rhizosphere of many legume and non-legume plants is richer in oil-utilizing micro-organisms than non-vegetated soils. Furthermore, these rhizospheres also harbour symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and are rich in simple organic compounds exuded by plant roots. Those exudates are excellent nutrients for oil-utilizing microorganisms. Since many rhizospheric bacteria have the combined activities of hydrocarbon-utilization and nitrogen fixation, phytoremediation provides a feasible and environmentally friendly biotechnology for cleaning oil-polluted soils, especially nitrogen-poor desert soils.

  3. Shrinkage limit of soil mixtures

    Shrinkage limit, one of the Atterberg limits, is widely linked with many plasticity-based soil behaviors. However, in a great majority of these cases, such correlations have been found to exhibit poor performance. Recently, it has been brought out that the shrinkage limit of a natural soil does not depend upon plasticity characteristics, and it is primarily governed by the relative grain size distribution of the soil. The present study confirms this mechanism with the results obtained using clay-clay, clay-non-cohesive soil, and non-cohesive soil mix systems. The present study gains importance from the point of view of criteria with respect to the design of back fill materials to be used in various applications, such as nuclear waste disposal projects

  4. Afforestation effects on soil carbon

    Bárcena, Teresa G

    Understanding carbon (C) dynamics has become increasingly important due to the major role of C in global warming. Soils store the largest amount of organic C in the biosphere; therefore, changes in this compartment can have a large impact on the C storage of an ecosystem. Land-use change is a main...... driver of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools worldwide. In Europe, afforestation (i.e. the establishment of new forest on non-forested land), is a major land-use change driven by economic and environmental interests due to its role as a C sequestration tool following the ratification of the Kyoto...... sequestration in soils from this region requires at least three decades or even longer time, when afforestation is performed on former agricultural soils. The faster C accretion in forest floors compensates the initial lag-phase found in mineral soils. The chronosequences also indicated that afforestation...

  5. Radionuclide diffusion in soils. I

    The factors are discussed affecting the rate of migration of radionuclides in the soil (properties of the radionuclide - the sign and magnitude of ion charge, soil properties - moisture, density, presence of salts and organic substances, composition of sorption complex and soil solution, climatic conditions -temperature). Fick's 2nd law cannot be used for the mathematical description of vertical migration of radionuclides in the soil and equations are therefore suggested for describing the movement of substances through an absorbing porous medium and for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient. In order to specify the mathematical description of migration it is necessary to obtain a great numbert of experimental data and to use multiparameter regression analysis for identifying the effect of the different properties of the soil on the diffusion of radionuclides. (J.C.)

  6. ASPECTS REGARDING THE METHODS OF SOIL AERATION

    A. UNGURAŞU; A. UNGUREANU

    2011-01-01

    Aspects regarding the methods of soil aeration. Soil aeration is a process to be carried out continuously the gas exchange between soil and atmosphere. The process is done mainly by the movement of water inside and outside him. There are three major gases in the soil (nitrogen,oxygen and carbon dioxide). Soil air composition differs from that of air by higher CO2 content (0,3 to 0,5%). The air in the soil is very important for the dynamics of soil. Soil aeration is accomplished through mass f...

  7. MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING IN SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    S. K. Saha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information of spatial and temporal variations of soil quality (soil properties is required for various purposes of sustainable agriculture development and management. Traditionally, soil quality characterization is done by in situ point soil sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Such methodology has limitation for assessing the spatial variability of soil quality. Various researchers in recent past showed the potential utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technique for spatial estimation of soil properties. However, limited research studies have been carried out showing the potential of microwave remote sensing data for spatial estimation of various soil properties except soil moisture. This paper reviews the status of microwave remote sensing techniques (active and passive for spatial assessment of soil quality parameters such as soil salinity, soil erosion, soil physical properties (soil texture & hydraulic properties; drainage condition; and soil surface roughness. Past and recent research studies showed that both active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have great potentials for assessment of these soil qualities (soil properties. However, more research studies on use of multi-frequency and full polarimetric microwave remote sensing data and modelling of interaction of multi-frequency and full polarimetric microwave remote sensing data with soil are very much needed for operational use of satellite microwave remote sensing data in soil quality assessment.

  8. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium

  9. ESTIMATING SOIL PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION FOR SICILIAN SOILS

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil particle-size distribution (PSD is commonly used for soil classification and for estimating soil behavior. An accurate mathematical representation of the PSD is required to estimate soil hydraulic properties and to compare texture measurements from different classification systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Haverkamp and Parlange (HP and Fredlund et al. (F PSD models to fit 243 measured PSDs from a wide range of 38 005_Bagarello(547_33 18-11-2009 11:55 Pagina 38 soil textures in Sicily and to test the effect of the number of measured particle diameters on the fitting of the theoretical PSD. For each soil textural class, the best fitting performance, established using three statistical indices (MXE, ME, RMSE, was obtained for the F model with three fitting parameters. In particular, this model performed better in the fine-textured soils than the coarse-textured ones but a good performance (i.e., RMSE < 0.03 was detected for the majority of the investigated soil textural classes, i.e. clay, silty-clay, silty-clay-loam, silt-loam, clay-loam, loamy-sand, and loam classes. Decreasing the number of measured data pairs from 14 to eight determined a worse fitting of the theoretical distribution to the measured one. It was concluded that the F model with three fitting parameters has a wide applicability for Sicilian soils and that the comparison of different PSD investigations can be affected by the number of measured data pairs.

  10. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    Ahmed, Ashour; Kühn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil < original soil < soil+3 HWE < soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...

  11. Root Patterns in Heterogeneous Soils

    Dara, A.; Moradi, A. B.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous water availability is a typical characteristic of soils in which plant roots grow. Despite the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil-plant water relations, we know little about the ways how plants respond to local environmental quality. Furthermore, increasing use of soil amendments as partial water reservoirs in agriculture calls for a better understanding of plant response to soil heterogeneity. Neutron radiography is a non-invasive imaging that is highly sensitive to water and root distribution and that has high capability for monitoring spatial and temporal soil-plant water relations in heterogeneous systems. Maize plants were grown in 25 x 30 x 1 cm aluminum slabs filled with sandy soil. On the right side of the compartments a commercial water absorbent (Geohumus) was mixed with the soil. Geohumus was distributed with two patterns: mixed homogeneously with the soil, and arranged as 1-cm diameter aggregates (Fig. 1). Two irrigation treatments were applied: sufficient water irrigation and moderate water stress. Neutron radiography started 10 days after planting and has been performed twice a day for one week. At the end of the experiment, the containers were opened, the root were removed and dry root weight in different soil segments were measured. Neutron radiography showed root growth tendency towards Geohumus treated parts and preferential water uptake from Geohumus aggregates. Number and length of fine lateral roots were lower in treated areas compared to the non-treated zone and to control soil. Although corn plants showed an overall high proliferation towards the soil water sources, they decreased production of branches and fine root when water was more available near the main root parts. However there was 50% higher C allocation in roots grown in Geohumus compartments, as derived by the relative dry weight of root. The preferential C allocation in treated regions was higher when plants grew under water stress. We conclude that in addition to the

  12. Soil decontamination with Extraksol

    The Extraksol process is a mobile decontamination technology which treats unconsolidated materials by solvent extraction. Treatment with Extraksol involves material washing, drying and solvent regeneration. Contaminant removal is achieved through desorption/dissolution mechanisms. The treated material is dry and acceptable to be reinstalled in its original location. The process provides a fast, efficient and versatile alternative for decontamination of soil and sludge. The organic contaminants extracted from the matrix are transferred to the extraction fluids. These are thereafter concentrated in the residues of distillation after solvent regeneration. Removal and concentration of the contaminants ensures an important waste volume reduction. This paper presents the process is operational principles and the steps involved in Extraksol's development with results of the pilot tests and full-scale demonstrations

  13. Rock and soil rheology

    The aim of the Euromech Colloquium 196 devoted to Rock and Soil Rheology is to review some of the main results obtained in the last years in this field of research and also to formulate some of the major not yet solved problems which are now under consideration. Exchange of opinions and scientific discussions are quite helpful mainly in those areas where some approaches are controversial and the progress made is quite fast. That is especially true for the rheology of geomaterials, domain of great interest for mining and petroleum engineers, engineering geology, seismology, geophysics, civil engineering, nuclear and industrial waste storage, geothermal energy storage, caverns for sports, culture, telecommunications, storage of goods and foodstuffs (cold, hot and refrigerated storages), underground oil and natural gas reservoirs etc. Some of the last obtained results are mentioned in the present volume. (orig./HP)

  14. Modelling soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable lands using legacy soil data

    Suuster, E; Ritz, Christian; Roostalu, H;

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration is an essential factor in biomass production and soil functioning. SOC concentration values are often obtained by prediction but the prediction accuracy depends much on the method used. Currently, there is a lack of evidence in the soil science literature as...... map for the case study area of Tartu County where the SOC predictions ranged from 0.6 to 4.8%. Our study indicates that predictions using legacy soil maps can be used in national inventories and for up-scaling estimates of carbon concentrations from county to country scales....... to the advantages and shortcomings of the different commonly used prediction methods. Therefore, we compared and evaluated the merits of the median approach, analysis of covariance, mixed models and random forests in the context of prediction of SOC concentrations of mineral soils under arable...

  15. Developments and departures in the philosophy of soil science

    Traditional soil science curriculums provide comprehensive instruction on soil properties, soil classification, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in soils. This reductionist perspective is sometimes balanced with a more holistic perspective that focuses on soils as natu...

  16. Long-term Impact of Rotary Method of Soil Mechanical Treatment on Soil Properties

    Valeriy P. Kalinichenko; Vladimir K. Sharshak; Vladimir E. Zinchenko; Ali A. Zarmaev; Evgeny P. Ladan; Vladimir V. Chernenko; L’udmila P. Il’ina

    2012-01-01

    The imitating approach to the technique and technology of soil cultivation excels the influence of natural factors of soil formation and leads to the anthropogenic biosphere degradation. The article fundamentally justifies the rotary soil cultivation in terms of genesis of soil. This method provides the formation of a new layer in the soil depth, which intensifies the geological and biological processes, influences the overlying soil layers, increases the biological productivity of the soil a...

  17. Direct soil moisture controls of future global soil carbon changes: An important source of uncertainty

    Fallon, Pete; Jones, Chris D.; Ades, Melanie; Paul, Keryn

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the climate–carbon cycle feedback depends critically on the response of soil carbon to climate, including changes in moisture. However, soil moisture–carbon feedback responses have not been investigated thoroughly. Uncertainty in the response of soil carbon to soil moisture changes could arise from uncertainty in the relationship between soil moisture and heterotrophic respiration. We used twelve soil moisture–respiration functions (SMRFs) with a soil carbon model (RothC) and da...

  18. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture Using Fractal

    Chen, Yen Chang; He, Chun Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    This study establishes the relationship between surface soil moisture and fractal dimension. The surface soil moisture is one of important factors in the hydrological cycle of surface evaporation. It could be used in many fields, such as reservoir management, early drought warning systems, irrigation scheduling and management, and crop yield estimations. Soil surface cracks due to dryness can be used to describe drought conditions. Soil cracking phenomenon and moisture have a certain relationship, thus this study makes used the fractal theory to interpret the soil moisture represented by soil cracks. The fractal dimension of surface soil cracking is a measure of the surface soil moisture. Therefore fractal dimensions can also be used to indicate how dry of the surface soil is. This study used the sediment in the Shimen Reservoir to establish the fractal dimension and soil moisture relation. The soil cracking is created under the control of temperature and thickness of surface soil layers. The results show the increase in fractal dimensions is accompanied by a decreases in surface soil moisture. However the fractal dimensions will approach a constant even the soil moisture continually decreases. The sigmoid function is used to fit the relation of fractal dimensions and surface soil moistures. The proposed method can be successfully applied to estimate surface soil moisture. Only a photo taken from the field is needed and is sufficient to provide the fractal dimension. Consequently, the surface soil moisture can be estimated quickly and accurately.

  19. Tracing soil erosion impacts on soil organisms using 137Cs and soil nematodes

    Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John S.; McKenzie, Blair M.; Neilson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    The application of environmental radionuclides in soil tracing and erosion studies is now well established in geomorphology. Sediment and erosion-tracing studies are undertaken for a range of purposes in the earth sciences but until now few studies have used the technique to answer biological questions. An experiment was undertaken to measure patterns of soil loss and gain over 50 years, effectively calculating a field-scale sediment budget, to investigate soil erosion relationships between physical and biological soil components. Soil nematodes were identified as a model organism, a ubiquitous and abundant group sensitive to disturbance and thus useful indicator taxa of biological and physico-chemical changes. A field site was selected at the James Hutton Institute's experimental Balruddery Farm in NE Scotland. 10 metre-resolution topographical data was collected with differential GPS. Based on these data, a regular 30 m-resolution sampling grid was constructed in ArcGIS, and a field-sampling campaign undertaken. 104 soil cores (~50 cm-deep) were collected with a percussion corer. Radio-caesium (137Cs) activity concentrations were measured using high-purity germainum gamma-ray spectroscopy, and 137Cs areal activities derived from these values. Organic matter content by loss on ignition and grain-size distribution by laser granulometry were also measured. Additional samples were collected to characterise the soil nematode community, both for abundance and functional (trophic) composition using a combination of low-powered microscopy and molecular identification techniques (dTRFLP). Results were analysed with ArcGIS software using the Spatial Analyst package. Results show that spatial relationships between physical, chemical and biological parameters were complex and interrelated. Previous field management was found to influence these relationships. The results of this experiment highlight the role that soil erosion processes play in medium-term restructuring of the

  20. Soil carbon dynamics inferred from carbon isotope compositions of soil organic matter and soil respiration

    To better understand 14C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, 14C abundances were evaluated for fractionated soil organic matter (SOM) and soil respiration in an urban forest. In 2001 soil profile, Δ 14C values of litter and bulk SOM increased rapidly from litter surface (62.7 per mille) to uppermost mineral soil layer (244.9 per mille), and then decreased sharply to 6 cm depth of mineral soil (125.0 per mille). Carbon enriched in 14C by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing had penetrated to at least 16 cm depth of mineral soil. The average Δ 14C in atmospheric CO2 was 58.8 per mille in August 2001, suggesting recent carbon input to the topmost litter layer. Although a similar depth distribution was observed for Δ 14C values of residual SOM after acid hydrolysis, the Δ 14C values were slightly lower than those in bulk SOM. This indicates input of 'bomb' C into this organic fraction and higher 14C abundance in acid-soluble SOM. The most of CO2 may be derived from the microbial decomposition of the acid-soluble, or labile, SOM. Therefore, the labile SOM may become most influential pool for soil carbon cycling. In contrast, carbon in base-insoluble SOM remained considerably low in 14C abundance at all depths, suggesting no or little incorporation of 'bomb' C to this fraction. Values of Δ 14C in soil respiration ranged from 91.9 to 146.4 per mille in August 2001, showing a significant contribution from decomposition of SOM fixed over past 2-40 years. These results indicate that the use of bulk SOM as a representative of soil carbon pool would lead to severe misunderstand of the soil C dynamics on decadal and shorter time scales. (author)

  1. Soil warming affects soil organic matter chemistry of all density fractions of a mountain forest soil

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wanek, Wolfgang; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and increase thereby the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated microbial activity might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. We here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three different density fractions of forest soils from a long term warming experiment in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling the soils in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for 8 consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results which included organic C content, total N content, δ13C, δ 14C, δ 15N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. The differences in the three individual fractions (free particulate organic matter, occluded particulate organic matter and mineral associated organic matter) were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and sampling depth. We did however find statistically significant effects of warming in all density fractions from 0-10 cm depth, 10-20 cm depth or both. Our results also including significant changes in the supposedly more stable mineral associated organic matter fraction where δ 13C values decreased at both sampling depths and the relative proportion of N-bearing compounds decreased at a sampling depth of 10-20 cm. All the observed changes can be attributed to an interplay of enhanced microbial decomposition of SOM and increased root litter input. This study suggests that soil warming destabilizes all density fractions of

  2. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  3. The soil reference shrinkage curve

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural...

  4. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  5. Bioventing reduces soil cleanup costs

    An offshoot technology from soil venting, bioventing offers a win-win solution for soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile contaminants such as diesel and fuel oil. Using low air flowrates through permeable soils, bioventing injects sufficient oxygen to support naturally-occurring bacteria, which biodegraded the VOCs and other contaminants into benign byproducts. Waste gas can be directly discharged to atmosphere without further treatment. This results in no offgas treatment required. Bioventing is a cost-effective alternative to traditional soil-venting techniques. Soil venting uses air to volatilize organic-compound contamination from the vadose zone, the unsaturated soil layer above groundwater. Unfortunately, this simple-and-fast approach creates a waste offgas that requires further treatment before discharge, thus adding significantly to overall project costs. In contrast, bioventing uses low air flowrates, which require lower capital and operating costs. No offgas treatment further reduces equipment and operating costs and often eliminates air permitting. As in all treatment strategies, the process must meet the cleanup objectives. Bioventing is an alternative technique making inroads into refining and petrochemical soil-remediation applications

  6. A Review of Fishpond Soil Management Principles in Nigeria

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of sites for culture fisheries depends on the soil. There is therefore the need to have proper background on the nature and properties of soils. The pond oils, soil functions in fish pond, soil characterization, components and soil mineral constituents, oil profile soil classification, soil fertility, nutrients, primary and secondary nutrients, soil organic matter, common soil problems, field and laboratory methods in acid sulphate soil identification, management of acid sulph...

  7. Soil Data Analysis Using Classification Techniques and Soil Attribute Prediction

    Jay Gholap

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural research has been profited by technical advances such as automation, data mining. Today ,data mining is used in a vast areas and many off-the-shelf data mining system products and domain specific data mining application soft wares are available, but data mining in agricultural soil datasets is a relatively a young research field. The large amounts of data that are nowadays virtually harvested along with the crops have to be analyzed and should be used to their full extent. This research aims at analysis of soil dataset using data mining techniques. It focuses on classification of soil using various algorithms available. Another important purpose is to predict untested attributes using regression technique, and implementation of automated soil sample classification.

  8. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP

  9. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    Cunnane, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gill, V.R. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Morris, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nickelson, M.D. [HAZWRAP, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perry, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  10. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and

  11. Optimising plant and soil management

    Heppell, James

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an accumulation of work regarding the role of phosphorus (P) and water in soils in relation to crop growth and food production. We use a multiscale modelling approach to initially capture the interactions of soil and water on a single cylindrical root and further expand to a growing root structure. Moreover, we have a multi-physics problem involving fluid dynamics of water uptake in plants, and reactive solute transport in the soil for plant P uptake. We use detailed climate da...

  12. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  13. Optimization of electrochemical soil decontamination

    Nemec, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; John, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Centre for Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    At the Czech Technical University in Prague, soil decontamination techniques have been studied for several years. The leaching procedures (batch or 'sorption' leaching) did not allow to achieve more than 30% caesium desorption. Caesium thermodesorption was demonstrated not to be very efficient either; quantitative caesium separation could be achieved only from solutions resulting from fusion of the soil with special fluxes. The most promising results were achieved by electrolytic decontamination. In preliminary experiments, more than 97% of caesium was released from soils contaminated long time ago. The aim of this study was to perform optimisation of the parameters of this method. (orig.)

  14. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOIL SOLUTION IN STEPPE ZONE SOIL

    A. A. Batukaev; A. P. Endovitsky; T. M. Minkina; V. P. Kalinichenko; Z. S. Dikaev; S. N. Sushkova

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs CaCO30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3...

  15. Soil survey - a basis for european soil protection

    The information available on soils varies greatly from country to country. In view of the fact that, together with water, soils represent the most important natural resource in the EC, it is recommended that steps should be taken to ensure a reasonable level of information for all countries and that emphasis be placed on assembling an adequate database. Such information is fundamental to future land use and environmental protection

  16. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  17. Progress towards GlobalSoilMap.net soil database of Denmark

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog;

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is an agriculture-based country where intensive mechanized cultivation has been practiced continuously for years leading to serious threats to the soils. Proper use and management of Danish soil resources, modeling and soil research activities need very detailed soil information. This stu...... content mapping, the plans for future soil mapping activities in support to GlobalSoilMap.net project initiatives are also included in this paper. Our study thought to enrich and update Danish soil database and Soil information system with new fine resolution soil property maps....

  18. Characterizing Soil Cracking at the Field Scale

    Physical characterization of the soil cracking has always been a major challenge in scaling soil water interaction to the field level. This scaling would allow for the soil water flow in the field to be modeled in two distinct pools: across the soil matrix and in preferential flows thus tackling maj...

  19. Soil Respiration in Response to Landscape Position

    Variations in soil type, due to landscape position, may influence soil respiration. This study was conducted to determine how landscape position (summit, side-slope, and depression) influences heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration. Soil respiration was determined at three landscape positio...

  20. Soil Carbon Fractionation under Perennial Forage

    Crop management practices can improve soil quality. Forage type and N-sources might also affect soil organic matter, especially soil carbon fractionation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of legume inter-planting and compost application on soil C pools under a perennial grass mi...