Sample records for impervious soils

  1. Depleted soil carbon and nitrogen pools beneath impervious surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban soils and vegetation contain large pools of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and may sequester these elements at considerable rates; however, there have been no systematic studies of the composition of soils beneath the impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas. This has made it impossible to reliably estimate the net impact of urbanization on terrestrial C and N pools. In this study, we compared open area and impervious-covered soils in New York City and found that the C and N content of the soil (0–15 cm) under impervious surfaces was 66% and 95% lower, respectively. Analysis of extracellular enzyme activities in the soils suggests that recalcitrant compounds dominate the organic matter pool under impervious surfaces. If the differences between impervious-covered and open area soils represent a loss of C and N from urban ecosystems, the magnitude of these losses could offset sequestration in other parts of the urban landscape. - The soils beneath impervious surfaces are depleted in C and N, which may have implications for the energy and nutrient balance of urban ecosystems.

  2. Soil roughness, slope and surface storage relationship for impervious areas (United States)

    Borselli, Lorenzo; Torri, Dino


    SummaryThe study of the relationships between surface roughness, local slope gradient and maximum volume of water storage in surface depressions is a fundamental element in the development of hydrological models to be used in soil and water conservation strategies. Good estimates of the maximum volume of water storage are important for runoff assessment during rainfall events. Some attempts to link surface storage to parameters such as indices of surface roughness and, more rarely, local gradient have been proposed by several authors with empirical equations often conflicting between them and usually based on a narrow range of slope gradients. This suggests care in selecting any of the proposed equations or models and invites one to verify the existence of more realistic experimental relationships, based on physical models of the surfaces and valid for a larger range of gradients. The aim of this study is to develop such a relation for predicting/estimating the maximum volume of water that a soil surface, with given roughness characteristics and local slope gradient, can store. Experimental work has been carried out in order to reproduce reliable rough surfaces able to maintain the following properties during the experimental activity: (a) impervious surface to avoid biased storage determination; (b) stable, un-erodible surfaces to avoid changes of retention volume during tests; (c) absence of hydrophobic behaviour. To meet the conditions a-c we generate physical surfaces with various roughness magnitude using plasticine (emulsion of non-expansible clay and oil). The plasticine surface, reproducing surfaces of arable soils, was then wetted and dirtied with a very fine timber sawdust. This reduced the natural hydrophobic behaviour of the plasticine to an undetectable value. Storage experiments were conducted with plasticine rough surfaces on top of large rigid polystyrene plates inclined at different slope gradient: 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. Roughness data collected on the generated plasticine surfaces were successfully compared with roughness data collected on real soil surfaces for similar conditions. A set of roughness indices was computed for each surface using roughness profiles measured with a laser profile meter. Roughness indices included quantiles of the Abbot-Firestone curve, which is used in surface metrology for industrial application to characterize surface roughness in a non-parametric approach ( Whitehouse, 1994). Storage data were fitted with an empirical equation (double negative exponential of roughness and slope). Several roughness indices resulted well related to storage. The better results were obtained using the Abbot-Firestone curve parameter P100. Beside this storage empirical model (SEM) a geometrical model was also developed, trying to give a more physical basis to the result obtained so far. Depression geometry was approximated with spherical cups. A general physical model was derived (storage cup model - SCM). The cup approximation identifies where roughness elevation comes in and how it relates to slope gradient in defining depression volume. Moreover, the exponential decay used for assessing slope effect on storage volume in the empirical model of Eqs. (8) and (9) emerges as consistent with distribution of cup sizes.

  3. Rural impervious surfaces extraction from Landsat 8 imagery and rural impervious surface index (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Yu, Zhoulu; Ao, Weijiu; Wang, Youfu; Tahmassebi, Amir Reza; You, Shucheng; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke


    There is an increasing need to understand pattern and growth of impervious surfaces in rural regions. However, studies using remote sensing of impervious surfaces have often focused on mapping impervious surfaces in urban regions with less emphasis placed on the rural impervious surfaces. In this paper, we proposed a new index, Rural Impervious Surface Index (RISI) by taking advantage of narrow spectral bands of Landsat 8 OLI for estimating impervious surfaces within rural land covers. This index is based on the combination of Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Soil Index (SI). Respectively, these represent the three major rural land covers components: impervious surfaces, vegetation, and soil. The index was further used for estimating fraction of impervious surfaces using fuzzy KNN classifier. The performance of this technique was also compared with Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). Our results showed that RISI could accurately detect spatial pattern of rural impervious surfaces due to the suppressing background noise and minimizing spectral confusion. Accuracy assessment revealed that incorporation of RISI with fuzzy KNN classification generates higher correlation coefficient, lower root mean square and systematic error compared to the LSMA technique.

  4. Percent of Impervious Cover

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  5. Continental-scale Sensitivity of Water Yield to Changes in Impervious Cover (United States)

    Caldwell, P.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Cohen, E.; Moore Myers, J.


    Projected land conversion from native forest, grassland, and shrubland to urban impervious cover will alter watershed water balances by reducing groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration, increasing surface runoff, and potentially altering regional weather patterns. These hydrologic changes have important ecohydrological implications to local watersheds, including stream channel habitat degradation and the loss of aquatic biodiversity. Many observational studies have evaluated the impact of urbanization on water yield in small catchments downstream of specific urban areas. However it is often difficult to separate the impact of impervious cover from other impacts of urbanization such as leaking water infrastructure, irrigation runoff, water supply withdrawals, and effluent discharge. In addition, the impact of impervious cover has not been evaluated at scales large enough to assess spatial differences in water yield sensitivity to changes in impervious cover. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of water yield to impervious cover across the conterminous U.S., and to identify locations where water yield will be most impacted by future urbanization. We used the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI) model to simulate monthly water yield as impacted by impervious cover for the approximately 82,000 12-digit HUC watersheds across the conterminous U.S. WaSSI computed infiltration, surface runoff, soil moisture, and baseflow processes explicitly for ten vegetative land cover classes and impervious cover in each watershed using the 2006 National Land Cover Dataset estimates of impervious cover. Our results indicate that impervious cover has increased total water yield in urban areas (relative to native vegetation), and that the increase was most significant during the growing season. The proportion of stream flow that occurred as baseflow decreased, even though total water yield increased as a result of impervious cover. Water yield was most sensitive to changes in impervious cover in areas where annual evapotranspiration is high relative to precipitation (e.g. the Southwestern States, Texas, and Florida). Water yield was less sensitive in areas with low evapotranspiration relative to precipitation (e.g. Pacific Northwest and Northeastern States). Additionally, water yield was most impacted when high evapotranspiration land cover types (e.g. forests) were converted to impervious cover than when lower evapotranspiration land cover types (e.g. grassland) were converted. Using projections of future impervious cover provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios project, water yield in urban areas of the Southwest, Texas, and Florida will be the most impacted by 2050, in part because these areas are projected to have significant increases in impervious cover, but also because they are in areas where evapotranspiration is high relative to precipitation. Our study suggests that watershed management should consider the climate-driven sensitivity of water yield to increases in impervious cover and the type of land cover being converted in addition to the magnitude of projected increases in impervious cover when evaluating impacts of urbanization on water resources.

  6. Semi Impervious Subsurface Barrier for Water Conservation in Lateritic Formations (United States)

    Udayakumar, G.; Mayya, S. G.


    The coastal districts of Karnataka in west coast of India experience acute shortage of drinking water during dry season in spite of heavy monsoon rains. Though sufficient recharge of ground water takes place, depletion of water table is very quick, once the rain recedes. It is mainly attributed to the presence of porous and highly permeable laterites and lateritic soils. The hydraulic conductivity of these soils varies in the range of 10-4 to 10-5 cm/s. The conventional water harvesting methods fail to solve the problem. It is necessary to explore innovative method to regulate the lateral subsurface flow and maintain a high water table over a prolonged period of time. The present work is an attempt to explore the possibility of using semi impervious Subsurface Barrier (SSB) to regulate and control the lateral flow of water in the unconfined aquifer in lateritic formations. Appropriate barrier material is arrived at using the locally available soil and the required properties are established. A SSB is built in a suitable location in an identified microwatershed using lateritic soil and the composite soil prepared by mixing requisite percentage of lateritic soil and clay. The hydraulic conductivity of these soils is maintained in the range of 10-6 to 10-7 cm/s so as to behave as semi impervious. The performance analysis is carried out by observing water levels in selected open observation wells before and after the construction of the barrier. The results have shown the successful performance of SSB in maintaining a high water table over a prolonged period of time during summer months, both in u/s and d/s of the barrier.

  7. Generating high quality impervious cover data. (United States)

    Bird, S L; Exum, L R; Alberty, S W


    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) from urban or suburban areas is rapidly increasing as the population increases in the United States. Research in recent years has consistently shown a strong relationship between the percentage of impervious cover in a drainage basin and the health of the receiving stream. In this paper, we quantify the amount of impervious cover within 56 14-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUCs) in Frederick County, Maryland, USA. This test data set will help in the development of region-wide impervious cover estimation methodologies. The software, sampling and analysis systems were developed to yield accurate and reproducible results. Digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles (DOQQ) from the U.S. Geological Survey were chosen as the basic media for the analysis. Ground features were identified and categorized by human analysts with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software and a prototype "cover tool" extension. PMID:11797825

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  9. Contribution of impervious surfaces to urban evaporation (United States)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.


    Observational data and the Princeton urban canopy model, with its detailed representation of urban heterogeneity and hydrological processes, are combined to study evaporation and turbulent water vapor transport over urban areas. The analyses focus on periods before and after precipitation events, at two sites in the Northeastern United States. Our results indicate that while evaporation from concrete pavements, building rooftops, and asphalt surfaces is discontinuous and intermittent, overall these surfaces accounted for nearly 18% of total latent heat fluxes (LE) during a relatively wet 10 day period. More importantly, these evaporative fluxes have a significant impact on the urban surface energy balance, particularly during the 48 h following a rain event when impervious evaporation is the highest. Thus, their accurate representation in urban models is critical. Impervious evaporation after rainfall is also shown to correlate the sources of heat and water at the earth surface, resulting in a conditional scalar transport similarity over urban terrain following rain events.

  10. Koeberg harbour features an impervious breakwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the Koeberg Power Station harbour (more strictly, the cooling water intake basin) is well advanced and the contractors expect to complete work before the end of 1979, six months ahead of schedule. The project manager, Mr W. Robinson of Underwater Construction and Salvage Co, describes the progress made on the contract in this article. An unusual feature of the harbour is that it will incorporate an impervious breakwater, reportedly South Africa's first

  11. Performance of heterogeneous earthfill dams under earthquakes: optimal location of the impervious core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. López-Querol


    Full Text Available Earthfill dams are man-made geostructures which may be especially damaged by seismic loadings, because the soil skeleton they are made of suffers remarkable modifications in its mechanical properties, as well as changes of pore water pressure and flow of this water inside their pores, when subjected to vibrations. The most extreme situation is the dam failure due to soil liquefaction. Coupled finite element numerical codes are a useful tool to assess the safety of these dams. In this paper the application of a fully coupled numerical model, previously developed and validated by the authors, to a set of theoretical cross sections of earthfill dams with impervious core, is presented. All these dams are same height and have the same volume of impervious material at the core. The influence of the core location inside the dam on its response against seismic loading is numerically explored. The dams are designed as strictly stable under static loads. As a result of this research, a design recommendation on the location of the impervious core is obtained for this type of earth dams, on the basis of the criteria of minor liquefaction risk, minor soil degradation during the earthquake and minor crest settlement.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Percent Impervious for the Conterminous United States

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset shows the percentage of Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit hydrologic unit (HUC) that is classified as impervious by the 2006 National Land...

  13. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  19. Determination effects of impervious areas on urban watershed. (United States)

    ?im?ek Uygun, Burcu; Albek, Mine


    After the industrial revolution, urban growth has been increasing, especially with technological advances. Urbanization is accelerating environmental pollution and also affects climate significantly because of land use or land cover changes. In this study, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) is used for modeling the impervious areas of Eski?ehir which is located in the Porsuk Stream Watershed in Inner Anatolia, Turkey. Effects of impervious areas of Eskisehir on the Porsuk Stream pollution between 1975 and 2010 have been investigated. Important water quality parameters like nitrate, orthophosphate, sediment, chloride, and total coliform are modeled. Impervious land segments have been found to be affecting all parameter concentrations and also surface flows significantly as determined using the t test with a confidence level of 95 %. PMID:25182427

  20. Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project Web Site (United States)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Phillips, Jacqueline


    The Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project (GLS-IMP) aims to produce the first global maps of impervious cover at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat. The project uses Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat data as its base but incorporates training data generated from very high resolution commercial satellite data and using a Hierarchical segmentation program called Hseg. The web site contains general project information, a high level description of the science, examples of input and output data, as well as links to other relevant projects.

  1. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010),...

  2. to characterize the impervious water storage with an urban surface-flux parameterization TERRA-MLU: evaluation and calibration for Toulouse city (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Demuzere, Matthias; De Ridder, Koen; van Lipzig, Nicole; Vogel, Gerd


    Evaporation from the urban impervious surface could have a considerable impact on the surface energy and moisture balance on rainy days. In particular, the ever increasing urbanization could alter the interaction between evaporation from the surface and precipitation within the urban climate (change) in the future. However, uncertainty exists within the determination of water storage parameters for the impervious surface, and hydrological parameters of the soil for the natural fraction in urban environments. In order to investigate the water balance over urban areas in more detail, TERRA-MLU, a new urban surface-flux parameterization, is applied over Toulouse city centre during the CAPITOUL campaign during 2004. The new urban parameterization covers a direct implementation of urban characteristics in TERRA_ML, Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model of COSMO. Besides anthropogenic heat, specific dynamic, radiative and thermal parameters including roughness length, heat capacity, conductivity, albedo and emissivity are assigned for the urban land-cover. A bluff-roughness thermal roughness length parametrization is used. New surface-layer transfer coefficients are adopted which can deal with very small thermal roughness lengths typical for urban surfaces. An new impervious water storage parameterization is introduced as well. TERRA-MLU is evaluated 'offline' for Marseille, Toulouse, Basel and Vancouver. Sensitivity analysis at the Toulouse site demonstrates that the maximum impervious water storage needs to be equal or less than 1kg/m2 if one only considers evaporation at a potential rate from the impervious surface. Furthermore, results are improved by implementing a storage form parameter that accounts for the reduction of evaporative surface fraction in case of small water content on the impervious surface. An offline sensitivity analysis is performed to estimate the maximum water storage and the storage form parameter. At last, it is found that the rooting depth of the vegetation needs to be described carefully in urban environments with large trees in order not to underestimate the latent heat during summer.

  3. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Nemani


    Full Text Available We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density ofconstructed impervious surface area (ISA. Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots,buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatialresolution is required to observe these features, the new product reports the estimateddensity of ISA on a one-km2 grid based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA – thebrightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The model wascalibrated using 30-meter resolution ISA of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey.Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights andreference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States landarea is impervious surface (83,337 km2 and 0.43 % of the world’s land surface (579,703km2 is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country(87,182 km2, but has only 67 m2 of ISA per person, compared to 297 m2 per person in theUSA. The distribution of ISA in the world’s primary drainage basins indicates that watersheds damaged by ISA are primarily concentrated in the USA, Europe, Japan, China and India. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  4. Mapping long-term temporal change in imperviousness using topographic maps


    Miller, James D.; Grebby, Stephen


    Change in urban land use and impervious surface cover are valuable sources of information for determining the environmental impacts of urban development. However, our understanding of these impacts is limited due to the general lack of historical data beyond the last few decades. This study presents two methodologies for mapping and revealing long-term change in urban land use and imperviousness from topographic maps. Method 1 involves the generation of maps of fractional impervious surface f...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah


    Full Text Available Rainwater is not readily available to sandy loam Ghanaian ferric lixisols. In an attempt to increase water availability to Nyankpala ferric lixisols, their impervious iron pan was broken. Average yield (number of bags of maize from ferric lexisol with ironpan broken was compared with that with iron pan unbroken. At an average annual rainfall of 64.125 to 106.775 mm for Nyampkala, ferric lexisol with or without iron pan broken yielded similar quantity (20-25bgs/ha of maize. Breaking of ironpan alone cannot increase water availability to Nyankpala ferric lixisols. Measures other than the breaking of iron pan are needed to increase water availability to ferreiclesisols and similar soils. Research into sustainable technologies such as permanent amendments for increased soil water availability to ferric lixisol and similar soils is required.

  6. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus


    Impervious surfaces (IS) are a key indicator of environmental quality, and mapping of urban IS is important for a wide range of applications including hydrological modelling, water management, urban and environmental planning and urban climate studies. This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of vegetation indices (VI), from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas at different locations in Europe. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) are converted to IS fractions using a regression modelling approach. Also, NDVI is used to estimate fractional vegetation cover (FR), and consequently IS fractions. All three indices provide fairly accurate estimates (MAEs ? 10%, MBE’s < 2%) of sub-pixel imperviousness, and are found to be applicable for cities with dissimilar climatic and vegetative conditions. The VI/IS relationship across cities is examined by quantifying the MAEs and MBEs between all combinations of models and urban areas. Also, regional regression models are developed by compiling data from multiple cities to examine the potential for developing and applying a single regression model to estimate IS fractions for numerous urban areas without reducing the accuracy considerably. Our findings indicate that the models can be applied broadly for multiple urban areas, and that the accuracy is reduced only marginally by applying the regional models. SAVI is identified as a superior index for the development of regional quantification models. The findings of this study highlight that IS fractions, and spatiotemporal changes herein, can be mapped by use of simple regression models based on VIs from remote sensors, and that the method presented enables simple, accurate and resource efficient quantification of IS.

  7. Procedure to detect impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (lidar) data (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cuenca, B.; Alonso-Rodríguez, M. C.; Domenech-Tofiño, E.; Valcárcel Sanz, N.; Delgado-Hernández, J.; Peces-Morera, Juan José; Arozarena-Villar, Antonio


    The detection of impervious surfaces is an important issue in the study of urban and rural environments. Imperviousness refers to water's inability to pass through a surface. Although impervious surfaces represent a small percentage of the Earth's surface, knowledge of their locations is relevant to planning and managing human activities. Impervious structures are primarily manmade (e.g., roads and rooftops). Impervious surfaces are an environmental concern because many processes that modify the normal function of land, air, and water resources are initiated during their construction. This paper presents a novel method of identifying impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The inputs for the procedure are SPOT images formed by four spectral bands (corresponding to red, green, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths), a digital terrain model, and an .las file. The proposed method computes five decision indexes from the input data to classify the studied area into two categories: impervious (subdivided into buildings and roads) and non-impervious surfaces. The impervious class is divided into two subclasses because the elements forming this category (mainly roads and rooftops) have different spectral and height properties, and it is difficult to combine these elements into one group. The classification is conducted using a decision tree procedure. For every decision index, a threshold is set for which every surface is considered impervious or non-impervious. The proposed method has been applied to four different regions located in the north, center, and south of Spain, providing satisfactory results for every dataset.

  8. Effects of spatial resolution of remotely sensed data on estimating urban impervious surfaces. (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhou, Weiqi; Chen, Qiuwen


    Impervious surfaces are the result of urbanization that can be explicitly quantified, managed and controlled at each stage of land development. It is a very useful environmental indicator that can be used to measure the impacts of urbanization on surface runoff, water quality, air quality, biodiversity and microclimate. Therefore, accurate estimation of impervious surfaces is critical for urban environmental monitoring, land management, decision-making and urban planning. Many approaches have been developed to estimate surface imperviousness, using remotely sensed data with various spatial resolutions. However, few studies, have investigated the effects of spatial resolution on estimating surface imperviousness. We compare medium-resolution Landsat data with high-resolution SPOT images to quantify the imperviousness in Beijing, China. The results indicated that the overall 91% accuracy of estimates of imperviousness based on TM data was considerably higher than the 81% accuracy of the SPOT data. The higher resolution SPOT data did not always predict the imperviousness of the land better than the TM data. At the whole city level, the TM data better predicts the percentage cover of impervious surfaces. At the sub-city level, however, the ring belts from the central core to the urban-rural peripheral, the SPOT data may better predict the imperviousness. These results highlighted the need to combine multiple resolution data to quantify the percentage of imperviousness, as higher resolution data do not necessarily lead to more accurate estimates. The methodology and results in this study can be utilized to identify the most suitable remote sensing data to quickly and efficiently extract the pattern of the impervious land, which could provide the base for further study on many related urban environmental problems. PMID:22128546


    We used National Land Cover Data 92 (NLCD92), vector impervious surface data, and raster GIS overlay methods to derive impervious surface coefficients per NLCD92 class in portions of the Nfid-Atlantic physiographic region. The methods involve a vector to raster conversion of the ...

  10. Mapping and Assessing Urban Impervious Areas Using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis: A Case Study in the City of Tampa, Florida (United States)

    Weng, Fenqing

    The advance in remote sensing technology helps people more easily assess urban growth. In this study, the utility of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) is examined in a sub-pixel analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to map urban physical components in Tampa, FL. The three physical components of urban land cover (LC): impervious surface, vegetation and soil, were compared using the proposed MESMA with a traditional spectral mixture analysis (SMA). MESMA decomposes each pixel to address the heterogeneity of urban LC characteristic by allowing the number and types of endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis. This study generated 642 spectral mixture models of 2-, 3-, and 4-endmembers for each pixel to estimate the fractions of impervious surface, vegetation, soil, and shade in the study area with a constraint of lowest root mean square error (RMSE). A comparative analysis of the impervious surface areas (ISA) mapped with MESMA and SMA demonstrated that MESMA produced more accurate results of mapping urban physical components than those by SMA. With the multiyear Landsat TM data, we quantified sub-pixel %ISA and the %ISA changes to assess urban growth in the City of Tampa, Florida during the past twenty years. The experimental results demonstrate that the MESMA approach is effective in mapping and monitoring urban land use/land cover changes using moderate-resolution multispectral imagery at a sub-pixel level.

  11. An Integrated Method for Mapping Impervious and Pervious Areas in Urban Environments Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data (United States)

    Hashemi Beni, L.; McArdle, S.; Khayer, Y.


    As urbanization continues to increase and extreme climatic events become more prevalent, urban planners and engineers are actively implementing adaptive measures to protect urban assets and communities. To support the urban planning adaptation process, mapping of impervious and pervious areas is essential to understanding the hydrodynamic environment within urban areas for flood risk planning. The application of advance geospatial data and analytical techniques using remote sensing and GIS can improve land surface characterization to better quantify surface run-off and infiltration. This study presents a method to combine airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data for classifying pervious (e.g. vegetation, gravel, and soil) and impervious (e.g. asphalt and concrete) areas within road allowance areas for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. Hyperspectral data was acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) at 1 m ground spatial resolution, consisting of 72 spectral bands, and LiDAR data acquired from Leica Airborne LiDAR system at a density of 20 points/m2. A spectral library was established using 10 cm orthophotography and GIS data to identify surface features. In addition to spectral functions such as mean and standard deviation, several spectral indices were developed to discriminate between asphalt, concrete, gravel, vegetation, and shadows respectively. A spectral analysis of selected endmembers was conducted and an initial classification technique was applied using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The classification results (i.e. shadows) were improved by integrating LIDAR data with the hyperspectral data.

  12. Two-stage subpixel impervious surface coverage estimation: comparing classification and regression trees and artificial neural networks (United States)

    Bernat, Katarzyna; Drzewiecki, Wojciech


    The paper presents accuracy comparison of subpixel classification based on medium resolution Landsat images, performed using machine learning algorithms built on decision and regression trees method (C.5.0/Cubist and Random Forest) and artificial neural networks. The aim of the study was to obtain the pattern of percentage impervious surface coverage, valid for the period of 2009-2010. Imperviousness index map generation was a two-stage procedure. The first step was classification, which divided the study area into categories: i) completely permeable (imperviousness index less than 1%) and ii) fully or partially impervious areas. For pixels classified as impervious, the percentage of impervious surface coverage in pixel area was estimated. The root mean square errors (RMS) of determination of the percentage of the impervious surfaces within a single pixel were 11.0% for C.5.0/Cubist method, 11.3% for Random Forest method and 12.6% using artificial neural networks. The introduction of the initial hard classification into completely permeable areas (with imperviousness index <1%) and impervious areas, allowed to improve the accuracy of imperviousness index estimation on poorly urbanized areas covering large areas of the Dobczyce Reservoir catchment. The effect is also visible on final imperviousness index maps.

  13. Synergistic using medium-resolution and high-resolution remote sensing imagery to extract impervious surface for Dianci Basin (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Yang, Kun; Deng, Ming; Liu, Cun


    The knowledge of impervious surfaces, especially the magnitude, location, geometry, spatial pattern of impervious surfaces, is significant to urban ecosystem studies, including urban hydrology, urban climate, land use planning and resource management.Impervious surface area (ISA) is considered a key indicator of environmental quality and can be used to address complex urban environmental issues, particularly those related to the health of urban watersheds. ISA is also an indicator of non-point source pollution or polluted runoff. Remote sensing offers a consistent framework for representing spatial patterns and rates of urbanization over time through accurate observations of impervious surface area. Most of the existing methods of extracting impervious surface based on remote sensing concentrate on an urban scale, but the rapid and accurate methods of extracting impervious surfaces in a basin scale are nearly nonexistent in China and abroad. In recent years,with the rapid urbanization especially surrounding the Dianchi water body, the impervious surface coverage rate also grows rapidly and results in severe degradation of basin water environment within Dianchi watershed. In this study, we developed an approach to extract impervious surface for Dianci Basin by synergistic using medium-resolution and high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Subpixel percent impervious surfaces at Thematic Mapper (TM) images were mapped using the classification and regression tree(CART) algorithm. Sub-pixel impervious surfaces at 30m resolution were mapped in this study area through regression tree models. The estimated ISA results were evaluated through independent ISA reference data derived from high resolution QuickBird. The results prove the suitability of the approach for a widely automated and mapping of impervious surfaces in a basin scale.

  14. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001, (LaMotte and Wieczorek,...

  15. Enhancing endmember selection in multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) for urban impervious surface area mapping using spectral angle and spectral distance parameters (United States)

    Fan, Fenglei; Deng, Yingbin


    Successful retrieval of urban impervious surface area is achieved with remote sensing data using the multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA). MESMA is well suited for studying the urban impervious surface area because it allows the number and types of the endmembers to vary on a per-pixel basis, thereby, allowing the control of the large spectral variability. However, MESMA must calculate all potential endmember combinations of each pixel to determine the best-fit one. Therefore, it is a time-consuming and inefficient unmixing technology, especially for hyperspectral images because these images have more complicated endmember categories. Hence, in this paper, we design an improved MESMA (SASD-MESMA: spectral angle and spectral distance MESMA) to enhance the computational efficiency of conventional MESMA, and we validate this new method by analyzing the Hyperion image (Jan-2011) and the field-spectra data of Guangzhou (China). In SASD-MESMA, the parameters of spectral angle (SA) and spectral distance (SD) are used to evaluate the similarity degree between library spectra and image spectra in order to identify the most representative endmember combination for each pixel. Results demonstrate that the SA and SD parameters are useful to reduce misjudgment in selecting candidate endmembers and effective for determining the appropriate endmembers in one pixel. Meanwhile, this research indicates that the proposed SASD-MESMA performs very well in retrieving impervious surface area, forest, grass and soil distributions on the sub-pixel level (the overall root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.15 and the correlation coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.68).

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in land development and impervious surface creation in Oakland County, Michigan, 1945-2005 (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen S.; Andresen, Jeffrey A.


    SummaryImpervious surface has been recognized as a key indicator of watershed health and function. The rapid expansion of impervious surface associated with periurban development following the Second World War resulted in concerns that impervious surface would alter flow characteristics, water quality, sediment, and stream morphology. These effects have been documented in studies across many disciplines. Unfortunately, impervious surface is difficult to measure directly, and other forms of land-use data are often substituted as surrogates. This paper highlights the shortcomings in land-use data, particularly parcel-based land-use data, as a surrogate for impervious surface in a periurban environment. Periurban development has changed substantially in the last several decades. This study investigates changes in the form of periurban development in Oakland County, Michigan, from 1945 to 2005, with an emphasis on the accumulation of impervious surface. We first evaluate patterns in the sizes of parcels being developed to residential uses. Using an impervious surface map derived from aerial imagery, we then calculate amount of impervious surface created by different forms of development, both in parcels of similar sizes developed at different times, and across parcel sizes for the period of the study. The results indicate substantial variability in impervious surface within periurban residential development, from 5.4% of parcel area to 25.4% of total parcel area depending on parcel size. Even within relatively specific categories (for example, residential parcels less than 743 square metre) impervious surface varied between 18.5% and 34.6% of the parcel area between 1945 and 2000. Since 1980, the trend has been toward larger parcel sizes with lower impervious surface ratios. The overall effect is that land is being developed at a rate substantially greater than the rate impervious surface is being created. The bias created by the trend to larger parcel sizes with smaller impervious surface ratios results in a tendency to overestimate the effects of recent land development. In combination with the change in character of suburban development, this bias has a tendency to overestimate the hydrologic response to new development. This overestimation is easily overlooked because it is consistent with the expected effect of urbanization. However, this effect helps explain observed field results indicating little change in streamflow through time despite significant apparent periurban development.

  17. Subsoil Compaction: A hidden form of Soil Sealing in Europe


    Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca


    There are two definitions of ‘soil sealing’: (I) ‘covering (sealing) the soil surface by impervious materials, e.g. concrete, metal, glass, tarmac and plastic’; and (II) ‘changing the nature of the soil such that it behaves as an impermeable medium, e.g. by compaction’. The main causes of soil sealing according to the first definition (I) are building development (e.g. industrial and residential premises) and transport (e.g. roads). Changing the nature of the soil such that it ...

  18. Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the conterminous US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Caldwell


    Full Text Available Rivers are essential to aquatic ecosystem and societal sustainability, but are increasingly impacted by water withdrawals, land-use change, and climate change. The relative and cumulative effects of these stressors on continental river flows are relatively unknown. In this study, we used an integrated water balance and flow routing model to evaluate the impacts of impervious cover and water withdrawal on river flow across the conterminous US at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC watershed scale. We then estimated the impacts of projected change in withdrawals, impervious cover, and climate under the B1 "Low" and A2 "High" emission scenarios on river flows by 2060. Our results suggest that compared to no impervious cover, 2010 levels of impervious cover increased river flows by 9.9% on average with larger impacts in and downstream of major metropolitan areas. In contrast, compared to no water withdrawals, 2005 withdrawals decreased river flows by 1.4% on average with larger impacts in heavily irrigated arid regions of Western US. By 2060, impacts of climate change were predicted to overwhelm the potential gain in river flow due to future changes in impervious cover and add to the potential reduction in river flows from withdrawals, decreasing mean annual river flows from 2010 levels by 16% on average. However, increases in impervious cover by 2060 may offset the impact of climate change during the growing season in some watersheds. Large water withdrawals will aggravate the predicted impact of climate change on river flows, particularly in the Western US. Predicted ecohydrological impacts of land cover, water withdrawal, and climate change will likely include alteration of the terrestrial water balance, stream channel habitat, riparian and aquatic community structure in snow-dominated basins, and fish and mussel extirpations in heavily impacted watersheds. These changes may also require new infrastructure to support increasing anthropogenic demand for water, relocation of agricultural production, and/or water conservation measures. Given that the impacts of land use, withdrawals and climate may be either additive or offsetting in different magnitudes, integrated and spatially explicit modeling and management approaches are necessary to effectively manage water resources for aquatic life and human use in the face of global change.

  19. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 2, Northeast United States: IMPV01_2

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  20. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 3, Southwest United States: IMPV01_3

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of the Conterminous United States 201301 TIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The...

  2. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 4, Southeast United States: IMPV01_4

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  3. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 1, Northwest United States: IMPV01_1

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  4. Soils (United States)

    Pamela Gore


    The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

  5. An Automated Algorithm to Screen Massive Training Samples for a Global Impervious Surface Classification (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Brown de Colstoun, Eric; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tilton, James C.; Huang, Chengquan; Smith, Sarah E.


    An algorithm is developed to automatically screen the outliers from massive training samples for Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP). GLS-IMP is to produce a global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set for years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. This unprecedented high resolution impervious cover data set is not only significant to the urbanization studies but also desired by the global carbon, hydrology, and energy balance researches. A supervised classification method, regression tree, is applied in this project. A set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications. Here we developed the global scale training samples from 1 m or so resolution fine resolution satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2), and then aggregate the fine resolution impervious cover map to 30 m resolution. In order to improve the classification accuracy, the training samples should be screened before used to train the regression tree. It is impossible to manually screen 30 m resolution training samples collected globally. For example, in Europe only, there are 174 training sites. The size of the sites ranges from 4.5 km by 4.5 km to 8.1 km by 3.6 km. The amount training samples are over six millions. Therefore, we develop this automated statistic based algorithm to screen the training samples in two levels: site and scene level. At the site level, all the training samples are divided to 10 groups according to the percentage of the impervious surface within a sample pixel. The samples following in each 10% forms one group. For each group, both univariate and multivariate outliers are detected and removed. Then the screen process escalates to the scene level. A similar screen process but with a looser threshold is applied on the scene level considering the possible variance due to the site difference. We do not perform the screen process across the scenes because the scenes might vary due to the phenology, solar-view geometry, and atmospheric condition etc. factors but not actual landcover difference. Finally, we will compare the classification results from screened and unscreened training samples to assess the improvement achieved by cleaning up the training samples. Keywords:

  6. Synergistic use of optical and InSAR data for urban impervious surface mapping: A case study in Hong Kong (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Liao, M.; Lin, H.; Yang, L.


    A wide range of urban ecosystem studies, including urban hydrology, urban climate, land use planning and watershed resource management, require accurate and up-to-date geospatial data of urban impervious surfaces. In this study, the potential of the synergistic use of optical and InSAR data in urban impervious surface mapping at the sub-pixel level was investigated. A case study in Hong Kong was conducted for this purpose by applying a classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm to SPOT 5 multispectral imagery and ERS-2 SAR data. Validated by reference data derived from high-resolution colour-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs, our results show that the addition of InSAR feature information can improve the estimation of impervious surface percentage (ISP) in comparison with using SPOT imagery alone. The improvement is especially notable in separating urban impervious surface from the vacant land/bare ground, which has been a difficult task in ISP modelling with optical remote sensing data. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential to map urban impervious surface by using InSAR data alone. This allows frequent monitoring of world's cities located in cloud-prone and rainy areas. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis.

  7. High-quality observation of surface imperviousness for urban runoff modelling using UAV imagery (United States)

    Tokarczyk, P.; Leitao, J. P.; Rieckermann, J.; Schindler, K.; Blumensaat, F.


    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual subcatchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we evaluate the model's channel flow prediction performance through a cross-comparison with reference flow measured at the catchment outlet. We show that imperviousness maps generated using UAV imagery processed with modern classification methods achieve accuracy comparable with standard, off-the-shelf aerial imagery. In the examined case study, we find that the different imperviousness maps only have a limited influence on modelled surface runoff and pipe flows. We conclude that UAV imagery represents a valuable alternative data source for urban drainage model applications due to the possibility to flexibly acquire up-to-date aerial images at a superior quality and a competitive price. Our analyses furthermore suggest that spatially more detailed urban drainage models can even better benefit from the full detail of UAV imagery.

  8. Enabling high-quality observations of surface imperviousness for water runoff modelling from unmanned aerial vehicles (United States)

    Tokarczyk, Piotr; Leitao, Joao Paulo; Rieckermann, Jörg; Schindler, Konrad; Blumensaat, Frank


    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual sub-catchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we evaluate the model's channel flow prediction performance through a cross-comparison with reference flow measured at the catchment outlet. We show that imperviousness maps generated using UAV imagery processed with modern classification methods achieve accuracy comparable with standard, off-the-shelf aerial imagery. In the examined case study, we find that the different imperviousness maps only have a limited influence on modelled surface runoff and pipe flows. We conclude that UAV imagery represents a valuable alternative data source for urban drainage model applications due to the possibility to flexibly acquire up-to-date aerial images at a superior quality and a competitive price. Our analyses furthermore suggest that spatially more detailed urban drainage models can even better benefit from the full detail of UAV imagery.

  9. Soil structural behaviour of flooded soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this presentation are to: identify factors determining of the structural behaviour of flooded soils, as compared to those acting in upland soils; analyse the influence of reductive processes on aggregate stabilising agents; discuss mechanisms of structural deterioration and recovery during the flooding-drying cycle, on the basis of a case study: cattle trampling effects in the flooding Pampa of Argentina. Flooded soils, now known as Hydric soils, are characteristic of wetlands and irrigated fields cropped to rice (paddy soils). In them, water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year. Hydric soils belong to different taxa of the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map (2000). Fluvisols, Planosols and Gleysols are widespread distributed in the globe. The generation of redoximorphic features is due to different causes in each of them. Fluvisols are covered part of the year by surface water from river overflows; Planosols are soils having an impervious Bt horizon, supporting perched water during short periods; and Gleysols are soils affected by stagnant water tables during long periods

  10. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  11. The impact of impervious water-storage parametrization on urban climate modelling (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Demuzere, Matthias; De Ridder, Koen; van Lipzig, Nicole


    In order to improve the representation of the water balance in urban land-surface models, we present a new impervious water-storage parametrization that assumes a distribution of water reservoirs. It has been implemented in TERRA-URB, a new urban parametrization for COSMO-CLM's standard land-surface module TERRA-ML. The water-storage capacity and the maximal wet surface fraction of the urban impervious land cover consisting of streets and buildings are estimated for Toulouse centre by matching the modelled and observed evapotranspiration (ET) rates. They amount to 1.31 ± 0.20 kg m-2} and 12 ± 4%, respectively. The model successfully reproduces the timespan and magnitude of increased ET for both urban observations campaigns CAPITOUL and BUBBLE. Our sensitivity study reveals that water-storage parametrization largely affects the performance of modelled ET rates. Hereby, the simulation employing the new water-storage parametrization is improved compared to arbitrary or existing water-storage parametrizations. The ET, surface sensible heat exchange and upwelling infra-red radiation are all affected until 12 day-time hours after rainfall on average. The modelled annual-mean ET during the CAPITOUL campaign from the urban land in Toulouse is an order of magnitude lower than that observed for the natural surroundings.

  12. Effects of impervious pavements on reducing runoff in an arid urban catchment (United States)

    Epshtein, O.; Turnbull, L.; Earl, S.


    The progressive urbanization of US arid and semi-arid southwestern territories has transformed undeveloped aridlands into dynamic, radially expanding metropolitan centers. As these mature, infill development further reduces undeveloped area, inversely coupling surface imperviousness to infiltration rates, with a subsequent increase in runoff generation. Intensified runoff carries undesirable environmental consequences, magnifying urban flooding events and concentrations, transport, and propagation of contaminants. Pervious pavements offer one potential solution for decreased urban infiltration. At present, the application potential of pervious pavements as an effective urban infiltration management tool exceeds its exploitation. While entirely eliminating urban Total Impervious Area is not a feasible solution, pervious pavements significantly reduce Effective Impervious Area at costs competitive with traditional Best Management Practices. Previous research into pervious pavements has largely consisted of laboratory prototypes or small-scale field experiments, with a heavy bias towards parking lots. In this study we explore the effectiveness of pervious pavements in increasing infiltration, thus decreasing runoff volume during summer monsoonal and winter convective rainfall events in an 8 ha residential catchment in Scottsdale, Arizona. Analysis focuses on the interaction dynamics between surface area of pervious pavement application and its net effect on runoff response at the catchment level. Hydrological response was modeled using MAHLERAN (Model for Assessing Hillslope-Landscape Erosion, Runoff and Nutrients), a spatially explicit, event-based model, parameterized at a spatial resolution of 0.25 sq m. Data for model parameterization was obtained from analysis of aerial imagery and field-based monitoring of surface properties. The model was tested against measurements of flow at the catchment outlet for multiple rainfall events with total event rainfall ranging from 5 mm to 25 mm. Model testing shows total event discharge simulated well, although low Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for events indicate a poor fit between the shape and timing of the modeled and monitored hydrograph, which we attribute to poor characterization of friction factors in urban catchments. Scenario-based model analysis tested catchment response to substitution of pervious for conventional pavement by percent and pavement-function scenarios. Results are consistent with previous findings in that short duration-high intensity storms trigger threshold infiltration capacity, past which pervious pavement damping of runoff volume levels off, approaching conventional levels. However at the modeled catchment scale, this initial damping represents a significant reduction in volume, peak flow velocity, and contaminant loading potential. Urban surface drainage networks concentrate and channel flow along roads: the capacity of pervious pavements to simultaneously increase infiltration directly at location of greatest runoff and mitigate inflow effects from remote points has compelling potential as a hydrologic and urban systems engineering tool.

  13. Spatial and temporal resolution effects on urban catchments with different imperviousness degrees (United States)

    Cristiano, Elena; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick C.


    One of the main problems in urban hydrological analysis is to measure the rainfall at urban scale with high resolution and use these measurements to model urban runoff processes to predict flows and reduce flood risk. With the aim of building a semi-distribute hydrological sewer model for an urban catchment, high resolution rainfall data are required as input. In this study, the sensitivity of hydrological response to high resolution precipitation data for hydrodynamic models at urban scale is evaluated with different combinations of spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim is to study sensitivity in relation to catchment characteristics, especially drainage area size, imperviousness degree and hydraulic properties such as special structures (weirs, pumping stations). Rainfall data of nine storms are considered with 4 different spatial resolutions (3000m, 1000m, 500m and 100m) combined with 4 different temporal resolutions (10min, 5min, 3min and 1min). The dual polarimetric X-band weather radar, located in the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) provided the high resolution rainfall data of these rainfall events, used to improve the sewer model. The effects of spatial-temporal rainfall input resolution on response is studied in three Districts of Rotterdam (NL): Kralingen, Spaanse Polder and Centrum district. These catchments have different average drainage area size (from 2km2 to 7km2), and different general characteristics. Centrum district and Kralingen are, indeed, more various and include residential and commercial areas, big green areas and a small industrial area, while Spaanse Polder is a industrial area, densely urbanized, and presents a high percentage of imperviousness.

  14. Estimating urban impervious surfaces from Landsat-5 TM imagery using multilayer perceptron neural network and support vector machine (United States)

    Sun, Zhongchang; Guo, Huadong; Li, Xinwu; Lu, Linlin; Du, Xiaoping


    In recent years, the urban impervious surface has been recognized as a key quantifiable indicator in assessing urbanization impacts on environmental and ecological conditions. A surge of research interests has resulted in the estimation of urban impervious surface using remote sensing studies. The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the effectiveness of two algorithms for extracting impervious surfaces from Landsat TM imagery; the multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) and the support vector machine (SVM). An accuracy assessment was performed using the high-resolution WorldView images. The root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), and the coefficient of determination (R2) were calculated to validate the classification performance and accuracies of MLPNN and SVM. For the MLPNN model, the RMSE, MAE, and R2 were 17.18%, 11.10%, and 0.8474, respectively. The SVM yielded a result with an RMSE of 13.75%, an MAE of 8.92%, and an R2 of 0.9032. The results indicated that SVM performance was superior to that of MLPNN in impervious surface classification. To further evaluate the performance of MLPNN and SVM in handling the mixed-pixels, an accuracy assessment was also conducted for the selected test areas, including commercial, residential, and rural areas. Our results suggested that SVM had better capability in handling the mixed-pixel problem than MLPNN. The superior performance of SVM over MLPNN is mainly attributed to the SVM's capability of deriving the global optimum and handling the over-fitting problem by suitable parameter selection. Overall, SVM provides an efficient and useful method for estimating the impervious surface.

  15. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201301 TIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100...

  16. Sub-Pixel Mapping of Tree Canopy, Impervious Surfaces, and Cropland in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS Time-Series Data (United States)

    This research examined sub-pixel land-cover classification performance for tree canopy, impervious surface, and cropland in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using both timeseries MODIS (MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation In...


    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces are leading contributors to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sideways, and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for...

  18. A note on MHD flow of an incomprassible conducting fluid through a porous tube with impervious boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some features of the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through a porous tube with impervious boundary with a magnetic field transverse to the flow, have been studied in this paper. It is shown that this MHD flow is self-superposable and an irrotational flow on which it is superposable is determined. Some observations have been made about the vorticity and stream function of the flow by using the property of super-posability and self superposability. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Quantification of Impervious Surfaces Along the Wasatch Front, Utah: AN Object-Based Image Analysis Approach to Identifying AN Indicator for Wetland Stress (United States)

    Leydsman-McGinty, E. I.; Ramsey, R. D.; McGinty, C.


    The Remote Sensing/GIS Laboratory at Utah State University, in cooperation with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is quantifying impervious surfaces for three watershed sub-basins in Utah. The primary objective of developing watershed-scale quantifications of impervious surfaces is to provide an indicator of potential impacts to wetlands that occur within the Wasatch Front and along the Great Salt Lake. A geospatial layer of impervious surfaces can assist state agencies involved with Utah's Wetlands Program Plan (WPP) in understanding the impacts of impervious surfaces on wetlands, as well as support them in carrying out goals and actions identified in the WPP. The three watershed sub-basins, Lower Bear-Malad, Lower Weber, and Jordan, span the highly urbanized Wasatch Front and are consistent with focal areas in need of wetland monitoring and assessment as identified in Utah's WPP. Geospatial layers of impervious surface currently exist in the form of national and regional land cover datasets; however, these datasets are too coarse to be utilized in fine-scale analyses. In addition, the pixel-based image processing techniques used to develop these coarse datasets have proven insufficient in smaller scale or detailed studies, particularly when applied to high-resolution satellite imagery or aerial photography. Therefore, object-based image analysis techniques are being implemented to develop the geospatial layer of impervious surfaces. Object-based image analysis techniques employ a combination of both geospatial and image processing methods to extract meaningful information from high-resolution imagery. Spectral, spatial, textural, and contextual information is used to group pixels into image objects and then subsequently used to develop rule sets for image classification. eCognition, an object-based image analysis software program, is being utilized in conjunction with one-meter resolution National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography from 2011.

  20. Sensibilidad y regionalización del parámetro de impermeabilidad en una cuenca urbana / Sensitivity analysis and regional imperviousness in an urban basin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Alejandro-Sánchez; Yoel, Martínez-González.


    Full Text Available La complejidad en la determinación inicial del parámetro hidrológico de impermeabilidad, comúnmente abreviado como (% imp.), se debe, entre otras razones, a la alta variabilidad espacial que caracteriza el medio urbano, en el cual se presentan varias coberturas de suelo en pequeñas porciones de terr [...] eno, que en ocasiones llegan a ser menores de una hectárea. Con este artículo se busca hacer una contribución metodológica para la estimación indirecta de tal parámetro, a partir de la cantidad de habitantes por unidad de área y de la relación domicilios por área, tomando como caso de estudio dos subcuencas localizadas dentro del sector oeste de la ciudad de Coro, Venezuela. Primero se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad del parámetro y después se probó la técnica de interpretación digital automática de imágenes de satélite con clasificadores tradicionales para determinar su cuantificación, revelando incoherencias predominantes en las zonas de transición con usos mezclados. Se optó por la extracción manual de zonas impermeables y se construyeron curvas regionalizadas. Desde el punto de vista metodológico, el procedimiento resulta eficaz, ya que las curvas regionalizadas permiten ahorrar tiempo importante en la estimación inicial de este parámetro. Abstract in english The complexity of the initial determination of water imperviousness, commonly abbreviated as % imp., is partially due to the high spatial variability that characterizes an urban environment, which presents a variety of land covers within small portions of land, some of which may be less than 1 hecta [...] re. This article seeks to contribute to the methodology for indirectly measuring imperviousness based on the number of inhabitants and residences per unit area, using as a case study two sub-basins located in the western sector of the city of Coro, Venezuela. First, sensitivity tests of imperviousness were performed and then the technique for automatic digital interpretation of satellite images with traditional classifiers was tested to determine its quantification, revealing considerable inconsistencies in the transition zones with mixed uses. Manual extraction of impermeable zones was chosen and regionalized curves were constructed. From a methodological perspective, the procedure was effective since the regionalized curves enabled saving a significant amount of time in the initial calculation of this parameter.

  1. Mapping Impervious Surface Expansion using Medium-resolution Satellite Image Time Series: A Case Study in the Yangtze River Delta, China (United States)

    Gao, Feng; DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Ma, Ronghua; Weng, Qihao; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Chen, Jin; Pan, Yaozhong; Song, Conghe


    Cities have been expanding rapidly worldwide, especially over the past few decades. Mapping the dynamic expansion of impervious surface in both space and time is essential for an improved understanding of the urbanization process, land-cover and land-use change, and their impacts on the environment. Landsat and other medium-resolution satellites provide the necessary spatial details and temporal frequency for mapping impervious surface expansion over the past four decades. Since the US Geological Survey opened the historical record of the Landsat image archive for free access in 2008, the decades-old bottleneck of data limitation has gone. Remote-sensing scientists are now rich with data, and the challenge is how to make best use of this precious resource. In this article, we develop an efficient algorithm to map the continuous expansion of impervious surface using a time series of four decades of medium-resolution satellite images. The algorithm is based on a supervised classification of the time-series image stack using a decision tree. Each imerpervious class represents urbanization starting in a different image. The algorithm also allows us to remove inconsistent training samples because impervious expansion is not reversible during the study period. The objective is to extract a time series of complete and consistent impervious surface maps from a corresponding times series of images collected from multiple sensors, and with a minimal amount of image preprocessing effort. The approach was tested in the lower Yangtze River Delta region, one of the fastest urban growth areas in China. Results from nearly four decades of medium-resolution satellite data from the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) and China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) show a consistent urbanization process that is consistent with economic development plans and policies. The time-series impervious spatial extent maps derived from this study agree well with an existing urban extent polygon data set that was previously developed independently. The overall mapping accuracy was estimated at about 92.5% with 3% commission error and 12% omission error for the impervious type from all images regardless of image quality and initial spatial resolution.

  2. Using environmental metrics to describe the spatial and temporal evolution of landscape structure and soil hydrology and fertility


    Pascual Aguilar, Juan Antonio; SANZ GARCÍA, JUANA; Bustamante Gutiérrez, Irene de; KALLACHE, MALAAK


    In this work a methodology using Geographical Information Systems was developed and applied to a temporal series of land cover layers (for the years 1956, 1978, 1991 and 2010) in the municipality of Vall d’Uxó, Eastern Spain. Four types of metrics were implemented (1) spatial representation of the degree of artificialisation, (2) patchiness and fragmentation, (3) fertility dynamics of soils according to their land capability, and (4) soils imperviousness and loss of water retention capacity. ...

  3. Influence of cracking in the desiccation process of clay soils


    Levatti, Hector Ulises; Prat Catalán, Pere; Ledesma Villalba, Alberto


    It is well known that clayey soils undergoing desiccation tend to shrink and eventually crack. Analysis of the behaviour and influence of cracks in these types of soils is very important in several engineering fields such as mine tailing dams, long-term radioactive waste storage, impervious core of earth dams, and in any situation where clay is used as a barrier to fluid flow. Loss of humidity and cracking changes the permeability of such barriers that may no longer work properly and pose pot...

  4. Experimental research of soil erosion using laboratory rainfall simulator (United States)

    Laburda, Tomáš; Schwarzová, Pavla; Krása, Josef


    Soil erosion has been an important part of research at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague since the 50s of the 20th century. Bigger emphasis was put later on practical methods resulting in acquisition of laboratory rainfall simulator in 1999. This article compares data from simulations done at the laboratory rainfall simulator which is used for experimental measurement of rainfall-runoff processes on soil samples (typical soil type groups) from agriculture land in the Czech Republic. Total 10 soil sets have been tested within 255 simulations (247 rainfall-runoff hours in total) from 2002 to 2014. These soil sets cover wide range of soil types from silty clay loam to sandy loam soils or from impervious to pervious soils. Setting values of rainfall intensity (40 to 60 mm/hr), inclination (longitudinal slope from 4° to 8°) and initial condition of surface runoff (crusted or loosened) present primary parameters of every experiment. On the basis of different combinations of setting, 2 representative evaluation states of the minimum (min LC) and maximum (max LC) load conditions were established. The most important data obtained at the Simulator are soil moisture content, progression of surface runoff, soil loss and infiltration. Results clearly show dependence of initial moisture content on physical properties, when impervious soils with high fraction of clay reach over 30 % wt., pervious soils with high fraction of sand achieve initial average moisture content only about 20 % wt. Results of steady-state values of surface runoff and soil loss for minimum and maximum load conditions and its ratio show that highest increase of values due to higher load conditions reach silt loamy soil (Horomerice), silt clay loamy soil (Klapy) and loamy soil (Vsetaty), while the lowest increase reach silt loamy soil (Trebsin I) and sandy loamy soil (Trebesice I). General trend in all cases is obviously to increase both values, but while the average values of surface runoff increased 2.1-times, in the case of soil loss steady state values increased even 5.6-times. During these 12 years of experimental research, large sets of data were collected and used for comparison of behaviour of different soils under extreme conditions and also as input parameters for recalibration of SMODERP (Simulation Model for Determination of Surface Runoff and Erosion Processes) which has been developed at the same departement since 1989. This research is supported by grant: SGS14/180/OHK1/3T/11 Rainfall-runoff, erosion and transport processes - experimental research.

  5. Estimativa de área impermeabilizada diretamente conectada e sua utilização como coeficiente de escoamento superficial Estimate of directly connected impervious areas and its use as runoff coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Monteiro Garotti


    Full Text Available Neste estudo realizou-se a caracterização do uso e ocupação do solo na cidade de Ribeirão Preto (SP, além da análise detalhada da impermeabilização urbana e conectividade hidráulica dos lotes. Também foi avaliado o coeficiente de escoamento superficial (C para seis sub-bacias, utilizando-se três métodos com diferentes níveis de precisão. Utilizando-se o Método Racional com os valores estimados de C, calcularam-se os picos de vazão para as sub-bacias. Identificou-se que a impermeabilização cresce com a redução da área do lote. As estimativas de C resultam em diferenças importantes em seus valores, refletindo na previsão da vazão. A utilização de tabelas com C detalhado e no seu limite superior se aproxima dos valores estimados por C AIDC. Recomenda-se estimar C AIDC a partir da área do lote ou pesquisa de campo.This paper presents a study of characterization of land occupation and its use in the city of Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, as well as a detailed analysis of the urban imperviousness and hydraulic connectivity of the plots. The runoff coefficient (C for siz sub-basins was evaluated on the basis of three different definitions. The peaks of outflow for the sub-basins were calculated using the Rational Method with the estimated values of C. It was identified that the imperviousness increases as the area of the plot decreases. The estimative of the C show important differences in its values, influencing the outflow. The use of tables with detailed and maximal C values beyond its superior limitation is equivalent to the values estimated with C DCIA. It is recommended that the C DCIA relative to the area be estimated based on the plot or field researches.

  6. Estimativa de área impermeabilizada diretamente conectada e sua utilização como coeficiente de escoamento superficial / Estimate of directly connected impervious areas and its use as runoff coefficient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Monteiro, Garotti; Ademir Paceli, Barbassa.


    Full Text Available Neste estudo realizou-se a caracterização do uso e ocupação do solo na cidade de Ribeirão Preto (SP), além da análise detalhada da impermeabilização urbana e conectividade hidráulica dos lotes. Também foi avaliado o coeficiente de escoamento superficial (C) para seis sub-bacias, utilizando-se três m [...] étodos com diferentes níveis de precisão. Utilizando-se o Método Racional com os valores estimados de C, calcularam-se os picos de vazão para as sub-bacias. Identificou-se que a impermeabilização cresce com a redução da área do lote. As estimativas de C resultam em diferenças importantes em seus valores, refletindo na previsão da vazão. A utilização de tabelas com C detalhado e no seu limite superior se aproxima dos valores estimados por C AIDC. Recomenda-se estimar C AIDC a partir da área do lote ou pesquisa de campo. Abstract in english This paper presents a study of characterization of land occupation and its use in the city of Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo), as well as a detailed analysis of the urban imperviousness and hydraulic connectivity of the plots. The runoff coefficient (C) for siz sub-basins was evaluated on the basis of th [...] ree different definitions. The peaks of outflow for the sub-basins were calculated using the Rational Method with the estimated values of C. It was identified that the imperviousness increases as the area of the plot decreases. The estimative of the C show important differences in its values, influencing the outflow. The use of tables with detailed and maximal C values beyond its superior limitation is equivalent to the values estimated with C DCIA. It is recommended that the C DCIA relative to the area be estimated based on the plot or field researches.

  7. Soil moisture dynamics and their effect on bioretention performance in Northeast Ohio (United States)

    Bush, S. A.; Jefferson, A.; Jarden, K.; Kinsman-Costello, L. E.; Grieser, J.


    Urban impervious surfaces lead to increases in stormwater runoff. Green infrastructure, like bioretention cells, is being used to mitigate negative impacts of runoff by disconnecting impervious surfaces from storm water systems and redirecting flow to decentralized treatment areas. While bioretention soil characteristics are carefully designed, little research is available on soil moisture dynamics within the cells and how these might relate to inter-storm variability in performance. Bioretentions have been installed along a residential street in Parma, Ohio to determine the impact of green infrastructure on the West Creek watershed, a 36 km2 subwatershed of the Cuyahoga River. Bioretentions were installed in two phases (Phase I in 2013 and Phase II in 2014); design and vegetation density vary slightly between the two phases. Our research focuses on characterizing soil moisture dynamics of multiple bioretentions and assessing their impact on stormwater runoff at the street scale. Soil moisture measurements were collected in transects for eight bioretentions over the course of one summer. Vegetation indices of canopy height, percent vegetative cover, species richness and NDVI were also measured. A flow meter in the storm drain at the end of the street measured storm sewer discharge. Precipitation was recorded from a meteorological station 2 km from the research site. Soil moisture increased in response to precipitation and decreased to relatively stable conditions within 3 days following a rain event. Phase II bioretentions exhibited greater soil moisture and less vegetation than Phase I bioretentions, though the relationship between soil moisture and vegetative cover is inconclusive for bioretentions constructed in the same phase. Data from five storms suggest that pre-event soil moisture does not control the runoff-to-rainfall ratio, which we use as a measure of bioretention performance. However, discharge data indicate that hydrograph characteristics, such as lag time and peak flow, are altered relative to a control street. This analysis suggests that street-scale implementation of bioretention can reduce the impact of impervious surface on stormflows, but more information is needed to fully understand how soil moisture of the bioretentions affects inter-storm variability in performance.

  8. RNDSI: A ratio normalized difference soil index for remote sensing of urban/suburban environments (United States)

    Deng, Yingbin; Wu, Changshan; Li, Miao; Chen, Renrong


    Understanding land use land cover change (LULCC) is a prerequisite for urban planning and environment management. For LULCC studies in urban/suburban environments, the abundance and spatial distributions of bare soil are essential due to its biophysically different properties when compared to anthropologic materials. Soil, however, is very difficult to be identified using remote sensing technologies majorly due to its complex physical and chemical compositions, as well as the lack of a direct relationship between soil abundance and its spectral signatures. This paper presents an empirical approach to enhance soil information through developing the ratio normalized difference soil index (RNDSI). The first step involves the generation of random samples of three major land cover types, namely soil, impervious surface areas (ISAs), and vegetation. With spectral signatures of these samples, a normalized difference soil index (NDSI) was proposed using the combination of bands 7 and 2 of Landsat Thematic Mapper Image. Finally, a ratio index was developed to further highlight soil covers through dividing the NDSI by the first component of tasseled cap transformation (TC1). Qualitative (e.g., frequency histogram and box charts) and quantitative analyses (e.g., spectral discrimination index and classification accuracy) were adopted to examine the performance of the developed RNDSI. Analyses of results and comparative analyses with two other relevant indices, biophysical composition index (BCI) and enhanced built-up and bareness Index (EBBI), indicate that RNDSI is promising in separating soil from ISAs and vegetation, and can serve as an input to LULCC models.

  9. Soil Composition (United States)

    Chris Fox

    Soil is essential for life on Earth. It is needed for food, air, clothing and so much more. Discussion topics include the terms 'soil', 'dirt', and 'sediment', factors affecting the formation of soils, soil horizons, and the twelve orders of soils. In a hands-on activity, students will collect soil samples from three different locations, use online resources to determine texture and particle makeup, and record their observations.

  10. Soils - NRCS Web Soil Survey

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  11. Gully Growth Patterns and Soil Loss under Rainfall at Urban Underground Drainage Construction Site, Uyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Essien


    Full Text Available This study investigated, evaluated and modeled patterns of growth of gully morphometric dimension and soil loss volume under prevailing rainfall on the slopes of land graded for the construction of underground drainage at Uyo but delayed in completion. Land grading at underground (tunnel drainage construction site rendered the exposed surface very impervious but young ephemeral gullies developed due to delays in completion. Data on gully morphometric dimension, soil loss and depth of rainfall were analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 statistical package. Mean gully growth in length, width and depth were different at 2.54±0.86, 0.923±0.29 and 0.41±0.11 m, respectively, yielding 3.87±0.08 m2 as mean volume of soil loss at full stage. Cubic polynomial was best-fit model for growth in length (R2 = 79% and width (R2 = 69% using weekly rainfall for an annual season. All gully sites had constant depth change, better predicted by quadratic (R2 = 13% than linear (R2 = 9% functions. Mean volume of soil loss per unit rainfall amount varied with low, medium and high rainfall amount and was highest at slope bottom (33 cm3/cm and least at the crest (6.99 cm3/cm with R2 = 38-34%. Land grading to impervious sublayer produced constant depth change in all gullies at the sites. The models for morphometric incremental growth and soil loss volume under the rainfall effect was significantly improved (p<0.05 by bifurcating the lumped annual curve into two growth periods in a year: the periods for increasing rainfall (from week 10-30 and for receding rainfall (from week 31-43 in a year and applying quadratic regressing functions on each (R2 = 91-99%. Rainfall was the principal gully factor and construction delays should be avoided.

  12. State Soils (United States)

    Developed by the US Department of Agriculture\\'s Soil Survey Division (SSD), this website describes state soils and their significance. All states have chosen a state soil, which share the same level of distinction as state flowers or birds. Information includes a photo of each official soil, a description of major characteristics and formation, and a map showing the coverage of the soil within the state. There are also links to additional information about that soil series, including more specific characteristics, other locations, related soil types, and more.

  13. Soil factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: effect of induced aggregation of soil materials on the chemical extractability of 90Sr and 147Pm contaminants; extractability of 238Pu and 242Cm from a contaminated soil as a function of pH and certain soil components; the determination of 238Pu and 242Cm in aqueous soil extracts; and liquid scintillation counting procedure for plutonium in soil extracts

  14. Soil Taxonomy (United States)

    From Alfisols to Vertisols, this substantial resource (.pdf format only) from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service provides an in-depth treatment of soil taxonomy around the world. Published in 1999 (Second Edition), this Soil Taxonomy text includes 23 chapters, covering the basics of soil classification through the world distribution of orders and suborders. Soil taxonomy maps are provided separately, highlighting dominant soils in the US, as well as global soil regions. In addition, an Errata sheet lists corrections for the printed text. This magnificent volume will prove useful to researchers, students, and educators, alike.

  15. Modeling urban heat islands in heterogeneous land surface and its correlation with impervious surface area by using night-time ASTER satellite data in highly urbanizing city, Delhi-India (United States)

    Mallick, Javed; Rahman, Atiqur; Singh, Chander Kumar


    The present study is an assessment and identification of urban heat island (UHI) in the environment of one of the fastest urbanizing city of India, Delhi Metropolis, employing satellite image of ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM+ in the thermal infrared region 3-14 ?m. Temporal (2001 and 2005) ASTER datasets were used to analyze the spatial structure of the thermal urban environment subsequently urban heat island (UHI) in relation to the urban surface characteristics and land use/land cover (LULC). The study involves derivation of parameters governing the surface heat fluxes, constructing statistics of ASTER thermal infrared images along with validation through intensive in situ measurements. The average images reveal spatial and temporal variations of land surface temperature (LST) of night-time and distinct microclimatic patterns. Central Business District (CBD) of Delhi, (Connaught Place, a high density built up area), and commercial/industrial areas display heat islands condition with a temperature greater than 4 °C compared to the suburbs. The small increase in surface temperature at city level is mainly attributed to cumulative impact of human activities, changes in LULC pattern and vegetation density. In this study the methodology takes into account spatially-relative surface temperatures and impervious surface fraction value to measure surface UHI intensity between the urban land cover and rural surroundings. Both the spatial and temporal variation in surface temperature associated with impervious surface area (ISA) has been evaluated to assess the effect of urbanization on the local climate.

  16. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  17. Soil Compactability


    Seig, D. A.


    Subsoiling and deep loosening are widely used to alleviate soil compaction but little is known about the mechanics of the compaction process. Further information is required on the process that soil goes through during compaction, along with the effect on the amount of soil compaction of various tyre configurations. Such information will allow more confident recommendations to farmers on the suceptability of their soil to compaction. Experimental work was conducted whe...

  18. The sealing capacity of the cap rock above the Torre Alfina geothermal reservoir (Central Italy) revealed by soil CO2 flux investigations (United States)

    Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Ranaldi, Massimo; Gattuso, Alessandro; Pagliuca, Nicola Mauro; Tarchini, Luca


    Torre Alfina is a medium enthalpy (T = 140 °C) geothermal field in Central Italy, hosted in buried fractured Mesozoic limestones, extensively explored in the 1970s and 1980s, but which so far has not been exploited. A detailed diffuse soil CO2 flux investigation (1336 measurements over a surface of 12.6 km2) and the periodic monitoring of soil CO2 flux from target areas indicate that in most of the area, even above a pressurized gas cap existing at the reservoir top, the soil CO2 flux is low and mostly within the background threshold (48 g m- 2 day- 1) and is likely generated by biological soil respiration. Anomalous values (up to 30.250 g m- 2 day- 1) are found only in the proximity of a small zone with gas vents whose composition is identical to that of the gas produced by the geothermal wells tapping the reservoir. This is the only zone where a fault connecting the deep geothermal reservoir with the surface does exist. These data are compared with those of the near Latera high enthalpy geothermal field (T = 210 °C), where anomalous soil CO2 flux is recorded above the productive reservoir. The difference of soil CO2 release in the two fields is attributed to the differences in the impervious cover (allochthonous flysch deposits) above the carbonate reservoir, which is thin and locally lacking at Latera, and continuous and thick (> 400 m) at Torre Alfina. Results demonstrate that soil CO2 flux investigations are useful in geothermal exploration, but only high flux values likely indicate the presence of a geothermal reservoir at depth, whereas low flux values can indicate either the lack of an active geothermal reservoir at depth or the presence of a very effective impervious cover above the reservoir.

  19. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  20. Comparing Soils (United States)

    Students compare soils sampled from different environments and describe their color, texture, and composition. Samples of different soils are mixed with water in small vials, and water soil profiles are compared for difference in particle size and organic content. Students are instructed to create their own inquiry investigation using soil and pea or bean seeds. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, Soil: the Living Skin of the Earth, part of the unit, Losing Biodiversity, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  1. Development and substantiation of the structure of a masonry dam havinga soil cement membrane and designated for the climate of the far north of russia ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich


    Full Text Available The Far North of Russia has a strong power generation potential. Future hydraulic power engineering projects may include construction of major power generating plants in south Yakutia. The core elements of the proposed projects will comprise dams about200 meters high.The authors substantiate construction of a masonry dam in severe climatic conditions of the Far Northern region of Russia. The structural solution represents a masonry dam having an impervious element, or a wide internal membrane, made of soil and cement concrete. This element is to protect the soil-free membrane from any thermal effects. The authors provide their analysis of the deflected mode of the dam, if its height is equal to 226 m. The findings have proven that the membrane made of soil and concrete cement will be in the state of compression. Therefore, the authors believe that the proposed design of the dam structure is reliable enough.?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????????????? ????????? ? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????????????. ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????. ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????-???????????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? 226 ?. ??? ????????, ??? ????????????????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????.

  2. Extraction and Analysis of Impervious Surfaces Based on a Spectral Un-Mixing Method Using Pearl River Delta of China Landsat TM/ETM+ Imagery from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renrong Chen


    Full Text Available Impervious surface area (ISA is considered as an indicator of environment change and is regarded as an important input parameter for hydrological cycle simulation, water management and area pollution assessment. The Pearl River Delta (PRD, the 3rd most important economic district of China, is chosen in this paper to extract the ISA information based on Landsat images of 1998, 2003 and 2008 by using a linear spectral un-mixing method and to monitor impervious surface change by analyzing the multi-temporal Landsat-derived fractional impervious surface. Results of this study were as follows: (1 the area of ISA in the PRD increased 79.09% from 1998 to 2003 and 26.88% from 2003 to 2008 separately; (2 the spatial distribution of ISA was described according to the 1998/2003 percentage respectively. Most of middle and high percentage ISA was located in northwestern and southeastern of the whole delta, and middle percentage ISA was mainly located in the city interior, high percentage ISA was mainly located in the suburban around the city accordingly; (3 the expanding direction and trend of high percentage ISA was discussed in order to understand the change of urban in this delta; High percentage ISA moved from inner city to edge of urban area during 1998–2003 and moved to the suburban area that far from the urban area mixed with jumpily and gradually during 2003–2008. According to the discussion of high percentage ISA spatial expanded direction, it could be found out that high percentage ISA moved outward from the centre line of Pearl River of the whole delta while a high ISA percentage in both shores of the Pearl River Estuary moved toward the Pearl River; (4 combining the change of ISA with social conditions, the driving relationship was analyzed in detail. It was evident that ISA percentage change had a deep relationship with the economic development of this region in the past ten years. Contemporaneous major sport events (16th Asia Games of Guangzhou, 26th Summer Universidad of Shenzhen and the government policies also promoted the development of the ISA. Meanwhile, topographical features like the National Nature Reserve of China restricted and affected the expansion of the ISA. Above all, this paper attempted to extract ISA in a major region of the PRD; the temporal and spatial analyses to PRD ISA demonstrated the drastic changes in developed areas of China. These results were important and valuable for land use management, ecological protection and policy establishment.

  3. Soil suction


    Ma?ek, Matej


    Suction is pore water pressure in unsaturated soils and influences other soil characteristics. Suction measurements for 4 different soils (bentonite, stone flour, gray clay “sivica” and brown clay “flysch”) are presented. Measurements were performed on compacted and loose material at different water contents using 4 different methods: WP4 dewpoint potentiometer, filter paper, tenziometer and pressure plate apparatus. Additionally the water adsorption was determined for loose ma...

  4. Impacts of soil erosion


    Dorren, Luuk; De la Rosa, diego; Theocharopoulos, Sid. P.


    3.1 Definition of soil functions, soil quality and quality targets The identification of soil functions, properties and processes which are affected by soil erosion is needed to evaluate the impacts of erosion on the soil system. Definition of soil loss tolerance according to soil types and environmental characteristics. 3.2 Development of criteria and indicators to assess soil sustainable use and soil protection measures What are the impacts of soil erosion on soil...

  5. Does Soil Disturbance Affect Soil Phosphorus Fractions?


    Yonathan D. Redel; Rudolf Schulz; Torsten Müller


    Increased turnover of organic matter as a result of soil disturbance (e.g. by soil tillage) is described in principle, but the direct influence of soil disturbance on soil P turnover especially for organic farming systems has not been sufficiently proven. The objective of the study was to evaluate the short term effect of soil disturbance on different soil P fractions in a soil shaking experiment. Four soils were incubated for 10 days in the dark with three different disturbance treatmen...

  6. Helping People Understand Soils (United States)

    This slide show provides an introduction to soil and soil science. Topics include the functions of soil and its role in the ecosystem, soil management, important properties of soil, and factors that influence the location and types of soils that form. There is also information on soil surveys, possible negative impacts to soil, the soils taxonomy system, and how soil science meshes with other disciplines.

  7. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10-8 to 10-1 cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems

  8. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.R. [Reclamation Technology, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  9. Soil Solution


    Sonneveld, C.; de Voogt, W.


    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil solution with respect to plant development. One of the most striking differences between growing in the greenhouse and in the field is the exclusion of the natural precipitation in greenhouses, wh...

  10. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management


    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; Vries, F.T., de; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C


    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend on plant biodiversity and vice versa. Soil biota govern nutrient cycling and storage, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and turnover. Agriculture manipulates plants, soils and SOM. With intensific...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    California Department of Resources — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  12. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  13. Soils - Part 9: Fundamentals of Soil Testing (United States)

    The major emphasis in this lesson is soil testing and understanding the procedures needed to take a representative soil sample. You will understand the term variability, how it affects soil tests, and how a soil test is developed.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  14. (United States) provides teachers and students ages 5 through 16 (UK Key Stages 1-4) with extensive curriculum-based information about soil, one of our three major natural resources alongside air and water. The site helps users learn about what soil is, the teeming life in soil, the many environmental threats facing soils, and current developments affecting soils-related policymaking and soil science. was developed by the National Soil Resources Institute (NSRI) of Cranfield University, UK, the leading institution of soil science and soil-related research in England and Wales.

  15. Soils - Part 2: Physical Properties of Soil and Soil Water (United States)

    This lesson will help you understand the major components of the physical properties of soil. You will learn such terms as texture, aggregation, soil structure, bulk density, and porosity as it relates to soils. You will learn how soil holds and transmits water and cultural practices that enhance or degrade physical properties of the soil.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  16. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  17. Laboratory Assessment of Water Flow Simulator for Porous Parking Lots Reservoir and Soil Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zul Fahmi Mohamed Jaafar


    Full Text Available Porous parking lots were implemented to fill the scarcity and strengthen the sustainable development of impervious surfaces in Malaysia to reduce surface runoff. The new methodology proposed enable simulation of reservoir course at stipulated air voids despite details study on water levels and infiltration of porous parking lots system. A uniformly graded choker and reservoir stones functioned as reservoir structure for temporary storm water detention. A specially fabricated water flow simulator allows laboratory simulation of the porous parking lot system. The ability to simulate 1.24 to 59.89 cm h-1 rainfall intensities enable laboratory testing to verify water level and discharge time correlations with different soil infiltration rate at various rainfall intensities. The laboratory tests of vertical infiltration were conducted under conditions of saturated soils. At 59.89 cm h-1 simulated rainfall intensity, the highest water level recorded inside the water flow simulators body without reservoir course is 55 cm from the surface of 0.254 cm h-1 soil infiltration rate. A total of 80.5 h duration was required to completely discharge the stored water between large aggregate particles due to low soil infiltration rate. Utilizing the same laterite soil as bottom layer, the depth increased by approximately 60% after installation of reservoir course with approximately 40% air voids. Over a 60 min duration, the soil with coefficient of permeability equaled to 25.4 cm h-1 had recorded water level 20 cm in height and completely dried within 32.2 min only.

  18. Soils - Part 4: Soil pH (United States)

    Soil pH is defined and its implications for crop production are described in this lesson. How are soil pH and buffer pH determined? How are these assessments used in lime recommendations? The factors that influence pH variations in soils, the chemistry involved in changing the pH of a soil, and the benefits associated with liming acid soils will be discussed.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  19. Soil fertility management: Impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation.


    Ayuke, F.O.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.; J. Six; Lelei, D.K.; Kibunja, C.N.; Pulleman, M.M.


    Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna diversity on soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in tropical arable cropping systems. A study was conducted in a long-term trial at Kabete, Central Kenya, to investigate the effects of organic inputs (...

  20. Soils; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil associations forming map units express representation of soil units in the territory of Slovakia. They present the dominance of the soil units in associations and some other elements, above all the soil-forming substrates and in abbreviated classification also the extreme soil textures (light to heavy). Genetically related units are classified into groups of soil associations. The map was made by generalisation of cartographic materials of all soil investigations and mapping made since 1960 to the present day. (authors)

  1. Soils - Part 3: Soil Organic Matter (United States)

    In this lesson, you will learn such terms as organic, soil organic matter, nutrient, decomposition, humus, compost, and soil structure. In addition, you will be able to predict the effect of land uses on soil organic matter including the effects of different types of vegetation.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  2. Influence of soil moisture on soil respiration (United States)

    Fer, Miroslav; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Klement, Ales; Jelenova, Klara


    The aim of this work was to describe an impact of soil moisture on soil respiration. Study was performed on soil samples from morphologically diverse study site in loess region of Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The original soil type is Haplic Chernozem, which was due to erosion changed into Regosol (steep parts) and Colluvial soil (base slope and the tributary valley). Soil samples were collected from topsoils at 5 points of the selected elevation transect and also from the parent material (loess). Grab soil samples, undisturbed soil samples (small - 100 cm3, and large - 713 cm3) and undisturbed soil blocks were taken. Basic soil properties were determined on grab soil samples. Small undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. During experiments performed in greenhouse dry large undisturbed soil samples were wetted from below using a kaolin tank and cumulative water inflow due to capillary rise was measured. Simultaneously net CO2 exchange rate and net H2O exchange rate were measured using LCi-SD portable photosynthesis system with Soil Respiration Chamber. Numerical inversion of the measured cumulative capillary rise data using the HYDRUS-1D program was applied to modify selected soil hydraulic parameters for particular conditions and to simulate actual soil water distribution within each soil column in selected times. Undisturbed soil blocks were used to prepare thin soil sections to study soil-pore structure. Results for all soil samples showed that at the beginning of soil samples wetting the CO2 emission increased because of improving condition for microbes' activity. The maximum values were reached for soil column average soil water content between 0.10 and 0.15 cm3/cm3. Next CO2 emission decreased since the pore system starts filling by water (i.e. aggravated conditions for microbes, closing soil gas pathways etc.). In the case of H2O exchange rate, values increased with increasing soil water contents (up to 0.15-0.20 cm3/cm3) and then remained approximately constant. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic No. QJ1230319

  3. Soil Core Sampling (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about one method used in environmental site assessments. They practice soil sampling by creating soil cores, studying soil profiles and characterizing soil profiles in borehole logs. They use their analysis to make predictions about what is going on in the soil and what it might mean to an engineer developing the area.

  4. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.


    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  5. In-situ determination of directional conductivities of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydraulic conductivity K is a macroscopic parameter which depends on the properties of both the fluid as well as the porous matrix. Stratified soils are usually anisotropic in nature. In most soils, the water transmitting capacity in the horizontal direction is observed to be higher than the vertical conductivity. However, in many soils (e.g., loess), vertical joints, root holes and animal burrows make the vertical conductivity higher than the horizontal. Accurate estimations of the horizontal and the vertical conductivities of a soil medium in its natural water-saturated state is of considerable importance in obtaining rational solutions to drainage and other groundwater flow problems. This lecture will be mainly concerned with the development of a suitable auger hole seepage theory for the confined situation. The depth to the impervious layer, partial penetration of the auger hole, level of water in the auger hole, and confining pressure of the aquifer are taken, all distances being measured from the confining stratum. The saturated hydraulic conductivities of the soil in the horizontal and vertical directions are taken. Because of axial symmetry, we consider only one half of the flow domain for analysis located towards the right of the vertical axis passing through the origin O. For convenience, we take the z axis to be positive vertically downward and r axis to be positive towards the right. Further, in the analysis to follow, we assume the flow to be steady, the drawdown near the vicinity of the hole during one experimental cycle to be negligible the aquifer material and water to be incompressible and the principal directions of anisotropy of the aquifer to coincide with the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. In order to obtain solution to the problem, the hydraulic head functions must be determined such that the governing equations. If the entire computation is repeated (again by taking M = N = 100) by neglecting the confining pressure, i.e. t = 0, the K value now turns out to be 2.90 m/day. It can be observed that this value differs considerably from that of 0.96 m/day obtained by considering the confining pressure of the aquifer. As can be seen, an error of about 200% occurs for this flow situation due to neglect of this confining water head

  6. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  7. GeologicSoils_SOAG

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — GeologicSoils_SOAG includes a pre-selected subset of SSURGO soil data depicting prime agricultural soils in Vermont. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to the...

  8. Detailed Soils 24K

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  9. Soil micromorphology, soil structure stability and soil hydraulic properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Rohošková, M.; Žigová, Anna; Kodeš, V.; Kutílek, M.

    Bratislava : Ústav hydrológie SAV, 2006 - (Ivan?o, J.; Pavelková, D.; Gomboš, M.; Tall, A.), s. 0-0 ISBN 80-89139-09-4. [Vedecká konferencia s medzinárodnou ú?as?ou Vplyv Antropogénnej ?innosti na vodný režim nížinného územia /6./ ; Slovensko-?esko-po?ský seminár Fyzika vody v pode /16./. Bratislava -Michalovce-Vinianske jazero (SK), 06.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300130504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil micromorphological properties * soil structure stability * soil porous system * soil hydraulic properties Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  10. Soils: Photo Gallery (United States)

    An interesting page from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Web site is entitled Soils: Photo Gallery. Visitors can choose from State Soils, Soil Images and Landscapes, Principles and Techniques, and the NRCS Photo Gallery. The interesting state soils link contains individual pages that present descriptions and photos of that state's official soil. For example, Wisconsin's state soil Antigo is described as the most extensive soil in the state and is very productive for corn, small grain, and hay. A picture of the soil as part of a landscape, a layered profile, and a graphic of where it's predominantly located is provided.

  11. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over croplands using airborne hyperspectral data (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Bel, Liliane; Lefebvre, Josias; Chehdi, Kacem


    This study was carried out in the framework of the Prostock-Gessol3 and the BASC-SOCSENSIT projects, dedicated to the spatial monitoring of the effects of exogenous organic matter land application on soil organic carbon storage. It aims at identifying the potential of airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soils comprise hortic or glossic luvisols, calcaric, rendzic cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks which were georeferenced. Tracks were atmospherically corrected using a set of 22 synchronous field spectra of both bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. Atmospherically corrected track tiles were mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution resulting in a 66 Gb image. A SPOT4 satellite image was acquired the same day in the framework of the SPOT4-Take Five program of the French Space Agency (CNES) which provided it with atmospheric correction. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then NDVI calculation and thresholding enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. All 18 sampled sites known to be bare at this very date were correctly included in this map. A total of 85 sites sampled in 2013 or in the 3 previous years were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples. The use of the total sample including 27 sites under cloud shadows led to non-significant results. Considering 43 sites outside cloud shadows only, median validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were ~4-4.5 g. kg?1. An additional set of 15 samples with bare soils led to similar RMSE values. Such results are only slightly better than those resulting from an earlier study with multispectral satellite images (Vaudour et al., 2013). The influence of soil surface condition and particularly soil roughness is discussed.

  12. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.


    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management ( Progress on database completion is reported.


    This special issue of “Soil Science“ celebrates the enormous accomplishments made during the past century or more in the field of soil science, including some of the key articles published in Soil Science during its 90 years of existence. In this article, we focus on the contributions in soil physic...

  14. Soils as Construction Materials (United States)

    Douglas Kowalewski

    This geotechnical project will introduce you with the concept of using soils as construction materials.This project involves characterizing soils using various laboratory analyses and applying the Unified Soil Classification System in naming the soil. Keywords: Geotechnical, Mass Wetness, Grain Size Analysis, Atterberg Limits

  15. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  16. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal


    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  17. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start detachment. Studies on necessary kinetic energy to detach one kilogram of sediments by raindrop impact have shown that the minimum energy is required for particles of 0.125 mm. Particles between 0.063 to 0.250 mm are the most vulnerable to detachment. This means that soils with high content of particles into vulnerable range, for example silty loam, loamy, fine sandy, and sandy loam are the most susceptible soils to detachment. Many aspects of soil behaviour in the field such as hydraulic conductivity water retention, soil crusting, soil compaction, and workability are influenced strongly by the primary particles. In tropical soils also a negative relation between structure stability and particles of silt, fine sand and very fine sand has been found, this is attributed to low cohesiveness of these particles. The ability of a structure to persist is known as its stability. There are two principal types of stability: the ability of the soil to retain its structure under the action of water, and the ability of the soil to retain its structure under the action of external mechanical stresses. (e.g. by wheels). Both types of stability are related with susceptibility to erosion

  18. Soil mapping in Spain


    J. J. Ibáñez; Rubio, J L; López-Lafuente, A.; Monturiol, F.


    The first soil maps representing Spain date from the beginning of the century: the Universal Soil Map of Glinka and that prepared by Sibirtzev and Ramman (Mudarra 1989). The first research work carried out on Spanish soil however must be attributed to E. Huguet del Villar, who was already pioneering soil surveys of the Iberian Peninsula in 1927 on the occasion of the first Intemational Soil Science Congress held in Washington (Huguet del Villar 1927). At that time, he collaborated on the worl...

  19. Soil Erosion Studies




    Soil erosion affects a large part of the Earth surface, and accelerated soil erosion is recognized as one of the main soil threats, compromising soil productive and protective functions. The land management in areas affected by soil erosion is a relevant issue for landscape and ecosystems preservation. In this book we collected a series of papers on erosion, not focusing on agronomic implications, but on a variety of other relevant aspects of the erosion phenomena. The book is divided into th...

  20. Fertilizers and soil improvers


    Sonneveld, C.; de Voogt, W.


    In greenhouse industry fertilizers as well as soil improvers are widely used. Fertilizers are mainly applied to optimize the physical-chemical conditions of the root environment and are used for growing in soils in situ as well as for growing in substrates. Soil improvers are materials solely added to soils in situ primarily to maintain or improve its physical properties, but it also can improve its chemical and biological properties. Thus the difference between fertilizers and soil improvers...

  1. Soil hydraulic properties of Cuban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because soil hydraulic properties are indispensable for determining soil water retention and soil water movement, their input for deterministic crop simulation models is essential. From these models is possible to access the effect of the weather changes, soil type or different irrigation schedules on crop yields. With these models, possibilities are provided to answer questions regarding virtual 'what happen if' experiments with a minimum of fieldwork. Nevertheless, determining soil hydraulic properties can be very difficult owing to unavailability of necessary equipment or the lack of personal with the proper knowledge for those tasks. These deficiencies are a real problem in developing countries, and even more so when there is not enough financial possibilities for research work. This paper briefly presents the way these properties have been accessed for Cuban soils, which methods have been used and the work now in progress. (author)

  2. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.


    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and p

  3. Gypseous soils and the universal soil taxonomic system


    Herrero Isern, Juan


    This presentation focus on three aspects of gypseous soils: 1) Soil Taxonomy as a language; 2) The uniqueness of gypseous soils; 3) Why their taxa and the terms used for other mineral soils should be applied with caution.

  4. Soil Surveys (Online first)


    Brus, D. J.; Lark, R.M.


    The aim of a soil survey is to predict soil conditions at unvisited sites. In traditional soil survey, the use of statistics is principally for post hoc evaluation of the quality of the choropleth map in terms of purity and within- and between-map unit variance of soil properties. Probability sampling designs have been proposed for this. Pedometrical soil surveys treat all phases of the soil survey explicitly as a statistical problem. This had led to the adoption and development of, amongst o...

  5. Remediation of Contaminated Soils

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of Methods for Remediation of Soils with Increased Contents of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Improvement of Soils for Ecologically Clean Agricultural Production Systems Taking into Account the Population Health Indicators

  6. GeologicSoils_ONSITE

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to...

  7. Remote Sensing of Soil


    Mehrez Zribi; Nicolas Baghdadi; Michel Nolin


    Remote sensing has shown a high potential in soil characteristics retrieving in the last three decades. Different methodologies have been proposed for the estimation of soil parameters, based on different remote sensing sensors and techniques (passive and active).

  8. Iodine dynamics in soil


    Hassan Shetaya, Waleed Hares Abdou


    The principal aim of this investigation was to understand the transformation and reaction kinetics of iodide and iodate added to soil in relation to soil properties. In addition, to integrate the data into a predictive model of iodide and iodate sorption kinetics parameterised by soil properties. Solid phase fractionation coupled with solution phase speciation (HPLC-ICPMS) was used to follow the assimilation of 129I- and 129IO3- spikes into ‘steady state’ soil microcosms. The extract...

  9. Soil conservation measures: exercises


    Figueiredo, Tomás; Fonseca, Felícia


    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  10. Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics


    Delage, Pierre


    In this general report, experimental systems and procedures of investigating the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils are commented and linked to various physical parameters and properties of the soils. Techniques of controlling suction are described together with their adaptation in various laboratory testing devices. Some typical features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are prese...

  11. Dielectric characterisation of soil.


    Hilhorst, M.A.


    The potential of dielectric measuring techniques for soil characterisation has not been fully explored. This is attributed to the complex and incomplete theory on dielectrics, as well as to the lack of sensors suited for practical applications.The theory on dielectric properties of soils is described, evaluated, and expanded. Colloidal polarisation of soil particles appears to be negligible. The polarisability of air bubbles in the soil matrix is made plausible. The Maxwell-Wagner effect is e...

  12. Technogenic Soils of Poland


    Charzy?ski, Przemys?aw; Hulisz, Piotr; Bednarek, Renata


    In recent years, urban soils have been extensively researched. The growing interest in the related issues contributes to better understanding of the soil cover diversity in the cities, identification of changes and threats resulting from urbanization and industrialisation. This book presents the state of the art of knowledge about diverse technogenic soils in Poland. It includes many examples of urban soil studies conducted in miscellaneous Polish scientific centres. The presented issues conc...

  13. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author)

  14. Conserving Soil. Revised. (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This book of enrichment materials is an interdisciplinary study of soil designed for students in grades 6-9. The materials are presented in three units. Unit 1 contains eight activities in which students investigate soil science and study the social impact of soil by examining the history of land use by local Native Americans. Unit 2 contains 10…

  15. Soil Use and Management (United States)

    This site is part of the US Department of Agriculture\\'s Natural Resource\\'s Conservation Service, providing state-of-the-art soil survey technology, standards, data, and expertise. This site covers soil quality, hydric and urban soils, facts and figures for the United States, and a number of world, national and thematic maps.

  16. SOIL WATER HYSTERESIS (United States)

    Since at least the early work of Haines, it has been recognized that volumetric soil water content, W, and hydraulic conductivity, K, are not singular functions of soil water pressure head, h, but rather exhibit considerable variation depending on the wetting and drying history of the soil. The non-...

  17. Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre


    In this general report, experimental systems and procedures of investigating the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils are commented and linked to various physical parameters and properties of the soils. Techniques of controlling suction are described together with their adaptation in various laboratory testing devices. Some typical features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented within an elasto-plastic framework. An attempt to describe the numerous and significant recent advances in the investigation of the behaviour of unsaturated soils, including the contributions to this Conference, is proposed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?nci Sevinç Kravkaz Ku?cu*,


    Full Text Available For understanding the structure and the functions of soil ecosystem, the analysis of soil microorganisms’ population and the factors affecting their activities are important. For this purpose, the soil enzymes: are used as indicators of soil fertility and microbial activity. The distribution of soil enzymes and activities on the agricultural lands under the monoculture or sowing is accepted as a wide research subject however the researches which investigate the ecological relation in natural ecosystem by using the enzymes on biotope characterization are rare or not too much. With this study it was attempted to establish a base for future studies by evaluating the done researches on soil properties and their effects on soil fertility.

  19. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)


    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  20. From soil in art towards Soil Art (United States)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.


    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.

  1. How Can Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements Control Soil Pollution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza


    Full Text Available Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soil pollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and arsenic, herbicides, pesticides, oils, tars, PCBs and dioxins. Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC is one of the soil physical properties w hich have a good relationship with the other soil characteristics. As measuring soil electrical conductivity is easier, less expensive and faster than other soil properties measurements, using a detector that can do on the go soil EC measurements is a good tool for obtaining useful information about soil pollution condition.

  2. Soil in the Anthropocene (United States)

    Richter, Daniel deB; Bacon, Allan R.; Brecheisen, Zachary; Mobley, Megan L.


    With scholars deliberating a new name for our geologic epoch, i.e., the Anthropocene, soil scientists whether biologists, chemists, or physicists are documenting significant changes accruing in a majority of Earth's soils. Such global soil changes interact with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere (i.e., Earth's Critical Zone), and these developments are significantly impacting the Earth's stratigraphic record as well. In effect, soil scientists study such global soil changes in a science of anthropedology, which leads directly to the need to transform pedostratigraphyinto an anthro-pedostratigraphy, a science that explores how global soil change alters Earth's litho-, bio-, and chemostratigraphy. These developments reinforce perspectives that the planet is indeed crossing into the Anthropocene.

  3. Geomorphic Analysis of Soils (United States)

    Briget Doyle

    Students are taken to a former plantation along a tidal river near Charleston, SC. The students are then shown how to sample and describe soils using an push-auger sampler, similar to those used in industry. After the demonstration, the students are taken to various locations on the plantation, including upland areas, wetlands, former agricultural areas, lowlands, and tidal marshes, to sample and make field descriptions of the various soils encountered. Students describe depths to horizons, soil color using Munsell Color Charts, soil texture, and any other pertinent properties. Students then prepare a formal technical write-up on the soils, their distribution, and how their sampling results compare to published soil data for the area. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data

  4. Soil contamination by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil is the first link in the food chain. Soil contamination by individual radionuclides significantly affects the level of terrestrial radiation in the locality. The authors mapped situation of post-Chernobyl 137Cs soil contamination in Slovakia and European countries. Samples were collected in three layers of agriculturally cultivated area. Even a few years after the Chernobyl accident authors can say that elevated 137Cs values were recorded in the samples from Austria and Germany, in all layers of collection. (authors)

  5. Diffusion in aggregated soil.


    Rappoldt, C


    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consists of spherical, or cylindrical or plane aggregates, which do not represent the individual aggregates of the soil, however. The radii of the spheres, cylinders or plane sheets represent different le...

  6. Photocatalytic Soil Decontamination


    Minero, Claudio; PELIZZETTI, Ezio


    A photocatalytic treatment is evaluated for the decontamination of soils containing 2-chlorophenol, 2,7-dichlorodibenzodioxin and atrazine. In the laboratory the contaminated soils were mixed with a photocatalyst (TiO2) in a aqueous slurry (up to 60 g L-1 of solid mixture) and exposed to simulated solar radiation. The organic contaminants were destroyed in relatively short time. On this basis photocatalytic processes could be effective chemical detoxification methods for contaminated soils.

  7. Soil erosion and landslides


    Lilly, A.; Auton, Clive; Baggaley, N.J.; Bowes, J P; Foster, Claire; Haq, M.; Reeves, Helen


    The publication of this report is an action arising from the 2009 Scottish Soil Framework. It aims to contribute to the wider understanding that soils are a vital part of our economy, environment and heritage, to be safeguarded for existing and future generations. The State of Scotland’s Soil Report collates the most recent information available from a variety of sources and builds on previous reports by SEPA (2001) and Towers et al. (2006) and is part of wider environmental re...

  8. Soil life under stress


    Tobor-Kaplon, M A


    In this thesis I studied how long-term soil contamination affects microbial populations and processes, ecosystem properties and functional stability. I also investigated which parameters are suitable as indicators of soil quality in long-term contaminated soils. I found that contamination had a negative impact on many examined microbial parameters, e.g. biomasses, respiration and growth rate (Chapter 2). Some parameters like protozoan biomass and metabolic quotient did not show any effect of ...


    Soil hydraulic pedotransfer functions transfer simple-to-measure soil survey information into soil hydraulic characteristics, that are otherwise costly to measure. Examples are presented of different equations describing hydraulic characteristics and of pedotransfer functions used to predict paramet...

  10. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  11. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae


    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  12. The Living Soil (United States)

    Soil is home to vast numbers of organisms, and even small sections of earth teem with a diverse array of life. This Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the world beneath our feet through the lens of soil biologists and ecologists. The first website (1) provides information about the activities of a Natural Environment Research Council-supported research program "on the biological diversity of soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes." The second site (2) contains information about several research projects of the Ecology of Soil Organisms Theme Group at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Theme Group studies "soil organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem level, to ultimately increase understanding of the role of soil organisms." The third site (3) contains a list of publications spanning the past fifteen years from members of the Soil Ecology Group at the University of Jyv'skyl". The site also provides basic information about group members, and concise descriptions of current research projects. From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the fourth website (4) contains an online version of the _Soil Biology Primer_, "an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms." The online version of the Primer contains the entire text of the original published version, but is missing some useful soil organism images. The fifth site (5) links to sixteen movies relating to different aspects of soil biology such as nematodes, mites, springtails, and protozoa. The movies were all produced by Dr. Thomas E. Loynachan, a Professor of Agronomy and Microbiology at Iowa State University. Finally, Soils Are Alive (6) was developed by Professor Lyn Abbot of the University of Western Australia and Jen Slater, a qualified secondary school science teacher. This website contains informative, concise sections addressing Soil Biology, Biological Processes, Living Components, and Ecosystem Management.

  13. Estimating soil water retention using soil component additivity model (United States)

    Zeiliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.; Semenov, V.


    Soil water retention is a major soil hydraulic property that governs soil functioning in ecosystems and greatly affects soil management. Data on soil water retention are used in research and applications in hydrology, agronomy, meteorology, ecology, environmental protection, and many other soil-related fields. Soil organic matter content and composition affect both soil structure and adsorption properties; therefore water retention may be affected by changes in soil organic matter that occur because of both climate change and modifications of management practices. Thus, effects of organic matter on soil water retention should be understood and quantified. Measurement of soil water retention is relatively time-consuming, and become impractical when soil hydrologic estimates are needed for large areas. One approach to soil water retention estimation from readily available data is based on the hypothesis that soil water retention may be estimated as an additive function obtained by summing up water retention of pore subspaces associated with soil textural and/or structural components and organic matter. The additivity model and was tested with 550 soil samples from the international database UNSODA and 2667 soil samples from the European database HYPRES containing all textural soil classes after USDA soil texture classification. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the volumetric water content estimates for UNSODA vary from 0.021 m3m-3 for coarse sandy loam to 0.075 m3m-3 for sandy clay. Obtained RMSEs are at the lower end of the RMSE range for regression-based water retention estimates found in literature. Including retention estimates of organic matter significantly improved RMSEs. The attained accuracy warrants testing the 'additivity' model with additional soil data and improving this model to accommodate various types of soil structure. Keywords: soil water retention, soil components, additive model, soil texture, organic matter.

  14. Relaxometry in soil science (United States)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.


    NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non-destructive way. Recent studies investigated wetting and swelling processes in soil samples, as well as the formation of microbial biofilms in soil the formation. This contribution gives an overview of current applications and the potential of NMR relaxometry in soil science with special emphasis on proton NMR relaxometry. References Bird, N.R.A., Preston, A.R., Randall, E.W., Whalley, W.R. & Whitmore, A.P. 2005. Measurement of the size distribution of water-filled pores at different matric potentials by stray field nuclear magnetic resonance. 56, 135-143. Bryar, T.R. & Knight, R.J. 2002. Sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements to Changing Soil Redox Conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 50/1-50/4. Conte, P., Spaccini, R. & Piccolo, A. 2006. Advanced CPMAS-13C NMR techniques for molecular characterization of size-separated fractions from a soil humic acid. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 386, 382-390. Gunasekara, A.S., Simpson, M.I. & Xing, B. 2003. Identification and characterization of sorption domains in soil organic matter using strucuturally modified humic acids. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 852-858. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E., Boeckelmann, U. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. Microbial effects on 1H NMR Relaxometry in soil samples and glass bead reactors. In Humic Substances - Linking Structure to Functions. Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of the International Humic Substances Societyin Karlsruhe eds. F.H. Frimmel & G. Abbt-Braun), pp. 929-932. Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe. Hurraß, J. & Schaumann, G.E. 2007. Hydration kinetics of wettable and water repellent soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 280-288. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. 1H NMR Relaxometry in natural humous soil samples: Insights in microbial effects on relaxation time distributions. Plant and Soil, 280, 209-222. Jaeger, F., Rudolph, N., Lang, F. & Schaumann, G.E. 2008. Effects of soil solution's constituents on proton NMR relaxometry of soil samples. Soil Science Society of Am

  15. KBRA OPWP Soil Rooting Depth

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.


    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  17. The Global Soil Partnership (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca


    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  18. Enzymes in Forest Soils.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Štursová, Martina

    Heidelberg, Dordrecht, NY : Springer, 2011 - (Shukla, G.; Varma, A.), s. 61-73 ISBN 978-3-642-14225-3 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/08/0751; GA MŠk OC08050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : forest soils * soil ecology * enzymes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  19. Creative Soil Conservation (United States)

    Smith, Martha


    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  20. Metastable Loess Soils (United States)

    The hydrocollapse of loess continues to cause major geotechnical problems throughout the world. Work is currently being conducted to develop a constitutive model to analyze the behavior of collapsing loess soils. This site discusses the development of this model and the methods used to validate it, which include the use of an artificial loess soil manufactured in the laboratory.

  1. The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States (United States)

    Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.


    Organized national soil survey began in the United States in 1899, with soil types as the units being mapped. The soil series concept was introduced into the U.S. soil survey in 1903 as a way to relate soils being mapped in one area to the soils of other areas. The original concept of a soil series was all soil types formed in the same parent materials that were of the same geologic age. However, within about 15 years soil series became the primary units being mapped in U.S. soil survey. Soil types became subdivisions of soil series, with the subdivisions based on changes in texture. As the soil series became the primary mapping unit the concept of what a soil series was also changed. Instead of being based on parent materials and geologic age, the soil series of the 1920s was based on the morphology and composition of the soil profile. Another major change in the concept of soil series occurred when U.S. Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975. Under Soil Taxonomy, the soil series subdivisions were based on the uses the soils might be put to, particularly their agricultural uses (Simonson, 1997). While the concept of the soil series has changed over the years, the term soil series has been the longest-lived term in U.S. soil classification. It has appeared in every official classification system used by the U.S. soil survey (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). The first classification system was put together by Milton Whitney in 1909 and had soil series at its second lowest level, with soil type at the lowest level. The second classification system used by the U.S. soil survey was developed by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham in 1913. It had soil series at the second highest level, with soil classes and soil types at more detailed levels. This was followed by another system in 1938 developed by M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. In this system soil series were again at the second lowest level with soil types at the lowest level. The soil type concept was dropped and replaced by the soil phase in the 1950s in a modification of the 1938 Baldwin et al. classification (Simonson, 1997). When Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975, soil series became the most detailed (lowest) level of the classification system, and the only term maintained throughout all U.S. classifications to date. While the number of recognized soil series have increased steadily throughout the history of U.S. soil survey, there was a rapid increase in the recognition of new soil series following the introduction of Soil Taxonomy (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). References Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390. Simonson, R.W. 1997. Evolution of soil series and type concepts in the United States. Advances in Geoecology 29:79-108.

  2. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ? The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ? Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ? Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ? The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ? The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  3. Soil Treasure Hunt (United States)

    Students will make predictions about what they think they will find in a sample of soil. They will investigate the sample and sort out the various items they find. Next they will spend time outside observing one or more sites to see what they find in the soil. After recording and sharing their observations they will create their own stories about the things they found in the soil. Uses commonly available or inexpensive materials (e.g., a soil sample from near the school, tweezers, toothpicks, eye droppers, magnifying glasses, rulers, pencils, markers, trowel or shovel). This is the 2nd of 3 sets of learning activities that are companion activities to the Elementary GLOBE children's book, The Scoop on Soils. Includes a teacher implementation guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  4. Soil Classification Using GATree

    CERN Document Server

    Bhargavi, P


    This paper details the application of a genetic programming framework for classification of decision tree of Soil data to classify soil texture. The database contains measurements of soil profile data. We have applied GATree for generating classification decision tree. GATree is a decision tree builder that is based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). The idea behind it is rather simple but powerful. Instead of using statistic metrics that are biased towards specific trees we use a more flexible, global metric of tree quality that try to optimize accuracy and size. GATree offers some unique features not to be found in any other tree inducers while at the same time it can produce better results for many difficult problems. Experimental results are presented which illustrate the performance of generating best decision tree for classifying soil texture for soil data set.

  5. BOREAS TE-01 SSA Soil Lab Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a set of soil properties for the SSA. The soil samples were collected at sets of soil pits. Major soil properties include soil horizon; dry...

  6. BOREAS TE-01 SSA Soil Lab Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a set of soil properties for the SSA. The soil samples were collected at sets of soil pits. Major soil properties include soil...

  7. Fixation Status of Acid Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six acid soil series from different benchmark sites; Rangsit soil (Sulfic Tropaquepts) (two acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Korat soil (Oxic Paleustults), Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic paleustults) and Boundary grey soil and two Thai phosphate rocks (P R) (Lampun P R and Ratchabuie P R) had been characterized in the laboratory by isotope techniques (E, value Part 1). Triple superphosphate (TSP) was used as a standard fertilizer. R P and TSP with 50 mg P Kg-1 soil were incubated for 30 days to examine the fixing capacity of the acid soils. The results showed that Rangsit Soil which is acid sulfate had high fixing capacity. Pakchong soil retained higher P fixation ability than Korat and Warin soil series. The highest fixation capacity among 7 acid soils were Grey Soil and Mae Taeng soil series. The solubility of TSP was decreased when incorporated with soil after incubation for 30 days. P R from Ratchaburi showed higher effectiveness than Lamphun P R

  8. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springael, D.; Bastiaens, L.; Carpels, M.; Mergaey, M.; Diels, L.


    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  9. Soil survey, soil databases and soil monitoring in Spain


    Ibáñez Martín, Juan José; Sánchez Díaz, Juan; De la Rosa, diego; Alba, S., de


    Meetings of European Union Heads of Soil Survey Organisations were held in 1989 and 1994 respectively. Both were followed by publication of monographs describing the state-of-the-art in each of the member countries (Hodgson 1991; Le Bas & Jamagne 1996). Limited progress has been made in Spain since then, except for a proposal for an ambitious macroproject (PNCTA), the prospects for which now seem somewhat uncertain. Readers interested in historical aspects of Spanis...

  10. Soil disturbance increases soil microbial enzymatic activity in arid ecoregion (United States)

    Functional diversity of the soil microbial community is commonly used in the assessment of soil health as it relates to the activity of soil microflora involved in carbon cycling. Soil microbes in different microenvironments will have varying responses to different substrates, thus catabolic fingerp...

  11. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey (United States)

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.


    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  12. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance (United States)

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.


    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  13. SOIL Geo-Wiki: A tool for improving soil information (United States)

    Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael


    Crowdsourcing is increasingly being used as a way of collecting data for scientific research, e.g. species identification, classification of galaxies and unravelling of protein structures. The database at ISRIC is a global collection of soil profiles, which have been 'crowdsourced' from experts. This system, however, requires contributors to have a priori knowledge about soils. Yet many soil parameters can be observed in the field without specific knowledge or equipment such as stone content, soil depth or color. By crowdsourcing this information over thousands of locations, the uncertainty in current soil datasets could be radically reduced, particularly in areas currently without information or where multiple interpretations are possible from different existing soil maps. Improved information on soils could benefit many research fields and applications. Better soil data could enhance assessments of soil ecosystem services (e.g. soil carbon storage) and facilitate improved process-based ecosystem modeling from local to global scales. Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool that was developed at IIASA for land cover validation using satellite imagery. Several branches are now available focused on specific aspects of land cover validation, e.g. validating cropland extent or urbanized areas. Geo-Wiki Pictures is a smart phone application for collecting land cover related information on the ground. The extension of Geo-Wiki to a mobile environment provides a tool for experts in land cover validation but is also a way of reaching the general public in the validation of land cover. Here we propose a Soil Geo-Wiki tool that builds on the existing functionality of the Geo-Wiki application, which will be largely designed for the collection and sharing of soil information. Two distinct applications are envisaged: an expert-oriented application mainly for scientific purposes, which will use soil science related language (e.g. WRB or any other global reference soil classification system) and allow experts to upload and share scientifically rigorous soil data; and an application oriented towards the general public, which will be more focused on describing well observed, individual soil properties using simplified classification keys. The latter application will avoid the use of soil science related terminology and focus on the most useful soil parameters such as soil surface features, stone content, soil texture, soil plasticity, calcium carbonate presence, soil color, soil pH, soil repellency, and soil depth. Collection of soil and landscape pictures will also be supported in Soil Geo-Wiki to allow for comprehensive data collection while simultaneously allowing for quality checking by experts.

  14. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology


    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  15. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129I uptake to plants

  16. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal


    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  17. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  18. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties. (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile


    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. PMID:26086811

  19. Soil Microbes and soil microbial proteins: interactions with clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial enumeration in soil environments estimates that the population may reach approximately 1010 g-1 of soil and comprise up to 90% of the total soil microbial biomass. Bacteria are present in soils as single cells or multicell colonies and often strongly adsorb onto mineral surfaces such as sand and clay. The interactions of microbes and microbial biomolecules with these minerals have profound impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. (Author)

  20. Soil fauna and soil functions: a jigsaw puzzle


    Briones, María Jesús I.


    Terrestrial ecologists and soil modelers have traditionally portrayed the inhabitants of soil as a black box labeled as “soil fauna” or “decomposers or detritivores” assuming that they just merely recycle the deposited dead plant material. Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on Earth and contains one of the most diverse assemblages of living organisms; however, the opacity of this world has severely limited our understanding of their functional contributions to soil processes and to ecos...

  1. Soil fauna and soil functions: a jigsaw puzzle




    Terrestrial ecologists and soil modelers have traditionally portrayed the inhabitants of soil as a black box labeled as "soil fauna" or "decomposers or detritivores” assuming that they just merely recycle the deposited dead plant material. Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on Earth and contains one of the most diverse assemblages of living organisms; however, the opacity of this world has severely limited our understanding of their functional contributions to soil processes and to ecos...

  2. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation. (United States)

    Helms, Douglas


    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…


    Soil physical properties are needed to understand and manage natural systems spanning an extremely wide range of scales. Much of soil data are obtained from small soil samples and cores, monoliths, or small field plots, yet the goal is to reconstruct soil physical properties across fields, watershed...


    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M, Ubalde; X, Sort; R.M, Poch.

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the soil forming processes of representative vineyard soils, and to discuss the implications on a soil-based viticultural zoning at very detailed scale. The study area is located in Priorat, Penedes and Conca de Barbera viticultural areas (Catalonia, North-east [...] ern Spain). The studied soils belong to representative soil map units determined at 1:5,000 scale, according to Soil Taxonomy classification. The soil forming processes, identified through morphological and micromorphological analyses, have significant effects on some soil properties. For example, the different processes of clay accumulation in soils developed from granodiorites in Priorat or gravel deposits in Conca de Barbera, are primarily responsible for significant differences in clay content, available water capacity and cation exchange capacity. These soils properties, especially those related to soil moisture regime, have a direct influence on vineyard management and grape quality. However, soil forming processes are not always reflected on soil classification, especially in soils modified by man. We show that climate or geology alone cannot be used in viticultural zoning at very detailed scale, unless soil forming processes are taken into account.

  5. Soils - Mean Permeability

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas....

  6. Thermal soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental properties and business aspects of thermal soil remediation are described. Thermal soil remediation is considered as being the best option in cleaning contaminated soil for reuse. The thermal desorption process can remove hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and crude oil, from contaminated soil. Nelson Environmental Remediation (NER) Ltd. uses a mobile thermal desorption unit (TDU) with high temperature capabilities. NER has successfully applied the technology to target heavy end hydrocarbon removal from Alberta's gumbo clay in all seasons. The TDU consist of a feed system, a counter flow rotary drum kiln, a baghouse particulate removal system, and a secondary combustion chamber known as an afterburner. The technology has proven to be cost effective and more efficient than bioremediation and landfarming

  7. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about soil biology? How do our activities affect soil ecosystems? What are the links between soil biota and climate change? The first ever European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity uses informative texts, stunning photographs and maps to answer these questions and other issues. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity functions as a comprehensive guide allowing non-specialists to access information about this unseen world. The first part of the book provides an overview of the below ground environment, soil biota in general, the ecosystem functions that soil organism perform, the important value it has for human activities and relevance for global biogeochemical cycles. The second part is an 'Encyclopedia of Soil Biodiversity'. Starting with the smallest organisms such as the bacteria, this segment works through a range of taxonomic groups such as fungi, nematodes, insects and macro-fauna to illustrate the astonishing levels of heterogeneity of life in soil. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is more than just a normal atlas. Produced by leading soil scientists from Europe and other parts of the world under the auspice of the International Year of Biodiversity 2010, this unique document presents an interpretation of an often neglected biome that surrounds and affects us all. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is an essential reference to the many and varied aspects of soil. The overall goal of this work is to convey the fundamental necessity to safeguard soil biodiversity in order to guarantee life on this planet.

  8. Soil strength and forest operations.


    Beekman, F.


    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impact of forces, can ...

  9. Mobile soil washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaning contaminated soil is becoming more and more important in environmental protection. One economically viable and technically feasible method is washing soil contaminated with organic, metallic or radioactive substances. The effectiveness of the mobile technique has been demonstrated at the Bruni, Texas, uranium ore mine. The process combines physical and chemical separation processes, has a throughput of approx. 18 t/h, and attains a decontamination level of 99%. (orig.)

  10. Climate Strategic Soil Management


    Rattan Lal


    The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing freque...

  11. Selenium in soil


    ?uvardi? Maja S.


    Selenium (Se) is an essential microelement, necessary for normal functioning of human and animal organisms. Its deficiency in food and feed causes a number of diseases. In high concentrations, selenium is toxic for humans animals and plants. Soil provision with selenium affects its level in food and feed via nutrition chain. However, selenium reactivity and bioavailability depends not only on its total content in soil but also on its chemical forms. Distribution of the different forms of sele...

  12. The Scoop on Soils (United States)

    This science-based storybook provides an introduction to soil description and sampling. Simon, Anita and Dennis follow their dog, Scoop, and find themselves in the middle of an adventure in soil. This is one of four storybooks under the title Elementary GLOBE; each book also has companion learning activities that complement the science covered in each story. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  13. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  14. Seasonal variability of soil structure and soil hydraulic properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirk?, V.; Kodešová, R.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Žigová, Anna

    Brisbane : International Union of Soil Sciences.; Australian Society of Soil Science, 2010 - (Gilkes, R.; Pragongkep, N.), s. 145-148 ISBN 978-0-646-53783-2. [World Congress of Soil Science /19./. Brisbane (AU), 01.08.2010-06.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil structure * aggregate stability * soil hydraulic properties * micromorphological images * temporal variability Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  15. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre


    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or climate) for a particular soil-provided ecosystem service (e.g. climate regulation)". One SFT can thus include several soil types having the same functionality for a particular soil-provided ES. Another consequence is that SFT maps for two different ES may not superimpose over the same area, since some soils may fall in the same SFT for a service and in different SFT for another one. Soil functional types could be assessed and monitored in space and time by a combination of soil functional traits that correspond to inherent and manageable properties of soils. Their metrology would involve either classic (pedological observations) or advanced (molecular ecology, spectrometry, geophysics) tools. SFT could be studied and mapped at all scales, depending on the purpose of the soil security assessment (e.g. global climate modeling, land planning and management, biodiversity conservation). Overall, research is needed to find a pathway from soil pedological maps to SFT maps which would yield important benefits towards the assessment and monitoring of soil security. Indeed, this methodology would allow (i) reducing the spatial uncertainty on the assessment of ES; (ii) identifying and mapping multifunctional soils, which may be the most important soil resource to preserve. References [1] McBratney et al., 2014. Geoderma 213:203-213. [2] Droogers P, Bouma J, 1997. SSSAJ 61:1704-1710.

  16. Engineering Significant of Swelling Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kalantari


    Full Text Available This study describes some of the most important swelling characters of expansive soils when used as foundation materials to support various types of civil engineering structures. Expansive soils are considered among difficult foundation materials and expand upon wetting and shrink upon losing moisture. They are considered problematic soils for architectural and civil engineers. These types of soils may cause minor to major structural damages to pavements as well as buildings. It is therefore essential to detect swelling soils from non-problematic foundation soils before any civil engineering projects are constructed over or adjacent to them. The study begins with definition of expansive soils and shows its distributions in the world as well as the basic causes for swelling potential that these type of soils poses. It is also shown that, the most probable depth of expansion to check for possible swelling potential for swelling soils is soil’s active zone. This zone is the most upper depth of expansive soil and it may extend up to 20 ft. (6 m below ground level. The moisture content of soil through active zone varies during different seasons while in lower part of expansive soil the moisture content stays constant during hot and cold season. Among various methods to check for swelling potential, plastic index and liquid limits are two most crucial factors, as these factors tend to increase, the swelling potential increase as well.

  17. Soil mechanics and analysis of soils overlying cavitose bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of the residual soils existing at the West Chestnut Ridge Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, was evaluated. The weathered bedrock below this residual soil contains numerous solution cavities, and several karst features were identified. The West Chestnut Ridge site was evaluated with respect to deformation and collapse of the residual soil into the bedrock cavities. A finite element analysis investigated the effects of bedrock cavity radius, thickness of soil overburden, and surface surcharge upon the deformational and stability characteristics of the residual soil. The results indicate that for small cavity radii, the thickness of the soil cover has little effect on the zone of yielded soil. For large cavity radii, a smaller zone of distressed soil occurs under thick soil cover than under thin soil cover. Dimensionless curves are presented to enable the prediction of the vertical extent of the zone of yielded soil for a range of site geometries. Although the thick soil deposits (100 feet or greater) typically found on the ridges result in high stresses adjacent to the cavity, the area of the distressed or yielded soil is small and unlikely to extend to the surface. In addition, the surface deformation or subsidence is expected to be minimal. Thus, the siting of waste facilities on the ridges where the overburden is maximum would tend to reduce the effects of deformation into the cavities. 29 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  18. A soil-inventory of agricultural used soils of Germany (United States)

    Siebner, Clemens; Gensior, Andreas; Evertsbusch, Sven; Freibauer, Annette; Flessa, Heiner


    In the framework of UNFCCC reports for greenhouse gas emissions of land use and land use change also soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes of have to be reported. Since 1990 a forest soil inventory exists for Germany, but similar data are still missing for agricultural land. Up till now, a very rough estimation of the soil organic carbon stocks based on the soil map of Germany at the scale of 1:1,000,000 and estimated soil organic carbon contents and bulk densities have been used for the national inventory reports. Now we are starting an extended agricultural soil inventory for Germany which is explicitly designed to detect soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes. We will use a grid of 8x8 km, like it was used for the forest soil inventory. In order to extrapolate from point data and perform regionalisations, not only soil type, soil parent material and basic climate parameters will be taken into account, but under agricultural land use different agricultural management practices will be considered. Management data, like crop rotation, depth and intensity of soil tillage and application of fertilizers, manure and composts are collected from farmers during the inventory via questionnaires. It was shown that those data are essential to estimate and extrapolate point data to report soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes on regional scale. The concept of this soil carbon inventory will be presented.

  19. Soil property effects on wind erosion of organic soils (United States)

    Zobeck, Ted M.; Baddock, Matthew; Scott Van Pelt, R.; Tatarko, John; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica


    Histosols (also known as organic soils, mucks, or peats) are soils that are dominated by organic matter (OM > 20%) in half or more of the upper 80 cm. Forty two states have a total of 21 million ha of Histosols in the United States. These soils, when intensively cropped, are subject to wind erosion resulting in loss of crop productivity and degradation of soil, air, and water quality. Estimating wind erosion on Histosols has been determined by USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a critical need for the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) model. WEPS has been developed to simulate wind erosion on agricultural land in the US, including soils with organic soil material surfaces. However, additional field measurements are needed to understand how soil properties vary among organic soils and to calibrate and validate estimates of wind erosion of organic soils using WEPS. Soil properties and sediment flux were measured in six soils with high organic contents located in Michigan and Florida, USA. Soil properties observed included organic matter content, particle density, dry mechanical stability, dry clod stability, wind erodible material, and geometric mean diameter of the surface aggregate distribution. A field portable wind tunnel was used to generate suspended sediment and dust from agricultural surfaces for soils ranging from 17% to 67% organic matter. The soils were tilled and rolled to provide a consolidated, friable surface. Dust emissions and saltation were measured using an isokinetic vertical slot sampler aspirated by a regulated suction source. Suspended dust was sampled using a Grimm optical particle size analyzer. Particle density of the saltation-sized material (>106 ?m) was inversely related to OM content and varied from 2.41 g cm-3 for the soil with the lowest OM content to 1.61 g cm-3 for the soil with highest OM content. Wind erodible material and the geometric mean diameter of the surface soil were inversely related to dry clod stability. The effect of soil properties on sediment flux varied among flux types. Saltation flux was adequately predicted with simple linear regression models. Dry mechanical stability was the best single soil property linearly related to saltation flux. Simple linear models with soil properties as independent variables were not well correlated with PM10E values (mass flux). A second order polynomial equation with OM as the independent variable was found to be most highly correlated with PM10E values. These results demonstrate that variations in sediment and dust emissions can be linked to soil properties using simple models based on one or more soil properties to estimate saltation mass flux and PM10E values from organic and organic-rich soils.

  20. Diagenetic variation in the Oregon Coast Range: Implications for rock strength, soil production, hillslope form, and landscape evolution (United States)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.


    The mechanisms by which lithology modulates geomorphic processes are poorly known. In the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), rhythmically bedded sandstones of the Eocene Tyee Formation underlie steep, soil-mantled hillslopes, with relatively uniform ridge-valley spacing. These characteristic landforms are perturbed where diagenetic variations manifest as resistant cliffs. Here we use petrology, rock mechanics, and lidar to characterize grain-scale variations in rock properties and their influence on rock strength, hillslope processes, and landscape morphology in two adjacent watersheds. Petrographic analyses suggest that a suite of diagenetic products in the "resistant" bedrock account for a 2.5 times increase in tensile strength relative to "typical" Tyee bedrock. Our reference catchment exhibits negligible resistant outcrops, and consistent hillslope gradients and longitudinal valley profiles. By contrast, the adjacent catchment teems with resistant, 1 to 10 m thick, noncontiguous sandstone beds that form hanging valleys with gentle upstream hillslopes and anomalously narrow valleys. Mechanical and topographic analyses suggest that the low fracture density characteristic of these resistant beds may render them relatively impervious to comminution by tree root activity, the dominant OCR soil production mechanism. Based on both hillslope gradient- and hilltop curvature-erosion models, we estimate that hillslopes perched above resistant beds erode at approximately half the pace of hillslopes unencumbered by downstream knickpoints. The diagenetic variations likely influence relief at the watershed scale. Depositional position and diagenetic processes appear to control the occurrence of resistant beds, providing a framework to quantify how seemingly subtle variations in rock properties can impose first-order controls on landscape form and evolution.

  1. Effects of Land Cover / Land Use, Soil Texture, and Vegetation on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.


    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated, bare soil and open water surfaces. The result of this study also shows that runoff is high in the clay, clay loam and sandy-clay loam due to the lack of infiltration process in clay soil from capping or crusting or sealing of the soil pores, therefore this situation will aid runoff. The application of the WetSpass model shows that precipitation, soil texture and land use / land cover are three controlling factors affecting the water balance in the LCB. Key words: Groundwater recharge, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, water balance, meteorological, draught, Landuse changes, climate changes, WetSpass, GIS.

  2. Lasagna trademark soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH

  3. Quantitative assessment on soil enzyme activities of heavy metal contaminated soils with various soil properties. (United States)

    Xian, Yu; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping


    Soil enzyme activities are greatly influenced by soil properties and could be significant indicators of heavy metal toxicity in soil for bioavailability assessment. Two groups of experiments were conducted to determine the joint effects of heavy metals and soil properties on soil enzyme activities. Results showed that arylsulfatase was the most sensitive soil enzyme and could be used as an indicator to study the enzymatic toxicity of heavy metals under various soil properties. Soil organic matter (SOM) was the dominant factor affecting the activity of arylsulfatase in soil. A quantitative model was derived to predict the changes of arylsulfatase activity with SOM content. When the soil organic matter content was less than the critical point A (1.05% in our study), the arylsulfatase activity dropped rapidly. When the soil organic matter content was greater than the critical point A, the arylsulfatase activity gradually rose to higher levels showing that instead of harm the soil microbial activities were enhanced. The SOM content needs to be over the critical point B (2.42% in our study) to protect its microbial community from harm due to the severe Pb pollution (500mgkg(-1) in our study). The quantitative model revealed the pattern of variation of enzymatic toxicity due to heavy metals under various SOM contents. The applicability of the model under wider soil properties need to be tested. The model however may provide a methodological basis for ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soil. PMID:25585863

  4. The effect of soil fauna on carbon sequestration in soil.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Pižl, Václav; Kaneda, Satoshi; Šimek, Miloslav


    Ro?. 10, - (2008). ISSN 1029-7006. [EGU General Assembly 2008. 13.04.2008-18.04.2008, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil fauna * carbon sequestration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 5 - Soil Classification and Geography (United States)

    This lesson discusses the characteristics of the 12 soil orders defined by the USDA soil classification system, the major factors involved with their formation, and their geographic distribution across the USA and the world.

  6. Soil moisture distribution over time in a clay loam soil in Kosovo


    Abdullah Nishori; Besnik Gjongecaj; Deme Abazi


    Studying the soil moisture distribution over time in a given soil profile is the object of the present study. The way the soil moisture gets distributed over soil profile depends particularly on the soil texture and on the soil suction gradients developed. However, it changes continuously over time for a given soil depth. The method of determining the soil moisture distribution over time is based on the measuring of soil moisture suctions developed and the soil moisture contents in various ti...

  7. Predicting Radiocaesium Sorption with Soil Chemical Properties in Japanese Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Shinichiro [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Sweeck, Lieve; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Smolders, Erik [Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    The soil-to-plant transfer mechanism of radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) in the Fukushima accident affected area is not fully understood. The sorption of {sup 137}Cs in soils holds a key to evaluating the variation of transfer of {sup 137}Cs to plant among different soil types. This study aims to investigate how differences in {sup 137}Cs adsorption in different soils can be explained by soil chemical and mineralogical properties. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP), a parameter for quantifying immediate {sup 137}Cs adsorption, and the soil texture were determined for 52 surface soils covering a wide range of texture classes collected from the area contaminated by the Fukushima accident. These soils include Andosols, Fluvisols, Gleysols, and Cambisols. In addition, we are currently performing analyses for other soil chemical properties (i.e. exchangeable cation, CEC, pH, organic matter content, etc) and for the properties affecting {sup 137}Cs sorption in soils (i.e. Frayed Edge Site capacity, K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} selectivity, effect of wet-dry cycles, etc). The average RIP varied from 80 to 4300 mmol kg{sup -1} between soils. Contrary to what was found for temperate region soils by Absalom et al., the RIP (log(RIP)) and soil clay content were not significantly correlated (R2= 0.066). These initial results seem to indicate that the {sup 137}Cs sorption is affected by the clay mineralogy in soils. We postulate that by considering also the differences in clay K content, the relationship will improve since the frayed edges are formed at high K content in the clay. This knowledge could improve the prediction of RIP for different Japanese soil groups. Further analysis of the data will explore the relationship between RIP and other soil chemical properties. In our study, we will take specific note of Andosols (range of average RIP from 80 to 2400 mmol kg{sup -1}), typical soils in Japan originated from volcanic ash. It is expected that soil properties ruling the {sup 137}Cs sorption for Japanese Andosols will differ compared to other temperate mineral soils, for which most {sup 137}Cs transfer studies have been performed after the Chernobyl accident. We start by investigating the role of amorphous Al and Fe in {sup 137}Cs sorption. We believe that our findings could contribute to improved predictions of soil-to-plant transfer in Japanese soils and to the development of feasible countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants for different soil-crop combinations in Japan. (authors)

  8. Soil macrofauna webmasters of ecosystem (United States)

    Frouz, Jan


    The role of plant roots and microflora in shaping many ecosystem processes is generally appreciated in the contrary rho role of soil mcrofauna in this context is assumed to be negligible and rather anecdotic. But more than half of the litter fall is consumed by soil fauna and soil fauna can also consume and or translocation substantial amount of soil. Here we demonstrate on example of post mining chronosequences how site colonization by soil fauna affect composition of whole soil biota community, plant succession and soil formation. Filed and laboratory experiments show that decomposition of fauna feces may be sped up compare to litter at the very beginning but in long term fauna feces decompose slower than litter. This is also supported by micro morphological observation which shows that fauna feces form substantial part of soil. Fauna feces also induce lover or even negative priming effect when introduced in soil in comparison with litter that triggers positive priming effect. Laboratory experiment show that fauna effect is context sensitive and is more pronounced in systems already affected by soil fauna. Soil mixing by soil fauna consequently affect environmental conditions in soils such as water holding capacity or nutrient availability, it also affect composition of decomposer food web including microbial community (fungal bacterial ratio) which feed back in alternation of plant community composition during succession This fauna activity is not constant everywhere the higher effect of fauna activity on litter layer was observed in temperate soils of deciduous forests and with litter having CN between 20-30. In conclusion soil fauna use directly only small proportion of energy in the litter but can substantially affect soil carbon turnover, soil formation, decomposer food web and plant community.

  9. Soil fungi as indicators of pesticide soil pollution


    Mandi? Leka; ?uki? Dragutin; ?or?evi? Snežana


    Soil fungi, with their pronounced enzymic activity and high osmotic potential, represent a significant indicator of negative effects of different pesticides on the agroecosystem as a whole. In that respect, a trial was set up on the alluvium soil type with the aim to investigate the effect of different herbicides (Simazine, Napropamid, Paraquat), fungicides (Captan and Mancozeb) and insecticides (Fenitrothion and Dimethoate) on a number of soil fungi under apple trees. The number of soil fung...

  10. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  11. Working with Soil - Soil science in the field (United States)

    Hannam, Jacqueline; Lacelles, Bruce; Owen, Jason; Thompson, Dick; Jones, Bob; Towers, Willie


    Working with Soil is the Professional Competency Scheme developed by the British Society of Soil Science's Professional Practice Committee, formerly the Institute of Professional Soil Scientists. Ten competency documents cover the required qualifications, skills and knowledge for different aspects of applied soil science. The Society is currently engaged in a five year plan to translate the competency documents into a comprehensive set of training courses. Foundation skills in field-based science are covered by three separate training courses - Exposing and describing a soil profile (Course 1), Soil classification (Course 2), and Soil survey techniques (Course 3). Course 1 has run successfully twice a year since 2013. The other two courses are under development and are scheduled to start in 2015. The primary objective of Foundation Skills Course 1 is to develop confidence and familiarity with field soil investigation and description, understanding the soil underfoot and putting soils into a wider landscape context. Delegates excavate a soil profile pit, and describe and sample the exposed soil to standard protocols. Delegates work in teams of 4 or 5 so that an element of shared learning is part of the process. This has been a very positive aspect of the courses we have run to date. The course has attracted professionals from agricultural and environmental consultancies but is also very popular with research students and has formed a part of an Advanced Training Programme in Soil Science for postgraduates. As there is only one soil science degree course remaining in the UK, many students on their admission do not have a background in field-based pedology and lack an understanding of soil in the context of landscape scale soil functions. Feedback to date has been very positive.

  12. Cleaning the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 6 of the Hamburg Reports contains contributions from scientists from the Special Research Field 188 'Cleaning up Contaminated Soils' of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and the University of Hamburg and of experts from science and from the practical field. The soil science and analytical aspects of the biological and chemical/physical treatment processes are shown and open questions specific to processes are dealt with. Scientific results are compared with practical experience here. The evaluation of treated soils for reuse in the environment is a very important question, which is explained in the first articles here. Examples of case studies are shown in the last part of the volume. (orig.)

  13. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon


    We are pleased to see the letter by Schimel and Chadwick (Front Ecol Environ 2013; 11[8]: 405–06), highlighting the importance of soil characterization in ecological and biogeochemical research and explaining the value of soil taxonomy, and we agree with the authors that reporting soil

  14. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 5 - Soil Geography and Classification (United States)

    The system of soil classification developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is called Soil Taxonomy. Soil Taxonomy consists of a hierarchy of six levels which, from highest to lowest, are: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, family, and series. This lesson will focus on bro...

  15. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature (United States)

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.


    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  16. Soil Fertility Protocol (United States)

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)


    The purpose of this resource is to measure the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in each horizon in a soil profile. Using a NPK test kit, students mix a dry, sieved soil sample into a solution and chemically extract the N, P, and K as nitrate, phosphate, and potassium. The N, P, and K amounts in the sample are determined by comparing the solution to a color chart. Students describe the N, P, K amounts as high, medium, low, or none. These measurements are conducted three times for each horizon.

  17. Iodine dynamics in soils


    Shetaya, W.H.; Young, S.D.; Watts, M. J.; Ander, E.L.; Bailey, E.H.


    We investigated changes in iodine (129I) solubility and speciation in nine soils with contrasting properties (pH, Fe/Mn oxides, organic carbon and iodine contents), incubated for nine months at 10 and 20 °C. The rate of 129I sorption was greater in soils with large organic carbon contents (%SOC), low pH and at higher temperatures. Loss of iodide (I?) from solution was extremely rapid, apparently reaching completion over minutes–hours; iodate () loss from solution was slower, typically occurri...

  18. Constructive Similarity of Soils.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, Petr

    Singapore : Design, CRC a iTEK CMS Web solutions, 2012 - (Phoon, K.; Beer, M.; Quek, S.; Pang, S.), s. 206-211 ISBN 978-981-07-2218-0. [APS on Structural Reliability and Its Application – Sustainable Civil Infrastructures /5./. Singapore (SG), 23.05.2012-25.05.2012] Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GAP105/11/1160 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : model similarity * database of soil properties * soil similarity characteristic * statistical analysis * ultimate limit states Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  19. Soil and ground cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring programmes set up in accordance with the directives for the surveillance of effluents from nuclear installations oblige operators of such installations to take samples of vegetation (grass) and soil twice a year at the least favourable place in the industrial plant's environment, and at a reference site, for radioactivity monitoring by gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the samples are to be examined for their Sr-90 content. Data recorded over the years show that nuclear facilities do not significantly contribute to soil and vegetation contamination with Sr-90 or Cs-137. The directives require regular interlaboratory comparisons, which are coordinated by the directing centre at Kiel. (DG)

  20. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  1. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  2. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections (United States)

    ... consultations 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet N°366 Updated May 2015 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...


    Understanding bioavailability of metals from exposure to contaminated soils is a challenging aspect of environmental research. This presentation will examine three areas of research with respect to metal speciation in soils as it relates to bioavailability: 1) Pb immobilization a...

  4. Soil! Get the Scoop - The Soil Science Society of America's International Year of Soils Campaign (United States)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan; van Es, Harold


    Soils are a finite natural resource and are nonrenewable on a human time scale. Soils are the foundation for food, animal feed, fuel and natural fiber production, the supply of clean water, nutrient cycling and a range of ecosystem functions. The area of fertile soils covering the world's surface is limited and increasingly subject to degradation, poor management and loss to urbanization. Increased awareness of the life-supporting functions of soil is called for if this trend is to be reversed and so enable the levels of food production necessary to meet the demands of population levels predicted for 2050. The Soil Science Society of America is coordinating with the Global Soil Partnership and other organizations around the world to celebrate the 2015 International Year of Soils and raise awareness and promote the sustainability of our limited soil resources. We all have a valuable role in communicating vital information on soils, a life sustaining natural resource. Therefore, we will provide resources to learn about soils and help us tell the story of soils. We will promote IYS on social media by sharing our posts from Facebook and Twitter. Additionally SSSA developed 12 monthly themes that reflect the diverse value of soils to our natural environment and society. Each month has information on the theme, a lesson plan, and other outreach activities. All information is available on a dedicated website The site will be updated constantly throughout the year.

  5. Monitoring and evaluating soil quality


    Bloem, J; Schouten, A.J.; Sørensen, S.J.; Rutgers, M.; Werf, A.K., van der; Breure, A. M.


    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of methods, which are described in sufficient detail to use the book as a practical handbook in the laboratory. The methods are described in chapters on soil microbial biomass and numbers, soil microbial ...

  6. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems


    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F. L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.


    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  7. Soil erodibility evaluation under different management practices (United States)

    Soil erosion is a major factor leading to water quality degradation throughout the United States. Soil erosion involves particle detachment and transport, followed by deposition. The ability of water to detach and transport soil particles is known as the soil’s erodibility. Soil erosion is a resu...

  8. Biochar effects on soil hydrology (United States)

    Biochar has the potential to alter soil hydrology, and these alterations may lead to significant changes in water cycling and ecosystem processes mediated by water. Biochar soil amendment may change infiltration and drainage in both sandy and clay soils, may increase or decrease plant-available wate...


    Soil conditioners have been used since ancient times, even before the chemical and physical basis of conditioner effectiveness was accurately understood. Soil conditioners have included both organic and mineral materials as well as natural and synthetic materials. Examples of natural organic soil ...


    This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. This data set consists of georeferenced digital map data and computerized attribute data. The map data are in a 7.5 minute quadrangle ...

  11. Soil threats and soil protection: the role of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of soil conservation/soil protection in its wider sense has undergone important changes through history. Perceptions of soil as a crucial base of life in ancient cultures progressively evolved to a more pragmatic vision, with close connection to food production for survival. For centuries, agrarian production and the provision of food for humankind remained the main and crucial vision of the interaction of societies with soil. However, there are also some other new and important concepts related to soil which have progressively developed. (Author)

  12. SoilInfo App: global soil information on your palm (United States)

    Hengl, Tomislav; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge


    ISRIC ' World Soil Information has released in 2014 and app for mobile de- vices called 'SoilInfo' ( and which aims at providing free access to the global soil data. SoilInfo App (available for Android v.4.0 Ice Cream Sandwhich or higher, and Apple v.6.x and v.7.x iOS) currently serves the Soil- Grids1km data ' a stack of soil property and class maps at six standard depths at a resolution of 1 km (30 arc second) predicted using automated geostatistical mapping and global soil data models. The list of served soil data includes: soil organic carbon (), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg/m3), cation exchange capacity of the fine earth fraction (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105992). New soil properties and classes will be continuously added to the system. SoilGrids1km are available for download under a Creative Commons non-commercial license via They are also accessible via a Representational State Transfer API ( service. SoilInfo App mimics common weather apps, but is also largely inspired by the crowdsourcing systems such as the OpenStreetMap, Geo-wiki and similar. Two development aspects of the SoilInfo App and SoilGrids are constantly being worked on: Data quality in terms of accuracy of spatial predictions and derived information, and Data usability in terms of ease of access and ease of use (i.e. flexibility of the cyberinfrastructure / functionalities such as the REST SoilGrids API, SoilInfo App etc). The development focus in 2015 is on improving the thematic and spatial accuracy of SoilGrids predictions, primarily by using finer resolution covariates (250 m) and machine learning algorithms (such as random forests) to improve spatial predictions.

  13. Improved Biosensors for Soils (United States)

    Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Cheng, H. Y.


    Microbes drive processes in the Earth system far exceeding their physical scale, affecting crop yields, water quality, the mobilization of toxic materials, and fundamental aspects of soil biogeochemistry. The tools of synthetic biology have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbial Earth system processes: for example, synthetic microbes can be be programmed to report on environmental conditions that stimulate greenhouse gas production, metal oxidation, biofilm formation, pollutant degradation, and microbe-plant symbioses. However, these tools are only rarely deployed in the lab. This research gap arises because synthetically programmed microbes typically report on their environment by producing molecules that are detected optically (e.g., fluorescent proteins). Fluorescent reporters are ideal for petri-dish applications and have fundamentally changed how we study human health, but their usefulness is quite limited in soils where detecting fluorescence is challenging. Here we describe the construction of gas-reporting biosensors, which release nonpolar gases that can be detected in the headspace of incubation experiments. These constructs can be used to probe microbial processes within soils in real-time noninvasive lab experiments. These biosensors can be combined with traditional omics-based approaches to reveal processes controlling soil microbial behavior and lead to improved environmental management decisions.

  14. Probe for soil examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probe is suggested which makes it possible that samples of the soil can be brought into the laboratory undestroyed in the form of columns. The probe is provided with an exchangeable, thinwalled tube of tin or synthetic material in its interior which is brought to the laboratory together with the sample. The subclaims refer to constructive details of the device. (UWI)

  15. Soil and machinery decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For bonding radionuclide in soil upper layers was developed a decontaminating composition on the base of phospho-gypseous binder and natural ion-exchangers. For decontamination of automobile transport and parts of machinery were developed also efficient compositions. The conclusion is made that the developed decontaminating solutions have high decontaminating ability. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. Soils. Transparency Masters. (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This document is a collection of 43 overhead transparency masters to be used as teaching aids in a course of study involving soils such as geology, agronomy, hydrology, earth science, or land use study. Some transparencies are in color. Selected titles of transparencies may give the reader a better understanding of the graphic content. Titles are:…

  17. Airbag Impressions in Soil (United States)


    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows where the rover's airbags left impressions in the martian soil. The drag marks were made after the rover successfully landed at Meridiani Planum and its airbags were retracted. The rover can be seen in the foreground.

  18. Basic Mechanics of Soils (United States)

    This site, produced by the University of the West of England, Bristol, contains undergraduate level interactive resource on soils. This covers everything from analysis of stress and strain, to strength, stiffness and material behaviors. The site offers many different aspects which can easily fit a fairly broad survey on these topics.

  19. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.


    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We developed and demonstrated the utility of a technique for installing minirhizotron tubes in sandy, rocky soils where more traditional installation methods are inadequate. The method uses a pneumatic rock-drill alternately to drill and drive drill casing into the soil. Soil particles and drilling debris are removed from the casing as it is installed. The minirhizotron tube is inserted into the drill casing and the casing is withdrawn. A pneumatic screw-drive guide system powers the downward and upward movement of the rock-drill and controls the angle of installation. Working from a platform suspended from a center-pivot elevated catwalk minimized soil disturbance. Soil contact and root ingrowth around the minirhizotron tubes were very satisfactory. This method, while fairly labor intensive, allows minirhizotron studies of root dynamics in sandy, rocky soils where they would otherwise not be possible. Also, there is much less soil compaction and disturbance than traditional installation techniques entail.

  1. Biomarker in archaeological soils (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens


    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role. The majority of the faecal residues in the NDE derived from pigs, cows and sheep. A precise statement about animal derived faecal in terra preta is not possible due to limited data of steroid composition of Amazonian animals. Nevertheless, the existence of this terra preta-like soil in the temperate zone in Europe is an excellent example for the existence of anthropogenic dark earth beyond the humid tropics with favorable properties.

  2. 2 D patterns of soil gas diffusivity , soil respiration, and methane oxidation in a soil profile (United States)

    Maier, Martin; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Lang, Friederike


    The apparent gas diffusion coefficient in soil (DS) is an important parameter describing soil aeration, which makes it a key parameter for root growth and gas production and consumption. Horizontal homogeneity in soil profiles is assumed in most studies for soil properties - including DS. This assumption, however, is not valid, even in apparently homogeneous soils, as we know from studies using destructive sampling methods. Using destructive methods may allow catching a glimpse, but a large uncertainty remains, since locations between the sampling positions cannot be analyzed, and measurements cannot be repeated. We developed a new method to determine in situ the apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient in order to examine 2 D pattern of DS and methane oxidation in a soil profile. Different tracer gases (SF6, CF4, C2H6) were injected continuously into the subsoil and measured at several locations in the soil profile. These data allow for modelling inversely the 2 D patterns of DS using Finite Element Modeling. The 2D DS patterns were then combined with naturally occurring CH4 and CO2 concentrations sampled at the same locations to derive the 2D pattern of soil respiration and methane oxidation in the soil profile. We show that methane oxidation and soil respiration zones shift within the soil profile while the gas fluxes at the surface remain rather stable during a the 3 week campaign.

  3. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.


    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system capable of feeding a growing population safeguard both soil fertility and the soil itself? Although the experiences of past societies provide ample historical basis for concern about the long-term prospects for soil conservation, data compiled from recent studies indicate that no-till farming could reduce erosion to levels close to soil production rates. Consequently, agricultural production need not necessarily come at the expense of either soil fertility or the soil itself, even if recent proposals to rely on conventionally grown corn for biofuels exemplify how short-term social and economic trade-offs can de-prioritize soil conservation. Like the issues of climate change and loss of biodiversity, the ongoing global degradation and loss of soil presents a fundamental social challenge in which the slow pace of environmental change counter-intuitively makes solutions all the more difficult to adopt.

  4. Mine soil classification and mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation covers the history of surface coal mining and reclamation methods and equipment for the pre-Federal law, interim-Federal law, and post-Federal law periods. It discusses the difficulties with traditional mine soil mapping methods on five soils series in Illinois. These methods fail to recognize the effects of compaction and methods to ameliorate compaction. The current status of mine soil mapping methods on eight soil series in Illinois are presented. Areas where additional work is needed and future potential difficulties are identified for mine soil mapping efforts

  5. Nitrification in Dutch heathland soils.


    De Boer, W.


    This thesis is the result of a study on the production of nitrate in Dutch heathland soils. Most of the heathlands are located on acid, sandy soils. Therefore , it has dealt mainly with the occurrence, nature and mechanisms of nitrification in acid soils. In the Netherlands, the production of nitrate in acid soils is a matter of great concern because it has become obvious that this process contributes to a continuous acidification of such soils that are exposed to high levels of deposition of...

  6. The role of biological soil crusts on soil moisture (United States)

    Chamizo, S.; Cantón, Y.; Lázaro, R.; Rodriguez-Caballero, E.; Domingo, F.


    In water-limited ecosystems, water becomes the most important driver for plant productivity. In these systems, spatial distribution of water resources is not random but organized into a mosaic of water-depletion areas linked to water-accumulation areas. In other words, water is transferred from interplant patches that act as source areas to vegetation patches that act as sinks of this resource. Thus, structure and functioning of interplant patches have a decisive role in water redistribution and distribution patterns of vegetation. Soil surface in the interplant spaces of most arid and semiarid ecosystems is covered by biological soil crusts (BSCs). These organisms regulate water fluxes into and through soils and play major roles in local hydrological processes. In the last years, the role of these organisms in infiltration and runoff has gained increased importance and a better knowledge about their effects on these processes has been acquired. However, the role of BSCs in other important components of the water balance such as evaporation or soil moisture has been scarcely studied, so that their effects on these processes remain unknown. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of BSCs on soil moisture regimes in the top profile of the soil in two semiarid ecosystems of SE Spain with contrasting soil texture and where BSCs are well-represented. Soil moisture content at 0.03 and 0.10 m was monitored under two representative types of BSCs, a dark cyanobacteria-dominated BSC and a light-coloured lichen-dominated BSC, and in soils where these BSCs were removed by scraping, at both study sites. Our results show that, under high water conditions, removal of BSCs leads to a decrease in soil moisture compared to soils covered by BSCs. Decrease in soil moisture due to BSC removal namely affects moisture in the upper layer of the soil (0.03 m), but has little impact in deeper soil (0.10 m). Evaporation is also generally faster in soils with no BSCs than in soils covered by them. The type of BSC influences soil moisture in a different way depending on soil water conditions. Under high water content conditions, soil water loss is faster and soil moisture content lower under cyanobacterial than under lichen BSCs, due to higher infiltration promoted by lichens. On the contrary, under low water content conditions, lichen-crusted soils dry out faster and exhibit less moisture than cyanobacteria-crusted ones, attributed to the larger porosity and subsequent greater evaporative losses in lichen- than in cyanobacteria-crusted soils. We found higher moisture in coarse-textured soils than in fine-textured ones, despite the higher water retention capacity of the latter soils. More favourable conditions in the coarser soils, which had greater organic matter content, aggregate stability and were subject to less water stress due to its proximity to the coast, seems to contribute to this increased soil moisture content. BSCs therefore play an important role on the maintenance of water availability in the interplant spaces, thereby strongly affecting soil physical and biological processes, and the potential for emergence establishment and survival of plants in semiarid ecosystems.

  7. Salt movement in disturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review is presented of information on salt movement in disturbed soils, particularly in soils that have been disturbed by pipeline construction. The review has two main objectives: to assess climatic and soil conditions under which salts will move out of the root zone in a disturbed soil and to determine the rate at which salts will move in disturbed soils. A literature base was established using computer database and library searches, and a number of studies were reviewed. Many studies, dealing specifically with salt movement over time in disturbed soils under climatic and salt conditions similar to those found in Alberta, are summarized in tabular form. Data found in the literature tend to be sparse and incomplete, making firm conclusions about rates of salt movement difficult. In the brown soil zone, 5 years may be sufficient time for sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity levels, elevated during construction, to return to pre-construction conditions in coarse to moderately coarse textured soils. In medium to moderately fine textured soils, 10-26 years may be required. In the dark brown soil zone, 5 years is marginal for return to pre-construction conditions. Data in the black soil zone are limited and results inconsistent. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Delineation of colluvial soils in different soil regions (United States)

    Zádorová, Tereza; Penížek, Vít; Vašát, Radim


    Colluvial soils are considered to be the direct result of accelerated soil erosion in agricultural landscape, resulting in accumulation of humus-rich soil material in terrain depressions and toe slopes. They represent an important soil cover element in landscapes influenced by soil erosion and form an important soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. Delineation of colluvial soils can identify areas with high sediment input and potential deep organic carbon storage and thus improve our knowledge on soil mass and SOC stock redistribution in dissected landscapes. Different prediction methods (ordinary kriging, multiple linear regression, supervised fuzzy classification, artificial neural network, support vector machines) for colluvial soils delineation have been tested in three different soil regions (Cambisol, Luvisol and Chernozem) at two scales (plot and watershed) in the Czech Republic. The approach is based on exploitation of relationship between soil and terrain units and assumes that colluvial soil can be defined by particular range of terrain attributes values. Terrain attributes derived from precise DEMs were used as predictors in applied models. The soil-terrain relationship was assessed using a large dataset of field investigations (300 cores at each plot and 100 cores at each watershed). Models were trained at plot scale (15-33 ha) and the best performing model was then calibrated and validated at watershed scale (25-55 km2). The study proved high potential of terrain variables as predictors in colluvial soil delineation. Support vector machines method was the best performing method for colluvial soil occurrence prediction at all the three sites. However, significant differences in performance have been identified among the studied plots. The best results were obtained in Luvisol region where both determination coefficient and prediction accuracy reached the highest values. The model performance was satisfactory also in Chernozem region. The model showed its limitations in the Cambisol region, where a high uncertainty and low prediction accuracy resulted from generally weak soil-terrain relationship given by low redistribution of the soil material. Different terrain attributes were applied as predictors in the models at each study region. In the Chernozem region, the colluvial area is defined by extreme values of slope and topographic position index. In Luvisol and Cambisol regions, colluvial soil area is related mostly to specific values of plan curvature and topographic wetness index. Role of colluvial soils given by theirs spatial extent differs in the studied sites. Colluvial soil in the Chernozem region represents an important soil cover part (13% from the total area). Moderate importance of colluvial soils was determined in the Luvisol region (8 %) and low in the Cambisol region (3%). Spatial extent of colluvial soils corresponds to the intensity of soil mass redistribution. At the three sites with similar environmental settings (terrain, land management, climate), it is mostly soil characteristics and profile development typical for each classification unit that resulted in different importance of colluvial soil in each study site. The study was supported by grant nr. 13-07516P of the Czech science foundation and by grant nr. QJ1230319 of the Ministry of Agriculture.

  9. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of the soil with the structure has been largely explored the assumption of material and geometrical linearity of the soil. Nevertheless, for moderate or strong seismic events, the maximum shear strain can easily reach the elastic limit of the soil behavior. Considering soil-structure interaction, the nonlinear effects may change the soil stiffness at the base of the structure and therefore energy dissipation into the soil. Consequently, ignoring the nonlinear characteristics of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) this phenomenon could lead to erroneous predictions of structural response. The goal of this work is to implement a fully nonlinear constitutive model for soils into a numerical code in order to investigate the effect of soil nonlinearity on dynamic soil structure interaction. Moreover, different issues are taken into account such as the effect of confining stress on the shear modulus of the soil, initial static condition, contact elements in the soil-structure interface, etc. During this work, a simple absorbing layer method based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation, which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares, is also presented. The stability conditions of the wave propagation problems are studied and it is shown that the linear and nonlinear behavior are very different when dealing with numerical dispersion. It is shown that the 10 points per wavelength rule, recommended in the literature for the elastic media is not sufficient for the nonlinear case. The implemented model is first numerically verified by comparing the results with other known numerical codes. Afterward, a parametric study is carried out for different types of structures and various soil profiles to characterize nonlinear effects. Different features of the DSSI are compared to the linear case: modification of the amplitude and frequency content of the waves propagated into the soil, fundamental frequency, energy dissipation in the soil and the response of the soil-structure system. Through these parametric studies we show that depending on the soil properties, frequency content of the soil response could change significantly due to the soil nonlinearity. The peaks of the transfer function between free field and outcropping responses shift to lower frequencies and amplification happens at this frequency range. Amplification reduction for the high frequencies and even de-amplification may happen for high level input motions. These changes influence the structural response. We show that depending on the combination of the fundamental frequency of the structure and the the natural frequency of the soil, the effect of soil-structure interaction could be significant or negligible. However, the effect of structure weight and rocking of the superstructure could change the results. Finally, the basin of Nice is used as an example of wave propagation on a heterogeneous nonlinear media and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The basin response is strongly dependent on the combination of soil nonlinearity, topographic effects and impedance contrast between soil layers. For the selected structures and soil profiles of this work, the performed numerical simulations show that the shift of the fundamental frequency is not a good index to discriminate linear from nonlinear soil behavior. (author)

  10. Soil organic matter and soil biodiversity spots in urban and semi urban soils of southeast Mexico (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza


    We have observed how the constant use of compost or vermicompost has created spots of soil restoration in urban and semiurban soils of Chiapas (Huitepec and Teopisca), increasing soil organic matter amount, soil moisture and soil porosity, and enhancing then the presence of soil biodiversity; for example, in a Milpa with vermicompost (polyculture of Zea mays with Curcubita pepo, and Fasolius vulgaris) we have found a high density of an epigeic earthworm (640 ind.m2), Dichogaster bolahui, not present in the same type of soil just some meters of distance, in an Oak forest, where soil macroinvertebrates abundance decreased drastically. In another ecosystem within a Persea Americana culture, we found how above and below ground soil biodiversity is affected by the use of vermicompost, having clearly different microcosmos with and without vermicompost (30-50% more micro and macro invertebrates with vermicompost). So now in Campeche, within those soils that are classified by the mayas as tzequel, soils not use for agriculture, we have implemented home gardens and school gardens by the use of compost of vermicomposts in urban and semiurban soils. In school gardens (mainly primary schools) students have cultivated several plants with alimentary purposes; teachers have observed how the increase of soil biodiversity by the use of compost or vermicompost has enhanced the curiosity of children, even has promoted a more friendly behavior among students, they have learned how to do compost and how to apply it. Urban and semiurban soils can be modified by the use of compost and vermicompost, and soil biodiversity has extremely increased.

  11. Soil Carbon Sequestration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a large land area and diverse ecoregions, there is a considerable potential of terrestrial/soil carbon sequestration in India. Of the total land area of 329 million hectares (Mha), 297 Mha is the land area comprising 162 Mha of arable land, 69 Mha of forest and woodland, 11 Mha of permanent pasture, 8 Mha of permanent crops and 58 Mha is other land uses. The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is estimated at 21 Pg (petagram = Pg = 1 x 1015 g billion ton) to 30-cm depth and 63 Pg to 150-cm depth. The soil inorganic carbon (SIC) pool is estimated at 196 Pg to 1-m depth. The SOC concentration in most cultivated soils is less than 5 g/kg compared with 15 to 20 g/kg in uncultivated soils. Low SOC concentration is attributed to plowing, removal of crop residue and other biosolids, and mining of soil fertility. Accelerated soil erosion by water leads to emission of 6 Tg C/y. Important strategies of soil C sequestration include restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs) of agricultural and forestry soils. Potential of soil C sequestration in India is estimated at 7 to 10 Tg C/y for restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems, 5 to 7 Tg C/y for erosion control, 6 to 7 Tg C/y for adoption of RMPs on agricultural soils, and 22 to 26 Tg C/y for secondary carbonates. Thus, total potential of soil C sequestration is 39 to 49 (44± 5) Tg C/y

  12. Discovering the essence of soil (United States)

    Frink, D.


    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of ancient prebiotic soils. Furthermore, the physiological approach sheds light on the emergence of new soil components (e.g. spodic horizons) as ancient prebiotic soils adapt to a plethora of biotic carbon compounds. Other emergent soil properties and behaviors can be linked to the kinds, frequencies, order and intensities of various ubiquitous pedo-perturbations.

  13. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks. (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo


    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

  14. Soil phosphorus landscape models for precision soil conservation. (United States)

    Hong, Jinseok; Grunwald, Sabine; Vasques, Gustavo M


    Phosphorus (P) enrichment in soils has been documented in the Santa Fe River watershed (SFRW, 3585 km) in north-central Florida. Yet the environmental factors that control P distribution in soils across the landscape, with potential contribution to water quality impairment, are not well understood. The main goal of this study was to develop soil-landscape P models to support a "precision soil conservation" approach combining fine-scale (i.e., site-specific) and coarse-scale (i.e., watershed-extent) assessment of soil P. The specific objectives were to: (i) identify those environmental properties that impart the most control on the spatial distribution of soil Mehlich-1 extracted P (MP) in the SFRW; (ii) model the spatial patterns of soil MP using geostatistical methods; and (iii) assess model quality using independent validation samples. Soil MP data at 137 sites were fused with spatially explicit environmental covariates to develop soil MP prediction models using univariate (lognormal kriging, LNK) and multivariate methods (regression kriging, RK, and cokriging, CK). Incorporation of exhaustive environmental data into multivariate models (RK and CK) improved the prediction of soil MP in the SFRW compared with the univariate model (LNK), which relies solely on soil measurements. Among all tested environmental covariates, land use and vegetation related properties (topsoil) and geologic data (subsoil) showed the largest predictive power to build inferential models for soil MP. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of spatially explicit interactions between soil P and other environmental variables, facilitating improved land resource management while minimizing adverse risks to the environment. PMID:26024255

  15. Soil physical properties on Venezuelan steeplands: Applications to soil conservation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a framework to support decision making for soil conservation on Venezuelan steeplands. The general approach is based on the evaluation of two important land qualities: soil productivity and soil erosion risk, both closely related to soil physical properties. Soil productivity can be estimated from soil characteristics such as soil air-water relationships, soil impedances and soil fertility. On the other hand, soil erosion risk depends basically on soil hydrologic properties, rainfall aggressiveness and terrain slope. Two indexes are obtained from soil and land characteristics: soil productivity index (PI) and erosion risk index (ERI), each one evaluates the respective land quality. Subsequently, a matrix with these two qualities shows different land classes as well as soil conservation priorities, conservation requirements and proposed land uses. The paper shows also some applications of the soil productivity index as an approach to evaluate soil loss tolerance for soil conservation programs on tropical steeplands. (author)

  16. Food, soil, and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  17. Characterization of soil polysaccharides


    Gómez Alarcón, Gonzalo; Sáiz-JIménez, Cesáreo


    Fractionation of fulvic extracts from four Spanish soils using adsorption on insoluble polyvinyl pyrrolidone (polyclar AT) permitted the separation of polysaccharide fractions. No siqnificant differences between fractions were found with respect to elemental analysis, sugar composition, infrared and pyrolysis mass spectra. The most striking feature was the hiqh sulphur content, varying from 3.7 to 9.8%. In addition to monosaccharides (neutral sugars) the isolates consiste...

  18. Soil density meter incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As packages were being transferred from one plane to another at a metropolitan airport, an instrument fell from a package and was picked up by a cargo handler. The instrument was a soil density meter containing a 137Cs/241Am/Be source. Monitoring of the package and hands of the cargo handler revealed very little contamination. Photographs of the incident were taken by a television crew and a news report contained several inaccuracies and misinterpretations

  19. Soil mechanics: breaking ground. (United States)

    Einav, Itai


    In soil mechanics, student's models are classified as simple models that teach us unexplained elements of behaviour; an example is the Cam clay constitutive models of critical state soil mechanics (CSSM). 'Engineer's models' are models that elaborate the theory to fit more behavioural trends; this is usually done by adding fitting parameters to the student's models. Can currently unexplained behavioural trends of soil be explained without adding fitting parameters to CSSM models, by developing alternative student's models based on modern theories?Here I apply an alternative theory to CSSM, called 'breakage mechanics', and develop a simple student's model for sand. Its unique and distinctive feature is the use of an energy balance equation that connects grain size reduction to consumption of energy, which enables us to predict how grain size distribution (gsd) evolves-an unprecedented capability in constitutive modelling. With only four parameters, the model is physically clarifying what CSSM cannot for sand: the dependency of yielding and critical state on the initial gsd and void ratio. PMID:17855225

  20. Intercomparison measurement - Orava soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 our laboratory organized intercomparison measurement in gamma spectrometry. The soil samples were delivered to 20 laboratories in 4 countries. The main aim was check the laboratory practice of member of the Slovak Radiation Monitoring Network. This summary contains the results of the intercomparison on the determination of radionuclides in soil by gamma spectrometry. The soil was collected in autumn 1996 near Namestovo (Orava region) from layer 0 -5 cm. Although data on 20 radionuclides were received, only data for 134Cs, 137Cs, 226Ra, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were statistically evaluated. The received activities are (mean activity, [Bq/kg]; standard deviation, [Bq/kg]; range [Bq/kg]): for 134Cs: 1.05, 0.36, .0.31-1.85; for 137Cs: 59.7, 1.6, 57.5-62.7; for 226Ra: 24.0, 1.5, 21.8-26.9; for 232Th: 27.3, 2.8, 22.4-33.1; for 40K: 411, 39, 346-480. The used half-times and yields do not differ significantly. The differences between laboratories in reported results are due to mainly by sample treatment and spectra evaluation (used efficiency)

  1. SMEX03 Little River Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parameters for this data set include precipitation, soil temperature, volumetric soil moisture, soil conductivity, and soil salinity measured in the Little River...

  2. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XV.- Aragon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Aragon. (Author) 47 refs

  3. Forest soil disturbance intervals inferred from soil charcoal radiocarbon dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest soil disturbance intervals are usually too long to measure using plot-based studies, and thus they are poorly understood. The mean soil disturbance interval (MSDI) in an old-growth forest on the west coast of Vancouver Island was estimated from radiocarbon dates of charcoal from organic and mineral soil horizons. Two assumptions are required to estimate the MSDI: charcoal from forest fires is deposited within the organic horizon and eventually mixed into deeper mineral horizons by soil disturbances, and the probability of soil disturbance is spatially homogeneous and affected only by the time since the last fire or the last soil disturbance. The MSDI is then estimated by the rate at which the proportion of undisturbed sample sites (determined by the proportion of sites with charcoal from the most recent fire in the organic horizon) decreases with increasing time since the last fire. Soil charcoal evidence of time since fire was determined at 83 sites using 141 radiocarbon dates. The estimated MSDI was greater on slopes (ca. 2010 years) than on terraces (ca. 920 years). The long periods between soil disturbances, especially on slopes, are consistent with other evidence from the study area that suggests infrequent tree uprooting is the predominant mode of soil disturbance. (author)

  4. Derivation of Soil Ecological Criteria for Copper in Chinese Soils (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Wei, Dongpu; Ma, Yibing; McLaughlin, Mike J.


    Considerable information on copper (Cu) ecotoxicity as affected by biological species and abiotic properties of soils has been collected from the last decade in the present study. The information on bioavailability/ecotoxicity, species sensitivity and differences in laboratory and field ecotoxicity of Cu in different soils was collated and integrated to derive soil ecological criteria for Cu in Chinese soils, which were expressed as predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). First, all ecotoxicity data of Cu from bioassays based on Chinese soils were collected and screened with given criteria to compile a database. Second, the compiled data were corrected with leaching and aging factors to minimize the differences between laboratory and field conditions. Before Cu ecotoxicity data were entered into a species sensitivity distribution (SSD), they were normalized with Cu ecotoxicity predictive models to modify the effects of soil properties on Cu ecotoxicity. The PNEC value was set equal to the hazardous concentration for x% of the species (HCx), which could be calculated from the SSD curves, without an additional assessment factor. Finally, predictive models for HCx based on soil properties were developed. The soil properties had a significant effect on the magnitude of HCx, with HC5 varying from 13.1 mg/kg in acidic soils to 51.9 mg/kg in alkaline non-calcareous soils. The two-factor predictive models based on soil pH and cation exchange capacity could predict HCx with determination coefficients (R2) of 0.82–0.91. The three-factor predictive models – that took into account the effect of soil organic carbon – were more accurate than two-factor models, with R2 of 0.85–0.99. The predictive models obtained here could be used to calculate soil-specific criteria. All results obtained here could provide a scientific basis for revision of current Chinese soil environmental quality standards, and the approach adopted in this study could be used as a pragmatic framework for developing soil ecological criteria for other trace elements in soils. PMID:26207783

  5. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume I.-Galicia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Department de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim. a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary)' source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Galicia

  6. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa


    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  7. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIV.- Cataluna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Cataluna. (Author) 57 refs



    A. A. Batukaev; A. P. Endovitsky; T. M. Minkina; V. P. Kalinichenko; Z. S. Dikaev; S. N. Sushkova


    Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs ????30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. Calculation method is proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of chestnut solonetz soil complex. Were proposed equations to calculate free and associated forms of ions. To ...

  9. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume III.- Extremadura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalized and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. (Author) 50 refs

  10. Quantifying Shrink Swell Capacity of Soil Using Soil Moisture Isotherms (United States)

    Rivera, L. D.; Cobos, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Morgan, C.


    Vertisols, soils instinctively known for their expansive clays that cause them to have a high shrink swell potential, cover 2.4% of the earths ice-free land. In the United States these expansive soils can cause upwards of 6 billion in damages to pavements, foundations, and utility lines annually (Brady & Weil, 2010). Because of this, it is especially important that a soils ability to shrink and swell is well characterized when making engineering decisions. One traditional method for measuring a soil's expansive potential, the Coefficient of Linear Extensibility (COLE), can take weeks to months to complete (Grossman et al., 1968; Schafer and Singer, 1976b). Use of soil moisture isotherms, or the Soil Moisture Characteristic Curve (SMCC), in recent research has shown that the slope of the SMCC is related to a soils swelling potential (McKeen, 1992). The goal of this research is to evaluate the robustness of the relationship between the SMCC and COLE for a set of well-characterized test soils with COLE ranging from 0 to 0.176. If expansive potential can be reliably predicted from the SMCC, then data from recently developed automatic soil moisture isotherm generators could be used to characterize expansive potential with a fraction of the time and effort necessary for traditional techniques.

  11. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume V.- Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid. (Author) 39 refs

  12. Advances in Soil Biology: What does this mean for assessing soil change? (United States)

    Black, Helaina; Mele, Pauline


    Our interests in soil change are moving away from soil properties and increasingly towards changes in the processes and functioning of soils. Soil organisms are fundamental to dynamics and change in soils through their fundamental role in soil processes [1]. However it is only with recent technical and theoretical advances that we have started to establish quantitative relationships between soil biology and soil change (c.f. [2]). It is this predictive understanding that will enable us to fully integrate soil biology into the effective monitoring and sustainable management of soils. This paper outlines some of the recent advances in soil biology and discusses their relevance to monitoring and management.

  13. Frost heave in compressible soils (United States)

    Peppin, Stephen; Majumdar, Apala; Sander, Graham


    Recent frost heave experiments on compressible soils find no pore ice in the soil near the ice lenses (no frozen fringe). These results confirm early observations of Beskow that in clays the soil between ice lenses is ``soft and unfrozen'' but have yet to be explained theoretically. Recently it has been suggested that periodic ice lens formation in the absence of a frozen fringe may be due to a morphological instability of the ice--soil interface. Here we use this concept to develop a mathematical model of frost heave in compressible soils. The theory accounts for heave, overburden effects and soil consolidation. In the limit of a rigid porous medium a relation is obtained between the critical morphological number and the empirical segregation potential. Analytical and numerical solutions are found, and compared with the results of unidirectional solidification experiments.

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495


    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  15. Modelling soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable lands using legacy soil data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suuster, E; Ritz, Christian


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration is an essential factor in biomass production and soil functioning. SOC concentration values are often obtained by prediction but the prediction accuracy depends much on the method used. Currently, there is a lack of evidence in the soil science literature as to the advantages and shortcomings of the different commonly used prediction methods. Therefore, we compared and evaluated the merits of the median approach, analysis of covariance, mixed models and random forests in the context of prediction of SOC concentrations of mineral soils under arable management in the A-horizon. Three soil properties were used in all of the developed models: soil type, physical clay content (particle size <0.01 mm) and A-horizon thickness. We found that the mixed model predicted SOC concentrations with the smallest mean squared error (0.05%2), suggesting that a mixed-model approach is appropriate if the study design has a hierarchical structure as in our scenario. We used the Estonian National Soil Monitoring data on arable lands to predict SOC concentrations of mineral soils. Subsequently, the model with the best prediction accuracy was applied to the Estonian digital soil map for the case study area of Tartu County where the SOC predictions ranged from 0.6 to 4.8%. Our study indicates that predictions using legacy soil maps can be used in national inventories and for up-scaling estimates of carbon concentrations from county to country scales.

  16. In-situ vitrification of soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, W.F.; Brouns, R.A.; Buelt, J.L.


    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

  17. Soil Science and Global Issues (United States)

    Lal, Rattan


    Sustainable management of soil is integral to any rational approach to addressing global issues of the 21st century. A high quality soil is essential to: i) advancing food and nutritional security, ii) mitigating and adapting to climate change, iii) improving quality and renewability of water, iv) enriching biodiversity, v) producing biofuel feedstocks for reducing dependence on fossil fuel, and vi) providing cultural, aesthetical and recreational opportunities. Being the essence of all terrestrial life, soil functions and ecosystem services are essential to wellbeing of all species of plants and animals. Yet, soil resources are finite, unequally distributed geographically, and vulnerable to degradation by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Nonetheless, soil has inherent resilience, and its ecosystem functions and services can be restored over time. However, soil resilience depends on several key soil properties including soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool, plant-available water capacity (PWAC), nutrient reserves, effective rooting depth, texture and clay mineralogy, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc. There is a close inter-dependence among these properties. For example, SOC concentration strongly affects, PWAC, nutrient reserve, activity and species diversity of soil flora and fauna, CEC etc. Thus, judicious management of SOC concentration to maintain it above the threshold level (~1.5-2%) in the root zone is critical to sustaining essential functions and ecosystem services. Yet, soils of some agroecosystems (e.g., those managed by resources-poor farmers and small landholders in the tropics and sub-tropics) are severely depleted of their SOC reserves. Consequently. Agronomic productivity and wellbeing of people dependent on degraded soils is jeopardized. The ecosystem C pool of the terrestrial biosphere has been mined by extractive practices, the nature demands recarbonization of its biosphere for maintenance of its functions and resilience. Commemorating 2015 IYS is timely to create awareness among policy makers and general public that soil should never be taken for granted.

  18. Soils contaminated with hexavalent chromium


    Fonseca, Bruna Catarina da Silva


    The interest in environmental soil science has been growing in the last years due to the continuous degradation of this major natural resource. With this in mind, and because chromium and lead are two of the most toxic heavy metals frequently detected as soil contaminants in the Portuguese territory, the study and development of few remediation techniques and the indissociable description of the sorption and migration of these two heavy metals in soils, were the main objectives...

  19. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.


    The European Union (EU) soil policy is described in general terms in the EU Soil Strategy (EC 2006a) and the legally binding elements of the policy are proposed in the draft Soil Framework Directive (SFD; EC 2006b). In these documents, eight main threats to soil were identified by the EU Commission. The EU FP6 project ENVASSO (Environmental Assessment of Soil for Monitoring) had the aim to design a single, integrated and operational set of EU-wide criteria and indicators to provide the basis for a harmonised comprehensive soil and land information system for monitoring in Europe. Here, a proposal is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living in soils (both in terms of quantity and variety) and of related functions, causing a deterioration of one or more soil functions or ecosystem services. Whereas literature review allows the identification of about 100 possible indicators, the inventory of existing monitoring networks shows that few indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore, three stringent criteria were applied: an indicator should 1) have a standardized sampling and/or measuring methodology; 2) be complementary to other indicators; and 3) be easy to interpret at both scientific and policy levels.



    Cecilia Violeta NEAGU; Georgeta OPREA


    The humus substances play an important role in obtaining high yields and stable over time. He is permanently double process: the humus improvement of organic material reaching the soil and the mineralization of components at different stages of humus improving, The results of this process is influenced by soil type, climate, irrigation, fertilization. The beneficial effect of humus substances on plant growth may be related to indirect effects (fertilization efficiency or reduce soil compacti...

  1. Soil classes and acceleration response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It could not enough for determination of only geotechnical properties (soil classification, soil type, bearing capacity etc.) in order to define assessment of areas being settle in terms of suitability of settlement or how settled area is affected from natural disaster and to get necessary precautions. Damages on the engineering structure in the region posses an earthquake hazard are affected one or more site condition from source point to soil of engineering structure

  2. Effect of soil solarization on soil-borne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author.Soil solarization was conducted at three locations on the Lebanese coast. Maximum soil temperatures recorded were 53 and 48 celsius degrees at Jiyeh, 48.9, 46 and 43 celsius degrees at Naameh and 48, 45 and 43.5 celsius degrees at Khaldeh at 5, 15 and 25cm soil depths respectively. Mean soil temperatures recorded at 3pm were at Jiyeh 51.6, 47 and 46 celsius degrees compared to Naameh 47, 45 and 41 celsius degrees and Khaldeh 44, 42 and 41 celsius degrees at 5, 15 and 25 cm respectively. The mean temperature in solarized soils were 7.3 to 15 celsius degrees higher than those of the nonsolarized soils indicating a sustained increase of soil temperature in the solarized soils. The effect of soil solarization on artificially introduced fungal pathogens in the soil at Khaldeh, resulted in complete destruction of sclerotia of Sclerotinia spp. at three depths studied. However, with respect to the two other pathogens tested, solarization resulted in reduction of the viability of microsclerotia of Verticillium spp. by 99-79% and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis inoculum by 88-54% at 5 and 15 cm respectively, but only by 45% and 14% reduction at 25 cm. This level of control is significant when it is compared to the percentage of control where the level of reduction of inoculum viability did not exceed 10% at any soil depth. As there were contradicting reports in the literature on nematodes, two field trials in greenhouses were conducted to study the possibility of integrating 2 methods for management on nematodes. Soil solarization alone or in combination with biological control of nematodes using Arthrobotrys spp. and Dactyl ella brocophaga to control the root-knot nematodes on two crops, tomato at Naameh and cucumber at Jiyeh were compared to Methyl Bromide treatment. It was evident that, even on a very susceptible crop like cucumber, the integration of biological control and soil solarization gave a good level of control similar to methyl bromide. Neither root-knot indices nor yields were significantly different in both treatments. At present, fumigation with methyl bromide is the most common method adopted by Lebanese farmers to control soil-borne pathogens of high value crops in greenhouses. Since methyl bromide is extremely toxic and damage the ozone layer, and its use is banned in several countries and may be banned world wide in year 2001, these preliminary results prove that soil solarization may stand as a good alternative control measure

  3. The Biotoxicity of Mars Soils (United States)

    Kerney, Krystal


    Recent evidence from the Opportunity and Spirit rovers suggests that the soils on Mars might be very high in biotoxic materials induding sulfate salts, chlorides, and acidifying agents. Yet, very little is known about how the chemistries of Mars soils might affect the survival and growth of terrestrial microorganisms. The primary objectives of the proposed research will be to: (1) prepare and characterize Mars analog soils amended with potential biotoxic levels of sulfates, chlorides, and acidifying minerals; (2) use the stimulants to conduct a series of toxicology assays to determine if terrestrial microorganisms from spacecraft or extreme environments can survive direct exposure to the biotoxic soils, and (3) mix soils from extreme environments on Earth into Mars analog soils to determine if terrestrial microorganisms can grow and replicate under Martian conditions. The Mars analog soils will be thoroughly characterized by a wide diversity of soil chemistry assays to determine the exact nature of the soluble biotoxic components following hydration. The microbial experiments will be designed to test the effects of Mars stimulants on microbial survival, growth and replication during direct challenge experiments. Toxicology experiments will be designed to mimic terrestrial microbes coming into contact with biotoxic soils with and without liquid water. Results are expected to help" ... characterize the limits of life in ... planetary environments ... " and may help constrain the search for life on Mars.

  4. Soil Moisture Monitoring for Agriculture

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Elaboration of a Modern Technology for Operational Agrometeorological Soil Moisture Monitoring Spring Wheat, Yield and Disease Damage Forecasting and Recommendations for Plant Protection on the Kazakhstan Territory

  5. Connecting Soils and Glacial Geology (United States)

    Holly Dolliver

    The goal of this activity is to provide students an opportunity to connect soil science to surficial geology by using a Soil Surveys. By the end of the activity, students should be able to use a Soil Survey to identify and interpret landforms and surficial features. This activity can be adapted to variety of process (ex. eolian deposits, glacial deposits, bedrock weathering, etc.). County-level soil surveys are available in both paper and online formats for the majority of the United States. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

  6. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  7. The importance of crop residue on soil aggregation and soil organic matter components (United States)

    Above- and below-ground plant residues are the soil’s main sources of organic materials that bind soil particles together into aggregates and increase soil carbon storage. Serving to stabilize soil particles, soil organic matter assists in supplying plant available nutrients, increases water holding...

  8. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon


    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy (kaolinitic) and thus the clay plus silt fraction was the best correlate for SOC but with crystalline iron oxides (dithionite-citrate minus ammonium oxalate - oxalic acid extractable iron) being also correlated to SOC in these soils (R2 = 0.74). Most of SOC in these soils was found on the clay+silt fraction and in stable, clay rich aggregates. However, SOC of high activity clays and other less weathered soils such as Alisols, Cambisols and Plinthosols showed no correlation with particle size or iron oxides, being mostly stabilized by aluminium complexes. We found SOC of these soils to be better explained by a three way interaction among soil pH, carbon quality and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (R2 = 0.85). Consistent with this observation, SOC in the less weathered soils was mostly found in the colloidal fraction (75%). SOC of Podzols and Arenosols on the other hand had only a small but significant influence from their clay plus silt fraction (R2 = 0.31), with particulate organic matter accounting for most of its SOC.


    Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) are being developed for 24 inorganic and inorganic chemicals for soil invertebrates and plants using procedures developed by a Task Group of the USEPA Eco-SSL Work Group. The Eco-SSL Work Group is a collaboration among USEPA, DoD, DOE, ...

  10. Radioisotopes in soil fertility and soil pollution research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes from nuclear reactors are very useful research tool for agricultural scientists. The availability of radioisotopes like 32P, 65Zn, 54Mn, etc. made it possible for the researchers to explore investigations on soil fertility, plant macro- and micronutrients. Heavy metal radioisotopes like 115mCd, 51Cr, 75Se, etc. play a significant role in soil pollution research. (author)

  11. Soil fauna and soil functions: a jigsaw puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecologists and soil modelers have traditionally portrayed the inhabitants of soil as a black box labeled as "soil fauna" or "decomposers or detritivores” assuming that they just merely recycle the deposited dead plant material. Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on Earth and contains one of the most diverse assemblages of living organisms; however, the opacity of this world has severely limited our understanding of their functional contributions to soil processes and to ecosystem resilience. Traditional taxonomy, based on morphological and anatomical aspects, is becoming replaced by rapid processing molecular techniques (e.g. with marker gene-based approaches. However, this may be impracticable in many ecological studies and consequently, the majority of the current knowledge, still contributes little to our understanding of their role in ecosystem functioning. Over the years, different workers have produced several ‘functional classifications’ based on the body width, feeding regime, certain behavioral and reproductive aspects and ecological niches of soil organisms. Unfortunately, the information available is severely restricted to ‘major’ groups. A better physiological and metabolic understanding of when and how a complex community of soil organisms access nutrients, alter their environment and in turn, affect soil processes, will allow a more realistic quantitative evaluation of their ecological roles in the biogeochemical cycles. Here, I review the applicability of the available approaches, highlight future research challenges and propose a dynamic conceptual framework that could improve our ability to solve this functional puzzle.

  12. Online Soil Science Lesson 3: Soil Forming Factors (United States)

    This lesson explores the five major factors of soil formation, namely: 1) climate; 2) organisms; 3) time; 4) topography; and 5) parent material and their influence in forming soil. The distinction between active and passive factors, moisture and temperature regimes, organism and topographic influen...

  13. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØrgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo VangsØ


    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic conductivity parameters. A larger data set (1618 horizons) with a broader textural range was used in the development of PTFs to predict the van Genuchten parameters. The PTFs using either three or seven textural classes combined with soil organic mater and bulk density gave the most reliable predictions of the hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs from the literature using a subdata set of the data used in the calibration. The test showed that the developed PTFs gave better predictions (lower errors) than the PTFs from the literature. This is not surprising since the developed PTFs are based mainly on hydraulic conductivity data near saturation and sandier soils than the PTFs from the literature.

  14. 2-Day Investigating Soil Samples: observing and identifying soils (United States)

    This activity is designed for a primary classroom (outdoors & indoors) investigation where students collect and investigate soil samples and describe the soils, looking for similarities and differences. Students develop a method of recording the data colleted and can present the information gathered.

  15. What Makes Soil? Learning About Our Local Soils (United States)

    Susan Van Kekerix

    This activity is a field/classroom activity where students collect soil samples, form inquiry questions, devise a sorting method, make observations of the contents, record information, share information, and draw conclusions about their findings. Students will generate other inquiry questions related to soil for future learning opportunities.


    Pesticides are important components of many agricultural management systems and their effects on soil and its ability to process them should be included when evaluating soil quality. Pesticides help maintain agricultural productivity by controlling pests, however, management thresholds must be esta...

  17. Soil Chapter-Soils as Sponges: How Much Water does Soil Hold? (United States)

    Students determine the moisture content of a sponge after squeezing the water out of the sponge, and allowing water to evaporate from the sponge. Students also measure the amount of water that has evaporated from the soil samples. This learning resource is part of the Soils chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide, and is supported by the GLOBE soils protocols. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  18. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 40 are included in Volume I. A number of papers deal with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and make a contribution to increasing agricultural production by proposing improved management practices. Other papers discuss turnover of plant residues, release of plant nutrients through biodegradation of organic compounds, and nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. Separate entries have been prepared for those 8 papers which discuss the use of tracer techniques in soil studies

  19. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  20. Saxton soil remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described

  1. Rickets and soil strontium.


    Ozgür, S; Sümer, H; Koço?lu, G


    The subjects of this study were children aged 6-60 months living in villages in the Ulas Health Region, Sivas. The villages were divided into two groups according to the amount of strontium in the soil: region 1, > 350 ppm, 650 children; region 2, < 350 ppm, 1596 children. Overall, the prevalence of one or more clinical signs of rickets was 22.9%. The prevalence in region 1 was 31.5% and that in region 2, 19.5%. These values were significantly different (p < 0.001). When other variables which...

  2. SOILS - NRCS General Map.lyr

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of general soil association units. It wasdevelped by the National Cooperative Soil Survey and supersedesthe State Soil Geographic (STATSGO)...

  3. KBRA OPWP Soil Depth to Water

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil management practices for sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sustainable system, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. However, due to high demand for food brought about by high population as well as the decline in agricultural lands, the soil is being exploited beyond its limit thus, leading to poor or sick soils. Sound soil management practices in the Philippines is being reviewed. The technologies, including the advantages and disadvantages are hereby presented. This includes proper cropping systems, fertilizer program, soil erosion control and correcting soil acidity. Sound soil management practices which conserve organic matter for long-term sustainability includes addition of compost, maintaining soil cover, increasing aggregates stability, soil tilt and diversity of soil microbial life. A healthy soil is a key component to sustainability as a health soil produce healthy crop plants and have optimum vigor or less susceptible to pests. (author)

  5. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Pereg, L.; Quinton, J. N.; Six, J.; Van Oost, K.


    The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, geologists, and physicists, amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. In more recent years this list has grown to include anthropologists, economists, engineers, medical professionals, military professionals, sociologists, and even artists. This approach has been strengthened and reinforced as current research continues to use experts trained in both soil science and related fields and by the wide array of issues impacting the world that require an in-depth understanding of soils. Of fundamental importance amongst these issues are biodiversity, biofuels/energy security, climate change, ecosystem services, food security, human health, land degradation, and water security, each representing a critical challenge for research. In order to establish a benchmark for the type of research that we seek to publish in each issue of SOIL, we have outlined the interdisciplinary nature of soil science research we are looking for. This includes a focus on the myriad ways soil science can be used to expand investigation into a more holistic and therefore richer approach to soil research. In addition, a selection of invited review papers are published in this first issue of SOIL that address the study of soils and the ways in which soil investigations are essential to other related fields. We hope that both this editorial and the papers in the first issue will serve as examples of the kinds of topics we would like to see published in SOIL and will stimulate excitement among our readers and authors to participate in this new venture.

  6. Anthropogenic effects on soil micromycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uki? Dragutin A.


    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different authropogenic pollutants (mineral and organic fertilizers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in ?a?ak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and under greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the ?apek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season, and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg x ha-1 and organic fertilizers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg x ha-1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor, inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  7. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  8. Continuous soil monitoring and inventory of soils as part of the soil information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bavarian Geological State office conducted a soil inventory and continuous soil monitoring programme. In order to make permanent monitoring feasible the Bavarian Geological State office developed a special concept. This concept of site selection, commissioning, sampling and analysis is described in this paper. The results of first studies of the three permanent soil monitoring areas in the Alpine region shows that only on the Gotzenalm in the national park in Berchtegaden there are significant accumulations of Cs-137 and of some other typically anthropogenic heavy metals in the top soil. Organic pollution is small in all three areas. (orig./EW)

  9. Soil fungi as indicators of pesticide soil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandi? Leka


    Full Text Available Soil fungi, with their pronounced enzymic activity and high osmotic potential, represent a significant indicator of negative effects of different pesticides on the agroecosystem as a whole. In that respect, a trial was set up on the alluvium soil type with the aim to investigate the effect of different herbicides (Simazine, Napropamid, Paraquat, fungicides (Captan and Mancozeb and insecticides (Fenitrothion and Dimethoate on a number of soil fungi under apple trees. The number of soil fungi was determined during four growing seasons by an indirect method of dilution addition on the Czapek agar. The study results indicate that the fungi belong to the group of microorganisms that, after an initial sensible response to the presence of pesticides in the soil, very rapidly establish normal metabolism enabling them even to increase their number. The fungicides and insecticides applied were found to be particularly effective in that respect.

  10. A method to detect soil carbon degradation during soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alewell


    Full Text Available Soil erosion has been discussed intensively but controversial both as a significant source or a significant sink of atmospheric carbon possibly explaining the gap in the global carbon budget. One of the major points of discussion has been whether or not carbon is degraded and mineralized to CO2 during detachment, transport and deposition of soil material. By combining the caesium-137 (137Cs approach (quantification of erosion rates with stable carbon isotope signatures (process indicator of mixing versus degradation of carbon pools we were able to show that degradation of carbon occurs during soil erosion processes at the investigated mountain grasslands in the central Swiss Alps (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri. Transects from upland (erosion source to wetland soils (erosion sinks of sites affected by sheet and land slide erosion were sampled. Analysis of 137Cs yielded an input of 2 and 2.6 t ha?1 yr?1 of soil material into the wetlands sites. Assuming no degradation of soil organic carbon during detachment and transport, carbon isotope signature of soil organic carbon in the wetlands could only be explained with an assumed 800 and 400 years of erosion input into the wetlands. The latter is highly unlikely with alpine peat growth rates indicating that the upper horizons might have an age between 7 and 200 years. While we do not conclude from our data that eroded soil organic carbon is generally degraded during detachment and transport, we propose this method to gain more information on process dynamics during soil erosion from oxic upland to anoxic wetland soils, sediments or water bodies.

  11. A method to detect soil carbon degradation during soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conen


    Full Text Available Soil erosion has been discussed intensively but controversial both as a significant source or a significant sink of atmospheric carbon possibly explaining the gap in the global carbon budget. One of the major points of discussion has been whether or not carbon is degraded and mineralized to CO2 during detachment, transport and deposition of soil material. By combining the caesium-137 (137Cs approach (quantification of erosion rates with stable carbon isotope signatures (process indicator of mixing versus degradation of carbon pools we were able to show that degradation of carbon occurs during soil erosion processes at the investigated mountain grasslands in the central Swiss Alps (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri. Transects from upland (erosion source to wetland soils (erosion sinks of sites affected by sheet and land slide erosion were sampled. Analysis of 137Cs yielded an input of 2 and 4.6 tha?1 yr?1 of soil material into the wetlands sites. Assuming no degradation of soil organic carbon during detachment and transport, carbon isotope signature of soil organic carbon in the wetlands could only be explained with an assumed 500–600 and 350–400 years of erosion input into the wetlands Laui and Spissen, respectively. The latter is highly unlikely with alpine peat growth rates indicating that the upper horizons might have an age between 7 and 200 years. While we do not conclude from our data that eroded soil organic carbon is generally degraded during detachment and transport, we propose this method to gain more information on process dynamics during soil erosion from oxic upland to anoxic wetland soils, sediments or water bodies.

  12. Soil classification and radionuclide migration in west Cumbrian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide migration through soil is controlled by the degree of retardation due to sorption of the radionuclide onto the soil, which is dependant upon the soil type and nuclide involved. It is therefore important to assess the soil variability of the geographical area under study. Radionuclide attenuation is usually quantified by a distribution coefficient (Kd) or distribution ratio (Rd) obtained from batch experiments. As part of this research Rd values were compared with column retardation factors (Rf values) in order to assess how closely Rd values relate to radionuclide migration in an undisturbed soil. Results of this research have shown that the method and conditions used to conduct batch experiments can greatly affect the Kd and Rd values obtained. Rd values for a range of west Cumbrian soils were generally of the order 137Cs>60Co>125Sb>85Sr. The use of the national soil map of England and Wales (Jarvis et al., 1984) was not recommended for prediction of radionuclide migration in west Cumbrian soils. It was suggested that an Rd values for each major soil type (sand, clay, loam and peat) was sufficient for use in assessment studies. Modifications made to the batch method in this project did not appear to reduce the discrepancy which is often reported between batch and column retardation parameters. In general, the majority of the batch and column Rd values obtained in this research differed by one order of magnitudeesearch differed by one order of magnitude. There did not appear to be any trend, with regard to nuclide or soil type, in determining the magnitude by which the batch and column Rd values differed. Using the measured Rd values as input parameters in an advection-diffusion model produced mixed results, but the predicted activity-depth profiles generally underestimated the depths to which the radionuclides migrated down the column. (author)

  13. Managing soils for long-term productivity


    Syers, J. K.


    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated. Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soi...

  14. Modification of biochemical properties by soil use


    Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Leirós, M.ª del Carmen; Gil Sotres, Fernando


    [EN] Human activity is one of the main causes of the physical, chemical and biological degradation of soils. This degradation implies a change in soil quality as it involves both a decrease in productivity and changes in the ecological functions of the soil. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of soil use on soil biochemical properties, with the aim of providing data that allow assessment of the usefulness of enzymatic activities as indicators of soil quality. In ...

  15. Soil Radiological Characterisation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the general methodology and best practice approaches which combine proven existing techniques for sampling and characterisation to assess the contamination of soils prior to remediation. It is based on feedback of projects conducted by main French nuclear stakeholders involved in the field of remediation and dismantling (EDF, CEA, AREVA and IRSN). The application of this methodology will enable the project managers to obtain the elements necessary for the drawing up of files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is applicable to each of the steps necessary for the piloting of remediation work-sites, depending on the objectives targeted (release into the public domain, re-use, etc.). The main part describes the applied statistical methodology with the exploratory analysis and variogram data, identification of singular points and their location. The results obtained permit assessment of a mapping to identify the contaminated surface and subsurface areas. It stakes the way for radiological site characterisation since the initial investigations from historical and functional analysis to check that the remediation objectives have been met. It follows an example application from the feedback of the remediation of a contaminated site on the Fontenay aux Roses facility. It is supplemented by a glossary of main terms used in the field from different publications or international standards. This technical report is a support of the ISO Standard ISO ISO/TC 85/SC 5 N 18557 'Sampling and characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes'. (authors)

  16. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soils decontamination project was initiated, to remove actinides from soils at Rocky Flats. Wet screening, attrition scrubbing with Calgon at high pH, attrition scrubbing at low pH, and cationic flotation were investigated. Pilot plant studies were carried out. Conceptual designs have been generated for mounting the process in semi-trailers

  17. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation. (United States)

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

  18. FAO's programme on soil erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of land degradation in global basis and its negative impacts on soil fertility are presented. The activities undertaken by FAO on erosion control are described. Some recent trends in soil and water conservation are also included. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Batukaev


    Full Text Available Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs CaCO30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. Calculation method is proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of chestnut solonetz soil complex. Were proposed equations to calculate free and associated forms of ions. To solve the equations were used an iteration, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation on the law of operating masses. Was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association as ratio of ions free form to analytical content ?e = Cass/Can. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layer. Increasing soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. In form of ionic pairs in soil solution are: 11.8-53.8% of Ca2+; 9.4-57.3% of Mg2+; 0.7-11.9% of Na+; 2.2-22.3% of HCO3-, 11.8-62.7% of SO42-. The ion CO32- is high associated, the share of ions in associated form is up to 92.7%. The degree of soil solution saturation was obtained for three level of approximation accounting on analytical concentration, calculated association coefficient, calculated coefficient of association. Relating to thermodynamic solubility product S0, the mathematical product of analytical ionic pairs indicated super saturation of soil solutions up to K1 = 100, taking into account calculated coefficient of association ion activity super saturation of soil solutions is absent, K3?1. Only for solonetz chestnut meadow K3?2-5. The soil solution saturation degree in soil profile and laterally in landscape varies. The quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution allows explain evolution of landscape of salted soils, structure of soil cover. Calculations fulfilled show that a possibility of soil degradation scenario taking into account the laws of association of ions in soil solution is much more probable and dangerous than it was assessed before. New understanding of water-salt transfer, geochemical barriers and ecological functions of soil will help to improve rainfed and irrigational agriculture.

  20. Phytoremediation for Oily Desert Soils (United States)

    Radwan, Samir

    This chapter deals with strategies for cleaning oily desert soils through rhizosphere technology. Bioremediation involves two major approaches; seeding with suitable microorganisms and fertilization with microbial growth enhancing materials. Raising suitable crops in oil-polluted desert soils fulfills both objectives. The rhizosphere of many legume and non-legume plants is richer in oil-utilizing micro-organisms than non-vegetated soils. Furthermore, these rhizospheres also harbour symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and are rich in simple organic compounds exuded by plant roots. Those exudates are excellent nutrients for oil-utilizing microorganisms. Since many rhizospheric bacteria have the combined activities of hydrocarbon-utilization and nitrogen fixation, phytoremediation provides a feasible and environmentally friendly biotechnology for cleaning oil-polluted soils, especially nitrogen-poor desert soils.

  1. Decomposition of Diethylstilboestrol in Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Hansen, Birte


    The rate of decomposition of DES-monoethyl-1-C14 in soil was followed by measurement of C14O2 released. From 1.6 to 16% of the added C14 was recovered as C14O2 during 3 months. After six months as much as 12 to 28 per cent was released as C14O2.Determination of C14 in the soil samples after the experiments showed that the amount extractable with benzene decreased to a greater extent than would be expected from the production of C14O2 and that the amount extractable with water was increased when compared with that found shortly after the addition of DES.Addition of large amounts of DES (8%) did not inhibit the CO2 production from the soil.Experiments with ?-sterilized soil indicated that enzymes present in the soil are able to attack DES.

  2. Shrinkage limit of soil mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrinkage limit, one of the Atterberg limits, is widely linked with many plasticity-based soil behaviors. However, in a great majority of these cases, such correlations have been found to exhibit poor performance. Recently, it has been brought out that the shrinkage limit of a natural soil does not depend upon plasticity characteristics, and it is primarily governed by the relative grain size distribution of the soil. The present study confirms this mechanism with the results obtained using clay-clay, clay-non-cohesive soil, and non-cohesive soil mix systems. The present study gains importance from the point of view of criteria with respect to the design of back fill materials to be used in various applications, such as nuclear waste disposal projects

  3. Soil Phosphorus Stoichiometry Drives Carbon Turnover Along a Soil C Gradient Spanning Mineral and Organic Soils Under Rice Cultivation (United States)

    Hartman, W.; Ye, R.; Horwath, W. R.; Tringe, S. G.


    Soil carbon (C) cycling is linked to the availability of nutrients like nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, the role of soil P in influencing soil C turnover and accumulation is poorly understood, with most models focusing on C:N ratios based on the assumption that terrestrial ecosystems are N limited. To determine the effects of N and P availability on soil C turnover, we compared soil respiration over the course of a growing season in four adjacent rice fields with 5%, 10%, 20% and 25% soil C. In each of these fields, plots were established to test the effect of N additions on plant growth, using control and N addition treatments (80 kg N/ha urea). Although soil P was not manipulated in parallel, prior work has shown soil P concentrations decline markedly with increasing soil C content. Soil CO2 flux was monitored using static chambers at biweekly intervals during the growing season, along with porewater dissolved organic C and ammonium. Soils were collected at the end of the growing season, and tested for total C, N, and P, extractable N and P, pH, base cations and trace metals. Soil DNA was also extracted for 16S rRNA sequencing to profile microbial communities. Soil N additions significantly increased CO2 flux and soil C turnover (seasonal CO2 flux per unit soil C) in 5% and 10% C fields, but not in 20% or 25% C fields. Soil C content was closely related to soil N:P stoichiometry, with N:P ratios of ca. 12, 16, 24, and 56 respectively in the 5, 10, 20 and 25% C fields. Seasonal CO2 fluxes (per m2) were highest in 10% C soils. However, soil C turnover was inversely related to soil C concentrations, with the greatest C turnover at the lowest values of soil C. Soil C turnover showed stronger relationships with soil chemical parameters than seasonal CO2 fluxes alone, and the best predictors of soil C turnover were soil total and extractable N:P ratios, along with extractable P alone. Our results show that soil P availability and stoichiometry influence the turnover of soil C, even where primary producers are clearly limited by N. Prior work has suggested these contrasting patterns in nutrient limitation may arise due to stoichiometric differences among plants and soil microbes. We hypothesize that differences in soil carbon turnover may in part reflect shifts in metabolism of microbial communities associated with stoichiometric variation in soils.

  4. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Ashour; Kühn, Oliver


    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil < original soil < soil+3 HWE < soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...

  5. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium

  6. Developments and departures in the philosophy of soil science (United States)

    Traditional soil science curriculums provide comprehensive instruction on soil properties, soil classification, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in soils. This reductionist perspective is sometimes balanced with a more holistic perspective that focuses on soils as natu...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bagarello


    Full Text Available The soil particle-size distribution (PSD is commonly used for soil classification and for estimating soil behavior. An accurate mathematical representation of the PSD is required to estimate soil hydraulic properties and to compare texture measurements from different classification systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Haverkamp and Parlange (HP and Fredlund et al. (F PSD models to fit 243 measured PSDs from a wide range of 38 005_Bagarello(547_33 18-11-2009 11:55 Pagina 38 soil textures in Sicily and to test the effect of the number of measured particle diameters on the fitting of the theoretical PSD. For each soil textural class, the best fitting performance, established using three statistical indices (MXE, ME, RMSE, was obtained for the F model with three fitting parameters. In particular, this model performed better in the fine-textured soils than the coarse-textured ones but a good performance (i.e., RMSE < 0.03 was detected for the majority of the investigated soil textural classes, i.e. clay, silty-clay, silty-clay-loam, silt-loam, clay-loam, loamy-sand, and loam classes. Decreasing the number of measured data pairs from 14 to eight determined a worse fitting of the theoretical distribution to the measured one. It was concluded that the F model with three fitting parameters has a wide applicability for Sicilian soils and that the comparison of different PSD investigations can be affected by the number of measured data pairs.

  8. Evaluation of soil structure in the framework of an overall soil quality rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, L; Shepherd, T G


    Soil structure is an important aspect of agricultural soil quality, and its preservation and improvement are key to sustaining soil functions. Methods of overall soil quality assessment which include visual soil structure information can be useful tools for monitoring and managing the global soil resource. The aim of the paper is: (i) to demonstrate the role of visual quantification of soil structure within the procedure of the overall soil quality assessment by the Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (M-SQR), (ii) to quantify the magnitude and variability of soil structure and overall M-SQR on a number of agricultural research sites and (iii) to analyse the correlations of soil quality rating results with crop yields. We analysed visual soil structure and overall soil quality on a range of 20 experimental sites in seven countries. To assess visual soil structure we utilised the Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) and Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) methods. Results showed the feasibility and reliability of both VSA and VESS methods and the overall soil quality M-SQR rating approach to give scores and classes which characterised the soil potential for cropping. The structure status of soil can be reliably assessed by these procedures. In soils with clay contents > 30% unfavourable soil structure could not be reliably recognised by measurements of the dry bulk density, but significantly by evaluation of visual soil structure. Structure scores were clearly associated with the drainage status of soil. More than 70% of the variability of crop yields at a given intensity of input may be explained by the overall M-SQR-score which includes information on soil texture, relief and climate in addition to soil structure. We conclude that methods of visual soil assessment are useful diagnostic tools for monitoring and controlling agricultural soil quality over different scales, ranging from within-fields to global. Controlling the drainage status of land and action of machinery at appropriate drainage states are pre-conditions for preserving a suitable soil structure.

  9. SoilNet - A Zigbee based soil moisture sensor network (United States)

    Bogena, H. R.; Weuthen, A.; Rosenbaum, U.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.


    Soil moisture plays a key role in partitioning water and energy fluxes, in providing moisture to the atmosphere for precipitation, and controlling the pattern of groundwater recharge. Large-scale soil moisture variability is driven by variation of precipitation and radiation in space and time. At local scales, land cover, soil conditions, and topography act to redistribute soil moisture. Despite the importance of soil moisture, it is not yet measured in an operational way, e.g. for a better prediction of hydrological and surface energy fluxes (e.g. runoff, latent heat) at larger scales and in the framework of the development of early warning systems (e.g. flood forecasting) and the management of irrigation systems. The SoilNet project aims to develop a sensor network for the near real-time monitoring of soil moisture changes at high spatial and temporal resolution on the basis of the new low-cost ZigBee radio network that operates on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The sensor network consists of soil moisture sensors attached to end devices by cables, router devices and a coordinator device. The end devices are buried in the soil and linked wirelessly with nearby aboveground router devices. This ZigBee wireless sensor network design considers channel errors, delays, packet losses, and power and topology constraints. In order to conserve battery power, a reactive routing protocol is used that determines a new route only when it is required. The sensor network is also able to react to external influences, e.g. such as rainfall occurrences. The SoilNet communicator, routing and end devices have been developed by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and will be marketed through external companies. We will present first results of experiments to verify network stability and the accuracy of the soil moisture sensors. Simultaneously, we have developed a data management and visualisation system. We tested the wireless network on a 100 by 100 meter forest plot equipped with 25 end devices each consisting of 6 vertically arranged soil moisture sensors. The next step will be the instrumentation of two small catchments (~30 ha) with a 30 m spacing of the end devices.

  10. The use of isotopes in soil fertility and soil chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of radioactive and enriched stable isotopes is reminded. The main topics studied with isotopes which are pointed out are the following: the isotopic exchange and its application; the E and L values; the determination of CEC; the fixing capacity of some ions by the soil particles; the measurement of the A value; the efficiency of fertilizers utilization, the interaction between nutrients, their movements through the soil, the residual effect of the fertilizers and, finally, the root system and soil organic matter. (author)

  11. A Review of Fishpond Soil Management Principles in Nigeria


    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei


    The suitability of sites for culture fisheries depends on the soil. There is therefore the need to have proper background on the nature and properties of soils. The pond oils, soil functions in fish pond, soil characterization, components and soil mineral constituents, oil profile soil classification, soil fertility, nutrients, primary and secondary nutrients, soil organic matter, common soil problems, field and laboratory methods in acid sulphate soil identification, management of acid sulph...

  12. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi


    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m?2 s?1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m?2 y?1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  13. Soil CO? dynamics in a tree island soil of the Pantanal: the role of soil water potential. (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto, Osvaldo B; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S; Messias, Indira A M; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi


    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO? research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO? dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO? concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO? efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO? efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO? m?² s?¹, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m?² y?¹. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0-20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO? concentrations, with high CO? values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO? efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO? dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO? efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO? concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO? efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  14. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization as a Methyl Bromide Alternative: Vegetable Crop Performance and Soil Nutrient Dynamics (United States)

    Soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization can effectively control soilborne plant pathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes in specialty crop production systems. At the same time, research is limited on the impact of soil treatment by ASD + solarization on c...

  15. Tracing soil erosion impacts on soil organisms using 137Cs and soil nematodes (United States)

    Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John S.; McKenzie, Blair M.; Neilson, Roy


    The application of environmental radionuclides in soil tracing and erosion studies is now well established in geomorphology. Sediment and erosion-tracing studies are undertaken for a range of purposes in the earth sciences but until now few studies have used the technique to answer biological questions. An experiment was undertaken to measure patterns of soil loss and gain over 50 years, effectively calculating a field-scale sediment budget, to investigate soil erosion relationships between physical and biological soil components. Soil nematodes were identified as a model organism, a ubiquitous and abundant group sensitive to disturbance and thus useful indicator taxa of biological and physico-chemical changes. A field site was selected at the James Hutton Institute's experimental Balruddery Farm in NE Scotland. 10 metre-resolution topographical data was collected with differential GPS. Based on these data, a regular 30 m-resolution sampling grid was constructed in ArcGIS, and a field-sampling campaign undertaken. 104 soil cores (~50 cm-deep) were collected with a percussion corer. Radio-caesium (137Cs) activity concentrations were measured using high-purity germainum gamma-ray spectroscopy, and 137Cs areal activities derived from these values. Organic matter content by loss on ignition and grain-size distribution by laser granulometry were also measured. Additional samples were collected to characterise the soil nematode community, both for abundance and functional (trophic) composition using a combination of low-powered microscopy and molecular identification techniques (dTRFLP). Results were analysed with ArcGIS software using the Spatial Analyst package. Results show that spatial relationships between physical, chemical and biological parameters were complex and interrelated. Previous field management was found to influence these relationships. The results of this experiment highlight the role that soil erosion processes play in medium-term restructuring of the physico-chemical soil environment and the soil community.

  16. Afforestation effects on soil carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bárcena, Teresa G


    Understanding carbon (C) dynamics has become increasingly important due to the major role of C in global warming. Soils store the largest amount of organic C in the biosphere; therefore, changes in this compartment can have a large impact on the C storage of an ecosystem. Land-use change is a main driver of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools worldwide. In Europe, afforestation (i.e. the establishment of new forest on non-forested land), is a major land-use change driven by economic and environmental interests due to its role as a C sequestration tool following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Despite research efforts on the quantification of SOC stock change and soil C fluxes following this land-use change, knowledge is still scarce in regions where afforestation currently is and has been widespread, like Denmark and the rest of Northern Europe. This PhD thesis explored three main aspects of the impact of afforestation on soil C: i) changes in SOC stocks (in forest floors and mineral soils) on afforested cropland in Denmark and in afforested soils of Northern Europe; ii) changes in CH4 oxidation (uptake) potential of soils; iii) changes in soil CO2 efflux through heterotrophic respiration. In Denmark chronosequences (i.e. space-for-time substitution) of oak and Norway spruce stands at the Vestskoven site were the tool used to explore these changes. Soil OC dynamics predicted by the chronosequence approach have often been used, however they never been validated by resampling before. According to the chronosequence approach covering a time span of 40 years, topsoils (0-25 cm soil depth including forest floors) in Vestskoven are currently neither a sink nor a source for C. The more specific decadal trends at the stand level provided by repeated sampling revealed a change in source-sink C balance between soil compartments over time, with C accumulation in the mineral soil becoming increasingly important as the sink strength of forest floors decreased within 4 decades of afforestation. The chronosequence approach is an appropriate tool to assess SOC stock changes following afforestation given that assumptions of similar site conditions are met. However, repeated sampling can not only validate the chronosequence trajectories but also provide refined temporal trends. Changes in SOC in Northern Europe investigated by meta-analysis, revealed that following afforestation, significant C sequestration in soils from this region requires at least three decades or even longer time, when afforestation is performed on former agricultural soils. The faster C accretion in forest floors compensates the initial lag-phase found in mineral soils. The chronosequences also indicated that afforestation increases the CH4 sink potential of soils over time due to the gradual increase in SOC and decrease of bulk density favoring CH4-oxidation, as long as soils remain well drained. The CO2 efflux from soils may increase, due to heterotrophic respiration of a larger SOC pool and not due to higher reactivity of the SOC. However, these C sources are likely to be compensated by the C sink in the growing forest biomass.

  17. The soil reference shrinkage curve

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y


    A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural...

  18. Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name) (United States)

    In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  19. Hillslope Soils and Life (Invited) (United States)

    Amundson, R.; Owen, J. J.; Heimsath, A. M.; Yoo, K.; Dietrich, W. E.


    That hillslope processes are impacted by biology has been long understood, but the complexities of the abiotic-biotic processes and their feedbacks are quantitatively emerging with the growing body of pertinent literature. The concept that plants modulate both the disaggregation and transport of soil particles on hillslopes was clearly articulated by G.K. Gilbert. Yet earlier, James Hutton (starting from very different intellectual boundary conditions) argued that soil, which results from the dynamic balance of rock destruction and removal, is a prerequisite for plants - a concept that underscores the need to more deeply examine the feedback of geomorphic processes on terrestrial ecosystems. We compiled the results of recent studies that have been conducted on gentle convex hillslopes across a broad range of rainfall. We found that vegetated landscapes appear to have strong controls on hillslope soil thickness, landscape denudation rates, and soil residence times. The restricted range in residence times - despite large differences in climate - appear in turn to sustain relatively high levels of both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertility, suggesting ecological resilience and resistance to non-anthropogenic environmental perturbations. At the most arid end of Earth's climate vegetation disappears, but not all water. The loss of plants shifts soil erosion to abiotic processes, with a corresponding thinning or loss of the soil mantle. This reinforces the hypothesis that a planet without vegetation, but with a hydrologic cycle, would be largely devoid of soil-mantled hillslopes and would be driven toward hillslope morphologies that differ from the familiar convex-up forms of biotic landscapes. While our synthesis of the effects of vegetation on soil production and soil thickness provides a quantitative view of the suggestions of Gilbert, it also identifies that vegetation itself responds to the geomorphic processes, as believed by Hutton. There is a complex interplay between physical and biological processes on the Earth's surface that requires further elucidation in order to fully understand the ramifications of further climatic and physical alteration of our planet's surface.

  20. Soil test for some micronutrients and selenium in Egyptian soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several factors have simulated the need for research on the development of soil tests for micronutrients. Increased crop yield have resulted in more attention being given to the need for these elements. One of the most effective means of determining whether a particular nutrient is limiting or not is the soil test. Many studies were established in our department in order to find out the best-fit method for the most reliable estimation of some micronutrients such as: Mn, Fe, Zn and Se. Tracer technique was used as a method for determining these elements in different soils of Egypt. A review of pertinent research concerning types of extractants, the need for considering other soil properties in interpretation, and critical levels are presented

  1. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region (United States)

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.


    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and management of the EU territory by field observations of geo-referenced points. In 2009, a topsoil (0-30 cm) module was included to the survey and a subset of around 21,000 sites was sampled in 23 Member States. The second source is a soil survey monitoring pilot campaign carried in Veneto Region last year. The pilot campaign has been organized with the collaboration between JRC, University of Padova and ARPAV Veneto. The scope was to apply the LUCAS methodology to an experimental soil survey of 40 samples. The selection of the points to survey has been done on the basis of the LUCAS project related to Veneto Region, pedo-climatic and management unit conditions and the database on soils belonging to ARPAV Soil Unit, collected ante 2000. Data started to be investigated and permit to show changes in SOC content in a decade for different land use/cover and climatic areas. Through the bulk density data collected and the data already available from ARPAV library, it's possible to evaluate the Carbon stocks of Veneto region. Possible changes in Carbon can be related to land use changes and different strategies of management practices adopted over time.

  2. Cave-soils, the soils forming underneath the surface (United States)

    Dobos, Endre; Bertóti, Diána; Kovács, Károly; Vadnai, Péter


    Limestone cave sediments of the Bükk-mountain in the North-Eastern part of Hungary were described, analysed and classified using WRB soil classification system. Cave sediments can be considered as soils, partly on the basis of their origin, partly of processes taking place in them. Based on the results, it can be concluded that cave soils are often shallow, lying directly above the continuous rock. In general they are layered, with clearly distinct layers of alluvial origin. Their organic matter content depends on the nature of the sediment. They often contain considerable quantities of undecomposed organic sediment, acting as the basis for very intensive soil life, which can be detected in the soil structure and may in some cases result in Vermic characteristics. The texture is very variable, ranging from clay to rough gravelly sand. Almost 100% of the soils are calcareous, the lime content is of secondary origin and its amount is at least 2%. Therefore, the pH values fluctuate from neutral to 8.5, mostly having a value around 8. In rare cases gley formation also occurs, especially on poorly drained areas, where there is no water flow to refresh the dissolved oxygen content. In the "oxy-aquic" state, characterized by high dissolved oxygen content, the iron is not reduced, so gley formation is not induced. From pedological point of view, cave sediments show a very diverse picture. Besides sedimentary layers, numerous soil formation processes can be detected, which can be considered analogue with surface processes, therefore they definitely need to be classified as soils. According to all these, in the Hungarian classification cave soils are primarily classified as alluvial, colluvial or lithomorphic soils. The WRB classification places them mainly in the Fluvisol and Leptosol Reference Groups, and according to the soils examined in the present work, they can be described with the Leptic (Epileptic), Fluvic (in rare cases Colluvic), Vermic, Calcaric, Eutric, Gleyic, or possibly with the Mollic or Rhodic qualifiers. Despite the relatively small number of analysed and reference samples during the mineralogical examinations, we can say that clear trends could be observed in the cave sediments. Due to the present and historical heterogeneity of the catchment area, it is difficult to associate the samples with surface soils. It could be established, however, that approximately half of the minerals in the cave soils are quartz, with ratios of 38-73% depending on the texture. Smectite-vermiculite associations were dominant in the clay mineral fraction, making up 80-90% of the whole fraction in seven of the eight samples. The only exception was the Mexikó-2 sample, where relatively fresh, unweathered, unleached illite-muscovite is mixed with intensively weathered kaolinite. The explanation for this probably comes from the different origin of the parent materials deposited on each other, either over time or during sampling. This theory needs to be confirmed by further detailed analysis. The work has been supported by "Kútf?" TÁMOP-4.2.2.-A11/1/KONV-2012-0049 project and HUSK/1001/2.1.2/0058 cross-border project. Keywords: cave sediments, soil, WRB, soil contamination, soil formation

  3. Radionuclides distribution coefficient of soil to soil-solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present book addresses various issues related with the coefficient of radionuclides distribution between soil and soil solution. It consists of six sections and two appendices. The second section, following an introductory one, describes the definition of the coefficient and a procedures of its calculation. The third section deals with the application of the distribution coefficient to the prediction of movements of radionuclides through soil. Various methods for measuring the coefficient are described in the fourth section. The next section discusses a variety of factors (physical and chemical) that can affect the distribution coefficient. Measurements of the coefficient for different types of oils are listed in the sixth section. An appendix is attached to the book to show various models that can be helpful in applying the coefficient of distribution of radionuclides moving from soil into agricultural plants. (N.K.)

  4. Predicting soil to plant transfer of radiocesium using soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is presented that dynamically estimates the radiocesium activity in herbage from readily available soil parameters. Three key properties underlying the bioavailability of radiocesium in soils were estimated in the model: the labile radiocesium distribution coefficient (kdl), the solution K+ concentration ([mK]), and the radiocesium concentration factor. These were determined as functions of the soil clay content and exchangeable K status. The effect of time on radiocesium fixation was described by two first-order decay equations. The model was initially parameterized using radiocesium uptake data from a ryegrass pot trial. Without further parameterization, the model was then tested for a wide range of soil and crop combinations using a database of published and unpublished information from a variety of sources and covering contamination time periods of 0.5--11 years. Model predictions of activity concentrations in crops were in generally good agreement with observed values

  5. Methods of soil organic carbon determination in Brazilian savannah soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Hiromi, Sato; Cícero Célio de, Figueiredo; Robélio Leandro, Marchão; Beáta Emöke, Madari; Luiz Eduardo Celino, Benedito; Jader Galba, Busato; Diego Mendes de, Souza.


    Full Text Available Several methods exist for determining soil organic carbon, and each one has its own advantages and limitations. Consequently, a comparison of the experimental results obtained when these methods are employed is hampered, causing problems in the comparison of carbon stocks in soils. This study aimed [...] at evaluating the analytical procedures used in the determination of carbon and their relationships with soil mineralogy and texture. Wet combustion methods, including Walkley-Black, Mebius and Colorimetric determination as well as dry combustion methods, such as Elemental and Gravimetric Analysis were used. Quantitative textural and mineralogical (kaolinite, goethite and gibbsite) analyses were also carried out. The wet digestion methods underestimated the concentration of organic carbon, while the gravimetric method overestimated. Soil mineralogy interfered with the determination of carbon, with emphasis on the gravimetric method that was greatly influenced by gibbsite.

  6. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP

  7. Applications of visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Bruce C; Munkholm, Lars Juhl


    Working Group F “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) was formed over 30 years ago within the International Soil & Tillage Research Organisation (ISTRO) on the initiative of Tom Batey. The objectives of the Working Group are to stimulate interest in field methods of visual-tactile soil assessment, to encourage their wider use and to foster international cooperation. The previous main meeting of the group in 2005 at Peronne, France, brought together, for the first time, a group of soil scientists who had each developed a method to evaluate soil structure directly in the field (Boizard et al., 2006). Ten visual and tactile methods were used to assess soil structure on the same soil. This stimulated significant ongoing cooperation between participants and several authors have since modified and developed their procedures (Mueller et al., 2009 and Shepherd, 2009). Cooperation also led to the re-development of the Peerlkamp numeric method of assessment of soil structure into the Visual Evaluation of SoilStructure (VESS) spade test (Ball et al., 2007 and Guimarães et al., 2011). The meeting also recommended further cooperation between members of the Working Group. The evaluation of subsoil structure was discussed at an intermediate meeting of the group in January 2009 at Edinburgh. A common theme from the two earlier meetings was to develop both topsoil and subsoil methods to allow identification of conditions where modification of structure was required, possibly by use of a harmonized scale. Other recommendations were to include coarse textured soils, to consider controlled traffic, to relate sampling location to vegetation and crop conditions and to relate the results of visual evaluation of soil to crop performance. This latter has already been achieved with the VSA test from New Zealand which has now been extended to the assessment of environmental conditions such as potential greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient loss into groundwater and waterways and carbon sequestration (Shepherd, 2009). The meeting was held on 16th–18th May 2011 at Aarhus University Flakkebjerg Research Centre, Denmark. Twenty-six delegates attended from 10 countries – France, Denmark, Ireland, UK, New Zealand, Australia, USA, Sweden, Germany and Norway. This Special Issue of Soil and Tillage Research includes papers presented at the meeting, together with one paper related to the activity of the Working Group since the meeting in Peronne.

  8. Biochar degradation in different soils (United States)

    Wilske, B.; Bai, M.; Eckhardt, C.; Kammann, C.; Kraft, P.; Bach, M.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.


    Current expectations in biochar products (BC) are numerous, e.g., including improved soil fertility & plant growth, support to combat desertification, and an increase in the carbon sequestration of soils. Costs for biochar production & application must be covered by a positive budget of benefits, which may crucially depend on the residence time (or half life T1/2, yr) of BC in soils. The objective of the present study was to assess the biodegradation rates of BC in different soils by means of a cost-efficient and standardized laboratory method. Investigated BC were from the source material of the C4 plant Miscanthus, and converted via (1) pyrolysis (pyrBC) and (2) hydrothermal carbonization (htcBC). The high-labelling of the educt allowed the quantification of degradation by measurement of the 13CO2 efflux. The pyrBC and htcBC were mixed with four different agricultural soils ranging in texture from sand to loam and in soil organic carbon (SOC) from 0.63% to 2.53%. Four samples of each BC-soil combination (1% BC wt/wt in a 300-g sample mixture) and soil-only reference were incubated in 1-L glass bottles at 40% water holding capacity and 25° C. Biodegradation of BC was monitored weekly over a period of 7 months using an automated open-dynamic chamber system. The system couples the batch of samples to microprocessor- controlled valves, by which flushing is provided for the batch, while individual samples are consecutively connected through to a wavelength scan cavity ring down spectrometer (WS-CRDS). Net 13CO2 efflux from BC was obtained by subtracting the 13CO2 efflux from "soil-only" samples. T1/2 was calculated based on the ln(k)-based algorithm recently suggested by Zimmerman et al. (2010). Results show an orders-of-magnitude larger T1/2 of BC in poor sandy soil than in SOC-richer soils (T1/2 up to 106 yrs) but not a statistically clear trend of biodegradability along the four-point SOC gradient. This was similar in both BC types, although T1/2 was generally shorter for htcBC than for pyrBC. Results are consistent with the general understanding of which are the main and the contributing drivers of BC degradability. The large variability in T1/2 obtained within the individual BC-soil mixtures seems at least as much a product of the algorithm sensitivity as of the samples' preparation, incubation, and measurement together.

  9. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential


    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi


    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed u...


    Documentation of soil change due to management is needed to improve soil survey map unit interpretations and for population of resource databases. The southeastern US is a vital region for documenting soil change due to intensive cultivation and utilization of soil resources, dynamic land management...

  11. Fusarium Species Isolated from Forest Soil Samples


    Azaman, R. S.; Z. Latiffah


    A total of 46 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from six forest soil samples in Muka Head, Teluk Bahang, Pulau Pinang. Two Fusarium species were identified from the soil samples namely, F. solani (93.5%) and F. oxysporum (6.5%). The present study showed that the diversity and occurrences of Fusarium species in forest soil was low compared to cultivated soils.

  12. Bio-energy and Soil Quality (United States)

    Soils are an important natural resource allowing the production of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The growing demand for these services or products requires that we protect the soil resource. Many characteristics of high quality soils can be related to the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (o...

  13. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil


    Ryszard Mi?tkiewski; Zofia Mi?tkiewska


    Samples of soil were taken from arable field and from balk. Larvae of Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kühniella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were isolated from both kind of soil. but Beauveria bassiana was present only in soil taken from balk.

  14. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Mi?tkiewski


    Full Text Available Samples of soil were taken from arable field and from balk. Larvae of Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kühniella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were isolated from both kind of soil. but Beauveria bassiana was present only in soil taken from balk.

  15. Bulk Density and Soil Moisture Sensors (United States)

    Soil bulk density is a good indicator of problems of root penetration, soil aeration, and water infiltration. Knowledge of soil water content is important to understand crop water use, leaching of chemicals, and soil trafficability. The purpose of this presentation is to detail step-by-step how to m...

  16. Getting a Feel for Soils - Lab (United States)

    Cynthia Fadem

    This is a lab activity in which students start to put together what they have learned as separate soil attributes in the context of the world they know. This activity involves hypothesizing geologic and soils relationships using state and world maps, conducting texture-by-feel tests, reflecting on the definition of 'soil', and evaluating soil granulometric methods.

  17. Numerical analysis of soil bearing capacity by changing soil characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khodashenas Pelko


    Full Text Available In this research work by changing different parameters of soil foundation like density, cohesion and foundation depth and width of square foundation at angle of friction of 0° to 50° with increment of 5°, numerically safe bearing capacity of soil foundation is calculated and it is attempted to assess economical dimension of foundation as well as understanding variation range of bearing capacity at different degree. It could help of civil engineering in design of foundations at any situation.

  18. Soil survey - a basis for european soil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information available on soils varies greatly from country to country. In view of the fact that, together with water, soils represent the most important natural resource in the EC, it is recommended that steps should be taken to ensure a reasonable level of information for all countries and that emphasis be placed on assembling an adequate database. Such information is fundamental to future land use and environmental protection

  19. A method to detect soil carbon degradation during soil erosion


    Conen, F.; Schaub, M.; Alewell, C.


    Soil erosion has been discussed intensively but controversial both as a significant source or a significant sink of atmospheric carbon possibly explaining the gap in the global carbon budget. One of the major points of discussion has been whether or not carbon is degraded and mineralized to CO2 during detachment, transport and deposition of soil material. By combining the caesium-137 (137Cs) approach (quantification of erosion rates) with stable c...

  20. Soils apart from equilibrium – consequences for soil carbon balance modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wutzler


    Full Text Available Many projections of the soil carbon sink or source are based on kinetically defined carbon pool models. Parameters of these models are often determined in a way that the steady state of the model matches observed carbon stocks. The underlying simplifying assumption is that observed carbon stocks are near equilibrium. This assumption is challenged by observations of very old soils that do still accumulate carbon. In this modelling study we explored the consequences of the case where soils are apart from equilibrium. Calculation of equilibrium states of soils that are currently accumulating small amounts of carbon were performed using the Yasso model. It was found that already very small current accumulation rates cause big changes in theoretical equilibrium stocks, which can virtually approach infinity. We conclude that soils that have been disturbed several centuries ago are not in equilibrium but in a transient state because of the slowly ongoing accumulation of the slowest pool. A first consequence is that model calibrations to current carbon stocks that assume equilibrium state, overestimate the decay rate of the slowest pool. A second consequence is that spin-up runs (simulations until equilibrium overestimate stocks of recently disturbed sites. In order to account for these consequences, we propose a transient correction. This correction prescribes a lower decay rate of the slowest pool and accounts for disturbances in the past by decreasing the spin-up-run predicted stocks to match an independent estimate of current soil carbon stocks. Application of this transient correction at a Central European beech forest site with a typical disturbance history resulted in an additional carbon fixation of 5.7±1.5 tC/ha within 100 years. Carbon storage capacity of forest soils is potentially much higher than currently assumed. Simulations that do not adequately account for the transient state of soil carbon stocks neglect a substantial amount of current carbon accumulation.

  1. Soils - Part 6: Phosphorus and Potassium in the Soil (United States)

    This lesson explains the importance of phosphorus fixation and describes methods for applying phosphorus and the advantages (and disadvantages) of each. It also describes the three forms of potassium and how form determines availability of potassium to plants.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  2. Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tamai


    Full Text Available Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a an evergreen forest with common brown forest soil and (b a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil properties were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects in the deciduous and evergreen forests were compared. In the evergreen forest with common brown forest soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soil moisture and soil temperature. These results may be explained by the fact that different soil properties matured within different environments. It can be argued that the low soil respiration rates in the low parts of the slope in the evergreen forest resulted from soil properties and not from wet soil conditions. In the deciduous forest, soil respiration rates were more strongly affected by soil moisture and soil temperature than by soil properties. These effects were likely due to the immaturity of the forest soil.

  3. Soil Organic Matter Quality From Soils Cropped by Traditional Peasants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas


    Full Text Available In this work we have analyzed soil samples from Oxisols collected from two traditional communities, one formed by Guarany Indians at South of Brazil and other by African descendants on North of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The content and fractional composition of humus was investigated and the isolated humic acids (HAs were characterized by elemental composition, 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and high-performance size exclusion chromatography. The bioactivity of HAs was evaluated considering the effects on root growth of maize seedlings. Chemical properties from adjacent soils under native forest were used as control samples. The local field sites matching the traditional cropping requirements, were characterized by higher soil chemical fertility and soil organic matter hydrophobicity, as compared to the land plots considered as inadequate by rural peasants. The HAs from cropped soils revealed significant differences in respect to content, hydrophobicity, biostimulation and molecular dimension. Although all humic extracts promoted, both, root growth and the stimulation of lateral root emergence over control, the HAs from preferential local sites, revealed a larger bioactivity response on root stimulation even at lower concentration. The assessment of soil quality issued by local farmers, showed a valuable fitting with bio-chemical fertility indicators and SOM hydrophobicity.

  4. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  5. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils


    Kõlli, Raimo; Ellermäe, Olav; Köster, Tiia; Lemetti, Illar; Asi, Endla; Kauer, Karin


    The soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (Mg ha–1) ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups), hydromorphic mineral (7), and lowland organic soils (4) are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil) layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2), a total of 593.8 ± ...

  6. Crusting susceptibility in some allic Colombian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many lab methods were used: dry and water soil aggregates stability, instability index and erosion index and their results were related with soil characteristics like texture, Fe and Al oxides and organic matter. Soil samples collected within 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm of the soil surface came from terrains with many kinds of both forest and savanna intervened systems. Those results were analyzed like a completely randomized designed. It was found that significative changes in oxides content could increase soil-crusting susceptibility unless soil humus was up to was up to 4%. In this sense, pastures or its rotation with rice and leguminous offer a best alternative for intervening these natural systems. Intensive land husbandry or monocultures with low stubble soil incorporation caused an increase in physical instability at the top of soil. Dry soil stability test and instability index were most adequate for these soils

  7. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author)

  8. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements (United States)

    Phytoremediation includes several distinct approaches to using plants to achieve soil remediation goals. Phytoextraction uses rare hyperaccumulator plants to accumulate in their shoots enough metals per year to achieve decontamination goals. Phytomining uses hyperaccumulators and biomass burn to pro...

  9. Soil parameters for pile foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verruijt, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)


    The soil parameters needed for a theoretical analysis of the behavior of pile foundations are the stiffness and the strength. Because soil behavior is strongly non-linear, with the stiffness and the strength being dependent upon the actual stress, it may be useful to use parameters which take into account the non-linear effects. For axially loaded piles the quake is proposed for the characterization of the soil stiffness. This quantity is widely used in dynamic analysis of piles, and has the advantage that it automatically includes the increase of stiffness with depth. For laterally loaded piles a similar quantity can be introduced: the stroke. It is also shown that the lateral flexibility of piles is mainly dependent on the strength of the soil, and not so much upon its stiffness.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Hussein Yousif


    Full Text Available This research investigates the suitability of fuel oil in improving gypseous soil. A detailed laboratory tests were carried-out on two soils (soil I with 51.6% gypsum content, and soil II with 26.55%, where the two soils were obtained from Al-Therthar site (Al-Anbar Province-Iraq. This study examines the improvement of soil properties using the gypsum material is locally available and low cost to minimize the effect of moisture on these soils by using the fuel oil. Study was conducted on two models of the soil gypsum, from the Tharthar area. The first model was sandy and slimy contents of Gypsym (51.6% and the second is clayey soil and the content of Gypsym is (26.55%. The program included tests measuring the permeability of soil and compressibility and their collapse properties. Have been found bearing shear strength of the soil and the amount of weight loss of fuel oil and the recession in the soil as a result of drying temperature (50oC in addition to testing category. These tests have been conducted on the treated soil and untreated to observe the effect of soil treatment on the engineering properties when mixed with varying degrees of fuel oil with the equivalent of the water content. The results showed that fuel oil is a good article to modify the soil gypsum, in order to have improved the basic properties of the soil gypsum of collapsibility and permeability, which is one of the fundamental problems of the soil gypsum and retained soil by an appropriate amount of the durability of storytelling gives durable and bearing capacity for the soil enough to carry the weight of construction and access to sustainability of these soils are suitable for use is permitted in areas exposed to moisture.

  11. Soil quality and methods for its assessment


    De la Rosa, Diego; Sobral, Ramón


    Environmental sustainability will only be achieved by maintenance and improvement of soil quality. Soil quality is considered as the capacity of a soil to function. Its assessment focuses on dynamic aspects to evaluate the sustainability of soil management practices. In this chapter, a wide perspective of soil quality and the complex task of its assessment, considering the inherent and dynamic factors, are introduced. It focuses on the possibilities of applying and integrating the accumulated...

  12. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia


    Hikmatullah; Kesumo Nugroho


    Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared inthei...

  13. Equivalent soil resonators for layered half spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impedance functions have been calculated for various types of soils and a rigid foundation: homogeneous soils, layered soils, homogeneous soil with embedded foundation with and without material soil damping. The modelisation was axisymmetric and finite elements were used. The method takes into account the generally neglected coupled terms between horizontal and rocking movement. Comparisons were made with some published results by other methods and satisfying agreements were found. (orig.)

  14. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability


    Montgomery, David R.


    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-bas...

  15. Testing oils in antarctic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resident seals, whales and penguins in Antarctica's Ross Sea region have only environmentally friendly ways of getting around. In contrast, wherever humans go in the Antarctic and whatever they do, be it research, tourism or fishing, they need fuel for their planes, icebreaker ships, land vehicles and generators. Because of this, petroleum hydrocarbons are the most likely source of pollution in the Antarctic. Accidental oil spills often occur near scientific stations, where storage and refuelling of aircraft and vehicles can result in spills. Spills also occur as a consequence of drilling activities. Dr Jackie Aislabie, a microbiologist from the New Zealand government's research company Landcare Research, is leading a program aimed at understanding how oil spills impact on Antarctic soils. The properties of pristine soils were compared with oil-contaminated soil at three locations: Scott Base, Marble Point and in the Wright Valley at Bull Pass. Soils in the Scott Base area are impacted by the establishment and continuous habitation of the base over 40 years, and a hydrocarbon-contaminated site was sampled near a former storage area for drums of mixed oils. Soil sampled from Marble Point was taken from near the old Marble Point camp, which was inhabited from 1957 to about 1963. Oil stains were visible on the soil surface, and are assumed to have been there for more than 30 years. The samples selected for analysis from the Wright Valley came from a spill site near Bull Pass that occurred during seismic bore-hole drilling activities in 1985. The contamination levels ranged from below detection to just over 29,000 ?g/g of soil. Descriptions and analyse results are included into a Geographic Information System and associated soils database

  16. Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability


    Brussaard, L.; De Ruiter, P.C.; Brown, G G


    We critically highlight some evidence for the importance of soil biodiversity to sustaining (agro-)ecosystem functioning and explore directions for future research. We first deal with resistance and resilience against abiotic disturbance and stress. There is evidence that soil biodiversity does confer stability to stress and disturbance, but the mechanism is not yet fully understood. It appears to depend on the kind of stress and disturbance and on the combination of stress and disturbance ef...

  17. Predicting soil respiration from peatlands. (United States)

    Rowson, J G; Worrall, F; Evans, M G; Dixon, S D


    This study considers the relative performance of six different models to predict soil respiration from upland peat. Predicting soil respiration is important for global carbon budgets and gap filling measured data from eddy covariance and closed chamber measurements. Further to models previously published new models are presented using two sub-soil zones and season. Models are tested using data from the Bleaklow plateau, southern Pennines, UK. Presented literature models include ANOVA using logged environmental data, the Arrhenius equation, modified versions of the Arrhenius equation to include soil respiration activation energy and water table depth. New models are proposed including the introduction of two soil zones in the peat profile, and season. The first new model proposes a zone of high CO(2) productivity related to increased soil microbial CO(2) production due to the supply of labile carbon from plant root exudates and root respiration. The second zone is a deeper zone where CO(2) production is lower with less labile carbon. A final model allows the zone of high CO(2) production to become dormant during winter months when plants will senesce and will vary depending upon vegetation type within a fixed location. The final model accounted for, on average, 31.9% of variance in net ecosystem respiration within 11 different restoration sites whilst, using the same data set, the best fitting literature equation only accounted for 18.7% of the total variance. Our results demonstrate that soil respiration models can be improved by explicitly accounting for seasonality and the vertically stratified nature of soil processes. These improved models provide an enhanced basis for calculating the peatland carbon budgets which are essential in understanding the role of peatlands in the global C cycle. PMID:23178842

  18. Structure and composition of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Nenadovi?


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of soils structure and composition using up to date technique, such as scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, as well as some other characterization methods. It was shown that soil particles have porous structure and dimensions in the range from several millimeters to several hundreds of nanometers and consist of different minerals such as kaolin, quartz and feldspate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venika Saini


    Full Text Available The most important aspect of any project is its cost, performance, durability and time. As the methods used conventionally were very uneconomical and time consuming, there is an urgent need for development of new techniques which enhances the geotechnical properties of soil. The Bio Enzyme has emerged as a material which drastically improves the properties of soil, is ecofriendly and is economical in long run. In the present study, the virgin soil (Dehradun was mixed with various dosages of TerraZyme with different durations and had shown significant improvement in index properties of soil for e.g. Specific gravity, Optimum Moisture Content and Maximum Dry Density, and California Bearing Ratio (unsoaked and soaked. And on the bases of experimental results the optimum dosage of TerraZyme was find out. As the enzyme is an organic liquid, it is biodegradable in nature and it does not have any harmful effect on environment. Bio enzyme reduces the voids between the particles of soil and minimizes the amount of absorbed water in the soil so that compaction caused by enzymes can be maximum.

  20. Early Soil Moisture Field Experiments (United States)

    Schmugge, T.


    Before the large scale field experiments described in the call for papers, there were a number of experiments devoted to a single parameter, e.g. soil moisture. In the early 1970's, before the launch of the first microwave radiometer by NASA, there were a number of aircraft experiments to determine utility of these sensors for land observations. For soil moisture, these experiments were conducted in southwestern United States over irrigated agricultural areas which could provide a wide range of moisture conditions on a given day. The radiometers covered the wavelength range from 0.8 to 21 cm. These experiments demonstrated that it is possible to observe soil moisture variations remotely using a microwave radiometer with a sensitivity of about 3 K / unit of soil moisture. The results also showed that the longer wavelengths were better, with a radiometer at the 21 cm wavelength giving the best results. These positive results led to the development of Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instruments at the 21-cm wavelength. They have been used extensively in the large-scale experiments such as HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, Monsoon90, SMEX, etc. The multi-beam nature of these instruments makes it possible to obtain more extensive coverage and thus to map spatial variations of surface soil moisture. Examples of the early results along with the more recent soil moisture maps will be presented.

  1. Soil contamination; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic soil contamination is expressed by the intersection of the sets of contents of risk elements exceeding the threshold values. It was compiled from the mono-element geochemical maps made by application of geostatistical methods based on the results of 5,189 chemical analyses of forest and agricultural soils. The density of soil sampling was 1 sample per 10 square kilometres in average. Point and diffuse soil contamination according to the limits in force (Decision of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak Republic No. 531/1994-540) is represented on the map. The extent of the areas with relatively clean soils and the areas with higher background concentration of elements in soil is obvious. The spreading of the limit exceeding contents of risk elements is related to the geochemical, but above all anthropogenically produced, contamination sources in the areas of old mining, processing and metallurgical factories (Central Slovakia and the Spis-Gemer area). It also indicates the transfer of contaminants into the alluvial zones of rivers and brooks. (authors)

  2. Soil Degradation and Soil Quality in Western Europe: Current Situation and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Virto


    Full Text Available The extent and causes of chemical, physical and biological degradation of soil, and of soil loss, vary greatly in different countries in Western Europe. The objective of this review paper is to examine these issues and also strategies for soil protection and future perspectives for soil quality evaluation, in light of present legislation aimed at soil protection. Agriculture and forestry are the main causes of many of the above problems, especially physical degradation, erosion and organic matter loss. Land take and soil sealing have increased in recent decades, further enhancing the problems. In agricultural land, conservation farming, organic farming and other soil-friendly practices have been seen to have site-specific effects, depending on the soil characteristics and the particular types of land use and land users. No single soil management strategy is suitable for all regions, soil types and soil uses. Except for soil contamination, specific legislation for soil protection is lacking in Western Europe. The Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in the European Union has produced valuable information and has encouraged the development of networks and databases. However, soil degradation is addressed only indirectly in environmental policies and through the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union, which promotes farming practices that support soil conservation. Despite these efforts, there remains a need for soil monitoring networks and decision-support systems aimed at optimization of soil quality in the region. The pressure on European soils will continue in the future, and a clearly defined regulatory framework is needed.

  3. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  4. Soil manganese redox cycling in suboxic zones: Effects on soil carbon stability (United States)

    Suboxic soil environments contain a disproportionately higher concentration of highly reactive free radicals relative to the surrounding soil matrix, which may have significant implications for soil organic matter cycling and stabilization. This study investigated how Mn-ozidizin...

  5. Medusahead: available soil N and microbial communities in native and invasive soils (United States)

    To better understand why medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) is invasive, we quantified soil N availability and characterized soil microbial communities between native and invasive populations. No consistent differences in soil N mineralization potentials were noted between native medusahead sit...

  6. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of soil bacterial communities within soil aggregates: Linking structure to C storage (United States)

    Alterations in soil structural properties created by agricultural management practices have a significant influence on soil aggregation, which manages the chemical and physical heterogeneity of soil properties, and, consequently, the distribution of microorganisms and their activity among aggregates...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun A?kin


    Full Text Available Soil bulk density is a dynamic property that varies with the soil structural conditions. The relationships between some soil physical and chemical properties such as, clay content (C, silt content (Si, sand content (S, very fine sand content (Vfs and organic matter content (OMC with soil bulk density (?b were studied using path analysis on 77 surface soil samples (0-20 cm. Soil bulk density showed positive relationships with S and Vfs and negative relationships with Si, C and OMC. It was determined that the direct effects of some soil properties on ?bwere in the following order; S>C>Si>OMC>Vfs. On the other hand, the indirect effects of soil particle size distribution varied among soil bulk densities. The indirect effects of the soil particle size distribution generally occured through sand content. Sand content was the most effective soil property that affected bulk density in soils.


    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y.L, Zhang; Cc.X, Sun; L.J, Chen; Z.H, Duan.

    Full Text Available An incubation test with black soil (Phaeozem), Albic soil (Albic Luvisols), brown soil (Cambisols), and cinnamon soil (Chromic Luvisol) from Northeast China was conducted under the conditions of 10%, 20% and30 % field capacity, and the kinetic parameters of soil urease, phosphatase, and arylsulphata [...] se were determined, aimed to study the changes in the catalytic potential of these enzymes under different soil moisture conditions. All test enzymes exhibited typical Michaelis-Menten kinetic behaviors. The test enzymes exhibited the highest enzyme-substrate affinity (l/Km) at 20% or 30% field capacity. With increasing soil moisture content, the Fmax of test soil urease decreased, while that of soil phosphatase and arylsulphatase increased, with the maximum Vmax/Km of urease at 20% field capacity and that of phosphatases and arylsulphatase at 30% field capacity. To control soil moisture condition could be a feasible way in regulating the biochemical transformation processes of soil nutrients catalyzed by soil hydrolases.

  9. The role of soil macrofauna in soil formation and carbon storage in post-mining sites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan

    Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis CRC Press, 2013, s. 236-249. ISBN 978-1-4665-9931-4 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : post-mining sites * soil macrofauna * soil formation * carbon storage Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  10. A soil mechanics approach to study soil compaction and traffic effect on the preconsolidation pressure of tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several researchers have already demonstrated the causes and the effects of soil compaction. These studies showed that the soil compaction is a limiting factor in the agricultural production. The attributes of the soil conventionally monitored has not been capable to quantify the load support capacity of the soil, not allowing to foresee the levels of pressures that can be applied to the soils at different moisture conditions without additional soil compaction (structure degradation) happens. The researches done in the soil compressive behaviour of some tropical soils indicate that the pre-compression stress may be used as an alternative measure of the load support capacity and as a quantitative indicator of the structure sustainability of the tropical soils

  11. Dynamic of 59Fe in different soils for flower planting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movement of 59Fe in 4 types of soils for flower planting were studied. The results indicated that the accumulation of 59Fe in 4 types of soils were in the order of muck soil>Xian soil>Caotan soil>Zhijinshi soil. Removal of accumulated 59Fe in soil with irrigation was difficulty, but 59Fe in soil could move onto soil surface with evaporation

  12. Bioindication in Urban Soils in Switzerland (United States)

    Amossé, J.; Le Bayon, C.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Gobat, J. M.


    Urban development leads to profound changes in ecosystem structure (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. ecosystem services). While above-ground diversity is reasonably well studied much less is known about soil diversity, soil processes and more generally soil health in urban settings. Soil invertebrates are key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services. These functions may be even more vital in stressed environments such as urban ecosystems. Despite the general recognition of the importance of soil organisms in ecosystems, soil trophic food webs are still poorly known and this is especially the case in urban settings. As urban soils are characterised by high fragmentation and stress (e.g. drought, pollution) the structure and functioning of soil communities is likely to be markedly different from that of natural soils. It is for example unclear if earthworms, whose roles in organic matter transformation and soil structuration is well documented in natural and semi-natural soils, are also widespread and active in urban soils. Bioindication is a powerful tool to assess the quality of the environment. It is complementary to classical physicochemical soil analysis or can be used as sole diagnostic tool in cases where these analyses cannot be performed. However little is known about the potential use of bioindicators in urban settings and especially it is unclear if methods developped in agriculture can be applied to urban soils. The development of reliable methods for assessing the quality of urban soils has been identified as a priority for policy making and urban management in Switzerland, a high-urbanized country. We therefore initiated a research project (Bioindication in Urban Soil - BUS). The project is organised around four parts: (i) typology of urban soils in a study Region (Neuchâtel), (ii) sampling of soil fauna and analysis of soil physicochemical properties, (iii) comparison of the functionality of urban soils and alluvial soils, used as a natural reference because of their regular physical perturbation by flooding and associated erosion/sedimentation, (iv) evaluation of soil bioindicators (e.g. earthworm, enchytraeid and testate amoebae) for urban soils. The application objective of my research is to introduce bioindicators and their limit values for the future revision of the legal Ordonnance on soils (OSol), and to develop guidelines to improve or to build urban soils with the aim of reaching a sustainable urban ecosystem development.

  13. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compactedas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased supply of physiological growth requirements at meristematic sites. Many protocols have been developed, with variable success, to alleviate the adverse effects of soil compaction on the growth and development of woody plants. These include planting of compaction-tolerant species, controlling vehicular and animal traffic, amending soils by adding coarse materials and,or organic matter, replacing compacted soils with uncompacted soils, loosening soils with aerating equipment, installing drainage systems and judiciously applying fertilizers. Prevention of soil compaction before planting is usually much preferred over post-planting treatments because the latter are expensive and difficult to apply, may not be adequately effective and may injure plant roots

  14. Plant soil interactions alter carbon cycling in an upland grassland soil


    BruceCThomson; NIckJOstle; AndrewSWhiteley


    Soil carbon (C) storage is dependent upon the complex dynamics of fresh and native organic matter cycling, which are regulated by plant and soil-microbial activities. A fundamental challenge exists to link microbial biodiversity with plant-soil C cycling processes to elucidate the underlying mechanisms regulating soil carbon. To address this, we contrasted vegetated grassland soils with bare soils, which had been plant-free for 3 years, using stable isotope (13C) labeled substrate assays and ...

  15. Soil Degradation and Soil Value in Slovakia – Two Problems with Common Denominator


    Radoslav Bujnovský; Jozef Vil?ek


    Soil use is oft en accompanied by its degradation. Immediate reason of soil degradation in agriculture is the non-respecting the principles of good agricultural practice. Giving long-term precedence to production function over remaining ecological ones as well as supporting the land consumption for economy development by governmental bodies are next reasons of soil degradation and mirror the societal values and priorities.Soil provides many services that in soil science are defined as soil fu...

  16. Impact of Environmental Factors and Biological Soil Crust Types on Soil Respiration in a Desert Ecosystem


    Feng, Wei; Zhang, YuQing; Jia, Xin; WU Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu


    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93±0.43 µmol m?2 s?...

  17. Influence of green manure fertilization on soil enzyme activities and other soil properties


    Alina Dora SAMUEL; Monica SIPOS; Camelia DUSA


    Agricultural practices that improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for brown luvic soil. Soil enzyme activities can provide information on how soil management is affecting the processes in soil such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities (actual and potential dehydrogenase, catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatase) were determined in the 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm layers of a brown luvic soil submitted to a complex fertilization experiment with differ...

  18. Adsorption of methomyl by soils of southern Spain and soil components


    Cox, L.; Hermosin, M. C.; Cornejo, J.


    The adsorption of methomyl (S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate) by 14 soil samples of Southern Spain with different characteristics has been investigated studying the correlation between adsorption and soil properties and the effect of methomyl concentration and soil/solution ratio on adsorption of methomyl by soils. Adsorption has been expressed as the soil-water distribution coefficient Kd. Kd values slightly decreased when soil/solution ratio and methomyl concentration increas...

  19. Priority areas in the Soil Framework Directive : the significance of soil biodiversity and ecosystem services


    Rutgers, M.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Bloem, J.


    Seven soil threats are distinguished in the draft text of the Soil Framework Directive of the European Commission. Soil organic matter decline and soil compaction are the most relevant for the Netherlands due to intensive agricultural land management. Loss of soil biodiversity should be considered when identifying priority areas requiring protection from organic matter decline and compaction. This report describes the first steps in clarifying the relationship between soil biodiversity and de...

  20. Behavior of unsaturated soil and its influence on soil - soil interaction at an interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interface failure between caps and natural soil in trenches containing buried low-level nuclear-waste material was investigated in this study. The Casa Grande Highway Farm (CGHF) soil was used for the entire investigation. This soil is described as being a silty sand with approximately 23% by weight passing sieve No. 200. Other preliminary testing was performed on the same soil. Isotropically consolidated drained (CID) tests were performed on the laboratory compacted samples at different degree of saturation including fully saturated specimens. Suction pressure was measured in the laboratory by adopting pressure-plate extractor and compared with determine effective suction in triaxial testing. A generalized failure equation, in terms of strength parameters and suction pressure, was defined for all degrees of saturation. Extensive interface tests were performed in the conventional direct shear machine with some modification. Similar to trench cap soil and natural soil in the field, the test specimens were prepared at different degrees of saturation and density (compaction effort). An interface element and the modified bounding surface model and elasticity model was used in a finite-element program to predict the interface response for the laboratory results and actual field problems

  1. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris


    Joosten, L; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Veen, J.A. van


    Secondary metabolites like pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. We studied the effects of soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type on pyrrolizidine alkaloids in roots and shoots of Jacobaea vulgaris. We used clones of two genotypes from a dune area (Meijendel), propagated by tissue culture and grown on two sterilized soils and sterilized soils inoculated with 5% of non-sterilized soil of either of the two soil-types. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect...

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of soil electrical conductivity related to soil moisture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Paulo, Molin; Gustavo Di Chiacchio, Faulin.


    Full Text Available Soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a soil quality indicator associated to attributes interesting to site-specific soil management such as soil moisture and texture. Soil ECa provides information that helps guide soil management decisions, so we performed spatial evaluation of soil moisture in two [...] experimental fields in two consecutive years and modeled its influence on soil ECa. Soil ECa, moisture and clay content were evaluated by statistical, geostatistical and regression analyses. Semivariogram models, adjusted for soil moisture, had strong spatial dependence, but the relationship between soil moisture and soil ECa was obtained only in one of the experimental fields, where soil moisture and clay content range was higher. In this same field, coefficients of determinations between soil moisture and clay content were above 0.70. In the second field, the low soil moisture and clay content range explain the absence of a relationship between soil ECa and soil moisture. Data repetition over the years, suggested that ECa is a qualitative indicator in areas with high spatial variability in soil texture.

  3. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo


    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  4. 4.3 Environmental media: soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview about the Austrian soil condition covering the period 2001-2003 is presented. It provides information on selected inorganic pollutants like copper, chromium, cadmium, cesium, lead, nickel, zinc and mercury as well as organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic halogen compounds (pentachlorophenol, PCB) etc.). First Austria-wide evaluations were derived from the soil information system BORIS, which provides a survey of selected pollutant concentrations in Austrian top soils. This comprehensive data collection includes major soil surveys, such as the data from soil inventories of the Federal Provinces, the Austrian forest soil inventory, the Austria-wide radio-cesium survey, as well as data from more than 30 other local surveys regarding special soil issues and problems (conurbation, industrial sites, etc.). In general the condition of Austrian soils may be considered good, however still, there are some regions with polluted soils, particularly in the Austrian Alps. (nevyjel)

  5. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management


    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased supply of physiological growth requirements at meristematic sites. Many protocols have been developed, with variable success, to alleviate the adverse effects of soil compaction on the growth and development of woody plants. These include planting of compaction-tolerant species, controlling vehicular and animal traffic, amending soils by adding coarse materials and,or organic matter, replacing compacted soils with uncompacted soils, loosening soils with aerating equipment, installing drainage systems and judiciously applying fertilizers. Prevention of soil compaction before planting is usually much preferred over post-planting treatments because the latter are expensive and difficult to apply, may not be adequately effective and may injure plant roots.

  6. Soil Moisture from Altimetry - SMALT (United States)

    Berry, Philippa; Smith, Richard; Salloway, Mark; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme


    Soil surface moisture is a key scientific parameter; however, it is extremely difficult to measure remotely, particularly in arid and semi-arid terrain. This paper outlines the development of a novel methodology to generate soil moisture estimates in these regions from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Key to this approach is the development of detailed DRy Earth ModelS (DREAMS), which encapsulate the detailed and intricate surface brightness variations over the Earth's land surface, resulting from changes in surface roughness and composition. These models are created by cross-calibrating and reconciling multi-mission altimeter sigma0 measurements from ERS-1, ERS-2, EnviSat and Jason-2. This approach is made possible because altimeters are nadir-pointing, and most of the available radar altimeter datasets are from instruments operating in Ku band. These DREAMS are complicated to build and require multiple stages of processing and manual intervention. However, this approach obviates the requirement for detailed ground truth to populate theoretical models, facilitating derivation of surface soil moisture estimates over arid regions, where detailed survey data are generally not available. This paper presents results using the DREAMS over desert surfaces, and showcases the model outcomes over the Arabian and Tenere deserts. A global assessment is presented of areas where DREAMS are currently being generated, and an outline of the required processing to obtain soil surface moisture estimates is given. Results for altimeter derived soil moisture validation with ground truth are presented together with comparisons with other remotely sensed soil estimates. Soil moisture product from ERS-2 radar altimetry in arid regions is presented, and the temporal and spatial resolutions of these data are reported. The results generated by this ESA encouraged initiative will be made freely available to the global scientific community. First products are planned for release within the next few months. Further information can be found at

  7. Uranium speciation in Fernald soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details progress made from January 1 to May 31, 1992 in this analytical support task to determine the speciation of uranium in contaminated soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site under the auspices of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration funded through the US DOE's Office of Technology Development. The authors' efforts have focused on characterization of soil samples collected by S.Y. Lee (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) from five locales at the Fernald site. These were chosen to sample a broad range of uranium source terms. On the basis of x-ray absorption spectroscopy data, they have determined that the majority of uranium (> 80--90%) exists in the hexavalent oxidation state for all samples examined. This is a beneficial finding from the perspective of remediation, because U(VI) species are more soluble in general than uranium species in other oxidation states. Optical luminescence data from many of the samples show the characteristic structured yellow-green emission from the uranyl (UO22+) moiety. The luminescence data also suggest that much of the uranium in these soils is present as well-crystallized UO22+ species. Some clear spectroscopic distinctions have been noted for several samples that illustrate significant differences in the speciation (1) from site to site, (2) within different horizons at the same site, and (3) within different size fractions of the soils in the same horizon at the same site. This marked heterogeneity in uranyl speciation suggests that several soil washing strategies may be necessary to reduce the total uranium concentrations within these soils to regulatory limits

  8. Uranium speciation in Fernald soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim progress report describes new experimental data collected from October 1, 1992 through May 31, 1993 as part of the Characterization Task of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration of the Office of Technology Development, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management of the United States Department of Energy. X-ray absorption and optical luminescence spectroscopies have been used to analyze the uranium remaining in contaminated soils from the Fernald site after these samples were treated by various decontamination technologies under development within this Integrated Demonstration. The treatment technologies included soil washes with carbonate, citrate, Tiron, and Tiron/dithionite mixtures. The effectiveness of these procedures is discussed in a separate report from the Decontamination Task group. The characterization results indicate that following the application of all of these treatment strategies the uranium remaining in the soil is still best characterized as being primarily in the hexavalent oxidation state. However, for the A-series soils from the Incinerator Area, the speciation of this remaining uranium is different than seen previously based on the x-ray absorption data. The luminescence data for these treated soils also demonstrate that there is a decrease in size and quantity of the particulate hexavalent uranium that gives rise to the structured green emission. Thus, all treatment technologies do seem to generate a more dispersed, finer-grained form of uranium. For several treated samples a characteristic luminescence signal was found indicative of a schoepite phase of uranium. New results are also reported for untreated Fernald soil samples and reference uranium mineral phases

  9. Soil C Saturation is Evident in Soils Rich in Organic Matter (United States)

    Chung, H.; Ngo, K.; Plante, A.; Six, J.


    Recent studies suggest that mineral soils have a limit to their soil C stabilization capacity. We reasoned that C saturation will be most evident in soils that are already rich in soil organic C (SOC) and have been exposed to a broad range of C input. Therefore, we determined the modes of soil C saturation in an agricultural experiment located in Ellerslie, Canada, where organic matter-rich soils have been cropped to cereal grain for more than 20 years. In this experiment, soils are subject to a broad range of soil C input due to a combination of straw incorporation, N fertilization, and tillage treatments. We determined if C saturation is taking place in soil size fractions that are functionally different, namely the large macroaggregates (>2000 ?m), small macroaggregates (2000-250 ?m), microaggregates (250-53 ?m), and silt plus clay fraction (Macroaggregates were further separated into coarse particulate organic matter (cPOM), microaggregates occluded within the macroaggregates, and silt plus clay fraction. The relationship between soil C input and SOC concentration in these fractions was examined. The soils were highly aggregated, with more than 80% of the soils consisting of macroaggregates. The SOC concentration associated with soil size fractions decreased from macroaggregates to silt plus clay fraction, showing a clear hierarchy of soil aggregates. The SOC concentration associated with whole soil and soil aggregates isolated from bulk soil did not increase with higher soil C input. Similarly, the soil fractions within macroaggregates did not stabilize extra SOC in response to greater soil C input. Thus, we conclude that C stabilization is governed by C saturation in this highly-structured soil. Our study suggests that soils that are farther away from C saturation potential will have greater C sink capacity than soils that are close to their C saturation capacity.

  10. Soils and public health: the vital nexus (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov


    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils in organic agriculture that are often used for soil quality comparison and benchmarking. The influence of soil degradation and rehabilitation on public health has to be assessed in quantitative terms. Some links between soils and public health regarding, for example, immune maturation, antibiotic resistance development, and mental well-being, have been long hypothesized but remain to be examined. The data on soil-health relationships are scarce and very much disjointed, and a concerted international effort appears to be needed to encompass various economic and geographical settings. Current definitions of healthy soil broadly include aspects that are conducive for human health, and functional evaluation of soil quality with a focus on public health will have useful applications in public policies and perception. The 'soil-health' connection is complex in character, global in manifestation, and applicable to every human being.

  11. Cs-137 migration in soil near NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convective-diffusion model has been employed for describing Cs-137 migration in soil. The migration parameters were determined by comparing the calculated vertical distribution profiles with the experimental ones. The migration parameters dependence on the soil state has been studied. Cs-137 penetration rate was found to be function of the soil type, surface state, soil wetness and orography. The obtained values are presented. A method is suggested for revealing the soil surface contamination by Cs-137 produced during NPP operation with distinguishing it from the global contamination background. For this purpose Cs-137 content in the upper 5 mm soil layer is estimated

  12. Speciation of vanadium in soil. (United States)

    Po?edniok, Justyna; Buhl, Franciszek


    A method for speciation of vanadium in soil is presented in this work. The sequential extraction analysis procedure of Tessier et al. for heavy metals was used for the vanadium separation. The method consists of sequential leaching of the soil samples to separate five fractions of metals: (1) exchangeable, (2) bound to carbonates, (3) bound to Fe-Mn oxides, (4) bound to organic matter and (5) residual. The leaching solutions of Tessier were used for the vanadium extraction, only for the residual fraction the HClO(4) was replaced with H(2)SO(4). The optimum conditions for leaching of vanadium from soil (weight of sample, concentration and volume of extractants, time of extraction) were chosen for each fraction. A sensitive, spectrophotometric method based on the ternary complex V(IV) with Chrome Azurol S and benzyldodecyldimethylammonium bromide (epsilon=7.1x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1)) was applied for the vanadium determination after separation of V(V) by solvent extraction using mesityl oxide and reduction of V(V) using ascorbic acid. This method was applied for vanadium speciation in soil from two different regions of Poland: Upper Silesia (industrial region) and Podlasie (agricultural region). The content of vanadium in the fractions of Upper Silesia soil was respectively (in 10(-3)%): I, 3.39; III, 4.53; IV, 10.70; V, 8.70 and it was the highest in the organic fraction, indicating input by anthropogenic activities. The content of vanadium in Podlasie soil was clearly lower and it was (in 10(-3)%): I, 2.07; III, 0.92; IV, 0.69; V, 1.23. The concentration of vanadium in fraction 2 of both soils was less than detection limit of applied method. The total content of vanadium in the five soil fractions was in good correlation with the total content of this element in both soils found after HF-H(2)SO(4) digestion. Analysis using the ICP-AES method gave comparable results. PMID:18968878

  13. Innovative technologies for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested

  14. Complex soil electrical impedivity signatures (United States)

    Ghionea, Simon J.; Hull, David M.


    Measurements in dry desert soils have shown significant complex resistivity (or impedivity) variations across the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The impedivity of various soils are measured in-situ in field experiments using a custom apparatus, consisting of a probe head and accompanying custom electronics. Four galvanic electrodes are fixed in the probe head, and arranged in a Wenner array, such that the geometric factor is 1.00 m. In this way, impedance measurements (in ?) are easily converted to estimates of impedivity (in ? . m). Field measurements made in-situ are important for obtaining accurate results, because impedance measurements typically change value significantly once soil samples are extracted from their natural environment. These changes are due to changes in the grain boundaries, as well as changes in moisture, temperature, etc. Soil impedivity signatures collected on a variety of soils in the south west region of the USA over the frequency band up to 1 MHz are presented.

  15. Deformation Parameters of Macrofragment Soils in Soil Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich


    Full Text Available The author tries to generalize the results of testing of macrofragment soils, made by other authors and to give recommendations on defining nonlinear model soils parameters. The article gives definitions of volume weight of gravel and pebble ground and mined rock. It’s shown that starting shift modules depending on stress due to prestress can be described in power formula. The author confirms Professor L.N. Rasskazov’s idea about the possibility of describing volume deformation in contraction through intensity of tangent deformation.

  16. Soil stabilization by biological soil crusts in arid Tunisia (United States)

    Guidez, Sabine; Couté, Alain; Bardat, Jacques


    As part of the fight against desertification (LCD) in arid Tunisia, we have been able to highlight the important role played by biological soil crusts (BSC) in soil stabilization. The identification of the major species of cyanobacteria, lichens and bryophytes, their adaptation and terrestrial colonization strategies in this high climatic constraints area through their morpho-anatomical criteria have been set. In addition to their biological composition, their internal arrangement (i.e. texture and microstructure) reflects the structural stability of BSC against erosion. Precisely, the aggregative power of cyanobacteria and their ways of moving inside a soil, the capacity of mosses to grow through the sediments and lichens ability to bind at particles on surface, thus stabilizing the substrate have been demonstrated. Then, the three biological components ability to capture soil particles has been widely illustrated, proving the major environmental contribution of BSC in arid areas biological crusts formation, providing that soils will experience an increase of organic matter and fine particles rates subsequently gaining faster and better stability. Although the thickness and the morphology of crusts are related to the cover rates of these different biological components, the water properties of the latter, studied at the environmental SEM, illustrate their important role in altering the water cycle. Thus, the mixed crusts, i.e. with good presence of three biological components, cause the highest runoff rates by their ability to retain the water and spread on the surface. In spite of a swelling coefficient in presence of water higher than cryptogams, the cyanobacterial crusts located in newly stabilized areas of our studied region, remain finally insufficiently dense to impact surface hydrology. But, we showed after all that the cyanobacteria, pioneer species, have a certain environmental role. The lichen crusts cause a increased runoff because the lichens have a ability to extend them horizontally on the soil surface. Despite the water capture for their metabolism, the water flows; it isn't released in the depth. The moss crusts show an opposite process with an increased infiltration thanks to the possibility of a vertical transit of water through their sheets, stem and roots. So, in relation to bare soils, a crust with a good microbial and cryptogamic development causes more runoff. As part of the fight against the desertification in arid Tunisia, hydrological impact of BSC may lead to elaborate some ecosystem strategies in water and soils management. Indeed, climate aridity is not synonymous with edaphic aridity.

  17. Spatial disaggregation of complex soil map units at regional scale based on soil-landscape relationships (United States)

    Vincent, Sébastien; Lemercier, Blandine; Berthier, Lionel; Walter, Christian


    Accurate soil information over large extent is essential to manage agronomical and environmental issues. Where it exists, information on soil is often sparse or available at coarser resolution than required. Typically, the spatial distribution of soil at regional scale is represented as a set of polygons defining soil map units (SMU), each one describing several soil types not spatially delineated, and a semantic database describing these objects. Delineation of soil types within SMU, ie spatial disaggregation of SMU allows improved soil information's accuracy using legacy data. The aim of this study was to predict soil types by spatial disaggregation of SMU through a decision tree approach, considering expert knowledge on soil-landscape relationships embedded in soil databases. The DSMART (Disaggregation and Harmonization of Soil Map Units Through resampled Classification Trees) algorithm developed by Odgers et al. (2014) was used. It requires soil information, environmental covariates, and calibration samples, to build then extrapolate decision trees. To assign a soil type to a particular spatial position, a weighed random allocation approach is applied: each soil type in the SMU is weighted according to its assumed proportion of occurrence in the SMU. Thus soil-landscape relationships are not considered in the current version of DSMART. Expert rules on soil distribution considering the relief, parent material and wetlands location were proposed to drive the procedure of allocation of soil type to sampled positions, in order to integrate the soil-landscape relationships. Semantic information about spatial organization of soil types within SMU and exhaustive landscape descriptors were used. In the eastern part of Brittany (NW France), 171 soil types were described; their relative area in the SMU were estimated, geomorphological and geological contexts were recorded. The model predicted 144 soil types. An external validation was performed by comparing predicted with effectively observed soil types derived from available soil maps at scale of 1:25.000 or 1:50.000. Overall accuracies were 63.1% and 36.2%, respectively considering or not the adjacent pixels. The introduction of expert rules based on soil-landscape relationships to allocate soil types to calibration samples enhanced dramatically the results in comparison with a simple weighted random allocation procedure. It also enabled the production of a comprehensive soil map, retrieving expected spatial organization of soils. Estimation of soil properties for various depths is planned using disaggregated soil types, according to the specifications. Odgers, N.P., Sun, W., McBratney, A.B., Minasny, B., Clifford, D., 2014. Disaggregating and harmonising soil map units through resampled classification trees. Geoderma 214, 91-100.

  18. Aging effects on cobalt availability in soils. (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Michael J


    Aging processes in soils can significantly affect the potential biological availability of introduced metals via incorporation into crystal lattices, diffusion into micropores, or formation of metal precipitates on the surfaces of soil minerals. Over time, metals in contact with the soil solid phase are less freely exchangeable with the soil solution and, hence, less available to soil biota. In the present study, the effects of aging on the fate and behavior of added divalent cobalt (Co2+) in a range of soils with varying physicochemical characteristics was assessed using isotope-exchange techniques, chemical extraction, and plant growth. Following addition to soil, the Co2+ salt rapidly partitioned to the soil solid phase. Particularly in soils with neutral to alkaline pH, a large percentage of the surface-bound Co was fixed in forms no longer in equilibrium with soil solution cobalt through aging reactions. Using techniques commonly applied to estimate metal bioavailability in soil, the lability (E values), plant availability (L values), and extractability of added Co2+ salts with the mild chemical extractants calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) were observed to markedly decrease with time, particularly in soils with high pH or those containing appreciable quantities of iron/ manganese oxyhydroxide minerals. Results indicated rapid partitioning of added Co2+ into isotopically nonexchangeable pools, with more than 60% of the aging occurring within 15 d in most soils. Soil pH was the primary factor controlling the rate of cobalt aging and extent of exchangeability in the soils examined. Understanding the influence of long-term aging on cobalt availability in soils is necessary to accurately assess the potential risk associated with cobalt contamination of soil environments. PMID:19642829

  19. Salt Affected Soils Their Identification and Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Siyal


    Full Text Available Salt affected soils are found throughout the world especially in arid and semi arid regions. Soil salinization is mainly due to the use of saline water for irrigation, seepage from the canals, an arid climate evaporation of salty soil waters from the soil surface over shallow water tables and poor drainage. Salt effected soils are grouped into saline, alkali and saline-alkali soils. Three different ways viz. scrapping, surface flushing and leaching are normally used for reclamation of these soils. Reclamation of salt affected soils by leaching is the best way of reclamation. Continuous and intermittent leaching are two techniques of water application during the leaching process. Continuous leaching is quicker but it consumes more water than intermittent leaching. Soil amendments (gypsum, sulphur or sulphuric acid are usually needed for the reclamation of soils with high sodium content. By planting trees in soils with high water table and no drainage, soil reclamation process can be accomplished. Soil salinization can be prevented by using good quality water and by managing water table below root zone by providing surface of subsurface drainage.

  20. Impacts of soil structure on crop growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas C.S.


    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural utilisation of soils may change the structural status and through it the credibility and fertility of soils. Since soil structure has not been quantified explicitly, studying structure-related soil phenomena is still actual. The goal of the present study was to apply field measurements on structure related soil hydrophysical properties and to study their mutual effect on crop growth. Near hydraulic water conductivity, bulk density, water retention characteristics of soils were measured in a wheat and a maize field as well as the soil water content dynamics during the vegetation period. Simulation models (SOIL and SOILN were applied for studying different effects of soil structural status on winter wheat and maize crop's developments and on yields. Simulation results showed that water limitation in fields having normal and high bulk density topsoil developed gradually. In the low bulk density field case, water limitation on crop growth is noticeable almost from the beginning of crop growth. Though the combined effects of soil water stress and rooting due to soil structure resulted in marked differences in simulated yields, the effect of the saturated water conductivity and bulk density on the crop yield alone proved to be non significant. However, when a consequence was introduced regarding the plant root distribution, which differs in different soil physical conditions, a strong effect on the crop's growth was detected. This finding demonstrates the complex nature of the phenomenon called structural status of soil, and it definitely requires further research.

  1. Boreal forest soil erosion and soil-atmosphere carbon exchange (United States)

    Billings, S. A.; Harden, J. W.; O'Donnell, J.; Sierra, C. A.


    Erosion may become an increasingly important agent of change in boreal systems with climate warming, due to enhanced ice wedge degradation and increases in the frequency and intensity of stand-replacing fires. Ice wedge degradation can induce ground surface subsidence and lateral movement of mineral soil downslope, and fire can result in the loss of O horizons and live roots, with associated increases in wind- and water-promoted erosion until vegetation re-establishment. It is well-established that soil erosion can induce significant atmospheric carbon (C) source and sink terms, with the strength of these terms dependent on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) and the extent to which SOC oxidation and production characteristics change with erosion. In spite of the large SOC stocks in the boreal system and the high probability that boreal soil profiles will experience enhanced erosion in the coming decades, no one has estimated the influence of boreal erosion on the atmospheric C budget, a phenomenon that can serve as a positive or negative feedback to climate. We employed an interactive erosion model that permits the user to define 1) profile characteristics, 2) the erosion rate, and 3) the extent to which each soil layer at an eroding site retains its pre-erosion SOC oxidation and production rates (nox and nprod=0, respectively) vs. adopts the oxidation and production rates of previous, non-eroded soil layers (nox and nprod=1, respectively). We parameterized the model using soil profile characteristics observed at a recently burned site in interior Alaska (Hess Creek), defining SOC content and turnover times. We computed the degree to which post-burn erosion of mineral soil generates an atmospheric C sink or source while varying erosion rates and assigning multiple values of nox and nprod between 0 and 1, providing insight into the influence of erosion rate, SOC oxidation, and SOC production on C dynamics in this and similar profiles. Varying nox and nprod did not induce meaningful changes in model estimates of atmospheric C source or sink strength, likely due to the low turnover rate of SOC in this system. However, variation in mineral soil erosion rates induced large shifts in the source and sink strengths for atmospheric C; after 50 y of mineral soil erosion at 5 cm y-1, we observed a maximum C source of 35 kg C m-2 and negligible sink strength. Doubling the erosion rate approximately doubled the source strength. Scaling these estimates to the region requires estimates of the area undergoing mineral soil erosion in forests similar to those modeled. We suggest that erosion is an important but little studied feature of fire-driven boreal systems that will influence atmospheric CO2 budgets.

  2. Plant-soil feedbacks from 30-year family-specific soil cultures: phylogeny, soil chemistry and plant life stage (United States)

    Mehrabi, Zia; Bell, Thomas; Lewis, Owen T


    Intraspecific negative feedback effects, where performance is reduced on soils conditioned by conspecifics, are widely documented in plant communities. However, interspecific feedbacks are less well studied, and their direction, strength, causes, and consequences are poorly understood. If more closely related species share pathogens, or have similar soil resource requirements, plants may perform better on soils conditioned by more distant phylogenetic relatives. There have been few empirical tests of this prediction across plant life stages, and none of which attempt to account for soil chemistry. Here, we test the utility of phylogeny for predicting soil feedback effects on plant survival and performance (germination, seedling survival, growth rate, biomass). We implement a full factorial experiment growing species representing five families on five plant family-specific soil sources. Our experiments exploit soils that have been cultured for over 30 years in plant family-specific beds at Oxford University Botanic Gardens. Plant responses to soil source were idiosyncratic, and species did not perform better on soils cultured by phylogenetically more distant relatives. The magnitude and sign of feedback effects could, however, be explained by differences in the chemical properties of “home” and “away” soils. Furthermore, the direction of soil chemistry-related plant-soil feedbacks was dependent on plant life stage, with the effects of soil chemistry on germination success and accumulation of biomass inversely related. Our results (1) suggest that the phylogenetic distance between plant families cannot predict plant–soil feedbacks across multiple life stages, and (2) highlight the need to consider changes in soil chemistry as an important driver of population responses. The contrasting responses at plant life stages suggest that studies focusing on brief phases in plant demography (e.g., germination success) may not give a full picture of plant–soil feedback effects. PMID:26120423

  3. Effects of endogeic earthworms on the soil organic matter dynamics and the soil structure in urban and alluvial soil materials


    Amossé, Joël; Turberg, Pascal; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Le Bayon, Renée-Claire


    Earthworms are considered as key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services linked to climate regulation or primary production. However, little is known about their basic functional roles (e.g. organic matter decomposition, soil structuring processes) in perturbed systems such as urban or alluvial soils. Alluvial soils are characterized by regular physical perturbation through flooding and associated erosion/sedimentation process...

  4. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)


    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  5. 24 CFR 3285.202 - Soil classifications and bearing capacity. (United States)


    ...2010-04-01 false Soil classifications and bearing capacity. 3285.202 Section 3285.202... § 3285.202 Soil classifications and bearing capacity. The soil classification and bearing capacity of the soil must be determined...

  6. Soils âField Characterization, Collection, and Laboratory Analysis (United States)

    Abir Biswas

    Field characterization of soil profiles in coniferous and deciduous settings; sample collection of soils from different horizons; laboratory analysis of soil moisture, soil organic carbon (by loss on ignition), and grain size distribution (by sieving)

  7. SMEX02 Soil Moisture and Temperature Profiles, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains rainfall, soil moisture, and soil temperature data collected for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters measured are soil...

  8. Soil-Soil Solution Distribution Coefficients for Se, Sr, Sn, Sb, And Cs in Japanese Agricultural Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, soil-soil solution distribution coefficients (Kds) for five radionuclides (Se-75, Sr-85, Sn-113, Sb-124, and Cs-137) were determined by batch sorption tests in 142 Japanese agricultural soil samples (63 paddy soil and 79 upland soil samples). The results showed that Se- and Sb-Kd data did not have a normal or a log-normal distribution, but Sr-, Sn-, and Cs-Kd data did have a log-normal distribution. Further, Se-, Sr-, and Cs-Kd values differed between paddy and upland soil samples in t-test (p d values for each radionuclide and soil properties. The combination of the Kd value and the soil property having the highest correlation coefficient (Rs) for each radionuclide was as follows: Se-Kd - concentration of water soluble P (Rs = -0.51); Sr-Kd - concentration of water soluble Ca (Rs = -0.57); Sn-Kd - concentration of water soluble Sr (Rs = 0.57); and Sb-Kd - concentration of water soluble P (Rs = -0.67). Although there were no soil properties which had a good correlation with Cs-Kd values for all soil samples, the best correlated soil property with Cs-Kd values was concentration of water soluble ammonium ion (Rs = -0.48) for upland soil samples. (authors)

  9. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soilsydrocarbon contaminated soils

  10. Urban soil geochemistry of Glasgow


    Fordyce, F.M.; Nice, S.E.; Lister, T. R.; O Dochartaigh, B.E.; COOPER, R; Allen, M.; Ingham, M.; Gowing, C.; Vickers, B.P.; Scheib, A.


    This report presents the results of a geochemical survey carried out by the British Geological Survey (BGS) between 2001 and 2002. The survey collected 1381 urban soil samples at a density of 1 per 0.25 km2 and 241 rural samples at a density of 1 per 2 km2 on a systematic grid across the Glasgow conurbation. The study was carried out as part of the BGS Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project. Top (5 - 20 cm) and deeper (35 - 50 cm) soil samples underwent...

  11. The soil use in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav


    Full Text Available The soil is becoming one of the crucial problems for the Nature and its proper functioning due to many reasons of its misusing or abusing. The market forces in agriculture are rapidly deteriorating the soil wild biodiversity and its capacity. The importance of the soil and its wild biodiversity, related to the water system and other ecological functions are presented in short outlines. Understanding the soil quality means assessing and managing soil that it functions optimally now and is not degradated for the future use. Evaluation of the soil quality in a different manner serves for agriculture embitterment and for keeping water and habitat organisms quality. Further, the instrument for soil protection policies implementation are given such as regional development planning, incentives for regional integration, social impacts oriented actions, education etc. The further soil decay will generally jeopardize the whole idea of sustainable development. Therefore it asks for more efficient understanding from decision makers, producers, but from planners as well.

  12. Efficiency of phosphatic fertilizers in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six phosphatic fertilizers viz. single superphosphate, mono-ammonium phosphate, potassium metaphosphate, nitrophosphate, calcium meta phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate were tested in RICH OLD ALLUVIUM (Patna soil) and P-deficient Young alluvium (Kursela soil). The test crop taken was paddy (T.N.I.) The performance of fertilizer materials were evaluated by comparing the total P uptake, percentage P utilization and 'A'-value in the two soils. The relative efficiencies of fertilizers varied considerably and the overall performance of the fertilizers were much superior in the P - deficient soil of Kursela. In the P rich soil of Patna, the fertilizer differences were observed only at 40 days. At later stages the performance of all were similar. The effect of dose was more clearly seen in Kursela soil than in Patna soil. The behaviour of these fertilizer materials in the two soils has been discussed. (author)

  13. SMEX03 Ancillary Soil Characteristics Data, Alabama

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SMEX03 Ancillary Soil Characteristics data set contains data for the regional study areas of Alabama, Georgia, and Oklahoma, USA as part of the 2003 Soil...

  14. ISLSCP II Global Gridded Soil Characteristics

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides gridded data for selected soil parameters derived from data and methods developed by the Global Soil Data Task, an international...

  15. ISLSCP II Global Gridded Soil Characteristics

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides gridded data for selected soil parameters derived from data and methods developed by the Global Soil Data Task, an international...

  16. Global Soil Types, 1-Degree Grid (Zobler)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A global digital data base of soil properties is available at 1 degree longitude resolution. For each land cell, the data base includes major and associated soil...


    Understanding bioavailability of metals from exposure to contaminated soils is a challenging aspect of environmental research. This presentation will examine three areas of research with respect to metal speciation in soils as it relates to bioavailability: 1) Pb immobilization a...

  18. Other impacts of soil-borne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils surround us daily, and humans and animals are exposed to soil in more ways than simply through ingestion of plants. Despite strict personal and food-industry hygiene, some soil will always be present in our diet. This often involves the very fine soil particles known to be especially effective in sorbing radionuclides. The soil we ingest may come through skin contact or through soil adhering to crop plants and other foods. Inhalation of soil particles by humans and other animals must also be considered. Throughout the consideration of the impacts of soil-borne radionuclides, there must be recognition of potential impacts on non-human biota, and of non-radiological impacts. The chemical toxicity of long-lived radionuclides may be just as important as their radiological impact for non-human biota. These issues and associated assessment modelling approaches are discussed, with examples and data drawn from our research programs. (J.P.N.)

  19. Opening doors for geophysics in soil sciences (United States)

    Müller, Martin

    Urban soils are subject to strong variations in environmental conditions such as water flow, solute transport, and heat budget. For soil scientists, the effects of the temporal and spatial dynamics of soil moisture distribution on the sorption and release of contaminants is crucial for understanding soil processes.The INTERURBAN research project was formed in 2001 in Berlin, Germany, to study the dynamics of water and materials at urban locations while giving special consideration to spatial heterogeneity organic soil substance, and soil-biological transformation processes. The project is the cooperative effort of six departments of the Technical University of Berlin and the Free University of Berlin; namely, the departments of soil sciences, water quality control, environmental chemistry microbiology soil zoology, and applied geophysics.

  20. Soils in urban and industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban areas are expanding rapidly. Therefore the interest in soil science activities on urban and industrial sites grows. The paper gives an overview of the research and mapping activities in Germany. A model of soils in urban ecosystems shows the relationships of development of soils and soil quality to land use. The water regime of soils is influenced by the characteristics of urban landscape and sealing. Of special interest are the typical substrates. Some properties of soils which develop on tipped substrates of natural material are discussed. Of importance are technological substrates as rubble, ash, slag, waste material and sludges in urban environments. Proposals of classification of urban and industrial soils are presented. For proper use by the municipal authorities availability and application of information on urban soils must be a part of research. (orig.)

  1. Relationship between Soil Health Assessment and the Growth of Lettuce


    Merakati Handajaningsih; Riwandi


    Soil health is very important point for plant growth which is measured by several indicators. The purposes of the research were to assess and to classify soil health Padang Betuah area of Bengkulu, and to compare between soil health indicators and lettuce plant performance indicators. Soils, consist of mineral and peat soils, were sampled using a soil random sampling technique. Lettuce plants were grown in polybags using sample soils. Both lettuce performance and soil health were assessed ...

  2. Soil health—a new challenge for microbiologists and chemists


    Arias Fernández, Mª E.; González-Pérez, José Antonio; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; ANDREW S. BALL


    [EN]: Soil health refers to the biological, chemical, and physical features of soil that are essential to long-term, sustainable agricultural productivity with minimal environmental impact. Thus, soil health provides an overall picture of soil functionality. Although it cannot be measured directly, soil health can be inferred by measuring specific soil properties (e.g. organic matter content) and by observing soil status (e.g. fertility). There is also increased interest in studying soil m...

  3. Comparison of Methods for Soil Sampling and Carbon Content Determination


    Željka Zgorelec; Milan Mesi?; Ivana Vukovi?; Aleksandra Juriši?; Branka Komesarovi?; Domagoj Klai?; Ivica Kisi?; Ferdo Baši?; Krunoslav Sajko


    In this paper methods for sampling and analysis of total carbon in soil were compared. Soil sampling was done by sampling scheme according to agricultural soil monitoring recommendations. Soil samples were collected as single (four individual probe patterns) and composite soil samples (16 individual probe patterns) from agriculture soil. In soil samples mass ratio of total soil carbon was analyzed by dry combustion method (according to Dumas; HRN ISO 10694:2004) in Analytical Laboratory of De...

  4. Soil nitrogen gas emissions increase considerably in warmer forest soils (United States)

    Kitzler, Barbara; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie


    Climate change will likely modify ecosystem properties and processes and therefore impact nitrogen (N) dynamics of forest soils. To elucidate the effect of warming and drought conditions on the nitrogen gas emissions we measured N2O and NO fluxes from the soil warming experiment Achenkirch, a spruce-fir-beech forest soil in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Austria. The uppermost layer of the soil was warmed (4°C) by heating cables during the snow-free seasons. Roofs were installed during 25 days in July/August 2008 and 2009 to simulate drought conditions. Gas sampling was conducted biweekly with static chambers (N2O). Gas concentrations were detected by GC. Nitric oxide fluxes were measured by an automatic dynamic chamber system on an hourly basis. In our study the emissions of N2O were increased by up to 73 % at warmed plots, and we observed a temporary increase following first rain. However N2O emissions of the drought affected plots remained depressed for more than two months after roof removal. Nitric oxide fluxes were increased considerably during dry periods and under warmer conditions.

  5. Fauna inhibit nitrogen mineralization in no-tilled soil, but not in tilled soil.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toyota, Ayu; Frouz, Jan; Hynšt, Jaroslav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2011. s. 49. ISBN 978-80-86525-19-8. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /11./. 11.04.2011-14.04.2011, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil fauna * nitrogen mineralization * no-tilled soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Soil Management Assessment Framework: Developing indicator scoring curves for soil enzymes (United States)

    Today our soils are expected to produce not only food, fiber, and feed, but now also fuel. Soil quality for a specific site depends on many factors including management, crops, climate, and soil type. We need assessment tools to evaluate the impact of management systems on critical soil functions. S...

  7. Soil structure and soil hydraulic properties of Haplic Luvisol used as arable land and grassland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Jirk?, V.; Kodeš, V.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Nikodem, A.; Žigová, Anna


    Ro?. 111, ?. 2 (2011), s. 154-161. ISSN 0167-1987 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil water retention curve * hydraulic conductivity, * soil micromorphology * conventional tillage, * grassland * soil structure amelioration Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2011

  8. Predicting radiocaesium sorption characteristics with soil chemical properties for Japanese soils. (United States)

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Smolders, Erik; Sweeck, Lieve; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde


    The high variability of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of radiocaesium (RCs) compels a detailed analysis of the radiocaesium interception potential (RIP) of soil, which is one of the specific factors ruling the RCs transfer. The range of the RIP values for agricultural soils in the Fukushima accident affected area has not yet been fully surveyed. Here, the RIP and other major soil chemical properties were characterised for 51 representative topsoils collected in the vicinity of the Fukushima contaminated area. The RIP ranged a factor of 50 among the soils and RIP values were lower for Andosols compared to other soils, suggesting a role of soil mineralogy. Correlation analysis revealed that the RIP was most strongly and negatively correlated to soil organic matter content and oxalate extractable aluminium. The RIP correlated weakly but positively to soil clay content. The slope of the correlation between RIP and clay content showed that the RIP per unit clay was only 4.8mmolg(-1) clay, about threefold lower than that for clays of European soils, suggesting more amorphous minerals and less micaceous minerals in the clay fraction of Japanese soils. The negative correlation between RIP and soil organic matter may indicate that organic matter can mask highly selective sorption sites to RCs. Multiple regression analysis with soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity explained the soil RIP (R(2)=0.64), allowing us to map soil RIP based on existing soil map information. PMID:25897723

  9. Evidence for shift from acidobacteria to proteobacteria dominance in soil profile of boreal acid sulphate soils.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chro?áková, Alica; Bryndová, Michala; Otáhalová, Šárka; Yli-Halla, M.; Šimek, Miloslav

    Dijon : INRA, 2014. s. 276. [Global Soil Biodiversity Conference. Assessing soil biodiversity and its role for ecosystem services /1./. 02.12.2014-05.12.2014, Dijon] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : boreal acid sulphate soils * soil profile * bacteria community structure * subsoil horizons Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Diversities of phthalate esters in suburban agricultural soils and wasteland soil appeared with urbanization in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in suburban farmland, vegetable, orchard and wasteland soils of Tianjin were obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis in 2009. Results showed that total PAEs varied from 0.05 to 10.4 ?g g?1, with the median value as 0.32 ?g g?1. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate are most abundant species. PAEs concentrations for the four types of soils exhibited decreasing order as vegetable soil > wasteland soil > farmland soil > orchard soil. PAEs exhibited elevated levels in more developed regions when compared with other studies. The agricultural plastic film could elevate the PAEs contents in soils. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products and plasticizers were important sources for PAEs in suburban soils in Tianjin. The higher PAEs contents in wasteland soils from suburban area should be paid more attention owing to large amounts of solid wastes appeared with the ongoing urbanization. - Highlights: ? PAEs levels in four types of soils in suburban area of Tianjin were studied. ? Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations. ? PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention. - (1) Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations; (2) PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention.

  11. Soil Moisture State and Hydrologic Process (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Grayson, R. B.; Blöschl, G.; Wilson, D.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Duncan, M.

    It has long been recognized that soil moisture has a key role in controlling evapo- transpiration during dryer periods, as well as runoff processes, particularly saturation excess runoff. The temporal and spatial variability of moisture can be an important influence on the temporal and spatial characteristics of these processes. More recently, the role of soil moisture in controlling lateral flow processes has re- ceived close attention, with switching between persistent dry and wet states leading to switches between controls on spatial patterns of soil moisture and consequent changes in runoff behaviour. In this paper we will review results on the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture at the small catchment scale, concentrating in particular on dominant controls and temporal changes in dominant controls. We will discuss the climatic and catchment characteristics under which switching between dominant controls is likely. We will also present results relating spatial soil moisture behaviour to soil moisture state and relating rainfall-runoff response to moisture state: in particular we investi- gated the relationships between the basin soil moisture dynamic and the occurrence of very extreme flood events. The spatial probability density function of soil moisture is bounded by wilting point and porosity. This bounding combined with catchment processes leads to a strong link between spatial variance and spatial mean soil mois- ture, with an initial increase in variance followed by a decrease as mean soil moisture increases from wilting point to saturation. Changes in the spatial control of soil mois- ture and the relationship between soil moisture and terrain also occur as the spatial controls on the soil moisture pattern change in response to mean soil moisture. Strong links between the changes in the spatial characteristics of soil moisture will be demon- strated and the potential of measurements of soil moisture to provide information on catchment state and rainfall-runoff response will be explored.

  12. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  13. Soil and radiocaesium contamination of winter fodders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of 137Cs and soil contaminating three winter fodders was determined on organic and mineral soil and the effect of harvesting, fodder storage and weather conditions on the contamination level was assessed. The mean level of soil contamination in hay and silage was generally 137Cs content of all fodders were highly correlated indicating that, in this study, soil adhesion to plant surfaces is the main vector of 137Cs transfer

  14. Micronutrient soil tests and plant tissue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews recent trends in the development of micronutrient cation and anion soil tests. Special emphasis is placed on the need to develop a soil test for zinc which can adequately predict the change that takes place in the labile soil zinc pool after the land is flooded for rice production. Reference is made to the problems of interpretation of plant analysis results, especially in rice grown under flooded soil conditions. (author)

  15. Predicting soil properties in the tropics


    Minasny, B.; Hartemink, A.E.


    It is practically impossible to measure soil properties continuously at each location across the globe. Therefore, it is necessary to have robust systems that can predict soil properties at a given location. That is needed in many tropical countries where the dearth of soil property measurements is large. This paper reviews the use of pedotransfer functions (PTF) for predicting properties of soils in the tropics. First, the guiding principles of prediction and the type of predictors are discu...

  16. Monitoring forest soil properties with electrical resistivity


    Paillet, Y.; Cassagne, N.; Brun, J.J.


    Maintenance and monitoring of soil fertility is a key issue for sustainable forest management. Vital ecosystem processes may be affected by management practices which change the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. This study is the first in Europe to use electrical resistivity as a non-invasive method to determine forest soil properties rapidly in the field in a monitoring purpose. We explored the correlations between electrical resistivity and forest soil properties on ...

  17. The "Soil" of mars (viking 1) (United States)

    Shorthill, R.W.; Moore, H.J., II; Scott, R.F.; Hutton, R.E.; Liebes, S., Jr.; Spitzer, G.R.


    The location of the Viking 1 lander is most ideal for the study of soil properties because it has one footpad in soft material and one on hard material. As each soil sample was acquired, information on soil properties was obtained. Although analysis is still under way, early results on bulk density, particle size, angle of internal friction, cohesion, adhesion, and penetration resistance of the soil of Mars are presented.

  18. Resuspension of plutonium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made to estimate resuspension factors for plutonium from humid beach soils in the vicinity of a low level liquid effluents discharge point from a Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The following comparative results are presented in tabular form: 1) Resuspension factors measured in the field and laboratory. 2) Resuspension factors for dry powdered soils. 3) Resuspension factors for soils covered with plant saplings (soil with 20% humidity). 4) Measurement of respirable resuspended activities. (U.K.)

  19. Available sulphur status of Dooars tea soils


    Ghosh, J.J.; George, U.; Barpujari, N.


    Available sulphur was determined on 5077 soils from the tea growing areas of Dooars (North Bengal), received for routine soil testing between 2000-2003. Over 43% of the soils had more than the critical limit of 40 ppm available sulphur. A distinct geographical trend in sulphur availability was observed, with the four western sub-districts showing a greater frequency of high available sulphur than the three eastern sub-districts. As expected, increased organic carbon in the soils could be ...

  20. Modelling multicomponent solute transport in structured soils


    Beinum, G.W., van


    The mobility of contaminants in soil is an important factor in determining their ability to spread into the wider environment. For non-volatile substances, transport within the soil is generally dominated by transport of dissolved fractions in the soil water phase, via either diffusion or convection. During this process the mobility of reactive ions is strongly affected by adsorption. Adsorption processes regulate the distribution of ions over an immobile fraction that is attached to soil par...

  1. Role of Arthropods in Maintaining Soil Fertility


    Thomas W. Culliney


    In terms of species richness, arthropods may represent as much as 85% of the soil fauna. They comprise a large proportion of the meso- and macrofauna of the soil. Within the litter/soil system, five groups are chiefly represented: Isopoda, Myriapoda, Insecta, Acari, and Collembola, the latter two being by far the most abundant and diverse. Arthropods function on two of the three broad levels of organization of the soil food web: they are plant litter transformers or ecosystem engineers. Litte...

  2. Soil Moisture Monitorization Using GNSS Reflected Signals


    Egido, Alejandro; Ruffini, Giulio; Caparrini, Marco; Martin, Cristina; Farres, Esteve; Banque, Xavier


    The use of GNSS signals as a source of opportunity for remote sensing applications, GNSS-R, has been a research area of interest for more than a decade. One of the possible applications of this technique is soil moisture monitoring. The retrieval of soil moisture with GNSS-R systems is based on the variability of the ground dielectric properties associated to soil moisture. Higher concentrations of water in the soil yield a higher dielectric constant and reflectivity, which ...

  3. Progress of research and utilization of soil amendments in phytoremediation of radioactive contamination soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing of soil pollution and degradation, it becomes more important to research and apply soil amendments in agriculture. This paper reviewed different kinds of soil amendments and their impacts on phytostabilization and phytoextraction techniques, and summarized the application of soil amendments in the radio-contaminated soils as well as their effects on the phytoremediation. The main repair mechanisms of the soil amendments are involved in adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, and complexation. The potential applications in the phytoremediation on radio-contaminated soils, as well as the main repair mechanisms and the existing problems were discussed. (authors)

  4. Using 137Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide 137Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using 137Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). 137Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha-1 yr-1 to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha-1 yr-1. Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for most properties there was no significant relationship. This suggests that other factors, in addition to soil erosion and soil redistribution, are also important in causing spatial variability in soil properties, or that, because of the relatively deep soils, soil properties are relatively insensitive to soil redistribution processes. The importance of the erosional history of the field was explored using a simple model to predict changes in soil properties in response to the magnitude of the erosion or deposition rate and the length of the period during which the field had been subject to soil erosion and soil redistribution.

  5. Effect of surface conditions on runoff and soil loss for chernozem soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębicki R.


    Full Text Available Rainfall simulation tests were conducted to determine the effect of the initial water content and surface micro-relief changes on runoff, and soil loss for chernozem soil. The studies showed that soil loss by wash was mostly affected by the surface micro-relief, whereas soil loss by splash by the initial water content. Runoff amount was less dependent than the soil loss upon the initial surface conditions and was mostly affected by the seal formation. The highest amount of splash and wash suggest that the time of seal formation at the soil surface was most susceptible to soil erosion.

  6. Tensile and erosive strength of soil macro-aggregates from soils under different management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanek Emilia


    Full Text Available Reduced soil tillage practices are claimed to improve soil health, fertility and productivity through improved soil structure and higher soil organic matter contents. This study compares soil structure stability of soil aggregates under three different tillage practices: conventional, reduced and no tillage. The erosive strength of soil aggregates has been determined using the abrasion technique with the soil aggregate erosion chambers (SAE. During abrasion soil aggregates have been separated into the exterior, transitional and interior regions. The forces needed to remove the material from the aggregate were calculated as erosive strength and compared with the tensile strength of the aggregates derived from crushing tests. The relationship between aggregate strength and other soil properties such as organic carbon and hydrophobic groups’ content has also been identified.

  7. Soil friability - Concept, Assessment and Effects of Soil Properties and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl


    Soil friability is a key soil physical property yielding valuable information on the ease of productin a favorable seed- and root beds during tillage operations. Therefore, soil friability is acrucial soil property in relation to the ability of soil to support plant growth and to minimzethe energy required for tillage. The topic has interested farmers and soil scientiest for centuries, but is was the paper by Utomo and Dexter (1981) that significantly put the topic on the soil science agenda. The awareness of soil friability is growing, both in practiceand in soil science. This must be viewed in the light of the present renewed focus on global food security together with a focus on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in crop production. Certainly, the demand for well-functioning, arable soils is rising to meet the global challenges.

  8. Transformers as a potential for soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stoji?


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of PCBs and heavy metals in the surrounding soil and also in the soil of the receiving pit located below the PCB contaminated transformer. Concentrations of PCBs in our samples are ranged from 0,308 to 0,872 mg/kg of absolutely dry soil.

  9. Seasonal variability of soil aggregate stability.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohošková, M.; Kodešová, R.; Jirk?, V.; Žigová, Anna; Kozák, J.


    Ro?. 11, - (2009), , , EGU2009-6341-3-EGU2009-6341-3. ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 19.04.2009-24.04.2009, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seasonal variability * soil aggregate stability * soil types Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  10. Links between soil modelling and proximal sensing (United States)

    Aitkenhead, Matt; McBratney, Alex; Minasny, Budiman


    Proximal sensing of soils can provide valuable information for soil modelling, by providing baseline data and validating model predictions through direct observation of soil characteristics. A wide range of soil parameters can be estimated using proximal sensing of soils (PSS), often simultaneously using single hand-held systems, of which there are many types. The benefits for soil modelling include direct observation of modelled parameters, rapid assessment in field conditions and digital data acquisition, making the transfer of information to soil models relatively straightforward. This is an active area of development, with research into improved methods of field-based capture of soil parameters directly relevant for soil modelling. A number of challenges exist, including the removal of or accounting for the effects of field conditions (e.g. soil moisture and structure), and the development of libraries of data that will allow calibration models to be produced. We present an overview of PSS as it relates to soil modelling, including equipment types, calibration approaches, cloud-based processing, soil parameters and processes estimated using PSS, and opportunities and challenges for the future. We also identify and discuss the possibilities for integration of modelling and proximal sensing within precision agriculture/precision land management.

  11. The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee. (United States)

    Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

    The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

  12. Atmospheric fallout and soil fertility in Gascogne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    98% of the mother-rock of the soil of the Landes de Gascogne is pure quartz sand. Measurements of the amount of K, Na, Ca, Mg in the rain, in the soil and the rivers of Gascogne show that the fertility of this soil may be considered as entirely due to the fall-out


    Developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey this data set is a digital general soil association map. It consists of a broad based inventory of soils and nonsoil areas that occur in a repeatable pattern on the landscape and that can be cartographically shown at the scale ma...


    This data set is a digital general soil association map developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It consists of a broad based inventory of soils and nonsoil areas that occur in a repeatable pattern on the landscape and that can be cartographically shown at the scale ma...


    This data set is a digital general soil association map developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It consists of a broad based inventory of soils and nonsoil areas that occur in a repeatable pattern on the landscape and that can be cartographically shown at the scale ma...

  16. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.


    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…


    Initially released in 1996, the UNSODA database contains unsaturated soil hydraulic properties (water retention, hydraulic conductivity, soil water diffusivity) and auxiliary data (particle-size distribution, bulk density, organic matter content, etc.) for more than 800 soils. With the recent launc...

  18. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.


    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R


    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised.

  19. Restoring soil quality on construction sites (United States)

    Soil at construction sites gets compacted reducing root growth and infiltration, which leads to runoff, erosion, and loss of nutrients. Adding compost and prairie grasses decreased the soil density, increased soil water storage, increased root penetration, and reduced runoff and erosion....

  20. Adsorption of nickel by Indian soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V, Ramachandran; S.F, D' Souza.


    Full Text Available Adsorption of metals from liquid into solid phase is one of the most important chemical processes which affect the behaviour and bioavailability of metals in soils, thereby exerts a major influence on their uptake by plant roots. Indian soils, representing the various soil types of tropics, were sub [...] jected to Ni treatment of different concentrations and equilibrated at room temperature. The Ni adsorbed by each soil was calculated as the difference between the amount of Ni present in the solution initially and that remaining after equilibration. Results indicated that all the soils under study follow Freundlich and linear adsorption isotherms with highly significant positive correlation. In general, adsorption capacity of the soils for Ni increased with an increase in pH of the soil, whereas, the reverse was found to be true for the rate of adsorption. Significant positive correlations (p = 0.1 - 0.001) were obtained between Freundlich's K (adsorption capacity) and pH, CEC and CaCO3 content of the soils. Also, eight soils of Maharashtra, India, were found to fit in all the three adsorption isotherms, namely, Freundlich, Langmuir and linear. The distribution coefficient (Kd) values of these soils, in general, increased with an increase in pH and CEC of the soils. Adsorption of Ni in soils followed the order: vertisol > entisol > alfisol/ultisol.

  1. "Dirt Cheap" Project Teaches Soils Engineering (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    This article describes a soil-testing activity that enables students to learn some interesting and useful things about how soil behaves under varied conditions. It offers a great way to give them a practical pre-engineering experience and will show them how engineers think about construction and how local soils influence building design. The…

  2. The hysteresis response of soil CO2 concentration and soil respiration to soil temperature (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Katul, Gabriel G.; Oren, Ram; Daly, Edoardo; Manzoni, Stefano; Yang, Dawen


    Diurnal hysteresis between soil temperature (Ts) and both CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and soil respiration rate (Rs) were reported across different field experiments. However, the causes of these hysteresis patterns remain a subject of debate, with biotic and abiotic factors both invoked as explanations. To address these issues, a CO2 gas transport model is developed by combining a layer-wise mass conservation equation for subsurface gas phase CO2, Fickian diffusion for gas transfer, and a CO2 source term that depends on soil temperature, moisture, and photosynthetic rate. Using this model, a hierarchy of numerical experiments were employed to disentangle the causes of the hysteretic [CO2]-Ts and CO2 flux Ts (i.e., F-Ts) relations. Model results show that gas transport alone can introduce both [CO2]-Ts and F-Ts hystereses and also confirm prior findings that heat flow in soils lead to [CO2] and F being out of phase with Ts, thereby providing another reason for the occurrence of both hystereses. The area (Ahys) of the [CO2]-Ts hysteresis near the surface increases, while the Ahys of the Rs-Ts hysteresis decreases as soils become wetter. Moreover, a time-lagged carbon input from photosynthesis deformed the [CO2]-Ts and Rs-Ts patterns, causing a change in the loop direction from counterclockwise to clockwise with decreasing time lag. An asymmetric 8-shaped pattern emerged as the transition state between the two loop directions. Tracing the pattern and direction of the hysteretic [CO2]-Ts and Rs-Ts relations can provide new ways to fingerprint the effects of photosynthesis stimulation on soil microbial activity and detect time lags between rhizospheric respiration and photosynthesis.

  3. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald


    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful application of geophysical methods, e.g. GPR on wet loessy soils will result in a high attenuation of signals. Furthermore, with this knowledge we support the development of geophysical pedo-transfer-functions, i.e. the link between geophysical to soil parameters, which is active researched in another work package of the iSOIL project. Acknowledgement: iSOIL-Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

  4. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature (United States)

    Murphy, Brian


    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  5. Soil-Web: An online soil survey for California, Arizona, and Nevada (United States)

    Beaudette, D. E.; O'Geen, A. T.


    Digital soil survey products represent one of the largest and most comprehensive inventories of soils information currently available. The complex structure of these databases, intensive use of codes and scientific jargon make it difficult for non-specialists to utilize digital soil survey resources. A project was initiated to construct a web-based interface to digital soil survey products (STATSGO and SSURGO) for California, Arizona, and Nevada that would be accessible to the general public. A collection of mature, open source applications (including Mapserver, PostGIS and Apache Web Server) were used as a framework to support data storage, querying, map composition, data presentation, and contextual links to related materials. Application logic was written in the PHP language to "glue" together the many components of an online soil survey. A comprehensive website ( was created to facilitate access to digital soil survey databases through several interfaces including: interactive map, Google Earth and HTTP-based application programming interface (API). Each soil polygon is linked to a map unit summary page, which includes links to soil component summary pages. The most commonly used soil properties, land interpretations and ratings are presented. Graphical and tabular summaries of soil profile information are dynamically created, and aid with rapid assessment of key soil properties. Quick links to official series descriptions (OSD) and other such information are presented. All terminology is linked back to the USDA-NRCS Soil Survey Handbook which contains extended definitions. The Google Earth interface to Soil-Web can be used to explore soils information in three dimensions. A flexible web API was implemented to allow advanced users of soils information to access our website via simple web page requests. Soil-Web has been successfully used in soil science curriculum, outreach activities, and current research projects. Although not the only online soil survey application, Soil-Web remains the simplest and most rapid means of accessing soils information for California, Arizona, and Nevada.

  6. Tunnelling in Soft Soil: Tunnel Boring Machine Operation and Soil Response:


    Festa, D.; Broere, W.; Bosch, J.W.


    Constructing tunnels in soft soil with the use of Tunnel Boring Machines may induce settlements including soil movements ahead of the face, soil relaxation into the tail void, possible heave due to grouting, long lasting consolidation processes, and potentially several other mechanisms. A considerable amount of the total soil displacements seems correlated with the passage of the TBM-shield. Even so, the TBM-induced soil displacements have so far only been coarsely correlated to the total set...

  7. Assimilation of surface soil moisture into a multilayer soil model: design and evaluation at local scale


    M. Parrens; J.-F. Mahfouf; Barbu, A.; J.-C. Calvet


    Land surface models (LSM) have improved considerably in the last two decades. In this study, the ISBA LSM soil diffusion scheme is used (with 11 soil layers represented). A Simplified Extended Kalman Filter (SEKF) allows surface soil moisture (SSM) to be assimilated in the multi-layer LSM in order to constrain deep soil moisture. In parallel, the same simulations are performed using the ISBA LSM with 2 soil layers (a thin surface layer and a bulk reservoir). Simulations are performed o...



    Feba Merin Chacko; Sreekanth N.P; Shanthi Prabha V


    Land use conversion is usually accompanied by a decline in soil organic carbon. This work is aimed to determine the soil organic carbon affected by the multiple land use in a particular soil series. The study was conducted in Ustic Haplohumults soil series of Kottayam district of Kerala including land uses like Cropland, Wetland, Agricultural land, Homestead and Mixed vegetation land. Change in land use induced significant losses of soil and particulate organic carbon. The maximum SOC content...

  9. Effects of Tillage Methods on Soil Fragmentation in Loamy-Clay Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Abbaspour-Gilandeh


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Soil fragmentation is a primary aim in tillage in order to create a favorable soil environment for crop growth. Soil fragmentation is defined as the process of breakdown and crumbling of soil aggregates. Currently, there is no published research data on optimum tillage operations for seedbed preparation in loamy-clay soils of western Caspian Sea region of Iran. Approach: Tests were conducted on a loamy-clay soil near the city of Ardabil, Iran, to investigate the effects of different tillage operations on soil crumbling. Four tillage treatments: Moldboard plow (M (conventional method, Moldboard plow and Disk-Harrow (MH, Decompactor and Moldboard plow (DM and De-Compactor and Disk-Harrow (DH were used in this study with four replications. The tillage depth for all treatments was about 30 cm. Following tillage operations, intensive soil samples were taken from the top 25 cm of soil at 5 cm depth increments and were analyzed for aggregate size and distribution using 9 standard sieves (0.25-19 mm mesh. Analysis of variance was carried out regarding soil crumbling percentage and mean diameter of soil aggregates in each treatment. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with five levels of soil sampling depths and two main factors (tillage method and tillage depth which were arranged in Latin Square design. Results: Results showed that the tillage treatments had a significant effect on soil crumbling. Also, soil crumbling varied with soil depth and the optimum particle sizes were developed at the 5-20 cm soil depth. There was a non-linear correlation between soil crumbling percentage and tillage depth. Conclusion/Recommendations: Tillage methods and soil sampling depth had interaction effect on soil crumbling percentage. The MH treatment had the greatest amount of soil crumbling and the best seed-bed condition.

  10. Indices for soil management decisions (United States)

    Indices are needed for periodic assessments of soil resource condition at all scales – within a lawn, field, farm, watershed, county, state, nation, or the world. There are several types of indices including scorecards, simulation models, decision aides, and assessment frameworks. This chapter exami...

  11. Global soil organic carbon pool.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bird, M.; Šantr??ková, Hana; Lloyd, J.; Veenendaal, E.

    New York : Academic Press, 2001, s. 185-199. [Global biogeochemical cycles in the climate system. New York (US), 15.02.2001-19.02.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil carbon pool * global change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Soil fertility and plant nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of isotopic and related techniques, including autoradiography, radiation absorption, radiation scattering and activation analysis, in investigations on soil fertility and plant nutrition are discussed. The unique information that can be obtained with isotopes and radiation techniques is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed in relation to other methods of obtaining similar information. (U.K.)

  13. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nilesh C. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Starnes, Daniel L. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Sahi, Shivendra V. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States)]. E-mail:


    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils.

  14. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils


    The objective of this paper is to illustrate the concept of the soil-geomorphic template and its relationship to biotic change. Desertification, as an example of biotic change toward a degraded state, is a common phenomenon in many arid and semiarid regions of the world. Such biotic change is typica...

  16. Integrated management in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice growing is developed in different kinds of soils, and some of the have high bases saturation, especially calcium and magnesium, as well as medium to high carbonate contents. This causes negative effects in the development and growth of the rice plant. As a consequence, several researching actions have been under-taken, and they are aimed at becoming this problem in economically manageable. Among the strategies we have, some of them are as follows: evaluating rice varieties presenting tolerance to these soils; using inorganic fertilizers looking for a response to elements, sources, dose and application times; evaluating organic fertilizers, mainly the green ones; using amendments, and physical soil management. According to the results, we have the fertilization response with major and minor elements and with the statistical differences at a 0.05% level. A response was found with elements such as zinc, copper, boron, iron, phosphorus and potassium. However, the efficiency of these elements depends on the addition of amendments as sulfur, the use of green fertilizers and farming systems that eliminate the superficial compaction of these soils, besides the use of varieties which are more tolerant to alkalinity, just like Fedearroz-50

  17. Amelioration of Salt Affected Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Oad


    Full Text Available The amount of salt-effected soil in Pakistan Varies in different places. In humid regions the salt problem is limited unlike arid and semi-arid areas. Salt accumulation and water logging mainly threaten Agriculture. Our country exports agriculture commodities, but its exporting quantity is going to be low day by day due to salt problem. It is economical to undertake salinity/sodicity in control limits in order to use that land for agricultural production as well as buildings could be safeguard from the hazard of salt and water logging. The soluble salt that occurs in the soils consists mainly of ions; sodium (Na+, calcium(Ca2+, magnesium(Mg2+, potassium(K+, chloride(Cl– sulfate(SO42 , bicarbonates(HCO3– and carbonates(CO32. As a result of chemical decomposition and physical weathering these constituents (salts are generally released and exists on the soil surface or on the crop root zone. A high concentration of such salts interfere the growth of plants, reduces the crop production and land value. The control of this problem is prime important for maximizing and sustainable agriculture. The control of the salts can be through soil applied amendments like gypsum, acids, sulfur, HCl, pressmud, molasses and various field practices including plowing, irrigation, surface flushing, leaching and draining practices.

  18. Soil variability in engineering applications (United States)

    Vessia, Giovanna


    Natural geomaterials, as soils and rocks, show spatial variability and heterogeneity of physical and mechanical properties. They can be measured by in field and laboratory testing. The heterogeneity concerns different values of litho-technical parameters pertaining similar lithological units placed close to each other. On the contrary, the variability is inherent to the formation and evolution processes experienced by each geological units (homogeneous geomaterials on average) and captured as a spatial structure of fluctuation of physical property values about their mean trend, e.g. the unit weight, the hydraulic permeability, the friction angle, the cohesion, among others. The preceding spatial variations shall be managed by engineering models to accomplish reliable designing of structures and infrastructures. Materon (1962) introduced the Geostatistics as the most comprehensive tool to manage spatial correlation of parameter measures used in a wide range of earth science applications. In the field of the engineering geology, Vanmarcke (1977) developed the first pioneering attempts to describe and manage the inherent variability in geomaterials although Terzaghi (1943) already highlighted that spatial fluctuations of physical and mechanical parameters used in geotechnical designing cannot be neglected. A few years later, Mandelbrot (1983) and Turcotte (1986) interpreted the internal arrangement of geomaterial according to Fractal Theory. In the same years, Vanmarcke (1983) proposed the Random Field Theory providing mathematical tools to deal with inherent variability of each geological units or stratigraphic succession that can be resembled as one material. In this approach, measurement fluctuations of physical parameters are interpreted through the spatial variability structure consisting in the correlation function and the scale of fluctuation. Fenton and Griffiths (1992) combined random field simulation with the finite element method to produce the Random Finite Element Method (RFEM). This method has been used to investigate the random behavior of soils in the context of a variety of classical geotechnical problems. Afterward, some following studies collected the worldwide variability values of many technical parameters of soils (Phoon and Kulhawy 1999a) and their spatial correlation functions (Phoon and Kulhawy 1999b). In Italy, Cherubini et al. (2007) calculated the spatial variability structure of sandy and clayey soils from the standard cone penetration test readings. The large extent of the worldwide measured spatial variability of soils and rocks heavily affects the reliability of geotechnical designing as well as other uncertainties introduced by testing devices and engineering models. So far, several methods have been provided to deal with the preceding sources of uncertainties in engineering designing models (e.g. First Order Reliability Method, Second Order Reliability Method, Response Surface Method, High Dimensional Model Representation, etc.). Nowadays, the efforts in this field have been focusing on (1) measuring spatial variability of different rocks and soils and (2) developing numerical models that take into account the spatial variability as additional physical variable. References Cherubini C., Vessia G. and Pula W. 2007. Statistical soil characterization of Italian sites for reliability analyses. Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop. on Characterization and Engineering Properties of Natural Soils, 3-4: 2681-2706. Griffiths D.V. and Fenton G.A. 1993. Seepage beneath water retaining structures founded on spatially random soil, Géotechnique, 43(6): 577-587. Mandelbrot B.B. 1983. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W H Freeman. Matheron G. 1962. Traité de Géostatistique appliquée. Tome 1, Editions Technip, Paris, 334 p. Phoon K.K. and Kulhawy F.H. 1999a. Characterization of geotechnical variability. Can Geotech J, 36(4): 612-624. Phoon K.K. and Kulhawy F.H. 1999b. Evaluation of geotechnical property variability. Can Geotech J, 36(4): 625-639. Terzaghi K. 1943. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. New York: J

  19. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  20. Index of soil physical quality of hardsetting soils on the brazilian coast

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    Herdjania Veras de Lima


    Full Text Available Many soils have a hard-setting behavior, also known as cohesive or "coesos". In such soils, the penetration resistance increases markedly when dry and decreases considerably when moist, creating serious limitations for plant emergence and growth. To evaluate the level of structure degradation in hard-setting soils with different texture classes and to create an index for assessing soil hardness levels in hard-setting soils, six soil representative profiles were selected in the field in various regions of Brazil. The following indices were tested: S, which measures soil physical quality, and H , which analyzes the degree of hardness and the effective stress in the soil during drying. Both indices were calculated using previously described functions based on data from the water-retention curves for the soils. The hard-setting values identified in different soils of the Brazilian Coastal Tablelands have distinct compaction (hardness levels and can be satisfactorily measured by the H index. The S index was adequate for evaluating the structural characteristics of the hard-setting soils, classifying them as suitable or poor for cultivation, but only when the moisture level of the soil was near the inflection point. The H index showed that increases in density in hard-setting soils result from increases in effective stress and not from the soil texture. Values for Bd > 1.48 kg dm-3 classify the soil as hard-setting, and the structural organization is considered "poor".