WorldWideScience

Sample records for impervious soils

  1. Depleted soil carbon and nitrogen pools beneath impervious surfaces

    Urban soils and vegetation contain large pools of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and may sequester these elements at considerable rates; however, there have been no systematic studies of the composition of soils beneath the impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas. This has made it impossible to reliably estimate the net impact of urbanization on terrestrial C and N pools. In this study, we compared open area and impervious-covered soils in New York City and found that the C and N content of the soil (0–15 cm) under impervious surfaces was 66% and 95% lower, respectively. Analysis of extracellular enzyme activities in the soils suggests that recalcitrant compounds dominate the organic matter pool under impervious surfaces. If the differences between impervious-covered and open area soils represent a loss of C and N from urban ecosystems, the magnitude of these losses could offset sequestration in other parts of the urban landscape. - The soils beneath impervious surfaces are depleted in C and N, which may have implications for the energy and nutrient balance of urban ecosystems.

  2. Soil roughness, slope and surface storage relationship for impervious areas

    Borselli, Lorenzo; Torri, Dino

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThe study of the relationships between surface roughness, local slope gradient and maximum volume of water storage in surface depressions is a fundamental element in the development of hydrological models to be used in soil and water conservation strategies. Good estimates of the maximum volume of water storage are important for runoff assessment during rainfall events. Some attempts to link surface storage to parameters such as indices of surface roughness and, more rarely, local gradient have been proposed by several authors with empirical equations often conflicting between them and usually based on a narrow range of slope gradients. This suggests care in selecting any of the proposed equations or models and invites one to verify the existence of more realistic experimental relationships, based on physical models of the surfaces and valid for a larger range of gradients. The aim of this study is to develop such a relation for predicting/estimating the maximum volume of water that a soil surface, with given roughness characteristics and local slope gradient, can store. Experimental work has been carried out in order to reproduce reliable rough surfaces able to maintain the following properties during the experimental activity: (a) impervious surface to avoid biased storage determination; (b) stable, un-erodible surfaces to avoid changes of retention volume during tests; (c) absence of hydrophobic behaviour. To meet the conditions a-c we generate physical surfaces with various roughness magnitude using plasticine (emulsion of non-expansible clay and oil). The plasticine surface, reproducing surfaces of arable soils, was then wetted and dirtied with a very fine timber sawdust. This reduced the natural hydrophobic behaviour of the plasticine to an undetectable value. Storage experiments were conducted with plasticine rough surfaces on top of large rigid polystyrene plates inclined at different slope gradient: 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. Roughness data collected on the generated plasticine surfaces were successfully compared with roughness data collected on real soil surfaces for similar conditions. A set of roughness indices was computed for each surface using roughness profiles measured with a laser profile meter. Roughness indices included quantiles of the Abbot-Firestone curve, which is used in surface metrology for industrial application to characterize surface roughness in a non-parametric approach ( Whitehouse, 1994). Storage data were fitted with an empirical equation (double negative exponential of roughness and slope). Several roughness indices resulted well related to storage. The better results were obtained using the Abbot-Firestone curve parameter P100. Beside this storage empirical model (SEM) a geometrical model was also developed, trying to give a more physical basis to the result obtained so far. Depression geometry was approximated with spherical cups. A general physical model was derived (storage cup model - SCM). The cup approximation identifies where roughness elevation comes in and how it relates to slope gradient in defining depression volume. Moreover, the exponential decay used for assessing slope effect on storage volume in the empirical model of Eqs. (8) and (9) emerges as consistent with distribution of cup sizes.

  3. Impacts of impervious surface expansion on soil organic carbon - a spatially explicit study

    Yan, Yan; Kuang, Wenhui; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Chunbo

    2015-12-01

    The rapid expansion of impervious surface areas (ISA) threatens soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in urbanized areas globally. The paucity of field observations on SOC under ISA (SOCISA), especially in dryland areas has limited our ability to assess the ecological impacts of ISA expansion. Based on systematically measured SOCISA (0-80 cm depth) of a dryland city, and land-use and land-cover change data derived from remotely sensed data, we investigated the magnitude and vertical/horizontal patterns of SOCISA and mapped the impact of ISA expansion on SOC storage. The mean SOCISA in the city was 5.36 ± 0.51 kg C m-2, lower than that observed in humid cities but much higher than that assumed in many regional carbon assessments. SOCISA decreased linearly as the soil depth or the horizontal distance from the open area increased. SOCISA accounted for over half of the city’s SOC stock, which decreased by 16% (primarily in the converted croplands) because of ISA expansion from 1990 to 2010. The impacts of the ISA expansion varied spatially, depending on the land- use and converted land-cover type.

  4. Rural impervious surfaces extraction from Landsat 8 imagery and rural impervious surface index

    Zheng, Xinyu; Yu, Zhoulu; Ao, Weijiu; Wang, Youfu; Tahmassebi, Amir Reza; You, Shucheng; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke

    2014-11-01

    There is an increasing need to understand pattern and growth of impervious surfaces in rural regions. However, studies using remote sensing of impervious surfaces have often focused on mapping impervious surfaces in urban regions with less emphasis placed on the rural impervious surfaces. In this paper, we proposed a new index, Rural Impervious Surface Index (RISI) by taking advantage of narrow spectral bands of Landsat 8 OLI for estimating impervious surfaces within rural land covers. This index is based on the combination of Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Soil Index (SI). Respectively, these represent the three major rural land covers components: impervious surfaces, vegetation, and soil. The index was further used for estimating fraction of impervious surfaces using fuzzy KNN classifier. The performance of this technique was also compared with Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). Our results showed that RISI could accurately detect spatial pattern of rural impervious surfaces due to the suppressing background noise and minimizing spectral confusion. Accuracy assessment revealed that incorporation of RISI with fuzzy KNN classification generates higher correlation coefficient, lower root mean square and systematic error compared to the LSMA technique.

  5. Percent of Impervious Cover

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  6. A case study on the urban impervious surface distribution based on a BCI index

    Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Genyun; Wang, Zhenjie

    2015-12-01

    Endmember selection is the key to success in pixel unmixing which plays an important role in urban impervious surface abundance extraction. During the extraction, however, there has been a problem for the discrimination of impervious surfaces and soils because of their similarity in spectral. This increase the difficulty in distinguishes impervious surface and soil in endmember selection. To address this issue, in the current study, the biophysical composition index (BCI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) were introduced to enhance the information of impervious surface and bare soil in the study area. Then, by selecting high albedo, low albedo, soil and vegetation endmembers with the utilization of the histogram of the indices and minimum noise fraction (MNF) scatter plot, we applied spectral mixture analysis (SMA) to extract impervious surface abundance. The scene of multispectral Landsat TM image was acquired allowing for the interpretation and analysis of impervious surfaces distribution. Experiments and comparisons indicate that this method performs well in estimating subpixel impervious surface distribution with relatively high precision and small bias.

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  9. Rerouting Urban Waters: A Historic Examination of the Age of Imperviousness

    Hopkins, K. G.; Bain, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    From the 1600's to the 1900's landscapes along the Eastern United States underwent dramatic changes, including transitions from forest to production agriculture and eventually urban development. Legacy effects from decisions on sewer and water infrastructure built during the early 1900's are emerging today in degraded urban waterways. Impervious cover is often a factor used to predict water impairment. However, does imperviousness age or change through the course of landscape evolution? This study reconstructs the history of imperviousness in the Panther Hollow watershed (161 ha, Pittsburgh, PA) to examine these changes. We reconstruct the importance of factors influencing effective imperviousness from the 1800's to present including; (1) pipe and road network technological transitions, (2) land cover changes, particularly the loss of forest cover, and (3) modifications to local topography. Analysis reveals effective imperviousness (impervious area in the basin directly connected to stream channels) increased dramatically after 1900. Prior to 1900, water and sewer infrastructure was very limited. Local drainage networks generally followed the natural topography and households accessed water supplies from wells, precipitation harvesting or surface water. Road networks were sparse and predominantly dirt or aggregate surfaces. Forests and large family farms dominated land cover. Around 1910 public water supply expanded, significantly increasing effective imperviousness due to installation of brick and ceramic sewer infrastructure that routed waste waters directly to stream channels. Road networks also expanded and began transitioning from dirt roads to brick and eventually asphalt. Shifting to impervious paving materials required the installation of stormwater drainage. New drainage systems altered historic flow paths by re-routed large quantities of water through macro-pore sewer networks to local waterways. While this improvement prevented flooding to roadways, it also created new flooding issues downstream of outfalls. Improvements to transit networks also increased mobility and connected towns together facilitating the expansion of development. Significant losses of urban tree canopy cover and the loss of water storage capacity in soils compounded issues, dramatically increasing effective imperviousness. From 1940 - 1960 concerns over polluted waterways resulted in the re-routing of sewage networks from streams to treatment facilities, decreasing sewage subsidies to effective imperviousness. However, connection of stormwater drainage networks to sewage infrastructure designed for earlier flow regimes and the increasing effective imperviousness resulted in frequent overflows of sewage directly to local waterways. Currently, aging infrastructure presents the opportunity to incorporate low impact development techniques in infrastructure repair. This has the potential to reduce effective imperviousness in urban areas by re-establishing lost hydrologic flow paths. This research indicates imperviousness as a parameter incorporates a complicated mix of processes. Examining the causal, mechanistic links between these systems can provide additional perspective on water impairments in urban landscapes throughout the course of landscape evolution.

  10. Prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis for impervious surface mapping

    Zhang, Jinshui; He, Chunyang; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhu, Shuang; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2014-01-03

    In this study, we developed a prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis (PKSMA) to map impervious surfaces by using endmembers derived separately for high- and low-density urban regions. First, an urban area was categorized into high- and low-density urban areas, using a multi-step classification method. Next, in high-density urban areas that were assumed to have only vegetation and impervious surfaces (ISs), the Vegetation-Impervious model (V-I) was used in a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) with three endmembers: vegetation, high albedo, and low albedo. In low-density urban areas, the Vegetation-Impervious-Soil model (V-I-S) was used in an SMA analysis with four endmembers: high albedo, low albedo, soil, and vegetation. The fraction of IS with high and low albedo in each pixel was combined to produce the final IS map. The root mean-square error (RMSE) of the IS map produced using PKSMA was about 11.0%, compared to 14.52% using four-endmember SMA. Particularly in high-density urban areas, PKSMA (RMSE = 6.47%) showed better performance than four-endmember (15.91%). The results indicate that PKSMA can improve IS mapping compared to traditional SMA by using appropriately selected endmembers and is particularly strong in high-density urban areas.

  11. Performance of heterogeneous earthfill dams under earthquakes: optimal location of the impervious core

    S. Lpez-Querol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthfill dams are man-made geostructures which may be especially damaged by seismic loadings, because the soil skeleton they are made of suffers remarkable modifications in its mechanical properties, as well as changes of pore water pressure and flow of this water inside their pores, when subjected to vibrations. The most extreme situation is the dam failure due to soil liquefaction. Coupled finite element numerical codes are a useful tool to assess the safety of these dams. In this paper the application of a fully coupled numerical model, previously developed and validated by the authors, to a set of theoretical cross sections of earthfill dams with impervious core, is presented. All these dams are same height and have the same volume of impervious material at the core. The influence of the core location inside the dam on its response against seismic loading is numerically explored. The dams are designed as strictly stable under static loads. As a result of this research, a design recommendation on the location of the impervious core is obtained for this type of earth dams, on the basis of the criteria of minor liquefaction risk, minor soil degradation during the earthquake and minor crest settlement.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Percent Impervious for the Conterminous United States

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset shows the percentage of Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit hydrologic unit (HUC) that is classified as impervious by the 2006 National Land...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Impervious Proximity Gradient

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency In any given 1-square meter point in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the value shown gives the percentage of impervious surface within 1 square kilometer centered over...

  18. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska 201301 TIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  19. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010),...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii 201301 TIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  1. Remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces for pluvial flood modelling

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Drews, Martin

    This paper investigates the accuracy of medium resolution (MR) satellite imagery in estimating impervious surfaces for European cities at the detail required for pluvial flood modelling. Using remote sensing techniques enables precise and systematic quantification of the influence of the past 30...

  2. Commonality of rainfall variables influencing suspended solids concentrations in storm runoff from three different urban impervious surfaces

    Brodie, Ian M.; Dunn, Peter K.

    2010-06-01

    Finding a common set of rainfall variables to explain the concentration of suspended solids in runoff from typical urban impervious surfaces has many applications in stormwater planning. This paper describes a statistical process to identify key explanatory variables to non-coarse particle (suspended solids power and peak 6-min rainfall intensity raised to a positive power; the proportionality constant varies by surface type. The form of this common model has a physical basis and is analogous to the modified universal soil loss equation widely used for soil loss estimation for non-urban areas.

  3. How does imperviousness develop and affect runoff generation in an urbanizing watershed?

    Gerald Krebs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness associated with urbanization remains one of the biggest challenges in sustainable urban design. The replacement of forests, marshlands, buffers, and wetlands with impervious surfaces, strongly influences hydrological processes in urbanizing areas. This study analyzed the contribution of four constructed surfaces types – roofs, yards, roads, and an international airport – to surface runoff within a 21 km2 watershed, and presents the development over five decades (1977−2030. The land-cover model, used to assess watershed imperviousness in 2030, utilized coefficients between impervious areas generating surface runoff and the floor area, developed during the study. The conducted imperviousness analysis allowed the evaluation of land-use development impacts on the stream network, and the identification of hydrologically active areas for urban planning and stormwater management. Research revealed the importance of yard imperviousness related to suburban residential housing for stormwater runoff generation, and the impacts of transport-related imperviousness on stormwater runoff.

  4. Integrating seasonal optical and thermal infrared spectra to characterize urban impervious surfaces with extreme spectral complexity: a Shanghai case study

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Xinfeng; Ji, Minhe

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent rapid advancement in remote sensing technology, accurate mapping of the urban landscape in China still faces a great challenge due to unusually high spectral complexity in many big cities. Much of this complication comes from severe spectral confusion of impervious surfaces with polluted water bodies and bright bare soils. This paper proposes a two-step land cover decomposition method, which combines optical and thermal spectra from different seasons to cope with the issue of urban spectral complexity. First, a linear spectral mixture analysis was employed to generate fraction images for three preliminary endmembers (high albedo, low albedo, and vegetation). Seasonal change analysis on land surface temperature induced from thermal infrared spectra and coarse component fractions obtained from the first step was then used to reduce the confusion between impervious surfaces and nonimpervious materials. This method was tested with two-date Landsat multispectral data in Shanghai, one of China's megacities. The results showed that the method was capable of consistently estimating impervious surfaces in highly complex urban environments with an accuracy of R2 greater than 0.70 and both root mean square error and mean average error less than 0.20 for all test sites. This strategy seemed very promising for landscape mapping of complex urban areas.

  5. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    Ramakrishna Nemani; Budhendra Bhaduri; Cristina Milesi; Ara T. Howard; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Sutton, Paul C.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Elvidge, Christopher D.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density ofconstructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots,buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatialresolution is required to observe these features, the new product reports the estimateddensity of ISA on a one-km2 grid based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA – thebrightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. T...

  6. Effect of impervious area estimation methods on simulated peak discharges

    Kargar, M.; He, Y.; Beighley, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    Knowing the percentage of a watershed covered with impervious area is critical for understanding its runoff characteristics and flooding potential. However, there are several available methods for estimating watershed imperviousness (IMP). The objective of this research is to understand the effect of the IMP estimation method on simulated flood frequency distribution. This research compares three common methods for estimating imperviousness: (1) directly measured from high-resolution aerial photographs, (2) derived from satellite imagery, and (3) estimated using lookup tables linking land use/land cover categories to IMP values. The HEC- HMS model is used to simulate rainfall-runoff and assess the effects of the estimated IMP on the flood frequency distribution for the Mission Creek Watershed in Santa Barbara, CA. The Mission Creek watershed drains 31 sq km and is approximately 55 percent developed. Basin-wide imperviousness ranges from 13 to 17 percent depending on the selected IMP estimation method. Results for each IMP estimation method are also presented for the sub-watershed (0.3 to 4.1 sq km) scales showing internal variations ranging from approximately +/- 15 percent IMP. The resulting impacts on the flood frequency distribution are highlighted using the 2- and 100-year flood discharges. Preliminary results show the effects of IMP variation are greatest for the 2-year flood and decrease with increasing return period. Simulation results are used to identify the range of IMP values where the estimation method is most influential on simulated flood discharges. A secondary finding is the identification of specific land use/land cover categories having the greatest variability in estimated IMP.

  7. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    Ramakrishna Nemani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density ofconstructed impervious surface area (ISA. Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots,buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatialresolution is required to observe these features, the new product reports the estimateddensity of ISA on a one-km2 grid based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA – thebrightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The model wascalibrated using 30-meter resolution ISA of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey.Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights andreference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States landarea is impervious surface (83,337 km2 and 0.43 % of the world’s land surface (579,703km2 is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country(87,182 km2, but has only 67 m2 of ISA per person, compared to 297 m2 per person in theUSA. The distribution of ISA in the world’s primary drainage basins indicates that watersheds damaged by ISA are primarily concentrated in the USA, Europe, Japan, China and India. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  8. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    Per Skougaard Kaspersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Impervious surfaces (IS are a key indicator of environmental quality, and mapping of urban IS is important for a wide range of applications including hydrological modelling, water management, urban and environmental planning and urban climate studies. This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of vegetation indices (VI, from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas at different locations in Europe. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI are converted to IS fractions using a regression modelling approach. Also, NDVI is used to estimate fractional vegetation cover (FR, and consequently IS fractions. All three indices provide fairly accurate estimates (MAEs ≈ 10%, MBE’s < 2% of sub-pixel imperviousness, and are found to be applicable for cities with dissimilar climatic and vegetative conditions. The VI/IS relationship across cities is examined by quantifying the MAEs and MBEs between all combinations of models and urban areas. Also, regional regression models are developed by compiling data from multiple cities to examine the potential for developing and applying a single regression model to estimate IS fractions for numerous urban areas without reducing the accuracy considerably. Our findings indicate that the models can be applied broadly for multiple urban areas, and that the accuracy is reduced only marginally by applying the regional models. SAVI is identified as a superior index for the development of regional quantification models. The findings of this study highlight that IS fractions, and spatiotemporal changes herein, can be mapped by use of simple regression models based on VIs from remote sensors, and that the method presented enables simple, accurate and resource efficient quantification of IS.

  9. EFFECT OF BROKEN IMPERVIOUS IRON LAYER ON WATER AVAILABILITY TO SEMI-ARID NORTHERN GHANAIAN FERRIC LIXISOLS

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater is not readily available to sandy loam Ghanaian ferric lixisols. In an attempt to increase water availability to Nyankpala ferric lixisols, their impervious iron pan was broken. Average yield (number of bags of maize from ferric lexisol with ironpan broken was compared with that with iron pan unbroken. At an average annual rainfall of 64.125 to 106.775 mm for Nyampkala, ferric lexisol with or without iron pan broken yielded similar quantity (20-25bgs/ha of maize. Breaking of ironpan alone cannot increase water availability to Nyankpala ferric lixisols. Measures other than the breaking of iron pan are needed to increase water availability to ferreiclesisols and similar soils. Research into sustainable technologies such as permanent amendments for increased soil water availability to ferric lixisol and similar soils is required.

  10. Procedure to detect impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (lidar) data

    Rodríguez-Cuenca, B.; Alonso-Rodríguez, M. C.; Domenech-Tofiño, E.; Valcárcel Sanz, N.; Delgado-Hernández, J.; Peces-Morera, Juan José; Arozarena-Villar, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The detection of impervious surfaces is an important issue in the study of urban and rural environments. Imperviousness refers to water's inability to pass through a surface. Although impervious surfaces represent a small percentage of the Earth's surface, knowledge of their locations is relevant to planning and managing human activities. Impervious structures are primarily manmade (e.g., roads and rooftops). Impervious surfaces are an environmental concern because many processes that modify the normal function of land, air, and water resources are initiated during their construction. This paper presents a novel method of identifying impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The inputs for the procedure are SPOT images formed by four spectral bands (corresponding to red, green, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths), a digital terrain model, and an .las file. The proposed method computes five decision indexes from the input data to classify the studied area into two categories: impervious (subdivided into buildings and roads) and non-impervious surfaces. The impervious class is divided into two subclasses because the elements forming this category (mainly roads and rooftops) have different spectral and height properties, and it is difficult to combine these elements into one group. The classification is conducted using a decision tree procedure. For every decision index, a threshold is set for which every surface is considered impervious or non-impervious. The proposed method has been applied to four different regions located in the north, center, and south of Spain, providing satisfactory results for every dataset.

  11. Rationale for the use of protective gaskets made of geotextiles and permeability evaluation of impervious coatings made of geomembranes

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design rationale for the use of protective pads of geotextiles and geomembranes permeability of PD using these pads. In order to justify the use of protective pads made of geotextile for reducing the defectiveness geomembrane soil fractions, the existing formulas to determine the thickness of the film element of impervious devices were examined. The calculations according to the formulas show that HDPE geomembrane with a minimum thickness of 1,0 mm, the protective lining of the geotextile should be applied at the average diameter fractions of soil of more than 6,5 mm, and for geomembranes HDPE - at a diameter of soil fractions of over 15,5 mm. In order to estimate the permeability of the TFG geomembrane using additional protective linings of geotextile in the scientific article the basic design schemes of such coatings with one and two layers of protective linings of geotextiles were considered. The evaluation results of water permeability of impervious surfaces with geotextile and for comparison - without geotextiles are given in a table. As it is shown by the data presented for the design scheme with a single layer of geotextile geomembrane at the base (in the presence of small holes in the geomembrane the decrease the effectiveness of an anti-covering is more than 268,0 %, and for the settlement scheme covering with two layers of geotextile there will be a very large reduction in the efficiency, which almost completely reduces the effectiveness of the coating to the value of the geomembrane permeability of a soil layer without geomembrane with the filtration flow rate of 71,75 m /day, against water permeability of the geomembrane cover - 38,52 m /day. From the foregoing, it can be concluded that the application of a coating design of well filtering gaskets made of geotextile is justified in terms of protecting the geomembrane from mechanical damage, but greatly reduces the effectiveness of impervious cover in case of its damage.

  12. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This map layer contains impervious surface data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The...

  13. A study of selected textural features usefulness for impervious surface coverage estimation using Landsat images

    Bernat, Katarzyna; Drzewiecki, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our research was to evaluate the applicability of textural measures for sub-pixel impervious surfaces estimation using Landsat TM images based on machine learning algorithms. We put the particular focus on determining usefulness of five textural features groups in respect to pixel- and sub-pixel level. However, the two-stage approach to impervious surfaces coverage estimation was also tested. We compared the accuracy of impervious surfaces estimation using spectral bands only with results of imperviousness index estimation based on extended classification features sets (spectral band values supplemented with measures derived from various textural characteristics groups). Impervious surfaces coverage estimation was done using decision and regression trees based on C5.0 and Cubist algorithms. At the stage of classification the research area was divided into two categories: i) completely permeable (imperviousness index less than 1%) and ii) fully or partially impervious areas. At the stage of sub-pixel classification evaluation of percentage impervious surfaces coverage within single pixel was done. Based on the results of cross-validation, we selected the approaches guaranteeing the lowest means errors in terms of training set. Accuracy of the imperviousness index estimation was checked based on validation data set. The average error of hard classification using spectral features only was 6.5% and about 4.4% for spectral features combining with absolute gradient-based characteristics. The root mean square error (RMSE) of determination of the percentage impervious surfaces coverage within a single pixel was equal to 9.46% for the best tested classification features sets. The two-stage procedure was utilized for the primary approach involving spectral bands as the classification features set and for the approach guaranteeing the best accuracy for classification and regression stage. The results have shown that inclusion of textural measures into classification features can improve the estimation of imperviousness based on Landsat imagery. However, it seems that in our study this is mainly due higher accuracy of hard classification used for masking out the completely permeable pixels.

  14. Extracting information on urban impervious surface from GF-1 data in Tianjin City of China

    Li, Bin; Meng, Qingyan; Wu, Jun; Gu, Xingfa

    2015-09-01

    The urban impervious surface, an important part in the city system, has a great influence on theecologicalenvironment in urban areas. The coverage of it is an important indicator for the evaluation ofurbanization. TheRemotesensing data has prominent features such as information-rich and accurate and it can provide data basis for large area extraction of impervious surface. GF-1 satellite is the first satellite of high-resolution earth observation system in China. With the homemade GF-1 satellite remote sensing image date as a resolution, this research, by the combination of V-I-S model and linear spectral mixture model, has first made estimation on the impervious surface of Tianjin City and then employed the remote sensingimage date with high resolution to test the precision of the estimated results. The results not only show that this method will make high precision available, but also reveal that Tianjin City has a wide coverage of impervious surface in general level, especially a high coverage rate both in the center and the coastal areas. The average coverage of impervious surface of the Tianjin city is very high and the coverage of impervious surface in the center and the coastal areas of Tianjin city reach seventy percent.City managers can use these data to guide city management and city planning.

  15. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Urban impervious surface information extracting and its eco-environment effect analysis

    Gao, Zhihong; Wu, Naiming

    2015-12-01

    Urban impervious surface is not only a major indicator of urbanization but also a key factor for environmental quality evaluation. NDISI is applied for enhancing and extracting impervious surface information in this study. NDVI derived from measurements of the optical imagery reflectance of sunlight in the red and near-infrared wavelengths, can reveal the vegetation cover condition. LST plays an important role in energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to extract the urban impervious surface information and its eco-envionment effect. Experiment results indicate that NDISI is effective and easy-to-use. And the correlation coefficient among NDISI, NDVI and LST are -0.82, 0.95 and -0.7. Combined with the field survey meteorological site data, this study reveals that the urban impervious surface area has a strong positive exponential relationship with the LST. This suggests that the areas with high NDISI value will accelerate the increase in LST much more than the areas with low NDISI value. And urban impervious surface area is the most important factor contributing to the development of the UHI while vegetation cover (high NDVI area) can significantly reduce the LST.

  17. Synergistic using medium-resolution and high-resolution remote sensing imagery to extract impervious surface for Dianci Basin

    The knowledge of impervious surfaces, especially the magnitude, location, geometry, spatial pattern of impervious surfaces, is significant to urban ecosystem studies, including urban hydrology, urban climate, land use planning and resource management.Impervious surface area (ISA) is considered a key indicator of environmental quality and can be used to address complex urban environmental issues, particularly those related to the health of urban watersheds. ISA is also an indicator of non-point source pollution or polluted runoff. Remote sensing offers a consistent framework for representing spatial patterns and rates of urbanization over time through accurate observations of impervious surface area. Most of the existing methods of extracting impervious surface based on remote sensing concentrate on an urban scale, but the rapid and accurate methods of extracting impervious surfaces in a basin scale are nearly nonexistent in China and abroad. In recent years,with the rapid urbanization especially surrounding the Dianchi water body, the impervious surface coverage rate also grows rapidly and results in severe degradation of basin water environment within Dianchi watershed. In this study, we developed an approach to extract impervious surface for Dianci Basin by synergistic using medium-resolution and high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Subpixel percent impervious surfaces at Thematic Mapper (TM) images were mapped using the classification and regression tree(CART) algorithm. Sub-pixel impervious surfaces at 30m resolution were mapped in this study area through regression tree models. The estimated ISA results were evaluated through independent ISA reference data derived from high resolution QuickBird. The results prove the suitability of the approach for a widely automated and mapping of impervious surfaces in a basin scale

  18. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Landsat Global Land Survey Data

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R. E.; Tan, B.; Tilton, J.; Smith, S.; Phillips, J.; Wang, P.; Ling, P.; Zhan, J.; Xu, X.; Taylor, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (~2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified archive of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA). For each continental area several million training pixels are derived by analysts using image segmentation algorithms and tools and then aggregated to the 30m resolution of Landsat. Here we will discuss the production/testing of this massive data set for Europe, North and South America and Africa, including assessments of the 2010 surface reflectance data. This type of analysis is only possible because of the availability of long term 30m data sets from GLS and shows much promise for integration of Landsat 8 data in the future.

  19. Urban percent impervious surface and its relationship with land surface temperature in Yantai City, China

    This study investigated percent impervious surface area (PISA) extracted by a four-endmember normalized spectral mixture analysis (NSMA) method and evaluated the reliability of PISA as an indicator of land surface temperature (LST). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for Yantai city, eastern China obtained from USGS were used as the main data source. The results demonstrated that four-endmember NSMA method performed better than the typical three-endmember one, and there was a strong linear relationship between LST and PISA for the two images, which suggest percent impervious surface area provides an alternative parameter for analyzing LST quantitatively in urban areas

  20. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001, (LaMotte and Wieczorek,...

  1. A comparative study of Landsat TM and RapidEye imagery for two-stage impervious surface coverage estimation

    Bernat, Katarzyna; Drzewiecki, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents accuracy comparison of sub-pixel classification based on medium resolution Landsat data and high resolution RapidEye satellite images, performed using machine learning algorithms built on decision and regression trees method (C.5.0 and Cubist). The research was conducted in southern Poland for the catchment of the Dobczyce Reservoir. The aim of the study was to obtain image of percentage impervious surface coverage and assess which data sets can be more applicable for the purpose of impervious surface coverage estimation. Imperviousness index map generation was a two-stage procedure. The first step was classification, which divided the study area into two categories: a) completely permeable (imperviousness index less than 1%) and b) fully or partially impervious areas. For pixels classified as impervious, the percentage of impervious surface coverage within a single pixel was estimated. Decision and regression trees models construction was done based on training data set derived from Landsat TM pixels as well as for fragments of RapidEye images corresponding to the same Landsat TM training pixels. In order to obtain imperviousness index maps with the minimum possible error we did the estimation of models accuracy based on the results of cross-validation. The approaches guaranteeing the lowest means errors in terms of training set using C5.0 and Cubist algorithm for Landsat and RapidEye images were selected. Accuracy of the final imperviousness index maps was checked based on validation data sets. The root mean square error of determination of the percentage of the impervious surfaces within a single Landsat pixel was 9.9% for C.5.0/Cubist method. However, the root mean square error specified for RapidEye test data was 7.2%. The study has shown that better results of two-stage imperiousness index map estimation using RapidEye satellite images can be obtained.

  2. Evaluating the Accuracy of Common Runoff Estimation Methods for New Impervious Hot-Mix Asphalt

    Accurately predicting runoff volume from impervious surfaces for water quality design events (e.g., 25.4 mm) is important for sizing green infrastructure stormwater control measures to meet water quality and infiltration design targets. The objective of this research was to quan...

  3. Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the conterminous US

    P. V. Caldwell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are essential to aquatic ecosystem and societal sustainability, but are increasingly impacted by water withdrawals, land-use change, and climate change. The relative and cumulative effects of these stressors on continental river flows are relatively unknown. In this study, we used an integrated water balance and flow routing model to evaluate the impacts of impervious cover and water withdrawal on river flow across the conterminous US at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC watershed scale. We then estimated the impacts of projected change in withdrawals, impervious cover, and climate under the B1 "Low" and A2 "High" emission scenarios on river flows by 2060. Our results suggest that compared to no impervious cover, 2010 levels of impervious cover increased river flows by 9.9% on average with larger impacts in and downstream of major metropolitan areas. In contrast, compared to no water withdrawals, 2005 withdrawals decreased river flows by 1.4% on average with larger impacts in heavily irrigated arid regions of Western US. By 2060, impacts of climate change were predicted to overwhelm the potential gain in river flow due to future changes in impervious cover and add to the potential reduction in river flows from withdrawals, decreasing mean annual river flows from 2010 levels by 16% on average. However, increases in impervious cover by 2060 may offset the impact of climate change during the growing season in some watersheds. Large water withdrawals will aggravate the predicted impact of climate change on river flows, particularly in the Western US. Predicted ecohydrological impacts of land cover, water withdrawal, and climate change will likely include alteration of the terrestrial water balance, stream channel habitat, riparian and aquatic community structure in snow-dominated basins, and fish and mussel extirpations in heavily impacted watersheds. These changes may also require new infrastructure to support increasing anthropogenic demand for water, relocation of agricultural production, and/or water conservation measures. Given that the impacts of land use, withdrawals and climate may be either additive or offsetting in different magnitudes, integrated and spatially explicit modeling and management approaches are necessary to effectively manage water resources for aquatic life and human use in the face of global change.

  4. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    Per Skougaard Kaspersen; Rasmus Fensholt; Martin Drews

    2015-01-01

    Impervious surfaces (IS) are a key indicator of environmental quality, and mapping of urban IS is important for a wide range of applications including hydrological modelling, water management, urban and environmental planning and urban climate studies. This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of vegetation indices (VI), from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas a...

  5. Cutaneous Heat Loss with Three Surgical Drapes, One Impervious to Moisture

    Maglinger, Paul E.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Lenhardt, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    A new surgical drape, which is impervious to moisture, presumably reduces evaporative heat loss. We compared cutaneous heat loss and skin temperature in volunteers covered with this drape to two conventional surgical drapes (Large Surgical Drape and Medline Proxima). With IRB approval and informed consent, we calculated cutaneous heat loss and skin-surface temperatures from 15 area-weighted thermal flux transducers in 8 volunteers. In random order, each of the drapes was evaluated with dry tr...

  6. Loss of Arc renders the visual cortex impervious to the effects of sensory experience or deprivation

    McCurry, Cortina L.; Jason D Shepherd; Tropea, Daniela; Wang, Kuan H.; Bear, Mark F.; Sur, Mriganka

    2010-01-01

    A myriad of mechanisms are suggested to account for the full richness of visual cortical plasticity. We report that visual cortex lacking Arc is impervious to the effects of deprivation or experience. Using intrinsic signal imaging and chronic visually evoked potential recordings, we find that Arc−/− mice do not exhibit depression of deprived eye responses or a shift in ocular dominance after brief monocular deprivation. Extended deprivation also fails to elicit a shift in ocular dominance or...

  7. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 1, Northwest United States: IMPV01_1

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  8. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 2, Northeast United States: IMPV01_2

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  9. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 3, Southwest United States: IMPV01_3

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  10. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of the Conterminous United States 201301 TIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This map layer contains impervious surface data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The...

  11. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 4, Southeast United States: IMPV01_4

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into...

  12. Remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces for hydrological modelling of changes in flood risk during high-intensity rainfall events

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of medium resolution (MR) remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces (IS) for urban land cover change analysis. Landsat-based vegetation indices (VI) are found to provide fairly accurate measurements of sub-pixel imperviousness for urban ar......, including the importance of such changes for the exposure of cities towards the occurrence and impacts of climate extremes like high-intensity rainfall events....... areas at different geographical locations within Europe, and to be applicable for cities with diverse morphologies and dissimilar climatic and vegetative conditions. Detailed data on urban land cover changes can be used to examine the diverse environmental impacts of past and present urbanisation......This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of medium resolution (MR) remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces (IS) for urban land cover change analysis. Landsat-based vegetation indices (VI) are found to provide fairly accurate measurements of sub-pixel imperviousness for urban...

  13. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  14. SSUIS - a research model for predicting suspended solids loads in stormwater runoff from urban impervious surfaces.

    Brodie, Ian M

    2012-01-01

    Suspended solids from urban impervious surfaces (SSUIS) is a spreadsheet-based model that predicts the mass loading of suspended solids (SS) in stormwater runoff generated from impervious urban surfaces. The model is intended to be a research tool and incorporates several particle accumulation and washoff processes. Development of SSUIS is based on interpretation of storm event data obtained from a galvanised iron roof, a concrete car park and a bitumen road located in Toowoomba, Australia. SSUIS is a source area model that tracks the particle mass balance on the impervious surface and within its lateral drain to a point of discharge. Particles are separated into two groups: free and detained, depending on the rainfall energy required for surface washoff. Calibration and verification of SSUIS against the Toowoomba SS data yielded R(2) values ranging from 0.60 to 0.98. Parameter sensitivity analysis and an example of how SSUIS can be applied to predict the treatment efficiency of a grass swale are also provided. PMID:22643408

  15. Influence of Vegetation, Impervious Surface and Water Body on Land Thermal Fileld of Karst City

    HU Dao-sheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the impact of karst Guilin City rapid expansion on urban heat island effect, land surface temperature (LST, seven vegetation indexes (VI, percent impervious surface area (ISA and modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI were retrieved with model from TM image. After the influcence of temporal and spatial variation of vegetation, impervious surface and water body on land thermal field of karst city was studied. Results show that there is a significant negative linear relationship between LST and VI, so is between LST and MNDWI. Howerver, the relationship between LST and ISA shows significant positive linear. From 1989 to 2006, the medium and high vegetation covered area of NDVI>0.4 slashes from 76.89% to 32.65%, and the area without vegetation coverage of NDVI0.9 rises greatly from 12.1% to 32.1%.Those result in the high and sub-high surafce temperature areas rises from 7.9% to 15.9%, the low and sub-low surafce temperature areas drop substantially from 61.8% to 38.9%. Urban heat island effect markedly enhanced. Continuous large impervious surface area is one of the main factors contributing to urban heat island on karst city. But Vegetation on karst hills, urban forest and large water bodies such as rivers and lakes have very great impact on karst urban thermal environment and mitigate urban heat island.

  16. Annual dynamics of impervious surface in the Pearl River Delta, China, from 1988 to 2013, using time series Landsat imagery

    Zhang, Lei; Weng, Qihao

    2016-03-01

    Information on impervious surface distribution and dynamics is useful for understanding urbanization and its impacts on hydrological cycle, water management, surface energy balances, urban heat island, and biodiversity. Numerous methods have been developed and successfully applied to estimate impervious surfaces. Previous methods of impervious surface estimation mainly focused on the spectral differences between impervious surfaces and other land covers. Moreover, the accuracy of estimation from single or multi-temporal images was often limited by the mixed pixel problem in coarse- or medium-resolution imagery or by the intra-class spectral variability problem in high resolution imagery. Time series satellite imagery provides potential to resolve the above problems as well as the spectral confusion with similar surface characteristics due to phenological change, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term changes of vegetation. Since Landsat time series has a long record with an effective spatial resolution, this study aimed at estimating and mapping impervious surfaces by analyzing temporal spectral differences between impervious and pervious surfaces that were extracted from dense time series Landsat imagery. Specifically, this study developed an efficient method to extract annual impervious surfaces from time series Landsat data and applied it to the Pearl River Delta, southern China, from 1988 to 2013. The annual classification accuracy yielded from 71% to 91% for all classes, while the mapping accuracy of impervious surfaces ranged from 80.5% to 94.5%. Furthermore, it is found that the use of more than 50% of Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off images after 2003 did not substantially reduced annual classification accuracy, which ranged from 78% to 91%. It is also worthy to note that more than 80% of classification accuracies were achieved in both 2002 and 2010 despite of more than 40% of cloud cover detected in these two years. These results suggested that the proposed method was effective and efficient in mapping impervious surfaces and detecting impervious surface changes by using temporal spectral differences from dense time series Landsat imagery. The value of full sampling was revealed for enhancing temporal resolution and identifying temporal differences between impervious and pervious surfaces in time series analysis.

  17. Remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces for hydrological modelling of changes in flood risk during high-intensity rainfall events

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of medium resolution (MR) remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces (IS) for urban land cover change analysis. Landsat-based vegetation indices (VI) are found to provide fairly accurate measurements of sub-pixel imperviousness for urban areas at different geographical locations within Europe, and to be applicable for cities with diverse morphologies and dissimilar climatic and vegetative conditions. Detailed data on urban land cover ch...

  18. Determining Trends in Impervious Cover for the Mobile Bay, AL Region for 1974-2008, Based on a Landsat Time Series

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Smoot, James; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and use of Landsat-based impervious cover products in conjunction with land use land cover change products to assess multi-decadal urbanization across the Mobile Bay region at regional and watershed scales. This nationally important coastal region has undergone a variety of ephemeral and permanent land use land cover change since the mid-1970s, including gradual but consequential increases in urban surface cover. This urban sprawl corresponds with increased regional percent impervious cover. The region s coastal zone managers are concerned about the increasing percent impervious cover, since it can negatively influence water quality and is an important consideration for coastal conservation and restoration work. In response, we processed multi-temporal Landsat data to compute maps of percent impervious cover for multiple dates from 1974 through 2008, roughly at 5-year intervals. Each year of product was classified using one single date of leaf-on and leaf-off Landsat data in conjunction with Cubist software. We are assessing Landsat impervious cover product accuracy through comparisons to available reference data, including available NLCD impervious cover products from the USGS, raw Landsat data, plus higher spatial resolution aerial and satellite data. In particular, we are quantitatively comparing the 2008 Landsat impervious cover products to those from QuickBird 2.4-meter multispectral data. Initial visual comparisons with the QuickBird impervious cover product suggest that the 2008 Landsat product tends to underestimate impervious cover for high density urban areas and to overestimate impervious cover in established residential subdivisions mixed with forested cover. Landsat TM and ETM data appears to produce more accurate impervious cover products compared to those using lower resolution Landsat MSS data. Although imperfect, these Landsat impervious cover products have helped the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program visualize basic urbanization trends for multiple HUC-12 watersheds of concern to them and their constituents

  19. Enabling high-quality observations of surface imperviousness for water runoff modelling from unmanned aerial vehicles

    Tokarczyk, Piotr; Leitao, Joao Paulo; Rieckermann, Jörg; Schindler, Konrad; Blumensaat, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual sub-catchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we evaluate the model's channel flow prediction performance through a cross-comparison with reference flow measured at the catchment outlet. We show that imperviousness maps generated using UAV imagery processed with modern classification methods achieve accuracy comparable with standard, off-the-shelf aerial imagery. In the examined case study, we find that the different imperviousness maps only have a limited influence on modelled surface runoff and pipe flows. We conclude that UAV imagery represents a valuable alternative data source for urban drainage model applications due to the possibility to flexibly acquire up-to-date aerial images at a superior quality and a competitive price. Our analyses furthermore suggest that spatially more detailed urban drainage models can even better benefit from the full detail of UAV imagery.

  20. Synergistic use of optical and InSAR data for urban impervious surface mapping: A case study in Hong Kong

    Jiang, L.; Liao, M.; Lin, H.; Yang, L.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of urban ecosystem studies, including urban hydrology, urban climate, land use planning and watershed resource management, require accurate and up-to-date geospatial data of urban impervious surfaces. In this study, the potential of the synergistic use of optical and InSAR data in urban impervious surface mapping at the sub-pixel level was investigated. A case study in Hong Kong was conducted for this purpose by applying a classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm to SPOT 5 multispectral imagery and ERS-2 SAR data. Validated by reference data derived from high-resolution colour-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs, our results show that the addition of InSAR feature information can improve the estimation of impervious surface percentage (ISP) in comparison with using SPOT imagery alone. The improvement is especially notable in separating urban impervious surface from the vacant land/bare ground, which has been a difficult task in ISP modelling with optical remote sensing data. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential to map urban impervious surface by using InSAR data alone. This allows frequent monitoring of world's cities located in cloud-prone and rainy areas. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Soil

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  2. The impact of impervious water-storage parametrization on urban climate modelling

    Wouters, Hendrik; Demuzere, Matthias; De Ridder, Koen; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve the representation of the water balance in urban land-surface models, we present a new impervious water-storage parametrization that assumes a distribution of water reservoirs. It has been implemented in TERRA-URB, a new urban parametrization for COSMO-CLM's standard land-surface module TERRA-ML. The water-storage capacity and the maximal wet surface fraction of the urban impervious land cover consisting of streets and buildings are estimated for Toulouse centre by matching the modelled and observed evapotranspiration (ET) rates. They amount to 1.31 ± 0.20 kg m-2} and 12 ± 4%, respectively. The model successfully reproduces the timespan and magnitude of increased ET for both urban observations campaigns CAPITOUL and BUBBLE. Our sensitivity study reveals that water-storage parametrization largely affects the performance of modelled ET rates. Hereby, the simulation employing the new water-storage parametrization is improved compared to arbitrary or existing water-storage parametrizations. The ET, surface sensible heat exchange and upwelling infra-red radiation are all affected until 12 day-time hours after rainfall on average. The modelled annual-mean ET during the CAPITOUL campaign from the urban land in Toulouse is an order of magnitude lower than that observed for the natural surroundings.

  3. Mapping Impervious Surface Distribution with Integration of SNNP VIIRS-DNB and MODIS NDVI Data

    Wei Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Programs Operational Line-scan System are often used to map impervious surface area (ISA distribution at regional and global scales, but its coarse spatial resolution and data saturation produce high inaccuracy in ISA estimation. Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suites Day/Night Band (VIIRS-DNB with its high spatial resolution and dynamic data range may provide new insights but has not been fully examined in mapping ISA distribution. In this paper, a new variableLarge-scale Impervious Surface Index (LISIis proposed to integrate VIIRS-DNB and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data for mapping ISA distribution. A regression model was established, in which LISI was used as an independent variable and the reference ISA from Landsat images was a dependent variable. The results indicated a better estimation performance using LISI than using a single VIIRS-DNB or MODIS NDVI variable. The LISI-based approach provides accurate spatial patterns from high values in core urban areas to low values in rural areas, with an overall root mean squared error of 0.11. The LISI-based approach is recommended for fractional ISA estimation in a large area.

  4. Remote sensing of impervious surface growth: A framework for quantifying urban expansion and re-densification mechanisms

    Shahtahmassebi, Amir Reza; Song, Jie; Zheng, Qing; Blackburn, George Alan; Wang, Ke; Huang, Ling Yan; Pan, Yi; Moore, Nathan; Shahtahmassebi, Golnaz; Sadrabadi Haghighi, Reza; Deng, Jing Song

    2016-04-01

    A substantial body of literature has accumulated on the topic of using remotely sensed data to map impervious surfaces which are widely recognized as an important indicator of urbanization. However, the remote sensing of impervious surface growth has not been successfully addressed. This study proposes a new framework for deriving and summarizing urban expansion and re-densification using time series of impervious surface fractions (ISFs) derived from remotely sensed imagery. This approach integrates multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA), analysis of regression residuals, spatial statistics (Getis_Ord) and urban growth theories; hence, the framework is abbreviated as MRGU. The performance of MRGU was compared with commonly used change detection techniques in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. The results suggested that the ISF regression residuals were optimal for detecting impervious surface changes while Getis_Ord was effective for mapping hotspot regions in the regression residuals image. Moreover, the MRGU outputs agreed with the mechanisms proposed in several existing urban growth theories, but importantly the outputs enable the refinement of such models by explicitly accounting for the spatial distribution of both expansion and re-densification mechanisms. Based on Landsat data, the MRGU is somewhat restricted in its ability to measure re-densification in the urban core but this may be improved through the use of higher spatial resolution satellite imagery. The paper ends with an assessment of the present gaps in remote sensing of impervious surface growth and suggests some solutions. The application of impervious surface fractions in urban change detection is a stimulating new research idea which is driving future research with new models and algorithms.

  5. Soils

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  6. Effects of impervious pavements on reducing runoff in an arid urban catchment

    Epshtein, O.; Turnbull, L.; Earl, S.

    2011-12-01

    The progressive urbanization of US arid and semi-arid southwestern territories has transformed undeveloped aridlands into dynamic, radially expanding metropolitan centers. As these mature, infill development further reduces undeveloped area, inversely coupling surface imperviousness to infiltration rates, with a subsequent increase in runoff generation. Intensified runoff carries undesirable environmental consequences, magnifying urban flooding events and concentrations, transport, and propagation of contaminants. Pervious pavements offer one potential solution for decreased urban infiltration. At present, the application potential of pervious pavements as an effective urban infiltration management tool exceeds its exploitation. While entirely eliminating urban Total Impervious Area is not a feasible solution, pervious pavements significantly reduce Effective Impervious Area at costs competitive with traditional Best Management Practices. Previous research into pervious pavements has largely consisted of laboratory prototypes or small-scale field experiments, with a heavy bias towards parking lots. In this study we explore the effectiveness of pervious pavements in increasing infiltration, thus decreasing runoff volume during summer monsoonal and winter convective rainfall events in an 8 ha residential catchment in Scottsdale, Arizona. Analysis focuses on the interaction dynamics between surface area of pervious pavement application and its net effect on runoff response at the catchment level. Hydrological response was modeled using MAHLERAN (Model for Assessing Hillslope-Landscape Erosion, Runoff and Nutrients), a spatially explicit, event-based model, parameterized at a spatial resolution of 0.25 sq m. Data for model parameterization was obtained from analysis of aerial imagery and field-based monitoring of surface properties. The model was tested against measurements of flow at the catchment outlet for multiple rainfall events with total event rainfall ranging from 5 mm to 25 mm. Model testing shows total event discharge simulated well, although low Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for events indicate a poor fit between the shape and timing of the modeled and monitored hydrograph, which we attribute to poor characterization of friction factors in urban catchments. Scenario-based model analysis tested catchment response to substitution of pervious for conventional pavement by percent and pavement-function scenarios. Results are consistent with previous findings in that short duration-high intensity storms trigger threshold infiltration capacity, past which pervious pavement damping of runoff volume levels off, approaching conventional levels. However at the modeled catchment scale, this initial damping represents a significant reduction in volume, peak flow velocity, and contaminant loading potential. Urban surface drainage networks concentrate and channel flow along roads: the capacity of pervious pavements to simultaneously increase infiltration directly at location of greatest runoff and mitigate inflow effects from remote points has compelling potential as a hydrologic and urban systems engineering tool.

  7. Soil structural behaviour of flooded soils

    The objectives of this presentation are to: identify factors determining of the structural behaviour of flooded soils, as compared to those acting in upland soils; analyse the influence of reductive processes on aggregate stabilising agents; discuss mechanisms of structural deterioration and recovery during the flooding-drying cycle, on the basis of a case study: cattle trampling effects in the flooding Pampa of Argentina. Flooded soils, now known as Hydric soils, are characteristic of wetlands and irrigated fields cropped to rice (paddy soils). In them, water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year. Hydric soils belong to different taxa of the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map (2000). Fluvisols, Planosols and Gleysols are widespread distributed in the globe. The generation of redoximorphic features is due to different causes in each of them. Fluvisols are covered part of the year by surface water from river overflows; Planosols are soils having an impervious Bt horizon, supporting perched water during short periods; and Gleysols are soils affected by stagnant water tables during long periods

  8. High-quality observation of surface imperviousness for urban runoff modelling using UAV imagery

    Tokarczyk, P.; Leitao, J. P.; Rieckermann, J.; Schindler, K.; Blumensaat, F.

    2015-10-01

    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment, particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the catchment area as model input. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increases as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data are often unavailable. Modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) allow one to acquire high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility of deriving high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and of using this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is proposed and evaluated in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study (Lucerne, Switzerland), we compare imperviousness maps generated using a fixed-wing consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their overall accuracy, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyse the surface runoff of the 307 individual subcatchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and runoff volume. Finally, we evaluate the model's channel flow prediction performance through a cross-comparison with reference flow measured at the catchment outlet. We show that imperviousness maps generated from UAV images processed with modern classification methods achieve an accuracy comparable to standard, off-the-shelf aerial imagery. In the examined case study, we find that the different imperviousness maps only have a limited influence on predicted surface runoff and pipe flows, when traditional workflows are used. We expect that they will have a substantial influence when more detailed modelling approaches are employed to characterize land use and to predict surface runoff. We conclude that UAV imagery represents a valuable alternative data source for urban drainage model applications due to the possibility of flexibly acquiring up-to-date aerial images at a quality compared with off-the-shelf image products and a competitive price at the same time. We believe that in the future, urban drainage models representing a higher degree of spatial detail will fully benefit from the strengths of UAV imagery.

  9. Loss of Arc renders the visual cortex impervious to the effects of sensory experience or deprivation

    McCurry, Cortina L.; Shepherd, Jason D.; Tropea, Daniela; Wang, Kuan H.; Bear, Mark F.; Sur, Mriganka

    2010-01-01

    A myriad of mechanisms are suggested to account for the full richness of visual cortical plasticity. We report that visual cortex lacking Arc is impervious to the effects of deprivation or experience. Using intrinsic signal imaging and chronic visually evoked potential recordings, we find that Arc−/− mice do not exhibit depression of deprived eye responses or a shift in ocular dominance after brief monocular deprivation. Extended deprivation also fails to elicit a shift in ocular dominance or open eye potentiation. Moreover, Arc−/− mice lack stimulus–selective response potentiation. Although Arc−/− mice exhibit normal visual acuity, baseline ocular dominance is abnormal and resembles that observed after dark–rearing. These data suggest that Arc is required for the experience–dependent processes that normally establish and modify synaptic connections in visual cortex. PMID:20228806

  10. Assessing the impact of urbanization on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment using historical change in impervious cover

    Miller, James D.; Kim, Hyeonjun; Kjeldsen, Thomas R.; Packman, John; Grebby, Stephen; Dearden, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates changes in storm runoff resulting from the transformation of previously rural landscapes into peri-urban areas. Two adjacent catchments (∼5 km2) located within the town of Swindon in the United Kingdom were monitored during 2011 and 2012 providing continuous records of rainfall, runoff and actual evaporation. One catchment is highly urbanized and the other is a recently developed peri-urban area containing two distinct areas of drainage: one with mixed natural and storm drainage pathways, the other entirely storm drainage. Comparison of observed storm hydrographs showed that the degree of area serviced by storm drainage was a stronger determinant of storm runoff response than either impervious area or development type and that little distinction in hydrological response exists between urban and peri-urban developments of similar impervious cover when no significant hydraulic alteration is present. Historical levels of urbanization and impervious cover were mapped from the 1960s to the 2010s based on digitized historical topographic maps and were combined with a hydrological model to enable backcasting of the present day storm runoff response to that of the catchments in their earlier states. Results from the peri-urban catchment showed an increase in impervious cover from 11% in the 1960s to 44% in 2010s, and introduction of a large-scale storm drainage system in the early 2000s, was accompanied by a 50% reduction in the Muskingum routing parameter k, reducing the characteristic flood duration by over 50% while increasing peak flow by over 400%. Comparisons with changes in storm runoff response in the more urban area suggest that the relative increase in peak flows and reduction in flood duration and response time of a catchment is greatest at low levels of urbanization and that the introduction of storm water conveyance systems significantly increases the flashiness of storm runoff above that attributed to impervious area alone. This study demonstrates that careful consideration is required when using impervious cover data within hydrological models and when designing flood mitigation measures, particularly in peri-urban areas where a widespread loss in pervious surfaces and alteration of drainage pathways can significantly alter the storm runoff response. Recommendations include utilizing more refined urban land use typologies that can better represent physical alteration of hydrological pathways.

  11. Characterizing the spatial dynamics of land surface temperature-impervious surface fraction relationship

    Wang, Jiong; Qingming, Zhan; Guo, Huagui; Jin, Zhicheng

    2016-03-01

    The land surface temperature (LST) pattern is treated as one of the primary indications of environmental impacts of land cover change. Researchers continue to explore the potential contribution of land surface to temperature rising. The LST-land surface relationship is dynamic and varies spatially. Based upon the previous studies, this research assumes that such dynamics is manifested at two levels: (1) the phenomenon level, and (2) its formation mechanism level. The research presents a workflow of exploring such dynamics at both levels. The variogram of the phenomenon and multi-scale analysis of the LST-land surface relationship are mutually interpreted. In the case study of Wuhan, China, the variogram of the LST indicates that the operational scale of the phenomenon is 500-650 m. It suggests the optimal scale to inspect the LST and its cause in the study area. This finding is verified and further inspected through multi-scale analysis of the LST-Impervious Surface Fraction (ISF) relationship at the formation mechanism level. The research also employs the Spatial Autocorrelation model to show how the ISF impacts the LST through scales. A flexible autocorrelation weight matrix is proposed and implemented in the model. The parameters of the model exhibit the thermal sensitivity of land surface and again represent the scale features. The Ordinary Least Square regression is used as the benchmark. Several implications are discussed.

  12. Sub-Pixel Classification of MODIS EVI for Annual Mappings of Impervious Surface Areas

    Narumasa Tsutsumida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring of expanding impervious surfaces areas (ISAs in urban areas is highly desirable. MODIS data can meet this demand in terms of frequent observations but are lacking in spatial detail, leading to the mixed land cover problem when per-pixel classifications are applied. To overcome this issue, this research develops and applies a spatio-temporal sub-pixel model to estimate ISAs on an annual basis during 2001–2013 in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Indonesia. A Random Forest (RF regression inferred the ISA proportion from annual 23 values of MODIS MOD13Q1 EVI and reference data in which such proportion was visually allocated from very high-resolution images in Google Earth over time at randomly selected locations. Annual maps of ISA proportion were generated and showed an average increase of 30.65 km2/year over 13 years. For comparison, a series of RF per-pixel classifications were also developed from the same reference data using a Boolean class constructed from different thresholds of ISA proportion. Results from per-pixel models varied when such thresholds change, suggesting difficulty of estimation of actual ISAs. This research demonstrated the advantages of spatio-temporal sub-pixel analysis for annual ISAs mapping and addresses the problem associated with definitions of thresholds in per-pixel approaches.

  13. Long-range cross-correlation between urban impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua; Man, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The thermal effect of urban impervious surfaces (UIS) is a complex problem. It is thus necessary to study the relationship between UIS and land surface temperatures (LST) using complexity science theory and methods. This paper investigates the long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST with detrended cross-correlation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, utilizing data from downtown Shanghai, China. UIS estimates were obtained from linear spectral mixture analysis, and LST was retrieved through application of the mono-window algorithm, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data for 1997-2010. These results highlight a positive long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST across People's Square in Shanghai. LST has a long memory for a certain spatial range of UIS values, such that a large increment in UIS is likely to be followed by a large increment in LST. While the multifractal long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST was observed over a longer time period in the W-E direction (2002-2010) than in the N-S (2007-2010), these observed correlations show a weakening during the study period as urbanization increased.

  14. In vitro and in vivo characterization of an impervious polyester arterial prosthesis: the Gelseal Triaxial graft.

    Guidoin, R; Marceau, D; Rao, T J; King, M; Merhi, Y; Roy, P E; Martin, L; Duval, M

    1987-11-01

    Over the years, textile polyester arterial prostheses have acquired an excellent reputation for easy handling and good healing characteristics. Until recently, the main drawback in using them was the need for preclotting. This, however, is no longer true. Nonporous polyester grafts which have been coated with an impervious bioerodible layer during manufacture are now commercially available. The Gelseal Triaxial prosthesis is one of this new generation of grafts. It is manufactured by impregnating a Triaxial prosthesis with a gelatin coating. An in vivo and in vitro evaluation of this new device has found that its water permeability is almost zero. It has good handling and conformability characteristics, and its bursting strength is slightly greater than that of the uncoated prosthesis due, no doubt, to the presence of the gel. The rates of degradation of the gelatin coating have proven to be rapid under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. In fact, only a few traces of the gel were found remaining on the graft after 2 wk in the canine thoracic aorta. In addition, this study has demonstrated that the use of a bioerodible gelatin coating, with its ability to promote cellular regeneration, is a feasible approach with which to achieve earlier and more complete biological healing. PMID:3427141

  15. Understanding the effects of the impervious surfaces pattern on land surface temperature in an urban area

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that urban impervious surface (IS) has a warming effect on urban land surface temperature (LST). However, the influence of an IS's structure, components, and spatial distribution on LST has rarely been quantitatively studied within strictly urban areas. Using ETM+ remote sensing images from the downtown area of Shanghai, China in 2010, this study characterized and quantified the influence of the IS spatial pattern on LST by selecting the percent cover of each IS cover feature and ten configuration metrics. The IS fraction was estimated by linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA), and LST was retrieved using a mono-window algorithm. The results indicate that high fraction IS cover features account for the majority of the study area. The high fraction IS cover features are widely distributed and concentrated in groups, which is similar with that of high temperature zones. Both the percent composition and the configuration of IS cover features greatly affect the magnitude of LST, but the percent composition is a more important factor in determining LST than the configuration of those features. The significances and effects of the given configuration variables on LST vary greatly among IS cover features.

  16. Examining Urban Impervious Surface Distribution and Its Dynamic Change in Hangzhou Metropolis

    Longwei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of urban distribution and its expansion using remote sensing data has received increasing attention in the past three decades, but little research has examined spatial patterns of urban distribution and expansion with buffer zones in different directions. This research selected Hangzhou metropolis as a case study to analyze spatial patterns and dynamic changes based on time-series urban impervious surface area (ISA datasets. ISA was developed from Landsat imagery between 1991 and 2014 using a hybrid approach consisting of linear spectral mixture analysis, decision tree classifiers, and post-processing. The spatial patterns of ISA distribution and its dynamic changes in eight directions—east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest, north, and northeast—at the temporal scale were analyzed with a buffer zone-based approach. This research indicated that ISA can be extracted from Landsat imagery with both producer and user accuracies of over 90%. ISA in Hangzhou metropolis increased from 146 km2 in 1991 to 868 km2 in 2014. Annual ISA growth rates were between 15.6 km2 and 48.8 km2 with the lowest growth rate in 1994–2000 and the highest growth rate in 2005–2010. Urban ISA increase before 2000 was mainly due to infilling within the urban landscape, and, after 2005, due to urban expansion in the urban-rural interfaces. Urban expansion in this study area has different characteristics in various directions that are influenced by topographic factors and urban development policies.

  17. Long-range cross-correlation between urban impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua; Man, Wang

    2015-05-01

    The thermal effect of urban impervious surfaces (UIS) is a complex problem. It is thus necessary to study the relationship between UIS and land surface temperatures (LST) using complexity science theory and methods. This paper investigates the long-range crosscorrelation between UIS and LST with detrended crosscorrelation analysis and multifractal detrended crosscorrelation analysis, utilizing data from downtown Shanghai, China. UIS estimates were obtained from linear spectral mixture analysis, and LST was retrieved through application of the mono-window algorithm, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data for 1997-2010. These results highlight a positive long-range cross-correlation between UIS and LST across People's Square in Shanghai. LST has a long memory for a certain spatial range of UIS values, such that a large increment in UIS is likely to be followed by a large increment in LST. While the multifractal long-range crosscorrelation between UIS and LST was observed over a longer time period in the W-E direction (2002-2010) than in the N-S (2007-2010), these observed correlations show a weakening during the study period as urbanization increased.

  18. Build-up of toxic metals on the impervious surfaces of a commercial seaport.

    Ziyath, Abdul M; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-05-01

    In the context of increasing threats to the sensitive marine ecosystem by toxic metals, this study investigated the metal build-up on impervious surfaces specific to commercial seaports. The knowledge generated from this study will contribute to managing toxic metal pollution of the marine ecosystem. The study found that inter-modal operations and main access roadway had the highest loads followed by container storage and vehicle marshalling sites, while the quay line and short term storage areas had the lowest. Additionally, it was found that Cr, Al, Pb, Cu and Zn were predominantly attached to solids, while significant amount of Cu, Pb and Zn were found as nutrient complexes. As such, treatment options based on solids retention can be effective for some metal species, while ineffective for other species. Furthermore, Cu and Zn are more likely to become bioavailable in seawater due to their strong association with nutrients. Mathematical models to replicate the metal build-up process were also developed using experimental design approach and partial least squares regression. The models for Cr and Pb were found to be reliable, while those for Al, Zn and Cu were relatively less reliable, but could be employed for preliminary investigations. PMID:26866754

  19. Sub-Pixel Mapping of Tree Canopy, Impervious Surfaces, and Cropland in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS Time-Series Data

    This research examined sub-pixel land-cover classification performance for tree canopy, impervious surface, and cropland in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using both timeseries MODIS (MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation In...

  20. Subsoil Compaction: A hidden form of Soil Sealing in Europe

    JONES Robert J A; Montanarella, Luca

    2001-01-01

    There are two definitions of ‘soil sealing’: (I) ‘covering (sealing) the soil surface by impervious materials, e.g. concrete, metal, glass, tarmac and plastic’; and (II) ‘changing the nature of the soil such that it behaves as an impermeable medium, e.g. by compaction’. The main causes of soil sealing according to the first definition (I) are building development (e.g. industrial and residential premises) and transport (e.g. roads). Changing the nature of the soil such that it ...

  1. Application of MODIS Normalized Differential Vegetation Index for Local Land Use Indicators of Impervious Surface Areas

    Zell, E.; Weber, S.; Zewatsky, J.; Engel-Cox, J.

    2007-12-01

    Data derived from satellite measurements offer tremendous potential to contribute to environmental indicators broadly, and land cover/use indicators specifically, given satellite data's consistent, repetitive nature with broad spatial and temporal coverage. This study focuses on the translation of satellite data into meaningful measures that fit within the frame of environmental indicators used by policymakers, resources managers, and the general public. The study area encompasses the Greater Cincinnati Area (6,898 km2), a mid-sized city seeking to address sustainability in the context of urban change and growth. At the center of the study area is downtown Cincinnati in Hamilton County, with suburban areas extending into parts of the seven surrounding counties. Hamilton County staff are particularly interested in tracking impervious surface areas (ISAs) and forest cover as both have been shown to impact nearby water quality. The purpose of this study is to provide Hamilton County and other planning organizations with near real-time information on ISAs and forest cover through a simple, inexpensive methodology that leverages publicly available satellite data products. We obtained 250m resolution Normalized Differential Vegetation Indices (NDVI) data files derived from NASA MODIS (MOD13Q1) for 16-day periods in June/July of 2001-2006. NDVI is calculated based on transformations of the red (620-670 nm), near- infrared (841-876 nm), and blue (459-479 nm) bands designed to enhance the vegetation signal and allow for comparison in terrestrial photosynthetic activity. We examined multiple thresholds of NDVI to act as a surrogate for ISAs (low NDVI) and forest cover (high NDVI). We also calculated changes in NDVI throughout the study period and correlated large decreases in NDVI to known large developments. While this method has potential, further study is needed to ground truth the results, a process that is currently underway. In addition, calculation of NDVI with higher-resolution LANDSAT or ASTER data may improve the results.

  2. External geo-information in the segmentation of VHR imagery improves the detection of imperviousness in urban neighborhoods

    Verbeeck, Klaartje; Hermy, Martin; Van Orshoven, Jos

    2012-08-01

    Object-based image analysis (OBIA) has become an established way to detect imperviousness and other land cover classes from very high resolution (VHR) multispectral imagery. Data fusion with LiDAR derived digital surface models (DSM) and large scale vectorial datasets containing building footprints and road boundaries have the potential to significantly improve this method. However, the individual contribution of the large scale vectorial dataset remains unclear. In this paper, we studied the improvement of segmentation and classification results when including a vectorial dataset in the OBIA. Two slightly different segmentation methods making use of the vectorial dataset (boundary suggestion method and absolute boundary method) are compared with each other, with a per-pixel classification of the image and an OBIA segmentation without the input of a vectorial dataset. The performance of all four segmentation methods was assessed both for per-pixel image classification and for segmentation accuracy. The classification accuracy was highest for the segmentation method where the vectorial boundaries were absolute (overall accuracy 82%). However, the boundary suggestion method, where segments were smaller than the reference polygons, had the highest segmentation quality. Although differences between the two methods were clear, the differences with the results of the object-based analysis which did not use the vectorial dataset, were even larger. This indicates that the explicit inclusion of a large scale vectorial dataset is beneficial for the segmentation and classification of imperviousness in an urban environment.

  3. Study of the Permeability of Foam Conditioned Soils with Laboratory Tests

    Luca Borio; Daniele Peila

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: EPB tunneling requires that the excavated soil has a plastic and pulpy behavior to be able to apply a stabilizing pressure to the face, but it should also be impervious to counteract filtration forces that could develop ahead of the face. The evaluation of this parameter in granular soil, before and after conditioning, is therefore of key importance for a correct conditioning agents choice. Approach: A new laboratory procedure for testing the permeability of conditioned soi...

  4. Mapping Impervious Surface Expansion using Medium-resolution Satellite Image Time Series: A Case Study in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Gao, Feng; DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Ma, Ronghua; Weng, Qihao; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Chen, Jin; Pan, Yaozhong; Song, Conghe

    2012-01-01

    Cities have been expanding rapidly worldwide, especially over the past few decades. Mapping the dynamic expansion of impervious surface in both space and time is essential for an improved understanding of the urbanization process, land-cover and land-use change, and their impacts on the environment. Landsat and other medium-resolution satellites provide the necessary spatial details and temporal frequency for mapping impervious surface expansion over the past four decades. Since the US Geological Survey opened the historical record of the Landsat image archive for free access in 2008, the decades-old bottleneck of data limitation has gone. Remote-sensing scientists are now rich with data, and the challenge is how to make best use of this precious resource. In this article, we develop an efficient algorithm to map the continuous expansion of impervious surface using a time series of four decades of medium-resolution satellite images. The algorithm is based on a supervised classification of the time-series image stack using a decision tree. Each imerpervious class represents urbanization starting in a different image. The algorithm also allows us to remove inconsistent training samples because impervious expansion is not reversible during the study period. The objective is to extract a time series of complete and consistent impervious surface maps from a corresponding times series of images collected from multiple sensors, and with a minimal amount of image preprocessing effort. The approach was tested in the lower Yangtze River Delta region, one of the fastest urban growth areas in China. Results from nearly four decades of medium-resolution satellite data from the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) and China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) show a consistent urbanization process that is consistent with economic development plans and policies. The time-series impervious spatial extent maps derived from this study agree well with an existing urban extent polygon data set that was previously developed independently. The overall mapping accuracy was estimated at about 92.5% with 3% commission error and 12% omission error for the impervious type from all images regardless of image quality and initial spatial resolution.

  5. A Normalized Urban Areas Composite Index (NUACI) Based on Combination of DMSP-OLS and MODIS for Mapping Impervious Surface Area

    Xiaoping Liu,; Guohua Hu; Bin Ai; Xia Li; Qian Shi

    2015-01-01

    Mapping Impervious Surface Area (ISA) at regional and global scales has attracted increasing interest. DMSP-OLS nighttime light (NTL) data have proven to be successful for mapping urban land in large areas. However, the well-documented issues of pixel blooming and saturation limit the ability of DMSP-OLS data to provide accurate urban information. In this paper, a multi-source composition index is proposed to overcome the limitations of extracting urban land using only the NTL data. We combin...

  6. Extraction and Analysis of Impervious Surfaces Based on a Spectral Un-Mixing Method Using Pearl River Delta of China Landsat TM/ETM+ Imagery from 1998 to 2008

    Renrong Chen; Fenglei Fan; Yingbin Deng

    2012-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) is considered as an indicator of environment change and is regarded as an important input parameter for hydrological cycle simulation, water management and area pollution assessment. The Pearl River Delta (PRD), the 3rd most important economic district of China, is chosen in this paper to extract the ISA information based on Landsat images of 1998, 2003 and 2008 by using a linear spectral un-mixing method and to monitor impervious surface change by analyzing the ...

  7. Experimental research of soil erosion using laboratory rainfall simulator

    Laburda, Tomáš; Schwarzová, Pavla; Krása, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion has been an important part of research at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague since the 50s of the 20th century. Bigger emphasis was put later on practical methods resulting in acquisition of laboratory rainfall simulator in 1999. This article compares data from simulations done at the laboratory rainfall simulator which is used for experimental measurement of rainfall-runoff processes on soil samples (typical soil type groups) from agriculture land in the Czech Republic. Total 10 soil sets have been tested within 255 simulations (247 rainfall-runoff hours in total) from 2002 to 2014. These soil sets cover wide range of soil types from silty clay loam to sandy loam soils or from impervious to pervious soils. Setting values of rainfall intensity (40 to 60 mm/hr), inclination (longitudinal slope from 4° to 8°) and initial condition of surface runoff (crusted or loosened) present primary parameters of every experiment. On the basis of different combinations of setting, 2 representative evaluation states of the minimum (min LC) and maximum (max LC) load conditions were established. The most important data obtained at the Simulator are soil moisture content, progression of surface runoff, soil loss and infiltration. Results clearly show dependence of initial moisture content on physical properties, when impervious soils with high fraction of clay reach over 30 % wt., pervious soils with high fraction of sand achieve initial average moisture content only about 20 % wt. Results of steady-state values of surface runoff and soil loss for minimum and maximum load conditions and its ratio show that highest increase of values due to higher load conditions reach silt loamy soil (Horomerice), silt clay loamy soil (Klapy) and loamy soil (Vsetaty), while the lowest increase reach silt loamy soil (Trebsin I) and sandy loamy soil (Trebesice I). General trend in all cases is obviously to increase both values, but while the average values of surface runoff increased 2.1-times, in the case of soil loss steady state values increased even 5.6-times. During these 12 years of experimental research, large sets of data were collected and used for comparison of behaviour of different soils under extreme conditions and also as input parameters for recalibration of SMODERP (Simulation Model for Determination of Surface Runoff and Erosion Processes) which has been developed at the same departement since 1989. This research is supported by grant: SGS14/180/OHK1/3T/11 Rainfall-runoff, erosion and transport processes - experimental research.

  8. A Normalized Urban Areas Composite Index (NUACI Based on Combination of DMSP-OLS and MODIS for Mapping Impervious Surface Area

    Xiaoping Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping Impervious Surface Area (ISA at regional and global scales has attracted increasing interest. DMSP-OLS nighttime light (NTL data have proven to be successful for mapping urban land in large areas. However, the well-documented issues of pixel blooming and saturation limit the ability of DMSP-OLS data to provide accurate urban information. In this paper, a multi-source composition index is proposed to overcome the limitations of extracting urban land using only the NTL data. We combined three data sources (i.e., DMSP-OLS, MODSI EVI and NDWI to generate a new index called the Normalized Urban Areas Composite Index (NUACI. This index aims to quickly map impervious surface area at regional and global scales. Experimental results indicate that NUACI has the ability to reduce the pixel saturation of NTL and eliminate the blooming effect. With the reference data derived from Landsat TM/ETM+, regression models based on normalized DMSP-OLS, Human Settlement Index (HSI, vegetation adjusted NTL urban index (VANUI, and NUACI are then established to estimate ISA. Our assessments reveal that the NUACI-based regression model yields the highest performance. The NUACI-based regression models were then used to map ISA for China for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010 (Free download link for the ISA products can be found at the end of this paper.

  9. Toward a geoinformatics framework for understanding the social and biophysical influences on urban nutrient pollution due to residential impervious service connectivity

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Water sustainability has been recognized as a fundamental problem of science whose solution relies in part on high-performance computing. Stormwater management is a major concern of urban sustainability. Understanding interactions between urban landcover and stormwater nutrient pollution requires consideration of fine-scale residential stormwater management, which in turn requires high-resolution LIDAR and landcover data not provided through national spatial data infrastructure, as well as field observation at the household scale. The objectives of my research are twofold: (1) advance understanding of the relationship between residential stormwater management practices and the export of nutrient pollution from stormwater in urbanized ecosystems; and (2) improve the informatics workflows used in community ecohydrology modeling as applied to heterogeneous urbanized ecosystems. In support of these objectives, I present preliminary results from initial work to: (1) develop an ecohydrology workflow platform that automates data preparation while maintaining data provenance and model metadata to yield reproducible workflows and support model benchmarking; (2) perform field observation of existing patterns of residential rooftop impervious surface connectivity to stormwater networks; and (3) develop Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) models for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program); these models will be used to simulate nitrogen loading resulting from both baseline residential rooftop impervious connectivity and for disconnection scenarios (e.g. roof drainage to lawn v. engineered rain garden, upslope v. riparian). This research builds on work done as part of the NSF EarthCube Layered Architecture Concept Award where a RHESSys workflow is being implemented in an iRODS (integrated Rule-Oriented Data System) environment. Modeling the ecohydrology of urban ecosystems in a reliable and reproducible manner requires a flexible scientific workflow platform that allows rapid prototyping with large-scale spatial datasets and model refinement integrating expert knowledge with local datasets and household surveys.

  10. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS IMPERVIOUS in the North Pacific Ocean and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 08 July 1964 to 30 September 1964 (NODC Accession 6400360)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS IMPERVIOUS in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  11. Soil moisture dynamics and their effect on bioretention performance in Northeast Ohio

    Bush, S. A.; Jefferson, A.; Jarden, K.; Kinsman-Costello, L. E.; Grieser, J.

    2014-12-01

    Urban impervious surfaces lead to increases in stormwater runoff. Green infrastructure, like bioretention cells, is being used to mitigate negative impacts of runoff by disconnecting impervious surfaces from storm water systems and redirecting flow to decentralized treatment areas. While bioretention soil characteristics are carefully designed, little research is available on soil moisture dynamics within the cells and how these might relate to inter-storm variability in performance. Bioretentions have been installed along a residential street in Parma, Ohio to determine the impact of green infrastructure on the West Creek watershed, a 36 km2 subwatershed of the Cuyahoga River. Bioretentions were installed in two phases (Phase I in 2013 and Phase II in 2014); design and vegetation density vary slightly between the two phases. Our research focuses on characterizing soil moisture dynamics of multiple bioretentions and assessing their impact on stormwater runoff at the street scale. Soil moisture measurements were collected in transects for eight bioretentions over the course of one summer. Vegetation indices of canopy height, percent vegetative cover, species richness and NDVI were also measured. A flow meter in the storm drain at the end of the street measured storm sewer discharge. Precipitation was recorded from a meteorological station 2 km from the research site. Soil moisture increased in response to precipitation and decreased to relatively stable conditions within 3 days following a rain event. Phase II bioretentions exhibited greater soil moisture and less vegetation than Phase I bioretentions, though the relationship between soil moisture and vegetative cover is inconclusive for bioretentions constructed in the same phase. Data from five storms suggest that pre-event soil moisture does not control the runoff-to-rainfall ratio, which we use as a measure of bioretention performance. However, discharge data indicate that hydrograph characteristics, such as lag time and peak flow, are altered relative to a control street. This analysis suggests that street-scale implementation of bioretention can reduce the impact of impervious surface on stormflows, but more information is needed to fully understand how soil moisture of the bioretentions affects inter-storm variability in performance.

  12. Exploring the Influence of Impervious Surface Density and Shape on Urban Heat Islands in the Northeast USA Using MODIS and Landsat

    Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouri; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) signature and its relationship to settlement size and shape, development intensity distribution, and land cover composition for 42 urban settlements embedded in forest biomes in the Northeastern United States. Development intensity zones, based on percent ISA, are defined for each urban area emanating outward from the urban core to nearby rural areas and are used to stratify land surface temperature. The stratification is further constrained by biome type and elevation to insure objective intercomparisons between urban zones within an urban settlement and between settlements. Stratification based on ISA allows the definition of hierarchically ordered urban zones that are consistent across urban settlements and scales. In addition to the surrounding ecological context, we find that the settlement size and shape as well as the development intensity distribution significantly influence the amplitude of summer daytime UHI. Within the Northeastern US temperate broadleaf mixed forest, UHI magnitude is positively related to the logarithm of the urban area size. Our study indicates that for similar urban area sizes, the development intensity distribution is one of the major drivers of UHI. In addition to urban area size and development intensity distribution, this analysis shows that both the shape of the urban area and the land cover composition in the surrounding rural area play an important role in modulating the UHI magnitude in different urban settlements. Our results indicate that remotely sensed urban area size and shape as well as the development intensity distribution influence UHI amplitude across regional scales.

  13. How well can calibrated Thornthwaite Mather models predict the variability in soil moisture observed in green infrastructure facilities?

    Yu, Z.; Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Soil moisture patterns influence hydrologic fluxes (infiltration/percolation, evapotranspiration, runoff) as well the biogeochemical processes (nutrient transformations, redox potential, etc), and ecosystem functions and services that depend on them. A new generation of urban water management practices (e.g. green infrastructure technologies) alter soil moisture patterns in potentially dramatic ways, for example by retrofitting soil media into and onto formerly impervious surfaces, and/or by routing impervious surface runoff to vegetated areas. However, the hydrologic models typically used to predict the impact of these new practices rarely track the soil moisture state. In this study, we use the Thornthwaite Mather (T/M) approach to simulate the variability in soil moisture observed in green roofs and urban tree pits. Soil moisture was monitored continuously at hourly time steps using Decagon soil moisture probes installed at three different depths in a green roof (for six months) and in a tree pit (for two months). Tipping bucket precipitation gages were also installed on each site. T/M models were constructed for each system, and calibrated separately to each of three different weeks of observations by adjusting the porosity, field capacity, and wilting point, as well as the mathmatical form of the soil moisture decay function until the lowest possible standard error was achieved. We present the variability in the best fit hydrologic properties derived from the three separate calibration exercises for each system. We then use the models to generate soil moisture time series over the entire periods of observation, and use this validation exercise to discuss the potential usefullness of the T/M approach in urban green infrastructure studies.

  14. RNDSI: A ratio normalized difference soil index for remote sensing of urban/suburban environments

    Deng, Yingbin; Wu, Changshan; Li, Miao; Chen, Renrong

    2015-07-01

    Understanding land use land cover change (LULCC) is a prerequisite for urban planning and environment management. For LULCC studies in urban/suburban environments, the abundance and spatial distributions of bare soil are essential due to its biophysically different properties when compared to anthropologic materials. Soil, however, is very difficult to be identified using remote sensing technologies majorly due to its complex physical and chemical compositions, as well as the lack of a direct relationship between soil abundance and its spectral signatures. This paper presents an empirical approach to enhance soil information through developing the ratio normalized difference soil index (RNDSI). The first step involves the generation of random samples of three major land cover types, namely soil, impervious surface areas (ISAs), and vegetation. With spectral signatures of these samples, a normalized difference soil index (NDSI) was proposed using the combination of bands 7 and 2 of Landsat Thematic Mapper Image. Finally, a ratio index was developed to further highlight soil covers through dividing the NDSI by the first component of tasseled cap transformation (TC1). Qualitative (e.g., frequency histogram and box charts) and quantitative analyses (e.g., spectral discrimination index and classification accuracy) were adopted to examine the performance of the developed RNDSI. Analyses of results and comparative analyses with two other relevant indices, biophysical composition index (BCI) and enhanced built-up and bareness Index (EBBI), indicate that RNDSI is promising in separating soil from ISAs and vegetation, and can serve as an input to LULCC models.

  15. Soils - NRCS Web Soil Survey

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  16. Surface and Ground Water Regime in Biđ-field Soils

    Ivan Mustać

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine, through several-years stationary investigations, the water regime of soils in the Biđ-field district. Investigations were carried out during a three-year period (2001-2003 on 8,700 ha of agricultural areas. Detailed hydropedological investigations were done in 2000 and a soil map of the district (scale 1:10,000 was produced. Five pedosystematic units were detected: semigley, pseudogleyed, eugley hypogley, eugley amphigley, humogley, and drained soils. Based on three-year continuing monitoring of surface and ground waters the following main types of moistening of the soils were identifi ed: eugley-pseudogley, hypogley, amphigley and drained. Stochastic relation between the Sava and Biđ water levels and groundwater in the agrological profile of studied soils was determined by crosscorrelation with one decade shift s (c = 1. It was found that the ground waters in the profi les of studied soils communicate more intensively with the River Biđ water (r = 0.65-0.69 compared to the River Sava water (r = 0.23-0.69. This especially applies to ground water of hypogley soils, which cover 57% of the studied area. Marked vertical communication of ground water in the deep aquifer with water of the shallow soil aquifer was detected, indicating that the surface layer, mainly made up of silty clayey loams, is not impervious.

  17. Study of the Permeability of Foam Conditioned Soils with Laboratory Tests

    Luca Borio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: EPB tunneling requires that the excavated soil has a plastic and pulpy behavior to be able to apply a stabilizing pressure to the face, but it should also be impervious to counteract filtration forces that could develop ahead of the face. The evaluation of this parameter in granular soil, before and after conditioning, is therefore of key importance for a correct conditioning agents choice. Approach: A new laboratory procedure for testing the permeability of conditioned soil with foam has been proposed. The tests have been carried out at different hydraulic loads, chosen to be 0.1 bars and 1 bar. Results: The proposed procedure has been applied to determine the behavior of differently conditioned granular soils: a fluvial sand and a pozzolanic soil and has shown that an increasing of the FIR induces a relative increase in the time required by water to pass through a standard sample, emphasizing, in this way, the effectiveness of the conditioning on impermeability of the soil. Conclusion: The tests have shown the laboratory procedure adequately captures the behavior of the conditioned soil. Further, the proposed test may also be used as an index for the preliminary definition of the quality of the soil conditioning and suitability for EPB tunneling.

  18. Gully Growth Patterns and Soil Loss under Rainfall at Urban Underground Drainage Construction Site, Uyo

    O.E. Essien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, evaluated and modeled patterns of growth of gully morphometric dimension and soil loss volume under prevailing rainfall on the slopes of land graded for the construction of underground drainage at Uyo but delayed in completion. Land grading at underground (tunnel drainage construction site rendered the exposed surface very impervious but young ephemeral gullies developed due to delays in completion. Data on gully morphometric dimension, soil loss and depth of rainfall were analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 statistical package. Mean gully growth in length, width and depth were different at 2.54±0.86, 0.923±0.29 and 0.41±0.11 m, respectively, yielding 3.87±0.08 m2 as mean volume of soil loss at full stage. Cubic polynomial was best-fit model for growth in length (R2 = 79% and width (R2 = 69% using weekly rainfall for an annual season. All gully sites had constant depth change, better predicted by quadratic (R2 = 13% than linear (R2 = 9% functions. Mean volume of soil loss per unit rainfall amount varied with low, medium and high rainfall amount and was highest at slope bottom (33 cm3/cm and least at the crest (6.99 cm3/cm with R2 = 38-34%. Land grading to impervious sublayer produced constant depth change in all gullies at the sites. The models for morphometric incremental growth and soil loss volume under the rainfall effect was significantly improved (p<0.05 by bifurcating the lumped annual curve into two growth periods in a year: the periods for increasing rainfall (from week 10-30 and for receding rainfall (from week 31-43 in a year and applying quadratic regressing functions on each (R2 = 91-99%. Rainfall was the principal gully factor and construction delays should be avoided.

  19. Soil stabilization

    K. Subba Rao

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of soil stabilization has been reviewed. The various stabilizing agents and the different methods of soil stabilization have been considered. Soil stability is dependent on the two important properties of soils-cohesion and internal-friction. A proper adjustment of these two properties and also water proofing are the main lines of approach to the problem of soil stabilization

  20. Solarization soil

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  1. Soil Compactability

    Seig, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Subsoiling and deep loosening are widely used to alleviate soil compaction but little is known about the mechanics of the compaction process. Further information is required on the process that soil goes through during compaction, along with the effect on the amount of soil compaction of various tyre configurations. Such information will allow more confident recommendations to farmers on the suceptability of their soil to compaction. Experimental work was conducted whe...

  2. Extraction and Analysis of Impervious Surfaces Based on a Spectral Un-Mixing Method Using Pearl River Delta of China Landsat TM/ETM+ Imagery from 1998 to 2008

    Renrong Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impervious surface area (ISA is considered as an indicator of environment change and is regarded as an important input parameter for hydrological cycle simulation, water management and area pollution assessment. The Pearl River Delta (PRD, the 3rd most important economic district of China, is chosen in this paper to extract the ISA information based on Landsat images of 1998, 2003 and 2008 by using a linear spectral un-mixing method and to monitor impervious surface change by analyzing the multi-temporal Landsat-derived fractional impervious surface. Results of this study were as follows: (1 the area of ISA in the PRD increased 79.09% from 1998 to 2003 and 26.88% from 2003 to 2008 separately; (2 the spatial distribution of ISA was described according to the 1998/2003 percentage respectively. Most of middle and high percentage ISA was located in northwestern and southeastern of the whole delta, and middle percentage ISA was mainly located in the city interior, high percentage ISA was mainly located in the suburban around the city accordingly; (3 the expanding direction and trend of high percentage ISA was discussed in order to understand the change of urban in this delta; High percentage ISA moved from inner city to edge of urban area during 1998–2003 and moved to the suburban area that far from the urban area mixed with jumpily and gradually during 2003–2008. According to the discussion of high percentage ISA spatial expanded direction, it could be found out that high percentage ISA moved outward from the centre line of Pearl River of the whole delta while a high ISA percentage in both shores of the Pearl River Estuary moved toward the Pearl River; (4 combining the change of ISA with social conditions, the driving relationship was analyzed in detail. It was evident that ISA percentage change had a deep relationship with the economic development of this region in the past ten years. Contemporaneous major sport events (16th Asia Games of Guangzhou, 26th Summer Universidad of Shenzhen and the government policies also promoted the development of the ISA. Meanwhile, topographical features like the National Nature Reserve of China restricted and affected the expansion of the ISA. Above all, this paper attempted to extract ISA in a major region of the PRD; the temporal and spatial analyses to PRD ISA demonstrated the drastic changes in developed areas of China. These results were important and valuable for land use management, ecological protection and policy establishment.

  3. Applied satellite remote sensing to runoff analysis: Through the effective depth of soil layer

    The thickness of the soil layers in which tree roots are able to develop freely influences forest composition and growth. Trees growing in shallow soil are usually less well supplied with water and mineral nutrients than those growing in deeper soil. A soil may be deep in an absolute sense but, because of a relatively impervious layer, such as hardpan or because of a high water-table, may be shallow in a physiological sense. Penetrability measurements have been found useful in evaluating the influence of different forest types on the physical properties of soils. Commonly the penetrability of soils can be measured by using the Hasegawa-formed soil penetrometer and can be judged as the soil softness content (SSC). Previous studies report soil with more than 1.9 cm/drop of SSC to be highly permeable and therefore roots are more likely to be extensively developed. Based upon this theory the depth of soil layer with more than 1.9 cm/drop of SSC can be defined as the Effective Depth of Soil Layer (EDSL). We examined the relationship between the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and the EDSL and established a 'Runoff Simulation Model (RSM)' based upon the theory of the Storage Function Model method. The conclusions are that (1) a strong positive correlation between the RVI (ground measured) and the EDSL was given, (2) applying results of conclusion (1) to satellite analysis a similar correlation between the RVI (satellite analysis of JERS 1/OPS data) and the EDSL was observed and (3) the simulated storm-runoff hydro graph coincides with the observed one well

  4. Overland flow generation on deep soils in Ethiopia (Lake Tana basin): role of soil texture and plough pan

    Nyssen, Jan; Dessie, Mekete; Monsieurs, Elise; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Verhoest, Niko; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    Different applications of rainfall/runoff models in Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia) tend to show that on hill slopes there are vast areas that yield a high runoff response and that behave as if the soil would be nearly impervious (up to 20 % of the hilly catchments). This is well beyond the area occupied by rock outcrops. Duricrusts or hardpans of pedogenetic origin are absent in this environment on basaltic rock with mild tropical climate: no silcretes, calcretes or even ferricretes are known to occur in the basin. Field observations show that runoff response from tilled farmlands can however be unexpectedly high, even when deep theoretically well drained Nitisols occur. In the rainy season, rills and ephemeral gullies are created and these often expose a rock-hard plough pan at some 15 cm depth. Due to repeated tillage at constant depth, the downward pressure of the tip of the ox-drawn ard plough compacts the soil aggregates that are located just below the tilled horizon. In this poster we will discuss the need to not only evaluate the effect of soil texture when interpreting rainfall-runoff relations, but also to investigate the structural and hydrological characteristics of such plough pans.

  5. Soil friability

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used by...... scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  6. Soil proteomics

    Oonk, S.; Cappellini, Enrico; Collins, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, two sets of experiments were carried out to assess the potential of soil proteomics for archaeological site interpretation. First, we examined the effects of various protein isolation reagents and soil constituents on peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) of soil-like materials spiked...... with bovine serum albumin (BSA). In a subsequent case study, we assessed the relative age of soils from an ancient clay floor of a Roman farmhouse using amino acid racemization and then applied MALDI-TOF-MS-MS to detect and identify biomarkers for human occupation. The results from the first...... 2 and 3) are more susceptible to isolation than other regions and this suggest that soil proteins can be only partly isolated. Soil-protein interactions were also found to inhibit tryptic cleavage of BSA, resulting in an enhanced specificity of BSA peptides. Our results further stress the importance...

  7. Impacts of soil erosion

    Dorren, Luuk; De la Rosa, Diego; Theocharopoulos, Sid. P.

    2004-01-01

    3.1 Definition of soil functions, soil quality and quality targets The identification of soil functions, properties and processes which are affected by soil erosion is needed to evaluate the impacts of erosion on the soil system. Definition of soil loss tolerance according to soil types and environmental characteristics. 3.2 Development of criteria and indicators to assess soil sustainable use and soil protection measures What are the impacts of soil erosion on soil...

  8. Soil washing

    Disposal of soils or sludges contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds is a major problem for environmental remedial activities, hazardous waste generators, and the disposal industry. This paper reports that many of these wastes can be effectively treated utilizing soil washing technology. CWM has been developing soil washing technology over the past few years, with extensive work being conducted on the bench scale. These studies have demonstrated consistently high removal efficiencies (95-99%) for a wide variety of PCB and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste. Recently, a comprehensive study examining the removal of both organic and inorganic contraminants from two different types of surrogate soil matrices was completed. In addition to establishing the range of contaminants that can be removed from soil, a method for surfactant/water separation was evaluated. For example, using a thermal phase separation method, approximately 90% of the surfactant could be recovered from the water

  9. Soil biology for resilient healthy soil

    What is a resilient healthy soil? A resilient soil is capable of recovering or adapting to stress; the health of the living/biological component of the soil is crucial for soil resiliency. Soil health is tightly coupled to the concept of soil quality (Text Box 1) and the terms are frequently used ...

  10. SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

  11. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    The Iron Park Superfund site, North Billerica, Massachusetts, is located within a 553 acre operating industrial complex and railyard located approximately 20 miles northwest of Boston. Fifteen acres of this site are designated as the Wastewater Lagoon Area containing lagoons and materials previously dredged from those lagoons. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the Iron Horse Park facility on its National Priorities List in 1984, and a Remedial Investigation (RI) for the site as a whole began n 1985. In September 1988, responding to the presence of these site contaminants, the EPA issued the first Superfund Record of Decision (ROD) in EPA Region I that specified bioremediation as the remedial technology. Specifically, the EPA stipulated biological land treatment cell with an impervious lower liner. In this form of biotreatment, sludges and contaminated soil are placed in the cell in lifts (i.e. layers approximately one foot thick) and the lifts are frequently aerated by tilling while nutrients are applied at optimal levels to stimulate the degradation of organic contaminants by indigenous microorganisms. In its Administrative Order (September 1989), the EPA stipulated cleanup goals to be achieved, and required that a Predesign Evaluation be initiated to ascertain which soil/sludge piles would require treatment. The design and execution of this remediation-focused site evaluation by ENSR forms the subject of this paper

  12. Soil mechanics

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Bromwell, L. G.; Durgunoglu, H. T.; Hovland, H. J.; Treadwell, D. D.; Costes, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil on the Descartes slopes, and the Cayley Plains in the vicinity of the LM for Apollo 16. The soil mechanics data were derived form (1) crew commentary and debriefings, (2) television, (3) lunar surface photography, (4) performance data and observations of interactions between soil and lunar roving vehicle, (5) drive-tube and deep drill samples, (6) sample characteristics, and (7) measurements using the SRP. The general characteristics, stratigraphy and variability are described along with the core samples, penetrometer test results, density, porosity and strength.

  13. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J; de Vries, F. T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend on plant biodiversity and vice versa. Soil biota govern nutrient cycling and storage, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and turnover. Agriculture manipulates plants, soils and SOM. With intensific...

  14. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10-8 to 10-1 cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems

  15. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Williams, J.R. [Reclamation Technology, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    California Department of Resources — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  17. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  18. Physical properties as indicators of oil penetration in soils, contaminated with oil lakes in the Greater Burgan oil fields, Kuwait

    Measurements were made on 60 samples to determine the physical properties of the soil profiles contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields which include 80% of the Greater Burgan oil wells in southern Kuwait. The two soil profiles have similar saturation percentages, field capacities, wilting coefficients, low available water capacities due to statificiation and very low matric potential, and high bulk densities due to compaction by vehicle wheels. The fluviatile origin, relatively poor sorting and unstable structure of the Burgan soil layers have led to lower hydraulic conductivity and permeability, thereby restricting oil penetration mainly to the upper 25-45 cm layer. In contrast, the eolian origin, excellent sorting and stable structure of Al-Ahmadi soil layers have resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity and permeability, and hence allowed the spreading of oil over much greater depths (down to 150 cm). The very low values of the hydraulic conductivities and available water capacities of the zone(s) lying below the impervious Gatch (caliche) layer in the two soil profiles suggest that this layer could act as a moisture barrier impeding any further downward oil penetration. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Soil Stabilization Using Lime

    ANKIT SINGH NEGI; MOHAMMED FAIZAN; DEVASHISH PANDEY SIDDHARTH; REHANJOT SINGH

    2013-01-01

    Soil stabilization can be explained as the alteration of the soil properties by chemical or physical means in order to enhance the engineering quality of the soil . The main objectives of the soil stabilization is to increase the bearing capacity of the soil ,its resistance to weathering process and soil permeability. The long-term performance of any construction project depends on the soundness of the underlying soils. Unstable soils can create significant problems for pavements or structure...

  20. Soil microbiology

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  1. Soil Enzymes

    The functionality and resilience of natural and managed ecosystems mainly rely on the metabolic abilities of microbial communities, the main source of enzymes in soils. Enzyme mediated reactions are critical in the decomposition of organic matter, cycling of nutrients, and in the breakdown of herbic...

  2. Soil Nailing

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the Soil Nailing. Prior to the establishment of the Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) in 1977, there was very limited geotechnical control over the slope formation and virtually no monitoring over the existing slopes in Hong Kong. Since then, the government launched a major investigation and assessment project to catalogue all the slopes in the territory...

  3. Soils; 1 : 500 000

    Soil associations forming map units express representation of soil units in the territory of Slovakia. They present the dominance of the soil units in associations and some other elements, above all the soil-forming substrates and in abbreviated classification also the extreme soil textures (light to heavy). Genetically related units are classified into groups of soil associations. The map was made by generalisation of cartographic materials of all soil investigations and mapping made since 1960 to the present day. (authors)

  4. Influence of soil moisture on soil respiration

    Fer, Miroslav; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Klement, Ales; Jelenova, Klara

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe an impact of soil moisture on soil respiration. Study was performed on soil samples from morphologically diverse study site in loess region of Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The original soil type is Haplic Chernozem, which was due to erosion changed into Regosol (steep parts) and Colluvial soil (base slope and the tributary valley). Soil samples were collected from topsoils at 5 points of the selected elevation transect and also from the parent material (loess). Grab soil samples, undisturbed soil samples (small - 100 cm3, and large - 713 cm3) and undisturbed soil blocks were taken. Basic soil properties were determined on grab soil samples. Small undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. During experiments performed in greenhouse dry large undisturbed soil samples were wetted from below using a kaolin tank and cumulative water inflow due to capillary rise was measured. Simultaneously net CO2 exchange rate and net H2O exchange rate were measured using LCi-SD portable photosynthesis system with Soil Respiration Chamber. Numerical inversion of the measured cumulative capillary rise data using the HYDRUS-1D program was applied to modify selected soil hydraulic parameters for particular conditions and to simulate actual soil water distribution within each soil column in selected times. Undisturbed soil blocks were used to prepare thin soil sections to study soil-pore structure. Results for all soil samples showed that at the beginning of soil samples wetting the CO2 emission increased because of improving condition for microbes' activity. The maximum values were reached for soil column average soil water content between 0.10 and 0.15 cm3/cm3. Next CO2 emission decreased since the pore system starts filling by water (i.e. aggravated conditions for microbes, closing soil gas pathways etc.). In the case of H2O exchange rate, values increased with increasing soil water contents (up to 0.15-0.20 cm3/cm3) and then remained approximately constant. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic No. QJ1230319

  5. Soil Stabilization Using Lime

    ANKIT SINGH NEGI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization can be explained as the alteration of the soil properties by chemical or physical means in order to enhance the engineering quality of the soil . The main objectives of the soil stabilization is to increase the bearing capacity of the soil ,its resistance to weathering process and soil permeability. The long-term performance of any construction project depends on the soundness of the underlying soils. Unstable soils can create significant problems for pavements or structures, Therefore soil stabilization techniques are necessary to ensure the good stability of soil so that it can successfully sustain the load of the superstructure especially in case of soil which are highly active, also it saves a lot of time and millions of money when compared to the method of cutting out and replacing the unstable soil. This paper deals with the complete analysis of the improvement of soil properties and its stabilization using lime.

  6. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  7. Detailed Soils 24K

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  8. GeologicSoils_SOAG

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — GeologicSoils_SOAG includes a pre-selected subset of SSURGO soil data depicting prime agricultural soils in Vermont. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to the...

  9. In-situ determination of directional conductivities of soil

    Hydraulic conductivity K is a macroscopic parameter which depends on the properties of both the fluid as well as the porous matrix. Stratified soils are usually anisotropic in nature. In most soils, the water transmitting capacity in the horizontal direction is observed to be higher than the vertical conductivity. However, in many soils (e.g., loess), vertical joints, root holes and animal burrows make the vertical conductivity higher than the horizontal. Accurate estimations of the horizontal and the vertical conductivities of a soil medium in its natural water-saturated state is of considerable importance in obtaining rational solutions to drainage and other groundwater flow problems. This lecture will be mainly concerned with the development of a suitable auger hole seepage theory for the confined situation. The depth to the impervious layer, partial penetration of the auger hole, level of water in the auger hole, and confining pressure of the aquifer are taken, all distances being measured from the confining stratum. The saturated hydraulic conductivities of the soil in the horizontal and vertical directions are taken. Because of axial symmetry, we consider only one half of the flow domain for analysis located towards the right of the vertical axis passing through the origin O. For convenience, we take the z axis to be positive vertically downward and r axis to be positive towards the right. Further, in the analysis to follow, we assume the flow to be steady, the drawdown near the vicinity of the hole during one experimental cycle to be negligible the aquifer material and water to be incompressible and the principal directions of anisotropy of the aquifer to coincide with the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. In order to obtain solution to the problem, the hydraulic head functions must be determined such that the governing equations. If the entire computation is repeated (again by taking M = N = 100) by neglecting the confining pressure, i.e. t = 0, the K value now turns out to be 2.90 m/day. It can be observed that this value differs considerably from that of 0.96 m/day obtained by considering the confining pressure of the aquifer. As can be seen, an error of about 200% occurs for this flow situation due to neglect of this confining water head

  10. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  11. A parameter study of the two-phase ground water transport in the soil surrounding a growing hemispherical in situ vitrification melt

    Numerical simulation is used to test the effect of several parameters on the water balance and pressure field surrounding a growing hemispherical In Situ Vitrification (ISV) melt. In the current project, a hemispherical annulus of unsaturated soil contained between a growing melt and an impervious wall is modeled. Water vapor vents to atmospheric conditions. The soil is considered a porous media; consequently, fluid velocity can be modeled by Darcy's equation. The capillary pressure and relative permeability are modeled using the equations derived by van Genuchten. The computer model employs a grid which adapts to the transient boundary of the growing melt. The parameters considered include: initial liquid saturation, soil permeability, and melt growth rate. The combined effect of capillary pressure and permeability is also studied. The variation of these parameters in a Hanford soil are studied for their effect on pressure history at the melt interface and total liquid mass history. Transport of heat and mass in the soil is illustrated graphically in terms of the saturation and pressure fields as well as mass flux of liquid and vapor water

  12. Sorters for soil cleanup

    A soil sorter is a system with conveyor, radiation detectors, and a gate. The system activates the gate based on radiation measurements to sort soil to either clean or contaminated paths. Automatic soil sorters have been perfected for use in the cleanup of plutonium contaminated soil at Johnston Atoll. The cleanup processes soil through a plant which mines plutonium to make soil clean. Sorters at various locations in the plant effectively reduce the volume of soil for mining and they aid in assuring clean soil meets guidelines

  13. DEVELOPING WEED SUPPRESSIVE SOILS THROUGH IMPROVED SOIL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Sustainable agriculture is based in part on efficient management of soil microorganisms for improving soil quality. However, identification of biological indicators of soil quality for predicting weed suppression in soils has received little attention. We investigated differences in soil microbial ...

  14. Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics

    Milstead, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

  15. Visual soil evaluation

    Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic...... nutrient leaching, and for diagnosing and rectifying erosion and compaction in soils....

  16. Soil organic matter studies

    The use of isotopes in soil organic matter studies is reviewed. Such studies include measuring the input of organic carbon into soils, the decomposition of isotope-labelled materials such as organic compounds and microbial and plant material in soils, the characterization of soil organic matter and the availability of nutrients released from organic residues. (U.K.)

  17. MILESTONES IN SOIL PHYSICS

    This special issue of “Soil Science“ celebrates the enormous accomplishments made during the past century or more in the field of soil science, including some of the key articles published in Soil Science during its 90 years of existence. In this article, we focus on the contributions in soil physic...

  18. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce more from less by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  19. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over croplands using airborne hyperspectral data

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Bel, Liliane; Lefebvre, Josias; Chehdi, Kacem

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the Prostock-Gessol3 and the BASC-SOCSENSIT projects, dedicated to the spatial monitoring of the effects of exogenous organic matter land application on soil organic carbon storage. It aims at identifying the potential of airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soils comprise hortic or glossic luvisols, calcaric, rendzic cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks which were georeferenced. Tracks were atmospherically corrected using a set of 22 synchronous field spectra of both bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. Atmospherically corrected track tiles were mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution resulting in a 66 Gb image. A SPOT4 satellite image was acquired the same day in the framework of the SPOT4-Take Five program of the French Space Agency (CNES) which provided it with atmospheric correction. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then NDVI calculation and thresholding enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. All 18 sampled sites known to be bare at this very date were correctly included in this map. A total of 85 sites sampled in 2013 or in the 3 previous years were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples. The use of the total sample including 27 sites under cloud shadows led to non-significant results. Considering 43 sites outside cloud shadows only, median validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were ~4-4.5 g. kg-1. An additional set of 15 samples with bare soils led to similar RMSE values. Such results are only slightly better than those resulting from an earlier study with multispectral satellite images (Vaudour et al., 2013). The influence of soil surface condition and particularly soil roughness is discussed.

  20. Soil organic matter studies

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  1. Soil water management

    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  2. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start detachment. Studies on necessary kinetic energy to detach one kilogram of sediments by raindrop impact have shown that the minimum energy is required for particles of 0.125 mm. Particles between 0.063 to 0.250 mm are the most vulnerable to detachment. This means that soils with high content of particles into vulnerable range, for example silty loam, loamy, fine sandy, and sandy loam are the most susceptible soils to detachment. Many aspects of soil behaviour in the field such as hydraulic conductivity water retention, soil crusting, soil compaction, and workability are influenced strongly by the primary particles. In tropical soils also a negative relation between structure stability and particles of silt, fine sand and very fine sand has been found, this is attributed to low cohesiveness of these particles. The ability of a structure to persist is known as its stability. There are two principal types of stability: the ability of the soil to retain its structure under the action of water, and the ability of the soil to retain its structure under the action of external mechanical stresses. (e.g. by wheels). Both types of stability are related with susceptibility to erosion

  3. SOIL ENZYMES AND CHARACTERISTICS

    İnci Sevinç Kravkaz Kuşcu*,

    2015-01-01

    For understanding the structure and the functions of soil ecosystem, the analysis of soil microorganisms’ population and the factors affecting their activities are important. For this purpose, the soil enzymes: are used as indicators of soil fertility and microbial activity. The distribution of soil enzymes and activities on the agricultural lands under the monoculture or sowing is accepted as a wide research subject however the researches which investigate the ecological relation...

  4. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    Gens Sol, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  5. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils.

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K

    2016-05-01

    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on water/air interfaces, the latter gives an impression of surfactant adsorption to a hydrophobic surface and illustrates the importance of the CMC for the adsorption process. Then attention is paid to the most important types of soil particles: humic and fulvic acids, silica, metal oxides and layered aluminosilicates. Information is provided on their structure, surface properties and primary (proton) charge characteristics, which are all important for surfactant binding. Subsequently, the adsorption of different types of surfactants on these individual soil components is discussed in detail, based on mainly experimental results and considering the specific (chemical) and electrostatic interactions, with hydrophobic attraction as an important component of the specific interactions. Adsorption models that can describe the features semi-quantitatively are briefly discussed. In the last part of the paper some trends of surfactant adsorption on soils are briefly discussed together with some complications that may occur and finally the consequences of surfactant adsorption for soil colloidal stability and permeability are considered. When we seek to understand the fate of surfactants in soil and aqueous environments, the hydrophobicity and charge density of the soil or soil particles, must be considered together with the structure, hydrophobicity and charge of the surfactants, because these factors affect the adsorption. The pH and ionic strength are important parameters with respect to the charge density of the particles. As surfactant adsorption influences soil structure and permeability, insight in surfactant adsorption to soil particles is useful for good soil management. PMID:26969282

  6. Effect of soil mulching on soil temperature

    Nine different plastic films for ground covering were used. The soil temperature was measured into soil at deep 10 cm. Minimal average daily soil temperature at deep 10 cm was measured for uncovered soil (control treatment B1) and was 28.33 deg C. Increasing of average soil daily temperature under plastic film, compared with uncovered soil varied in interval 2.51 deg C (B3), up to 4.49 deg C (B10). Temperature regime in conditions of ground covering in early morning hours (6 h -6,30 h) and in the midday hours (13,30 h -14 h) were analyzed. Measuring were carried out in two cycles

  7. Soil hydraulic properties of Cuban soils

    Because soil hydraulic properties are indispensable for determining soil water retention and soil water movement, their input for deterministic crop simulation models is essential. From these models is possible to access the effect of the weather changes, soil type or different irrigation schedules on crop yields. With these models, possibilities are provided to answer questions regarding virtual 'what happen if' experiments with a minimum of fieldwork. Nevertheless, determining soil hydraulic properties can be very difficult owing to unavailability of necessary equipment or the lack of personal with the proper knowledge for those tasks. These deficiencies are a real problem in developing countries, and even more so when there is not enough financial possibilities for research work. This paper briefly presents the way these properties have been accessed for Cuban soils, which methods have been used and the work now in progress. (author)

  8. Soil micromorphology, soil structure stability and soil hydraulic properties

    Kodešová, R.; Rohošková, M.; Žigová, Anna; Kodeš, V.; Kutílek, M.

    Bratislava : Ústav hydrológie SAV, 2006 - (Ivančo, J.; Pavelková, D.; Gomboš, M.; Tall, A.), s. 0-0 ISBN 80-89139-09-4. [Vedecká konferencia s medzinárodnou účasťou Vplyv Antropogénnej činnosti na vodný režim nížinného územia /6./ ; Slovensko-česko-poľský seminár Fyzika vody v pode /16./. Bratislava -Michalovce-Vinianske jazero (SK), 06.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil micromorphological properties * soil structure stability * soil porous system * soil hydraulic properties Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  9. Soil washing technology evaluation

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

  10. Soil washing technology evaluation

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF WEED SUPPRESSIVE SOILS THROUGH SOIL MANAGEMENT

    Soil microbial communities manipulated through soil and crop management are basic to development of sustainable agricultural. Sustainable farming is partly based on efficient management of soil microorganisms to enhance beneficial activities for improving soil quality. However, relationships of biol...

  12. Cross-cutting activities: Soil quality and soil metagenomics

    Motavalli, Peter P.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports on the work of the SANREM CRSP cross-cutting activities "Assessing and Managing Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems" and "Soil Metagenomics to Construct Indicators of Soil Degradation." The introduction gives an overview of the extensiveness of soil degradation globally and defines soil quality. The objectives of the soil quality cross cutting activity are:

  13. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors......A new book that is particularly relevant as tropical countries experience increased pressure on land resources to improve agricultural production. To ensure sustainable land use, the potentials and limitations of different kinds of tropical soils must be known in relation to crop production and...... that affect soil processes are the same in tropical soils as in temperate region soils, but because of high temperature year round and occurrence in very stable landscapes, some (but not all) tropical soils possess special composition and properties. These features are highlighted in the book, and...

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON URBAN SOILS

    Radu Lacatusu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban soil is an material that has been manipulated, disturbed or transported by man’s activities in the urban environment and is used as a medium for plant growth and for constructions. The physical, chemical, and biological properties are generally less favorable as a rooting medium than soil found on the natural landscape. The main characteristics of urban soils are: great vertical and spatial variability; modified soil structure leading to compaction; presence of a surface crust; modified soil reaction, usually elevated; restricted aeration and water drainage; modified abundance of chemical elements, interrupted nutrient cycling and soil organism activity; presence of anthropic materials contaminants and pollutants; modified soil temperature regime. The urbic horizon is designated as U (always capital letter and for indication of processes are used different small letters. It is necessary elaboration a new classification of urban soils for our country.

  15. GeologicSoils_ONSITE

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to...

  16. Soil function and "malfunction"

    Elio Coppola; Andrea Buondonno

    2008-01-01

    Most of the scientists define soil from an “agronomic” point of view as the natural system delegated to sustain plant
    growth and agricultural productions on the whole. In this paper soil importance, even in “environmental and social”
    terms, is pointed out, considering soil as a natural body with its own functional characteristics, regardless of
    its agronomic role and productive ability. Some studies show that soil acts a...

  17. Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics

    Delage, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this general report, experimental systems and procedures of investigating the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils are commented and linked to various physical parameters and properties of the soils. Techniques of controlling suction are described together with their adaptation in various laboratory testing devices. Some typical features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented within an ela...

  18. Iodine dynamics in soil

    Hassan Shetaya, Waleed Hares Abdou

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this investigation was to understand the transformation and reaction kinetics of iodide and iodate added to soil in relation to soil properties. In addition, to integrate the data into a predictive model of iodide and iodate sorption kinetics parameterised by soil properties. Solid phase fractionation coupled with solution phase speciation (HPLC-ICPMS) was used to follow the assimilation of 129I- and 129IO3- spikes into steady state soil microcosms. The extract...

  19. Vanadium in soils

    Larsson, Maja A

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium is a redox-sensitive metal that is released to soils by weathering and anthropogenic emissions. Swedish metallurgical slags are naturally high in vanadium and used as soil amendments and in road materials. However, understanding of vanadium chemistry and bioavailability in soils is limited. The aim of this thesis was to provide knowledge of vanadium in soils in terms of sorption, toxicity and speciation, in order to enable improved environmental risk assessments. Vanadium sorption to...

  20. Restoration of contaminated soils

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author)

  1. Soil organic matter studies

    The dependence of plant production and humus formation, the interaction of soil organic matter with the mineral part of soil for plant nutrition and some physical and chemical properties of soil were discussed, as were the significance of climatic and hydrological data in that context. Isotope techniques (14C and 15N) were utilized in various studies. Papers were presented on the turnover of plant residues, mineralization of organic compounds, nitrogen economy, biodegradation and biochemical transformations of soil organic matter, contributions to the formation of humic substances, soil organic matter and plant metabolism, and the interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter. The use of municipal sludge on agricultural land was also considered

  2. Radioiodine in soil environment

    Behavior of radioiodine in soil was studied. Iodine was separated from surface soil by the combustion method and acidolysis and adsorbed into active carbon to be activated by neutron in reactor. Interfering nuclear produced by activation were separated and purified by ion exchange and solvent extraction, then 129I was determined by measuring ?-ray 130I. 129I/127I atomic ratio was determined, too. Brown forest soil, paddy soil, field and coast sand were used as soil samples. On brown forest soil in Fukui prefecture, the adsorption behavior of iodine were changed by the pretreatment methods. When the sample was untreated and refrigerated, it showed the largest amount of adsorption. Frozen, ?-ray and dried sample indicated very small amount. Surface soil with fume and bacteria could adsorb large amount of iodine which did not transfer lower part of soil. Under the conditions to perish bacteria, iodine did not adsorbed by soil. The largest distribution ratio was obtained from 20 to 30degC by samples without sand. These results proved that adsorption of iodine into soil was affected by bacteria in soil. (S.Y.)

  3. Soil bioturbation. A commentary

    Cerd, Artemi; Wilkinson, Marshall

    2010-05-01

    Organisms such as trees, ants, earthworms, termites are important components of the earth systems that have dominantly been thought of as abiotic. Despite an early focus on soil bioturbation by heavy-weights such as Charles Darwin and Nathanial Shaler in the late 19th century, sporadic attention to this theme has subsequently followed. Recent compilations demonstrate that soil bioturbation by fauna and flora is widespread across Earths terrestrial surface, and operates at geologically rapid rates that warrant further attention. Such biotic activity contributes to soil creep, soil carbon dynamics, and is critical in engineering the medium through which ecosystems draw their abiotic requirements. Soil and its biota are fundamental components of the Earth System. However, soil scientist focussed on the dominant paradigm of landscape evolution, and bioturbation was relegated. In fact, bioturbation is still not widely appreciated within the soil and earth system research community. Nevertheless, within the last decade a review of the impact of bioturbation was launched by authors such as Geoff S. Humphreys. Bioturbation is a complex process as new soil is formed, mounds are developed, soil is buried and a downslope transport of material is done. Bioturbation modify the soil texture and porosity, increase the nutrients and encourage the soil creep flux. A review of the State-of-the-Art of Bioturbation will be presented.

  4. From soil in art towards Soil Art

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-02-01

    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.

  5. Soil heavy metals

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  6. Soil Organic Carbon in the Soil Scapes of Southeastern Tanzania

    Rossi, Joni

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is well known to maintain several functions. On the one hand, being the major component of soil organic matter (SOM),it is a determinant of soil physical and chemical properties, an important proxy for soil biological activity and a measure of soil productivity. Land use management that will enhance soil carbon (C) levels is therefore important for farmers and land use planners, particularly in semiarid and sub-humid Africa where severe soil degradation and desertifi...

  7. Mass Transport within Soils

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physical properties of the substance of interest, and (3) transformation rates in soil. Our particular focus is on approaches for constructing soil-transport algorithms and soil-transport parameters for incorporation within multimedia fate models. We show how MTC's can be developed to construct a simple two-compartment air-soil system. We then demonstrate how a multi-layer-box-model approach for soil-mass balance converges to the exact analytical solution for concentration and mass balance. Finally, we demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to the specimen chemicals benzene, hexachlorobenzene, lindane gammahexachlorocyclohexane, benzo(a)pyrene, nickel, and copper.

  8. From soil in art towards Soil Art

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; A. Toland; Wessolek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil o...

  9. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Rattan Lal

    2015-01-01

    Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions bet...

  10. Soil Heat Flow Model

    Varas, E.; Nunez, C.; Meza, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Penman-Monteith method for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) has been recommended by FAO. This method requires measures of temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and heat flow in the soil. This last variable is rarely available. Soil heat flow is generally small compared to the net radiation, and many times is ignored in the energy balance. Nevertheless, the addition or subtraction of this amount in the energy balance equation should be considered for evapo-transpiration calculation. Penman-Monteith method suggests approximate estimates of soil heat flows as the difference between the maxima and minimum daily temperatures multiplied by a convenient coefficient. However, such approach ignores important variations in this parameter occurring during the day, and could influence the accuracy of the result. This work proposes to estimate soil heat flows by means of a mathematical model that includes the estimate of soil temperatures profiles and heat flows as a function of thermal properties of the soil, such as difussivity and conductivity coefficients. The model calculates soil heat flows in three stages. The first estimates hourly air temperature based on the average daily temperature and Fourier series coefficients. The obtained hourly air temperature constitutes an input variable for the second stage of the model. Surface soil temperature is assumed to be equal to air temperature. The second stage, applies heat transfer principles, using the thermal properties of the soil in order to obtain the soil temperature profile in a one meter depth soil stratum. Finally, the results of the second stage are used to calculate the hourly heat flow in the soil and compare this estimate with other methods and with measured values. Calculated hourly temperatures reproduced observed values closely. Correlation coefficients between observed and calculated values for the three summer months are 0.98, 0.96 and 0.97. Hourly soil heat fluxes are also closely estimated, showing clear diurnal variations. Correlation coefficient for the entire study period between observed and estimated values is 0.96.

  11. How Can Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements Control Soil Pollution?

    Mohammad Reza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soil pollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and arsenic, herbicides, pesticides, oils, tars, PCBs and dioxins. Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC is one of the soil physical properties w hich have a good relationship with the other soil characteristics. As measuring soil electrical conductivity is easier, less expensive and faster than other soil properties measurements, using a detector that can do on the go soil EC measurements is a good tool for obtaining useful information about soil pollution condition.

  12. Advances in soil dynamics

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal was to...... abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....

  13. Soil function and "malfunction"

    Elio Coppola

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the scientists define soil from an “agronomic” point of view as the natural system delegated to sustain plantgrowth and agricultural productions on the whole. In this paper soil importance, even in “environmental and social”terms, is pointed out, considering soil as a natural body with its own functional characteristics, regardless ofits agronomic role and productive ability. Some studies show that soil acts as a thermal buffer and detoxifies thecirculating liquid phase. Actually soil is also the depository of the cultural heritage of the society who used it, bothas keeper of relics and manufactured products and as an expression of transformation processes and evolution trendcaused by man’s action itself.The need to protect and preserve soil has to be emphasized by stating its main importance not only as a maintenancesource for all the living beings but also as a factor of environmental control.

  14. Soil in the Anthropocene

    Richter, Daniel deB; Bacon, Allan R.; Brecheisen, Zachary; Mobley, Megan L.

    2015-07-01

    With scholars deliberating a new name for our geologic epoch, i.e., the Anthropocene, soil scientists whether biologists, chemists, or physicists are documenting significant changes accruing in a majority of Earth's soils. Such global soil changes interact with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere (i.e., Earth's Critical Zone), and these developments are significantly impacting the Earth's stratigraphic record as well. In effect, soil scientists study such global soil changes in a science of anthropedology, which leads directly to the need to transform pedostratigraphyinto an anthro-pedostratigraphy, a science that explores how global soil change alters Earth's litho-, bio-, and chemostratigraphy. These developments reinforce perspectives that the planet is indeed crossing into the Anthropocene.

  15. Characterization of Dispersive Soils

    S. V. Dinesh; Puvvadi V. Sivapullaiah; T. S. Umesh

    2011-01-01

    Dispersive soils which occur in many parts of the world are easily erodible and segregate in water pose serious problems of stability of earth and earth retaining structures. The mechanism of dispersivity of soils is reasonably well understood. However there is simple method to identify the dispersivity of the soils and even more difficult to quantify the dispersivity. Visual classification, Atterberg’s limits and particle size analysis do not provide sufficient basis to differentiate between...

  16. Multilingual soil database

    De la Rosa, diego; Mayol Rodríguez, Francisco; Moreno Arce, Juan A.; Grita, F.

    1995-01-01

    The FAO-ISRIC-CSIC Multilingual Soil Database (SDBm) is a multilingual (English/French/Spanish) system designed to store and manipulate morphological and analytical soil data. It is a collection of programs written in CLIPPER 5.2 and C languages which constitutes a user-friendly tool for an efficient and systematic organization of soil profile data. Data storage is greatly facilitated by the multilingual function which provides "assist menus" in the selected language. Decoding ...

  17. Soil contamination by radionuclides

    The soil is the first link in the food chain. Soil contamination by individual radionuclides significantly affects the level of terrestrial radiation in the locality. The authors mapped situation of post-Chernobyl 137Cs soil contamination in Slovakia and European countries. Samples were collected in three layers of agriculturally cultivated area. Even a few years after the Chernobyl accident authors can say that elevated 137Cs values were recorded in the samples from Austria and Germany, in all layers of collection. (authors)

  18. Soil erosion and landslides

    Lilly, A.; Auton, Clive; Baggaley, N.J.; Bowes, J P; FOSTER Claire; Haq, M; Reeves, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The publication of this report is an action arising from the 2009 Scottish Soil Framework. It aims to contribute to the wider understanding that soils are a vital part of our economy, environment and heritage, to be safeguarded for existing and future generations. The State of Scotlands Soil Report collates the most recent information available from a variety of sources and builds on previous reports by SEPA (2001) and Towers et al. (2006) and is part of wider environmental re...

  19. Soil-dithiocarbamate interactions

    Soil is the ultimate repository of the pesticides applied for the control of plant pests and diseases. A variety of interactions like leaching, adsorption, chemical and microbial degradation etc take place between soil and pesticide. Results on work on two dialkyldithiocarbamates viz. thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) and ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate) with respect to above interactions in soil are discussed and summarised. 35S-labelled thiram and ziram were used in the studies. (author)

  20. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  1. Soil physics and agriculture

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  2. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  3. Microbiological soil regeneration

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.)

  4. Soils - Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Data for Montana

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These data sets are digital soil surveys and generally are the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    California Department of Resources — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. TRANSLATING AVAILABLE BASIC SOIL DATA INTO MISSING SOIL HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Soil hydraulic pedotransfer functions transfer simple-to-measure soil survey information into soil hydraulic characteristics, that are otherwise costly to measure. Examples are presented of different equations describing hydraulic characteristics and of pedotransfer functions used to predict paramet...

  7. Multi-step soil washing to remove contaminants from soil

    The advantage of the soil washing approach to remove contaminants from soils is discussed. This report also describes 2 cases in which uranium and plutonium are dispersed in soils. Removal efficiencies are described

  8. Soil survey, soil databases and soil monitoring in Spain

    Ibáñez, J. J.; Sánchez Díaz, Juan; Rosa, Diego De La; Alba, S., de

    1999-01-01

    10 pages, 1 figure, 1 table, 60 references.-- Trabajo publicado en la Section 2: Country Reports.-- El volumen consta de 202 páginas.-- Meeting at Soil Survey and Land Research Centre Cranfield University, Silsoe, UK., que tuvo lugar del 21-22, abril, 1998.

  9. Modelling soil anaerobiosis from water retention characteristics and soil respiration

    Schurgers, G.; Dörsch, P.; Bakken, L.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Egil Haugen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen is a prerequisite for some and an inhibitor to other microbial functions in soils, hence the temporal and spatial distribution of oxygen within the soil matrix is crucial in soil biogeochemistry and soil biology. Various attempts have been made to model the anaerobic fraction of the soil volume as a function of structure, moisture content and oxygen consumption. Aggregate models are attractive but difficult to parameterize and not applicable to non-aggregated soils. Pore models are pre...

  10. Shrinking Behaviour of Badland Soil Under Different Soil Covers

    Michele Perniola; Mariana Amato; Stella Lovelli; Teodoro Di Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    Indicators used to estimate the soil structure stability facing erosion are the basis of major indicators of soil quality, and their behaviour is affected by permanent soil properties, vegetation and management. The relation between the pore-volume fraction occupied by water and the pore size distribution in clay soils is studied by the shrinkage curve describing clay soil porosity dynamics as a function of soil moisture. The aim of this work is to study the shrinking behaviour of the surface...

  11. How Can Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements Control Soil Pollution?

    Mohammad Reza; R. Alimardani and A. Sharifi

    2010-01-01

    Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soil pollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and arsenic), herbicides, pesticides, oils, tars, PCBs and dioxins. Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC) is one of the soil physical properties w hich have a good relationship with the other soil characteristics. As measuring soil electrical condu...

  12. Classiology and soil classification

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  13. KBRA OPWP Soil Rooting Depth

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Creative Soil Conservation

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  15. Creative Soil Conservation

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played

  16. Resilient behaviour of soils

    Correia, A. Gomes; Gilett, S.

    1996-01-01

    This study examine the resilient behaviour of sands, silts and clay for different moisture conditions and various stress paths. The analysis of data from repeated load triaxial tests carried out on these recompacted soils has enable to test different models and validate their hability to predict resilient response of soils.

  17. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  18. The Global Soil Partnership

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  19. Enzymes in Forest Soils

    Baldrian, Petr; Štursová, Martina

    Heidelberg, Dordrecht, NY : Springer, 2011 - (Shukla, G.; Varma, A.), s. 61-73 ISBN 978-3-642-14225-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0751; GA MŠk OC08050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : forest soil s * soil ecology * enzymes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. SOIL WATER ENERGY CONCEPTS

    The soil water hydraulic pressure head is composed of matric, overburden, and hydrostatic pressures. The soil solution will flow from higher hydraulic pressure heads to lower hydraulic pressure heads. Piezometers are used to measure the hydrostatic pressure head, and tensiometers are used to measu...

  1. SOIL EROSION IN TEPETATES

    The valley of Mexico is one of the most populous places on earth. Although rainfall is low and infrequent, there is considerable soil erosion by water and land destruction due to high intensity storms, steep slopes, highly erodible volcanic derived soils and disturbance by man. The disturbance by ...

  2. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina

    2010-05-01

    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management change in the future remains largely unexplored. * http://ec.europa.eu/environment/soil/pdf/com_2006_0231_en.pdf

  3. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kristensen, Iben Vernegren; Ribeiro, Alexandra J. B.; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Villumsen, Arne

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra...

  4. Soil Classification Using GATree

    Bhargavi, P

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the application of a genetic programming framework for classification of decision tree of Soil data to classify soil texture. The database contains measurements of soil profile data. We have applied GATree for generating classification decision tree. GATree is a decision tree builder that is based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). The idea behind it is rather simple but powerful. Instead of using statistic metrics that are biased towards specific trees we use a more flexible, global metric of tree quality that try to optimize accuracy and size. GATree offers some unique features not to be found in any other tree inducers while at the same time it can produce better results for many difficult problems. Experimental results are presented which illustrate the performance of generating best decision tree for classifying soil texture for soil data set.

  5. The Soil Mobilome

    Luo, Wenting

    study between non-polluted and copper polluted soil. It reported the phylogenetic and functional response of the plasmid community towards environmental perturbation. The increased abundance of both antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance determinants in polluted soil indicated that copper contamination...... associated functions, such as type IV secretion systems and T4SS-relaxosome coupling, which was detected in the wastewater mobilome without spiking of the two model plasmids. The test of the modified protocol in an even more complex sample, such as soil, will subsequently be a good supplement to further......Soil is considered a reservoir of diverse bacterial cellular functions, of which resistance mechanisms towards biological antimicrobial agents are of substantial interest to us. Previous findings report that the long-term accumulation of copper in an agricultural soil significantly affects the...

  6. Relaxometry in soil science

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non-destructive way. Recent studies investigated wetting and swelling processes in soil samples, as well as the formation of microbial biofilms in soil the formation. This contribution gives an overview of current applications and the potential of NMR relaxometry in soil science with special emphasis on proton NMR relaxometry. References Bird, N.R.A., Preston, A.R., Randall, E.W., Whalley, W.R. & Whitmore, A.P. 2005. Measurement of the size distribution of water-filled pores at different matric potentials by stray field nuclear magnetic resonance. 56, 135-143. Bryar, T.R. & Knight, R.J. 2002. Sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements to Changing Soil Redox Conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 50/1-50/4. Conte, P., Spaccini, R. & Piccolo, A. 2006. Advanced CPMAS-13C NMR techniques for molecular characterization of size-separated fractions from a soil humic acid. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 386, 382-390. Gunasekara, A.S., Simpson, M.I. & Xing, B. 2003. Identification and characterization of sorption domains in soil organic matter using strucuturally modified humic acids. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 852-858. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E., Boeckelmann, U. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. Microbial effects on 1H NMR Relaxometry in soil samples and glass bead reactors. In Humic Substances - Linking Structure to Functions. Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of the International Humic Substances Societyin Karlsruhe eds. F.H. Frimmel & G. Abbt-Braun), pp. 929-932. Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe. Hurraß, J. & Schaumann, G.E. 2007. Hydration kinetics of wettable and water repellent soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 280-288. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. 1H NMR Relaxometry in natural humous soil samples: Insights in microbial effects on relaxation time distributions. Plant and Soil, 280, 209-222. Jaeger, F., Rudolph, N., Lang, F. & Schaumann, G.E. 2008. Effects of soil solution's constituents on proton NMR relaxometry of soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 72, 1694-1707. Jaeger, F., Bowe, S. & Schaumann, G.E. in preparation. Evaluation of 1H NMR relaxometry for the assessment of pore size distribution in soil samples. European Journal of Soil Science. Jähnert, S., Vaca Chavez, F., Schaumann, G.E., Schreiber, A., Schönhoff, M. & Findenegg, G.H. 2008. Melting and freezing of water in cylindrical silica nanopores. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 39, 6039-6051. Schaumann, G.E., Hurraß, J., Müller, M. & Rotard, W. 2004. Swelling of organic matter in soil and peat samples: insights from proton relaxation, water absorption and PAH extraction. In Humic Substances: Nature's Most Versatile Materials eds. E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies), pp. 101-117. Taylor and Francis, Inc., New York. Schaumann, G.E., Hobley, E., Hurraß, J. & Rotard, W. 2005. H-NMR Relaxometry to monitor wetting and swelling kinetics in high organic matter soils. Plant and Soil, 275, 1-20. Schaumann, G.E. & Bertmer, M. 2008. Do water molecules bridge soil organic matter molecule segments? European Journal of Soil Science, 59, 423-429. Todoruk, T.R., Langford, C.H. & Kantzas, A. 2003. Pore-Scale Redistribution of Water during Wetting of Air-Dried Soils As Studied by Low-Field NMR Relaxometry. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 2707-2713. Todoruk, T.R., Litvina, M., Kantzas, A. & Langford, C.H. 2003. Low-Field NMR Relaxometry: A Study of Interactions of Water with Water-Repellant Soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 2878-2882. Van As, H. & van Dusschoten, D. 1997. NMR methods for imaging of transport processes in micro-porous systems. Geoderma, 80, 389-403. Van As, H. & Lens, P. 2001. Use of 1H NMR to study transport processes in porous biosystems. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 26, 43-52.

  7. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  8. Why is the influence of soil macrofauna on soil structure only considered by soil ecologists ?

    Bottinelli, N.; Jouquet, Pascal; CAPOWIEZ, Y.; Podwojewski, Pascal; Grimaldi, Michel; X. Peng

    2015-01-01

    These last twenty years have seen the development of an abundant literature on the influence of soil macrofauna on soil structure. Amongst these organisms, earthworms, termites and ants are considered to play a key role in regulating the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soils. Due to these influential impacts, soil ecologists consider these soil macro-invertebrates as ‘soil engineers’ and their diversity and abundance are nowadays considered as relevant bioindi...

  9. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Springael, D.; Bastiaens, L.; Carpels, M.; Mergaey, M.; Diels, L.

    1996-09-18

    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  10. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed

  11. BOREAS TE-01 SSA Soil Lab Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a set of soil properties for the SSA. The soil samples were collected at sets of soil pits. Major soil properties include soil...

  12. BOREAS TE-01 SSA Soil Lab Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a set of soil properties for the SSA. The soil samples were collected at sets of soil pits. Major soil properties include soil horizon; dry...

  13. BOREAS TE-01 SSA Soil Lab Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set provides a set of soil properties for the SSA. The soil samples were collected at sets of soil pits. Major soil properties include soil horizon; dry...

  14. Fixation Status of Acid Soils

    Six acid soil series from different benchmark sites; Rangsit soil (Sulfic Tropaquepts) (two acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Korat soil (Oxic Paleustults), Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic paleustults) and Boundary grey soil and two Thai phosphate rocks (P R) (Lampun P R and Ratchabuie P R) had been characterized in the laboratory by isotope techniques (E, value Part 1). Triple superphosphate (TSP) was used as a standard fertilizer. R P and TSP with 50 mg P Kg-1 soil were incubated for 30 days to examine the fixing capacity of the acid soils. The results showed that Rangsit Soil which is acid sulfate had high fixing capacity. Pakchong soil retained higher P fixation ability than Korat and Warin soil series. The highest fixation capacity among 7 acid soils were Grey Soil and Mae Taeng soil series. The solubility of TSP was decreased when incorporated with soil after incubation for 30 days. P R from Ratchaburi showed higher effectiveness than Lamphun P R

  15. Experimental measurement of diffusive extinction depth and soil moisture gradients in dune sand of Western Saudi Arabia

    Mughal, I.; Jadoon, K. Z.; Mai, P. M.; Al-Mashharawi, S.; Missimer, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    In arid lands, a major contribution to water loss is by soil water evaporation. Desert sand dunes in arid regions are devoid of runoff and have high rates of infiltration and water is commonly stored within them because of the low hydraulic conductivity soils within the underlying desert pavement. In such cases, moisture is confined in the sand dune below a depth, termed as the "extinction depth", where it is protected from evaporation during the long dry periods. The stored moisture below the extinction depth can be utilized to support desert agriculture and the subsurface areas below this depth can serve as potential sites for storage of surface runoff or treated waste water by artificial recharge. In this study, field experiments were conducted in Western Saudi Arabia to monitor the soil moisture gradients and determine the diffusive extinction depth of dune sand. A barrel with a diameter 150 cm and a height of 150 cm was installed underground in the field and was filled with dune sand. The sand was saturated with water and was exposed to natural conditions (evaporation and precipitation) for thirty days. The decline of the water level in the sand column was continuously recorded by using transducers and sensors installed at different depths to monitor the temporal variation of temperature and moisture content within the sand. The moisture content gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement. The effect of the diurnal variation of temperature was observed by the sensors installed in the upper 75 cm and was negligible at greater depths. The water level decline stabilized after twenty days and the extinction depth was established at 85 cm. In the field, a similar extinction depth was observed in the region where sand dunes overlay an impervious basement.

  16. Effect of compaction energy on soil suction of clayey soils

    Soil suction is a fundamental physical property of unsaturated soils such as buffer materials, shallow foundation, dam foundation and pavement sub-grades, describing the potential with which a given soil at given water content adsorbs and retains pore water. From a thermodynamic standpoint, soil suction is the free energy of pore-water in a soil and is a function of relative humidity or moisture. This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations of soil suction with the moisture content for clayey soils. In particular, the effects of compaction energy on soil suction were investigated. The suction of unsaturated soil was determined for various conditions, covering a range of compacting efforts and water contents. Soils specimens were prepared by dynamic compaction and were compacted using 3 levels of compacting effort. The filter paper method was used to measure the total and matrix suctions of two clayey soils. Findings from these tests indicated that low plasticity soils have lower soil suction than high plasticity soils at a specific water content. Soil suction was observed to increase markedly with decreasing compaction energy on soils at low water contents. And at high water contents, soil suction is relatively insensitive to compaction energy. It was also found that compaction energy has more impact on the total suction than the matrix suction. For soils prepared using impact compaction, void ratio was found not a good index to predict soil suction, while the degree of saturation shows a good correlation with soil suction and is proposed to be used as a predictor for soil suction. (authors)

  17. Iodine in soil

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  18. Calorimetry and soil

    Barros, N. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: fanieves@lugo.usc.es; Salgado, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-06-25

    This paper is a review about the application of calorimetry to study soil properties and its metabolism. Although this research has increased slowly but continuously during the last 30 years, it is true that it has received poor attention. One reason for that could be the complexity of the soil and the difficulties to investigate it from a thermodynamic point of view. In this paper we would like to demonstrate that calorimetry constitutes a very suitable method to face the main topics related to soil quality and activity. Very well known indicators used in soil research can be measured by different thermal and calorimetric methods such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and isothermal calorimetry (ITC). TG and DSC are both temperature scanning methods used for estimation of certain properties of the soil material such as organic matter, ignition temperature, humification index, quartz content, so on, whereas the study of the soil microbial metabolism is conducted under essentially isothermal conditions by ITC. In this review, the contributions of these techniques to different topics in soil research are described and their importance for the environmental concern is discussed in the light of this new era.

  19. Soil washing treatability study

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  20. Soil washing treatability study

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  1. Iodine in soil

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129I uptake to plants

  2. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Rattan Lal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  3. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  4. Soil disturbance increases soil microbial enzymatic activity in arid ecoregion

    Functional diversity of the soil microbial community is commonly used in the assessment of soil health as it relates to the activity of soil microflora involved in carbon cycling. Soil microbes in different microenvironments will have varying responses to different substrates, thus catabolic fingerp...

  5. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information

  6. Soil fauna, soil properties and geo-ecosystem functioning

    Cammeraat, L. H.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of soil fauna on soil processes is of utmost importance, as the activity of soil fauna directly affects soil quality. This is expressed by the direct effects of soil fauna on soil physical and soil chemical properties that not only have great importance to food production and ecosystems services, but also on weathering and hydrological and geomorphological processes. Soil animals can be perceived as ecosystem engineers that directly affect the flow of water, sediments and nutrients through terrestrial ecosystems. The biodiversity of animals living in the soil is huge and shows a huge range in size, functions and effects. Most work has been focused on only a few species such as earthworms and termites, but in general the knowledge on the effect of soil biota on soil ecosystem functioning is limited as it is for their impact on processes in the soil and on the soil surface. In this presentation we would like to review some of the impacts of soil fauna on soil properties that have implications for geo-ecosystem functioning and soil formation processes.

  7. Vietnam workshop on soil quality: Soil biology and chemistry

    G. B. Reddy

    2007-01-01

    This presentation was presented during the Soil Quality workshop held at Nong Lam University, June 2007. It shows the importance of biological diversity as a gauge of good soil quality. Furthermore, criteria of healthy chemical balances in soil is also explained. Simple measures of biological and chemical indices of soil health are summarized.

  8. The Influence of Soil Particle on Soil Condensation Water

    Hou Xinwei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment results showed that the indoor experiment formed from the volume of soil hygroscopic water increased gradually with decreasing size of soil particles. In the outdoor experiments, the results showed that the formed condensation water in medium sand was greater than it was in fine sand; the soil hot condensation water was mainly formed in the top layer of soil between 0-5 cm. We also found that covering the soil surface with stones can increase the volume of formed soil condensate water, reduce the evaporation and maintain relatively high moisture content in the top layer of soil.

  9. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  10. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  11. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. PMID:26086811

  12. Soil Microbes and soil microbial proteins: interactions with clay minerals

    Bacterial enumeration in soil environments estimates that the population may reach approximately 1010 g-1 of soil and comprise up to 90% of the total soil microbial biomass. Bacteria are present in soils as single cells or multicell colonies and often strongly adsorb onto mineral surfaces such as sand and clay. The interactions of microbes and microbial biomolecules with these minerals have profound impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. (Author)

  13. SCALING METHODS IN SOIL PHYSICS

    Soil physical properties are needed to understand and manage natural systems spanning an extremely wide range of scales. Much of soil data are obtained from small soil samples and cores, monoliths, or small field plots, yet the goal is to reconstruct soil physical properties across fields, watershed...

  14. Soil variability in mountain areas

    Zanini, Ermanno; Freppaz, Michele; Stanchi, Silvia; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Egli, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  15. Mycotoxins in the soil environment

    Elmholt, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper outlines the current knowledge concerning fate of mycotoxins in the soil environment, including - outline of mycotoxins addressed (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin) - routes by which the mycotoxins enter the soil environment - routes by which they are immobilised or removed from the soil environment - mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the soil environment

  16. Soil Organic Chemistry.

    Anderson, G.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is presented of some of the organic compounds and reactions that occur in soil. Included are nitrogenous compounds, compounds of phosphorus and sulfur, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids. (BB)

  17. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Kazuyoshi Tamae; Takeshi Hirano

    2011-01-01

    Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short...

  18. Mobile soil washing system

    Cleaning contaminated soil is becoming more and more important in environmental protection. One economically viable and technically feasible method is washing soil contaminated with organic, metallic or radioactive substances. The effectiveness of the mobile technique has been demonstrated at the Bruni, Texas, uranium ore mine. The process combines physical and chemical separation processes, has a throughput of approx. 18 t/h, and attains a decontamination level of 99%. (orig.)

  19. Degradation and resilience of soils

    Lal, R

    1997-01-01

    Debate on global soil degradation, its extent and agronomic impact, can only be resolved through understanding of the processes and factors leading to establishment of the cause-effect relationships for major soils, ecoregions, and land uses. Systematic evaluation through long-term experimentation is needed for establishing quantitative criteria of (i) soil quality in relation to specific functions; (ii) soil degradation in relation to critical limits of key soil properties and processes; and...

  20. Soil strength and forest operations.

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impact of forces, can ...

  1. Soil function and "malfunction"

    Elio Coppola

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the scientists define soil from an “agronomic” point of view as the natural system delegated to sustain plant
    growth and agricultural productions on the whole. In this paper soil importance, even in “environmental and social”
    terms, is pointed out, considering soil as a natural body with its own functional characteristics, regardless of
    its agronomic role and productive ability. Some studies show that soil acts as a thermal buffer and detoxifies the
    circulating liquid phase. Actually soil is also the depository of the cultural heritage of the society who used it, both
    as keeper of relics and manufactured products and as an expression of transformation processes and evolution trend
    caused by man’s action itself.
    The need to protect and preserve soil has to be emphasized by stating its main importance not only as a maintenance
    source for all the living beings but also as a factor of environmental control.

  2. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  3. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  4. The effects on soil physical properties of long term soil tillage and soil compaction

    Fahnbulleh, Cassius G. V.

    2014-01-01

    Soil degradation in crop production is becoming increasingly important because of the growing concern it poses on soil functions. Prominent among the degradation factors is soil compaction. It impairs soil productivity by impeding the soil conductivity potential and moisture retention ability, thereby preventing root penetrability and nutrients uptake among other things. This paper is concerned with identifying and characterizing the degree of compaction that may result in dele...

  5. Soil compaction impact and modelling. A review

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Bourri, Guilhem; Trolard, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Compaction of agricultural soils is a concern for many agricultural soil scientists and farmers since soil compaction, due to heavy field traffic, has resulted in yield reduction of most agronomic crops throughout the world. Soil compaction is a physical form of soil degradation that alters soil structure, limits water and air infiltration, and reduces root penetration in the soil. Consequences of soil compaction are still underestimated. A complete understanding of processes involved in soil...

  6. SMEX03 Little Washita Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set contains volumetric soil moisture, soil temperature, soil conductivity, soil salinity, and surface temperature data collected during the Soil Moisture...

  7. Seasonal variability of soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    Jirků, V.; Kodešová, R.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Žigová, Anna

    Brisbane : International Union of Soil Sciences.; Australian Society of Soil Science, 2010 - (Gilkes, R.; Pragongkep, N.), s. 145-148 ISBN 978-0-646-53783-2. [World Congress of Soil Science /19./. Brisbane (AU), 01.08.2010-06.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil structure * aggregate stability * soil hydraulic properties * micromorphological images * temporal variability Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science http://www.iuss.org/19th%20WCSS/symposium/pdf/0483.pdf

  8. The Influence of Soil Particle on Soil Condensation Water

    Hou Xinwei; Chen Hao; Li Xiangquan; Cui Xiaomei; Liu Lingxia; Wang Zhenxing

    2013-01-01

    The experiment results showed that the indoor experiment formed from the volume of soil hygroscopic water increased gradually with decreasing size of soil particles. In the outdoor experiments, the results showed that the formed condensation water in medium sand was greater than it was in fine sand; the soil hot condensation water was mainly formed in the top layer of soil between 0-5 cm. We also found that covering the soil surface with stones can increase the volume of formed soil condensat...

  9. Pesticide-soil microflora interactions in flooded rice soils

    Isotope studies revealed that gamma and beta isomers of HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) decomposed rapidly in nonsterile soils capable of attaining redox potentials of -40 to -100mV within 20 days after flooding. Degradation was slow, however, in soils low in organic matter and in soils with extremely low pH and positive potentials, even after several weeks of flooding. Under flooded conditions, endrin decomposed to six metabolites in most soils. There is evidence that biological hydrolysis of parathion is more widespread than hitherto believed, particularly under flooded soil conditions. Applications of benomyl (fungicide) to a simulated-oxidized zone of flooded soils favoured heterotrophic nitrification. (author)

  10. Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration

    K. Tamai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a an evergreen forest with mature soil and (b a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil properties on soil respiration rates were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects were compared between the deciduous and evergreen forests. In the evergreen forest with mature soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soil moisture and soil temperature. These results may be explained by different properties of soils that matured under different environments. Thus, we argue that the low soil respiration rates in Plot L of the evergreen forest resulted from soil properties and not from wet soil conditions. In the deciduous forest, soil respiration rates were more strongly affected by soil moisture and soil temperature than by soil properties, which were likely due to the immaturity of the forest soil.

  11. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or climate) for a particular soil-provided ecosystem service (e.g. climate regulation)". One SFT can thus include several soil types having the same functionality for a particular soil-provided ES. Another consequence is that SFT maps for two different ES may not superimpose over the same area, since some soils may fall in the same SFT for a service and in different SFT for another one. Soil functional types could be assessed and monitored in space and time by a combination of soil functional traits that correspond to inherent and manageable properties of soils. Their metrology would involve either classic (pedological observations) or advanced (molecular ecology, spectrometry, geophysics) tools. SFT could be studied and mapped at all scales, depending on the purpose of the soil security assessment (e.g. global climate modeling, land planning and management, biodiversity conservation). Overall, research is needed to find a pathway from soil pedological maps to SFT maps which would yield important benefits towards the assessment and monitoring of soil security. Indeed, this methodology would allow (i) reducing the spatial uncertainty on the assessment of ES; (ii) identifying and mapping multifunctional soils, which may be the most important soil resource to preserve. References [1] McBratney et al., 2014. Geoderma 213:203-213. [2] Droogers P, Bouma J, 1997. SSSAJ 61:1704-1710.

  12. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species on...... Biodiversity is an essential reference to the many and varied aspects of soil. The overall goal of this work is to convey the fundamental necessity to safeguard soil biodiversity in order to guarantee life on this planet.......Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species on...... Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about soil biology? How do our activities affect soil ecosystems? What are the links between soil biota and...

  13. Soil Microbial Mineralization of Cellulose in Frozen Soils

    Segura, J.; Haei, M.; Sparrman, T.; Nilsson, M. B.; Schleucher, J.; Oquist, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon pool. In boreal forests, the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter by soil heterotrophic activity can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances depend on whether soil microorganisms can utilize the more complex, polymeric substrates in SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.524 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.008 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. Thus, freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming microbial growth also in the frozen soil matrix. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero. This also involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of soils of high-latitude ecosystems.

  14. Shrinking Behaviour of Badland Soil Under Different Soil Covers

    Teodoro Di Tommaso

    Full Text Available Indicators used to estimate the soil structure stability facing erosion are the basis of major indicators of soil quality, and their behaviour is affected by permanent soil properties, vegetation and management. The relation between the pore-volume fraction occupied by water and the pore size distribution in clay soils is studied by the shrinkage curve describing clay soil porosity dynamics as a function of soil moisture. The aim of this work is to study the shrinking behaviour of the surface soil in a badland site through the shrinkage curve and to assess its relations with vegetation. Six treatments with different soil vegetation cover and aspect were selected on a badland site in Pisticci (Southern Italy. Shrinkage curves were built from natural aggregates collected in the 0-10 cm soil depth. Soil stability under shaking in water was also determined, with pre-treatments in water, alcohol and benzene for the determination of the SSI (Soil Stability Index. Soil organic matter, electrical conductivity, ESP were determined in order to investigate the relations between soil cover, chemical properties, SSI and shrink-swell behaviour. Vegetation was associated with lower soil salinity and ESP, and higher soil organic matter content. Vegetated sites showed a higher SSI and a lower overall swelling. The shrinkage curves for samples from vegetated areas lack of the structural phase of shrinkage, likely due to the combined effect of lower ESP and the mechanical effect of plant roots. All soil properties and indicators point to a higher stability of soils under grass in the south aspect and under shrub in the north one.

  15. Soil mechanics and analysis of soils overlying cavitose bedrock

    The stability of the residual soils existing at the West Chestnut Ridge Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, was evaluated. The weathered bedrock below this residual soil contains numerous solution cavities, and several karst features were identified. The West Chestnut Ridge site was evaluated with respect to deformation and collapse of the residual soil into the bedrock cavities. A finite element analysis investigated the effects of bedrock cavity radius, thickness of soil overburden, and surface surcharge upon the deformational and stability characteristics of the residual soil. The results indicate that for small cavity radii, the thickness of the soil cover has little effect on the zone of yielded soil. For large cavity radii, a smaller zone of distressed soil occurs under thick soil cover than under thin soil cover. Dimensionless curves are presented to enable the prediction of the vertical extent of the zone of yielded soil for a range of site geometries. Although the thick soil deposits (100 feet or greater) typically found on the ridges result in high stresses adjacent to the cavity, the area of the distressed or yielded soil is small and unlikely to extend to the surface. In addition, the surface deformation or subsidence is expected to be minimal. Thus, the siting of waste facilities on the ridges where the overburden is maximum would tend to reduce the effects of deformation into the cavities. 29 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Remediation of contaminated soils

    At least three types of zones of contamination exist whenever there is a chemical release. The impact of Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (NAPL) on soils and groundwater, together with the ultimate transport and migration of constituent chemicals in their dissolved or sorbed states, had led environmentalists to develop several techniques for cleaning a contaminated soil. Zone 1 represents the unsaturated zone which could be contaminated to retention capacity by both Dense Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPL) and Light Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (LNAPL). Zone 2 represents residual DNAPL or LNAPL contamination found below the groundwater table in the saturated zone. Zone 3 is represented by either the presence of NAPL dissolved in the aqueous phase, volatilized in the unsaturated zone or sorbed to either saturated or unsaturated soils. Cleanup of petroleum contaminated soils is presented in this paper. Among several techniques developed for this purpose, in-situ biological remediation is discussed in detail as a technique that does not involve excavation, thus, the costs and disruption of excavating soil are eliminated

  17. Soil and vegetation

    Contributions from Hanford operations to background levels of radionuclides are determined by comparing the results of samples collected in prevalent downwind locations, primarily to the south and east of the Site, with samples collected from distant or generally upwind directions. Based on routine samples collected during 1982, there was no indication of a detectable contribution from Hanford to radionuclide concentrations in soil and vegetation in the offsite environment. Although no difference could be discerned based on the routine samples collected in 1982, a special study involving the collection of a large number of soil samples showed that concentrations of uranium in surface soils east of the Columbia River near the 300 Area were slightly higher than concentrations normally observed at several offsite sampling locations west of the river. The study, however, did not provide conclusive evidence regarding the reason for the difference. Although the possibility of a 300 Area source must be considered, the observed uranium concentrations were all within the range of concentrations normally found in soils in eastern Washington. Additional samples will be collected in 1983 to determine the naturally occurring uranium concentrations in soils on the east bank of the Columbia River

  18. Soil organic matter

    The nature, content and behaviour of the organic matter, or humus, in soil are factors of fundamental importance for soil productivity and the development of optimum conditions for growth of crops under diverse temperate, tropical and arid climatic conditions. In the recent symposium on soil organic matter studies - as in the two preceding ones in 1963 and 1969 - due consideration was given to studies involving the use of radioactive and stable isotopes. However, the latest symposium was a departure from previous efforts in that non-isotopic approaches to research on soil organic matter were included. A number of papers dealt with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and suggested improved management practices, the use of which would contribute to increasing agricultural production. Other papers discussed the turnover of plant residues, the release of plant nutrients through the biodegradation of organic compounds, the nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. In addition, consideration was given to studies on the biochemical transformation of organic matter, characterization of humic acids, carbon-14 dating and the development of modern techniques and their impact on soil organic matter research

  19. Lasagna trademark soil remediation

    Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH

  20. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    Krogh, Paul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about s...

  1. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  2. Soil water repellency of Antarctic soils (Elephant Point). First results

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz Fernández, Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Hydrophobicity it is a natural properties of many soils around the world. Despite the large body of research about soil water hydrophobicity (SWR) in many environments, little information it is available about Antarctic soils and their hydro-geomorphological consequences. According to our knowledge, no previous work was carried out on this environment. Soil samples were collected in the top-soil (0-5 cm) and SWR was analysed according to the water drop penetration test. The preliminary results showed that all the soils collected were hydrophilic, however further research should be carried out in order to understand if SWR changes with soil depth and if have implications on soil infiltration during the summer season.

  3. Stress transmission in soil

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals. The......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near the...... soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  4. Radon mitigation in soils

    Radon is produced in soil by radium decay, Ra-226 for radon (Rn-222) and Ra-224 for thoron (Rn-220). The radium content is about 40 Bq.kg-1 in crustal rocks and soils, 70 Bq.kg-1 in granite and only about 8 Bq.kg-1 in limestone. Being the heaviest gas in atmosphere, radon presents high concentration at surface and it is accumulating in closed or poorly ventilated places, both in underground cavities (caves or mines) and in dwelling. In comparison with the average radon concentration in atmospheric air of 8 Bq.m-3, the average indoor radon concentration reaches 10-100 Bq.m-3. International statistics indicate that radon contribution on natural irradiation is about 60%. The main sources of indoor radon are: radium content of the soil and of the concretes, water supply and natural gases

  5. Predicting Radiocaesium Sorption with Soil Chemical Properties in Japanese Soils

    The soil-to-plant transfer mechanism of radiocaesium (137Cs) in the Fukushima accident affected area is not fully understood. The sorption of 137Cs in soils holds a key to evaluating the variation of transfer of 137Cs to plant among different soil types. This study aims to investigate how differences in 137Cs adsorption in different soils can be explained by soil chemical and mineralogical properties. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP), a parameter for quantifying immediate 137Cs adsorption, and the soil texture were determined for 52 surface soils covering a wide range of texture classes collected from the area contaminated by the Fukushima accident. These soils include Andosols, Fluvisols, Gleysols, and Cambisols. In addition, we are currently performing analyses for other soil chemical properties (i.e. exchangeable cation, CEC, pH, organic matter content, etc) and for the properties affecting 137Cs sorption in soils (i.e. Frayed Edge Site capacity, K+ and NH4+ selectivity, effect of wet-dry cycles, etc). The average RIP varied from 80 to 4300 mmol kg-1 between soils. Contrary to what was found for temperate region soils by Absalom et al., the RIP (log(RIP)) and soil clay content were not significantly correlated (R2= 0.066). These initial results seem to indicate that the 137Cs sorption is affected by the clay mineralogy in soils. We postulate that by considering also the differences in clay K content, the relationship will improve since the frayed edges are formed at high K content in the clay. This knowledge could improve the prediction of RIP for different Japanese soil groups. Further analysis of the data will explore the relationship between RIP and other soil chemical properties. In our study, we will take specific note of Andosols (range of average RIP from 80 to 2400 mmol kg-1), typical soils in Japan originated from volcanic ash. It is expected that soil properties ruling the 137Cs sorption for Japanese Andosols will differ compared to other temperate mineral soils, for which most 137Cs transfer studies have been performed after the Chernobyl accident. We start by investigating the role of amorphous Al and Fe in 137Cs sorption. We believe that our findings could contribute to improved predictions of soil-to-plant transfer in Japanese soils and to the development of feasible countermeasures to reduce 137Cs transfer to plants for different soil-crop combinations in Japan. (authors)

  6. Predicting Radiocaesium Sorption with Soil Chemical Properties in Japanese Soils

    Uematsu, Shinichiro [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Sweeck, Lieve; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Smolders, Erik [Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The soil-to-plant transfer mechanism of radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) in the Fukushima accident affected area is not fully understood. The sorption of {sup 137}Cs in soils holds a key to evaluating the variation of transfer of {sup 137}Cs to plant among different soil types. This study aims to investigate how differences in {sup 137}Cs adsorption in different soils can be explained by soil chemical and mineralogical properties. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP), a parameter for quantifying immediate {sup 137}Cs adsorption, and the soil texture were determined for 52 surface soils covering a wide range of texture classes collected from the area contaminated by the Fukushima accident. These soils include Andosols, Fluvisols, Gleysols, and Cambisols. In addition, we are currently performing analyses for other soil chemical properties (i.e. exchangeable cation, CEC, pH, organic matter content, etc) and for the properties affecting {sup 137}Cs sorption in soils (i.e. Frayed Edge Site capacity, K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} selectivity, effect of wet-dry cycles, etc). The average RIP varied from 80 to 4300 mmol kg{sup -1} between soils. Contrary to what was found for temperate region soils by Absalom et al., the RIP (log(RIP)) and soil clay content were not significantly correlated (R2= 0.066). These initial results seem to indicate that the {sup 137}Cs sorption is affected by the clay mineralogy in soils. We postulate that by considering also the differences in clay K content, the relationship will improve since the frayed edges are formed at high K content in the clay. This knowledge could improve the prediction of RIP for different Japanese soil groups. Further analysis of the data will explore the relationship between RIP and other soil chemical properties. In our study, we will take specific note of Andosols (range of average RIP from 80 to 2400 mmol kg{sup -1}), typical soils in Japan originated from volcanic ash. It is expected that soil properties ruling the {sup 137}Cs sorption for Japanese Andosols will differ compared to other temperate mineral soils, for which most {sup 137}Cs transfer studies have been performed after the Chernobyl accident. We start by investigating the role of amorphous Al and Fe in {sup 137}Cs sorption. We believe that our findings could contribute to improved predictions of soil-to-plant transfer in Japanese soils and to the development of feasible countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants for different soil-crop combinations in Japan. (authors)

  7. Soil macrofauna webmasters of ecosystem

    Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The role of plant roots and microflora in shaping many ecosystem processes is generally appreciated in the contrary rho role of soil mcrofauna in this context is assumed to be negligible and rather anecdotic. But more than half of the litter fall is consumed by soil fauna and soil fauna can also consume and or translocation substantial amount of soil. Here we demonstrate on example of post mining chronosequences how site colonization by soil fauna affect composition of whole soil biota community, plant succession and soil formation. Filed and laboratory experiments show that decomposition of fauna feces may be sped up compare to litter at the very beginning but in long term fauna feces decompose slower than litter. This is also supported by micro morphological observation which shows that fauna feces form substantial part of soil. Fauna feces also induce lover or even negative priming effect when introduced in soil in comparison with litter that triggers positive priming effect. Laboratory experiment show that fauna effect is context sensitive and is more pronounced in systems already affected by soil fauna. Soil mixing by soil fauna consequently affect environmental conditions in soils such as water holding capacity or nutrient availability, it also affect composition of decomposer food web including microbial community (fungal bacterial ratio) which feed back in alternation of plant community composition during succession This fauna activity is not constant everywhere the higher effect of fauna activity on litter layer was observed in temperate soils of deciduous forests and with litter having CN between 20-30. In conclusion soil fauna use directly only small proportion of energy in the litter but can substantially affect soil carbon turnover, soil formation, decomposer food web and plant community.

  8. Soils and geomedicine.

    Steinnes, Eiliv

    2009-10-01

    Geomedicine is the science dealing with the influence of natural factors on the geographical distribution of problems in human and veterinary medicine. Discussions on potential harmful impacts on human and animal health related to soil chemistry are frequently focused on soil pollution. However, problems related to natural excess or deficiency of chemical substances may be even more important in a global perspective. Particularly problems related to trace element deficiencies in soils have been frequently reported in agricultural crops as well as in livestock. Deficiencies in plants are often observed for boron, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc. In animals deficiency problems related to cobalt, copper, iodine, manganese, and selenium are well known. Toxicity problems in animals exposed to excess intake have also been reported, e.g., for copper, fluorine, and selenium. Humans are similar to mammals in their relations to trace elements and thus likely to develop corresponding problems as observed in domestic animals if their supply of food is local and dependent on soils providing trace element imbalances in food crops. In large parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, people depend on locally grown food, and geomedical problems are common in these parts of the world. Well-known examples are Keshan disease in China associated with selenium deficiency, large-scale arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and adjacent parts of India, and iodine deficiency disorders in many countries. Not all essential elements are derived only from the soil minerals. Some trace elements such as boron, iodine, and selenium are supplied in significant amounts to soils by atmospheric transport from the marine environment, and deficiency problems associated with these elements are therefore generally less common in coastal areas than farther inland. For example, iodine deficiency disorders in humans are most common in areas situated far from the ocean. There is still a great need for further research on geomedical problems. PMID:19350398

  9. Saline waters and soil quality

    Carmelo Dazzi

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  10. Soil microbial diversity and related soil functioning in urban parks

    Bourgerie, S.; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Limam, I.; Yengue, Jean-Louis; Morabito, D

    2014-01-01

    The main thrust of this work was to improve the knowledge conerning soil biodiversity and related ecosystem services in soils from urban parks in several cities of the Rgion Centre, France. In this work, the pedological, geochemical and microbiological characteritics of surface soil were investigated in order to make an inventory of soil fertility in several urban parks of the major cities of the rgion Centre, France. The effects of agricultural practices on biomass, community structure and...

  11. Soil Drainage as an Active Agent of Recent Soil Evolution

    Montagne, David; Cornu, Sophie; LE FORESTIER, Lydie; Cousin, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    While research on pedogenesis mainly focuses on long-term soil formation and most often neglects recent soil evolution in response to human practices or climate changes, this article reviews the impact of artificial subsurface drainage on soil evolution. Artificial drainage is considered as an example of the impact of recent changes in water fluxes on soil evolution over time scales of decades to a century. Results from various classical studies on artificial drainage including hydrological a...

  12. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Choi, Yong Suk; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  13. Remediation of contaminated soil using soil washing-a review

    Karthika, N; K.Jananee

    2016-01-01

    Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn and Cd are heavy metals occur naturally as trace elements in many soils. The present paper reviews the remediation of heavy metals of contaminated soil by soil washing using different agents. It was noted that the contact time, pH, concentration of extract ant and agitation speed were affected the process while remediation, so accordingly select the conditions to obtain efficiency which is mainly depend upon the type of soil, contaminationtype, contamination per...

  14. Soil Sustainability Assessment. Proposed Soil Indicators for Sustainability

    Eydís Mary Jónsdóttir 1981

    2011-01-01

    Soils provide an array of essential, life-supporting ecosystem services that underpin human civilisation. This thesis, presents the result of a first iteration of an indicator development process towards a complete set of soil indicators for the assessment of soil sustainability. A total of 360 potential indicators, relating to issues concerning the sustainability of soil were identified through an extensive literature review. Under the guidelines of the BellagioSTAMP and using a thematic app...

  15. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation

  16. Working with Soil - Soil science in the field

    Hannam, Jacqueline; Lacelles, Bruce; Owen, Jason; Thompson, Dick; Jones, Bob; Towers, Willie

    2015-04-01

    Working with Soil is the Professional Competency Scheme developed by the British Society of Soil Science's Professional Practice Committee, formerly the Institute of Professional Soil Scientists. Ten competency documents cover the required qualifications, skills and knowledge for different aspects of applied soil science. The Society is currently engaged in a five year plan to translate the competency documents into a comprehensive set of training courses. Foundation skills in field-based science are covered by three separate training courses - Exposing and describing a soil profile (Course 1), Soil classification (Course 2), and Soil survey techniques (Course 3). Course 1 has run successfully twice a year since 2013. The other two courses are under development and are scheduled to start in 2015. The primary objective of Foundation Skills Course 1 is to develop confidence and familiarity with field soil investigation and description, understanding the soil underfoot and putting soils into a wider landscape context. Delegates excavate a soil profile pit, and describe and sample the exposed soil to standard protocols. Delegates work in teams of 4 or 5 so that an element of shared learning is part of the process. This has been a very positive aspect of the courses we have run to date. The course has attracted professionals from agricultural and environmental consultancies but is also very popular with research students and has formed a part of an Advanced Training Programme in Soil Science for postgraduates. As there is only one soil science degree course remaining in the UK, many students on their admission do not have a background in field-based pedology and lack an understanding of soil in the context of landscape scale soil functions. Feedback to date has been very positive.

  17. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  18. Soil mechanics experiment

    Mitchell, J. K.; Bromwell, L. G.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 15 soil-mechanics experiment has offered greater opportunity for study of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil than previous missions, not only because of the extended lunar-surface stay time and enhanced mobility provided by the lunar roving vehicle (rover), but also because four new data sources were available for the first time. These sources were: (1) the self-recording penetrometer (SRP), (2) new, larger diameter, thin-walled core tubes, (3) the rover, and (4) the Apollo lunar-surface drill (ALSD). These data sources have provided the best bases for quantitative analyses thus far available in the Apollo Program.

  19. Iodine dynamics in soils

    Shetaya, W.H.; Young, S. D.; Watts, M.J.; Ander, E. L.; Bailey, E. H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated changes in iodine (129I) solubility and speciation in nine soils with contrasting properties (pH, Fe/Mn oxides, organic carbon and iodine contents), incubated for nine months at 10 and 20 C. The rate of 129I sorption was greater in soils with large organic carbon contents (%SOC), low pH and at higher temperatures. Loss of iodide (I?) from solution was extremely rapid, apparently reaching completion over minuteshours; iodate () loss from solution was slower, typically occurri...

  20. Constructive Similarity of Soils

    Koudelka, Petr

    Singapore : Design, CRC a iTEK CMS Web solutions, 2012 - (Phoon, K.; Beer, M.; Quek, S.; Pang, S.), s. 206-211 ISBN 978-981-07-2218-0. [APS on Structural Reliability and Its Application – Sustainable Civil Infrastructures /5./. Singapore (SG), 23.05.2012-25.05.2012] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/1160 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : model similarity * database of soil properties * soil similarity characteristic * statistical analysis * ultimate limit states Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  1. Soil and ground cover

    The monitoring programmes set up in accordance with the directives for the surveillance of effluents from nuclear installations oblige operators of such installations to take samples of vegetation (grass) and soil twice a year at the least favourable place in the industrial plant's environment, and at a reference site, for radioactivity monitoring by gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the samples are to be examined for their Sr-90 content. Data recorded over the years show that nuclear facilities do not significantly contribute to soil and vegetation contamination with Sr-90 or Cs-137. The directives require regular interlaboratory comparisons, which are coordinated by the directing centre at Kiel. (DG)

  2. Soil moisture distribution over time in a clay loam soil in Kosovo

    Abdullah Nishori; Besnik Gjongecaj; Deme Abazi

    2013-01-01

    Studying the soil moisture distribution over time in a given soil profile is the object of the present study. The way the soil moisture gets distributed over soil profile depends particularly on the soil texture and on the soil suction gradients developed. However, it changes continuously over time for a given soil depth. The method of determining the soil moisture distribution over time is based on the measuring of soil moisture suctions developed and the soil moisture contents in various ti...

  3. Soil texture classification algorithm using RGB characteristics of soil images

    Soil texture has an important influence on agriculture, affecting crop selection, movement of nutrients and water, soil electrical conductivity, and crop growth. Soil texture has traditionally been determined in the laboratory using pipette and hydrometer methods that require a considerable amount o...

  4. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 5 - Soil Geography and Classification

    The system of soil classification developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is called Soil Taxonomy. Soil Taxonomy consists of a hierarchy of six levels which, from highest to lowest, are: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, family, and series. This lesson will focus on bro...

  5. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    We are pleased to see the letter by Schimel and Chadwick (Front Ecol Environ 2013; 11[8]: 405–06), highlighting the importance of soil characterization in ecological and biogeochemical research and explaining the value of soil taxonomy, and we agree with the authors that reporting soil

  6. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy

  7. Effects of Land Cover / Land Use, Soil Texture, and Vegetation on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated, bare soil and open water surfaces. The result of this study also shows that runoff is high in the clay, clay loam and sandy-clay loam due to the lack of infiltration process in clay soil from capping or crusting or sealing of the soil pores, therefore this situation will aid runoff. The application of the WetSpass model shows that precipitation, soil texture and land use / land cover are three controlling factors affecting the water balance in the LCB. Key words: Groundwater recharge, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, water balance, meteorological, draught, Landuse changes, climate changes, WetSpass, GIS.

  8. Use of Landsat imagery to detect land cover changes for monitoring soil sealing; case study: Bologna province (Italy)

    Casciere, Rossella; Franci, Francesca; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Landsat archives (made accessible by USGS at no charge since 2011) have made available to the scientific community a large amount of satellite multispectral images, providing new opportunities for environmental information, such as the analysis of land use/cover changes, which represent important tools for planning and sustainable land management. Processing a time series images, the creation of land cover maps has been improved in order to analyze phenomena such as the soil sealing. The main topic of this work is in fact the detection of roads and buildings construction or everything that involve soil removing. This subject is highly relevant, given the impact of the phenomenon on land use planning, environmental sustainability, agricultural policies and urban runoff. The analysis, still in progress, has been applied to Bologna Province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy) that covers 3703 Km2. This area is strongly urbanized: 8,9% of the total surface is sealed against a national value of 6,7%, with the soil sealing rate which has been defined from recent studies as the fourth Italian value in the 2001/2011 period. Other information available for this territory derive from CORINE Land Cover and Copernicus Projects. In the first one, the minimum mapping unit is 25 ha and the one for change is 5 ha; these values are too large for an accurate detection of the soil sealing dynamics. On the other hand, the Copernicus Project provides an imperviousness layer with a better resolution (20x20 m2), but its maps start from 2006. Therefore, the potential of multispectral remote sensing analysis over large areas and the multitemporal Landsat availability have been combined for a better knowledge about land cover changes. For this work, Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images have been acquired between 1987 and 2013, according to basic requirements as low cloud cover and a common acquisition season (summer). A supervised pixel-based classification has been performed, with maximum likelihood algorithm. Due to landscape heterogeneity, classification has been improved with auxiliary data, such as NDVI. Therefore, the obtained maps have been compared with a post-classification change detection procedure in order to quantify land use changes, with particular attention to the soil sealing increase.

  9. Precision Farming Tools. Soil Electrical Conductivity

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; Holshouser, David Lee, 1963-; Thomason, Wade Everett

    2005-01-01

    Soil electrical conductivity (EC) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements available to precision farmers today. Soil EC measurement can provide more measurements in a shorter amount of time than traditional grid soil sampling.

  10. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...

  11. Soil texture; 1 : 500 000

    The characteristics of soil texture are based on an abundant database of the agricultural and forest soils. The character of the texture of the upper soil horizons is assessed. The colour scale represents the classes of texture, and the raster distinguishes the individual classes of stoniness (in mountain ranges) or graveliness in the river alluvia. Soils with at least 10 % of area representation of rock basement are classified as very rocky. Very rocky soils are mostly rankers to Lithosols in the mountain areas of Slovakia. Medium stony are Cambisols to rankers on the crystalline rocks and volcanic complexes. The relatively heaviest soils are to be found in the Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland, the lightest soils occur in the Zahorska nizina Lowland with prevalence of soils on aeolian sands. (authors)

  12. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.; Dombos, M.; Graefe, U.; Krogh, Paul Henning; Sousa, J.P.; Peres, G.; Rutgers, M.; Winding, Anne; Römbke, J.

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) soil policy is described in general terms in the EU Soil Strategy (EC 2006a) and the legally binding elements of the policy are proposed in the draft Soil Framework Directive (SFD; EC 2006b). In these documents, eight main threats to soil were identified by the EU Commission....... The EU FP6 project ENVASSO (Environmental Assessment of Soil for Monitoring) had the aim to design a single, integrated and operational set of EU-wide criteria and indicators to provide the basis for a harmonised comprehensive soil and land information system for monitoring in Europe. Here, a proposal...... is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life...

  13. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  14. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  15. World's soils are under threat

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  16. Soil! Get the Scoop - The Soil Science Society of America's International Year of Soils Campaign

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan; van Es, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Soils are a finite natural resource and are nonrenewable on a human time scale. Soils are the foundation for food, animal feed, fuel and natural fiber production, the supply of clean water, nutrient cycling and a range of ecosystem functions. The area of fertile soils covering the world's surface is limited and increasingly subject to degradation, poor management and loss to urbanization. Increased awareness of the life-supporting functions of soil is called for if this trend is to be reversed and so enable the levels of food production necessary to meet the demands of population levels predicted for 2050. The Soil Science Society of America is coordinating with the Global Soil Partnership and other organizations around the world to celebrate the 2015 International Year of Soils and raise awareness and promote the sustainability of our limited soil resources. We all have a valuable role in communicating vital information on soils, a life sustaining natural resource. Therefore, we will provide resources to learn about soils and help us tell the story of soils. We will promote IYS on social media by sharing our posts from Facebook and Twitter. Additionally SSSA developed 12 monthly themes that reflect the diverse value of soils to our natural environment and society. Each month has information on the theme, a lesson plan, and other outreach activities. All information is available on a dedicated website www.soil.org/IYS. The site will be updated constantly throughout the year.

  17. Soil health in agricultural systems

    Kibblewhite, M. G.; Ritz, K.; Swift, M.J

    2007-01-01

    Soil health is presented as an integrative property that reflects the capacity of soil to respond to agricultural intervention, so that it continues to support both the agricultural production and the provision of other ecosystem services. The major challenge within sustainable soil management is to conserve ecosystem service delivery while optimizing agricultural yields. It is proposed that soil health is dependent on the maintenance of four major functions: carbon transformations; nutrient ...

  18. Bioremediation of Creosote - contaminated Soil

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied employing the methods of soil microbial biology and using new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analytical approach. The changes of the soil microbial community under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution impact were analyzed and described, as well as the changes during the bioremediation experiments. Laboratory-scale bioremediation experiments using the soil microbial community (consisted of bacteria...

  19. Mathematical simulation of soil cloddiness

    V.Y.Chertkov

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model was developed to predict soil clod size distribution attained after tillage so that it can be taken as initial state of soil for following erosion processes. The model was developed previously for rocks. The model predicts soil fragmentation resulting from multiple crack formation due to statistically uniform stresses. Peculiarities inherent to soils in view of their plastic properties are discussed. Comparison between calculated results and published experimental data demonstrates a satisfactory agreement.

  20. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    1997-01-01

    This preface of the special issue entitled "Soil Pollutants" (Analusis Magazine 25, M16-M72, 1997) highlights major basic and applied issues about the sources and fate of organic, mineral and radioactive pollutants in soils. Soils have long been considered as a closed and inert medium where wastes can be dumped without impact on living organisms. This is false and we know now that soils play a vital role in ecosystems. Pollution sources are diverse and numerous. Toxic compounds are either of ...

  1. Remediation and Reuse of Soils

    Zihms, Stephanie; Switzer, Christine; Tarantino, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Links between contaminant remediation and impacts on soil properties have not been explored in a systematic way. Most remediation studies focus on the effectiveness of the remediation process. Contamination and remediation can have significant effects on soil properties and function. Considering that in most remediation cases the soil will be re-used in some way, it is important to understand the effects of the remediation process on soil properties and the post-remediation soil behaviour. This understanding can help to determine the best re-use of the soil and therefore improve post-remediation site development. Laboratory experiments on coal tar contaminated soil treated with smouldering remediation show that thermal treatments affect a variety of soil properties ranging from mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, and pH. Dynamic responses like permeability and shear strength are impacted as well and these responses are linked to the changes in soil properties. Soil permeability, capillary rise, and contact angle change dramatically after this remediation process, indicating some degree of hydrophobicity and significant implications for water movement through the post-remediation soil. The observed changes in permeability are linked to physical changes to the soil grain surface combined with small amounts (tar and combustion product residue. Decoupling these effects is essential to understanding the extent of impact remediation processes have on long-term soil function. While chemical residue within the pores can be removed through "polishing" remediation steps, physical changes are likely to be permanent. Physical changes and chemical residue also have important implications with respect to the response of the soil under shear. These observed changes indicate that the remediated soil and its behaviour should be considered by remediation research. Monitoring of soil properties and behaviour during aggressive remediation can improve prediction of changes to infiltration rates and response to loading. These parameters are essential to effective and safe reuse of formerly contaminated brownfield sites.

  2. Monitoring and evaluating soil quality

    BLOEM, J; Schouten, A.J.; Srensen, S J; Rutgers, M.; Werf, A.K., van der; Breure, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of methods, which are described in sufficient detail to use the book as a practical handbook in the laboratory. The methods are described in chapters on soil microbial biomass and numbers, soil microbial ...

  3. Soil and Mangrove: A Review

    Hossain, M.D.; A.A. Nuruddin

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove forests dominate the coastlines of tropical and subtropical climates of the world. Mangroves provide protection in coastal areas from storms and erosion to help create sources of income for human being. Research on mangroves received little focus earlier in the 20th century. The current knowledge on physico-chemical properties of soil, soil nutrition, ecological relationship of soil and vegetation and relationship of soil with species composition and structure of mangrove forests in ...

  4. SOIL PHYSICS AND HYDROLOGY: CONDITIONERS

    Soil conditioners have been used since ancient times, even before the chemical and physical basis of conditioner effectiveness was accurately understood. Soil conditioners have included both organic and mineral materials as well as natural and synthetic materials. Examples of natural organic soil ...

  5. Cadmium absorption inhibitors for soil

    Kitamura, S.

    1974-05-25

    Cadmium absorption by soil is one cause of soil pollution. Cadmium adsorption inhibitors were prepared by mixing alginic acid which contained brown algae (Ascophyllum nodosum) and an inorganic material, shell fossils. This mixture was highly effective in preventing cadmium absorption by the soil.

  6. Biochar effects on soil hydrology

    Biochar has the potential to alter soil hydrology, and these alterations may lead to significant changes in water cycling and ecosystem processes mediated by water. Biochar soil amendment may change infiltration and drainage in both sandy and clay soils, may increase or decrease plant-available wate...

  7. ACTUAL STAGE IN SOIL REMEDIATION

    GABRIEL LAZAR; ALEXANDRA-DANA CHITIMUS; VALENTIN NEDEFF

    2011-01-01

    The article describes a few theoretical aspects concerning soil depollution processes. Techniques for the treatment of polluted soils have as an objective the destruction, elimination or immobilization of pollutants. The choice of the soil depollution technique or of the treatment method/type depends on the intrinsic characteristics of those techniques (on performance, installation), and on constraints specific to the site.

  8. Soils and Foundations: A Syllabus.

    Long, Melvin J.

    The teaching guide and course outline for a 12-week course in soils and foundations is designed to help student technicians in a two-year associate degree civil engineering technology program to obtain entry level employment as highway engineering aides, soil testing technicians, soil mappers, or construction inspectors. The seven teaching units…

  9. Infiltration in Unsaturated Soils

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Omidvar, M.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution has been established for the well known Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow of transports in soils. Despite the importance of Richards’ equation in geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications, most solutions to the problem are generally based on numerical...

  10. Infiltration in Unsaturated Soils

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Omidvar, M.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution has been established for the well known Richards equation for unsaturated flow of transports in soils. Despite the importance of Richards equation in geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications, most solutions to the problem are generally based on numerical...

  11. Improved Biosensors for Soils

    Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Cheng, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbes drive processes in the Earth system far exceeding their physical scale, affecting crop yields, water quality, the mobilization of toxic materials, and fundamental aspects of soil biogeochemistry. The tools of synthetic biology have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbial Earth system processes: for example, synthetic microbes can be be programmed to report on environmental conditions that stimulate greenhouse gas production, metal oxidation, biofilm formation, pollutant degradation, and microbe-plant symbioses. However, these tools are only rarely deployed in the lab. This research gap arises because synthetically programmed microbes typically report on their environment by producing molecules that are detected optically (e.g., fluorescent proteins). Fluorescent reporters are ideal for petri-dish applications and have fundamentally changed how we study human health, but their usefulness is quite limited in soils where detecting fluorescence is challenging. Here we describe the construction of gas-reporting biosensors, which release nonpolar gases that can be detected in the headspace of incubation experiments. These constructs can be used to probe microbial processes within soils in real-time noninvasive lab experiments. These biosensors can be combined with traditional omics-based approaches to reveal processes controlling soil microbial behavior and lead to improved environmental management decisions.

  12. Soils. Transparency Masters.

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This document is a collection of 43 overhead transparency masters to be used as teaching aids in a course of study involving soils such as geology, agronomy, hydrology, earth science, or land use study. Some transparencies are in color. Selected titles of transparencies may give the reader a better understanding of the graphic content. Titles are:

  13. Soil Compaction Investigation.

    Turski, Mark P.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lab investigation designed to introduce students to soil compaction and help them to learn to design and adapt procedures that scientists use when they plan and conduct controlled investigations. Provided are objectives, a list of materials, procedures, and a sample student handout. (CW)

  14. Surface soil contamination standards

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  15. DISEASE SUPPRESSIVE SOILS

    Suppressive soils have been described worldwide for a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. Classical approaches employed to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in suppression have changed little during the last four decades. However, when classical approa...

  16. Soil threats and soil protection: the role of biotechnology

    Rubio, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    The concept of soil conservation/soil protection in its wider sense has undergone important changes through history. Perceptions of soil as a crucial base of life in ancient cultures progressively evolved to a more pragmatic vision, with close connection to food production for survival. For centuries, agrarian production and the provision of food for humankind remained the main and crucial vision of the interaction of societies with soil. However, there are also some other new and important concepts related to soil which have progressively developed. (Author)

  17. SoilInfo App: global soil information on your palm

    Hengl, Tomislav; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    ISRIC ' World Soil Information has released in 2014 and app for mobile de- vices called 'SoilInfo' (http://soilinfo-app.org) and which aims at providing free access to the global soil data. SoilInfo App (available for Android v.4.0 Ice Cream Sandwhich or higher, and Apple v.6.x and v.7.x iOS) currently serves the Soil- Grids1km data ' a stack of soil property and class maps at six standard depths at a resolution of 1 km (30 arc second) predicted using automated geostatistical mapping and global soil data models. The list of served soil data includes: soil organic carbon (), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg/m3), cation exchange capacity of the fine earth fraction (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105992). New soil properties and classes will be continuously added to the system. SoilGrids1km are available for download under a Creative Commons non-commercial license via http://soilgrids.org. They are also accessible via a Representational State Transfer API (http://rest.soilgrids.org) service. SoilInfo App mimics common weather apps, but is also largely inspired by the crowdsourcing systems such as the OpenStreetMap, Geo-wiki and similar. Two development aspects of the SoilInfo App and SoilGrids are constantly being worked on: Data quality in terms of accuracy of spatial predictions and derived information, and Data usability in terms of ease of access and ease of use (i.e. flexibility of the cyberinfrastructure / functionalities such as the REST SoilGrids API, SoilInfo App etc). The development focus in 2015 is on improving the thematic and spatial accuracy of SoilGrids predictions, primarily by using finer resolution covariates (250 m) and machine learning algorithms (such as random forests) to improve spatial predictions.

  18. Soils, Pores, and NMR

    Pohlmeier, Andreas; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Haber, Agnes; Sucre, Oscar; Stingaciu, Laura; Stapf, Siegfried; Blümich, Bernhard

    2010-05-01

    Within Cluster A, Partial Project A1, the pore space exploration by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) plays a central role. NMR is especially convenient since it probes directly the state and dynamics of the substance of interest: water. First, NMR is applied as relaxometry, where the degree of saturation but also the pore geometry controls the NMR signature of natural porous systems. Examples are presented where soil samples from the Selhausen, Merzenhausen (silt loams), and Kaldenkirchen (sandy loam) test sites are investigated by means of Fast Field Cycling Relaxometry at different degrees of saturation. From the change of the relaxation time distributions with decreasing water content and by comparison with conventional water retention curves we conclude that the fraction of immobile water is characterized by T1 samples (Haber-Pohlmeier et al. 2010). Third, relaxometric information forms the basis of understanding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. The general difficulty of imaging in soils are the inherent fast T2 relaxation times due to i) the small pore sizes, ii) presence of paramagnetic ions in the solid matrix, and iii) diffusion in internal gradients. The last point is important, since echo times can not set shorter than about 1ms for imaging purposes. The way out is either the usage of low fields for imaging in soils or special ultra-short pulse sequences, which do not create echoes. In this presentation we will give examples on conventional imaging of macropore fluxes in soil cores (Haber-Pohlmeier et al. 2010), and the combination with relaxometric imaging, as well as the advantages and drawbacks of low-field and ultra-fast pulse imaging. Also first results on the imaging of soil columns measured by SIP in Project A3 are given. Haber-Pohlmeier, S., S. Stapf, et al. (2010). "Waterflow Monitored by Tracer Transport in Natural Porous Media Using MRI." Vadose Zone J.: submitted. Haber-Pohlmeier, S., S. Stapf, et al. (2010). "Relaxation in a Natural soil: Comparison of Relaxometric Imaging, T1 - T2 Correlation and Fast-Field Cycling NMR." The Open Magnetic Resonance Journal: in print. Pohlmeier, A., S. Haber-Pohlmeier, et al. (2009). "A Fast Field Cycling NMR Relaxometry Study of Natural Soils." Vadose Zone J. 8: 735-742. Stingaciu, L. R., A. Pohlmeier, et al. (2009). "Characterization of unsaturated porous media by high-field and low-field NMR relaxometry." Water Resources Research 45: W08412

  19. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role. The majority of the faecal residues in the NDE derived from pigs, cows and sheep. A precise statement about animal derived faecal in terra preta is not possible due to limited data of steroid composition of Amazonian animals. Nevertheless, the existence of this terra preta-like soil in the temperate zone in Europe is an excellent example for the existence of anthropogenic dark earth beyond the humid tropics with favorable properties.

  20. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  1. Wood-soil interactions in soil bioengineering slope stabilization works

    Moscatelli MC

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose the use of soil quality indicators with the aim of assessing the environmental impact of soil bioengineering works. This study was carried out in central Italy where soil bioengineering slope stabilization works were established using chestnut wood. In particular the goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of a wood-effect, that is changes of soil properties due to the presence of decomposing logs in two sites characterized by different time span since works setting up. The presence of the logs did not affect soil physico-chemical properties. Conversely, soil biochemical properties such as soil microbial biomass, basal and cumulative respiration activities as well as microbial indexes, were influenced by the presence of the logs confirming the role of these bioindicators as early predictors of changes occurring in soil. Although a general positive trend was observed for the biochemical properties at both sites with respect to the control soils, significant differences were recorded mainly at the site where works were established six years before soil sampling. Soil bioengineering slope stabilization works establish a positive feed-back which ultimately can benefit plants; in fact the increase in microbial mineralization activity can enhance nutrient cycling and thus promote adequate growth conditions for the plant cuttings used in the wooden-work.

  2. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Soil thermal diffusivity estimated from data of soil temperature and single soil component properties

    Quirijn de Jong van Lier; Angelica Durigon

    2013-01-01

    Under field conditions, thermal diffusivity can be estimated from soil temperature data but also from the properties of soil components together with their spatial organization. We aimed to determine soil thermal diffusivity from half-hourly temperature measurements in a Rhodic Kanhapludalf, using three calculation procedures (the amplitude ratio, phase lag and Seemann procedures), as well as from soil component properties, for a comparison of procedures and methods. To determine thermal cond...

  4. Soil physics: a Moroccan perspective

    Lahlou, Sabah; Mrabet, Rachid; Ouadia, Mohamed

    2004-06-01

    Research on environmental pollution and degradation of soil and water resources is now of highest priority worldwide. To address these problems, soil physics should be conceived as a central core to this research. This paper objectives are to: (1) address the role and importance of soil physics, (2) demonstrate progress in this discipline, and (3) present various uses of soil physics in research, environment and industry. The study of dynamic processes at and within the soil vadose zone (flow, dispersion, transport, sedimentation, etc.), and ephemeral phenomena (deformation, compaction, etc.), form an area of particular interest in soil physics. Soil physics has changed considerably over time. These changes are due to needed precision in data collection for accurate interpretation of space and time variation of soil properties. Soil physics interacts with other disciplines and sciences such as hydro(geo)logy, agronomy, environment, micro-meteorology, pedology, mathematics, physics, water sciences, etc. These interactions prompted the emergence of advanced theories and comprehensive mechanisms of most natural processes, development of new mathematical tools (modeling and computer simulation, fractals, geostatistics, transformations), creation of high precision instrumentation (computer assisted, less time constraint, increased number of measured parameters) and the scale sharpening of physical measurements which ranges from micro to watershed. The environment industry has contributed to an enlargement of many facets of soil physics. In other words, research demand in soil physics has increased considerably to satisfy specific and environmental problems (contamination of water resources, global warming, etc.). Soil physics research is still at an embryonic stage in Morocco. Consequently, soil physicists can take advantage of developments occurring overseas, and need to build up a database of soil static and dynamic properties and to revise developed models to meet our conditions. Large, but special, investment is required to promote research programs in soil physics, which consider developments in this discipline and respect Moroccan needs. These programs will be highlighted herein.

  5. How does soil management affect carbon losses from soils?

    Klik, A.; Trümper, G.

    2009-04-01

    Agricultural soils are a major source as well as a sink of organic carbon (OC). Amount and distribution of OC within the soil and within the landscape are driven by land management but also by erosion and deposition processes. At the other hand the type of soil management influences mineralization and atmospheric carbon dioxide losses by soil respiration. In a long-term field experiment the impacts of soil tillage systems on soil erosion processes were investigated. Following treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT), 2) conservation tillage with cover crop during the winter period (CS), and 3) no-till with cover crop during winter period (NT). The studies were carried out at three sites in the Eastern part of Austria with annual precipitation amounts from 650 to 900 mm. The soil texture ranged from silt loam to loam. Since 2007 soil CO2 emissions are measured with a portable soil respiration system in intervals of about one week, but also in relation to management events. Concurrent soil temperature and soil water content are measured and soil samples are taken for chemical and microbiological analyses. An overall 14-yr. average soil loss between 1.0 t.ha-1.yr-1 for NT and 6.1 t.ha-1.yr-1 for CT resulted in on-site OC losses from 18 to 79 kg ha-1.yr-1. The measurements of the carbon dioxide emissions from the different treatments indicate a high spatial variation even within one plot. Referred to CT plots calculated carbon losses amounted to 65-94% for NT plots while for the different RT plots they ranged between 84 and 128%. Nevertheless site specific considerations have to be taken into account. Preliminary results show that the adaptation of reduced or no-till management strategies has enormous potential in reducing organic carbon losses from agricultural used soils.

  6. Bioavailability of radiocaesium in soil: parameterization using soil characteristics

    Syssoeva, A.A.; Konopleva, I.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that radiocaesium availability to plants strongly influenced by soil properties. For the best evaluation of TFs it necessary to use mechanistic models that predict radionuclide uptake by plants based on consideration of sorption-desorption and fixation-remobilization of the radionuclide in the soil as well as root uptake processes controlled by the plant. The aim of the research was to characterise typical Russian soils on the basis of the radiocaesium availability. The parameter of the radiocaesium availability in soils (A) has been developed which consist on radiocaesium exchangeability; CF -concentration factor which is the ratio of the radiocaesium in plant to that in soil solution; K{sub Dex} - exchangeable solid-liquid distribution coefficient of radiocaesium. The approach was tested for a wide range of Russian soils using radiocaesium uptake data from a barley pot trial and parameters of the radiocaesium bioavailability. Soils were collected from the arable horizons in different soil climatic zones of Russia and artificially contaminated by {sup 137}Cs. The classification of soils in terms of the radiocaesium availability corresponds quite well to observed linear relationship between {sup 137}Cs TF for barley and A. K{sub Dex} is related to the soil radiocaesium interception potential (RIP), which was found to be positively and strongly related to clay and physical clay (<0,01 mm) content. The {sup 137}Cs exchangeability were found to be in close relation to the soil vermiculite content, which was estimated by the method of Cs{sup +} fixation. It's shown radiocaesium availability to plants in soils under study can be parameterized through mineralogical soil characteristics: % clay and the soil vermiculite content. (author)

  7. Evaluation-of soil enzyme activities as soil quality indicators in sludge-amended soils.

    Dindar, Efsun; Şağban, Fatma Olcay Topaç; Başkaya, Hüseyin Savaş

    2015-07-01

    Soil enzymatic activities are commonly used as biomarkers of soil quality. Several organic and inorganic compounds found in municipal wastewater sludges can possibly be used as fertilizers. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of sludge amended soils with enzyme activities accepted as a beneficial practice with respect to sustainable soil management. In the present study, variation of some enzyme activities (Alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, urease and beta-glucosidase activities) in soils amended with municipal wastewater sludge at different application rates (50, 100 and 200 t ha(-1) dry sludge) was evaluated. Air dried sludge samples were applied to soil pots and sludge-soil mixtures were incubated during a period of three months at 28 degrees C. The results of the study showed that municipal wastewater sludge amendment apparently increased urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and P-glucosidase activities in soil by 48-70%, 14-47%, 33-66% and 9-14%, respectively. The maximum activity was generally observed in sludge amended soil with dose of 200 t ha(-1). Urease activity appeared to be a better indicator of soil enhancement with wastewater sludge, as its activity was more strongly increased by sludge amendment. Accordingly, urease activity is suggested to be soil quality indicator best suited for measuring existing conditions and potential changes in sludge-amended soil. PMID:26364470

  8. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  9. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts such as wars or colonial relationships all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture and therefore global society faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system capable of feeding a growing population safeguard both soil fertility and the soil itself? Although the experiences of past societies provide ample historical basis for concern about the long-term prospects for soil conservation, data compiled from recent studies indicate that no-till farming could reduce erosion to levels close to soil production rates. Consequently, agricultural production need not necessarily come at the expense of either soil fertility or the soil itself, even if recent proposals to rely on conventionally grown corn for biofuels exemplify how short-term social and economic trade-offs can de-prioritize soil conservation. Like the issues of climate change and loss of biodiversity, the ongoing global degradation and loss of soil presents a fundamental social challenge in which the slow pace of environmental change counter-intuitively makes solutions all the more difficult to adopt.

  10. Nitrification in Dutch heathland soils.

    Boer, W.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a study on the production of nitrate in Dutch heathland soils. Most of the heathlands are located on acid, sandy soils. Therefore , it has dealt mainly with the occurrence, nature and mechanisms of nitrification in acid soils. In the Netherlands, the production of nitrate in acid soils is a matter of great concern because it has become obvious that this process contributes to a continuous acidification of such soils that are exposed to high levels of deposition of...

  11. Decomposition of Diethylstilboestrol in Soil

    Gregers-Hansen, Birte

    1964-01-01

    The rate of decomposition of DES-monoethyl-1-C14 in soil was followed by measurement of C14O2 released. From 1.6 to 16% of the added C14 was recovered as C14O2 during 3 months. After six months as much as 12 to 28 per cent was released as C14O2.Determination of C14 in the soil samples after the...... inhibit the CO2 production from the soil.Experiments with γ-sterilized soil indicated that enzymes present in the soil are able to attack DES....

  12. The role of biological soil crusts on soil moisture

    Chamizo, S.; Cantn, Y.; Lzaro, R.; Rodriguez-Caballero, E.; Domingo, F.

    2012-04-01

    In water-limited ecosystems, water becomes the most important driver for plant productivity. In these systems, spatial distribution of water resources is not random but organized into a mosaic of water-depletion areas linked to water-accumulation areas. In other words, water is transferred from interplant patches that act as source areas to vegetation patches that act as sinks of this resource. Thus, structure and functioning of interplant patches have a decisive role in water redistribution and distribution patterns of vegetation. Soil surface in the interplant spaces of most arid and semiarid ecosystems is covered by biological soil crusts (BSCs). These organisms regulate water fluxes into and through soils and play major roles in local hydrological processes. In the last years, the role of these organisms in infiltration and runoff has gained increased importance and a better knowledge about their effects on these processes has been acquired. However, the role of BSCs in other important components of the water balance such as evaporation or soil moisture has been scarcely studied, so that their effects on these processes remain unknown. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of BSCs on soil moisture regimes in the top profile of the soil in two semiarid ecosystems of SE Spain with contrasting soil texture and where BSCs are well-represented. Soil moisture content at 0.03 and 0.10 m was monitored under two representative types of BSCs, a dark cyanobacteria-dominated BSC and a light-coloured lichen-dominated BSC, and in soils where these BSCs were removed by scraping, at both study sites. Our results show that, under high water conditions, removal of BSCs leads to a decrease in soil moisture compared to soils covered by BSCs. Decrease in soil moisture due to BSC removal namely affects moisture in the upper layer of the soil (0.03 m), but has little impact in deeper soil (0.10 m). Evaporation is also generally faster in soils with no BSCs than in soils covered by them. The type of BSC influences soil moisture in a different way depending on soil water conditions. Under high water content conditions, soil water loss is faster and soil moisture content lower under cyanobacterial than under lichen BSCs, due to higher infiltration promoted by lichens. On the contrary, under low water content conditions, lichen-crusted soils dry out faster and exhibit less moisture than cyanobacteria-crusted ones, attributed to the larger porosity and subsequent greater evaporative losses in lichen- than in cyanobacteria-crusted soils. We found higher moisture in coarse-textured soils than in fine-textured ones, despite the higher water retention capacity of the latter soils. More favourable conditions in the coarser soils, which had greater organic matter content, aggregate stability and were subject to less water stress due to its proximity to the coast, seems to contribute to this increased soil moisture content. BSCs therefore play an important role on the maintenance of water availability in the interplant spaces, thereby strongly affecting soil physical and biological processes, and the potential for emergence establishment and survival of plants in semiarid ecosystems.

  13. Estimating soil moisture and soil thermal and hydraulic properties by assimilating soil temperatures using a particle batch smoother

    Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Ochsner, Tyson E.; Giesen, Nick van de

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the potential of estimating the soil moisture profile and the soil thermal and hydraulic properties by assimilating soil temperature at shallow depths using a particle batch smoother (PBS) using synthetic tests. Soil hydraulic properties influence the redistribution of soil moisture within the soil profile. Soil moisture, in turn, influences the soil thermal properties and surface energy balance through evaporation, and hence the soil heat transfer. Synthetic experiments were used to test the hypothesis that assimilating soil temperature observations could lead to improved estimates of soil hydraulic properties. We also compared different data assimilation strategies to investigate the added value of jointly estimating soil thermal and hydraulic properties in soil moisture profile estimation. Results show that both soil thermal and hydraulic properties can be estimated using shallow soil temperatures. Jointly updating soil hydraulic properties and soil states yields robust and accurate soil moisture estimates. Further improvement is observed when soil thermal properties were also estimated together with the soil hydraulic properties and soil states. Finally, we show that the inclusion of a tuning factor to prevent rapid fluctuations of parameter estimation, yields improved soil moisture, temperature, and thermal and hydraulic properties.

  14. Salt movement in disturbed soils

    A literature review is presented of information on salt movement in disturbed soils, particularly in soils that have been disturbed by pipeline construction. The review has two main objectives: to assess climatic and soil conditions under which salts will move out of the root zone in a disturbed soil and to determine the rate at which salts will move in disturbed soils. A literature base was established using computer database and library searches, and a number of studies were reviewed. Many studies, dealing specifically with salt movement over time in disturbed soils under climatic and salt conditions similar to those found in Alberta, are summarized in tabular form. Data found in the literature tend to be sparse and incomplete, making firm conclusions about rates of salt movement difficult. In the brown soil zone, 5 years may be sufficient time for sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity levels, elevated during construction, to return to pre-construction conditions in coarse to moderately coarse textured soils. In medium to moderately fine textured soils, 10-26 years may be required. In the dark brown soil zone, 5 years is marginal for return to pre-construction conditions. Data in the black soil zone are limited and results inconsistent. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. World's soils are under threat

    Montanarella, L.; Pennock, D. J.; McKenzie, N. J.; Badraoui, M.; Chude, V.; Baptista, I.; Mamo, T.; Yemefack, M.; Singh Aulakh, M.; Yagi, K.; Hong, S. Young; Vijarnsorn, P.; Zhang, G.-L.; Arrouays, D.; Black, H.; Krasilnikov, P.; Sobock, J.; Alegre, J.; Henriquez, C. R.; Mendona-Santos, M. L.; Taboada, M.; Espinosa-Victoria, D.; AlShankiti, A.; AlaviPanah, S. K.; Elsheikh, E. A. E.; Hempel, J.; Camps Arbestain, M.; Nachtergaele, F.; Vargas, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecure among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the SWSR report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  16. Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...... tracers) for a better determination of the diffusivity. The diffusivity was higher in the below-till soil than the plowed soil at the same soil water matric potential due to higher water content but also due to higher continuity and lower tortuosity of the soil pores. We measured identical solute...... diffusivities independent of the tracer set used. We analyzed the whole data set using Archie's law and found a linear relation between Archie's exponent and the logarithm of the soil water matric suction in centimeters of water (pF). An analysis of seven data sets from the literature showed that this was a...

  17. Soil washing and radioactive contamination

    Soil washing, a technique combining both physical and chemical processes to produce significant volume reduction of contaminated soils, is widely regarded as a panacea for the huge inventory of contaminated soils in the DOE Complex. While the technology has been demonstrated for organics and to some extent for metals, review of the publications available on the practical applications to radioactive sites, indicates that most volume reduction is a product of unique circumstances such as screening or floating out non-soil materials containing most of the contaminants, or leaching contaminants (uranium or TRU) that exist as anionic complexes (Grant, 1991) which are not held by the soil cation-exchange-capacity. In either case, the potential for success of the technology is extremely site and contaminant specific. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guidance on soil washing treatability studies suggests a 50% reduction of contamination in particles over 2mm as a reasonable cutoff for choosing soil washing for further development (EPA, 1991)

  18. Applications of visual soil evaluation

    Ball, Bruce C; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Batey, Tom

    harmonized scale. Other recommendations were to include coarse textured soils, to consider controlled traffic, to relate sampling location to vegetation and crop conditions and to relate the results of visual evaluation of soil to crop performance. This latter has already been achieved with the VSA test from......Working Group F “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) was formed over 30 years ago within the International Soil & Tillage Research Organisation (ISTRO) on the initiative of Tom Batey. The objectives of the Working Group are to stimulate interest in field methods of visual-tactile soil......., 2006). Ten visual and tactile methods were used to assess soil structure on the same soil. This stimulated significant ongoing cooperation between participants and several authors have since modified and developed their procedures (Mueller et al., 2009 and Shepherd, 2009). Cooperation also led to the...

  19. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities

    The interaction of the soil with the structure has been largely explored the assumption of material and geometrical linearity of the soil. Nevertheless, for moderate or strong seismic events, the maximum shear strain can easily reach the elastic limit of the soil behavior. Considering soil-structure interaction, the nonlinear effects may change the soil stiffness at the base of the structure and therefore energy dissipation into the soil. Consequently, ignoring the nonlinear characteristics of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) this phenomenon could lead to erroneous predictions of structural response. The goal of this work is to implement a fully nonlinear constitutive model for soils into a numerical code in order to investigate the effect of soil nonlinearity on dynamic soil structure interaction. Moreover, different issues are taken into account such as the effect of confining stress on the shear modulus of the soil, initial static condition, contact elements in the soil-structure interface, etc. During this work, a simple absorbing layer method based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation, which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares, is also presented. The stability conditions of the wave propagation problems are studied and it is shown that the linear and nonlinear behavior are very different when dealing with numerical dispersion. It is shown that the 10 points per wavelength rule, recommended in the literature for the elastic media is not sufficient for the nonlinear case. The implemented model is first numerically verified by comparing the results with other known numerical codes. Afterward, a parametric study is carried out for different types of structures and various soil profiles to characterize nonlinear effects. Different features of the DSSI are compared to the linear case: modification of the amplitude and frequency content of the waves propagated into the soil, fundamental frequency, energy dissipation in the soil and the response of the soil-structure system. Through these parametric studies we show that depending on the soil properties, frequency content of the soil response could change significantly due to the soil nonlinearity. The peaks of the transfer function between free field and outcropping responses shift to lower frequencies and amplification happens at this frequency range. Amplification reduction for the high frequencies and even de-amplification may happen for high level input motions. These changes influence the structural response. We show that depending on the combination of the fundamental frequency of the structure and the the natural frequency of the soil, the effect of soil-structure interaction could be significant or negligible. However, the effect of structure weight and rocking of the superstructure could change the results. Finally, the basin of Nice is used as an example of wave propagation on a heterogeneous nonlinear media and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The basin response is strongly dependent on the combination of soil nonlinearity, topographic effects and impedance contrast between soil layers. For the selected structures and soil profiles of this work, the performed numerical simulations show that the shift of the fundamental frequency is not a good index to discriminate linear from nonlinear soil behavior. (author)

  20. Tensile and erosive strength of soil macro-aggregates from soils under different management system

    Urbanek, Emilia; Horn, Rainer; Smucker, Alwin J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced soil tillage practices are claimed to improve soil health, fertility and productivity through improved soil structure and higher soil organic matter contents. This study compares soil structure stability of soil aggregates under three different tillage practices: conventional, reduced and no tillage. The erosive strength of soil aggregates has been determined using the abrasion technique with the soil aggregate erosion chambers (SAE). During abrasion soil aggregates have been separate...

  1. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    Ahmed, Ashour; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil < o...

  2. Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration

    Tamai, K.

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a) an evergreen forest with common brown forest soil and (b) a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil properties were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects in the deciduous and evergreen forests were compared. In the evergreen forest with common brown forest soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soi...

  3. Soil organic matter and soil biodiversity spots in urban and semi urban soils of southeast Mexico

    Huerta, Esperanza

    2015-04-01

    We have observed how the constant use of compost or vermicompost has created spots of soil restoration in urban and semiurban soils of Chiapas (Huitepec and Teopisca), increasing soil organic matter amount, soil moisture and soil porosity, and enhancing then the presence of soil biodiversity; for example, in a Milpa with vermicompost (polyculture of Zea mays with Curcubita pepo, and Fasolius vulgaris) we have found a high density of an epigeic earthworm (640 ind.m2), Dichogaster bolahui, not present in the same type of soil just some meters of distance, in an Oak forest, where soil macroinvertebrates abundance decreased drastically. In another ecosystem within a Persea Americana culture, we found how above and below ground soil biodiversity is affected by the use of vermicompost, having clearly different microcosmos with and without vermicompost (30-50% more micro and macro invertebrates with vermicompost). So now in Campeche, within those soils that are classified by the mayas as tzequel, soils not use for agriculture, we have implemented home gardens and school gardens by the use of compost of vermicomposts in urban and semiurban soils. In school gardens (mainly primary schools) students have cultivated several plants with alimentary purposes; teachers have observed how the increase of soil biodiversity by the use of compost or vermicompost has enhanced the curiosity of children, even has promoted a more friendly behavior among students, they have learned how to do compost and how to apply it. Urban and semiurban soils can be modified by the use of compost and vermicompost, and soil biodiversity has extremely increased.

  4. Soil Carbon Sequestration in India

    With a large land area and diverse ecoregions, there is a considerable potential of terrestrial/soil carbon sequestration in India. Of the total land area of 329 million hectares (Mha), 297 Mha is the land area comprising 162 Mha of arable land, 69 Mha of forest and woodland, 11 Mha of permanent pasture, 8 Mha of permanent crops and 58 Mha is other land uses. The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is estimated at 21 Pg (petagram = Pg = 1 x 1015 g billion ton) to 30-cm depth and 63 Pg to 150-cm depth. The soil inorganic carbon (SIC) pool is estimated at 196 Pg to 1-m depth. The SOC concentration in most cultivated soils is less than 5 g/kg compared with 15 to 20 g/kg in uncultivated soils. Low SOC concentration is attributed to plowing, removal of crop residue and other biosolids, and mining of soil fertility. Accelerated soil erosion by water leads to emission of 6 Tg C/y. Important strategies of soil C sequestration include restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs) of agricultural and forestry soils. Potential of soil C sequestration in India is estimated at 7 to 10 Tg C/y for restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems, 5 to 7 Tg C/y for erosion control, 6 to 7 Tg C/y for adoption of RMPs on agricultural soils, and 22 to 26 Tg C/y for secondary carbonates. Thus, total potential of soil C sequestration is 39 to 49 (44± 5) Tg C/y

  5. Discovering the essence of soil

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of ancient prebiotic soils. Furthermore, the physiological approach sheds light on the emergence of new soil components (e.g. spodic horizons) as ancient prebiotic soils adapt to a plethora of biotic carbon compounds. Other emergent soil properties and behaviors can be linked to the kinds, frequencies, order and intensities of various ubiquitous pedo-perturbations.

  6. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

  7. Soil phosphorus landscape models for precision soil conservation.

    Hong, Jinseok; Grunwald, Sabine; Vasques, Gustavo M

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) enrichment in soils has been documented in the Santa Fe River watershed (SFRW, 3585 km) in north-central Florida. Yet the environmental factors that control P distribution in soils across the landscape, with potential contribution to water quality impairment, are not well understood. The main goal of this study was to develop soil-landscape P models to support a "precision soil conservation" approach combining fine-scale (i.e., site-specific) and coarse-scale (i.e., watershed-extent) assessment of soil P. The specific objectives were to: (i) identify those environmental properties that impart the most control on the spatial distribution of soil Mehlich-1 extracted P (MP) in the SFRW; (ii) model the spatial patterns of soil MP using geostatistical methods; and (iii) assess model quality using independent validation samples. Soil MP data at 137 sites were fused with spatially explicit environmental covariates to develop soil MP prediction models using univariate (lognormal kriging, LNK) and multivariate methods (regression kriging, RK, and cokriging, CK). Incorporation of exhaustive environmental data into multivariate models (RK and CK) improved the prediction of soil MP in the SFRW compared with the univariate model (LNK), which relies solely on soil measurements. Among all tested environmental covariates, land use and vegetation related properties (topsoil) and geologic data (subsoil) showed the largest predictive power to build inferential models for soil MP. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of spatially explicit interactions between soil P and other environmental variables, facilitating improved land resource management while minimizing adverse risks to the environment. PMID:26024255

  8. Bioventing petroleum contaminated soils

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a cost effective method for removing volatile hydrocarbons from unsaturated soils. This process also provides oxygen to the subsurface which enhances the biodegradation of the volatile and non-volatile hydrocarbon contaminants. Bioventing technology combines the oxygen delivery capabilities of SVE with nutrient and moisture management to maximize the amount of hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation and minimize the amount of removal attributed to volatilization. There is a growing list of bioventing field demonstrations designed to remove a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons from the vadose zone. In this paper bioventing field data will be presented from a pilot-scale study at Tyndal AFB FL, a full-scale cleanup effort at Hill AFB UT, and a feasibility study in cold weather environment

  9. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs

  10. Bioremediation of soils

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has evolved from the refinery land treatment units of thirty years ago to the modern slurry reactors of today. Modifications in the process include engineering controls designed to prevent the migration of hydrocarbons into the unsaturated zone, the saturated zone and groundwater, and the atmosphere. Engineering innovations in the area of composting and bioaugmentation that have focused on further process control and the acceleration of the treatment process will form the basis for future improvements in bioremediation technology. Case studies for established methods that have survived this development process and continue to be used as cost effective biological treatments like engineered land farms, soil heap treatment and in situ treatment will be discussed

  11. The soils of Mars

    Banin, A.

    1988-01-01

    A mineralogical model for the Mars fine soil that includes as major components smectite clays absorbed and coated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides and perhaps mixed with small amounts of better-crystalized iron oxides as separate phases is proposed. Also present as accessory minerals are sulfate minerals such as kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) and/or anhydrite (CaSO4), rutile (TiO2), and maghemite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4), the last two as magnetic components. Carbonates may be present at low concentrations only (less than 1 to 2 pct). However, a prime question to be addressed by a Mars Sample Return Mission shall be related to the mineralogical composition of the soil, and its spatial variability.

  12. Study of pollutant washoff from small impervious experimental plots

    Vaze, J.; Chiew, Francis H. S.

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the pollutant washoff process in urban catchments is essential to develop appropriate models for estimating storm water pollutant washoff loads. This paper investigates the relative importance of the raindrop and runoff energies in the pollutant washoff process by carrying out field and laboratory experiments. Two similar test surfaces are used, with simulated rainfall allowed to fall directly onto one surface, while insect screens are placed above the other surface to remove the rainfall energy. The results indicate that both the turbulence created by falling raindrops and the shear stress imparted by surface runoff are important in loosening the surface particles and suspending them in water, making them available for washoff. The energy of falling raindrops in detaching the surface pollutants is very important at the start of an event and is less dominant as the availability of easily detachable and transportable fractions of the surface pollutant decreases over the storm. Analyses of data from the experimental runs and from actual catchments also suggest that meaningful characteristic curves that relate event total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to storm durations for specific rainfall intensities can be developed from the experimental data.

  13. Characterization of soil polysaccharides

    Gómez Alarcón, Gonzalo; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    1987-01-01

    Fractionation of fulvic extracts from four Spanish soils using adsorption on insoluble polyvinyl pyrrolidone (polyclar AT) permitted the separation of polysaccharide fractions. No siqnificant differences between fractions were found with respect to elemental analysis, sugar composition, infrared and pyrolysis mass spectra. The most striking feature was the hiqh sulphur content, varying from 3.7 to 9.8%. In addition to monosaccharides (neutral sugars) the isolates consiste...

  14. Food, soil, and agriculture

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  15. Statistical approach to estimating soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of radionickel in agricultural soils

    Soil-soil solution distribution coefficient (Kd) is an important parameter in radiation dose assessment models for the environmental transfer of radionuclides. Since Kd values vary with soil properties, development of their estimation method using some soil properties is useful. In this study, we estimate Kd values of radionickel using selected soil properties. We determined Kd values of Ni for 142 agricultural soil samples collected throughout Japan and measured such soil properties as pH, cation exchangeable capacity, exchangeable Ca, clay content, concentrations of major elements in soil, and concentrations of major elements in water soluble fractions. The relationship between the Kd of Ni and each soil property was calculated using Spearman's rank correlation test. Then, in order to estimate Kd values of Ni based on soil properties, we used the method which we developed in the previous study for strontium using multiple linear regression analysis. Our results showed that potassium concentration in soil and phosphorus concentration in water soluble fraction were the most important factors contributing to estimation of Kd values. Finally, a predictive expression including three selected variables was created to estimate Kd values of Ni. Predicted Kd values from the expression were in good agreement with observed Kd values. (author)

  16. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10-3) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10-2) and one tenth (10-1) that of T respectively. (orig./HP)

  17. Soil and terrestial indicators

    Long-lived radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in soil are analysed in the vicinity of nuclear power stations every four years. Both vertical disribution and the total amount of radionuclides per unit of area are determined from the samples. The results of surveys carried out at Loviisa in 1983 and at Olkiluoto in 1984 are presented here. The total deposition determined by soil samples had decreased slightly since the previous soil studies and was, on average, 630 Bq m-2 of 90Sr, 1800 Bq m-2137Cs and 30 Bq m-2239,240Pu. To follow up short-lived radionuclides in deposition, an indicator organism, hair moss, is analysed four times a year in the vicinity of nuclear power stations. Hair moss principally reflects the fall-out from nuclear weapon tests. Small amounts of 60Co released from power stations was also detectable. Both an indicator and a step in the food chain leading to man, pasture grass was analysed in the vicinity of nuclear power stations twice during the growing season. The concentrations of 137Cs were very low, and no 131I was detected. The results for hair moss and pasture grass at Loviisa from 1980-1985 and from 1981-1985 at Olkiluoto are given

  18. Soil mechanics: breaking ground.

    Einav, Itai

    2007-12-15

    In soil mechanics, student's models are classified as simple models that teach us unexplained elements of behaviour; an example is the Cam clay constitutive models of critical state soil mechanics (CSSM). 'Engineer's models' are models that elaborate the theory to fit more behavioural trends; this is usually done by adding fitting parameters to the student's models. Can currently unexplained behavioural trends of soil be explained without adding fitting parameters to CSSM models, by developing alternative student's models based on modern theories?Here I apply an alternative theory to CSSM, called 'breakage mechanics', and develop a simple student's model for sand. Its unique and distinctive feature is the use of an energy balance equation that connects grain size reduction to consumption of energy, which enables us to predict how grain size distribution (gsd) evolves-an unprecedented capability in constitutive modelling. With only four parameters, the model is physically clarifying what CSSM cannot for sand: the dependency of yielding and critical state on the initial gsd and void ratio. PMID:17855225

  19. Soils and organic sediments

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  20. Soil physical properties on Venezuelan steeplands: Applications to soil conservation planning

    This paper presents a framework to support decision making for soil conservation on Venezuelan steeplands. The general approach is based on the evaluation of two important land qualities: soil productivity and soil erosion risk, both closely related to soil physical properties. Soil productivity can be estimated from soil characteristics such as soil air-water relationships, soil impedances and soil fertility. On the other hand, soil erosion risk depends basically on soil hydrologic properties, rainfall aggressiveness and terrain slope. Two indexes are obtained from soil and land characteristics: soil productivity index (PI) and erosion risk index (ERI), each one evaluates the respective land quality. Subsequently, a matrix with these two qualities shows different land classes as well as soil conservation priorities, conservation requirements and proposed land uses. The paper shows also some applications of the soil productivity index as an approach to evaluate soil loss tolerance for soil conservation programs on tropical steeplands. (author)

  1. Fate and transport of chromium through soil

    Chromium chemistry relevant to the problem facing state of New Jersey (Usa) was examined. Transport of chromium through soil depends on its chemical forms. Transformation of chromium within bulk of soil depends on soil constituents, soil condition, such as pH, Eh and organic compounds applied onto soil or present in soil. Total chromium in soil can be determined. Speciation of chromium based on ionization, hydrolysis, complex formation, redox reactions and adsorption is predicted using MINIQ program

  2. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    New and emerging policies that aim to set standards for protection and sustainable use of soil are likely to require identification of geographical risk/priority areas. Soil degradation can be seen as the change or disturbance in soil quality and it is therefore crucial that soil and soil quality are well understood to protect soils and to meet legislative requirements. To increase this understanding a review of the soil quality definition evaluated its development, with a formal scientific a...

  3. Soil compaction: Evaluation of stress transmission and resulting soil structure

    Naveed, Muhammad; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu

    Accurate estimation of stress transmission and resultant deformation in soil profiles is a prerequisite for the development of predictive models and decision support tools for preventing soil compaction. Numerous studies have been carried out on the effects of soil compaction, whilst relatively few...... studies have focused on the cause (mode of stress transmission in the soil). We have coupled both cause and effects together in the present study by carrying out partially confined compression tests on (1) wet aggregates, (2) air dry aggregates, and (3) intact soils to quantify stress transmission and...... result stress transmission mode was shifted from discrete towards more like a continuum. Continuum-like stress transmission mode was better simulated with Boussinesq (1885) model based on theory of elasticity compared to discrete. The soil-pore structure was greatly affected by increasing applied...

  4. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Schaap, Marcel G

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs...... parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic...

  5. SoilEffects - start characterization of the experimental soil

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    from a herd of about 25 organically managed dairy cows. This report describes the initial characterization of the soil biology, chemistry and physics, along with the background of the project, the selection process of the research field and the project design. Effects of the manure treatment and......Summary This report describes the establishment, experimental plan and initial soil characteristics of the field experiment linked to the project “Effects of anaerobically digested manure on soil fertility - establishment of a long-term study under Norwegian conditions” (SoilEffects, 2010-14). The...... aim of the SoilEffects project is to identify potential risks and benefits for soil fertility when animal manure is anaerobically digested for biogas production. The field experiment was established on Tingvoll research farm in 2011. A biogas plant was built at this farm in 2010, to digest the manure...

  6. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    Brgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangs; Jacobsen, Ole Hrbye; Schaap, Marcel G

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic...... hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs...

  7. Electrokinetic remediation of unsaturated soils

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Large spills and leaks can contaminate both the soil above the water table as well as the aquifer itself. Electrodes are implanted in the soil, and a direct current is imposed between the electrodes. The application of direct current leads to a number of effects: ionic species and charged particles in the soil water will migrate to the oppositely charged electrode (electromigration and electrophoresis), and concomitant with this migration, a bulk flow of water is induced, usually toward the cathode (electroosmosis). The combination of these phenomena leads to a movement of contaminants toward the electrodes. The direction of contaminant movement will be determined by a number of factors, among which are type and concentration of contaminant, soil type and structure, interfacial chemistry of the soil-water system, and the current density in the soil pore water. Contaminants arriving at the electrodes may potentially be removed from the soil by one of several methods, such as electroplating or adsorption onto the electrode, precipitation or co-precipitation at the electrode, pumping of water near the electrode, or complexing with ion-exchange resins. Experimental results are described on the removal of sodium dichromate and food dye from soil

  8. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume I.-Galicia

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Department de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim. a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary)' source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Galicia

  9. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIV.- Cataluna

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Cataluna. (Author) 57 refs

  10. Remediation of soils combining soil vapor extraction and bioremediation: benzene.

    Soares, Antnio Alves; Albergaria, Jos Toms; Domingues, Valentina Fernandes; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceio M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    This work reports the study of the combination of soil vapor extraction (SVE) with bioremediation (BR) to remediate soils contaminated with benzene. Soils contaminated with benzene with different water and natural organic matter contents were studied. The main goals were: (i) evaluate the performance of SVE regarding the remediation time and the process efficiency; (ii) study the combination of both technologies in order to identify the best option capable to achieve the legal clean up goals; and (iii) evaluate the influence of soil water content (SWC) and natural organic matter (NOM) on SVE and BR. The remediation experiments performed in soils contaminated with benzene allowed concluding that: (i) SVE presented (a) efficiencies above 92% for sandy soils and above 78% for humic soils; (b) and remediation times from 2 to 45 h, depending on the soil; (ii) BR showed to be an efficient technology to complement SVE; (iii) (a) SWC showed minimum impact on SVE when high airflow rates were used and led to higher remediation times for lower flow rates; (b) NOM as source of microorganisms and nutrients enhanced BR but hindered the SVE due the limitation on the mass transfer of benzene from the soil to the gas phase. PMID:20605039

  11. Soil vapor extraction of JP-4 jet fuel contaminated soils

    This paper presents findings and lessons learned from the investigation, pilot, design, and remedial action phases of a soil vapor extraction (SVE) project. Soil vapor extraction was performed on JP-4 jet fuel contaminated soils at two fire training pits at Luke AFB, Arizona. The site was used for fire training exercises on a quarterly basis from 1973 to as late as 1990. Petroleum wastes were originally used for fire training exercised but this practice was discontinued during 1973. Five soil borings were drilled and sampled in each of the two fire training pits during the investigations

  12. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume V.- Madrid

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid. (Author) 39 refs

  13. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume III.- Extremadura

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalized and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. (Author) 50 refs

  14. Investigation of Wetland Soil Properties affecting Optimum Soil Cultivation

    O.O. Babatunde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on wetland (fadama soil properties affecting optimum soil cultivation. A cone penetrometerand a shear vane apparatus (19 mm were used to determine the cone index and the torque that cause the soil to shearat different moisture contents. The study shows that the cone index and shear vane of fadama soils increased with depth anddecreased with increase in moisture content. High moisture content reduced the soil cohesion. The internal frictional angleof the soil was 37.90. The following values were obtained for soil cohesion 112 kN/m2, 62 kN/m2, 38 kN/m2, 30 kN/m2, and12 kN/m2 at moisture contents of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively. Moisture content between 10% -15% (dry basisappeared ideal for cultivation of the soil. For this soil the critical moisture content was found to be 23.72%. Moisture contentbeyond the critical level needs to be drained before cultivation is carried out.

  15. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XV.- Aragon

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Aragon. (Author) 47 refs

  16. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  17. Soil Spectroscopy: An Alternative to Wet Chemistry for Soil Monitoring

    Nocita, M.; Stevens, A.; van Wesemael, Bas; Aitkenhead, M.; Bachmann, M.; Barthès, B.; Ben Dor, E.; Brown, D. J.; Clairotte, M.; Csorba, A.; Dardenne, P.; Demattê, J.A.M.; Genot, V.; Guerrero, C.; Knadel, Maria; Montanarella, L.; Noon, C.; Ramirez-Lopez, L.; Robertson, J.; Sakai, H.; Soriano-Disla, J.M.; Shepherd, K.D.; Stenberg, B; Towett, E.K.; Vargass, R.; Wetterlind, J.

    2015-01-01

    The soil science community is facing a growing demand of regional, continental, and worldwide databases in order to monitor the status of the soil. However, the availability of such data is very scarce. Cost-effective tools to measure soil properties for large areas (e.g., Europe) are required. S...... international organizations. The Food and Agriculture Organiza-tion (FAO) of United Nations and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commis-sion are well placed to promote the use of laboratory and field spectrometers for monitoring the state of soils....

  18. SMEX03 Little River Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Parameters for this data set include precipitation, soil temperature, volumetric soil moisture, soil conductivity, and soil salinity measured in the Little River...

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  20. Fuzzy Representation of Soil Erosion

    Komaki, Ch. B.; Kainz, W.; Alavi Panah, S. K.; Matinfar, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    Fuzzy representation is a productive method to explain the natural processes so that it is near to linguistic form and it is also applicable to estimate the environmental processes in where the uncertainty in information is high. As models proposed to estimate soil erosion also have uncertainties and fuzzy inference system is more flexible in describing the relationship between soil erosion and other factor, especially in managing data and model uncertainties. in the research, it is used simplified model of revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate soil erosion in dry lands of Kashan area in Central Iran . Then to discover the systematic (IF-Then) rules in soil erosion process, we used inductive reasoning method to discover rules of the causing agents of erosion such as rainfall erosivity, topography factors, soil erodibility , then highly supported rules converted to fuzzy rules. It is resulted that the application of fuzzy inference system for erosion evaluation is applicable in regional level.

  1. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, J.; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (?? SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ?? 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ?? 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ?? 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities. ?? 2006 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Guidelines for Measuring Bulk Density of Soil

    Bulk density is defined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of undisturbed soil. • Bulk density can be used to give an indication of the porosity and structure of the soil influencing O2 and H2O movement in the soil. • Soils with a bulk density higher than 1.6 g/cm3 may restrict root development. • Bulk density is also a measurement of the degree of compaction of the soil. • Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with soil depth. • Sandy soils tend to have higher bulk density (1.4-1.5 g/cm3) than clay soils (1.2-1/3g/cm3). The measurement of soil bulk density is carried out by collecting undisturbed soil samples through inserting metal rings (with a known volume) into the soil, and determining the weight of the collected soil after drying

  3. ASPECTS REGARDING THE METHODS OF SOIL AERATION

    A. UNGURA?U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects regarding the methods of soil aeration. Soil aeration is a process to be carried out continuously the gas exchange between soil and atmosphere. The process is done mainly by the movement of water inside and outside him. There are three major gases in the soil (nitrogen,oxygen and carbon dioxide. Soil air composition differs from that of air by higher CO2 content (0,3 to 0,5%. The air in the soil is very important for the dynamics of soil. Soil aeration is accomplished through mass flow and diffusion. In this paper the authors present these methods of soil aeration

  4. Soils contaminated with hexavalent chromium

    Fonseca, Bruna Catarina da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The interest in environmental soil science has been growing in the last years due to the continuous degradation of this major natural resource. With this in mind, and because chromium and lead are two of the most toxic heavy metals frequently detected as soil contaminants in the Portuguese territory, the study and development of few remediation techniques and the indissociable description of the sorption and migration of these two heavy metals in soils, were the main objectives...

  5. Soil Science and Global Issues

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable management of soil is integral to any rational approach to addressing global issues of the 21st century. A high quality soil is essential to: i) advancing food and nutritional security, ii) mitigating and adapting to climate change, iii) improving quality and renewability of water, iv) enriching biodiversity, v) producing biofuel feedstocks for reducing dependence on fossil fuel, and vi) providing cultural, aesthetical and recreational opportunities. Being the essence of all terrestrial life, soil functions and ecosystem services are essential to wellbeing of all species of plants and animals. Yet, soil resources are finite, unequally distributed geographically, and vulnerable to degradation by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Nonetheless, soil has inherent resilience, and its ecosystem functions and services can be restored over time. However, soil resilience depends on several key soil properties including soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool, plant-available water capacity (PWAC), nutrient reserves, effective rooting depth, texture and clay mineralogy, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc. There is a close inter-dependence among these properties. For example, SOC concentration strongly affects, PWAC, nutrient reserve, activity and species diversity of soil flora and fauna, CEC etc. Thus, judicious management of SOC concentration to maintain it above the threshold level (~1.5-2%) in the root zone is critical to sustaining essential functions and ecosystem services. Yet, soils of some agroecosystems (e.g., those managed by resources-poor farmers and small landholders in the tropics and sub-tropics) are severely depleted of their SOC reserves. Consequently. Agronomic productivity and wellbeing of people dependent on degraded soils is jeopardized. The ecosystem C pool of the terrestrial biosphere has been mined by extractive practices, the nature demands recarbonization of its biosphere for maintenance of its functions and resilience. Commemorating 2015 IYS is timely to create awareness among policy makers and general public that soil should never be taken for granted.

  6. Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    Venkat Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable in land surface hydrology as it controls the amount of water that infiltrates into the soil and replenishes the water table versus the amount that contributes to surface runoff and to channel flow. However observations of soil moisture at a point scale are very sparse and observing networks are expensive to maintain. Satellite sensors can observe large areas but the spatial resolution of these is dependent on microwave frequency, antenna dimensions, and ...

  7. Atoms for increased soil productivity

    This public relations film describes the activities of the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. Soil is one of mankind's most precious natural resources, but proper management is essential to achieve maximum, sustainable crop production. Isotope and radiation techniques play an important role in solving problems concerning the most efficient use of fertilizers, biological nitrogen fixation, soil water management, and crop physiology

  8. Soil classes and acceleration response

    It could not enough for determination of only geotechnical properties (soil classification, soil type, bearing capacity etc.) in order to define assessment of areas being settle in terms of suitability of settlement or how settled area is affected from natural disaster and to get necessary precautions. Damages on the engineering structure in the region posses an earthquake hazard are affected one or more site condition from source point to soil of engineering structure

  9. HUMUS SUBSTANCES AND SOIL FERTILITY

    Cecilia Violeta NEAGU; Georgeta OPREA

    2012-01-01

    The humus substances play an important role in obtaining high yields and stable over time. He is permanently double process: the humus improvement of organic material reaching the soil and the mineralization of components at different stages of humus improving, The results of this process is influenced by soil type, climate, irrigation, fertilization. The beneficial effect of humus substances on plant growth may be related to indirect effects (fertilization efficiency or reduce soil compacti...

  10. Processing of soil survey data.

    Bregt, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis focuses on processing soil survey data into user-specific information. Within this process four steps are distinguished: collection, storage, analysis and presentation. A review of each step is given, and detailed research on important aspects of the steps are presented.Observation density, type of soil attributes and selection of observation sites are important aspects in the collection of soil data. The effect of observation density on the accuracy of spatial predictions was inv...

  11. Raindrop Impact on Saturated Soil

    Cheraghi, Mohsen; Barry, David Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Soil erosion is an important environmental phenomenon that causes many side effects such as reduction of soil productivity in the fields and transportation of pollutants to non-contaminated areas. Extensive well designed and controlled flume experiments in Ecological Engineering Laboratory at EPFL revealed that in order to understand some important aspects of erosion process such as morphological changes of the soil surface and crust effects, a detailed mechanistic study of erosion in small s...

  12. Advances in Soil Biology: What does this mean for assessing soil change?

    Black, Helaina; Mele, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    Our interests in soil change are moving away from soil properties and increasingly towards changes in the processes and functioning of soils. Soil organisms are fundamental to dynamics and change in soils through their fundamental role in soil processes [1]. However it is only with recent technical and theoretical advances that we have started to establish quantitative relationships between soil biology and soil change (c.f. [2]). It is this predictive understanding that will enable us to fully integrate soil biology into the effective monitoring and sustainable management of soils. This paper outlines some of the recent advances in soil biology and discusses their relevance to monitoring and management.

  13. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.; Hansen, B. M.; Hendriksen, N. B.; Kroer, N.

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...

  14. Effect of soil solarization on soil-borne pathogens

    Author.Soil solarization was conducted at three locations on the Lebanese coast. Maximum soil temperatures recorded were 53 and 48 celsius degrees at Jiyeh, 48.9, 46 and 43 celsius degrees at Naameh and 48, 45 and 43.5 celsius degrees at Khaldeh at 5, 15 and 25cm soil depths respectively. Mean soil temperatures recorded at 3pm were at Jiyeh 51.6, 47 and 46 celsius degrees compared to Naameh 47, 45 and 41 celsius degrees and Khaldeh 44, 42 and 41 celsius degrees at 5, 15 and 25 cm respectively. The mean temperature in solarized soils were 7.3 to 15 celsius degrees higher than those of the nonsolarized soils indicating a sustained increase of soil temperature in the solarized soils. The effect of soil solarization on artificially introduced fungal pathogens in the soil at Khaldeh, resulted in complete destruction of sclerotia of Sclerotinia spp. at three depths studied. However, with respect to the two other pathogens tested, solarization resulted in reduction of the viability of microsclerotia of Verticillium spp. by 99-79% and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis inoculum by 88-54% at 5 and 15 cm respectively, but only by 45% and 14% reduction at 25 cm. This level of control is significant when it is compared to the percentage of control where the level of reduction of inoculum viability did not exceed 10% at any soil depth. As there were contradicting reports in the literature on nematodes, two field trials in greenhouses were conducted to study the possibility of integrating 2 methods for management on nematodes. Soil solarization alone or in combination with biological control of nematodes using Arthrobotrys spp. and Dactyl ella brocophaga to control the root-knot nematodes on two crops, tomato at Naameh and cucumber at Jiyeh were compared to Methyl Bromide treatment. It was evident that, even on a very susceptible crop like cucumber, the integration of biological control and soil solarization gave a good level of control similar to methyl bromide. Neither root-knot indices nor yields were significantly different in both treatments. At present, fumigation with methyl bromide is the most common method adopted by Lebanese farmers to control soil-borne pathogens of high value crops in greenhouses. Since methyl bromide is extremely toxic and damage the ozone layer, and its use is banned in several countries and may be banned world wide in year 2001, these preliminary results prove that soil solarization may stand as a good alternative control measure

  15. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    Peppin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates to accommodate the ice lenses, and a heave regime during which liquid is sucked into the consolidated soil from an external reservoir, and the added volume causes the soil to heave. The ice fraction is found to vary inversely with thefreezing velocity V , while the rate of heave is independent of V , consistent with field and laboratoryobservations. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  17. Soil washing for oil removal

    The preliminary research presented in this paper, introduces soil washing as a technology that can be used to remediate soils contaminated with oil. a combination of surface active agents and solvents were used to recover added motor oil from a sandy loam soil. At the final stage, both the oil and the surface active material are recovered simultaneously. In some surfactant and solvent combinations oil recovery was complete, approaching close to 100 percent. Several surfactant and organic solvents were screened for their applicability to the soil washing procedure. The best results were obtained with isopropanol (IPA) and four surfactants (WA799, WDPG482, WDRA22, and W4016)

  18. Soil biodiversity, biological indicators and soil ecosystem services-an overview of European approaches

    Pulleman, M. M.; R. Creamer; Hamer, U.; Helder, J.; Pelosi, C.; Pérès, G.; Rutgers, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biota are essential for many soil processes and functions, yet there are increasing pressures on soil biodiversity and soil degradation remains a pertinent issue. The sustainable management of soils requires soil monitoring, including biological indicators, to be able to relate land use and management to soil functioning and ecosystem services. Since the 1990s, biological soil parameters have been assessed in an increasing number of field trials and monitoring programmes across Europe. T...

  19. Soil biodiversity assessment, biological indicators and soil ecosystem services - an overview of European approaches

    Creamer, Rachel; Hamer , Ute; Helder, Johannes; Pelosi, Céline; Pérès, Guénola; Rutgers, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Soil biota are essential for many soil processes and functions, yet there are increasing pressures on soil biodiversity and soil degradation remains a pertinent issue. The sustainable management of soils requires soil monitoring, including biological indicators, to be able to relate land use and management to soil functioning and ecosystem services. Since the 1990s, biological soil parameters have been assessed in an increasing number of field trials and monitoring programmes across Europe....

  20. Role of soil properties in water retention characteristics of main Hungarian soil types

    Brigitta Toth; Andras Mako; Gergely ToTH

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between easily available soil properties and soil water retention at given matric potentials were analysed on brown forest soils, chernozems and meadow soils of Hungarian Detailed Soil Hydrophysical Database (Hungarian acronym: MARTHA). We studied the influence of soil properties displayed on the 1:10000 scale Hungarian soil maps on soil water retention at -0.1, -33, -1500 and -150000 kPa. Continuous (particle size distribution, organic matter content, calcium carbonate content a...

  1. Solos urbanos Urban soils

    Fabrício de Araújo Pedron

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A forte pressão provocada pela expansão urbana desordenada sobre os recursos naturais, principalmente os solos, tem provocado danos, muitas vezes de difícil reparo. A grande concentração populacional em centros urbanos cada vez maiores tem dirigido a atenção de diferentes profissionais para o recurso solo, no sentido de entender sua dinâmica para minimizar sua degradação. No entanto, a falta de conhecimento sobre as propriedades, bem como sobre a aptidão dos solos sob uso urbano tem provocado o seu mau uso, resultando em processos como compactação, erosão, deslizamentos e inundações, assim como poluição com substâncias orgânicas, inorgânicas e patógenos, aumentando os custos do desenvolvimento afetando toda a sociedade. Neste sentido, este texto discute como o conhecimento pedológico pode diminuir os efeitos negativos provocados pelo processo de urbanização.The strong pressure caused by the disordered urban expansion over the natural resources, mainly the soils, has caused damages, many times difficult to repair. The great population concentration in urban centers getting larger and larger has been driving the attention of different professionals to soil resource, in the sense of understanding its dynamics to minimize its degradation. The lack of knowledge related to the soils properties and capability promote their inappropriate use, resultig in degrading processes as compaction, erosion, sliding, floods, and organic, inorganic and patogenic pollution, increasing the cost of development and affecting the whole society. This text discusses how pedologic knowledge can reduce the negative effects caused by the urbanization process.

  2. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy (kaolinitic) and thus the clay plus silt fraction was the best correlate for SOC but with crystalline iron oxides (dithionite-citrate minus ammonium oxalate - oxalic acid extractable iron) being also correlated to SOC in these soils (R2 = 0.74). Most of SOC in these soils was found on the clay+silt fraction and in stable, clay rich aggregates. However, SOC of high activity clays and other less weathered soils such as Alisols, Cambisols and Plinthosols showed no correlation with particle size or iron oxides, being mostly stabilized by aluminium complexes. We found SOC of these soils to be better explained by a three way interaction among soil pH, carbon quality and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (R2 = 0.85). Consistent with this observation, SOC in the less weathered soils was mostly found in the colloidal fraction (75%). SOC of Podzols and Arenosols on the other hand had only a small but significant influence from their clay plus silt fraction (R2 = 0.31), with particulate organic matter accounting for most of its SOC.

  3. Saxton soil remediation project

    The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described

  4. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  5. Soil organic matter studies

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 40 are included in Volume I. A number of papers deal with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and make a contribution to increasing agricultural production by proposing improved management practices. Other papers discuss turnover of plant residues, release of plant nutrients through biodegradation of organic compounds, and nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. Separate entries have been prepared for those 8 papers which discuss the use of tracer techniques in soil studies

  6. Modelling soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable lands using legacy soil data

    Suuster, E; Ritz, Christian; Roostalu, H; Kõlli, R; Astover, A

    2012-01-01

    approach is appropriate if the study design has a hierarchical structure as in our scenario. We used the Estonian National Soil Monitoring data on arable lands to predict SOC concentrations of mineral soils. Subsequently, the model with the best prediction accuracy was applied to the Estonian digital soil...... to the advantages and shortcomings of the different commonly used prediction methods. Therefore, we compared and evaluated the merits of the median approach, analysis of covariance, mixed models and random forests in the context of prediction of SOC concentrations of mineral soils under arable...... management in the A-horizon. Three soil properties were used in all of the developed models: soil type, physical clay content (particle size <0.01 mm) and A-horizon thickness. We found that the mixed model predicted SOC concentrations with the smallest mean squared error (0.05%2), suggesting that a mixed-model...

  7. Soil fauna and soil functions: a jigsaw puzzle

    MariaJ.I.Briones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecologists and soil modelers have traditionally portrayed the inhabitants of soil as a black box labeled as "soil fauna" or "decomposers or detritivores” assuming that they just merely recycle the deposited dead plant material. Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on Earth and contains one of the most diverse assemblages of living organisms; however, the opacity of this world has severely limited our understanding of their functional contributions to soil processes and to ecosystem resilience. Traditional taxonomy, based on morphological and anatomical aspects, is becoming replaced by rapid processing molecular techniques (e.g. with marker gene-based approaches. However, this may be impracticable in many ecological studies and consequently, the majority of the current knowledge, still contributes little to our understanding of their role in ecosystem functioning. Over the years, different workers have produced several ‘functional classifications’ based on the body width, feeding regime, certain behavioral and reproductive aspects and ecological niches of soil organisms. Unfortunately, the information available is severely restricted to ‘major’ groups. A better physiological and metabolic understanding of when and how a complex community of soil organisms access nutrients, alter their environment and in turn, affect soil processes, will allow a more realistic quantitative evaluation of their ecological roles in the biogeochemical cycles. Here, I review the applicability of the available approaches, highlight future research challenges and propose a dynamic conceptual framework that could improve our ability to solve this functional puzzle.

  8. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - I

    The bioavailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  9. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - II

    The bioabailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  10. Soil spatial heterogeneity effect on soil electrical resistivity

    Electrical resistivity (ER) is growing in popularity due to its ease of use and because of its non-invasive techniques, which are used to reveal and map soil heterogeneity. The objective of this work was to evaluate how differing soil properties affect the electric resistivity and to observe these e...

  11. Influence of soil solution salinity on boron adsorption by soils

    Boron adsorption on two arid-zone soils from the San Joaquin Valley of California was investigated as a function of equilibrium solution B concentration (0-250 mg L-1), solution pH (3-12), and electrical conductivity (EC = 0.3 or 7.8 dS m-1). Boron adsorption on both soils increased with increasing...

  12. ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES AND PLANTS

    Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) are being developed for 24 inorganic and inorganic chemicals for soil invertebrates and plants using procedures developed by a Task Group of the USEPA Eco-SSL Work Group. The Eco-SSL Work Group is a collaboration among USEPA, DoD, DOE, ...

  13. New perspectives on the soil erosion-soil quality relationship

    The redistribution of soil has a profound impact on its quality (defined as its ability to function within its ecosystem and within adjacent ecosystems) and ultimately on its productivity for crop growth. The application of 137Cs-redistribution techniques to the study of erosion has yielded major new insights into the soil erosion-soil quality relationship. In highly mechanized agricultural systems, tillage erosion can be the dominant cause of soil redistribution; in other agroecosystems, wind and water erosion dominate. Each causal factor results in characteristic landscape-scale patterns of redistribution. In landscapes dominated by tillage redistribution, highest losses occur in shoulder positions (those with convex downslope curvatures); in water-erosion-dominated landscapes, highest losses occur where slope gradient and length are at a maximum. Major impacts occur through the loss of organically-enriched surface material and through the incorporation of possibly yield-limiting subsoils into the rooting zone of the soil column. The potential impact of surface soil losses and concomitant subsoil incorporation on productivity may be assessed by examining the pedological nature of the affected soils and their position in the landscape. The development of sound conservation policies requires that the soil erosion-quality relationship be rigorously examined in the full range of pedogenic environments, and future applications of the 137Cs technique hold considerable promise for providing this comprehensive global database. (author)

  14. Radioisotopes in soil fertility and soil pollution research

    Radioisotopes from nuclear reactors are very useful research tool for agricultural scientists. The availability of radioisotopes like 32P, 65Zn, 54Mn, etc. made it possible for the researchers to explore investigations on soil fertility, plant macro- and micronutrients. Heavy metal radioisotopes like 115mCd, 51Cr, 75Se, etc. play a significant role in soil pollution research. (author)

  15. The effect of soil fauna on carbon sequestration in soil

    Frouz, Jan; Pižl, Václav; Kaneda, Satoshi; Šimek, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2008). ISSN 1029-7006. [EGU General Assembly 2008. 13.04.2008-18.04.2008, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil fauna * carbon sequestration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. PESTICIDES IN SOIL: BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS TO SOIL HEALTH

    Pesticides are important components of many agricultural management systems and their effects on soil and its ability to process them should be included when evaluating soil quality. Pesticides help maintain agricultural productivity by controlling pests, however, management thresholds must be esta...

  17. Online Soil Science Lesson 3: Soil Forming Factors

    This lesson explores the five major factors of soil formation, namely: 1) climate; 2) organisms; 3) time; 4) topography; and 5) parent material and their influence in forming soil. The distinction between active and passive factors, moisture and temperature regimes, organism and topographic influen...

  18. Improving Water Quality and Conserving Soil Using Soil Amendments.

    Conservation tillage such a no-tillage has widely been shown to control soil erosion compared to other forms of management that involved some extent of tillage. However, in no-tillage most if not all the chemicals are placed near or on the soil surface which makes their movement more likely to occu...

  19. From Soil Survey to Land Use Planning and National Soils Policies New Developments in Soil Science

    Verheye, WH.

    1997-01-01

    The emphasis of soil studies has shifted over the past decades from descriptive inventories towards a more specifie, pragmatic and problem solving approach related to land use and soil conservation. Under conditions of growing population density, land may become a source of conflict between various users : settled farmers, miners, stock breeders, foresters, urban planners, ecologists, ... In such cases, a national soils policy becomes imperative, as it provides a useful planning framework for...

  20. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Maritan, Amos; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-05-01

    Large areas of cultivated land worldwide are affected by soil salinity. Estimates report that 10% of arable land in over 100 countries, and nine million km2 are salt affected, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. High salinity causes both ion specific and osmotic stress effects, with important consequences for plant production and quality. Salt accumulation in the root zone may be due to natural factors (primary salinization) or due to irrigation (secondary salinization). Simple (e.g., vertically averaged over the soil depth) coupled soil moisture and salt balance equations have been used in the past. Despite their approximations, these models have the advantage of parsimony, thus allowing a direct analysis of the interplay of the main processes. They also provide the ideal starting point to include external, random hydro-climatic fluctuations in the analysis of long-term salinization trends. We propose a minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In fact, soil salinity statistics are obtained as a function of climate, soil and vegetation parameters. These, in turn, can be combined with soil moisture statistics to obtain a full characterization of soil salt concentrations and the ensuing risk of primary salinization. In particular, the solutions show the existence of two quite distinct regimes, the first one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant with increasing rainfall frequency, and the second one where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trends, with significant consequences e.g. for climate change impacts on rain-fed agriculture. The analytical nature of the solution allows direct estimation of the impact of changes in the climatic drivers on soil salinity and makes it suitable for computations of salinity risk at the global scale as a function of simple parameters. Moreover it facilitates their coupling with other models of long-term soil-plant biogeochemistry.

  1. ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROMYCETES

    Dragutin A. Đukić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different (mineral and organic fertilisers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Cacak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Czapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg?ha-1 and organic fertilisers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg?ha- 1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  2. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  3. Anthropogenic effects on soil micromycetes

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different authropogenic pollutants (mineral and organic fertilizers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Čačak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and under greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Čapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season, and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg x ha-1 and organic fertilizers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg x ha-1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor, inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  4. Soil properties related to 60Co bioavailability in tropical soils

    This work presents the results of field experiments to obtain soil to plants Transfer factor (TF) for 60Co in reference plants cultivated in Ferralsol, Acrisol and Nitisol. These soils represent the majority of Brazilian agricultural area. Values of TF varied from 0.001 to 0.05 for corn and from 0.001 to 0.81 for cabbage. Results of 60Co TF were discussed in relation to the physical and chemical properties of the soils and 60Co geochemical partition. The sequential chemical extraction showed that more than 40% of the 60Co present in the soils are associated to manganese oxides. These results will provide regional values for parameters used in the environmental radiological modeling aiming to optimize the planning of emergency interventions or the waste management related to tropical soils. (author)

  5. The effect of soil particle size on soil radon concentration

    It has been suggested in the literature that the radon concentration in the soil gas is related to the particle size distribution of the soil. This paper examines this relation. Radon concentration was measured in the soil on the Carboniferous limestone south of Buxton in Derbyshire, England, using the can technique. At each site, a sample of soil was taken at the bottom of the hole in which the dosimeter was placed to determine the particle size distribution. The correlations between the raw values of radon concentration, soil particle size fractions and elevation were weak. Nevertheless, the kriged maps of radon, silt, clay and elevation showed some spatial relation to one another. The kriged estimates showed stronger correlations among these properties, especially between radon and elevation

  6. Soil fungi as indicators of pesticide soil pollution

    Mandi? Leka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fungi, with their pronounced enzymic activity and high osmotic potential, represent a significant indicator of negative effects of different pesticides on the agroecosystem as a whole. In that respect, a trial was set up on the alluvium soil type with the aim to investigate the effect of different herbicides (Simazine, Napropamid, Paraquat, fungicides (Captan and Mancozeb and insecticides (Fenitrothion and Dimethoate on a number of soil fungi under apple trees. The number of soil fungi was determined during four growing seasons by an indirect method of dilution addition on the Czapek agar. The study results indicate that the fungi belong to the group of microorganisms that, after an initial sensible response to the presence of pesticides in the soil, very rapidly establish normal metabolism enabling them even to increase their number. The fungicides and insecticides applied were found to be particularly effective in that respect.

  7. Thermal stability of soils and detectability of intrinsic soil features

    Siewert, Christian; Kucerik, Jiri

    2014-05-01

    Soils are products of long term pedogenesis in ecosystems. They are characterized by a complex network of interactions between organic and inorganic constituents, which influence soil properties and functions. However, the interrelations cannot easily be determined. Our search for unifying principles of soil formation focuses on water binding. This approach was derived from water-dependent soil formation. It considers the importance of water binding in theories about the origin of genes, in the structural arrangement and functionality of proteins, and in the co-evolution of organism species and the biosphere during the history of earth. We used thermogravimetry as a primary experimental technique. It allows a simple determi-nation of bound water together with organic and inorganic components in whole soil samples without a special preparation. The primary goal was to search for fingerprinting patterns using dynamics of thermal mass losses (TML) caused by water vaporization from natural soils, as a reference base for soil changes under land use. 301 soil samples were collected in biosphere reserves, national parks and other areas as-sumingly untouched by human activity in Siberia, North and South America, Antarctica, and in several long term agricultural experiments. The results did not support the traditional data evaluation procedures used in classical differ-ential thermogravimetry. For example, peak positions and amplitudes did not provide useful information. In contrast, using thermal mass losses (TML) in prefixed smaller, e.g. 10 °C temperature intervals allowed the determination of the content of carbon, clay, nitrogen and carbonates with high accuracy. However, this approach was applicable for soils and neither for soil-like carbon containing mineral substrates without pedogenetic origin, nor for plant residues or soils containing ashes, cinder, or charcoal. Therefore, intrinsic soil regulation processes are discussed as a possible factor causing applicability of thermogravimetry for soil property determination. Despite of the extreme diversity of individual substances in soils, the thermal decay can be predicted with simple mathematical models. For example, the sum of mass losses in the large temperature interval from 100 °C to 550 °C (known from organic matter determination by ignition mass loss in past) can be predicted using TML in two small temperature intervals: 130 - 140 °C and 320 - 330 °C. In this case, the coefficient of determination between measured and calculated results reached an R2 above 0.97. Further, we found close autocorrelations between thermal mass losses in different temperature intervals. They refer to interrelations between evaporation of bound water and thermal decay of organo-mineral complexes in soils less affected by human influence. In contrast, deviations from such interrelations were found under extreme environmental conditions and in soils under human use. Those results confirm current knowledge about influence of clay on both water binding and organic matter accumulation during natural soil formation. Therefore, these interrelations between soil components are discussed as intrinsic features of soils which open the opportunity for experimental distinction of natural soils from organic and inorganic materials which do not have pedogenetic origin.

  8. Soil washing of fluorine contaminated soil using various washing solutions.

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Jo, Raehyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-03-01

    Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97 % from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3 M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6 < NaOH < H2SO4 < HNO3 < HCl. PMID:25552323

  9. Continuous soil monitoring and inventory of soils as part of the soil information system

    The Bavarian Geological State office conducted a soil inventory and continuous soil monitoring programme. In order to make permanent monitoring feasible the Bavarian Geological State office developed a special concept. This concept of site selection, commissioning, sampling and analysis is described in this paper. The results of first studies of the three permanent soil monitoring areas in the Alpine region shows that only on the Gotzenalm in the national park in Berchtegaden there are significant accumulations of Cs-137 and of some other typically anthropogenic heavy metals in the top soil. Organic pollution is small in all three areas. (orig./EW)

  10. Soil erodibility estimation using LUCAS point survey data of Europe

    PANAGOS Panagiotis; MEUSBURGER Katrin; ALEWELL Christine; Montanarella, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Modelling soil erosion is mostly hampered by low data availability, particularly of soil parameters. One key parameter for soil erosion modelling is the soil erodibility, expressed as the K- factor in the commonly used soil erosion model USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation). The K-factor is related to crucial soil factors triggering erosion (organic matter content, soil texture, soil structure, permeability). We calculated soil erodibility using measured soil data, collected during the 2009...

  11. Soil Radiological Characterisation Methodology

    This report presents the general methodology and best practice approaches which combine proven existing techniques for sampling and characterisation to assess the contamination of soils prior to remediation. It is based on feedback of projects conducted by main French nuclear stakeholders involved in the field of remediation and dismantling (EDF, CEA, AREVA and IRSN). The application of this methodology will enable the project managers to obtain the elements necessary for the drawing up of files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is applicable to each of the steps necessary for the piloting of remediation work-sites, depending on the objectives targeted (release into the public domain, re-use, etc.). The main part describes the applied statistical methodology with the exploratory analysis and variogram data, identification of singular points and their location. The results obtained permit assessment of a mapping to identify the contaminated surface and subsurface areas. It stakes the way for radiological site characterisation since the initial investigations from historical and functional analysis to check that the remediation objectives have been met. It follows an example application from the feedback of the remediation of a contaminated site on the Fontenay aux Roses facility. It is supplemented by a glossary of main terms used in the field from different publications or international standards. This technical report is a support of the ISO Standard ISO ISO/TC 85/SC 5 N 18557 'Sampling and characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes'. (authors)

  12. Solos urbanos / Urban soils

    Fabrcio de Arajo, Pedron; Ricardo Simo Diniz, Dalmolin; Antnio Carlos de, Azevedo; Joo, Kaminski.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A forte presso provocada pela expanso urbana desordenada sobre os recursos naturais, principalmente os solos, tem provocado danos, muitas vezes de difcil reparo. A grande concentrao populacional em centros urbanos cada vez maiores tem dirigido a ateno de diferentes profissionais para o recurs [...] o solo, no sentido de entender sua dinmica para minimizar sua degradao. No entanto, a falta de conhecimento sobre as propriedades, bem como sobre a aptido dos solos sob uso urbano tem provocado o seu mau uso, resultando em processos como compactao, eroso, deslizamentos e inundaes, assim como poluio com substncias orgnicas, inorgnicas e patgenos, aumentando os custos do desenvolvimento afetando toda a sociedade. Neste sentido, este texto discute como o conhecimento pedolgico pode diminuir os efeitos negativos provocados pelo processo de urbanizao. Abstract in english The strong pressure caused by the disordered urban expansion over the natural resources, mainly the soils, has caused damages, many times difficult to repair. The great population concentration in urban centers getting larger and larger has been driving the attention of different professionals to so [...] il resource, in the sense of understanding its dynamics to minimize its degradation. The lack of knowledge related to the soils properties and capability promote their inappropriate use, resultig in degrading processes as compaction, erosion, sliding, floods, and organic, inorganic and patogenic pollution, increasing the cost of development and affecting the whole society. This text discusses how pedologic knowledge can reduce the negative effects caused by the urbanization process.

  13. Evaluation of soil structure in the framework of an overall soil quality rating

    Mueller, L; Shepherd, T G; Schindler, U; Ball, B C; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hennings, V; Smolentseva, E N; Rukhovic, O; Lukin, S

    2013-01-01

    Soil structure is an important aspect of agricultural soil quality, and its preservation and improvement are key to sustaining soil functions. Methods of overall soil quality assessment which include visual soil structure information can be useful tools for monitoring and managing the global soil...... resource. The aim of the paper is: (i) to demonstrate the role of visual quantification of soil structure within the procedure of the overall soil quality assessment by the Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (M-SQR), (ii) to quantify the magnitude and variability of soil structure and overall M-SQR on a...... number of agricultural research sites and (iii) to analyse the correlations of soil quality rating results with crop yields. We analysed visual soil structure and overall soil quality on a range of 20 experimental sites in seven countries. To assess visual soil structure we utilised the Visual Soil...

  14. Soil morphology: A key to discovering and understanding the structure and dynamics of soil covers

    Full text: Professor M. Ruellan, Professor Emeritus in Pedology at AgroCampus Rennes, France, visited the SWMCN Subprogramme at IAEA Headquarters on 18 April and presented a seminar on soil morphology, a branch of soil science, studying the forms and arrangement of soil features including soil structures in each soil layer (soil horizon). His presentation reviewed the relationships between soil morphology and physical, chemical and biological processes such as soil biological activities, watershed hydrology and geochemistry, rock weathering, soil formation and erosion, human activities and climatic conditions. The sustainable use of soil resources requires the understanding of soil functions, not only in terms of their physical, chemical and biological properties but also the soil history (i.e. the evolution and functioning of soils), its interaction with nature and its position in the landscape. This understanding is necessary because the spatial diversity of soil structures within a landscape is governed by years of soil evolution and development. (author)

  15. Biogeochemistry: Soil carbon in a beer can

    Davidson, Eric A.

    2015-10-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter could be an important positive feedback to climate change. Geochemical properties of soils can help determine what fraction of soil carbon may be protected from climate-induced decomposition.

  16. Relating soil biochemistry to sustainable crop production

    Amino acids, amino sugars, carbohydrates, phenols, and fatty acids together comprise appreciable proportions of soil organic matter (SOM). Their cycling contribute to soil processes, including nitrogen availability, carbon sequestration and aggregation. For example, soil accumulation of phenols has ...

  17. SOIL QUALITY IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Building and maintaining soil quality is the basis for successful organic farming. However, before developing a soil management plan focused on soil quality in organic systems, farmers should become knowledgeable regarding the overall philosophies, legalities, and marketing opportunities in organic ...

  18. KBRA OPWP Soil Depth to Water

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Extinction risk of soil biota

    Veresoglou, Stavros D.; Halley, John M.; Rillig, Matthias C

    2015-01-01

    Belowground soil biota play key roles in maintaining proper ecosystem functioning, but studies on their extinction ecology are sparse. Here, Veresoglou et al. review the risks to soil biota posed by global change, and highlight the technical challenges involved in identifying extinction events.

  20. Soil remediation process and system

    This patent describes a process for remediation of soil containing up to about 30,000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants. It comprises: providing hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in a divided condition of minus 1 1/2 double-prime to a first confined zone where it is exposed to an open flame; heating while agitating the contaminated soil in an oxidizing atmosphere in the first zone to a temperature below soil ignition within a range of from about 375 degrees F. to about 750 degrees F. for a time sufficient to drive off as vapors a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon vapors from the first zone to a second zone; recovering heat from the hot gases in the second zone to condense a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon vapors as liquid hydrocarbons; recovering the liquid hydrocarbons; and removing the soil from the first zone as remediated soil having below about 1000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants

  1. FAO's programme on soil erosion

    The present situation of land degradation in global basis and its negative impacts on soil fertility are presented. The activities undertaken by FAO on erosion control are described. Some recent trends in soil and water conservation are also included. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats

    A soils decontamination project was initiated, to remove actinides from soils at Rocky Flats. Wet screening, attrition scrubbing with Calgon at high pH, attrition scrubbing at low pH, and cationic flotation were investigated. Pilot plant studies were carried out. Conceptual designs have been generated for mounting the process in semi-trailers

  3. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements

    This chapter summarizes research progress in development of phytoremediation technologies. Some soils have become contaminated by trace elements enough to kill plants, inhibit soil organisms, and/or threaten wildlife, humans or the environment. Traditional remediation by dig and haul methods are v...

  4. MUTATIONS IN SOIL: A REVIEW

    The intentional and accidental discharges of toxic pollutants into the lithosphere results in soil contamination. In some cases (e.g., wood preserving wastes, coal-tar, airborne combustion by-products) the contaminated soil constitutes a genotoxic hazard. This work is a comprehen...

  5. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOIL SOLUTION IN STEPPE ZONE SOIL

    A. A. Batukaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs CaCO30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. Calculation method is proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of chestnut solonetz soil complex. Were proposed equations to calculate free and associated forms of ions. To solve the equations were used an iteration, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation on the law of operating masses. Was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association as ratio of ions free form to analytical content ?e = Cass/Can. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layer. Increasing soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. In form of ionic pairs in soil solution are: 11.8-53.8% of Ca2+; 9.4-57.3% of Mg2+; 0.7-11.9% of Na+; 2.2-22.3% of HCO3-, 11.8-62.7% of SO42-. The ion CO32- is high associated, the share of ions in associated form is up to 92.7%. The degree of soil solution saturation was obtained for three level of approximation accounting on analytical concentration, calculated association coefficient, calculated coefficient of association. Relating to thermodynamic solubility product S0, the mathematical product of analytical ionic pairs indicated super saturation of soil solutions up to K1 = 100, taking into account calculated coefficient of association ion activity super saturation of soil solutions is absent, K3?1. Only for solonetz chestnut meadow K3?2-5. The soil solution saturation degree in soil profile and laterally in landscape varies. The quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution allows explain evolution of landscape of salted soils, structure of soil cover. Calculations fulfilled show that a possibility of soil degradation scenario taking into account the laws of association of ions in soil solution is much more probable and dangerous than it was assessed before. New understanding of water-salt transfer, geochemical barriers and ecological functions of soil will help to improve rainfed and irrigational agriculture.

  6. Anlise espacial dos fatores da equao universal de perda de solo em rea de nascentes / Spatial analysis of universal soil loss equation factors of a watershed area relief

    Daniela Popim, Miqueloni; Clia Regina Paes, Bueno; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a perda de solo de rea de nascentes da Microbacia do Crrego do Tijuco, SP. Foi utilizada a anlise espacial dos fatores da equao universal da perda de solo (EUPS), em integrao com anlise de componentes principais e geoestatstica. A perda de solo mdia, e [...] stimada para a rea, foi de 118,5 Mg ha?1 por ano, considerada alta. Prximo zona urbana, houve alta interao dos fatores erosividade da chuva e prticas conservacionistas, o que evidencia grande perda de solo, em razo da concentrao da gua proveniente da camada impermeabilizada urbana, com alta velocidade de escoamento. Nos divisores de guas, a atuao da erodibilidade foi proeminente, em contraste com o fator topogrfico. Foram observadas reas com atuao conjunta destes fatores, inclusive em locais de inclinao suave, porm com alto potencial natural de eroso. A interao das anlises multivariadas e geoestatstica permite a estratificao da rea, identifica locais com propriedades especficas quanto perda de solo, e espacializa os fatores do processo erosivo e suas interaes ao longo do relevo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil loss of an area of springs in the Microbacia do Crrego do Tijuco, SP, Brazil. Spatial analysis of the universal soil loss equation (USLE) factors, in integrated with principal component analysis and geostatistics, was used. The average soil loss e [...] stimated for the area was 118.5 Mg ha?1 per year, which is considered high. Near the urban zone, there was a high interaction of rainfall erosivity and conservation practices, which shows a high?soil loss, due to the concentration of water from impervious urban layer with a high?flow velocity. In the water partings, the performance of erodibility was prominent, in contrast to the topographic factor. Areas were observed with joint action of these factors, including sites with gentle slope, but with a high, natural potential of erosion. The interaction of multivariate and geostatistic analyses allows the area stratification, identifies locations with specific properties as to soil loss, and spatialises the erosion factors and their interactions along the landscape.

  7. Salt Affected Soils Their Identification and Reclamation

    A.A.Siyal; A. G. Siyal; Z. A. Abro

    2002-01-01

    Salt affected soils are found throughout the world especially in arid and semi arid regions. Soil salinization is mainly due to the use of saline water for irrigation, seepage from the canals, an arid climate evaporation of salty soil waters from the soil surface over shallow water tables and poor drainage. Salt effected soils are grouped into saline, alkali and saline-alkali soils. Three different ways viz. scrapping, surface flushing and leaching are normally used for reclamation of these s...

  8. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the chain soil-soil solution-plant. The soil-soil solution link

    The mobility of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the link soil-soil solution is analysed for different soil types on the basis of radionuclide distribution coefficients between solid and liquid soil phases. The distribution coefficients allow to differentiate soils in correlation with radionuclide migration rate from the solid phase to the soil solution. The reasons of different radionuclide mobility are considered

  9. Modification of biochemical properties by soil use

    Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Leirós, M.ª del Carmen; Gil Sotres, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    [EN] Human activity is one of the main causes of the physical, chemical and biological degradation of soils. This degradation implies a change in soil quality as it involves both a decrease in productivity and changes in the ecological functions of the soil. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of soil use on soil biochemical properties, with the aim of providing data that allow assessment of the usefulness of enzymatic activities as indicators of soil quality. In ...

  10. Soil Respiration: Concept and Measurement Methods

    Sandor, M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is the main element in the carbon cycle that makes possible for plants carbon plants to return inthe atmosphere. The objective of this work was to present and discuss some aspects of the soil CO2 efflux. We definedherein, some terms associated to the soil respiration concept, we tackled some aspects regarding the influence oftemperature, humidity and soil pH on soil respiration and we presented the principle of soil respiration measurement byusing dynamic closed chamber system.

  11. Soil Respiration: Concept and Measurement Methods

    SANDOR M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is the main element in the carbon cycle that makes possible for plants carbon plants to return inthe atmosphere. The objective of this work was to present and discuss some aspects of the soil CO2 efflux. We definedherein, some terms associated to the soil respiration concept, we tackled some aspects regarding the influence oftemperature, humidity and soil pH on soil respiration and we presented the principle of soil respiration measurement byusing dynamic closed chamber system.

  12. Phytoremediation for Oily Desert Soils

    Radwan, Samir

    This chapter deals with strategies for cleaning oily desert soils through rhizosphere technology. Bioremediation involves two major approaches; seeding with suitable microorganisms and fertilization with microbial growth enhancing materials. Raising suitable crops in oil-polluted desert soils fulfills both objectives. The rhizosphere of many legume and non-legume plants is richer in oil-utilizing micro-organisms than non-vegetated soils. Furthermore, these rhizospheres also harbour symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and are rich in simple organic compounds exuded by plant roots. Those exudates are excellent nutrients for oil-utilizing microorganisms. Since many rhizospheric bacteria have the combined activities of hydrocarbon-utilization and nitrogen fixation, phytoremediation provides a feasible and environmentally friendly biotechnology for cleaning oil-polluted soils, especially nitrogen-poor desert soils.

  13. Radionuclide diffusion in soils. I

    The factors are discussed affecting the rate of migration of radionuclides in the soil (properties of the radionuclide - the sign and magnitude of ion charge, soil properties - moisture, density, presence of salts and organic substances, composition of sorption complex and soil solution, climatic conditions -temperature). Fick's 2nd law cannot be used for the mathematical description of vertical migration of radionuclides in the soil and equations are therefore suggested for describing the movement of substances through an absorbing porous medium and for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient. In order to specify the mathematical description of migration it is necessary to obtain a great numbert of experimental data and to use multiparameter regression analysis for identifying the effect of the different properties of the soil on the diffusion of radionuclides. (J.C.)

  14. Shrinkage limit of soil mixtures

    Shrinkage limit, one of the Atterberg limits, is widely linked with many plasticity-based soil behaviors. However, in a great majority of these cases, such correlations have been found to exhibit poor performance. Recently, it has been brought out that the shrinkage limit of a natural soil does not depend upon plasticity characteristics, and it is primarily governed by the relative grain size distribution of the soil. The present study confirms this mechanism with the results obtained using clay-clay, clay-non-cohesive soil, and non-cohesive soil mix systems. The present study gains importance from the point of view of criteria with respect to the design of back fill materials to be used in various applications, such as nuclear waste disposal projects

  15. Sustainable agriculture and soil conservation

    Olsen, Preben; Dubgaard, Alex

    methodology for soil classification in Denmark. The soil survey included a detailed mapping at field level, using the electromagnetic sensor, EM38. A high-resolution digital elevation model, obtained by use of laser scanning, is available for the study area. The original scanning has a horizontal resolution......, sandy soils in the West, (that had not been covered by ice) from more fertile soils being mostly sandy loams and finer textured soils covering the Eastern part of the study area. Several geological features such as pitting due to dead ice formation, smaller, terminal moraines in association with melt......The Danish case study area consists of the two municipalities Bjerringbro and Hvorslev, being located in the central part of the peninsula of Jutland, approximately 30 km southwest of the city of Randers. In 2007 the municipality of Bjerringbro was merged with 5 other municipalities forming a new...

  16. Afforestation effects on soil carbon

    Bárcena, Teresa G

    driver of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools worldwide. In Europe, afforestation (i.e. the establishment of new forest on non-forested land), is a major land-use change driven by economic and environmental interests due to its role as a C sequestration tool following the ratification of the Kyoto......Understanding carbon (C) dynamics has become increasingly important due to the major role of C in global warming. Soils store the largest amount of organic C in the biosphere; therefore, changes in this compartment can have a large impact on the C storage of an ecosystem. Land-use change is a main...... sequestration in soils from this region requires at least three decades or even longer time, when afforestation is performed on former agricultural soils. The faster C accretion in forest floors compensates the initial lag-phase found in mineral soils. The chronosequences also indicated that afforestation...

  17. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium

  18. know Soil Know Life - Getting Kids Excited About Soils

    Lindbo, David L.; Robinson, Clay; Kozlowski, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    In the United States soils are often taught in primary school (grade 3-6) but with little excitement or passion. We have been working with schools and teachers to bring our passion about soils to this audience. The methods and message can be conveyed simply and effectively by engaging the students in a dialog and through kinematic learning. Our approach is to begin with a simple question - what are 4 things we cannot live without. The answer - Air, Water, Sunlight, and Soil. Most students say "food, shelter, clothing, plants, animals etc." so we then explain all of those come from soil. This leads us to a quick "dance" illustrating that without soils we would be 'Hungry. Homeless, and Naked". The results are that students and teachers remember this simple message. From this point it is our hope that students will continue to understand the importance of soils and stop treating soils like dirt. Other simple exercises for this younger audience will also be presented.

  19. Soil characteristics driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities in semiarid soils

    Torrecillas, Emma; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Torres, Pilar; Díaz, Gisela; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Montesinos, Alicia; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an important soil microbial group that affects multiple ecosystems functions and processes, including nutrient cycling, plant productivity and competition, and plant diversity. We carried out a study to investigate AMF communities in the roots and the rhizosphere of Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) Beauv., a common plant species of great ecological importance that grows in different type of soils in semiarid Mediterranean areas with similar climatic conditions. We hypothesized that if both factors, host plant species and climatic conditions, cannot influence the differences in AMF communities in the roots and in the rhizosphere of Brachypodium retusum, variances in AMF richness and diversity could be due to soil characteristics. Hence we study the relationships between physical, chemical and biological soil characteristics and AMF community composition found in the roots and in the rhizospheres. We recorded sixty-seven AMF operational taxonomical units (OTUs). Each soil type presented a different AMF community composition and thus, can be characterized by its own AMF communities. A combination among some of the soil parameters could define the AMF species present in the roots and the rhizosphere of B. retusum. It was the case for calcium, urease, protease and ß-glucosidase which explained the variation in the AMF communities. In conclusion, soil charactristics can be decisive in the assembling of the AMF communities, managing the diversity and composition of these communities.

  20. Soil-structure interaction on inclined soil layers

    The case history presented deals with a Category I building having two-thirds of its base founded on a wedge of hard material. This wedge is underlain by an inclined layer of softer material, which also directly supports the remaining one-third of the foundation. The inclined layer is underlain by a third material, possessing large stiffness and extending to great depth. This case is analyzed with the methodology described below: - Determination of the static soil compliances by discretizing the foundation area into a number of strips and taking the soil profile as horizontally layered under each strip. Lumped parameter soil compliances for the whole foundation are obtained by weighting the contributions to stiffness in proportion to the area of each strip. - Definition of the degree of coupling between modes. The soil compliances defined in the previous step include coupling between the vertical and rocking modes and the horizontal and torsional modes through the positioning of the corresponding soil springs. The degree of coupling is checked through a static finite element analysis. - Frequency correction of the static soil compliances taking into account the inhomogeneity of the foundation conditions. The correction is based on obtaining dynamic stiffness coefficients for extreme configurations of the soil profile. - Assessment of the sliding potential of the structure under earthquake loading, considering eccentricities of the dynamic forces and non-uniform friction resistance over the foundation area, accounting for the frictional capacity of the different bearing materials. It is concluded that the simplified technique can provide accurate soil compliances, coupling and frequency corrections for soil-structure interaction on sloping layers, and an appropriate assessment of the sliding potential. (orig./HP)

  1. ESTIMATING SOIL PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION FOR SICILIAN SOILS

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil particle-size distribution (PSD is commonly used for soil classification and for estimating soil behavior. An accurate mathematical representation of the PSD is required to estimate soil hydraulic properties and to compare texture measurements from different classification systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Haverkamp and Parlange (HP and Fredlund et al. (F PSD models to fit 243 measured PSDs from a wide range of 38 005_Bagarello(547_33 18-11-2009 11:55 Pagina 38 soil textures in Sicily and to test the effect of the number of measured particle diameters on the fitting of the theoretical PSD. For each soil textural class, the best fitting performance, established using three statistical indices (MXE, ME, RMSE, was obtained for the F model with three fitting parameters. In particular, this model performed better in the fine-textured soils than the coarse-textured ones but a good performance (i.e., RMSE < 0.03 was detected for the majority of the investigated soil textural classes, i.e. clay, silty-clay, silty-clay-loam, silt-loam, clay-loam, loamy-sand, and loam classes. Decreasing the number of measured data pairs from 14 to eight determined a worse fitting of the theoretical distribution to the measured one. It was concluded that the F model with three fitting parameters has a wide applicability for Sicilian soils and that the comparison of different PSD investigations can be affected by the number of measured data pairs.

  2. Soil fauna and soil microflora as possible indicators of soil pollution.

    Eijsackers, H

    1983-09-01

    Research on biological indicators of soil pollution is hampered by soil variability and temporal and spatial fluctuations of numbers of soil animals. These characters on the other hand promote a high biological diversity in the soil. A high diversity combined with persistent soil pollutants increases the chance to select good indicators. However research on these topics is still limited. Examples of specific indicators are the changed arthropod species patterns due to pesticide influence and the changed soil enzyme activity under the influence of specific heavy metals. Another approach is to look for organisms that give a general indication of soil pollution. In this respect the earthworm species Allolobophora caliginosa proved to be sensitive for different types of manure especially pig manure with copper, for sewage sludge, for municipal waste compost and for fly ash. A third way of indication is by organisms accumulating pollutants. For some heavy metals (Cd, Zn), earthworms are very efficient accumulators. More research is needed especially on the specific relation between biological responses and abiotic soil characteristics. PMID:24259096

  3. Rock and soil rheology

    The aim of the Euromech Colloquium 196 devoted to Rock and Soil Rheology is to review some of the main results obtained in the last years in this field of research and also to formulate some of the major not yet solved problems which are now under consideration. Exchange of opinions and scientific discussions are quite helpful mainly in those areas where some approaches are controversial and the progress made is quite fast. That is especially true for the rheology of geomaterials, domain of great interest for mining and petroleum engineers, engineering geology, seismology, geophysics, civil engineering, nuclear and industrial waste storage, geothermal energy storage, caverns for sports, culture, telecommunications, storage of goods and foodstuffs (cold, hot and refrigerated storages), underground oil and natural gas reservoirs etc. Some of the last obtained results are mentioned in the present volume. (orig./HP)

  4. Soil decontamination with Extraksol

    The Extraksol process is a mobile decontamination technology which treats unconsolidated materials by solvent extraction. Treatment with Extraksol involves material washing, drying and solvent regeneration. Contaminant removal is achieved through desorption/dissolution mechanisms. The treated material is dry and acceptable to be reinstalled in its original location. The process provides a fast, efficient and versatile alternative for decontamination of soil and sludge. The organic contaminants extracted from the matrix are transferred to the extraction fluids. These are thereafter concentrated in the residues of distillation after solvent regeneration. Removal and concentration of the contaminants ensures an important waste volume reduction. This paper presents the process is operational principles and the steps involved in Extraksol's development with results of the pilot tests and full-scale demonstrations

  5. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    Ahmed, Ashour; Kühn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil < original soil < soil+3 HWE < soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...

  6. Soil Vapor Extraction of PCE/TCE Contaminated Soil

    The A/M Area of the Savannah River Site soil and groundwater is contaminated with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Contamination is the result of previous waste disposal practices, once considered state-of-the-art. Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) units have been installed to remediate the A/M Area vadose zone. SVE is a proven in-situ method for removing volatile organics from a soil matrix with minimal site disturbance. SVE alleviates the infiltration of contaminants into the groundwater and reduces the total time required for groundwater remediation. Lessons learned and optimization of the SVE units are also discussed

  7. The use of isotopes in soil fertility and soil chemistry

    The concept of radioactive and enriched stable isotopes is reminded. The main topics studied with isotopes which are pointed out are the following: the isotopic exchange and its application; the E and L values; the determination of CEC; the fixing capacity of some ions by the soil particles; the measurement of the A value; the efficiency of fertilizers utilization, the interaction between nutrients, their movements through the soil, the residual effect of the fertilizers and, finally, the root system and soil organic matter. (author)

  8. A Review of Fishpond Soil Management Principles in Nigeria

    A.T. Ekubo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of sites for culture fisheries depends on the soil. There is therefore the need to have proper background on the nature and properties of soils. The pond oils, soil functions in fish pond, soil characterization, components and soil mineral constituents, oil profile soil classification, soil fertility, nutrients, primary and secondary nutrients, soil organic matter, common soil problems, field and laboratory methods in acid sulphate soil identification, management of acid sulphate soil conditions, lime requirements for soils, alkalinity/sodicity, salinity, excess organic matter, soil sampling and analysis are reviewed in this article to provide the needed background in soil for effective culture fisheries management and practices.

  9. Direct soil moisture controls of future global soil carbon changes: An important source of uncertainty

    Fallon, Pete; Jones, Chris D.; Ades, Melanie; Paul, Keryn

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the climate–carbon cycle feedback depends critically on the response of soil carbon to climate, including changes in moisture. However, soil moisture–carbon feedback responses have not been investigated thoroughly. Uncertainty in the response of soil carbon to soil moisture changes could arise from uncertainty in the relationship between soil moisture and heterotrophic respiration. We used twelve soil moisture–respiration functions (SMRFs) with a soil carbon model (RothC) and da...

  10. Soil inoculation method determines the strength of plant-soil interactions

    Voorde, T.F.J., van de; Ruijten, M.; van der Putten, W.H.; Bezemer, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that interactions between plants and biotic components of the soil influence plant productivity and plant community composition. Many plantsoil feedback experiments start from inoculating relatively small amounts of natural soil to sterilized bulk soil. These soil inocula may include a variety of size classes of soil biota, each having a different role in the observed soil feedback effects. In order to examine what may be the effect of various size classes of soi...

  11. Soil dry aggregate size distribution: effects of soil type and land use

    V Ciric; Manojlovic, M.; Lj Nesic; M Belic

    2012-01-01

    Soil structure is an important physical property of soil and has a great impact on the environment and agriculture. Dry aggregate size distribution and related soil structure indices are essential parameters in understanding the structural state of the soil. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different soil types and land uses on structure parameters and to relate them to selected soil properties. The investigation was performed on five soil types (Arenosols, Fluvisols, Cher...

  12. Developments and departures in the philosophy of soil science

    Traditional soil science curriculums provide comprehensive instruction on soil properties, soil classification, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in soils. This reductionist perspective is sometimes balanced with a more holistic perspective that focuses on soils as natu...

  13. Tracing soil erosion impacts on soil organisms using 137Cs and soil nematodes

    Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John S.; McKenzie, Blair M.; Neilson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    The application of environmental radionuclides in soil tracing and erosion studies is now well established in geomorphology. Sediment and erosion-tracing studies are undertaken for a range of purposes in the earth sciences but until now few studies have used the technique to answer biological questions. An experiment was undertaken to measure patterns of soil loss and gain over 50 years, effectively calculating a field-scale sediment budget, to investigate soil erosion relationships between physical and biological soil components. Soil nematodes were identified as a model organism, a ubiquitous and abundant group sensitive to disturbance and thus useful indicator taxa of biological and physico-chemical changes. A field site was selected at the James Hutton Institute's experimental Balruddery Farm in NE Scotland. 10 metre-resolution topographical data was collected with differential GPS. Based on these data, a regular 30 m-resolution sampling grid was constructed in ArcGIS, and a field-sampling campaign undertaken. 104 soil cores (~50 cm-deep) were collected with a percussion corer. Radio-caesium (137Cs) activity concentrations were measured using high-purity germainum gamma-ray spectroscopy, and 137Cs areal activities derived from these values. Organic matter content by loss on ignition and grain-size distribution by laser granulometry were also measured. Additional samples were collected to characterise the soil nematode community, both for abundance and functional (trophic) composition using a combination of low-powered microscopy and molecular identification techniques (dTRFLP). Results were analysed with ArcGIS software using the Spatial Analyst package. Results show that spatial relationships between physical, chemical and biological parameters were complex and interrelated. Previous field management was found to influence these relationships. The results of this experiment highlight the role that soil erosion processes play in medium-term restructuring of the physico-chemical soil environment and the soil community.

  14. Soil carbon dynamics inferred from carbon isotope compositions of soil organic matter and soil respiration

    To better understand 14C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, 14C abundances were evaluated for fractionated soil organic matter (SOM) and soil respiration in an urban forest. In 2001 soil profile, Δ 14C values of litter and bulk SOM increased rapidly from litter surface (62.7 per mille) to uppermost mineral soil layer (244.9 per mille), and then decreased sharply to 6 cm depth of mineral soil (125.0 per mille). Carbon enriched in 14C by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing had penetrated to at least 16 cm depth of mineral soil. The average Δ 14C in atmospheric CO2 was 58.8 per mille in August 2001, suggesting recent carbon input to the topmost litter layer. Although a similar depth distribution was observed for Δ 14C values of residual SOM after acid hydrolysis, the Δ 14C values were slightly lower than those in bulk SOM. This indicates input of 'bomb' C into this organic fraction and higher 14C abundance in acid-soluble SOM. The most of CO2 may be derived from the microbial decomposition of the acid-soluble, or labile, SOM. Therefore, the labile SOM may become most influential pool for soil carbon cycling. In contrast, carbon in base-insoluble SOM remained considerably low in 14C abundance at all depths, suggesting no or little incorporation of 'bomb' C to this fraction. Values of Δ 14C in soil respiration ranged from 91.9 to 146.4 per mille in August 2001, showing a significant contribution from decomposition of SOM fixed over past 2-40 years. These results indicate that the use of bulk SOM as a representative of soil carbon pool would lead to severe misunderstand of the soil C dynamics on decadal and shorter time scales. (author)

  15. Bioventing reduces soil cleanup costs

    An offshoot technology from soil venting, bioventing offers a win-win solution for soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile contaminants such as diesel and fuel oil. Using low air flowrates through permeable soils, bioventing injects sufficient oxygen to support naturally-occurring bacteria, which biodegraded the VOCs and other contaminants into benign byproducts. Waste gas can be directly discharged to atmosphere without further treatment. This results in no offgas treatment required. Bioventing is a cost-effective alternative to traditional soil-venting techniques. Soil venting uses air to volatilize organic-compound contamination from the vadose zone, the unsaturated soil layer above groundwater. Unfortunately, this simple-and-fast approach creates a waste offgas that requires further treatment before discharge, thus adding significantly to overall project costs. In contrast, bioventing uses low air flowrates, which require lower capital and operating costs. No offgas treatment further reduces equipment and operating costs and often eliminates air permitting. As in all treatment strategies, the process must meet the cleanup objectives. Bioventing is an alternative technique making inroads into refining and petrochemical soil-remediation applications

  16. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  17. The soil reference shrinkage curve

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural...

  18. Autoradiography of Sectioned Soil Cores

    Techniques for identifying specific radionuclides associated with specific soil components and plant roots in soil cores are described. Soil cores up to 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm in depth were taken in the field using steel tubes. The oven-dried cores are impregnated with embedding plastic; there is no evident disturbance of the soil within the cores except at the periphery. A diamond saw is used to cut serial sections which are sufficiently smooth for autoradiography. No-screen X-ray film is used for low resolution autoradiographs with relatively short exposure times. If sufficient radioactivity is.present, finer definition is obtained with slower extra-fine-grain X-ray film. Nuclear track plates or cover glasses dipped in nuclear track emulsion make microscopic examination possible and allow differentiation between alpha- and beta-emitters. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting fallout radionuclides in soils collected in the Marshall Islands have been localized by these methods. Radioactive portions of the cores can be cut out and analysed by gamma-ray spectroscopy or radiochemical analyses. It is thus possible to determine selective translocation and adsorption of specific radionuclides within the soil-plant root system. The principal radionuclides in the soils that have been studied using this technique are 54Mn, 60Co, 90Sr, 125Sb, 137Cs, 144Ce, 155Eu and 239Pu. (author)

  19. Biodegradation of cyclodextrins in soil.

    Fenyvesi, E; Gruiz, K; Verstichel, S; De Wilde, B; Leitgib, L; Csabai, K; Szaniszlo, N

    2005-08-01

    Cyclodextrins, especially random methylated betaCD (RAMEB) and hydroxypropyl betaCD (HPbetaCD), are becoming common enhancing additives in the bioremediation of soils formerly contaminated by hydrocarbons and/or other poorly bioavailable organic pollutants. Therefore, their degradation in the soil, particularly the most persistent RAMEB, has been of great concern. Like oil contaminants, these additives should be biodegradable via an environmentally safe technology. Hence, in this paper, the biodegradability of eight different cyclodextrins (CDs) in four different soils was examined under various treatment conditions in laboratory and pilot scale field experiments. This paper is the first report on the potential biological fate of CDs studied under a large variety of environmental conditions and in different soil ecosystems. Data on the potential relationship between CD biodegradation and the biological removal of hydrocarbons in the CD-amended contaminated soils are also given. All CDs were found to be more or less biodegradable; even the most persistent RAMEB was depleted from soils under favourable conditions. In the field experiments, the depletion of RAMEB to about 40% of its initial level was observed for a period of 2 years in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils of high organic matter and cell concentration. PMID:15993146

  20. Soil carbon determination by thermogravimetrics

    Robert Pallasser

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of soil constituents and structure has a vital role in agriculture generally. Methods for the determination of soil carbon have in particular gained greater currency in recent times because of the potential that soils offer in providing offsets for greenhouse gas (CO2-equivalent emissions. Ideally, soil carbon which can also be quite diverse in its makeup and origin, should be measureable by readily accessible, affordable and reliable means. Loss-on-ignition is still a widely used method being suitably simple and available but may have limitations for soil C monitoring. How can these limitations be better defined and understood where such a method is required to detect relatively small changes during soil-C building?Thermogravimetric (TGA instrumentation to measure carbonaceous components has become more interesting because of its potential to separate carbon and other components using very precise and variable heating programs. TGA related studies were undertaken to assist our understanding in the quantification of soil carbon when using methods such as loss-on-ignition. Combining instrumentation so that mass changes can be monitored by mass spectrometer ion currents has elucidated otherwise hidden features of thermal methods enabling the interpretation and evaluation of mass-loss patterns. Soil thermogravimetric work has indicated that loss-on-ignition methods are best constrained to temperatures from 200 to 430C for reliable determination for soil organic carbon especially where clay content is higher. In the absence of C-specific detection where mass only changes are relied upon, exceeding this temperature incurs increasing contributions from inorganic sources adding to mass losses with diminishing contributions related to organic matter. The smaller amounts of probably more recalcitrant organic matter released at the higher temperatures may represent mineral associated material and/or simply more refractory forms.

  1. A Review of Fishpond Soil Management Principles in Nigeria

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of sites for culture fisheries depends on the soil. There is therefore the need to have proper background on the nature and properties of soils. The pond oils, soil functions in fish pond, soil characterization, components and soil mineral constituents, oil profile soil classification, soil fertility, nutrients, primary and secondary nutrients, soil organic matter, common soil problems, field and laboratory methods in acid sulphate soil identification, management of acid sulph...

  2. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP

  3. Predicting soil to plant transfer of radiocesium using soil characteristics

    A model is presented that dynamically estimates the radiocesium activity in herbage from readily available soil parameters. Three key properties underlying the bioavailability of radiocesium in soils were estimated in the model: the labile radiocesium distribution coefficient (kdl), the solution K+ concentration ([mK]), and the radiocesium concentration factor. These were determined as functions of the soil clay content and exchangeable K status. The effect of time on radiocesium fixation was described by two first-order decay equations. The model was initially parameterized using radiocesium uptake data from a ryegrass pot trial. Without further parameterization, the model was then tested for a wide range of soil and crop combinations using a database of published and unpublished information from a variety of sources and covering contamination time periods of 0.5--11 years. Model predictions of activity concentrations in crops were in generally good agreement with observed values

  4. Remediation of contaminated soil using soil washing-a review

    N.Karthika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn and Cd are heavy metals occur naturally as trace elements in many soils. The present paper reviews the remediation of heavy metals of contaminated soil by soil washing using different agents. It was noted that the contact time, pH, concentration of extract ant and agitation speed were affected the process while remediation, so accordingly select the conditions to obtain efficiency which is mainly depend upon the type of soil, contaminationtype, contamination period and metals present in it.EDTA is effective when compared with other chelating agents for heavy metals especially for lead but it has low biodegradation. Because of the nature of low biodegradability, EDTA can be reusedfurther by membrane separation and electrochemical treatment, or degraded by advanced oxidation processes.

  5. Radionuclides distribution coefficient of soil to soil-solution

    The present book addresses various issues related with the coefficient of radionuclides distribution between soil and soil solution. It consists of six sections and two appendices. The second section, following an introductory one, describes the definition of the coefficient and a procedures of its calculation. The third section deals with the application of the distribution coefficient to the prediction of movements of radionuclides through soil. Various methods for measuring the coefficient are described in the fourth section. The next section discusses a variety of factors (physical and chemical) that can affect the distribution coefficient. Measurements of the coefficient for different types of oils are listed in the sixth section. An appendix is attached to the book to show various models that can be helpful in applying the coefficient of distribution of radionuclides moving from soil into agricultural plants. (N.K.)

  6. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and management of the EU territory by field observations of geo-referenced points. In 2009, a topsoil (0-30 cm) module was included to the survey and a subset of around 21,000 sites was sampled in 23 Member States. The second source is a soil survey monitoring pilot campaign carried in Veneto Region last year. The pilot campaign has been organized with the collaboration between JRC, University of Padova and ARPAV Veneto. The scope was to apply the LUCAS methodology to an experimental soil survey of 40 samples. The selection of the points to survey has been done on the basis of the LUCAS project related to Veneto Region, pedo-climatic and management unit conditions and the database on soils belonging to ARPAV Soil Unit, collected ante 2000. Data started to be investigated and permit to show changes in SOC content in a decade for different land use/cover and climatic areas. Through the bulk density data collected and the data already available from ARPAV library, it's possible to evaluate the Carbon stocks of Veneto region. Possible changes in Carbon can be related to land use changes and different strategies of management practices adopted over time.

  7. Dynamic Soil-Structure-Interaction

    Kellezi, Lindita

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop alternative methods of analyzing problems in dynamic soil-structure-interaction. The main focus is the major difficulty posed by such an analysis - the phenomenon of waves which radiate outward from the excited structures towards infinity. In...... transmitting boundary at the edges of the computational mesh. To start with, an investigation of the main effects of the interaction phenomena is carried out employing a widely used model, considering dynamic stiffness of the unbounded soil as frequency independent. Then a complete description, with the...... represents an attempt to construct a local stiffness for the unbounded soil domain....

  8. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of hydrocarbons in a contaminated soil. This knowledge can enhance the selection and determine the duration of a proper remediation strategy. Information will be provided on the correlation of the results from this protocol to the results of chemical loss in contaminated soil bioremediation systems. This research has been completed, the data is currently being analyzed and the results will be fully evaluated by early 2002. As a result, the protocol and potential applications to field decisions will be presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Soil survey - a basis for european soil protection

    The information available on soils varies greatly from country to country. In view of the fact that, together with water, soils represent the most important natural resource in the EC, it is recommended that steps should be taken to ensure a reasonable level of information for all countries and that emphasis be placed on assembling an adequate database. Such information is fundamental to future land use and environmental protection

  10. Numerical analysis of soil bearing capacity by changing soil characteristics

    Mehdi Khodashenas Pelko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research work by changing different parameters of soil foundation like density, cohesion and foundation depth and width of square foundation at angle of friction of 0 to 50 with increment of 5, numerically safe bearing capacity of soil foundation is calculated and it is attempted to assess economical dimension of foundation as well as understanding variation range of bearing capacity at different degree. It could help of civil engineering in design of foundations at any situation.

  11. Mineralization of soil colloids by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria of soils

    Drozdova, Olga,

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach for the study of the biogeochemical cycles of the main elements in soils and waters controlled by the activity of microorganisms (by uptake/release of cells or in the process of degradation of dissolved organic matter) was used in the thesis. The innovation of this work is to study the effect of microbial activity (soil typical aerobic bacteria Pseudomonas) on the biogeochemical cycles of elements due to take place geochemical, physical, chemical and microbiological...

  12. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOIL SOLUTION IN STEPPE ZONE SOIL

    A. A. Batukaev; A. P. Endovitsky; T. M. Minkina; V. P. Kalinichenko; Z. S. Dikaev; S. N. Sushkova

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs CaCO30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3...

  13. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research indicates that most of this silty material is the result of slope wash processed during the Holocene Age. Residual soils of the watershed were related to the underlying geologic formations by their morphology and types of chert. Colluvial soils were identified and mapped whenever the colluvium thickness exceeded 20 in. (50 cm). Except for the ancient colluvial soils (colluvium without a present-day source area), colluvial soils were not separated according to their geologic age, but stacked colluvial deposits are located in low footslope landforms. Colluvial soils in the watershed were identified and mapped according to their morphologic properties that would influence the perching and subsurface movement of water. Alluvial soils were restricted to present floodplains, low fan terraces, and low fan deltas. Nearly all alluvial soils contained very young surficial sediments derived from slopewash resulting from land clearing and subsequent agricultural activities.

  14. Soil washing and biotreatment of petroleum-contaminated soils

    Soil washing was evaluated in combination with biological treatment as a decontamination technology for petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale soil washing system utilized to clean the soils also fractionated the bulk soil into sand, silt, and clay fractions. With tap water as the carrier, the petroleum removal efficiencies varied from 44% to 55% for three soils. The postwash hydrocarbon levels were in the range of 145--905 mg/kg for sands, 2,000--5,000 mg/kg for silts, and greater than 14,000 mg/kg for clays. Biological degradation was evaluated as a secondary treatment to reduce the contaminated levels on each fraction to desired levels. Simulated composting lowered hydrocarbon levels on sands to below 50 mg/kg. Slurry treatment of silt and clay fractions reduced hydrocarbon levels to near 100 mg/kg for silt and in the range of 500 to 1,000 mg/kg for clays. It was found that composting and slurry treatment effectively met the suggested target-treatment level of 100 mg/kg for the sand and silt fractions. For the clays, slow desorption of the hydrocarbons and long treatment periods made slurry treatment an uneconomical alternative

  15. Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil

    The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; ≥ 2.0 mm, 2.0 ∼ 0.21 mm and ≤ 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na2CO3 and Na3PO4 shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency (≥90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

  16. Is soil fauna an important driver of key soil function ? the case of denitrifier communities in tropical soils

    Brauman, Alain; Philippot, Laurent; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Djigal, Djibril; Gueye, M.; Rabary, B.; Assigbetse, K.; Lensi, R.; Villenave, Cécile; Blanchart, Eric

    2008-01-01

    According to recent estimations, soil animals represent as much as 23% of the total diversity of living organisms. If the importance of soil fauna on soil global microbial processes like mineralization is widely recognized, their impact on composition of soil microbial guilds, like denitrifiers, remains questionable. This study will resume several works undertaken on the influence of keystone tropical soil species (nematodes, termites, earthworms) on different parameters (activity- density an...

  17. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil...

  18. Assessing soil quality in organic agriculture

    Soil quality is directly linked to food production, food security, and environmental quality (i.e. water quality, global warming, and energy use in food production). Unfortunately, moderate to severe degeneration of soils (i.e., loss of soil biodiversity, poor soil tilth, and unbalanced elemental c...

  19. Pedotransfer functions in soil electrical resistivity estimation

    Surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is recognized as a powerful non-invasive soil survey and monitoring method. Relationships between ER and soil water contents that are needed to infer the spatial distribution of soil moisture from the ERT results, are known to reflect soil properties. ...

  20. Soil Respiration in Response to Landscape Position

    Variations in soil type, due to landscape position, may influence soil respiration. This study was conducted to determine how landscape position (summit, side-slope, and depression) influences heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration. Soil respiration was determined at three landscape positio...