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1

Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm

The security of digital images attracts much attention recently, especially when these digital images are stored in some types of memory or send through the communication networks. Many different image encryption methods have been proposed to keep the security of these images. Image encryption techniques tries to convert an image to another image that is hard to understand. In this proposed method, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to produce a new encryption method by exploitation the powerful ...

Al-husainy, Mohammed A. F.

2006-01-01

2

Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm

This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. The...

Catur Iswahyudi; Emy Setyaningsih

2012-01-01

3

A new chaotic algorithm for image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper presents a new nonlinear chaotic algorithm (NCA) which uses power function and tangent function instead of linear function. Its structural parameters are obtained by experimental analysis. And an image encryption algorithm in a one-time-one-password system is designed. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption algorithm based on NCA shows advantages of large key space and high-level security, while maintaining acceptable efficiency. Compared with some general encryption algorithms such as DES, the encryption algorithm is more secure

4

Genetic Algorithm: Tool to Encrypt Image

Security is an important issue when digital images are transmitted through the internet and cellular phones, as well as being important in encryption of the satellite images, and image encryption is the most useful technique employed for this purpose. Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be regarded as a randomized search procedure that is commonly used to solve the optimization problems. The genetic algorithm uses two reproduction operators - crossover and mutation. Crossover assembles existing genes ...

Dr. Mohammed Abbas Fadhil Al-Husainy

2012-01-01

5

Quantum Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Image Correlation Decomposition

A novel quantum gray-level image encryption and decryption algorithm based on image correlation decomposition is proposed. The correlation among image pixels is established by utilizing the superposition and measurement principle of quantum states. And a whole quantum image is divided into a series of sub-images. These sub-images are stored into a complete binary tree array constructed previously and then randomly performed by one of the operations of quantum random-phase gate, quantum revolving gate and Hadamard transform. The encrypted image can be obtained by superimposing the resulting sub-images with the superposition principle of quantum states. For the encryption algorithm, the keys are the parameters of random phase gate, rotation angle, binary sequence and orthonormal basis states. The security and the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm are analyzed. The proposed encryption algorithm can resist brute force attack due to its very large key space and has lower computational complexity than its classical counterparts.

Hua, Tianxiang; Chen, Jiamin; Pei, Dongju; Zhang, Wenquan; Zhou, Nanrun

2015-02-01

6

Color Image Encryption Algorithm Combining Compressive Sensing with Arnold Transform

A new color image encryption algorithm combining compressive sensing with Arnold transform is proposed, which can encrypt the color image into a gray image. Considering the dimensional reduction and random projection of compressive sensing, we utilize compressive sensing to encrypt and compress the three color components of color image simultaneously. The three encrypted and compressed color components’ dimensions are smaller than the original image, thus they can be grouped into a gray...

Aidi Zhang; Nanrun Zhou; Lihua Gong

2013-01-01

7

A hash-based image encryption algorithm

There exist several algorithms that deal with text encryption. However, there has been little research carried out to date on encrypting digital images or video files. This paper describes a novel way of encrypting digital images with password protection using 1D SHA-2 algorithm coupled with a compound forward transform. A spatial mask is generated from the frequency domain by taking advantage of the conjugate symmetry of the complex imagery part of the Fourier Transform. This mask is then XORed with the bit stream of the original image. Exclusive OR (XOR), a logical symmetric operation, that yields 0 if both binary pixels are zeros or if both are ones and 1 otherwise. This can be verified simply by modulus (pixel1, pixel2, 2). Finally, confusion is applied based on the displacement of the cipher's pixels in accordance with a reference mask. Both security and performance aspects of the proposed method are analyzed, which prove that the method is efficient and secure from a cryptographic point of view. One of the merits of such an algorithm is to force a continuous tone payload, a steganographic term, to map onto a balanced bits distribution sequence. This bit balance is needed in certain applications, such as steganography and watermarking, since it is likely to have a balanced perceptibility effect on the cover image when embedding.

Cheddad, Abbas; Condell, Joan; Curran, Kevin; McKevitt, Paul

2010-03-01

8

An Image Encryption Algorithm based on 3D Lorenz map

In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this paper a new approach for image encryption is based on chaotic baker map and chaotic Lorenz map in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external secret key of 128 bit and two chaotic maps are employed. The initial conditions for both maps are derived using the external secr...

Anto Steffi, A.; Dipesh Sharma

2013-01-01

9

Color Image Encryption Algorithm Combining Compressive Sensing with Arnold Transform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new color image encryption algorithm combining compressive sensing with Arnold transform is proposed, which can encrypt the color image into a gray image. Considering the dimensional reduction and random projection of compressive sensing, we utilize compressive sensing to encrypt and compress the three color components of color image simultaneously. The three encrypted and compressed color components’ dimensions are smaller than the original image, thus they can be grouped into a gray image, and then the gray image is scrambled by Arnold transform to enhance the security. The proposed algorithm can also be applied in the multiple-image encryption. The experimental results show the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm.

Aidi Zhang

2013-11-01

10

Image encryption a communication perspective

Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches encryption and substitution-based approaches.Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard,

Abd El-Samie, Fathi E; Elashry, Ibrahim F; Shahieen, Mai H; Faragallah, Osama S; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M; Alshebeili, Saleh A

2013-01-01

11

Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Decomposition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed chaos-based image encryption algorithm consists of four stages: decomposition, shuffle, diffusion and combination. Decomposition is that an original image is decomposed to components according to some rule. The purpose of the shuffle is to mask original organization of the pixels of the image, and the diffusion is to change their values. Combination is not necessary in the sender. To improve the efficiency, the parallel architecture is taken to process the shuffle and diffusion. To enhance the security of the algorithm, firstly, a permutation of the labels is designed. Secondly, two Logistic maps are used in diffusion stage to encrypt the components. One map encrypts the odd rows of the component and another map encrypts the even rows. Experiment results and security analysis demonstrate that the encryption algorithm not only is robust and flexible, but also can withstand common attacks such as statistical attacks and differential attacks.

Xiuli Song

2013-07-01

12

An Image Encryption Algorithm based on 3D Lorenz map

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this paper a new approach for image encryption is based on chaotic baker map and chaotic Lorenz map in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external secret key of 128 bit and two chaotic maps are employed. The initial conditions for both maps are derived using the external secret key by providing different weight age to all its bits. The results of experiment show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission.

Mrs. A.Anto Steffi

2013-02-01

13

Design and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithm Using Chaos

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Images are widely used in diverse areas such as medical, military, science, engineering, art, advertising, entertainment, education as well as training, increasing the use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing images. So maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of images has become a major concern. This makes encryption necessary. The pixel values of neighbouring pixels in a plain image are strongly correlated. The proposed algorithm breaks this correlation increasing the entropy. Correlation is reduced by changing the pixel position this which is called confusion. Histogram is equalized by changing the pixel value this which is called diffusion. The proposed method of encryption algorithm is based on chaos theory. The plain-image is divided into blocks and then performs three levels of shuffling using different chaotic maps. In the first level the pixels within the block are shuffled. In the second level the blocks are shuffled and in the third level all the pixels in an image are shuffled. Finally the shuffled image is diffused using a chaotic sequence generated using symmetric keys, to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed algorithm can be used successfully to encrypt/decrypt the images with the secret keys. The analysis of the algorithm also shows that the algorithm gives larger key space and a high key sensitivity. The encrypted image has good encryption effect, information entropy and low correlation coefficient.

Sandhya Rani M.H.

2014-06-01

14

An image encryption algorithm utilizing julia sets and hilbert curves.

Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets' parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few parameters for the key generation, which greatly reduces the storage space. Moreover, because of the Julia sets' properties, such as infiniteness and chaotic characteristics, the keys have high sensitivity even to a tiny perturbation. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has large key space, good statistical property, high sensitivity for the keys, and effective resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack. PMID:24404181

Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing

2014-01-01

15

Analyzing the Efficiency of Text-to-Image Encryption Algorithm

Today many of the activities are performed online through the Internet. One of the methods used to protect the data while sending it through the Internet is cryptography. In a previous work we proposed the Text-to-Image Encryption algorithm (TTIE) as a novel algorithm for network security. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of (TTIE) for large scale collection.

Ahmad Abusukhon; Mohammad Talib; Nabulsi, Maher A.

2012-01-01

16

Breaking a chaotic image encryption algorithm based on perceptron model

Recently, a chaotic image encryption algorithm based on perceptron model was proposed. The present paper analyzes security of the algorithm and finds that the equivalent secret key can be reconstructed with only one pair of known-plaintext/ciphertext, which is supported by both mathematical proof and experiment results. In addition, some other security defects are also reported.

Zhang, Yu; Li, Chengqing; Li, Qin; Zhang, Dan; Shu, Shi

2011-01-01

17

Key Generation Using Genetic Algorithm for Image Encryption?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protecting information as the importance of security is increasingday by day with the advent of online transaction processing and e commerce. Now a day the security of digitalimages are major area of concern, especially when we deal with digital images where it may be stored orsend through the communication channel. Genetic algorithms are a class of optimization algorithms.Genetic algorithms can be used to solve different problems through modeling a simplified version of geneticprocesses. This paper proposed a method based on Genetic Algorithm which is used to generate key by thehelp of random number generator to make the key complex. Key generation will go through a number ofprocess and main criteria for key selection will be the fitness value of the population. AES which is asymmetric key encryption algorithm is used to encrypt the image.

Aarti Soni

2013-06-01

18

An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding

Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting.

Deng, Jia-Xian; Deng, Hai-Tao

2013-09-01

19

Double color image encryption using iterative phase retrieval algorithm in quaternion gyrator domain

This paper describes a novel algorithm to encrypt double color images into a single undistinguishable image in quaternion gyrator domain. By using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, the phase masks used for encryption are obtained. Subsequently, the encrypted image is generated via cascaded quaternion gyrator transforms with different rotation angles. The parameters in quaternion gyrator transforms and phases serve as encryption keys. By knowing these keys, the original color images can ...

Shao, Zhuhong; Shu, Huazhong; Wu, Jiasong; Dong, Zhifang; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Coatrieux, Jean-louis

2014-01-01

20

Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum-length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process [...] , the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

X. W., Li; D. H., Kim; S. J., Cho; S. T., Kim.

2013-08-01

21

In this paper, we propose a new joint watermarking/encryption algorithm for the purpose of verifying the reliability of medical images in both encrypted and spatial domains. It combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation (QIM), with a block cipher algorithm, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), in CBC mode of operation. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins even though the image is stored encrypted. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded Ultrasound images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. By making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed solution is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22256213

Bouslimi, D; Coatrieux, G; Roux, Ch

2011-01-01

22

A self-adapting image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To ensure the security of a digital image, a new self-adapting encryption algorithm based on the spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix is proposed in this paper. First, the plain-image is divided into different blocks of the same size, and each block is sorted in ascending order to obtain the corresponding standard ergodic matrix. Then each block is encrypted by the spatiotemporal chaotic system and shuffled according to the standard ergodic matrix. Finally, all modules are rearranged to acquire the final encrypted image. In particular, the plain-image information is used in the initial conditions of the spatiotemporal chaos and the ergodic matrices, so different plain-images will be encrypted to obtain different cipher-images. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the performance and security of the proposed encryption scheme can encrypt the image effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)

23

A new image encryption algorithm based on the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new image encryption algorithm on the basis of the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system. While in the process of generating a key stream, the system parameters and the derivative order are embedded in the proposed algorithm to enhance the security. Such an algorithm is detailed in terms of security analyses, including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme has the advantages of large key space and high security for practical image encryption. (general)

24

Quantum Image Encryption and Decryption Algorithms Based on Quantum Image Geometric Transformations

Cryptography is the essential subject for network information security to protect important data. Although following the symmetric cryptosystem for which the participations in the communication keep exactly the same keys, the special for the encryption and decryption algorithms proposed in this paper lays in the operational objectives, the quantum image. Firstly, extracts the properties of gray-scale and position from the quantum gray-scale image which the storage expression of image in quantum states is achieved. Along with the geometric transformations in classical images, this article realizes the quantum image geometric transforms by means of designing quantum circuits. Eventually, through a combination of the proposals in previous, the encryption and decryption algorithms on quantum gray-scale images is finally accomplished, which could ensure the confidentiality and security of the information in delivery. The algorithms belong to the application of quantum image geometric transformations, for further, the new explorations for quantum image cryptography researches.

Zhou, Ri-Gui; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Man-Qun; Shen, Chen-Yi

2013-06-01

25

Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Wavelet Transforms and Dual Chaotic Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In view of characteristics of digital image,such as bulk data capacity,high redundancy and poor security, a new image encryption algorithm was put forward by combining chaotic maps with wavelet transform. Mallat algorithm in wavelet transform firstly was used to decompose the original image, leaving only the low-frequency information, and then oversampled Chebyshev chaotic maps were used to achieve space chaos of compressed image, oversampled Logistic chaotic maps were used for encryption. Finally, security analysis of the encryption algorithm are analyzed from the perspective of key space, statistical analysis, key sensitivity analysis and so on. Simulation results show that the method can effectively compress image, the amount of information transmission is low and the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and with good encryption effect .

Shucong Liu

2014-02-01

26

Lensless multiple-image optical encryption based on improved phase retrieval algorithm.

A novel architecture of the optical multiple-image encryption based on the modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) by using cascading phase only functions (POFs) in the Fresnel transform (FrT) domain is presented. This proposed method can greatly increase the capacity of the system by avoiding the crosstalk, completely, between the encrypted target images. Each present stage encrypted target image is encoded as to a complex function by using the MGSA with constraining the encrypted target image of the previous stage. Not only the wavelength and position parameters in the FrT domain can be keys to increase system security, the created POFs are also served mutually as the encryption keys to decrypt target image from present stage into next stage in the cascaded scheme. Compared with a prior method [Appl. Opt.48, 2686-2692 (2009)], the main advantages of this proposed encryption system is that it does not need any transformative lenses and this makes it very efficient and easy to implement optically. Simulation results show that this proposed encryption system can successfully achieve the multiple-image encryption via fewer POFs, which is more advantageous in simpler implementation and efficiency than a prior method where each decryption stage requires two POFs to accomplish this task. PMID:22614416

Huang, Jian-Ji; Hwang, Hone-Ene; Chen, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Mu

2012-05-01

27

Texture Analysis of Chaotic Coupled Map Lattices Based Image Encryption Algorithm

As of late, data security is key in different enclosures like web correspondence, media frameworks, therapeutic imaging, telemedicine and military correspondence. In any case, a large portion of them confronted with a few issues, for example, the absence of heartiness and security. In this letter, in the wake of exploring the fundamental purposes of the chaotic trigonometric maps and the coupled map lattices, we have presented the algorithm of chaos-based image encryption based on coupled map lattices. The proposed mechanism diminishes intermittent impact of the ergodic dynamical systems in the chaos-based image encryption. To assess the security of the encoded image of this scheme, the association of two nearby pixels and composition peculiarities were performed. This algorithm tries to minimize the problems arises in image encryption.

Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq; Batool, Syeda Iram

2014-09-01

28

With the fast evolution of digital data exchange and increased usage of multi media images, it is essential to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In natural images the values and position of the neighbouring pixels are strongly correlated. The method proposed in this paper, breaks this correlation increasing entropy of the position and entropy of pixel values using block shuffling and encryption by chaotic sequence respectively. The plain-image is initially row wise shuffled and first level of encryption is performed using addition modulo operation. The image is divided into blocks and then block based shuffling is performed using Arnold Cat transformation, further the blocks are uniformly scrambled across the image. Finally the shuffled image undergoes second level of encryption by bitwise XOR operation, and then the image as a whole is shuffled column wise to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully enc...

Rakesh, S; Shadakshari, B C; Annappa, B

2012-01-01

29

Nonlinear multiple-image encryption based on mixture retrieval algorithm in Fresnel domain

We propose a novel nonlinear multiple-image encryption based on mixture retrieval algorithm and phase mask multiplexing in Fresnel domain. The encryption process is realized by applying the Yang-Gu algorithm cascaded with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA), which generate a private key and an intermediate phase to ensure high security. In the proposed method, all images are encoded separately into a phase only function (POF). Obtained POFs are integrated into a final POF based on phase mask multiplexing. As a result, cross-talk noise is removed resulting in a large improvement of the encryption capacity. A spatial light modulator (SLM) based optical setup has been suggested for decryption. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system. Results also indicate the high robustness of the system against occlusion and noise attacks.

Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

2014-11-01

30

A Brief Study of Video Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Video is a set of images .Video encryption is encrypting those set of images .Thus video encryption is simply hiding your video from prying eyes .Video monitoring has always been in concerned .Multimedia security is very important for multimedia commerce on Internet such as video on demand and Real time video multicast. There are various video encryption algorithm. All have some kind of weakness .In this paper classification of various existing algorithm, its advantages and disadvantages is discussed.

Pranali Pasalkar,

2015-02-01

31

Key Generation Using Genetic Algorithm for Image Encryption?

Cryptography is essential for protecting information as the importance of security is increasingday by day with the advent of online transaction processing and e commerce. Now a day the security of digitalimages are major area of concern, especially when we deal with digital images where it may be stored orsend through the communication channel. Genetic algorithms are a class of optimization algorithms.Genetic algorithms can be used to solve different problems through modeling a simplified ve...

Aarti Soni; Suyash Agrawal?

2013-01-01

32

Single-channel color image encryption using phase retrieve algorithm in fractional Fourier domain

A single-channel color image encryption is proposed based on a phase retrieve algorithm and a two-coupled logistic map. Firstly, a gray scale image is constituted with three channels of the color image, and then permuted by a sequence of chaotic pairs generated by the two-coupled logistic map. Secondly, the permutation image is decomposed into three new components, where each component is encoded into a phase-only function in the fractional Fourier domain with a phase retrieve algorithm that is proposed based on the iterative fractional Fourier transform. Finally, an interim image is formed by the combination of these phase-only functions and encrypted into the final gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using chaotic diffusion, which has camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, chaotic permutation and diffusion makes the resultant image nonlinear and disorder both in spatial domain and frequency domain, and the proposed phase iterative algorithm has faster convergent speed. Additionally, the encryption scheme enlarges the key space of the cryptosystem. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

Sui, Liansheng; Xin, Meiting; Tian, Ailing; Jin, Haiyan

2013-12-01

33

Image encryption based on phase encoding by means of a fringe pattern and computational algorithms

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se presenta una tecnica computacional para encriptación y desencriptación de imágenes. Esta técnica esta basada en la reflexión de la luz, superposicion de intensidad y algoritmos computacionales. La imagen a ser encriptada es un mapa de reflectancia obtenida por medio de la luz reflejada por una es [...] cena. Para efectuar el procedimiento de encriptacion, la imagen es codificada en un patrón de franjas generado por computadora. El modelo del patron de franjas es una función coseno, la cual agrega en su argumento la imagen a ser encriptada como una fase. Esto genera un patron de franjas deformado de acuerdo a la imagen. Para completar la encriptación, se sobrepone una máscara aleatoria sobre el patron de franjas. El procedimiento de desencriptación es efectuado substrayendo la máscara aleatoria de la imagen encriptada y aplicando un metodo de recuperación de fase. Para extraer la fase del patrón de franjas, se usa el método de demodulación heterodino. Para describir la precision de los resultados de imágenes desencriptadas y la robustés de la encriptación, se calcula la raíz del error cuadratico medio. Todos los pasos de la encriptacion y desencriptación se efectúan en forma computacional. De esta manera, los resultados de encriptación y desencriptacion son mejorados. Esto representa una contribución en el campo de la encriptación y desencriptación. Esta técnica es probada con imagenes simuladas y con imágenes reales, y sus resultados son presentados. Abstract in english A computational technique for image encryption and decryption is presented. The technique is based on light reflection, intensity superposition and computational algorithms. The image to be encrypted is a reflectance map obtained by means of the light reflected by a scene. To perform the encryption [...] procedure, the image is encoded in a computer-generated fringe pattern. The model of the fringe pattern is a cosine function, which adds to its argument the image to be encrypted as a phase. It generates a fringe pattern deformed according to the image. To complete the encryption, a random mask is superimposed on the fringe pattern. The decryption procedure is performed by subtracting the random mask from the encrypted image and applying a phase recovery method. To retrieve the phase from the fringe pattern, the heterodyne demodulation method is used. To describe the accuracy of results of the decrypted images and the robustness of the encryption, a root mean square of error is calculated. All steps of the encryption and decryption are performed in computational form. The results of encryption and decryption are thus improved. It represents a contribution to the field of encryption and decryption. This technique is tested with simulated images and real images, and its results are presented.

J. A., Muñoz Rodriguez; R., Rodríguez-Vera.

2006-02-01

34

In this paper we propose a joint encryption/watermarking algorithm for the purpose of protecting medical images. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins as its attachment to one patient even if the image is stored encrypted. In this study, the given solution combines the RC4 stream cipher and two substitutive watermarking modulations: the Least Significant Bit Method and the Quantization Index Modulation. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded echographic images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. At least, a capacity rate of 1 and 0.5 bits of message per pixel of image can be embedded in the spatial and the encrypted domains respectively, with a peak signal to noise ratio greater than 49 dB. PMID:22054815

Bouslimi, Dalel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Roux, Christian

2012-04-01

35

A novel chaotic block image encryption algorithm based on dynamic random growth technique

This paper proposes a new block image encryption scheme based on hybrid chaotic maps and dynamic random growth technique. Since cat map is periodic and can be easily cracked by chosen plaintext attack, we use cat map in another securer way, which can completely eliminate the cyclical phenomenon and resist chosen plaintext attack. In the diffusion process, an intermediate parameter is calculated according to the image block. The intermediate parameter is used as the initial parameter of chaotic map to generate random data stream. In this way, the generated key streams are dependent on the plaintext image, which can resist the chosen plaintext attack. The experiment results prove that the proposed encryption algorithm is secure enough to be used in image transmission systems.

Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Lintao; Zhang, Yingqian

2015-03-01

36

Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.

Mr. Balika J. Chelliah

2014-03-01

37

Optical image encryption topology.

Optical image encryption topology is proposed based on the principle of random-phase encoding. Various encryption topological units, involving peer-to-peer, ring, star, and tree topologies, can be realized by an optical 6f system. These topological units can be interconnected to constitute an optical image encryption network. The encryption and decryption can be performed in both digital and optical methods. PMID:19838280

Yong-Liang, Xiao; Xin, Zhou; Qiong-Hua, Wang; Sheng, Yuan; Yao-Yao, Chen

2009-10-15

38

A Novel Text to Image Encryption Technique by AES Rijndael Algorithm with Color Code Conversion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transmission of secure data through the communication spectrum is major issue in current scenario. To ensure the security of the data, many techniques and algorithms were evolved in which the cryptographic techniques are most powerful. Through cryptographic algorithms, the conversion of plain text into unintelligible form made it more secure and protect data from unauthorized users. The proposed scheme focus on the block cipher substitution method that encrypts the given text into blocks. In this paper, our proposed method extends such that, the user given plain text is divided into blocks that are fed to the AES Rijndael encryption process, converted to unreadable format. Each character of the block is then shifted into ASCII value which is, in turn formulated into equivalent color code. Thus, the final encrypted text is in image format which make available for more enrichment to the data. The AES algorithm is chosen for its quick and legible conversion of data. Our proposed method is very flexible technology for 256 ASCII values that is converted into 256 color code.

Shanthi

2014-07-01

39

The security of digital data including images has attracted more attention recently, and many different image encryption methods have been proposed in the literature for this purpose. In this paper, a new image encryption method using wavelet packet decomposition and discrete linear canonical transform is proposed. The use of wavelet packet decomposition and DLCT increases the key size significantly making the encryption more robust. Simulation results of the proposed technique are also presented.

Sharma, K. K.; Jain, Heena

2013-01-01

40

An efficient self-adaptive model for chaotic image encryption algorithm

In this paper, an efficient self-adaptive model for chaotic image encryption algorithm is proposed. With the help of the classical structure of permutation-diffusion and double simple two-dimensional chaotic systems, an efficient and fast encryption algorithm is designed. However, different from most of the existing methods which are found insecure upon chosen-plaintext or known-plaintext attack in the process of permutation or diffusion, the keystream generated in both operations of our method is dependent on the plain-image. Therefore, different plain-images will have different keystreams in both processes even just only a bit is changed in the plain-image. This design can solve the problem of fixed chaotic sequence produced by the same initial conditions but for different images. Moreover, the operation speed is high because complex mathematical methods, such as Runge-Kutta method, of solving the high-dimensional partial differential equations are avoided. Numerical experiments show that the proposed self-adaptive method can well resist against chosen-plaintext and known-plaintext attacks, and has high security and efficiency.

Huang, Xiaoling; Ye, Guodong

2014-12-01

41

Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging.

In this Letter, we propose a method for optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging. An optical multiple random phase mask encoding system is applied, and one of the phase-only masks is selected and laterally translated along a preset direction during the encryption process. For image decryption, a phase retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract a high-quality plaintext. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. The proposed method can provide a new strategy instead of conventional interference methods, and it may open up a new research perspective for optical image encryption. PMID:21082007

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

2010-11-15

42

Simultaneous transmission for an encrypted image and a double random-phase encryption key.

We propose a method to simultaneously transmit double random-phase encryption key and an encrypted image by making use of the fact that an acceptable decryption result can be obtained when only partial data of the encrypted image have been taken in the decryption process. First, the original image data are encoded as an encrypted image by a double random-phase encryption technique. Second, a double random-phase encryption key is encoded as an encoded key by the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. Then the amplitude of the encrypted image is modulated by the encoded key to form what we call an encoded image. Finally, the encoded image that carries both the encrypted image and the encoded key is delivered to the receiver. Based on such a method, the receiver can have an acceptable result and secure transmission can be guaranteed by the RSA cipher system. PMID:17538671

Yuan, Sheng; Zhou, Xin; Li, Da-hai; Zhou, Ding-fu

2007-06-20

43

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is a means to hide the existence of information exchange. Using this technique the sender embeds the secret information in some other media. This is done by replacing useless data in ordinary computer files with some other secret information. The secret information could be simple text, encoded text or images. The media used as the embedding plane could be an image, audio, video or text files. Using steganography ensures that no one apart from the sender and the receiver knows about the existence of the message. In this paper, a steganography method based on transforms used i.e. Wavelet and Contourlet. Devised algorithm was used against each transform. Blowfish Encryption method is also embedded to double the security impact. The major advantage of applying transforms is that the image quality is not degraded even if the number of embedded characters is increased. The proposed system operates well in most of the test cases. The average payload capacity is also considerably high.

Saddaf Rubab

2015-01-01

44

A Novel Text to Image Encryption Technique by AES Rijndael Algorithm with Color Code Conversion

Transmission of secure data through the communication spectrum is major issue in current scenario. To ensure the security of the data, many techniques and algorithms were evolved in which the cryptographic techniques are most powerful. Through cryptographic algorithms, the conversion of plain text into unintelligible form made it more secure and protect data from unauthorized users. The proposed scheme focus on the block cipher substitution method that encrypts the given text into blocks. In ...

Shanthi; Palanisamy, Dr V.

2014-01-01

45

METRICS OF A NEW SYMMETRICAL ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,CAST, UMARAM and RC6 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. The authentication protocols have been used for authentication and key-exchange processes. A new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper to prevent the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data-exchange in Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN. The new symmetrical algorithm avoids the key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption, decryption, and authentication processes. It operates at a data rate higher than DES, 3DES, AES, UMARAM and RC6 algorithms. It is applied on a text file and an image as an application. The encryption becomes more secure and high data rate than DES,3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for the encryption algorithms like DES, 3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6 at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

Dr. R. UMARANI

2011-12-01

46

IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is one of the most methods of information hiding. A novel secure encryption method for image encryption is presented in this study. The proposed algorithm based on using singular value decomposition SVD. In this study we start to scramble the image data according to suggested keys (two sequence scrambling process with two different keys to finally create two different matrices. The diagonal matrix from the SVD will be interchanged with the resulted matrices. Another scrambling and diagonal matrices interchange will apply to increase the complexity. The resulted two matrices combine to one matrix according to predefined procedure. The encrypted image is a meaningfull image. The suggested method tested with many images encryption and gives promised results.

Nidhal K. El Abbadi

2014-01-01

47

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data security has become most important aspect while transmission of data and storage. The transmission and exchange of image also needs a high security. Cryptography is used to maintain security. In this paper, we implemented security for image. We have considered an image, read its pixels and convert it into pixels matrix of order as height and width of the image. Replace that pixels into some fixed numbers, generate the key using random generation technique .Encrypting the image using this key ,performing random transposition on encrypted image, converting it into one dimensional encrypted array and finally applied Huffman coding on that array , due this size of the encrypted image is reduced and image is encrypted again .The decryption is reverse process of encryption. Hence the proposed method provides a high security for an image with minimum memory usage.

Dr. T. Bhaskara Reddy

2013-11-01

48

Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.

Vilardy, Juan M; Useche, J; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: vilardy.juan@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)

2011-01-01

49

Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.

50

Efficient Image Encryption Using a Chaos-based PWL Memristor

An image encryption algorithm based on the chaotic system has been increasingly used, but the disadvantages of small key space, weak security in low dimensional chaotic cryptosystems, simple chaotic system, and inconvenient for hardware implementation, are obvious. This paper presents a new image encryption algorithm based on chaos with the PWL memristor in Chua?s circuit. This encryption algorithm includes two main operations of image scrambling and pixel replacement. Simulations show...

Lin Zhaohui; Wang Hongxia

2010-01-01

51

Security enhancement of a phase-truncation based image encryption algorithm.

The asymmetric cryptosystem, which is based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms (PTFTs), can break the linearity of conventional systems. However, it has been proven to be vulnerable to a specific attack based on iterative Fourier transforms when the two random phase masks are used as public keys to encrypt different plaintexts. An improvement from the asymmetric cryptosystem may be taken by relocating the amplitude values in the output plane. In this paper, two different methods are adopted to realize the amplitude modulation of the output image. The first one is to extend the PTFT-based asymmetrical cryptosystem into the anamorphic fractional Fourier transform domain directly, and the second is to add an amplitude mask in the Fourier plane of the encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations are presented to prove the good performance of the proposed cryptosystems. PMID:22193194

Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

2011-12-20

52

Dual encryption scheme of images using polarized light.

We propose and analyze a dual encryption/decryption scheme, motivated by recent interest in polarization encoding. Compared to standard optical encryption methods, which are based on phase and amplitude manipulation, this encryption procedure relying on Mueller-Stokes formalism provides large flexibility in the key encryption design. The effectiveness of our algorithm is discussed, thanks to a numerical simulation of the polarization encryption/decryption procedure of a 256 gray-level image. Of additional special interest is the immunity of this encryption algorithm to brute force attacks. PMID:20596188

Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

2010-07-01

53

Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2. In MSA(1 method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. We have also introduced a new algorithm for encrypting the plain text multiple times. Our method is totally dependent on the random text_key which is to be supplied by the user. The maximum length of the text_key can be of 16 characters long and it may contain any character(ASCII code 0 to 255. We have developed an algorithm to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and hence if someone applies the brute force method then he/she has to give trail for 256! times which is quite absurd. Moreover the multiple encryption method makes the system further secured. For hiding secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 8 consecutive bytes of the cover file. We have introduced password for hiding data in the cover file. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any standard cover file such as image, audio, video files. Because the hidden message is encrypted hence it will be almost impossible for the intruder to unhide the actual secret message from the embedded cover file. This method may be the most secured method in digital water marking.

Joyshree Nath

2011-03-01

54

A double-image encryption scheme is proposed based on an asymmetric technique, in which the encryption and decryption processes are different and the encryption keys are not identical to the decryption ones. First, a phase-only function (POF) of each plain image is retrieved by using an iterative process and then encoded into an interim matrix. Two interim matrices are directly modulated into a complex image by using the convolution operation in the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) domain. Second, the complex image is encrypted into the gray scale ciphertext with stationary white-noise distribution by using the FrFT. In the encryption process, three random phase functions are used as encryption keys to retrieve the POFs of plain images. Simultaneously, two decryption keys are generated in the encryption process, which make the optical implementation of the decryption process convenient and efficient. The proposed encryption scheme has high robustness to various attacks, such as brute-force attack, known plaintext attack, cipher-only attack, and specific attack. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and security of the proposed method.

Sui, Liansheng; Lu, Haiwei; Ning, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yinghui

2014-02-01

55

Scalable Image Encryption Based Lossless Image Compression

Present days processing of the image compression is the main protective representation with considerable data process on each image progression. Traditionally more number of techniques were introduced for during efficient progression in image compression on the data set representation process of application development. A content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, a data hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image...

Mrs. Nimse Madhuri S; Mahajan, Dr P. M.

2014-01-01

56

Scalable Image Encryption Based Lossless Image Compression

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present days processing of the image compression is the main protective representation with considerable data process on each image progression. Traditionally more number of techniques were introduced for during efficient progression in image compression on the data set representation process of application development. A content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, a data hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image using a data hiding key to create a sparse space to accommodate some additional data. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data hiding key, receiver can extract the additional data though receiver does not know the image content. If the receiver has the encryption key, can decrypt the received data to obtain an image similar to the original one. If the receiver has both the data hiding key and the encryption key, can extract the additional data and recover the original content.

Mrs. Nimse Madhuri S

2014-10-01

57

A NOVEL THRESHOLD BASED IMAGE ENCRYPTION FOR BITMAP IMAGES?

Cryptography is the science of converting confidential information into unintelligible format. To provide security and authentication to the data, many algorithms and techniques were evolved, in which the cryptographic techniques remains best. For the encryption process, Images were considered as the best source to maintain security. The usage of image is good solution for providing better communication. In this proposed method, a new image encryption method is placed. According to proposed m...

Berlin, K.; Padmapriya?, A.

2014-01-01

58

Data encryption using LSB matching algorithm and Reserving Room before Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. Previously proposed methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may cause some errors in data during data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper, a novel method of reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image is proposed. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error.

Harshali Sanglikar

2014-11-01

59

A Summarization on Image Encryption

With the fast development of the computer technology and information processing technology, the problem of information security is becoming more and more important. Information hiding is usually used to protect the important information from disclosing when it is transmitting over an insecure channel. Digital image encryption is one of the most important methods of image information hiding and camouflage. The image encryption techniques mainly include compression methodology, modern cryptogra...

Zhou Shihua; Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Zhou Changjun

2010-01-01

60

We present a novel method for multiple-image encryption by combining modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) with phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In this proposal, the primitive images are firstly encoded into a single synthetic complex image by phase mutual encoding and MGSA based on GT. Then the complex encoded image is further converted into two computer-generated POMs by carrying out MGSA again in GT domains. The proposed scheme has not any capability limitation that is caused by crosstalk effect between multiplexing images. An optical cascaded GT architecture, in which two POM ciphertexts and decryption phase keys are displayed in the input planes of GTs, respectively, can be employed for decryption. Combined with the POMs as main keys, the transform angles and wavelength of GTs can further increase the security of this system by offering very sensitive additional keys. Moreover, one can adjust the transform angles of GT flexibly without using any axis movement. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang

2014-06-01

61

Image Encryption Using Chaos and Block Cipher

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on combination of pixel shuffling and new modified version of simplified AES. Chaotic baker’s map is used for shuffling and improving S-AES efficiency through S-box design. Chaos is used to expand diffusion and confusion in the image. Due to sensitivity to initial conditions, chaotic baker’s map has a good potential for designing dynamic permutation map and S-box. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests included visual test and histogram analysis, randomness test, information entropy, encryption quality, correlation analysis, differential analysis and sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the new cipher has satisfactory security and is more efficient than AES which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of multimedia data.

Alireza Jolfaei

2010-12-01

62

A NOVEL THRESHOLD BASED IMAGE ENCRYPTION FOR BITMAP IMAGES?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is the science of converting confidential information into unintelligible format. To provide security and authentication to the data, many algorithms and techniques were evolved, in which the cryptographic techniques remains best. For the encryption process, Images were considered as the best source to maintain security. The usage of image is good solution for providing better communication. In this proposed method, a new image encryption method is placed. According to proposed methodology, the given image is encrypted as stream ciphers based on the threshold value computed. Two stages were being defined for proposed methodology, first one is the threshold computation, and second one is encryption. This method remains securable and quick access of data is taken place.

K.Berlin

2014-07-01

63

A reversible data hiding method for encrypted images

Since several years, the protection of multimedia data is becoming very important. The protection of this multimedia data can be done with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To decrease the transmission time, the data compression is necessary. Since few years, a new problem is trying to combine in a single step, compression, encryption and data hiding. So far, few solutions have been proposed to combine image encryption and compression for example. Nowadays, a new challenge consists to embed data in encrypted images. Since the entropy of encrypted image is maximal, the embedding step, considered like noise, is not possible by using standard data hiding algorithms. A new idea is to apply reversible data hiding algorithms on encrypted images by wishing to remove the embedded data before the image decryption. Recent reversible data hiding methods have been proposed with high capacity, but these methods are not applicable on encrypted images. In this paper we propose an analysis of the local standard deviation of the marked encrypted images in order to remove the embedded data during the decryption step. We have applied our method on various images, and we show and analyze the obtained results.

Puech, W.; Chaumont, M.; Strauss, O.

2008-02-01

64

What we believe to be a new technique, based on a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) and a phase modulation scheme in the Fresnel-transform domain, is proposed to reduce cross talks existing in multiple-image encryption and multiplexing. First, each plain image is encoded and multiplexed into a phase function by using the MGSA and a different wavelength/position parameter. Then all the created phase functions are phase modulated to result in different shift amounts of the reconstruction images before being combined together into a single phase-only function. Simulation results show that the cross talks between multiplexed images have been significantly reduced, compared with prior methods [Opt. Lett.30, 1306 (2005); J. Opt. A8, 391 (2006)], thus presenting high promise in increasing the multiplexing capacity and encrypting grayscale and color images. PMID:20016657

Hwang, Hone-Ene; Chang, Hsuan T; Lie, Wen-Nung

2009-12-15

65

A Reversible Data Hiding Method for Encrypted Images

Since several years, the protection of multimedia data is becoming very important. The protection of this multimedia data can be done with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To decrease the transmission time, the data compression is necessary. Since few years, a new problem is trying to combine in a single step, compression, encryption and data hiding. So far, few solutions have been proposed to combine image encryption and compression for example. Nowadays, a new challenge consists to emb...

Puech, William; Chaumont, Marc; Strauss, Olivier

2008-01-01

66

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SECURITY BASED ON ENCRYPTED HYBRID COMPRESSION

In this research, we propose an image security scheme using hybrid compression techniques. In this scheme, the data is being provided two-fold security by both encryption stage and hiding stage. The data/message which has to be secured undergoes encryption technique at the initial stage. In this stage, the permutation algorithm is employed which requires a pair of numbers as a key to permute the original message. Following the encryption stage, the deformed message is then embedded onto a JPE...

Ramkumar, D.; Jacob Raglend, I.

2014-01-01

67

Image Encryption Using Novel Mappings over GF(2^n

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galois Field GF(2^n is valuable to encryption and has been used in some famous encryption algorithms, such as BCH and AES. In practical application, image encryptions are used widely to protect information in transmission. This paper will propose two image encryption techniques based on two novel mappings over GF(2^n: One involves a transformation consisting of a linear transformation and a Frobenius automorphism, which shuffles pixels’ positions, that is, a permutation, giving a good diffusion effect, and another one alters pixels’ values and gives dramatic confusion effect. Key Words: Galois field; Frobenius automorphism; Linear transformation; Confusion; Diffusion

Ruisong YE

2011-02-01

68

Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images By Reserving Room Before Encryption?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be subject to some errors on data extract ion and/or image restoration. In this paper, we propose a novel method by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error. Experiments show that this novel method can embed more than 10 times as large payloads for the same image quality as the previous methods, such as for PSNR dB.

Renuka Devi

2014-08-01

69

Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image applications have been increasing in recent years. Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness, format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.

Jolly Shah

2011-07-01

70

Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images by Reserving Room before Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s con?dentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may subject to some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. Here, a novel method is proposed so as to reserve room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, i.e., data extraction and image recovery are free of any error.

Harish G, Smitha Shekar B, Prajwal R, Sunil S Shetty

2014-07-01

71

Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique

Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH) in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme whi...

Chelliah, Balika J.; Jagadeesan, Dr J.; Sneha Mathur; Saurav Dutta

2014-01-01

72

Digital image encryption with chaotic map lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a secure approach for encryption and decryption of digital images with chaotic map lattices. In the proposed encryption process, eight different types of operations are used to encrypt the pixels of an image and one of them will be used for particular pixels decided by the outcome of the chaotic map lattices. To make the cipher more robust against any attacks, the secret key is modified after encrypting each block of sixteen pixels of the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme achieves high security and efficiency. (general)

73

Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message

In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1). For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2). In MSA(1) method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key ma...

Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath,

2011-01-01

74

Optically-induced-potential-based image encryption.

We present a technique of nonlinear image encryption by use of virtual optics. The image to be encrypted is superposed on a random intensity image. And this superposed image propagates through a nonlinear medium and a 4-f system with single phase key. The image is encrypted to a stationary white noise. The decryption process is sensitive to the parameters of the encryption system and the phase key in 4-f system. This sensitivity makes attackers hard to access the phase key. In nonlinear medium, optically-induced potentials, which depend on intensity of optical wave, make the superposition principle frustrated. This nonlinearity based on optically induced potentials highly improves the secrecy level of image encryption. Resistance against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique proves that it has the high secrecy level. This nonlinear image encryption based on optically induced potentials is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. PMID:22109142

Chen, Bing-Chu; Wang, He-Zhou

2011-11-01

75

Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. Ttance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

76

Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

Mazloom, Sahar [Faculty of Electrical, Computer and IT Engineering, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sahar.mazloom@gmail.com; Eftekhari-Moghadam, Amir Masud [Faculty of Electrical, Computer and IT Engineering, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: eftekhari@qazviniau.ac.ir

2009-11-15

77

How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?

Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, da...

El-zoghdy, Said F.; Nada, Yasser A.; Abdo, A. A.

2011-01-01

78

Image Encryption based on the RGB PIXEL Transposition and Shuffling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Privacy is one of the key issues information Security addresses. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.

Quist Aphetsi Kester

2013-06-01

79

How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, data encryption standard algorithm is an entrenched technology and still useful for many purposes. In this paper, we use some of the image quality encryption measuring factors to study the effect of data encryption standard algorithm in image ciphering. The results show that the data encryption standard algorithm is fast and it achieves a good encryption rate for image ciphering using different modes of operation.

Said F. El-Zoghdy

2011-03-01

80

Image Encryption: An Information Security Perceptive

Information security purported, yet another retrospected technique for secret sharing, highlighted by image encryption. Encryption of images is proven a successful method to communicate confidential information for which countless procedures are unearthed. Still, it continues attracting researchers as usage of images in every means of digital communication has phenomenally increased. Cryptography embraces various encryption methods and offers four chief modes where each one has found its plac...

Narasimhan Aarthie; Rengarajan Amirtharajan

2014-01-01

81

Image Encryption Based on Diffusion and Multiple Chaotic Maps

In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative way to ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one of them has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the image encryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption technique using multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by using chaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformation leads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on the initial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps. Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key for the encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryption algorit...

Sathishkumar, G A; Sriraam, Dr N; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3214

2011-01-01

82

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SECURITY BASED ON ENCRYPTED HYBRID COMPRESSION

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Full Text Available In this research, we propose an image security scheme using hybrid compression techniques. In this scheme, the data is being provided two-fold security by both encryption stage and hiding stage. The data/message which has to be secured undergoes encryption technique at the initial stage. In this stage, the permutation algorithm is employed which requires a pair of numbers as a key to permute the original message. Following the encryption stage, the deformed message is then embedded onto a JPEG image by considering the low and high quantization tables. The main motivation behind this research work is to provide image security through compression. The final result is an encrypted and compressed JPEG image with a different image quality. The receiver has to perform the reverse process to extract the original data/information. The performance analysis is performed in terms of PSNR for different quantization tables.

D. Ramkumar

2014-01-01

83

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digitalni multimedijalni sadržaj postaje zastupljeniji i sve više se razmenjuje putem ra?unarskih mreža i javnih kanala (satelitske komunikacije, beži?ne mreže, internet, itd. koji predstavljaju nebezbedne medijume za prenos informacija osetljive sadržine. Sve više na zna?aju dobijaju mehanizmi kriptološke zaštite slika i video sadržaja. Tradicionalni sistemi kriptografske obrade u sistemima za prenos ovih vrsta informacija garantuju visok stepen sigurnosti, ali i imaju svoje nedostatke - visoku cenu implementacije i znatno kašnjenje u prenosu podataka. Pomenuti nedostaci se prevazilaze primenom algoritama selektivnog šifrovanja. / Digital multimedia content is becoming widely used and increasingly exchanged over computer network and public channels (satelite, wireless networks, Internet, etc. which is unsecured transmission media for ex changing that kind of information. Mechanisms made to encrypt image and video data are becoming more and more significant. Traditional cryptographic techniques can guarantee a high level of security but at the cost of expensive implementation and important transmission delays. These shortcomings can be exceeded using selective encryption algorithms. Introduction In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES - Data Encryption Algorithm, IDEA - International Data Encryption Algorithm, AES - Advanced Encryption Algorithm etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data, high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth, make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of traditional systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities on the delivery site coder and decoder on the receiving site. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. As its name says, it consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. Theoretical foundation of selective encryption The first theoretical foundation of selective encryption was given indirectly by Claude Elwood Shannon in his work about communication theory of secrecy systems. It is well known that statistics for image and video data differ much from classical text data. Indeed, image and video data are strongly correlated and have strong spatial/temporal redundancy. Evaluation criteria for selective encryption algorithm performance evaluation We need to define a set of evaluation criteria that will help evaluating and comparing selective encryption algorithms. - Tunability - Visual degradation - Cryptographic security - Encryption ratio - Compression friendliness - Format compliance - Error tolerance Classification of selective encryption algorithms One possible classification of selective encryption algorithms is relative to when encryption is performed with respect to compression. This classification is adequate since it has intrinsic consequences on selective encryption algorithms behavior. We consider three classes of algorithms as follows: - Precompression - Incompression - Postcompression Overview of selective encryption algorithms In accordance with their precedently defined classification, selective encryption algorithms were compared, briefly described with advantages and disadvantages and their quality was assessed. Applications Selective encryption mechanisms became more and more important and can be applied in many different areas. Some potential application areas of this mechanism are: - Monitoring encrypted content - PDAs (PDA - Personal Digital Assistant, mobile phones, and other mobile terminals - Multiple encryptions - Transcodability/scalability of encrypted content Conclusion As we can see through foregoing analysis, we can notice that tunability, cryptographic security and error tolerance are the main unsatisfied criteria. Sel

Boriša Ž. Jovanovi?

2010-10-01

84

A Framework for Encrypting the Huffman Algorithm

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Full Text Available In this study, we describe possibilities of adding encryption to the compression features of Huffman algorithm. The encryption ciphers used are Polyalphabetic substitution cipher (public key and Stream cipher (private key. The former encodes by representing two or more ciphertext in the substitution process. This made it very difficult for snifers to be able to decode with simple statistical analysis. The latter encodes the binary digit (bit of each symbol by operating an XOR (exclusive-or gate. Thus, a well-confused text document is achieved with a fast and low computational power. This new method proved more efficient and effective than ordinary Huffman algorithm.

O. Folorunso

2006-01-01

85

Image encryption-decryption system based on gyrator transform and jigsaw transform

In this work an image encryption-decryption system is developed using Gyrator transform (GT) and Jigsaw transform (JT). The encryption system uses two successive GTs and JTs, in order to convert a real image to a real noisy encrypted image. The decryption system is an inverse system with respect to the encryption system. The real image to be encrypted is preprocessed with the purpose of obtaining a real encrypted image, this real encrypted image has the same size as the original image to be encrypted and it is much more convenient for either its storage or transmission. The JT is applied to eliminate the random phase mask used in many encryption systems based on double random phase mask and to increase the security of the encryption-decryption system proposed in this work. Finally, in order to verify the performance of the encryption-decryption system, a digital algorithm was developed. There are four keys used in the encryption-decryption algorithm, which are constituted by the two GTs rotation angles and the two random permutations used in the JTs; all these keys have to be correct for a proper recovery of the original image in the decryption system.

Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, César O.; Mattos, Lorenzo

2013-11-01

86

In this paper, we propose an image encryption technique to simultaneously encrypt double or multiple images into one encrypted image using computational integral imaging (CII) and fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). In the encryption, each of the input plane images are located at different positions along a pickup plane, and simultaneously recorded in the form of an elemental image array (EIA) through a lenslet array. The recorded EIA to be encrypted is multiplied by FrFT with two different fractional orders. In order to mitigate the drawbacks of occlusion noise in computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR), the plane images can be reconstructed using a modified CIIR technique. To further improve the solution of the reconstructed plane images, a block matching algorithm is also introduced. Numerical simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Li, Xiao-Wei; Lee, In-Kwon

2015-03-01

87

Securing Image Transmission Using in- Compression Encryption Technique

Multimedia is one of the most popular data shared in the Web, and the protection of it via encryption techniques is of vast interest. In this paper, a secure and computationally feasible Algorithm called Optimized Multiple Huffman Tables (OMHT) technique is proposed. OMHT depends on using statisticalmodelbased compression method to generate different tables from the same data type of images or videos to be encrypted leading to increase compression efficiency and security of the used tables. A...

El-said, Shaimaa A.; Hussein, Khalid F. A.; Fouad, Mohamed M.

2010-01-01

88

A New Color Image Encryption Scheme Using CML and a Fractional-Order Chaotic System

The chaos-based image cryptosystems have been widely investigated in recent years to provide real-time encryption and transmission. In this paper, a novel color image encryption algorithm by using coupled-map lattices (CML) and a fractional-order chaotic system is proposed to enhance the security and robustness of the encryption algorithms with a permutation-diffusion structure. To make the encryption procedure more confusing and complex, an image division-shuffling process is put forward, where the plain-image is first divided into four sub-images, and then the position of the pixels in the whole image is shuffled. In order to generate initial conditions and parameters of two chaotic systems, a 280-bit long external secret key is employed. The key space analysis, various statistical analysis, information entropy analysis, differential analysis and key sensitivity analysis are introduced to test the security of the new image encryption algorithm. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well. Experimental results confirm that, in comparison to other image encryption schemes, the new algorithm has higher security and is fast for practical image encryption. Moreover, an extensive tolerance analysis of some common image processing operations such as noise adding, cropping, JPEG compression, rotation, brightening and darkening, has been performed on the proposed image encryption technique. Corresponding results reveal that the proposed image encryption method has good robustness against some image processing operations and geometric attacks. PMID:25826602

Wu, Xiangjun; Li, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen

2015-01-01

89

Techniques for a selective encryption of uncompressed and compressed images

This paper describes several techniques to encrypt uncompressed and compressed images. We first present the aims of image encryption. In the usual ways to encryption, all the information is encrypted. But this is not mandatory. In this paper we follow the principles of a technique initially proposed by MAPLES et al. [1] and encrypt only a part of the image content in order to be able to visualize the encrypted images, although not with full precision. This concept leads to techniques that can...

Droogenbroeck, Marc; Benedett, Raphae?l

2002-01-01

90

REVIEW OF IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE BASED ON AES

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Full Text Available Encryption of images has become a necessity in today’s world to protect a confidential image from unauthorized access. Various methods have been proposed and developed in spatial, frequency and hybrid domains to encrypt the image securely. Encryption could either be a full encryption or partial encryption based on the security requirements. In this paper we present an overview of various image encryption techniques based on AES.

Rufina Tresa Mendez

2014-10-01

91

Optical image encryption by random shifting in fractional Fourier domains.

A number of methods have recently been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional information by use of optical systems based on the fractional Fourier transform. Typically, these methods require random phase screen keys for decrypting the data, which must be stored at the receiver and must be carefully aligned with the received encrypted data. A new technique based on a random shifting, or jigsaw, algorithm is proposed. This method does not require the use of phase keys. The image is encrypted by juxtaposition of sections of the image in fractional Fourier domains. The new method has been compared with existing methods and shows comparable or superior robustness to blind decryption. Optical implementation is discussed, and the sensitivity of the various encryption keys to blind decryption is examined. PMID:12653368

Hennelly, B; Sheridan, J T

2003-02-15

92

Image Encryption Using Novel Mappings over GF(2^n

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Full Text Available Galois Field GF(2^*n* is valuable to encryption and has been used in some famous encryption algorithms, such as BCH and AES. In practical application, image encryptions are used widely to protect information in transmission. This paper will propose two image encryption techniques based on two novel mappings over GF(2^*n*: One involves a transformation consisting of a linear transformation and a *Frobenius automorphism*, which shuffles pixels’ positions, that is, a permutation, giving a good diffusion effect, and another one alters pixels’ values and gives dramatic confusion effect. **Key Words:** Galois field; Frobenius automorphism; Linear transformation; Confusion; Diffusion

Liebin YAN

2010-12-01

93

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital image and information embedding system have number of important multimedia applications. Recently, attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images is more, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be lossless recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. RDH is a technique used to hide data inside image for high security in such a way that original data is not visible. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be subject to some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper, we propose another method in which we simply encrypt an image without its header by using our own algorithm. And thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error.

Priya Jambhulkar

2014-06-01

94

Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method

95

VLSI Implementation of Image Compression And Encryption Using SPIHT And Stream Cipher Method

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Full Text Available This technique is proposed for compression and encryption. Here an image is first compressed using SPIHT compression algorithm combined with Huffman coding and then the compressed image is encrypted using stream cipher. This technique is mainly used for highly efficient encryption and good compression. The Stream cipher method is chosen for their high encryption rate and they are mainly of bit-by-bit encryption. They don’t simply mean encryption but provides authenticity and integrity. Then for compression we prefer SPIHT for their unique factors such as larger bit depth, progress from lossy to lossless compression, unrestricted dimensions in image, etc. In this paper Code was simulated using Xilinx and proposed architecture is implemented using FPGA. This paper focuses mainly on highly secure encryption and high compression rate using SPIHT method in Larger Images.

Miss.Sampada Dange

2014-11-01

96

New Approach for Fast Color Image Encryption Using Chaotic Map

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Full Text Available Image encryption using chaotic maps has been established a great way. The study shows that a number of functional architecture has already been proposed that utilize the process of diffusion and confusion. However, permutation and diffusion are considered as two separate stages, both requiring image-scanning to obtain pixel values. If these two stages are mutual, the duplicate scanning effort can be minimized and the encryption can be accelerated. This paper presents a technique which replaces the traditional preprocessing complex system and utilizes the basic operations like confusion, diffusion which provide same or better encryption using cascading of 3D standard and 3D cat map. We generate diffusion template using 3D standard map and rotate image by using vertically and horizontally red and green plane of the input image. We then shuffle the red, green, and blue plane by using 3D Cat map and standard map. Finally the Image is encrypted by performing XOR operation on the shuffled image and diffusion template. Theoretical analyses and computer simulations on the basis of Key space Analysis, statistical analysis, histogram analysis, Information entropy analysis, Correlation Analysis and Differential Analysis confirm that the new algorithm that minimizes the possibility of brute force attack for decryption and very fast for practical image encryption

Kamlesh Gupta

2011-10-01

97

Image Encryption Based On Diffusion And Multiple Chaotic Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative wayto ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one ofthem has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the imageencryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption techniqueusing multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by usingchaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformationleads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on theinitial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps.Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key forthe encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryptionalgorithm. The input image of 2-D is transformed into a 1- D array by using two different scanningpattern (raster and Zigzag and then divided into various sub blocks. Then the position permutation andvalue permutation is applied to each binary matrix based on multiple chaos maps. Finally the receiveruses the same sub keys to decrypt the encrypted images. The salient features of the proposed imageencryption method are loss-less, good peak signal –to noise ratio (PSNR, Symmetric key encryption, lesscross correlation, very large number of secret keys, and key-dependent pixel value replacement.

G.A.Sathishkumar

2011-03-01

98

A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM AND RC4

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Full Text Available Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time is reduced by encrypting only the part of the image and maintains a high level of security by shuffling the rest of the image using the shuffling algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.

Deepu Sleeba Philip

2011-09-01

99

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Full Text Available Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext into the ciphertext where plaintext is the input to the encryption process and ciphertext is the output of the encryption process. Decryption isthe process of transforming ciphertext into the plaintext where ciphertext is the input to the decryption process and plaintext is the output of the decryption process. There are various encryption algorithms exist classified as symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms. Here, I present an algorithm for data encryption and decryption which is based on ASCII values of characters in the plaintext. This algorithm is used to encrypt data by using ASCII values of the data to be encrypted. The secret used will be modifying o another string and that string is used as a key to encrypt or decrypt the data. So, it can be said that it is a kind of symmetric encryption algorithm because it uses same key for encryption anddecryption but by slightly modifying it. This algorithm operates when the length of input and the length of key are same.

Akanksha Mathur

2012-09-01

100

OCML-based colour image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new ways to develop efficient image-encryption schemes. While most of these schemes are based on low-dimensional chaotic maps, it has been proposed recently to use high-dimensional chaos namely spatiotemporal chaos, which is modelled by one-way coupled-map lattices (OCML). Owing to their hyperchaotic behaviour, such systems are assumed to enhance the cryptosystem security. In this paper, we propose an OCML-based colour image encryption scheme with a stream cipher structure. We use a 192-bit-long external key to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of the OCML. We have made several tests to check the security of the proposed cryptosystem namely, statistical tests including histogram analysis, calculus of the correlation coefficients of adjacent pixels, security test against differential attack including calculus of the number of pixel change rate (NPCR) and unified average changing intensity (UACI), and entropy calculus. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well.

101

METRICS OF A NEW SYMMETRICAL ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM

The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN). Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,CAST, UMARAM and RC6 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. The authentication protocols have been used for authentication and key-exchange processes. A new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper to prevent the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data-exchange i...

Umarani, Dr R.; Ramesh, G.

2011-01-01

102

Joint reversible data hiding and image encryption

Image encryption process is jointed with reversible data hiding in this paper, where the data to be hided are modulated by different secret keys selected for encryption. To extract the hided data from the cipher-text, the different tentative decrypted results are tested against typical random distribution in both spatial and frequency domain and the goodnessof- fit degrees are compared to extract one hided bit. The encryption based data hiding process is inherently reversible. Experiments demonstrate the proposed scheme's effectiveness on natural and textural images, both in gray-level and binary forms.

Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph; Niu, Xiamu

2010-01-01

103

Image encryption by encoding with a nonuniform optical beam in gyrator transform domains.

Based on an optical gyrator transform system, an image encryption algorithm is designed and studied. An original secret image is regarded as the output intensity of the second gyrator transform. A coherent nonuniform optical beam is converted into the input of the first gyrator transform. A Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm is employed for obtaining the compensation phases in the first gyrator transform pair. The compensation phases are regarded as the encrypted image and key in this algorithm. The parameters of the laser beam and gyrator transform can serve as the additional key of encryption method. The decryption process of this encryption algorithm can be achieved with an optical system. Numerical simulations are performed to test the validity and capability of the encryption algorithm. PMID:20935710

Liu, Zhengjun; Xu, Lie; Lin, Chuang; Liu, Shutian

2010-10-10

104

Image Encryption: An Information Security Perceptive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information security purported, yet another retrospected technique for secret sharing, highlighted by image encryption. Encryption of images is proven a successful method to communicate confidential information for which countless procedures are unearthed. Still, it continues attracting researchers as usage of images in every means of digital communication has phenomenally increased. Cryptography embraces various encryption methods and offers four chief modes where each one has found its place in many journals. This study takes cryptographic Cipher Block Chaining (CBC mode as the fundamental footing which is manipulated in a unique fashion to achieve the goal. This script is coalescing of both Steganography and Cryptography thus ensuring enhanced security. Tentative results testify the routine and thus making it more upright of previously existing image encryption techniques.

Narasimhan Aarthie

2014-01-01

105

We propose a new method using coherent diffractive imaging for optical color-image encryption and synthesis in the Fresnel domain. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encryption system is applied, and a strategy based on lateral translations of a phase-only mask is employed during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to extract high-quality decrypted color images from diffraction intensity maps (i.e., ciphertexts). In addition, optical color-image synthesis is also investigated based on coherent diffractive imaging. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with conventional interference methods, coherent diffractive imaging approach may open up a new research perspective or can provide an effective alternative for optical color-image encryption and synthesis. PMID:22418142

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

2012-02-13

106

Optical image encryption based on a modified radial shearing interferometer

We present an optical image encryption method based on a modified radial shearing interferometer. In our encryption process, a plaintext image is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM), and then modulated by a random phase mask (RPM), the result is regarded as the input of the radial shearing interferometer and divided into two coherent lights, one of which will be further modulated by a random amplitude mask (RAM). After all, these two coherent lights will interfere with each other leading to an interferogram, i.e., ciphertext. And the ciphertext can be used to retrieve the plaintext image with the help of a recursive algorithm and all correct keys. The aforementioned encryption procedure can be achieved digitally or optically while the decryption process can be analytically accomplished. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the validity of this method.

Lu, Dajiang; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang

2014-11-01

107

this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.

Krishnamurthy, G N

2010-01-01

108

PDES, Fips Standard Data Encryption Algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of program or function: PDES performs the National Bureau of Standards FIPS Pub. 46 data encryption/decryption algorithm used for the cryptographic protection of computer data. The DES algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher blocks of data consisting of 64 bits under control of a 64-bit key. The key is generated in such a way that each of the 56 bits used directly by the algorithm are random and the remaining 8 error-detecting bits are set to make the parity of each 8-bit byte of the key odd, i. e. there is an odd number of '1' bits in each 8-bit byte. Each member of a group of authorized users of encrypted computer data must have the key that was used to encipher the data in order to use it. Data can be recovered from cipher only by using exactly the same key used to encipher it, but with the schedule of addressing the key bits altered so that the deciphering process is the reverse of the enciphering process. A block of data to be enciphered is subjected to an initial permutation, then to a complex key-dependent computation, and finally to a permutation which is the inverse of the initial permutation. Two PDES routines are included; both perform the same calculation. One, identified as FDES.MAR, is designed to achieve speed in execution, while the other identified as PDES.MAR, presents a clearer view of how the algorithm is executed

109

A study of image encryption aritlunetic based on chaotic sequences

The multimedia information, especially video and audio information, regarded as a common data stream, with the traditional encryption technology encrypted, ignoring the characteristics of multimedia data, has some limitations. On the other hand, chaotic sequences have several good properties including the ease of their generation, their sensitive dependence on their initial condition and so on. Therefore, this paper discussed image encryption arithmetic on the basis of chaotic sequences through dispersing the real number value chaotic sequences into symbol matrix and transformation matrix, and then encrypted the image. Preliminary results proved that the image encryption arithmetic based on chaotic sequences possesses the traits, namely fast speed for encryption speed, perfect results for encryption.

Huang, Xiaolong

2010-02-01

110

Multiple-image encryption by compressive holography.

We present multiple-image encryption (MIE) based on compressive holography. In the encryption, a holographic technique is employed to record multiple images simultaneously to form a hologram. The two-dimensional Fourier data of the hologram are then compressed by nonuniform sampling, which gives rise to compressive encryption. Decryption of individual images is cast into a minimization problem. The minimization retains the sparsity of recovered images in the wavelet basis. Meanwhile, total variation regularization is used to preserve edges in the reconstruction. Experiments have been conducted using holograms acquired by optical scanning holography as an example. Computer simulations of multiple images are subsequently demonstrated to illustrate the feasibility of the MIE scheme. PMID:22410905

Di, Hong; Zheng, Kangfeng; Zhang, Xin; Lam, Edmund Y; Kim, Taegeun; Kim, You Seok; Poon, Ting-Chung; Zhou, Changhe

2012-03-01

111

In this paper, we propose a novel method for image encryption by employing the diffraction imaging technique. This method is in principle suitable for most diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, and a typical diffractive imaging architecture using three random phase masks in the Fresnel domain is taken for an example to illustrate it. The encryption process is rather simple because only a single diffraction intensity pattern is needed to be recorded, and the decryption procedure is also correspondingly simplified. To achieve this goal, redundant data are digitally appended to the primary image before a standard encrypting procedure. The redundant data serve as a partial input plane support constraint in a phase retrieval algorithm, which is employed for completely retrieving the plaintext. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:25089966

Qin, Yi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Qiong

2014-07-01

112

Image encryption using TSRMSC associated with DWT

A novel technique for gray scale image encryption and decryption scheme using two stage random matrix shift cipher (TSRMSC) associated with discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is proposed. Earlier proposed schemes for encoding and decoding of images discuss only about the keys, but in our proposed approach, keys and the arrangement of random matrix shift cipher parameters are mandatory. We have formulated a formula for the all possible range to choose keys for encrypting and decrypting an image. An examples of computer simulation are give to analyze the capability of this proposed technique. The encrypted image is robust to decoding even on the application of exact keys if the correct arrangement is unknown to the decoder. We have also given comparison between our proposed approach with P. Kumar et al. (J. Opt. 14 (2012) 045401 (8pp)).

Kumar, Manish

2013-10-01

113

A hybrid heuristic algorithm to improve known-plaintext attack on Fourier plane encryption.

A hybrid heuristic attack scheme that combines the hill climbing algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to speed up the search procedure and to obtain a more accurate solution to the original key in the Fourier plane encryption algorithm. And a unit cycle is adopted to analyze the value space of the random phase. The experimental result shows that our scheme can obtain more accurate solution to the key that can achieve better decryption result both for the selected encrypted image and another unseen ciphertext image. The searching time is significantly reduced while without any exceptional case in searching procedure. For an image of 64x64 pixels, our algorithm costs a comparatively short computing time, about 1 minute, can retrieve the approximated key with the normalized root mean squared error 0.1, therefore, our scheme makes the known-plaintext attack on the Fourier plane image encryption more practical, stable, and effective. PMID:19654800

Liu, Wensi; Yang, Guanglin; Xie, Haiyan

2009-08-01

114

Encryption of database is an important topic for research, as secure and efficient encryption algorithms are needed that provide the ability to query over encrypted database and allow optimized encryption and decryption of data. There is always a compromise between the degree of security provided by encryption algorithm and the efficient querying on the database, because the encryption and decryption on database greatly degrade query performance. For this, we propose a new encryption algorith...

Priti V Bhagat, Rohit Singhal

2013-01-01

115

Comparative Study of Speech Encryption Algorithms Using Mobile Applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Speech communication is most popular now days. Everyone wants secure communication that’s way use encrypts and decrypt data scheme. It is basically used for military and business purpose. People want high security level during their communication..The numbers of algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption. However in this paper the work is done on three different kinds of algorithms i.e. NTRU, RSA and RINJDAEL these three popular algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption approach. Basically NTRU and RSA algorithms are asymmetric in nature and RINJDAEL algorithm is symmetric in nature. In speech encryption, first the speech is converted into text then further the text is converted into cipher text. The cipher text is sent to be particular receiver in which transmitter want to communicate. At the receiver end, receiver receives the original data through decryption process. At the end the performance is analyzed of these three approaches respectively. The parameters calculated are Encryption, Decryption and Delay time, complexity, and packet lost, Security level. In this three approaches, Encryption, decryption and delay time, are varying according to the number of bits per seconds. On the Other hand, complexity and packet lost are approximately same. There is no packet lost during transmitting and receiving the data. After the analysis of these three algorithms, The NTRU algorithm is faster in encryption and decryption time than others algorithms. The security level are very high than other algorithms. The android platform are used for these three algorithm to find the results in which algorithm took less time for encrypt or decrypt the data and help to evaluate the performance in speech encryption algorithms.

Jaspreet kaur#1 , Er. Kanwal preet Singh

2013-07-01

116

Implementation of Detachable Reversible Data Hiding in Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a scheme for detachable reversible data hiding in image encryption. In which the sender encrypts an image using encryption key. Then, the data is appended to the encrypted image using a data-hiding key. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data-hiding key, he can extract the additional data though he does not know the content of the image. If the receiver has the encryption key, he can decrypt the encrypted image and get an image similar to the original one, but he cannot extract the additional data. If the receiver has both the data-hiding key and the encryption key, he can extract the additional data and recover the original image without any error.

Musham Pradeep

2013-10-01

117

Interference-based multiple-image encryption with silhouette removal by position multiplexing.

An approach for multiple-image encryption based on interference and position multiplexing is proposed. In the encryption process, multiple images are analytically hidden into three phase-only masks (POMs). The encryption algorithm for this method is quite simple and does not need iterative encoding. For decryption, both the digital method and optical method could be employed. Also, we analyze the multiplexing capacity through the correlation coefficient. In addition, the silhouette problem that exists in previous interference-based encryption methods with two POMs can be eliminated during the generation procedure of POMs based on the interference principle. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:23759846

Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong

2013-06-10

118

LOW POWER ENCRYPTED MIPS PROCESSOR BASED ON AES ALGORITHM

The paper describes the Low power 32-bit encrypted MIPS processor based on AES algorithm and MIPS pipeline architecture. The pipeline stages of MIPS processor are arranged in such a way that pipeline can be clocked at high frequency and clock gating technique is used for reducing power consumption. Encryption blocks of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptosystem and dependency among pipeline stages are explained in detail with the help of block diagram. In order to reduce the power consum...

Shivani Parmar; Kirat Pal Singh

2012-01-01

119

Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging

Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods.

Zafari, Mohammad; kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

2014-10-01

120

Information authentication using photon-counting double-random-phase encrypted images.

Photon-counting imaging is integrated with optical encryption for information authentication. An image is double-random-phase encrypted, and a photon-limited encrypted image is obtained. The photon-counting encrypted image is generated with few photons and appears sparse; however, we show that it has sufficient information for decryption and authentication. The decrypted image cannot be easily visualized so that an additional layer of information protection is achieved. The authentication is carried out by recognition algorithms. This approach may make the verification process more robust against attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating photon-counting imaging and encryption for authentication. PMID:21209674

Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram

2011-01-01

121

ROI Based Double Encryption Approach for Secure Transaction of Medical Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is on enabling, supporting process in the health care industry for implementing a secure, robust and privacy complaint system for the safe distribution and use of medical image. In this paper, a new method that combines image encryption and watermarking technique for safe transaction of medical image is proposed. This method is based on selecting the ROI in the image as the watermark. This portion is encrypted by linear feedback shift register based stream ciphering which is again encrypted by the key generated by Diffie Hellman Algorithm. The encrypted ROI is embedded into the medical image by Spread spectrum technique. The proposed approach proves to be highly secure as two keys are used for encryption and the secret message is spreaded throughout the Medical image.

VRATESH KUMAR KUSHWAHA

2013-01-01

122

Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images

Information security plays a very important role in fast growing information and communication technology. Few applications like medical image security and satellite image security needs to secure only selected portion of the image. This paper describes a concept of selective image encryption in two ways. First method divides the image in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are applied to encryption process. Second method automatically detects the positions of objects, and then selected objec...

NaveenKumar S K; Panduranga H.T

2013-01-01

123

Cryptanalysis and security improvement for selective image encryption

Selective image encryption has been considered as an effective method to improve the encryption speed and computation resource by reducing considerable amount of data. In the present paper, the weaknesses of recent method of selective image encryption are presented analytically and the method of security improvement is proposed. The security for selective image encryption is improved in a way that number of selectively significant bits for encryption vary from pixel to pixel. This leads to be uncertain data for encryption and decryption. The examples are to demonstrate and verify for security weaknesses of the recent method and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Hoang, T. M.; Tran, D.

2014-06-01

124

Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information security plays a very important role in fast growing information and communication technology. Few applications like medical image security and satellite image security needs to secure only selected portion of the image. This paper describes a concept of selective image encryption in two ways. First method divides the image in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are applied to encryption process. Second method automatically detects the positions of objects, and then selected objects are applied to encryption process. Morphological techniques are used to detect the positions of the objects in given images. These two approaches are specifically developed to encrypt the portion of an image in medical images and satellite image.

NaveenKumar S K

2013-02-01

125

Developing and Evaluation of New Hybrid Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks consist of hundreds or thousands of low cost, low power and self-organizing nodes which are highly distributed. As wireless sensor networks continue to grow, so does the need for effective security mechanisms because sensor networks may interact with sensitive data. Encryption algorithms play good roles in information security systems (ISS. Those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as battery power. Wireless Sensor networks are powered by a battery which is a very limited resource. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on networks, but there are also has some drawbacks. The present asymmetric encryption methods and symmetric encryption methods can offer the security levels but with many limitations. For instance key maintenance is a great problem faced in symmetric encryption methods and less security level is the problem of asymmetric encryption methods even though key maintenance is easy. To improve the strength of these algorithms, we propose a new hybrid cryptographic algorithm in this paper. The algorithm is designed using combination of two symmetric cryptographic techniques and two Asymmetric cryptographic techniques. This protocol provides three cryptographic primitives, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. It is a hybrid encryption method where elliptical curve cryptography (ECC and advanced encryption (AES are combined to provide node encryption. RSA algorithm and Blowfish are combined to provide authentication and (MD5 for integrity. The results show that the proposed hybrid cryptographic algorithm gives better performance in terms of computation time and the size of cipher text.This paper tries to present a fair comparison between the new protocols with four existing different hybrid protocols according to power consumption. A comparison has been conducted for those protocols at different settings for each protocol such as different sizes of data blocks, and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

DiaaSalama AbdElminaam

2014-03-01

126

In previous diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, it is impossible to totally retrieve the plaintext from a single diffraction pattern. In this paper, we proposed a new method to achieve this goal. The encryption procedure can be completed by proceeding only one exposure, and the single diffraction pattern is recorded as ciphertext. For recovering the plaintext, a novel median-filtering-based phase retrieval algorithm, including two iterative cycles, has been developed. This proposal not only extremely simplifies the encryption and decryption processes, but also facilitates the storage and transmission of the ciphertext, and its effectiveness and feasibility have been demonstrated by numerical simulations. PMID:25321554

Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong; Wang, Zhipeng

2014-09-01

127

The research on image encryption method based on parasitic audio watermark

In order to improve image encryption strength, an image encryption method based on parasitic audio watermark was proposed in this paper, which relies on double messages such as image domain and speech domain to do image encryption protection. The method utilizes unique Chinese phonetics synthesis algorithm to complete audio synthesis with embedded text, then separate this sentence information into prosodic phrase, obtains complete element set of initial consonant and compound vowel that reflects audio feature of statement. By sampling and scrambling the initial consonant and compound vowel element, synthesizing them with image watermark, and embedding the compound into the image to be encrypted in frequency domain, the processed image contains image watermark information and parasitizes audio feature information. After watermark extraction, using the same phonetics synthesis algorithm the audio information is synthesized and compared with the original. Experiments show that any decryption method in image domain or speech domain could not break encryption protection and image gains higher encryption strength and security level by double encryption.

Gao, Pei-pei; Zhu, Yao-ting; Zhang, Shi-tao

2010-11-01

128

Design and Implementation of Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on FPGA?

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Full Text Available With the rapid development and wide application of computer and communication networks, theinformation security has aroused high attention. Information security is not only applied to the political,military and diplomatic fields, but also applied to the common fields of people’s daily lives. With thecontinuous development of cryptographic techniques, the long-serving DES algorithm with 56-bit key lengthhas been broken because of the defect of short keys. The "Rijndael encryption algorithm" invented byBelgian cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen's had been chosen as the standard AES(Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm whose packet length is 128 bits and the key length is 128 bits, 192bits, or 256 bits. Since 2006, the Rijndael algorithm of advanced encryption standard has become one of themost popular algorithms in symmetric key encryption. AES can resist various currently known attacks.

K. Soumya

2013-09-01

129

Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hardware implementation. The compression algorithm decomposes images into several different parts. We have used a secured encryption algorithm to encrypt only the crucial parts, which are considerably smaller than the original image, which result in significant reduction in processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. The breadth-first traversal linear lossless quadtree decomposition method is used for the partial compression and RSA is used for the encryption. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system on four different images. We have validated the advantage of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2928 units of LC with a system frequency of 13.42MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA prototyping of a partial encryption of compressed images using lossless quadtree compression and RSA encryption has been successfully implemented with minimum logic cells. It is found that the compression process is faster than the decompression process in linear quadtree approach. Moreover, the RSA simulations show that the encryption process is faster than the decryption process for all four images tested.

Mamun B.I. Reaz

2011-01-01

130

Optical image encryption based on interference under convergent random illumination

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an optical image encryption system based on the interference principle, two pure phase masks are designed analytically to hide an image. These two masks are illuminated with a plane wavefront to retrieve the original image in the form of an interference pattern at the decryption plane. Replacement of the plane wavefront with convergent random illumination in the proposed scheme leads to an improvement in the security of interference based encryption. The proposed encryption scheme retains the simplicity of an interference based method, as the two pure masks are generated with an analytical method without any iterative algorithm. In addition to the free-space propagation distance and the two pure phase masks, the convergence distance and the randomized lens phase function are two new encryption parameters to enhance the system security. The robustness of this scheme against occlusion of the random phase mask of the randomized lens phase function is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with numerical simulation results

131

A New Encryption Method for Secure Transmission of Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach is designed for transmitting images securely using a technique called Gödelization followed by the public key encryption. The image which is to be transmitted is transformed into a sequence called Gödel Number Sequence (GNS using a new technique called Gödelization. This is compressed using Alphabetic coding AC and encrypted by an encryption method. This encryption string is transmitted and reconstructed at the decoding end by using thereverse process.

B.V.Rama Devi,

2010-12-01

132

Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. It consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. This computation saving is very desirable especially in constrained communications (real-time networking, high-definition delivery, and mobile communications with limited computational power devices. In addition, selective encryption allows preserving some codec functionalities such as scalability. This tutorial is intended to give an overview on selective encryption algorithms. The theoretical background of selective encryption, potential applications, challenges, and perspectives is presented.

Massoudi A

2008-01-01

133

Multiple Lookup Table-Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation

Anew AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm implementation was proposed in this paper. It is based on five lookup tables, which are generated from S-box(the substitution table in AES). The obvious advantages are reducing the code-size, improving the implementation efficiency, and helping new learners to understand the AES encryption algorithm and GF(28) multiplication which are necessary to correctly implement AES[1]. This method can be applied on processors with word length 32 or above, FPGA and others. And correspondingly we can implement it by VHDL, Verilog, VB and other languages.

Gong, Jin; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin

134

Securing Image Transmission Using in- Compression Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia is one of the most popular data shared in the Web, and the protection of it via encryption techniques is of vast interest. In this paper, a secure and computationally feasible Algorithm called Optimized Multiple Huffman Tables (OMHT technique is proposed. OMHT depends on using statisticalmodelbased compression method to generate different tables from the same data type of images or videos to be encrypted leading to increase compression efficiency and security of the used tables. A systematic study on how to strategically integrate different atomic operations to build a multimedia encryption system is presented. The resulting system can provide superior performance over other techniques by both its generic encryption and its simple adaptation to multimedia in terms of a joint consideration of security, and bitrate overhead. The effectiveness and robustness of this scheme is verified by measuring its security strength and comparing its computational cost against other techniques. The proposed technique guarantees security, and fastness without noticeable increase in encoded image size

Shaimaa A. El-said

2010-12-01

135

A cryptographic Image Encryption technique based on the RGB PIXEL shuffling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Confidentiality is one of the ultimate goals in information security. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. Rigorous use of advanced mathematical algorithms has played a major role in the success of modern day cryptography. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a new cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.

Quist-Aphetsi Kester, MIEEE

2013-02-01

136

Image Encryption Using Fibonacci-Lucas Transformation

Secret communication techniques are of great demand since last 3000 years due to the need of information security and confidentiality at various levels of communication such as while communicating confidential personal data, medical data of patients, defence and intelligence information of countries, data related to examinations etc. With advancements in image processing research, Image encryption and Steganographic techniques have gained popularity over other forms of hidde...

Mishra, Minati; Mishra, Priyadarsini; Adhikary, M. C.; Kumar, Sunit

2012-01-01

137

Radial Hilbert Transform in terms of the Fourier Transform applied to Image Encryption

In the present investigation, a mathematical algorithm under Matlab platform using Radial Hilbert Transform and Random Phase Mask for encrypting digital images is implemented. The algorithm is based on the use of the conventional Fourier transform and two random phase masks, which provide security and robustness to the system implemented. Random phase masks used during encryption and decryption are the keys to improve security and make the system immune to attacks by program generation phase masks.

Morales, Y.; Díaz, L.; Torres, C.

2015-01-01

138

Image encryption based on nonlinear encryption system and public-key cryptography

Recently, optical asymmetric cryptosystem (OACS) has became the focus of discussion and concern of researchers. Some researchers pointed out that OACS was not tenable because of misunderstanding the concept of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS). We propose an improved cryptosystem using RSA public-key algorithm based on existing OACS and the new system conforms to the basic agreement of public key cryptosystem. At the beginning of the encryption process, the system will produce an independent phase matrix and allocate the input image, which also conforms to one-time pad cryptosystem. The simulation results show that the validity of the improved cryptosystem and the high robustness against attack scheme using phase retrieval technique.

Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Chi, Yingying

2015-03-01

139

Enhancement of optical image encryption based on radial shearing interference

We present a security enhanced method for optical image encryption based on a radial shearing interferometer (RSI). In the encryption process, an image (plaintext) is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM) and then successively modulated by a random phase mask (RPM) and a random amplitude mask (RAM). As the input of the radial shearing interferometer, the modulated plaintext is illuminated by a coherent light and then divided into two beams, which will interference with each other leading to an interferogram (ciphertext) at the output plane. The decryption process could only be analytically accomplished with the help of a recursive algorithm. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the validity of this scheme.

Lu, Dajiang; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang

2015-02-01

140

Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image and Separating the Image and Data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since many years, the protection of multimedia system knowledge is changing into vital. The protection of this multimedia system knowledge is often finished coding or knowledge concealment algorithms. To decrease the UTC, the information compression is critical. Since few years, a replacement drawback is making an attempt to mix in a very single step, compression, and coding and knowledge concealment. So far, few solutions are planned to mix image coding and compression for instance. Nowadays, a replacement challenge consists to plant knowledge in encrypted pictures. Since the entropy of encrypted image is supreme, the embedding step, thought of like noise, isn't doable by victimization customary knowledge concealment algorithms. A replacement plan is to use reversible knowledge hiding algorithms on encrypted pictures by wish to get rid of the embedded knowledge before the image decoding. Recent reversible knowledge concealment ways are planned with high capability, however these ways aren't applicable on encrypted pictures. During this paper we tend to propose associate analysis of the native variance of the marked encrypted pictures so as to get rid of the embedded knowledge throughout the decoding step. We’ve got applied our methodology on varied pictures, and that we show and analyze the obtained results.

Naresh Achari B., Sri. Swami Naik J

2013-05-01

141

Optimized OFDM Transmission of Encrypted Image Over Fading Channel

This paper compares the quality of diffusion-based and permutation-based encrypted image transmission using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) over wireless fading channel. Sensitivity to carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) is one of the limitations in OFDM transmission that was compensated here. Different OFDM diffusions are investigated to study encrypted image transmission optimization. Peak signal-to-noise ratio between the original image and the decrypted image is used to evaluate the received image quality. Chaotic encrypted image modulated with CFOs compensated FFT-OFDM was found to give outstanding performance against other encryption and modulation techniques.

Eldin, Salwa M. Serag

2014-11-01

142

Optical image encryption based on the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform.

A novel image encryption algorithm is proposed based on the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform, which is a generalized fractional Fourier transform, without the use of phase keys. The image is encrypted simply by performing a multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform with four keys. Optical implementation is suggested. The method has been compared with existing methods and shows superior robustness to blind decryption. PMID:18347716

Tao, Ran; Lang, Jun; Wang, Yue

2008-03-15

143

Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain

This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...

Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105

2011-01-01

144

We report on a new algorithm to compress and encrypt simultaneously multiple images (target images). This method, which is based upon a specific spectral multiplexing (fusion without overlapping) of the multiple images, aims to achieve a single encrypted image, at the output plane of our system, that contains all information needed to reconstruct the target images. For that purpose, we divide the Fourier plane of the image to transmit into two types of area, i.e., specific and common areas to...

Alfalou, Ayman; Brosseau, C.

2010-01-01

145

Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images by Reserving Room before Encryption

Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH) in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be subject to some errors on data extract ion and/or image restoration. In this paper, we propose a novel method by reserv...

Harish G, Smitha Shekar B.

2014-01-01

146

An Enhanced Text to Image Encryption Technique using RGB Substitution and AES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In network security applications, before transmitting data to a remote machine it is encrypted at the sender side using any standard encryption algorithm. Most of the encryption algorithms make use of secret key without which it becomes very difficult to retrieve the actual data In this paper we propose a method which at first transforms the text into an image using an RGB substitution, and then encrypts the resulting image using AES Algorithm, under this approach, the secret key is smartly sent along with the cipher text in a single transmission, thus it also solves the key exchange problem that generally arises in most of the encryption models. The encryption and decryption process make the use of a combination database for text to image transformation. This paper is divided into following four sections; in section- I, we presented basic introduction of Network Security, in section-II, a survey on related algorithms has been presented, section-III discusses the proposed model and section IV concludes the paper.

Sourabh Singh1 , Anurag Jain

2013-05-01

147

LOW POWER ENCRYPTED MIPS PROCESSOR BASED ON AES ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the Low power 32-bit encrypted MIPS processor based on AES algorithm and MIPS pipeline architecture. The pipeline stages of MIPS processor are arranged in such a way that pipeline can be clocked at high frequency and clock gating technique is used for reducing power consumption. Encryption blocks of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES cryptosystem and dependency among pipeline stages are explained in detail with the help of block diagram. In order to reduce the power consumption, especially for portable devices and security application switching activity is used inside pipeline stages. The design has been synthesized at 40nm process technology targeting using Xilinx Virtex-6 device. The encrypted MIPS pipeline processor can work at 210MHz and power consumption is 1.313W.

Shivani Parmar

2012-05-01

148

A novel chaos-based bit-level permutation scheme for digital image encryption

Confidentiality is an important issue when digital images are transmitted over public networks, and encryption is the most useful technique employed for this purpose. Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional algorithms. Recently, chaos-based encryption has suggested a new and efficient way to deal with the intractable problems of fast and highly secure image encryption. This paper proposes a novel chaos-based bit-level permutation scheme for secure and efficient image cipher. To overcome the drawbacks of conventional permutation-only type image cipher, the proposed scheme introduced a significant diffusion effect in permutation procedure through a two-stage bit-level shuffling algorithm. The two-stage permutation operations are realized by chaotic sequence sorting algorithm and Arnold Cat map, respectively. Results of various types of analysis are interesting and indicate that the security level of the new scheme is competitive with that of permutation-diffusion type image cipher, while the computational complexity is much lower. Therefore the new scheme is a good candidate for real-time secure image communication applications.

Fu, Chong; Lin, Bin-bin; Miao, Yu-sheng; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Jun-jie

2011-11-01

149

A joint encryption/watermarking system for verifying the reliability of medical images.

In this paper, we propose a joint encryption/water-marking system for the purpose of protecting medical images. This system is based on an approach which combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation, with an encryption algorithm: a stream cipher algorithm (e.g., the RC4) or a block cipher algorithm (e.g., the AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode of operation). Our objective is to give access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origin even though the image is stored encrypted. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. The security analysis of our scheme and experimental results achieved on 8-bit depth ultrasound images as well as on 16-bit encoded positron emission tomography images demonstrate the capability of our system to securely make available security attributes in both spatial and encrypted domains while minimizing image distortion. Furthermore, by making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed system is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22801525

Bouslimi, Dalel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cozic, Michel; Roux, Christian

2012-09-01

150

At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent monochromatic illumination. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent monochromatic illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. Encryption is accomplished by means of optical convolution of image of scene to be encrypted and encryption diffractive optical element (DOE) point spread function (PSF) which serves as encryption key. Encryption process is described as follows. Scene is illuminated with spatially-incoherent monochromatic light. In the absence of encryption DOE lens forms image of scene in photosensor plane. DOE serves as encryption element, its PSF - encryption key. Light passing through DOE forms convolution of object image and DOE PSF. Registered by photosensor convolution is encrypted image. Decryption was conducted numerically on computer by means of inverse filtration with regularization. Kinoforms were used as encryption DOE because they have single diffraction order. Two liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) were used to implement dynamic digital information input and dynamic encryption key change. As input scene amplitude LC SLM HoloEye LC2002 with 800×600 pixels 32×32 ?m2 and 256 gray levels was used. To image synthesized encryption kinoforms phase LC SLM HoloEye PLUTO VIS with 1920×1080 pixels 8×8 ?m2 and 256 phase levels was used. Set of test images was successfully optically encrypted and then numerically decrypted. Encrypted images contents are hidden. Decrypted images despite quite high noise levels are positively recognizable. Results of optical encryption and numerical decryption are presented.

Bondareva, Alyona P.; Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

2014-10-01

151

ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES FOR SECURITY OF IMAGES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the proliferation in technology and advent of internet the data has been digitized, so more emphasis is required for security while transmission and storage to save from unauthorized users. Protecting data in a safe and secure way which does not hamper the access of an authorized authority is difficult and interesting research problem. Many attempts have been made to solve this problem within the cryptographic community. Visual cryptography provides a very powerful technique by which one secret can be distributed into two or more images known as shares. When the shares on transparencies are superimposed exactly together, original secret can be discovered without computer involvement. Image cryptography disrupts the image so that no useful information is seen. The keys used for disruption is used in reverse manner to decrypt the image. This paper discusses the various encryption techniques for better image security and to protect them from unintentional user.

DR. DHIRENDRA MISHRA

2014-01-01

152

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, progressive interest is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it preserves the original cover can be recovered without any loss after embedded data is extracted to protect the con?dentiality of image content’s.Earlier method used“vacate room after Encryption” in which data can be embedded by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images. This might cause errors while data extraction or image restoration. However this provides less PSNR value when embedding messages in Images. To address this problem, a proposed method uses Extended Dynamic Histogram Shifting Modulation (EDHS can be done on the image content by the content owner. This method shifts the pixels of histogram based on prediction errors and its neighborhood pixels. The data can be embedded based on the space provided by the proposed histogram shifting method. After reserving space for data hiding by self reversible embedding using EDHS, Image can be encrypted by using proposed novel encryption method. Finally the receiver can restore the image and extract data by using encryption key and data hiding key. Experimental result provides greater PSNR value when compare with the existing work.

K.Latha

2014-01-01

153

Analysis of impact of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms in Data Security Model of Grid Networks

The symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms are commonly used in grid software to provide necessary security. The use of symmetric encryption algorithm will significantly affect the network communication performance. In this paper, the impact of using different popular and commonly used symmetric key cryptography algorithms for encrypting data in a typical grid commuting environment is analyzed. It is obvious that the use of encryption and decryption at application layer will certainly...

Thenmozhi, N.; Madheswaran, M.

2010-01-01

154

Ghost imaging protocol with intense correlated fields for efficient encryption

We present a proof of principle of a straightforward application of distributed imaging to the efficient encryption of images. The basic idea is to exploit, in a ghost-imaging experiment, the correlations of the fields produced by a chaotically seeded parametric downconversion to deduce a Code for reconstructing the image of the object. As this Code results to be much smaller than the entire image size, it can be more efficiently encrypted by any secure quantum key.

Puddu, E; Andreoni, A; Bondani, M; Castelletto, S

2006-01-01

155

VLSI Implementation of Data Encryption Standard Algorithm

There are two main types of cryptography in use today –symmetrico rsecret key cryptography and a symmetric or public key cryptography. Symmetric key cryptography is the oldest type whereas asymmetric cryptography is only being used publicly since the late 1970’s 1 . Asymmetric cryptography was a major milestone in the search for a perfect encryption scheme. Secret key cryptography goes back to at least Egyptian times and is of concern here. It involves the use of only one key which is use...

Naveen Kumar,; B.Venu Gopal,

2012-01-01

156

Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains

In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for optical information hiding (encryption) of two-dimensional images by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains. The image is initially randomly shifted using the jigsaw transform algorithm, and then a pixel scrambling technique based on the Arnold transform (ART) is applied. The scrambled image is then encrypted in a randomly chosen fractional Fourier domain. These processes can then be iteratively repeated. The parameters of the architecture, including the jigsaw permutation indices, Arnold frequencies, and fractional Fourier orders, form a very large key space enhancing the security level of the proposed encryption system. Optical implementations are discussed as numerical implementation algorithms. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the system's flexibility and robustness.

Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.

2013-01-01

157

Optical stream-cipher-like system for image encryption based on Michelson interferometer.

A novel optical image encryption scheme based on interference is proposed. The original image is digitally encoded into one phase-only mask by employing an improved Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm together with another predefined random phase mask which serves as the encryption key. The decryption process can be implemented optically based on Michelson interferometer by using the same key. The scheme can be regarded as a stream-cipher-like encryption system, the encryption and decryption keys are the same, however the operations are different. The position coordinates and light wavelength can also be used as additional keys during the decryption. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the validity and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:21369084

Yang, Bing; Liu, Zhengjun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shutian

2011-01-31

158

Optical image encryption based on coherent diffractive imaging using multiple wavelengths

Coherent diffractive imaging is an optical technique in which the information of an object is encoded in the diffraction intensity using a single-path wave propagation strategy. In recent years, coherent diffractive imaging has attracted much attention in many fields due to its marked advantages, such as robustness to vibration and the suitability for various wavelengths. In this paper, we propose to apply coherent diffractive imaging using multiple wavelengths for optical image encryption. A light wavelength is tuned during the encryption, and a series of diffraction intensity maps (i.e., ciphertexts) is sequentially recorded in the Fresnel domain. During image decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is further developed, and cryptosystem security and robustness of the proposed method are also analyzed. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

2012-02-01

159

Double-image encryption by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform

A novel double-image encryption algorithm is proposed by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform. Two original images are first regarded as the amplitude and phase of a complex function. Arnold transform is used to scramble pixels at a local area of the complex function, where the position of the scrambled area and the Arnold transform frequency are generated by the standard map and logistic map respectively. Then the changed complex function is converted by gyrator transform. The two operations mentioned will be implemented iteratively. The system parameters in local pixel scrambling and gyrator transform serve as the keys of this encryption algorithm. Numerical simulation has been performed to test the validity and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm.

Li, Huijuan; Wang, Yurong; Yan, Haitao; Li, Liben; Li, Qiuze; Zhao, Xiaoyan

2013-12-01

160

Studying the Effects of Most Common Encryption Algorithms

Wireless networks play critical roles in present work, home, and public places, so the needs of protecting of suchnetworks are increased. Encryption algorithms play vital roles in information systems security. Those algorithms consume asignificant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. CPU and memory usability areincreasing with a suitable rates, but battery technology is increasing at slower rate. The problem of the slower increasingbattery technology form...

Diaa Salama; Hatem Abdual Kader; Mohiy Hadhoud

2011-01-01

161

Design and Implementation of Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on FPGA?

With the rapid development and wide application of computer and communication networks, theinformation security has aroused high attention. Information security is not only applied to the political,military and diplomatic fields, but also applied to the common fields of people’s daily lives. With thecontinuous development of cryptographic techniques, the long-serving DES algorithm with 56-bit key lengthhas been broken because of the defect of short keys. The "Rijndael encryption algorithm" ...

Soumya, K.; Shyam Kishore, G.

2013-01-01

162

Plaintext Related Image Encryption Scheme Using Chaotic Map

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A plaintext related image blocking encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper, which includes two kinds of operations on inner-block confusion and inter-block diffusion. Firstly, a float-point lookup table need to be generated by iterating chaotic system; Secondly, choose one of the entries in the look-up table as initial value of chaotic system, and iterate it to produce one secret code sequence for inner-block confusion; Thirdly, by using one pixel value of the former block to locate another entry in the look-up table, iterate it to yield another secret code sequence for inter-block diffusion; Finally, through two rounds of the block-by-block processes, the plain-image will be transformed into the cipher-image. The simulation results show that the proposed method has many good characters.

Yong Zhang

2013-07-01

163

A chaotic image encryption scheme owning temp-value feedback

Many round-based chaotic image encryption algorithms employ the permutation-diffusion structure. This structure has been found insecure when the iteration round is equal to one and the secret permutation of some existing schemes can be recovered even a higher round is adopted. In this paper, we present a single round permutation-diffusion chaotic cipher for gray image, in which some temp-value feedback mechanisms are introduced to resist the known attacks. Specifically, we firstly embed the plaintext feedback technique in the permutation process to develop different permutation sequences for different plain-images and then employ plaintext/ciphertext feedback for diffusion to generate equivalent secret key dynamically. Experimental results show that the new scheme owns large key space and can resist the differential attack. It is also efficient.

Zhang, Leo Yu; Hu, Xiaobo; Liu, Yuansheng; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Gan, Jie

2014-10-01

164

MESSAGE ENCRYPTION USING NTRU ALGORITHM ON ANDROID

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS is getting more popular now-a-days. SMS was first used in December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry Christmas" via the Vodafone GSM network to the phone of Richard Jarvis in the UK. It will play a very important role in the future business areas of mobile commerce (M-Commerce. Presently many business organizations use SMS for their business purposes. SMS’s security has become a major concern for business organizations and customers. There is a need for an end to end SMS Encryption in order to provide a secure medium for communication. Security is main concern for any business company such as banks who will provide these mobile banking services. Till now there is no such scheme that provides complete SMSs security. The transmission of an SMS in GSM network is not secure at all. Therefore it is desirable to secure SMS for business purposes by additional encryption. In this thesis, we have analyzed different cryptosystems for implementing to the existing Secure Extensible and Efficient SMS (SEESMS. We planned to implement NTRU cryptosystem into existing SEESMS frame. The NTRU public key cryptosystem was developed in 1996 at Brown University by three mathematicians J. Hoffstein, J.Pipher and J.H. Silverman. It is not that much popular cryptosystems like RSA, ECC and other traditional. The major advantages of NTRU cryptosystem is much faster generating key, encryption time and decryption time as compared to others. It is easily compatible with mobile devices and other portable devices. We have compared theoretically and analysis of NTRU with RSA and ECC cryptosystems at end of my papers. It is theoretically proposed here. We are expecting our novel scheme may show better result than others. So it will provide improve the current security level and fastest speed with respect to key generation, encryption decryption with small key size. This proposal will suitable to any kind of mobile device for SMS communication with suitable data security.

Amanpreet Kaur

2013-10-01

165

Biomedical Image Transmission Based on Modified Feistal Algorithm

This paperpresents a reconfigurable, high performance hardware implementation of highly securebiomedical image transmission system which can be used for sending medical reports in military and highsecurity environments. The algorithm for encryption is based on DESalgorithm with a novel skew core keyscheduling. The encrypted image is not intelligible to an intruder, but the recovered image has high level ofclarity. This type of encryption can be used in applications where we need to discourage...

Jinu Elizabeth John

2013-01-01

166

Spatial-identification image encryption based on digital holography

We present a new method of realizing the spatial-identification image encryption based on digital holography in order to improve the encryption degree and increase encryption freedom. Both the object beam and the reference beam are modulated with random phase respectively. The random phase displayed on the spatial light modulator (SLM) in the reference arm is being refreshed synchronously when the aperture is scanning over the original image. The original image is divided into many subareas by the scanning aperture, and the object beam from each subarea interferes with a reference beam with unique random phase. Therefore, many sub-holograms are captured and each sub-hologram is encrypted with its own sub-key. The spatial position of the aperture becomes additional secret key because it is necessary that each sub-key should match with each encrypted sub-hologram for obtaining a completely decrypted image. This method greatly improves the image encryption degree and guarantees the security of the information. The whole original image is retrieved by superposition of all decrypted subareas. The encryption and decryption are demonstrated by simulations.

Wan, Yuhong; Yang, Jinghuan; Man, Tianlong

2014-07-01

167

Color image encryption based on paired interpermuting planes

A number of chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been proposed in recent years, and most of them employ confusion-diffusion architecture. This paper presents a new confusion scheme based on paired interpermuting planes. In the proposed new confusion operation, an 'exchange and random access strategy' is employed to replace the traditional confusion operations. The efficiency of the proposed scheme was analyzed by evaluating its histogram distribution, its correlation coefficients, its ability to resist differential attacks, its ability to retain information (entropy analysis), its computational speed, and its ability to guarantee the security of its key scheme. Simulations have been carried out and the results confirmed the superior security and computing speed of our scheme compared to other comparable algorithms.

Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Zhi-liang

2015-03-01

168

Selective Image Encryption Using DCT with Stream Cipher

Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, selective image encryption using DCT with Stream Cipher is done. In the DCT method, the basic idea is to decompose the image into 8×8 blocks and these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to the frequency domain by the DCT. Then, the DCT coefficients correlated...

Sapna Sasidharan; Jithin R

2010-01-01

169

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)

170

Steganography is the art of hiding information and an effort to conceal the existence of the embedded information. In recent years many steganography methods have been challenge by steganalysis . Steganalysis algorithm which detects the stego -message by the static analysis of pixel values [1]. In the proposed method, the secret message is encoded by using vigenere encryption method which guarantees the protection of hidden message. Then hiding the secret text in an image by using first compo...

Deeksha Bharti; Dr.Archana Kumar

2014-01-01

171

In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.

Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

2014-04-01

172

Single-channel color image encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform and chaos

A single-channel color image encryption is proposed based on iterative fractional Fourier transform and two-coupled logistic map. Firstly, a gray scale image is constituted with three channels of the color image, and permuted by a sequence of chaotic pairs which is generated by two-coupled logistic map. Firstly, the permutation image is decomposed into three components again. Secondly, the first two components are encrypted into a single one based on iterative fractional Fourier transform. Similarly, the interim image and third component are encrypted into the final gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution, which has camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and description, chaotic permutation makes the resulting image nonlinear and disorder both in spatial domain and frequency domain, and the proposed iterative fractional Fourier transform algorithm has faster convergent speed. Additionally, the encryption scheme enlarges the key space of the cryptosystem. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

Sui, Liansheng; Gao, Bo

2013-06-01

173

Bi-serial DNA Encryption Algorithm(BDEA)

The vast parallelism, exceptional energy efficiency and extraordinary information inherent in DNA molecules are being explored for computing, data storage and cryptography. DNA cryptography is a emerging field of cryptography. In this paper a novel encryption algorithm is devised based on number conversion, DNA digital coding, PCR amplification, which can effectively prevent attack. Data treatment is used to transform the plain text into cipher text which provides excellent security

Prabhu, D

2011-01-01

174

Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA ...

Donggeon Lee; Dong-Chan Kim; Daesung Kwon; Howon Kim

2014-01-01

175

Three Tier Encryption Algorithm For Secure File Transfer

This encryption algorithm is mainly designed for having a secure file transfer in the low privilege servers and as well as in a secured environment too. This methodology will be implemented in the data center and other important data transaction sectors of the organisation where the encoding process of the software will be done by the database administrator or system administrators and his trusted clients will have decoding process of the software. This software will not be circulated to the unauthorised customers.

Balakrishnan, Bhargav

2011-01-01

176

Noise removing in encrypted color images by statistical analysis

Cryptographic techniques are used to secure confidential data from unauthorized access but these techniques are very sensitive to noise. A single bit change in encrypted data can have catastrophic impact over the decrypted data. This paper addresses the problem of removing bit error in visual data which are encrypted using AES algorithm in the CBC mode. In order to remove the noise, a method is proposed which is based on the statistical analysis of each block during the decryption. The proposed method exploits local statistics of the visual data and confusion/diffusion properties of the encryption algorithm to remove the errors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used at the receiving end for the possible solution for noise removing in visual data in encrypted domain.

Islam, N.; Puech, W.

2012-03-01

177

Application of Cosine Zone Plates to Image Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyse the diffraction result of optical field after Cosine zone plate, and theoretically deduce its transform matrix. Under some conditions, its diffraction distribution is a mixture of fractional Fourier spectra. Then we use Cosine zone plate and its diffraction result to image encryption. Possible optical image encryption and decryption implementations are proposed, and some numerical simulation results are also provided. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

178

A Chaotic Encryption Algorithm Based on Skew Tent Map

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development and extensive applications of computer technology, network technology, communication technology, and Internet in particular, the security of network information is becoming increasingly key problems that must be solved urgently. The applying chaos theory to secure communication and information encryption has already become one of the hot research projects on the combination of nonlinear science and information science, and it is a novel branch of high-tech research fields. In this paper, a chaotic encryption algorithm based on skew tent map is proposed. In the process of encryption, its update look-up table depends on plaintext and external key, the 8-bit subkey is dynamically generated with skew tent map and depends on updating look-up table, the key is initial condition X0 of skew tent map, control parameter p and a external key K. Theoretical analysis and simulated experiments show that the algorithm can resist the statistic and differential attacks, and the algorithm has high security.

Chen Shou-gang

2009-04-01

179

A Digital Watermarking for Lifting Based Compression And Encryption of JPEG 2000 Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the digital world the digital media is currently evolving at such rapidly;copyright protection is become increasingly important.Now a days these media is available with various image formats,due to which they are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality.A wide range of digital media is often distributed by multiple levels of distributors in a compressed and encrypted format.It is sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encrypted media items in the compressed encrypted domain itself for tamper detection or ownership declaration or copyright management purposes.The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data inorder to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.This paper deals with the watermarking of compressed and encrypted JPEG 2000 images.The compression is achieved on JPEG 2000 images by lifting based architecture.The encryption algorithm used is stream cipher.The identification of watermark can be done in the decrypted domain.The watermarking technique used is spread spectrum.This can be implemented through matlab.

Ansu Anna Ponnachen1 , Lidiya Xavier

2013-06-01

180

Digital image and information embedding system have number of important multimedia applications. Recently, attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH) in encrypted images is more, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be lossless recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. RDH is a technique used to hide data inside image for high security in such a way that original data is not visibl...

Priya Jambhulkar; Pardhi, P. R.

2014-01-01

181

A first approach on an RGB image encryption

Image encryption and decryption are essential for securing images from various types of security attacks. In this paper, we have proposed a first approach for an RGB image encryption and decryption using two stage random matrix affine cipher associated with discrete wavelet transformation. Earlier proposed schemes for encoding and decoding of images discussed only about the keys, but in our proposed approach, keys and the arrangement of RMAC parameters are mandatory. We have also formulated a formula for all the possible range to choose keys for encrypting and decrypting an RGB image. Computer simulation with a standard example and result is given to analyze the capability of the proposed approach. We have given security analysis and comparison between our proposed technique and others to support for robustness of the approach. This approach can be used for transmission of image data efficiently and securely.

Kumar, Manish; Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, R. K.

2014-01-01

182

Secure And Authenticated Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reversible data hiding a novel technique which is used to embed additional information in the encrypted images, applies in military and medical images, which can be recoverable with original media and the hided data without loss. A number of reversible data hiding techniques were proposed in the recent years, but on analysis, all lacks in providing the security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which work is separable, the receiver can extract the original image or extra embedded data or both according to the keys hold by the receiver. On the other hand the receiver can verify the data hided by the data hider, such that the work proposes both security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which poses both security and authentication for additional data stored in the encrypted images. Also proposed work is separable, the receiver can extract the original image or extra embedded data or both according to the keys hold by the receiver. On the other hand the receiver can verify the data hided by the data hider, such that the work proposes both security and authentication.This work proposes a novel scheme for separable reversible data hiding in encrypted images. In the first phase, a content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, adata-hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image using a data-hiding key to create a sparse space to accommodate some additional data. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data-hiding key, he can extract the additional data though he does not know the image content. If the receiver has the encryption key, he can decrypt the received data to obtain an image similar to the original one, but cannot extract the additional data. If the receiver has both the data-hiding key and the encryption key, he can extract the additional data and recover the original content without any error by exploiting the spatial correlation in natural image when the amount of additional data is not too larg

Dr.V.Khanaa

2013-03-01

183

SECURE NETWORK COMMUNICATION BASED ON TEXT-TO-IMAGE ENCRYPTION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Security becomes an important issue when secure or sensitive information is sent over a network where all computers are connected together. In such a network a computer is recognized by its IP address. Unfortunately, an IP address is attacked by hackers; this is where one host claims to have the IP address of another host and thus sends packets to a certain machine causing it to take some sort of action. In order to overcome this problem cryptography is used. In cryptographic application, the data sent are encrypted first at the source machine using an encryption key then the encrypted data are sent to the destination machine. This way the attacker will not have the encryption key which is required to get the original data and thus the hacker is unable to do anything with the session. In this paper, we propose a novel method for data encryption. Our method is based on private key encryption. We call our method Text-To-Image Encryption (TTIE.

Ahmad Abusukhon

2012-01-01

184

Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibility of proposed method.

185

Simultaneous Color Image Compression and Encryption using Number Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dependence on computing machines and utility of information has been growing tremendously in the last few decades. As a result, evolving effective techniques for storing and transmitting the ever increasing volumes of data has become a high priority issue. Image compression addresses the problem by reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the compression process is the removal of redundant data. Selection of a suitable of a suitable compression scheme for a given application depends on the available memory for processing, the number of mathematical computations and the available bandwidth for transmission. The security of digital images is another important issue that has been receiving considerable attention in the recent past. Different image encryption methods have been proposed in the literature towards ensuring the security of data. The encryption process transforms a 2 – D pixel array into a statistically uncorrelated data set. In this paper, an enhanced number theory based color image compression and encryption scheme is proposed. This technique encompasses the twin – based application of image compression and I age encryption simultaneously adopting a model based paradigm for the general compression – encryption standards.

Navaneethakrishnan Navaneethakrishnan

2012-09-01

186

A NEW DATA HIDING ALGORITHM WITH ENCRYPTED SECRET MESSAGE USING TTJSA SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTO SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work we are proposing a new steganogarphy method to hide any encrypted secret message inside a cover file by substituting in the LSB. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm namely TTJSA developed by Nath et al [10]. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al [2]. The TTJSA method comprises of 3 distinct methods which are also developed by Nath et al[1,7]. The methods are MSA[Meheboob, Saima and Asoke][1], NJJSAA[Neeraj, Joel, Joyshree, Amlan, Asoke][7] and Generalised Modified Vernam Cipher method developed by Nath et al[10]. The authors have used TTJSA method for encryption purpose as it is already proved that TTJSA is very effective even if we have small pattern such as digital watermark or password etc. Moreover the cryptanalysis of TTJSA shows that the standard attack like differential attack or simple plain text attack will not be able to break the encryption method. So the main advantage of this method is that even if the hacker can extract the embedded data from a host file but they can not get back the original secret message. While embedding encrypted secret message we have used the standard LSB substitution method [2]. The present method may be used for hiding very confidential message or password or any private key from one machine to another machine or from one machine to server etc. For sending question papers normally the teachers are sending it through e-mail as normal plain text. Instead of that now they can encrypt it first using TTJSA method and hide the encrypted message in some popular image and send it to destination with full confidence like in between no one will be able to hack it. In defense or in Banking sector also the present method may be used for sending some crucial and important message. The present method may be used to hide any confidential message such as text, audio, image in any image or audio or video file. Keywords: MSA,TTJSA,NJJSAA,LSB,Vernam,Steganography

Sayak Guha

2012-05-01

187

SECURE IMAGE DATA BY USING DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES A REVIEW

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information security is an increasingly important problem in the present era of advanced technology, because of which encryption is becoming very important to ensure security. Popular application of multimedia technology and increasing transmission ability of network gradually leads us to acquire information directly and clearly through Images. The digital images, which are transmitted over the internet, must be protected from unauthorized access during storage and transmission for communication, copyright protection and authentication purposes. This can be accomplished using image encryption which is an intelligent hiding of information. In this paper, I survey on existing work which is used different techniques for image encryption and also give the general introduction about cryptography.

GAYATHRI D.

2013-03-01

188

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then randomized and then, finally embed that randomized QR Code inside some common image. Quick Response Codes (or QR Codes are a type of two-dimensional matrix barcodes used for encoding information. It has become very popular recently for its high storage capacity. The present method is ASA_QR is a combination of strong encryption algorithm and data hiding in two stages to make the entire process extremely hard to break. Here, the secret message is encrypted first and hide it in a QR CodeTM and then again that QR CodeTM is embed in a cover file (picture file in random manner, using the standard method of steganography. In this way the data, which is secured, is almost impossible to be retrieved without knowing the cryptography key, steganography password and the exact unhide method. For encrypting data The authors used a method developed by Nath et al i.e. TTJSA, which is based on generalized modified Vernam Cipher, MSA and NJJSA method; and from the cryptanalysis it is seen that TTJSA is free from any standard cryptographic attacks, like differential attack, plain-text attack or any brute force attack. After encrypting the data using TTJSA,the authors have used standard steganographic method To hide data inside some host file. The present method may be used for sharing secret key, password, digital signature etc.

Somdip Dey

2012-06-01

189

Multiple-image encryption based on optical asymmetric key cryptosystem

We propose a multiple-image encryption scheme with asymmetric keys and demonstrate it by optical experiments. The original secret images are multiplexed and encoded into a real-valued ciphertext using only one public encryption key. In the decryption process, each secret image can only be de-multiplexed by its corresponding private decryption key. The multiplexing capacity is analyzed through examining the distribution of cross-talk noise and the key space of private decryption key. Numerical simulations and optical experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the validity, high security, and large multiplexing capacity of the proposed method.

Liu, Wei; Xie, Zhenwei; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shutian

2015-01-01

190

Separable and Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image with High Payload

This paper proposes a separable reversible data-hiding scheme in encrypted image which offers high payload and error-free data extraction. The cover image is partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks and multigranularity encryption is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The data hider preprocesses the encrypted image and randomly selects two basic pixels in each block to estimate the block smoothness and indicate peak points. Additional data are embedded into blocks in the sorted order of blo...

Zhaoxia Yin; Bin Luo; Wien Hong

2014-01-01

191

A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM AND RC4

Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band) is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time...

Deepu Sleeba Philip; Sapna Sasidharan

2011-01-01

192

This paper presents a new method for three-dimensional (3D) scene acquisition via reconstruction with multispectral information and its Fourier-based encryption using computational integral imaging, by which the field of view, resolution, and information security are increased, respectively. The color imaging sensors covered with a Bayer color filter array captures elemental images (EI) at different spectral bands (400 and 700 nm intervals in the visible spectrum). Subsequently, double random phase encryption (DRPE) in the Fourier domain is employed on Bayer formatted EI to encrypt the captured 3D scene. Proper 3D object reconstruction only can be achieved by applying inverse decryption and a geometric ray backpropagation algorithm on the encrypted EI. Further, the high-resolution multispectral 3D scene can be visualized by using various adaptive interpolation algorithms. To objectively evaluate our proposed method, we carried out computational experiments for 3D object sensing, reconstruction, and digital simulations for DRPE. Experiment results validate the feasibility and robustness of our proposed approach, even under severe degradation. PMID:25322135

Muniraj, Inbarasan; Kim, Byoungho; Lee, Byung-Guen

2014-09-20

193

Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images

We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added with original image to obtain encrypted image. The scan methodology is applied to either original image or carrier image, after the addition of original image and carrier image to obtain highly distorted encrypted image. The resulting image is found to be more distorted in hybrid technique. By applying the reverse process we get the decrypted image.

T, Panduranga H

2010-01-01

194

We propose a new method for multiple color images encryption by using triplets recombination. In this proposed technique, triplet (R, G and B) components of the secret color image are recorded simultaneously as a real and positive gray image exploiting parallel multi-wavelength recording technology. Arnold transform and phase retrieval algorithm adapted to Fresnel transform domain are used to encode the parallel hybrid result. By using of the proposed technique, each color image is encrypted into a pure phase distribution and combined by superposition. Phase modulation is introduced to eliminate the cross-talk caused by multiple images superposition. The wavelength and transform parameters are provided as keys to enhance the system security. In addition, computer simulations are performed and numerical results are presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

Shi, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Daomu; Huang, Yinbo; Pan, Jianjiang

2013-10-01

195

Optical image encryption based on a radial shearing interferometer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a novel method for optical image encryption based on a modified radial shearing interferometer (MRSI), which is generally used for wavefront reconstruction. In this method, a plaintext image is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM) and then modulated by a random phase mask (RPM), the result is regarded as the input of the radial shearing interferometer and is divided into two coherent lights, which interfere with each other, leading to an interferogram (ciphertext). The aforementioned encryption process can be achieved digitally or optically while the decryption process can only be analytically accomplished. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the validity of this method. (paper)

196

Efficient Digital Encryption Algorithm Based on Matrix Scrambling Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem ofinformation which is transmitted in Internet. We propose a new technique on matrix scrambling which isbased on random function, shifting and reversing techniques of circular queue. We give statisticalanalysis, sequence random analysis, and sensitivity analysis to plaintext and key on the proposed scheme.The experimental results show that the new scheme has a very fast encryption speed and the key space isexpanded and it can resist all kinds of cryptanalytic, statistical attacks, and especially, our new methodcan be also used to solve the problem that is easily exposed to chosen plaintext attack. We give ourdetailed report to this algorithm, and reveal the characteristic of this algorithm by utilizing an example.

M. Kiran Kumar

2010-10-01

197

A novel image encryption scheme based on the ergodicity of baker map

Thanks to the exceptionally good properties in chaotic systems, such as sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters, pseudo-randomness and ergodicity, chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been widely studied and developed in recent years. A novel digital image encryption scheme based on the chaotic ergodicity of Baker map is proposed in this paper. Different from traditional encryption schemes based on Baker map, we permute the pixel positions by their corresponding order numbers deriving from the approximating points in one chaotic orbit. To enhance the resistance to statistical and differential attacks, a diffusion process is suggested as well in the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme enlarges the key space significantly to resist brute-force attack. Additionally, the distribution of gray values in the cipher-image has a random-like behavior to resist statistical analysis. The proposed scheme is robust against cropping, tampering and noising attacks as well. It therefore suggests a high secure and efficient way for real-time image encryption and transmission in practice.

Ye, Ruisong; Chen, Yonghong

2012-01-01

198

A Multilayered Secure, Robust and High Capacity Image Steganographic Algorithm

It is observed that all of the current steganographic algorithms rely heavily on the conventional encryption systems which do not serve well in the context of image steganography. Advanced encryption standard (AES) is one of the most powerful techniques of cryptography which can be used as an integral part of steganographic system for better confidentiality and security. In this paper we propose a reversible image steganographic embedding algorithm consisting of three parts. First, we use the...

Muttoo, S. K.; Sushil Kumar,

2011-01-01

199

Efficient image or video encryption based on spatiotemporal chaos system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, an efficient image/video encryption scheme is constructed based on spatiotemporal chaos system. The chaotic lattices are used to generate pseudorandom sequences and then encrypt image blocks one by one. By iterating chaotic maps for certain times, the generated pseudorandom sequences obtain high initial-value sensitivity and good randomness. The pseudorandom-bits in each lattice are used to encrypt the Direct Current coefficient (DC) and the signs of the Alternating Current coefficients (ACs). Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme has good cryptographic security and perceptual security, and it does not affect the compression efficiency apparently. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.

200

Color image encryption based on gyrator transform and Arnold transform

A color image encryption scheme using gyrator transform and Arnold transform is proposed, which has two security levels. In the first level, the color image is separated into three components: red, green and blue, which are normalized and scrambled using the Arnold transform. The green component is combined with the first random phase mask and transformed to an interim using the gyrator transform. The first random phase mask is generated with the sum of the blue component and a logistic map. Similarly, the red component is combined with the second random phase mask and transformed to three-channel-related data. The second random phase mask is generated with the sum of the phase of the interim and an asymmetrical tent map. In the second level, the three-channel-related data are scrambled again and combined with the third random phase mask generated with the sum of the previous chaotic maps, and then encrypted into a gray scale ciphertext. The encryption result has stationary white noise distribution and camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, the rotation angle of gyrator transform, the iterative numbers of Arnold transform, the parameters of the chaotic map and generated accompanied phase function serve as encryption keys, and hence enhance the security of the system. Simulation results and security analysis are presented to confirm the security, validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Sui, Liansheng; Gao, Bo

2013-06-01

201

In this paper, we discuss a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of steganography for security applications such as anti-theft systems and forensic investigation systems. Our proposed method takes advantage of both conventional encryption/decryption algorithms and fragile image watermarking techniques to provide user-friendly interface. It could potentially be of benefit to financial investment companies, the military and security forces in order to keep certain information hidden within other content with a change so subtle that no one who does not know exactly where or how to look will not be able to obtain the data. In our proposed system, a steganographic message known as plaintext is first encrypted by conventional methods to give an extra layer of security, producing a ciphertext. The steganographic message can be either an image or ASCII text, both of which will be discussed. Then, the cover text or image is modified to contain the ciphertext, yielding a encrypted text or a watermarked image. Details of the circuitry for each stage are given with some of the encryption and randomization circuitry not included in full detail for commercial reasons. Test images before and after watermarking will be shown to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed system.

Tickle, Andrew J.; Sun, Jiajing; Gan, Lu; Smith, Jeremy S.

2008-09-01

202

A symmetrical image encryption scheme in wavelet and time domain

There has been an increasing concern for effective storages and secure transactions of multimedia information over the Internet. Then a great variety of encryption schemes have been proposed to ensure the information security while transmitting, but most of current approaches are designed to diffuse the data only in spatial domain which result in reducing storage efficiency. A lightweight image encryption strategy based on chaos is proposed in this paper. The encryption process is designed in transform domain. The original image is decomposed into approximation and detail components using integer wavelet transform (IWT); then as the more important component of the image, the approximation coefficients are diffused by secret keys generated from a spatiotemporal chaotic system followed by inverse IWT to construct the diffused image; finally a plain permutation is performed for diffusion image by the Logistic mapping in order to reduce the correlation between adjacent pixels further. Experimental results and performance analysis demonstrate the proposed scheme is an efficient, secure and robust encryption mechanism and it realizes effective coding compression to satisfy desirable storage.

Luo, Yuling; Du, Minghui; Liu, Junxiu

2015-02-01

203

Improving Security of Parallel Algorithm Using Key Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent cloud era, computing moves to a new plane of running large scale scientific applications. Many parallel algorithms have been created to support a large dataset. MapReduce is one such parallel data processing framework adopted widely for scientific research, machine learning and high end computing. The most prevalent implementation of MapReduce is the open source project Hadoop. To protect the integrity and confidentiality of data uploaded, MapReduce introduced a Kerberos-based model with tokens for datablocks and processing nodes. The tokens are symmetrically encrypted and distributed across the nodes. Such a technique is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks like data loss, data modification and stealing of keys. In this study, a novel technique is proposed based on public key encryption on top of the Kerberos model to enhance Security. The various attack scenarios on the current Hadoop implementation model has been analyzed and a secure environment has been proposed. The study shows that the proposed framework provides an improved level of security when using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman with 65,537 keysize consumed 23 milli seconds, while using 257 bits keysize which consumed 21 milli seconds.

R. Swarna Raja

2013-01-01

204

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel single-channel color image encryption algorithm is proposed, which utilizes the reality-preserving fractional discrete cosine transform in YCbCr space. The color image to be encrypted is decomposed into Y, Cb, and Cr components, which are then separately transformed by Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. The resulting three spectra sequences, obtained by zig-zag scanning the spectra matrices, are truncated and the lower frequency coefficients of the three components are scrambled up into a single matrix of the same size with the original color image. Then the obtained single matrix is encrypted by the fractional discrete cosine transform, which is a kind of encryption with secrecy of pixel value and pixel position simultaneously. The encrypted image is convenient for display, transmission and storage, thanks to the reality-preserving property of the fractional discrete cosine transform. Additionally, the proposed algorithm enlarges the key space by employing the generating sequence as an extra key in addition to the fractional orders. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate the proposed algorithm is feasible, effective and secure. The robustness to noise attack is also guaranteed to some extent.

Jianhua Wu

2013-11-01

205

IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES USING CHAOTIC SCHEMES: A REVIEW

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary. It encompasses many problems like encryption, authentication, and key distribution to name a few. The field of modern cryptography providesa theoretical foundation based on which one can understand what exactly these problems are, how to evaluate protocols that purport to solve them and how to build protocols in whose security one can haveconfidence. Advanced digital technologies have made multimedia data widely available. Recently, multimedia applications become common in practice and thus security of multimedia data has become main concern.The basic issues pertaining to the problem of encryption has been discussed and also a survey on image encryption techniques based on chaotic schemes has been dealt in the present communication.The chaotic image encryption can be developed by using properties of chaos including deterministic dynamics, unpredictable behavior and non-linear transform. This concept leads to techniques that can simultaneously provide security functions and an overall visualcheck, which might be suitable in some applications. Digital images are widely used in various applications, that include military, legal and medical systems and these applications need to control access toimages and provide the means to verify integrity of images.

Monisha Sharma

2010-06-01

206

Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplified data encryption standard can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. In this paper, a comparison between memetic algorithm and genetic algorithm were made in order to investigate the performance for the cryptanalysis on simplified data encryption standard problems(SDES). The methods were tested and various experimental results show that memetic algorithm performs better than the genetic algorithms for such type of NP-Hard combinatorial problem. This paper represents our first effort toward efficient memetic algo...

Garg, Poonam

2010-01-01

207

The effect of algorithm-agile encryption on ATM quality of service

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) users often open multiple ATM Virtual Circuits (VCs) to multiple ATM users on multiple ATM networks. Each network and user may implement a different encryption policy. Hence ATM users may need shared, flexible hardware-based 3encryption that supports multiple encryption algorithms for multiple concurrent ATM users and VCs. An algorithm-agile encryption architecture, that uses multiple, parallel encryption-pipelines, is proposed. That algorithm-agile encryptor`s effect on the ATM Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, such as Cell Transfer Delay (CTD) and Cell Delay Variation (CDV), is analyzed. Bounds on the maximum CDV and the CDV`s probability density are derived.

Sholander, P.; Tarman, T.; Pierson, L.; Hutchinson, R.

1997-04-01

208

Biomedical Image Transmission Based on Modified Feistal Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paperpresents a reconfigurable, high performance hardware implementation of highly securebiomedical image transmission system which can be used for sending medical reports in military and highsecurity environments. The algorithm for encryption is based on DESalgorithm with a novel skew core keyscheduling. The encrypted image is not intelligible to an intruder, but the recovered image has high level ofclarity. This type of encryption can be used in applications where we need to discourage eavesdroppingfromco-channel users or RF scanners. The biomedical image encryption technique is implemented onVirtex 5 XC5VLX110T Field Programming Gate Arrays (FPGA technology and NET FPGA. Final 16-stage pipelined design is achieved with encryption rate of 35.5 Gbit/sand 2140 number of Configurablelogic blocks (CLBs.

Jinu Elizabeth John

2013-07-01

209

A Review On Data Hiding Techniques In Encrypted Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking into the networking era. There are number of techniques available in the industry to overcome this problem. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is one of the solution, but the problem is the original cover cannot be losslessly recovered by this technique. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent property that the original cover can be recovered without any los after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. This paper enlists the various methods of data hiding in the image like differential expansion, histogram shift or the combination of both the techniques. This is useful in the way that these methods recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.

Ms. Anagha Markandey

2013-10-01

210

Chaos Encryption Algorithm to Deal with Security Threat to Internet of Things RFID

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internet of Things RFID system is mainly studied problem in current communication area, where the safety of code message become rather important. Chaos encryption algorithm can disperse not only the time area but the scale, which is suitable for computer to deal with and overcome the limitation of block encryption in DES and AES. Using Sequence of the digital to deal with initial value and combining the one dimensional Logistic chaos and three dimensional Lorenz algorithm realize common encryption algorithm of these two chaos methods to calculate the long-term random sequence under the limitation of precision and improve the security.

Tian Xiaoyong

2013-05-01

211

HIGHLY SECURED AND RANDOMIZED IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHIC ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s internet scenario, secured data transfer is very difficult if not impossible due to the technology and computing power availability to the attackers. Hence more robust methods are required to provide a secured data transfer. Though steganographic algorithms are existing, no algorithm is fool proof for long time, as hackers gain more knowledge over time [1]. In this proposed work, a new technique to improve the security of steganographic algorithm by using the high level of randomization is proposed and implemented. It has the high embedding capacity and more robustness in the stego key. In proposed algorithm, message to be transmitted is encrypted. The encrypted message is embedded on image in randomized pixels. The randomness of the position of pixels on which the encrypted message to be embedded will be decided by the stego key. The stego key itself is encrypted and transmitted to other party in a secured form. Hence it is more robust and secured algorithm. The algorithms used for steganography process is Pixel Value Differencing with Modulus (PVDM [6] and Least Significant Bit(LSB algorithms[5] with randomization.

Dr. R. Sridevi

2012-10-01

212

DATA SECURITY IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK BASED ON FAST ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hacking is one of the greatest problems in the wireless local area networks. Many algorithms have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user safely and correctly. In this paper, a new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed that prevents the outside attacks. The new algorithm avoids key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption and decryption. It operates at high data rate in comparison with The Data Encryption Standard (DES, Triple DES (TDES, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-256, and RC6 algorithms. The new algorithm is applied successfully on both text file and voice message.

G. Ramesh

2010-06-01

213

Secure And Authenticated Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images

Reversible data hiding a novel technique which is used to embed additional information in the encrypted images, applies in military and medical images, which can be recoverable with original media and the hided data without loss. A number of reversible data hiding techniques were proposed in the recent years, but on analysis, all lacks in providing the security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which work is separable, the receiver can extract ...

Khanaa, Dr V.; Dr Krishna Mohanta

2013-01-01

214

SECURE IMAGE DATA BY USING DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES A REVIEW

Information security is an increasingly important problem in the present era of advanced technology, because of which encryption is becoming very important to ensure security. Popular application of multimedia technology and increasing transmission ability of network gradually leads us to acquire information directly and clearly through Images. The digital images, which are transmitted over the internet, must be protected from unauthorized access during storage and transmission for communicat...

Gayathri, D.

2013-01-01

215

Role of Statistical tests in Estimation of the Security of a New Encryption Algorithm

Encryption study basically deals with three levels of algorithms. The first algorithm deals with encryption mechanism, second deals with decryption Mechanism and the third discusses about the generation of keys and sub keys used in the encryption study. In the given study, a new algorithm is discussed. The algorithm executes a series of steps and generates a sequence. This sequence is being used as sub key to be mapped to plain text to generate cipher text. The strength of the encryption & Decryption process depends on the strength of sequence generated against crypto analysis.. In this part of work some statistical tests like Uniformity tests, Universal tests & Repetition tests are tried on the sequence generated to test the strength of it.

Krishna, Addepalli V N

2010-01-01

216

Role of Statistical tests in Estimation of the Security of a New Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption study basically deals with three levels of algorithms. The first algorithm deals with encryption mechanism, second deals with decryption Mechanism and the third discusses about the generation of keys and sub keys used in the encryption study. In the given study, a new algorithm is discussed. The algorithm executes a series of steps and generates a sequence. This sequence is being used as sub key to be mapped to plain text to generate cipher text. The strength of the encryption & Decryption process depends on the strength of sequence generated against crypto analysis.. In this part of work some statistical tests like Uniformity tests, Universal tests & Repetition tests are tried on the sequence generated to test the strength of it.

Addepalli V.N Krishna

2010-06-01

217

A Secure Symmetric Image Encryption Based on Bit-wise Operation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows a symmetric image encryption based on bit-wise operation (XORing and Shifting. The basic idea is block ciphering (size of each block is 4 bytes technique to cipher the secret bytes, after that ciphered bytes are again shuffled among N positions (N is the size of secret file. The scheme is combination of substitution as well as transposition techniques which provides additional protection of the secret data. The substitution and transposition are done using dynamic substitution box (SBOX and transposition box (TBOX which are generated using the secret key and made to vary for each block during ciphering. The size of encrypted data is same as the size of secret data and the proposed scheme has been tested using different images. We have also presented the security analysis such as key sensitivity analysis, statistical analysis, and differential analysis to prove the strength of our algorithm against crypto analysis.

Prabir Kr. Naskar

2014-01-01

218

From the perspective of cryptography, collision is an undesirable situation that occurs when two or more distinct inputs into a security system produce undistinguishable outputs. In this paper we present a study of the collision property of the optical image encryption technique based on interference (Zhang et al. Optics Letters; 2008:33(21)). For an arbitrary secret image (output) to be encrypted, we can find various distinct pairs of phase-only masks (inputs), which yield almost the same outputs by use of a modified phase retrieval algorithm. Meanwhile, we also provide an efficient way to avoid this potential risk by adding an extra unit in the original structure, which can thus be called a double-factor verification system. A series of computer simulations were also carried out to demonstrate our concern and strategy.

He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng; Liu, Xiaoli

2013-04-01

219

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding information and an effort to conceal the existence of the embedded information. In recent years many steganography methods have been challenge by steganalysis . Steganalysis algorithm which detects the stego -message by the static analysis of pixel values [1]. In the proposed method, the secret message is encoded by using vigenere encryption method which guarantees the protection of hidden message. Then hiding the secret text in an image by using first component alteration technique .In this technique, 8 bits of blue components are replaced with secret data bits , then that image can be hidden in cover image in non sequential pixel by using variable hope value power of 2 [2,4,8,16].The Proposed method aim not only to provide improved security problems of simple LSB method but also the increased visual quality of stegoimage.

Deeksha Bharti

2014-07-01

220

Design a New Image Encryption using Fuzzy Integral Permutation with Coupled Chaotic Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA addition combining and coupled two-dimensional piecewise nonlinear chaotic map. This algorithm consists of two parts. In the first part of the algorithm, a DNA sequence matrix is obtained by encoding each color component, and is divided into some equal blocks and then the generated sequence of Sugeno integral fuzzy and the DNA sequence addition operation is used to add these blocks. Next, the DNA sequence matrix from the previous step is decoded and the complement operation to the result of the added matrix is performed by using Sugeno fuzzy integral. In the second part of the algorithm, the three modified color components are encrypted in a coupling fashion in such a way to strengthen the cryptosystem security. It is observed that the histogram, the correlation and avalanche criterion, can satisfy security and performance requirements (Avalanche criterion > 0.49916283. The experimental results obtained for the CVG-UGR image databases reveal the fact that the proposed algorithm is suitable for practical use to protect the security of digital image information over the Internet.

Yasaman Hashemi

2013-01-01

221

A new encryption scheme for color images based on quantum chaotic system in transform domain

This paper presents an efficient image encryption scheme for color images based on quantum chaotic systems. In this scheme, a new substitution/confusion scheme is achieved based on toral automorphism in integer wavelet transform by scrambling only the Y (Luminance) component of low frequency subband. Then, a chaotic stream encryption scheme is accomplished by generating an intermediate chaotic key stream image with the help of quantum chaotic system. Simulation results justify the feasibility of the proposed scheme in color image encryption purpose.

Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Wang, Ning; Peng, Jia-Liang; Li, Qiong; Niu, Xiamu

2013-07-01

222

A Review on Keyless User Defined Reversible Encryption for Color Image

Some limitation of Key oriented techniques, to maintain the key records and increase highcomputational cost. To overcome this limitation to proposed an improved reversible image encryptionrandom hiding approach for keyless image encryption. The objective of this paper to increase the secrecyand confidentiality of images is a multimedia and vibrant area of research. There are two differentapproaches being followed in image encryption, the first approach to key oriented encryption and secondapp...

Ghode, Pratibha S.; Prof. Pragati Patil??

2013-01-01

223

DIGITAL COLOR IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON INVERTIBLE MATRIX WITH SECRET SHARING

This paper explores the new approach to implement image encryption in digital color images. The self invertible matrix created from the original image is used as keys for the RGB to YCbCr transform and the secret sharing operations. The encryption process carried out by the four steps: pixel permutation, creating RGB matrix, RGB to YCbCr transform and the secret sharing. The quality of the encrypted images are tested with visual inspection and evaluated with different quality measures. The pe...

Sam Emmanuel, W. R.; Edward Jaya Singh, C.

2013-01-01

224

Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware.

Donggeon Lee

2014-01-01

225

Efficient hardware implementation of the lightweight block encryption algorithm LEA.

Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859

Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

226

Vector Quantization Techniques For Partial Encryption of Wavelet-based Compressed Digital Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of image communication has increased in recent years. In this paper, newpartial encryption schemes are used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Only6.25-25% of the original data is encrypted for four different images, resulting in asignificant reduction in encryption and decryption time. In the compression step, anadvanced clustering analysis technique (Fuzzy C-means (FCM is used. In the encryptionstep, the permutation cipher is used. The effect of number of different clusters is studied.The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast and secure, and do not reduce thecompression performance of the underlying selected compression methods as shown inexperimental results and conclusion.

H. A. Younis

2009-01-01

227

Unified compression and encryption algorithm for fast and secure network communications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compression and encryption of data are two vital requirements for the fast and secure transmission of data in the network based communications. In this paper an algorithm is presented based on adaptive Huffman encoding for unified compression and encryption of Unicode encoded textual data. The Huffman encoding weakness that same tree is needed for decoding is utilized in the algorithm presented as an extra layer of security, which is updated whenever the frequency change is above the specified threshold level. The results show that we get compression comparable to popular zip format and in addition to that data has got an additional layer of encryption that makes it more secure. Thus unified algorithm presented here can be used for network communications between different branches of banks, e- Government programs and national database and registration centers where data transmission requires both compression and encryption. (author)

228

A Review on Keyless User Defined Reversible Encryption for Color Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some limitation of Key oriented techniques, to maintain the key records and increase highcomputational cost. To overcome this limitation to proposed an improved reversible image encryptionrandom hiding approach for keyless image encryption. The objective of this paper to increase the secrecyand confidentiality of images is a multimedia and vibrant area of research. There are two differentapproaches being followed in image encryption, the first approach to key oriented encryption and secondapproach to keyless to random encryption technique for every pixel and to maintain the originality of animage without any loss of quality.

Pratibha S. Ghode

2013-10-01

229

Double image encryption method using the Arnold transform in the fractional Hartley domain

A new method for double image encryption based on the fractional Hartley transform (FrHT) and the Arnold transform (AT) is proposed in this work. The encryption method encodes the first input image in amplitude and the second input image is encoded in phase, in order to define a complex image. This complex image is successively four times transformed using FrHT and AT, and the resulting complex image represents the encrypted image. The decryption method is the same method as the encryption method applied in the inverse sense. The AT is a process of image shearing and stitching in which pixels of the image are rearranged. This AT is used in the encryption method with the purpose of spreading the information content of the two input images onto the encrypted image and to increase the security of the encrypted image. The fractional orders of the FrHTs and the parameters of the ATs correspond to the keys of the encryption-decryption method. Only when all of those keys are correct in the decryption method, the two original images can be recovered. We present digital results that confirm our approach.

Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, César O.; Jimenez, Carlos J.

2013-11-01

230

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents, a low power 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm based on a novel asynchronous self-timed architecture for encryption of audio signals. An asynchronous system is defined as one where the transfers of information between combinatorial blocks without a global clock signal. The self-timed architectures are asynchronous circuits which perform their function based on local synchronization signals called hand shake, independently from the other modules. This new architecture reduced spikes on current consumption and only parts with valid data are working, and also this design does not need any clock pulse. A combinational logic based Rijndael S-Box implementation for the Substitution Byte transformation in AES is proposed, its low area occupancy and high throughput therefore proposed digital design leads to reduction in power consumption. Mix-columns transformation is implemented only based on multiply-by-2 and multiply-by-3 modules with combinational logic. The proposed novel asynchronous self-timed AES algorithm is modeled and verified using FPGA and simulation results from encryption of sound signals is presented, until original characteristics are preserved anymore and have been successfully synthesized and implemented using Xilinx ISE V7.1 and Virtex IV FPGA to target device Xc4vf100. The achieved power consumption is 283 mW in clock frequency of 100 MHz.

Bahman Rashidi

2013-02-01

231

Design and Analysis of a Novel Digital Image Encryption Scheme

In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 144-bits is proposed. In the substitution process of the scheme, image is divided into blocks and subsequently into color components. Each color component is modified by performing bitwise operation which depends on secret key as well as a few most significant bits of its previous and next color component. Three rounds are taken to complete substitution process. To make cipher more robust, a feedback mechanism is also applied by modifying used secret key after encrypting each block. Further, resultant image is partitioned into several key based dynamic sub-images. Each sub-image passes through the scrambling process where pixels of sub-image are reshuffled within itself by using a generated magic square matrix. Five rounds are taken for scrambling process. The propose scheme is simple, fast and sensitive to the secret key. Due to high order of substitution and permutation, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasibl...

Pareek, Narendra K

2012-01-01

232

Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Transparently Encrypted JPEG2000 Images

Transparent encryption has two main requirements, i.e. security and perceived quality. The perceptual quality aspect has never been thoroughly investigated. In this work, three variants to transparently encrypt JPEG2000 images are compared from a perceptual quality viewpoint. The assessment is based on sub jective and ob jective quality assessment of the transparently encrypted images and if the requirements with respect to desired functionalities can be met by the respective techniques. In p...

Stutz, Thomas; Pankajakshan, Vinod; Autrusseau, Florent; Uhl, Andreas; Hofbauer, Heinz

2010-01-01

233

By reverse-engineering the modified amplitude-phase retrieval-based attack that has deciphered the phase-truncated double random phase encoding scheme, we proposed a new cryptosystem to encode a target image into a preselected fake image using a modified phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of phase-truncated double random phase encoding. With two private keys that are generated during the encryption, the decryption can be optically realized using a classical linear double random phase encoding method. The proposed cryptosystem has immunity against the recently proposed specific attack and the new attack based on a modified amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity and good performance of our proposed algorithm.

Wang, Xiaogang; Dai, Chaoqing; Chen, Junlang

2014-10-01

234

A Security Routing Algorithm of P2P Network Based on Multiple Encryption and Positive Detection

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Full Text Available Routing plays a fundamental role in the P2P network. Most attacks are aiming at P2P routing. We proposed a novel security routing algorithm to fight against those attacks. The algorithm adopt the means of multiple encryption and positive detection and periodically detect each node in routing path using encryption packet, which can accurately find malicious or instable nodes in routing path and exclude them from routing table. Simulation experiments also demonstrate the algorithm can effectively enhance the routing security and reliability of P2P network.

Lu Chuiwei

2013-03-01

235

This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption. PMID:22969355

Yau, Her-Terng; Hung, Tzu-Hsiang; Hsieh, Chia-Chun

2012-01-01

236

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption.

Tzu-Hsiang Hung

2012-06-01

237

Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT

Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accura...

Shengbing Che; Zuguo Che; Xu Shu

2010-01-01

238

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Disclosed is a method of transmitting a data set using encryption, wherein the method comprises the steps of: selecting a first encryption technique, wherein said first encryption technique comprises a first encryption algorithm for encrypting plain data into cipher data, and a first decryption algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the first encryption algorithm of said first encryption technique, creating a first encrypted data package comprising cipher data; obtaining a first decryption program; and transmitting said first decryption program and said first encrypted data package to a receiver, wherein the first decryption, upon provision of the specific key and the first encrypted data package, will decrypt the cipher data in the first encrypted data package and reproduce the plain data of the first data package.

Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde Technical University of Denmark,

239

In this paper, we propose a novel color image encryption method by using Color Blend (CB) and Chaos Permutation (CP) operations in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (RPMPFRFT) domain. The original color image is first exchanged and mixed randomly from the standard red-green-blue (RGB) color space to R?G?B? color space by rotating the color cube with a random angle matrix. Then RPMPFRFT is employed for changing the pixel values of color image, three components of the scrambled RGB color space are converted by RPMPFRFT with three different transform pairs, respectively. Comparing to the complex output transform, the RPMPFRFT transform ensures that the output is real which can save storage space of image and convenient for transmission in practical applications. To further enhance the security of the encryption system, the output of the former steps is scrambled by juxtaposition of sections of the image in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier domains and the alignment of sections is determined by two coupled chaotic logistic maps. The parameters in the Color Blend, Chaos Permutation and the RPMPFRFT transform are regarded as the key in the encryption algorithm. The proposed color image encryption can also be applied to encrypt three gray images by transforming the gray images into three RGB color components of a specially constructed color image. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible, secure, sensitive to keys and robust to noise attack and data loss.

Lang, Jun

2015-03-01

240

Performance Analysis of Most Common Encryption Algorithms on Different Web Browsers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,UMARAM, RC6 and UR5 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. We have proposed a Web programming language to be analyzed with five Web browsers in term of their performances to process the encryption of the programming language’s script with the Web browsers. This is followed by conducting tests simulation in order to obtain the best encryption algorithm versus Web browser. The results of the experimental analysis are presented in the form of graphs. We finally conclude on the findings that different algorithms perform differently to different Web browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Netscape Navigator. Hence, we now determine which algorithm works best and most compatible with which Web browser.A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as encryption/decryption speed in the different web Browsers. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

R. Umarani

2012-11-01

241

A Multilayered Secure, Robust and High Capacity Image Steganographic Algorithm

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Full Text Available It is observed that all of the current steganographic algorithms rely heavily on the conventional encryption systems which do not serve well in the context of image steganography. Advanced encryption standard (AES is one of the most powerful techniques of cryptography which can be used as an integral part of steganographic system for better confidentiality and security. In this paper we propose a reversible image steganographic embedding algorithm consisting of three parts. First, we use the self-synchronization variable codes, viz., T-codes for encoding/compressing the original text message. Next, the encoded binary string is encrypted using an improved AES method. The encrypted message is then embedded in the high frequency bands obtained from the cover image by applying the 1-level decomposition of Double Density Dual Tree Discrete Wavelet Transform (DD DT DWT. This algorithm provides three layer of security- one layer at each level of compression, encryption and embedding, respectively. Thus, there is no chance that the intruder may detect the original message after couple of attacks. The algorithm is compared with the corresponding algorithm based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and found to be better in terms of imperceptibility, robustness and embedding capacity.

S.K.Muttoo

2011-08-01

242

Robust Watermarking Framework with DCT Based Encryption

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Full Text Available Since several years,, the protection of multimedia data is becoming extremely important. The protection of the multimedia data might be performed with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To address the transmission time, information compression is required. If you take benefit from the character of cryptographic schemes and digital watermarking, the copyright of multimedia contents can possibly be well protected. Our objective will be to give access to the outcomes of one's image integrity and of their origin regardless of the fact that the reputation is stored encrypted. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly for the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption might be applied independently. With the source end original image and watermarked encrypted image is processed. This encrypted watermark image is finally decoded at the receiver end. This proposed work proposes a novel encryption algorithm to encrypt image. The entropy of this very watermarked image and correlation coefficient of extracted watermark image is amazingly not far away from ideal values, proving the correctness of proposed algorithm. In the proposed system, a Watermarking Scheme based on DWT with encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. Also experimental results show resiliency of a given scheme against large blurring attack like mean and Gaussian filtering, linear filtering Thus proving the security, effectiveness and robustness of a given proposed watermarking algorithm

L.Sri Lakshmi

2013-11-01

243

A NEW APPROACH FOR REDUCING CACHE TIMING ATTACK IN ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD USING DCF ALGORITHM

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Full Text Available Being accepted by many security related applications as the most secured cipher, The AES- Rijndael algorithm has a long successful existence in the field of global security. Despite of this, the AES is recently found to be broken theoretically. However, a few years back, Daniel Bernstein devised a cachetimingattack that was capable enough to break Rijndael’s seal that encapsulates the encryption key. Our paper proposes a new solution called Dynamic Cache Flushing (DCF algorithm, which provides better security by encrypting key at a constant time over cache timing attack.

SOWMYA SREE DANNINA, K.RAJENDRA PRASAD

2012-09-01

244

TJ-ACA: An Advanced Cryptographic Algorithm for Color Images using Ikeda Mapping

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available — Presently, cryptography of images is of high concern due to highly confidential information contained in it. Image encryption is difficult as compared to text encryption because of high correlation among pixels and bulk information capacity. A newly proposed algorithm based on symmetric key algorithm, TJ-ACA, an advanced cryptographic algorithm will make use of pixel position alteration, and pixel intensity surrogation through which a visually changed image i.e. encrypted image is obtained. In this algorithm, ikeda mapping and various methods are used to get highly secure image. To increase the security ikeda mapping is done at five different values instead of single value. This proposed algorithm is applicable for color images and also for images on which steganography has been applied and by this method we get lossless decrypted image. This method resists Brute Force attack.TJ-ACA can be applied to all sizes images which can be used in medical, aerial application.

Taranjit Kaur#1 , Reecha Sharma

2013-05-01

245

Image Retrieval Algorithm Based on Discrete Fractional Transforms

The discrete fractional transforms is a signal processing tool which suggests computational algorithms and solutions to various sophisticated applications. In this paper, a new technique to retrieve the encrypted and scrambled image based on discrete fractional transforms has been proposed. Two-dimensional image was encrypted using discrete fractional transforms with three fractional orders and two random phase masks placed in the two intermediate planes. The significant feature of discrete fractional transforms benefits from its extra degree of freedom that is provided by its fractional orders. Security strength was enhanced (1024!)4 times by scrambling the encrypted image. In decryption process, image retrieval is sensitive for both correct fractional order keys and scrambling algorithm. The proposed approach make the brute force attack infeasible. Mean square error and relative error are the recital parameters to verify validity of proposed method.

Jindal, Neeru; Singh, Kulbir

2013-06-01

246

Encrypted imaging based on algebraic implementation of double random phase encoding.

The security of important information captured by sensors and cameras is currently a growing concern as information theft via techniques such as side-channel attacks become increasingly more prevalent. Double random phase encoding (DRPE) is an optical encryption method based on optical Fourier transform that is currently being used to implement secure coherent optical systems. In this paper, we propose a new DRPE implementation for incoherent optical systems based on integral photography that can be applied to "encrypted imaging (EI)" to optically encrypt an image before it is captured by an image sensor. Because the proposed incoherent DRPE is constituted from conventional DRPE by rewriting the optical encryption via discretization and Euler's formula, its security level is the same as that of conventional DRPE. The results of an experiment in which we encrypted a plaintext image optically and then decrypted it numerically demonstrate that our proposed incoherent optical security system is feasible. PMID:24922013

Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

2014-05-10

247

NEW INNOVATION OF ARABIC LANGUAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE USING NEW SYMMETRIC KEY ALGORITHM

Security is the one of the biggest concern in different type of network communication as well as individual countries. Cryptography algorithms become much more important in data transmission through unsecured channel. One third of the world using Arabic language, unfortunately, there is no cryptography algorithm to encrypt/decrypt for the Arabic communication country. The main goal of this research is to introduce effective symmetric key algorithm on Arabic characters. In our rese...

Prakash Kuppuswamy; Yahya Alqahtani

2014-01-01

248

At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent light. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. However this applies new restrictions on encryption keys: Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of encryption key should overlap Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of image to be encrypted otherwise loss of information is unavoidable. Therefore it seems that best key should have white spectrum. On the other hand due to fact that only light intensity distribution is registered, spectra of image to be encrypted and encryption key always have peaks at zero frequency and their heights depend on corresponding total energy. Since encrypted image contains noise, ratio of its average spectrum energy to noise average energy determines signal to noise ratio of decrypted image. Therefore ratio of amplitude at zero frequency to average spectrum amplitude (RZA) of encryption key defines decrypted images quality. For generation of encryption keys with low RZA method of direct search with random trajectory (DSRT) was used. To estimate impact of key RZA on decrypted images error numerical experiments were conducted. For experiments keys with different RZA values but with same energy value were generated and used. Numerically simulated optical encryption and decryption of set of test images was conducted. Results of experiment demonstrate that application of keys with low RZA generated by DSRT method leads to up to 20% lower error in comparison to keys generated by means of uniform random distribution.

Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

2014-05-01

249

A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed based on the asymmetric technique, in which the encryption keys are not identical to the decryption ones. First, each plain image is scrambled based on a sequence of chaotic pairs generated with a system of two symmetrically coupled identical logistic maps. Then, the phase-only function of each scrambled image is retrieved with an iterative phase retrieval process in the fractional Fourier transform domain. Second, all phase-only functions are modulated into an interim, which is encrypted into the ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using the fractional Fourier transform and chaotic diffusion. In the encryption process, three random phase functions are used as encryption keys to retrieve the phase-only functions of plain images. Simultaneously, three decryption keys are generated in the encryption process, which make the proposed encryption scheme has high security against various attacks, such as chosen plaintext attack. The peak signal-to-noise is used to evaluate the quality of the decrypted image, which shows that the encryption capacity of the proposed scheme is enhanced considerably. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Meng, Haining

2014-11-01

250

Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging

In this paper, we demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) object encryption using diffractive imaging and digital holography. For this purpose, a microlens array has been fabricated using the thermal reflow method, and then its digital hologram is recorded. The hologram of the microlens is encoded based on multiple intensity samplings of the complex-amplitude wave front with axial translation of the image sensor in the fractional Fourier transform domain. Then, the function is Fresnel propagated for three different positions of the camera, and the corresponding diffraction patterns are recorded as cipher-texts. For decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to extract the hologram from corresponding encrypted images. The corresponding phase profile of the microlens array is then obtained. The simulation results demonstrate that the hologram is decrypted without any stagnation problem and with a rapid convergence rate. High security of the hologram has been achieved in the proposed digital holography-based diffractive imaging scheme. The correlation coefficient, a performance measurement parameter, has been calculated to check the effectiveness of the scheme. The proposed work has been validated through both experimental and simulation results.

Mehra, Isha; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, Amit K.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Nishchal, Naveen K.

2015-03-01

251

The hybrid hiding encryption algorithm, as its name implies, embraces concepts from both steganography and cryptography. In this exertion, an improved micro-architecture Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of this algorithm is presented. This design overcomes the observed limitations of a previously-designed micro-architecture. These observed limitations are: no exploitation of the possibility of parallel bit replacement, and the fact that the input plaintext was encrypted serially, which caused a dependency between the throughput and the nature of the used secret key. This dependency can be viewed by some as vulnerability in the security of the implemented micro-architecture. The proposed modified micro-architecture is constructed using five basic modules. These modules are; the message cache, the message alignment module, the key cache, the comparator, and at last the encryption module. In this work, we provide comprehensive simulation and implementation results. These are: the timing diagra...

Farouk, Hala A

2011-01-01

252

DIGITAL COLOR IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON INVERTIBLE MATRIX WITH SECRET SHARING

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Full Text Available This paper explores the new approach to implement image encryption in digital color images. The self invertible matrix created from the original image is used as keys for the RGB to YCbCr transform and the secret sharing operations. The encryption process carried out by the four steps: pixel permutation, creating RGB matrix, RGB to YCbCr transform and the secret sharing. The quality of the encrypted images are tested with visual inspection and evaluated with different quality measures. The performance of the proposed method is also evaluated by various testing methods.

W.R. Sam Emmanuel

2013-02-01

253

Image encryption based on the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform

In recent years, a number of methods have been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional information by using the fractional Fourier transform, but most of their encryptions are complex values and need digital hologram technique to record information, which is inconvenient for digital transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach for image encryption based on the real-valuedness and decorrelation property of the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transmission. In the proposed scheme, the original and encrypted images are respectively in the spatial domain and the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transformed domain determined by the encryption keys. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is reliable and more robust to blind decryption than several existing methods.

Lang, Jun

2012-05-01

254

Separable and error-free reversible data hiding in encrypted image with high payload.

This paper proposes a separable reversible data-hiding scheme in encrypted image which offers high payload and error-free data extraction. The cover image is partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks and multigranularity encryption is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The data hider preprocesses the encrypted image and randomly selects two basic pixels in each block to estimate the block smoothness and indicate peak points. Additional data are embedded into blocks in the sorted order of block smoothness by using local histogram shifting under the guidance of the peak points. At the receiver side, image decryption and data extraction are separable and can be free to choose. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed method is simpler in calculation while offering better performance: larger payload, better embedding quality, and error-free data extraction, as well as image recovery. PMID:24977214

Yin, Zhaoxia; Luo, Bin; Hong, Wien

2014-01-01

255

We propose an optical color image cryptosystem based on position multiplexing technique and phase truncation operation. Compared with the reported color image encryption method, we employ the position multiplexing technique to encrypt the color image in only one spatial channel. Meanwhile, our proposed method can maintain the nonlinear characteristic of the cryptosystem and avoid various types of the currently existing attacks, especially the iterative attack. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the security and robustness performance of the proposed method.

Ding, Xiangling; Chen, Guangyi

2014-04-01

256

Ensemble Of Blowfish With Chaos Based S Box Design For Text And Image Encryption

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Full Text Available The rapid and extensive usage of Internet in the present decade has put forth information security as an utmost concern. Most of the commercial transactions taking place over the Internet involves a wide variety of data including text, images, audio and video. With the increasing use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing Multimedia data, the fundamental issue of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the information poses a major challenge for security professionals and hassled to the major developments in Cryptography . In cryptography, an S-Box (Substitution-box is a basic componentof symmetric key algorithms, which performs substitution and is typically used to make the relationship between the key and the cipher text non linear and most of the symmetric key algorithms like DES, Blowfish makes use of S boxes. This paper proposes a new method for design of S boxes based on chaos theory. Chaotic equations are popularly known for its randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and ergodicity. The modified design has been tested with blowfish algorithm which has no effective crypt analysis reported against its design till date because of its salient design features including the key dependant s boxes and complex key generation process. However every new key requires pre-processing equivalent to encrypting about 4 kilobytes of text, which is very slow compared to other block ciphers and it prevents its usage in memory limited applications and embedded systems. The modified design of S boxesmaintains the non linearity [3] [5] and key dependency factors of S boxes with a major reduction in time complexity of generation of S boxes and P arrays. The algorithm has been implemented and the proposed design has been analyzed for size of key space, key sensitivity and Avalanche effect. Experimental results on text and Image Encryption show that the modified design of key generation continues to offer the same level of security as the original Blowfish cipher with a less computational overhead in key generation

Jeyamala Chandrasekaran

2011-08-01

257

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the transmission of data over internet is increasing; the protection issues of data are increasing as well. In order to protect the data and to secure it against intruders, there is a need of such systems which provide security to data. These techniques are known as cryptography or simply cipher. One of the ciphers is International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA. This cipher is symmetric in nature i.e. uses only one key both for encryption and decryption. IDEA uses 128-bit key to encrypt the 64-bit data using certain rounds of operation. In this case, eight and half rounds are used. To augment the protection of data in IDEA, some extra steps of operation will be introduces in the system. For increasing the steps of operation, a different cipher, RSA, is merged with IDEA

Vivek Shrivastava

2013-11-01

258

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES, as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high security in their systems may look for a key size bigger than 128-bit AES. In this paper, 128, 192 and 256-bit AES hardware are implemented and compared in terms of throughput and area. The target hardware used in this paper is Virtex XC5VLX50 FPGA from Xilinx. Total area and Throughput results are presented and graphically compared.

Samir El Adib

2012-06-01

259

Multiple-image encryption scheme based on cascaded fractional Fourier transform.

A multiple-image encryption scheme based on cascaded fractional Fourier transform is proposed. In the scheme, images are successively coded into the amplitude and phase of the input by cascading stages, which ends up with an encrypted image and a series of keys. The scheme takes full advantage of multikeys and the cascaded relationships of all stages, and it not only realizes image encryption but also achieves higher safety and more diverse applications. So multiuser authentication and hierarchical encryption are achieved. Numerical simulation verifies the feasibility of the method and demonstrates the security of the scheme and decryption characteristics. Finally, flexibility and variability of the scheme in application are discussed, and the simple photoelectric mixed devices to realize the scheme are proposed. PMID:23669669

Kong, Dezhao; Shen, Xueju; Xu, Qinzu; Xin, Wang; Guo, Haiqiong

2013-04-20

260

Fast ghost imaging and ghost encryption based on the discrete cosine transform

We introduce the discrete cosine transform as an advanced compression tool for images in computational ghost imaging. A novel approach to fast imaging and encryption, the discrete cosine transform, promotes the security level of ghost images and reduces the image retrieval time. To discuss the advantages of this technique we compare experimental outcomes with simulated ones.

Tanha, Mehrdad; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Kheradmand, Reza

2013-11-01

261

Image encryption with an improved cryptosystem based on a matrix approach

This paper carries out the image encryption with a revised and modified cryptosystem based on a rule-90 cellular automaton. For this purpose, we used an appropriate and convenient matrix approach to implement the main components of the encryption system, two indexed families of permutations and a pseudo-random bit generator. Furthermore, we modify the encryption scheme for improving its security. This makes our encryption proposal resist some common attacks, e.g. chosen plain-text attack, and the encryption and decryption processes are performed in a flexible way. Also, some security aspects of the cryptosystem are evaluated with a series of statistical tests exhibiting good results. It is believed that this proposal fits naturally in the present digital technology and is capable of achieving high levels of performance.

Ramírez-Torres, M. T.; Murguía, J. S.; Carlos, M. Mejía

2014-04-01

262

A Modified Location-Dependent Image Encryption for Mobile Information System

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Full Text Available The wide spread use of WLAN (Wireless LAN and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. In such scenario, a need for Secure Communication arises. Secure communication is possible through encryption of data. A lot of encryption techniques have evolved over time. However, most of the data encryption techniques are location-independent. Data encrypted with such techniques can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict the location of data decryption. GPS-based encryption (or geoencryption is an innovative technique that uses GPS-technology to encode location information into the encryption keys to provide location based security. In this paper a location-dependent approach is proposed for mobile information system. The mobile client transmits a target latitude/longitude coordinate and an LDEA key is obtained for data encryption to information server. The client can only decrypt the ciphertext when the coordinate acquired form GPS receiver matches with the target coordinate. For improved security, a random key (R-key is incorporated in addition to the LDEA key. The proposed method is applied for images.

Prasad Reddy.P.V.G.D

2010-05-01

263

We propose an optoelectronic image encryption and decryption technique based on coherent superposition principle and digital holography. With the help of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) that is generated by using logistic map, a real-valued primary image is encoded into a phase-only version and then recorded as an encoded hologram. As for multiple-image encryption, only one digital hologram is to be transmitted as the encrypted result by using the multiplexing technique changing the reference wave angle. The bifurcation parameters, the initial values for the logistic maps, the number of the removed elements and the reference wave parameters are kept and transmitted as private keys. Both the encryption and decryption processes can be implemented in opto-digital manner or fully digital manner. Simulation results are given for testing the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

2012-10-01

264

In the present paper a new cryptographic method called UES Version-III has been introduced. Nath et al recently developed few efficient encryption methods such as UES version-I, Modified UES-I, UES version-II, TTJSA, DJMNA Nath et. al showed that TTJSA and DJMNA is most suitable methods to encrypt password or any small message. The name of the present method is Ultra Encryption Standard Version-III. It is a Symmetric key Cryptosystem which includes multiple encryption, bit-wise randomization,...

Satyaki Roy; Navajit Maitra; Shalabh Agarwal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath,

2012-01-01

265

Cryptanalyzing an image encryption scheme based on hybrid chaotic system and cyclic elliptic curve

Recently, an image encryption scheme was proposed based on hybrid chaotic system and cyclic elliptic curve. This paper evaluates the security of the scheme and finds that known-plaintext attack can break it with only a pair of plain image/cipher image while chosen-plaintext attack cryptanalyzes it by choosing one plain image with all the zero-value pixels and corresponding cipher image. Meanwhile, experimental results are provided to support the found points. Moreover, some other defects and corresponding improvements are also given. Finally, a rough comparison between chaos theory and optical technique applied to image encryption is done in terms of robustness and statistical analysis. Both of them have own strengths and weaknesses, which motivates the cipher designers to combine their advantages together to construct new-type image encryption schemes.

Liu, Hong; Liu, Yanbing

2014-03-01

266

An image encryption scheme is proposed based on fractional Mellin transform and phase retrieval technique. Any image can be chosen as ciphertext, the selected annular domain of the specified image is first transformed by fractional Mellin transform. With the transformed result and original image, phase-key can be extracted by using phase retrieval technique in fractional Fourier domain. The proposed scheme can reduce the burden of transmission, enlarge key space, and can be extended to multiple-image encryption. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Zhou, Nanrun; Liu, Xingbin; Zhang, Ye; Yang, Yixian

2013-04-01

267

Analysis of S-box in Image Encryption Using Root Mean Square Error Method

The use of substitution boxes (S-boxes) in encryption applications has proven to be an effective nonlinear component in creating confusion and randomness. The S-box is evolving and many variants appear in literature, which include advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box, affine power affine (APA) S-box, Skipjack S-box, Gray S-box, Lui J S-box, residue prime number S-box, Xyi S-box, and S8 S-box. These S-boxes have algebraic and statistical properties which distinguish them from each other in terms of encryption strength. In some circumstances, the parameters from algebraic and statistical analysis yield results which do not provide clear evidence in distinguishing an S-box for an application to a particular set of data. In image encryption applications, the use of S-boxes needs special care because the visual analysis and perception of a viewer can sometimes identify artifacts embedded in the image. In addition to existing algebraic and statistical analysis already used for image encryption applications, we propose an application of root mean square error technique, which further elaborates the results and enables the analyst to vividly distinguish between the performances of various S-boxes. While the use of the root mean square error analysis in statistics has proven to be effective in determining the difference in original data and the processed data, its use in image encryption has shown promising results in estimating the strength of the encryption method. In this paper, we show the application of the root mean square error analysis to S-box image encryption. The parameters from this analysis are used in determining the strength of S-boxes

Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan

2012-07-01

268

An Algorithm to Generating Inverse S-box for Rijndael Encryption Standard

The S-box transformation is very important step for advanced encryption standard algorithm. The S-box values are generated from the multiplicative inverse of finite field with an affine transform. There are many techniques in literature to generate the multiplicative inverse values. In this paper, a software method of producing the multiplicative inverse values, which is the generator of S-box values will be discussed. The proposed technique is based on the mathematical concept of log and antilog.

Hussain, Iqtadar; Gondal, Muhammad Asif

2014-12-01

269

Authentication and Encryption in GSM and 3GUMTS: An Emphasis on Protocols and Algorithms

Mobile communication touches every aspect of our life, it become one of the major dependencies that the 21st Century civilizations rely on. Thereby, security is a major issue that should be targeted by communication technologies. In this paper we will target authentication and encryption in GSM and 3G/UMTS. In order to understand clearly how things work, we will start by presenting the architecture of each network, its major components, its authentication algorithms, protocols used, and KASUMI Block Cipher.

Elouafiq, Ali

2012-01-01

270

In this paper, we comment on the chaotic encryption algorithm proposed by A. N. Pisarchik et al. [Chaos 16, 033118 (2006)]. We demonstrate that the algorithm is not invertible. We suggest simple modifications that can remedy some of the problems we identified. PMID:19045506

Solak, Ercan; Cokal, Cahit

2008-09-01

271

A Selective Encryption for Heterogenous Color JPEG Images Based on VLC and AES Stream Cipher

Nowadays, the most important engine to provide confidentiality is encryption. Therefore, the classical and modern ciphers are not suitable for huge quantity of data in real-time environment. Selective encryption (SE) is an approach to encode only the most important portion of the data in order to provide a proportional privacy and to reduce computational requirements. The objective of our work is to leave free the low-resolution image and give full-resolution access only for authorized person...

Rodrigues, Jose?; Puech, William; Bors, Adrian

2006-01-01

272

A CONFIGURABLE SECURED IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE USING 3D ARRAY BLOCK ROTATION

Security of the information was the exclusive domain of the multimedia applications and transfer of the data over the insecure mode of communication. A few years after the necessity of information security was invented researchers became aware of encryption/decryption techniques development by various agencies.In this paper a new technique of enciphering data which enables good diffusion for obscuring the redundancies in a plaintext messages. Image encryption is achieved using 3D array block ...

Lokeshwari, G.; Udaya Kumar, Dr S.; Aparna, G.

2012-01-01

273

Lossless Image Compression and Selective Encryption Using a Discrete Radon Transform

In this paper we propose a new joint encryption and loss- less compression technique designed for large images 1 . The proposed technique takes advantage of the Mojette transform properties, and can easily be included in a distributed storage architecture. The basic crypto-compression scheme presented is based on a cascade of Radon projection which enables fast encryption of a large amount of digital data. Standard encryp- tion techniques, such as AES, DES, 3DES, or IDEA can be applied to enc...

Kingston, Andrew; Colosimo, Simone; Campisi, Patrizio; Autrusseau, Florent

2007-01-01

274

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper a new cryptographic method called UES Version-III has been introduced. Nath et al recently developed few efficient encryption methods such as UES version-I, Modified UES-I, UES version-II, TTJSA, DJMNA Nath et. al showed that TTJSA and DJMNA is most suitable methods to encrypt password or any small message. The name of the present method is Ultra Encryption Standard Version-III. It is a Symmetric key Cryptosystem which includes multiple encryption, bit-wise randomization, new advanced bit-wise encryption technique with feedback. In this paper, the authors have performed encryption entirely at the bit-level to achieve greater strength of encryption. In the result section the authors have shown the spectral analysis of encrypted text as well as plain text. The spectral analysis shows that UES-III is free from standard cryptography attack such as brute force attack, known plain text attack and differential attack

Satyaki Roy

2012-07-01

275

Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication

A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.

Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto

2012-07-01

276

Image encryption based on permutation-substitution using chaotic map and Latin Square Image Cipher

In this paper we presented a image encryption based on permutation-substitution using chaotic map and Latin square image cipher. The proposed method consists of permutation and substitution process. In permutation process, plain image is permuted according to chaotic sequence generated using chaotic map. In substitution process, based on secrete key of 256 bit generate a Latin Square Image Cipher (LSIC) and this LSIC is used as key image and perform XOR operation between permuted image and key image. The proposed method can applied to any plain image with unequal width and height as well and also resist statistical attack, differential attack. Experiments carried out for different images of different sizes. The proposed method possesses large key space to resist brute force attack.

Panduranga, H. T.; Naveen Kumar, S. K.; Kiran, HASH(0x22c8da0)

2014-06-01

277

Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then ...

Somdip Dey; Kalyan Mondal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath,

2012-01-01

278

Optical binary image encryption using aperture-key and dual wavelengths.

We described a method where the secret binary image that has been encoded into a single amplitude pattern in Fresnel domain can be recovered based on phase retrieval with an aperture-key and wavelength keys, and no holographic recording is needed in the encryption. The predesigned aperture-key not only realizes the intensity modulation of the encrypted image, but also helps to retrieve the secret image with high quality. All the necessary decryption keys can be kept in digital form that facilitates data transmission and loading in image retrieval process. Numerical simulation results are given for testing the validity and security of the proposed approach. PMID:25402048

Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

2014-11-17

279

A New Loss-Tolerant Image Encryption Scheme Based on Secret Sharing and Two Chaotic Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we propose an efficient loss-tolerant image encryption scheme that protects both confidentiality and loss-tolerance simultaneously in shadow images. In this scheme, we generate the key sequence based on two chaotic maps and then encrypt the image during the sharing phase based on Shamir’s method. Experimental results show a better performance of the proposed scheme for different images than other methods from human vision. Security analysis confirms a high probability to resist both brute-force and collusion attacks.

Li Li

2012-04-01

280

An Efficient Stream Cipher Algorithm for Data Encryption

Nowadays the data telecommunication security has been provided by most of well-known stream cipher algorithms which are already implemented in different secure protocols such as GSM, SSL, TLS, WEP, Bluetooth etc. These algorithms are A5/1, A5/2, E0 and RC4. On the other hand, these public algorithms already faced to serious security weakness such that they do not provide enough security of proportional plain data in front of cryptanalysis attacks. In this paper we proposed an efficient stream...

Majid Bakhtiari; Mohd Aizaini Maarof

2011-01-01

281

A new optical security system for image encryption based on optical interference principle and translation property of Fresnel transform (FrT) has been proposed in this article. The algorithm of this proposal is specially designed for single-beam optical decryption and can thoroughly resolve the silhouette problem existing in the previous interference-based scheme. Different from earlier schemes using interference of phase-only masks (POMs), the inverse FrT of primitive image is digitally decomposed into a random POM and a complex field distribution. Information associated with the primitive images can be completely smoothed away by the modulation of this random POM. Through the translation property of FrT, two linear phase-only terms are then used to modulate the obtained random POM and the complex distribution, respectively. Two complex ciphertexts are generated by performing digital inverse FrT again. One cannot recover any visible information of secret image using only one ciphertext. Moreover, to recover the primitive image correctly, the correct ciphertexts must be placed in the certain positions of input plane of decryption system, respectively. As additional keys, position center coordinates of ciphertexts can increase the security strength of this encryption system against brute force attacks greatly. Numerical simulations have been given to verify the performance and feasibility of this proposal. To further enhance the application value of this algorithm, an alternative approach based on Fourier transform has also been discussed briefly.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

2014-12-01

282

On the security of 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption scheme

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption algorithm, which significantly increases the resistance against statistical and differential attacks, has been proposed recently. It employs a 3D Cat map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and uses the Logistic map to diffuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Based on the factor that it is sufficient to break this cryptosystem only with the equivalent control parameters, some fundamental weaknesses of the cryptosystem are pointed out. With the knowledge of symbolic dynamics and some specially designed plain-images, we can calculate the equivalent initial condition of diffusion process and rebuild a valid equivalent 3D Cat matrix. In this Letter, we will propose a successful chosen-plain-text cryptanalytic attack, which is composed of two mutually independent procedures: the cryptanalysis of the diffusion process and the cryptanalysis of the spatial permutation process. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the lack of security discourages the use of these cryptosystems for practical applications.

Wang Kai [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Pei, W.-J. [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: wjpei@seu.edu.cn; Zou, Liuhua [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song Aiguo [Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); He Zhenya [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2005-08-22

283

Binary image encryption based on interference of two phase-only masks.

Optical image encryption based on interference has attracted a lot of attention recently. The technique employs two pure phase masks derived from the complex field of the image in the Fresnel diffraction domain. The image decryption procedure can be carried out by inverse Fresnel transformation of the summation of two pure phase masks. However, the silhouette of the original image, which is recovered by either of the two phase-only masks, impedes the application of this technique. In this paper, a very simple method for binary image encryption based on interference of two phase-only masks is proposed without any silhouette problem. The binary image in combination with a random phase mask is separated into two phase-only masks directly, and the decryption by summation of the two masks can be performed digitally or optically. In this paper, the encryption and decryption processes are analyzed, after which both the optical simulation and the experimental results based on single-beam holography are given to demonstrate the feasibility of the encryption method. As information nowadays is mainly digitized into binary codes, the proposed encryption method may find applications in the information processing field. PMID:22858969

Jia, Wei; Wen, Fung Jacky; Chow, Yuk Tak; Zhou, Changhe

2012-07-20

284

Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm upto 4 Round on Spartan 3

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized upto 4 round using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3 Modelsim. The paper deals with various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc. used in order to provide optimized results.

Nimmi Gupta

2012-02-01

285

An Adaptive Blind Watermarking Algorithm for Color Image

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Full Text Available This paper proposed a novel blind color digital watermarking algorithm based on Integer Discrete Wavelet Transform (IDWT and Human Visual System (HVS. Firstly, color watermark image was processed into one dimension digital information, and color host image was converted into YIQ color space. Then, according to the features of HVS, encrypted watermark was embedded adaptively into the Y luminance component of the YIQ color space in IDWT domain. The proposed algorithm allowed extracting watermark without the help of original watermark and host image. Experiment results show that the embedded watermark is invisible and robust against common image attacks.

Qiming Liu

2013-01-01

286

Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the robustness properties of 2D chaotic map image encryption schemes. We investigate the behavior of such block ciphers under different channel error types and find the transmission error robustness to be highly dependent on on the type of error occurring and to be very different as compared to the effects when using traditional block ciphers like AES. Additionally, chaotic-mixing-based encryption schemes are shown to be robust to lossy compression as long as the security requirements are not too high. This property facilitates the application of these ciphers in scenarios where lossy compression is applied to encrypted material, which is impossible in case traditional ciphers should be employed. If high security is required chaotic mixing loses its robustness to transmission errors and compression, still the lower computational demand may be an argument in favor of chaotic mixing as compared to traditional ciphers when visual data is to be encrypted.

Michael Gschwandtner

2007-11-01

287

Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the robustness properties of 2D chaotic map image encryption schemes. We investigate the behavior of such block ciphers under different channel error types and find the transmission error robustness to be highly dependent on on the type of error occurring and to be very different as compared to the effects when using traditional block ciphers like AES. Additionally, chaotic-mixing-based encryption schemes are shown to be robust to lossy compression as long as the security requirements are not too high. This property facilitates the application of these ciphers in scenarios where lossy compression is applied to encrypted material, which is impossible in case traditional ciphers should be employed. If high security is required chaotic mixing loses its robustness to transmission errors and compression, still the lower computational demand may be an argument in favor of chaotic mixing as compared to traditional ciphers when visual data is to be encrypted.

Gschwandtner Michael

2007-01-01

288

We present a hybrid configuration of joint transform correlator (JTC) and joint fractional transform correlator (JFTC) for encryption purpose. The original input is encoded in the joint fractional power spectrum distribution of JFTC. In our experimental arrangement, an additional random phase mask (master key) is holographically generated beforehand by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a JTC as the object arm. The fractional order of JFTC, together with the master key, can remarkably strengthen the safety level of encryption. Different from many previous digital-holography-based encryption schemes, the stability and alignment requirement for our system is not high, since the interferometric operation is only performed in the generation procedure of the master key. The advantages and feasibility of the proposed scheme have been verified by the experimental results. By combining with a multiplex technique, an application for multiple images encryption using the system is also given a detailed description.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

2013-04-01

289

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Storing, transmitting and security of DNA sequences are well known research challenge. The problem has got magnified with increasing discovery and availability of DNA sequences. We have represent DNA sequence compression algorithm based on Dynamic Look Up Table (DLUT and modified Huffman technique. DLUT consists of 43(64 bases that are 64 sub-stings, each sub-string is of 3 bases long. Each sub-string are individually coded by single ASCII code from 33(! to 96(` and vice versa. Encode depends on encryption key choose by user from four base pair {a,t.g and c}and decode also require decryption key provide by the encoded user. Decoding must require authenticate input for encode the data. The sub-strings are combined into a Dynamic Look up Table based pre-coding routine. This algorithm is tested on reverse; complement & reverse complement the DNA sequences and also test on artificial DNA sequences of equivalent length. Speed of encryption and security levels are two important measurements for evaluating any encryption system. Due to proliferate of ubiquitous computing system, where digital contents are accessible through resource constraint biological database security concern is very important issue. A lot of research has been made to find an encryption system which can be run effectively in those biological databases. Information security is the most challenging question to protect the data from unauthorized user. The proposed method may protect the data from hackers. It can provide the three tier security, in tier one is ASCII code, in tier two is nucleotide (a,t,g and c choice by user and tier three is change of label or change of node position in Huffman Tree. Compression of the genome sequences will help to increase the efficiency of their use. The greatest advantage of this algorithm is fast execution, small memory occupation and easy implementation. Since the program to implement the technique have been written originally in the C language, (Windows XP platform, and TC compiler it is possible to run in other microcomputers with small changes (depending on platform and Compiler used. The execution is quite fast, all the operations are carried out in fraction of seconds, depending on the required task and on the sequence length. The technique can approach an effective compression ratio of 1.98 bits/base and even lower. When a user searches for any sequence for an organism, an encrypted compressed sequence file can be sent from the data source to the user. The encrypted compressed file then can be decrypted & decompressed at the client end resulting in reduced transmission time over the Internet. An encrypt compression algorithm that provides a moderately high compression with encryption rate with minimal decryption with decompression time.

Syed Mahamud Hossein

2013-09-01

290

Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption

Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encrypted using chaos based logistic map. This provides an efficient and secure way for image encryption and transmission. The watermarked image is decrypted and a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of the primary as well as secondary watermark from the distorted image.

Dhanalakshmi, R

2010-01-01

291

Interference-based optical image encryption using three-dimensional phase retrieval.

In recent years, optical image encryption has attracted more and more attention in information security due to its unique advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-parameter characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new method using three-dimensional (3D) processing strategy for interference-based optical image encryption. The plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and any one sectional extraction cannot render information about the plaintext during image decryption. In addition, the silhouette problem in the conventional interference-based optical encryption method is effectively suppressed, and the proposed optical cryptosystem can achieve higher security compared with the previous work. A numerical experiment is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:22945153

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

2012-09-01

292

A double-image encryption is proposed based on the discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps. First, an enlarged image is composited from two original images and scrambled in the confusion process which consists of a number of rounds. In each round, the pixel positions of the enlarged image are relocated by using cat maps which are generated based on two logistic maps. Then the scrambled enlarged image is decomposed into two components. Second, one of two components is directly separated into two phase masks and the other component is used to derive the ciphertext image with stationary white noise distribution by using the cascaded discrete fractional random transforms generated based on the logistic map. The cryptosystem is asymmetric and has high resistance against to the potential attacks such as chosen plaintext attack, in which the initial values of logistic maps and the fractional orders are considered as the encryption keys while two decryption keys are produced in the encryption process and directly related to the original images. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed encryption scheme. PMID:24921762

Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli; Hei, Xinhong

2014-05-01

293

Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security. (general)

294

Performance Analysis of Most Common Encryption Algorithms on Different Web Browsers

The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN). Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,UMARAM, RC6 and UR5 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. We have proposed a Web programming language to be analyzed with five Web browsers in term of their performances to process the encryption of the programming language’s script with the Web browsers. This is followed by conducting tests s...

Umarani, R.; Ramesh, G.

2012-01-01

295

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES. Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is the application. High-speed designs are not always desired solutions. In some applications, such as mobile computing and wireless communications, smaller throughput is demanded. Architecture presented uses memory modules (i.e., Dual-Port RAMs of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs for storing all the results of the fixed operations (i.e., Look-Up Table, and Digital Clock Manager (DCM that we used effectively to optimize the execution time, reduce design area and facilitates implementation in FPGA. The architecture consumes only 326 slices plus 3 Block Random Access Memory (BRAMs. The throughput obtained was of 270 Mbits/s. The target hardware used in this paper is Spartan XC3S500E FPGA from Xilinx. Results are presented and compared with other reference implementations, as known from the technical literature. The presented architecture can be used in a wide range of embedded applications.

Samir El Adib

2012-06-01

296

A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes

297

Robust Encryption Algorithm Based Sht in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Full Text Available In bound applications, the locations of events reportable by a device network have to be compelled to stay anonymous. That is, unauthorized observers should be unable to notice the origin of such events by analyzing the network traffic. I analyze 2 forms of downsides: Communication overhead and machine load problem. During this paper, I gift a brand new framework for modeling, analyzing, and evaluating obscurity in device networks. The novelty of the proposed framework is twofold: initial, it introduces the notion of “interval indistinguishability” and provides a quantitative live to model obscurity in wireless device networks; second, it maps supply obscurity to the applied mathematics downside I showed that the present approaches for coming up with statistically anonymous systems introduce correlation in real intervals whereas faux area unit unrelated. I show however mapping supply obscurity to consecutive hypothesis testing with nuisance Parameters ends up in changing the matter of exposing non-public supply data into checking out associate d egree applicable knowledge transformation that removes or minimize the impact of the nuisance data victimization sturdy cryptography algorithmic rule. By doing therefore, I remodel the matter of analyzing real valued sample points to binary codes, that opens the door for committal to writing theory to be incorporated into the study of anonymous etworks. In existing work, unable to notice unauthorized observer in network traffic. However our work in the main supported enhances their supply obscurity against correlation check. the most goal of supply location privacy is to cover the existence of real events.

Uma.G

2014-06-01

298

We propose a novel interference-based method for multiple-image encryption by phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing. The information of multiple images can be encrypted into two POMs (i.e. ciphertexts) without any iterative process. For correct decryption, one should hold the ciphertexts as well as the private keys, which are also POMs obtained analytically. Moreover, the bothersome silhouette problem can also be thoroughly resolved during the generation procedure of these POMs. The retrieved images by this method are totally free from the cross-talk noise that puzzles previous interference-based multiple-image encryption methods. Numerical results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

Qin, Yi; Jiang, Hualong; Gong, Qiong

2014-11-01

299

IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES USING CHAOTIC SCHEMES: A REVIEW

Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary. It encompasses many problems like encryption, authentication, and key distribution to name a few. The field of modern cryptography providesa theoretical foundation based on which one can understand what exactly these problems are, how to evaluate protocols that purport to solve them and how to build protocols in whose security one can haveconfidence. Advanced digital technologies have made multimedia data widely available. R...

Monisha Sharma; Manoj Kumar Kowar

2010-01-01

300

Genetic Algorithm is an algorithm based on population and many optimization problems are solved with this method, successfully. With increasing demand for computer attacks, security, efficient and reliable Internet has increased. Cryptographic systems have studied the science of communication is hidden, and includes two case categories including encryption, password and analysis. In this paper, several code analyses based on genetic algorithms, tabu search and simulated annealing for a permut...

Mahdi Sadeghzadeh; Mahsa Taherbaghal

2014-01-01

301

Image transmission takes place as an important research branch in multimedia broadcasting communication systems in the last decade. Our paper presents image transmission over a FFT-OFDM (Fast Fourier Transform Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The need for encryption techniques increase with the appearance of the expression which said that our world became small village, and the use of image application such as conference and World Wide Web which increase rapidly in recent years. Encryption is an effective method for protecting the transmitted data by converting it into a form being invisible over transmission path and visible in receiver side. This paper presents a new hybrid encryption technique based on combination of Backer maps and logistic map. This proposed technique aims to increase PSNR and reduce the noise in the received image. The encryption is done by shuffling the positions of a pixel image using two dimensional Baker maps then encrypt using XOR operation with logistic map to generate cipher image over orthogonal frequency multiplexing (OFDM). The encryption approach adopted in this paper is based on chaotic Baker maps because the encoding and decoding steps in this approach are simple and fast enough for HDTV applications. The experimental results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic based image encryption technique using two logistic maps and two dimensional Backer map over normal Backer map.

Kasem, Hossam M.; Nasr, Mohamed E.; Sallam, Elsayed A.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

2011-10-01

302

Enhancing RSA algorithm using Mersenne Primes with reduced size of encrypted file

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Message passing from source to destination is one of the important aspects of communication. However, it is requiredmany times that this message gets transmitted secretly, so that no unauthorized person gets knowledge of the contents ofthat message. To retain the confidentiality of the message transmitted is a challenging task as it needs to be guaranteedthat the message arrive in the right hands exactly as it was transmitted. Another challenge is of transmitting the messageover a public, insecure channel. In this paper, RSA algorithm is implemented using Mersenne Primes which guaranteesthe primality. This is an enhanced algorithm which increases the strength of RSA by generating large prime numbers andalso reduces the size of encrypted file.

Shilpa Madhaorao Pund

2013-05-01

303

Medical Images Watermarking Algorithm Based on Improved DCT

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Full Text Available Targeting at the incessant securities problems of digital information management system in modern medical system, this paper presents the robust watermarking algorithm for medical images based on Arnold transformation and DCT. The algorithm first deploys the scrambling technology to encrypt the watermark information and then combines it with the visual feature vector of the image to generate a binary logic series through the hash function. The sequence as taken as keys and stored in the third party to obtain ownership of the original image. Having no need for artificial selection of a region of interest, no capacity constraint, no participation of the original medical image, such kind of watermark extracting solves security and speed problems in the watermark embedding and extracting. The simulation results also show that the algorithm is simple in operation and excellent in robustness and invisibility. In a word, it is more practical compared with other algorithms

Yv-fan SHANG

2013-12-01

304

Double-image encryption using discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps

A double-image encryption is proposed based on the discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps. Firstly, an enlarged image is composited from two original plaintexts, in which the pixel positions are relocated and the intensity values are changed by a chaotic confusion-diffusion process, and then two scrambled plaintexts are recovered from the enlarged image. Secondly, the two scrambled plaintexts are encoded into the phase and amplitude part of a complex function which is encrypted into a ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using the discrete fractional random transform generated based on logistic map. Not only the initial values of the logistic maps used in the cryptosystem but also the phase distribution produced in the encryption process can be used as private keys, which makes the proposed scheme has the characteristic of asymmetric encryption technique and high resistance against to the conventional attacks such as chosen plaintext attack, ciphertext-only attack. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Sui, Liansheng; Lu, Haiwei; Wang, Zhanmin; Sun, Qindong

2014-05-01

305

Data Concealing in Encrypted Images Using Reversible Data Hiding (RDH Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the new era of technology, more attention is needed to be given to hide some personal data or secret information, etc. This can be exactly brought out through Reversible Data [1] Hiding, since it maintains the splendid property that the original cover can be retrieved back after data is embedded. It can be extracted while protecting the image content confidentially. We suggest a new method by method of encryption after appropriating room with a conventional method. The proposed method can achieve real concealment, that is, data revealing and image recovery with some loss in data. If the receiver has the encryption key, he/she can decrypt the data to obtain an image similar to the original, but cannot extract the extra data. Experiments show that this method can embed more number of times as large number of data for the same image quality as the conventional methods, such as for PSNR & MSE.

Sujith T

2013-12-01

306

In this paper, a new method for optical image encryption based on three-beams interference principle and common vector composition is proposed. An original gray image is divided into three parts of amplitude information and three parts of phase information by a common vector composition. We can put the three parts of amplitude information together to form a color image which is regarded as a ciphertext. And the keys of the encryption system are the three phase information. In the decryption process, three beams of coherent light illuminate at the three parts of the ciphertext, pass through the corresponding phase only masks respectively, and finally the decrypted gray image would be obtained at the output plane after Fourier transform and three-beams interference. Computer simulations are presented to verify the possibility of the proposed method.

Chen, Linfei; Liu, Jingyu; Wen, Jisen; Mao, Haidan; Ge, Fan; Zhao, Daomu

2015-03-01

307

A new optical interference-based multiple-image encryption using spherical wave illumination and gyrator transform is proposed. In this proposal, each secret color image is divided into normalized red, green, and blue component images and independently encoded into corresponding phase-only component images. Then each phase-only component image of all the images are combined together to produce a single-phase-only component image as an input component image, which is bounded with a random phase mask to form a complex image. The two phase-only masks are analytically obtained from the inverse Fourier transformation of the complex image. The host image is chosen as the first phase-only mask, and the complex image hidden in the host image is regarded as the second phase-only mask. The spherical wave is generated to simultaneously illuminate phase-only masks. Then two modulated masks are gyrator transformed. The corresponding transformed images are phase truncated to obtain encrypted images and amplitude truncated to construct decryption keys. The decryption keys, angles of gyrator transform, wavelength and radius of the spherical wave, and individual decryption keys for authorized users are sensitive keys, which enhance the security layers of the system. The proposed system can be implemented by using optoelectronic architecture. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the flexibility of the system. PMID:25322374

Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

2014-10-10

308

A Chaos-based Image Encryption Scheme using Chaotic Coupled Map Lattices

In recent years, information security essential in various arenas like internet communication, multimedia systems, medical imaging, tele-medicine and military communication. However, most of them faced with some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this letter, after reviewing the main points of the chaotic trigonometric maps and the coupled map lattices, we introduce the scheme of chaos-based image encryption based on coupled map lat tices. The scheme de...

Ahadpour, Sodeif; Sadra, Yaser

2012-01-01

309

Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption

Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encryp...

Dhanalakshmi, R.; K. Thaiyalnayaki,

2010-01-01

310

Image encryption using Game of Life permutation and PWLCM chaotic system

This paper proposes a new chaotic symmetric cryptographic system. At first, we use the proposed method, Game of Life permutation which is the initial pattern generated by logistic map, to confuse the plain image. Secondly, we use piecewise linear chaotic map (PWLCM) to diffuse the image, which we just process the higher half pixel to improve the speed. It will not affect the encryption results at the same time, which is because the higher 4 bits (8th, 7th, 6th and 5th) carry almost all information of the image. Experiment results and security analysis not only show that the scheme can achieve good encryption result, but also that the key space is large enough to resist against common attack.

Wang, Xingyuan; Jin, Canqi

2012-02-01

311

Hide and Encryption Fingerprint Image by using LSB and Transposition Pixel by Spiral Method?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The communication provides many methods to distribute information to the people, especially after the growth of multiple applications. Consequently, the security of information has become a fundamental issue. There are two techniques for protect the data: Steganography and cryptography, the combination of these two methods will enhance the security of the data embedded. This paper is about encryption and decryption of fingerprint image using transposition pixel by spiral method that designed to increase security and to improve performance. The process begins when encrypted the fingerprint image by using transposition method and then embed inside an image using LSB method. A comparative analysis is made to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by computing MSE and PSNR by using MATLAB.

Hyder Yahya Atown?

2014-12-01

312

Fast encryption of RGB color digital images using a tweakable cellular automaton based schema

We propose a new tweakable construction of block-enciphers using second-order reversible cellular automata, and we apply it to encipher RGB-colored images. The proposed construction permits a parallel encryption of the image content by extending the standard definition of a block cipher to take into account a supplementary parameter used as a tweak (nonce) to control the behavior of the cipher from one region of the image to the other, and hence avoid the necessity to use slow sequential encryption's operating modes. The proposed construction defines a flexible pseudorandom permutation that can be used with efficacy to solve the electronic code book problem without the need to a specific sequential mode. Obtained results from various experiments show that the proposed schema achieves high security and execution performances, and enables an interesting mode of selective area decryption due to the parallel character of the approach.

Faraoun, Kamel Mohamed

2014-12-01

313

An RSA Encryption Hardware Algorithm using a Single DSP Block and a Single Block RAM on the FPGA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is to present an efficient hardware algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption based on Montgomery multiplication. Modern FPGAs have a number of embedded DSP blocks (DSP48E1 and embedded memory blocks (BRAM. Our hardware algorithm supporting 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption is designed to be implemented using one DSP48E1, one BRAM and few logic blocks (slices in the Xilinx Virtex-6 family FPGA. The implementation results showed that our RSA module for 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption runs in 277.26ms. Quite surprisingly, the multiplier in DSP48E1 used to compute Montgomery multiplication works in more than 97% clock cycles over all clock cycles. Hence, our implementation is close to optimal in the sense that it has only less than 3% overhead in multiplication and no further improvement is possible as long as Montgomery multiplication based algorithm is used. Also, since our circuit uses only one DSP48E1 block and one Block RAM, we can implement a number of RSA modules in an FPGA that can work in parallel to attain high throughput RSA encryption/decryption.

Koji Nakano

2011-07-01

314

Modified Prime Number Factorization Algorithm (MPFA For RSA Public Key Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Public key encryption security such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm based on positive integer N, which is the product of two prime numbers, the factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a factorization method is proposed, which is used to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The present work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers as per Fermat method and requires fewer steps for factorization process of RSA modulus N. By experimental results it has been shown that factorization speed becomes increasing as compare to traditional Trial Division method, Fermat Factorization method, Brent’s Factorization method and Pollard Rho Factorization method.

Kuldeep Singh

2012-09-01

315

A Secure Dual Encryption Scheme Combined With Steganography

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a new encoding scheme is proposed which combines encryption and steganography there by ensuring secure data exchange..Encryption hides the confidential information for the purpose of security, by converting the data in to an unintelligible form and steganography hides the data in medias like image, video, audio etc so that the detection of hidden secret is prevented. In the proposed system, the data is dual encrypted and the resultant cipher is then embedded within an image using LSB steganographic technique to ensure secrecy and privacy. The encryption algorithms used is much secure as each step in the process is fully dependent on the key. The LSB steganographic technique hides the data in least significant bits of the pixels of the image and therefore the reflected change in the stego image is hardly noticeable to human eye. The key management for the system is done using RSA encryption technique.

A Aswathy Nair

2014-07-01

316

A Secure Symmetric Image Encryption Based on Bit-wise Operation

This paper shows a symmetric image encryption based on bit-wise operation (XORing and Shifting). The basic idea is block ciphering (size of each block is 4 bytes) technique to cipher the secret bytes, after that ciphered bytes are again shuffled among N positions (N is the size of secret file). The scheme is combination of substitution as well as transposition techniques which provides additional protection of the secret data. The substitution and transposition are done using dynamic substitu...

Prabir Kr Naskar; Atal Chaudhuri

2014-01-01

317

Synchronization of spatiotemporal semiconductor lasers and its application in color image encryption

Optical chaos is a topic of current research characterized by high-dimensional nonlinearity which is attributed to the delay-induced dynamics, high bandwidth and easy modular implementation of optical feedback. In light of these facts, which adds enough confusion and diffusion properties for secure communications, we explore the synchronization phenomena in spatiotemporal semiconductor laser systems. The novel system is used in a two-phase colored image encryption process. T...

Banerjee, S.; Rondoni, L.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Misra, A. P.

2011-01-01

318

Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accurately. It could recover tampered block with good image quality when tamper occured within the limits of the anti-tamper radius. It could effectively resist vector quantization and synchronous counterfeiting attacks on self-embedding watermarking schemes.

Shengbing Che

2010-06-01

319

A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.

John Justin M

2012-03-01

320

A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...

John Justin M; Manimurugan S

2012-01-01

321

Robust Watermarking of Compressed and Encrypted JPEG 2000 Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present a secure patient medical images and authentication scheme which enhances the security, confidentiality and integrity of medical images transmitted through the Internet. The medical images are secured using the digital image watermarking scheme. If any attacker try to access the secret medical images, that connection is immediately rejected. The proposed approach is used to provide the robustness against the wide variety of attacks and the visible quality of the reconstructed secret image is too clear as the original image

Dr.P.Eswaran#1 , M.Veni

2013-06-01

322

Image Steganography Using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Blowfish Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is one of the methods of secret communication that hides the existence of message so that a viewer cannot detect the transmission of message and hence cannot try to decrypt it. It is the process of embedding secret data in the cover image without significant changes to the cover image. A cryptography algorithm is used to convert the secret messages to an unreadable form before embedding. These algorithms keep the messages from stealing, destroying from unintended users on the internet and hence provide security. Cryptography was introduced for making data secure. But alone cryptography cannot provide a better security approach because the scrambled message is still available to the eavesdropper. There arises a need of data hiding. So the propose technique use a combination of steganography and cryptography for improving the security. The proposed technique use Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Blowfish algorithm. The proposed method calculates LSB of each DC coefficient and replace with each bit of secret message. The proposed embedding method using DCT with LSB obtained better PSNR values. Blowfish algorithm is used for encryption and decryption of text message using a secret-key block cipher. This technique makes sure that the message has been encrypted before hiding it into a cover image. Blowfish is an improvement over DES, 3DES, etc designed to increase security and to improve performance.

Monika Gunjal

2014-05-01

323

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedded system design is becoming complex day by day, combined with reduced time-to-market deadlines. Due to the constraints and complexity in the design of embedded systems, it incorporates hardware / software co-design methodology. An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software parts integrated together on a common platform. A soft-core processor which is a hardware description language (HDL model of a specific processor (CPU can be customized for any application and can be synthesized for FPGA target. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the development environment for embedded systems using LEON 3 and NIOS II Processor, both soft core processors. LEON3 is an open source processor and NIOS II is a commercial processor. Case study under consideration is Rijindael’s Encryption Algorithm (AES. It is a standard encryption algorithm used to encrypt huge bulk of data and for security. Using the co-design methodology the algorithm is implemented on two different platforms. One using the open source and other using the commercial processor and the comparative results of the two different platforms is stated in terms of its performance parameters. The algorithm is partitioned in hardware and software parts and integrated on a common platform.

Meghana Hasamnis

2012-06-01

324

Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-15

325

VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some function which can recognize and correct the error in the received data. Hamming code is one of such forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper the algorithm for hamming code is discussed and then implementation of it in verilog is done to get the results. Hamming code is an upgrading over parity check method. Here a code is implemented in verilog in which 4-bit of information data is transmitted with 3-redundancy bits. In order to do that the proposed method uses a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. It is known that FPGA provides quick implementation and fast hardware verification. It gives facilities of reconfiguring the design construct unlimited number of times. The HDL code is written in verilog, Gate Level Circuit and Layout is implemented in CMOS technology.

Fazal Noorbasha

2014-04-01

326

An enhanced smoothness evaluation for reversible data hiding in encrypted images

Recently, Zhang proposed a reversible data hiding scheme for encrypted image with a low computational complexity which is made up of image encryption, data embedding and data-extraction/image-recovery phases. During the last phase, the embedded data are extracted according to a determined smoothness measuring function on each nonoverlapping block. However, not all pixels in a block are considered in his approach. This may cause higher error rate when extracting embedded data. In this paper, we propose a novel smoothness evaluating scheme to overcome the problem. Based on the Zhang's approach, we divide the pixels in each block into three different portions: four corners, four edges, and the rest of pixels. The smoothness of a whole block is determined by summing the smoothness of three portions and is utilized to extract embedded data and recovery image. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the error rate of data-extraction/image-recovery effectively. For a given normal testing image, such as Lena, supposing that the size of each block is 8 by 8, the error rate of our approach is less than 0.6% and Zhang's method is higher than 12%. Moreover, the error rate will be zero when the size of each block is defined as 12 by 12.

Hong, Wien; Chen, Tung-Shou; Wu, Han-Yan; Chang, Hsun-Li

2012-04-01

327

A fast color image encryption scheme based on one-time S-Box is proposed. Three S-Boxes are generated by a complex chaotic system, whose initial values and parameter are dependent on both the random noise and the plain image. Each S-box randomly takes turns to encrypt one of the color components in each pixel adhering to the switching sequence, which is also generated by the complex chaotic system. Some measures are taken to improve the encryption and decryption speed. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme, so it is suitable for color image encryption.

Liu, Hongjun; Kadir, Abdurahman; Gong, Pijuan

2015-03-01

328

Image encryption based on interference that uses fractional Fourier domain asymmetric keys.

We propose an image encryption technique based on the interference principle and phase-truncation approach in the fractional Fourier domain. The proposed scheme offers multiple levels of security with asymmetric keys and is free from the silhouette problem. Multiple input images bonded with random phase masks are independently fractional Fourier transformed. Amplitude truncation of obtained spectrum helps generate individual and universal keys while phase truncation generates two phase-only masks analytically. For decryption, these two phase-only masks optically interfere, and this results in the phase-truncated function in the output. After using the correct random phase mask, universal key, individual key, and fractional orders, the original image is retrieved successfully. Computer simulation results with four gray-scale images validate the proposed method. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed method, we calculated the mean square error between the original and the decrypted images. In this scheme, the encryption process and decryption keys formation are complicated and should be realized digitally. For decryption, an optoelectronic scheme has been suggested. PMID:22505061

Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K

2012-04-01

329

Simultaneous Color Image Compression and Encryption using Number Theory

The dependence on computing machines and utility of information has been growing tremendously in the last few decades. As a result, evolving effective techniques for storing and transmitting the ever increasing volumes of data has become a high priority issue. Image compression addresses the problem by reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the compression process is the removal of redundant data. Selection of a suitable of a suitable compre...

Navaneethakrishnan Navaneethakrishnan

2012-01-01

330

A Modified Location-Dependent Image Encryption for Mobile Information System

The wide spread use of WLAN (Wireless LAN) and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. In such scenario, a need for Secure Communication arises. Secure communication is possible through encryption of data. A lot of encryption techniques have evolved over time. However, most of the data encryption techniques are location-independent. Data encrypted with such techniques can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict...

Prasad Reddy.P.V.G.D; Sudha, K. R.; Sanyasi Naidu, P.

2010-01-01

331

A new Watermarking Technique for Medical Image using Hierarchical Encryption

In recent years, characterized by the innovation of technology and the digital revolution, the field of media has become important. The transfer and exchange of multimedia data and duplication have become major concerns of researchers. Consequently, protecting copyrights and ensuring service safety is needed. Cryptography has a specific role, is to protect secret files against unauthorized access. In this paper, a hierarchical cryptosystem algorithm based on Logistic Map cha...

Abdmouleh, Med Karim; Khalfallah, Ali; Bouhlel, Med Salim

2014-01-01

332

A fast chaos-based image encryption scheme with a dynamic state variables selection mechanism

In recent years, a variety of chaos-based image cryptosystems have been investigated to meet the increasing demand for real-time secure image transmission. Most of them are based on permutation-diffusion architecture, in which permutation and diffusion are two independent procedures with fixed control parameters. This property results in two flaws. (1) At least two chaotic state variables are required for encrypting one plain pixel, in permutation and diffusion stages respectively. Chaotic state variables produced with high computation complexity are not sufficiently used. (2) The key stream solely depends on the secret key, and hence the cryptosystem is vulnerable against known/chosen-plaintext attacks. In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption scheme with a dynamic state variables selection mechanism is proposed to enhance the security and promote the efficiency of chaos-based image cryptosystems. Experimental simulations and extensive cryptanalysis have been carried out and the results prove the superior security and high efficiency of the scheme.

Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Li-bo

2015-03-01

333

In recent years, a number of methods have been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional information by use of the fractional Fourier transform, but most of their encryptions are complex value and need digital hologram technique to record their encrypted information, which is inconvenience for digital transmission. In this paper, we first propose a novel reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform which share real-valuedness outputs as well as most of the properties required for a fractional transform. Then we propose a new approach for image encryption based on the real-valuedness of the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform and the decorrelation property of chaotic maps in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transmission. In the proposed scheme, the image is encrypted by juxtaposition of sections of the image in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier domains and the alignment of sections is determined by chaotic logistic maps. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is reliable and more robust to blind decryption than several existing methods.

Lang, Jun

2012-07-01

334

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper adopts a novel approach for ensuring security of data with error detection capability. RAS Transform is a nonlinear recursive Transform. This simple but very effective RAS transform is Permutation Invariant and used to code the digital data at two levels, so that the data is encrypted and also there is multilevel error detection mechanism based on the properties of the RAS Transform. The first type is data independent and the later is data dependent. In data dependant encryption, the partially encrypted data is subjected to RAS Transformation at two levels namely, byte level and block level before transmission. The outcome is 128 bits of encrypted data together with Encryption Key. A code book of only 20 valid code words is generated to represent 256 possible octets of 8-bit data words. From each of the code words, the data word can be uniquely recovered using the data dependent symmetric encryption key. The result of this coding on a sample text data of about 189 characters size is presented.

A.V. Narasimha Rao

2008-10-01

335

Ghost imaging has attracted more and more current attention due to its marked physical characteristics, and many physical applications, such as sensing and optical security, have been explored. In this letter, we propose ghost imaging using labyrinth-like phase modulation patterns for optical encryption. Since only one phase-only mask should be pre-set and the labyrinth patterns occupy only few spaces, high-efficiency storage or transmission of system keys can be implemented. In addition, each labyrinth pattern (i.e., phase modulation pattern) possesses high randomness and flexibility, hence high security can be guaranteed for the proposed optical encryption.

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

2015-01-01

336

Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, enc...

Shah, Jolly; Saxena, Dr Vikas

2011-01-01

337

In this paper, a new multiple-image encryption and decryption technique that utilizes the compressive sensing (CS) concept along with a double-random phase encryption (DRPE) has been proposed. The space multiplexing method is employed for integrating multiple-image data. The method, which results in a nonlinear encryption system, is able to overcome the vulnerability of classical DRPE. The CS technique and space multiplexing are able to provide additional key space in the proposed method. A numerical experiment of the proposed method is implemented and the results show that the proposed method has good accuracy and is more robust than classical DRPE. The proposed system is also employed against chosen-plaintext attacks and it is found that the inclusion of compressive sensing enhances robustness against the attacks. PMID:25090076

Deepan, B; Quan, C; Wang, Y; Tay, C J

2014-07-10

338

Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptana...

Poonam Garg

2010-01-01

339

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robust and secure transmission strategy for high quality image through wireless networks is considered a great challenge. However, the majority of encrypted image transmission schemes don't consider well the effect of bit errors occurring during transmission. These errors are due to the factors that affect the information such as noise and multipath propagation. That should be handled by an efficient channel coding scheme. Our proposed scheme is based on combining hybrid chaotic encryption, which is based on two-dimensional chaotic maps which is utilized for data security, with an error correction technique based on the Low Density Parity Check (LDPC code. The LDPC is employed as channel coding for data communication in order to solve the problem of the channel’s limited bandwidth and improve throughput. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves a high degree of robustness against channel impairments and wide varieties of attacks as wells as improved reliability of the wireless channel. In addition, LDPC is utilized for error correction in order to solve the limitations of wireless channels.

Mona F. M. Mursi

2014-11-01

340

Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, spe...

Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena

2011-01-01

341

We introduce a double optimization procedure for spectrally multiplexing multiple images. This technique is adapted from a recently proposed optical setup implementing the discrete cosine transformation (DCT). The new analysis technique is a combination of spectral fusion based on the properties of DCT, specific spectral filtering, and quantization of the remaining encoded frequencies using an optimal number of bits. Spectrally multiplexing multiple images defines a first level of encryption. A second level of encryption based on a real key image is used to reinforce encryption. A set of numerical simulations and a comparison with the well known JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard have been carried out to demonstrate the improved performances of this method. The focus here will differ from the method of simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images (SFCE) [Opt. Express 19, 24023 (2011)] in the following ways. Firstly, we shall be concerned with optimizing the compression rate by adapting the size of the spectral block to each target image and decreasing the number of bits required to encode each block. This size adaptation is achieved by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) time-frequency criterion. We found that this size adaptation provides a good tradeoff between bandwidth of spectral plane and number of reconstructed output images. Secondly, the encryption rate is improved by using a real biometric key and randomly changing the rotation angle of each block before spectral fusion. By using a real-valued key image we have been able to increase the compression rate of 50% over the original SFCE method. We provide numerical examples of the effects for size, rotation, and shifting of DCT-blocks which play noteworthy roles in the optimization of the bandwidth of the spectral plane. Inspection of the results for different types of attack demonstrates the robustness of our procedure. PMID:23571893

Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Abdallah, N; Jridi, M

2013-04-01

342

Selective object encryption for privacy protection

This paper introduces a new recursive sequence called the truncated P-Fibonacci sequence, its corresponding binary code called the truncated Fibonacci p-code and a new bit-plane decomposition method using the truncated Fibonacci pcode. In addition, a new lossless image encryption algorithm is presented that can encrypt a selected object using this new decomposition method for privacy protection. The user has the flexibility (1) to define the object to be protected as an object in an image or in a specific part of the image, a selected region of an image, or an entire image, (2) to utilize any new or existing method for edge detection or segmentation to extract the selected object from an image or a specific part/region of the image, (3) to select any new or existing method for the shuffling process. The algorithm can be used in many different areas such as wireless networking, mobile phone services and applications in homeland security and medical imaging. Simulation results and analysis verify that the algorithm shows good performance in object/image encryption and can withstand plaintext attacks.

Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Cherukuri, Ravindranath; Agaian, Sos

2009-05-01

343

Triple-DES block of 96 Bits: An application to colour image encryption

According to international standards, FIPS PUB 146-3, the cryptographic system Triple-Data Encryption Standard (Triple DES) encrypts blocks of 64 bits. However, it isn’t difficult to extend the block to 96-bit encryption, which is called Triple-DES-96. This change includes a modification to Triple-DES cryptosystems that appeared recently as the Advanced Encryption Standard - AES - FIPS PUB 197. Including encryption, file M (with m bits) is achieved in less time than Triple-DES. Developing T...

Renteria-marquez, C.; Flores-carapia, R.; Silva-garcia, V. M.

2013-01-01

344

We present a novel method for double image encryption that is based on amplitude-phase mixed encoding and multistage random phase encoding in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In the amplitude-phase mixed encoding operation, a random binary distribution matrix is defined to mixed encode two primitive images to a single complex-valued image, which is then encrypted into a stationary white noise distribution by the multistage phase encoding with GTs. Compared with the earlier methods that uses fully phase encoding, the proposed method reduces the difference between two primitive images in key space and sensitivity to the GT orders. The primitive images can be recovered exactly by applying correct keys with initial conditions of chaotic system, the GT orders and the pixel scrambling operation. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed scheme has considerably high security level and certain robustness against data loss and noise disturbance.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang

2013-06-01

345

A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method. PMID:24085074

Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

2013-09-01

346

Optical color image hiding scheme by using Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm in fractional Fourier domain

We proposed an optical color image hiding algorithm based on Gerchberg-Saxton retrieval algorithm in fractional Fourier domain. The RGB components of the color image are converted into a scrambled image by using 3D Arnold transform before the hiding operation simultaneously and these changed images are regarded as the amplitude of fractional Fourier spectrum. Subsequently the unknown phase functions in fractional Fourier domain are calculated by the retrieval algorithm, in which the host RBG components are the part of amplitude of the input functions. The 3D Arnold transform is performed with different parameters to enhance the security of the hiding and extracting algorithm. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and capability of the proposed color hiding encryption algorithm.

Chen, Hang; Du, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhengjun; Yang, Chengwei

2015-03-01

347

A Secure Image Based Steganographic Model Using RSA Algorithm and LSB Insertion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the term used to describe the hiding of data in images to avoid detection by attackers. It is an emerging area which is used for secured data transmission over any public media. In this study a novel approach of image steganography based on LSB (Least Significant Bit insertion and RSA encryption technique for the lossless jpeg images has been proposed. This paper discusses an application which ranks images in a users library based on their suitability as cover objects for some data. The data is matched to an image; so there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover the data. The application first encrypts the data using RSA algorithm. The message bits are embedded into the image using Least Significant Bits insertion. Before embedding, the message bits are encrypted using RSA algorithm, resulting in increased robustness. This would decrease the intentional attacks which try to reveal the hidden message. At the receiver side reverse operation has been carried out to get back the original information

Swati Tiwari R. P. Mahajan

2012-02-01

348

STEGANOGRAPHY FOR TWO AND THREE LSBs USING EXTENDED SUBSTITUTION ALGORITHM

The Security of data on internet has become a prior thing. Though any message is encrypted using a stronger cryptography algorithm, it cannot avoid the suspicion of intruder. This paper proposes an approach in such way that, data is encrypted using Extended Substitution Algorithm and then this cipher text is concealed at two or three LSB positions of the carrier image. This algorithm covers almost all type of symbols and alphabets. The encrypted text is concealed variably into the LSBs. There...

Gutte, R. S.; Chincholkar, Y. D.; Lahane, P. U.

2013-01-01

349

Image Fusion using Evolutionary Algorithm (GA)

Image fusion is the process of combining images taken from different sources to obtain better situational awareness. In fusing source images the objective is to combine the most relevant information from source images into composite image. Genetic algorithm is used for solving optimization problems. Genetic algorithm can be employed to image fusion where some kind of parameter optimization is required.In this paper we proposed genetic algorithm based schemes for image fusion and proved that t...

Jyothi, V.; Rajesh Kumar, B.; Krishna Rao, P.; Rama Koti Reddy, D. V.

2011-01-01

350

Recently, a stream encryption scheme using d-bit segment sequences has been proposed. This scheme may generate key avalanche effect. The randomness tests of d-bit segment pseudorandom number generator will be important for implementing such a scheme. Firstly this paper extends Beker and Piper's binary pseudorandom sequence statistical test suite to d-bit segment sequences case. Secondly, a novel 3-dimensional polynomial discrete chaotic map (3DPDCM) is proposed. The calculated Lyapunov exponents of the 3DPCDM are 0.213, 0.125 and - 3.228. Using the 3DPDCM constructs a 6-dimensional generalized synchronization chaotic system. Based on this system, a 8-bit segment chaotic pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG) is introduced. Using the generalized test suite tests 100 key streams generated via the 8-bit PRNG with different initial conditions and perturbed system parameters. The tested results are similar to those of the key streams generated via RC4 PRNG. As an application, using the key streams generated via the CPRNG and the RC4 PRNG encrypts an RGB image Landscape. The results have shown that the encrypted RGB images have significant avalanche effects. This research suggests that the requirements for PRNGs are not as strict as those under the traditional avalanche criteria. Suitable designed chaos-based d-bit string PRNGs may be qualified candidates for the stream encryption scheme with avalanche effect.

Hao, Longjie; Min, Lequan

2014-06-01

351

Recently, a double-image encryption scheme using local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform has been proposed [Opt Lasers Eng 2013; 51: 1327-31]. Through our simulations, there is serious cross-talk disturbance in the phase-based image when the encrypted data undergoes noise perturbation or occlusion attack. The disturbance will cause serious deterioration in the retrieved phase-based image and bring about visibility ambiguities to the receiver, and hence downgrades the practicability of the cryptosystem. In this paper, detailed analysis of the cross-talk disturbance in the original scheme will be firstly given out, and then the corresponding improvement is subsequently proposed. Numerical simulations results indicate that the improved scheme well address the cross-talk disturbance and further enhance the security of the original cryptosystem.

Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-bo; Yu, Hai

2015-03-01

352

Advanced Reversible Data Hiding With Encrypted Data

The advanced RDH work focuses on both data encryption and image encryption which makes it more secure and free of errors. All previous methods embed data without encrypting the data which may subject to errors on the data extraction or image recovery. The proposed work provides a novel RDH scheme in which both data and image can be encrypted and extracted reversibly without any errors. In the proposed work, data extraction and image recovery are free of any errors. The PSNR ...

Shilpa Sreekumar; Vincy Salam

2014-01-01

353

Elimination of artifacts in encrypted binary images by modified digital halftoning techniques

An anti-counterfeiting feature, latent image, has been widely applied for banknotes and security documents. The hidden pattern of denomination by intaglio printing process can be observed by viewing the bill at certain angles of elevation. While designing the latent image, a continuous-tone cover image and a binary figurative pattern are used. The continuous tone image is halftoned by horizontal and vertical line screen, respectively. The binary figurative pattern then serves as a mask to render the corresponding area of horizontal and vertical line screen on the figurative region and background region, respectively. These procedures can be done by many available commercial softwares. However, there are various artifacts such as gaps in the junctions of horizontal and vertical screen lines, discontinuous screen lines and the white or black artifacts on the edges of the latent image. The retouching of the resulting latent image needs to be carefully and skillfully handled. In this research, we developed an automatic process to generate the artifact-free latent image inside a cover image by modified digital halftoning techniques. The methods we applied include: (1) To design new 8x8 threshold matrices in order to make a perfect joint of the horizontal and vertical screen lines. (2) To use the linear scaling adjustment to enhance the cover image not resulting discontinuous line. (3) To register the 8x8-based figurative pattern to the 8x8 threshold matrix and to avoid the visual artifacts. For latent image detection, a frequency domain treatment by FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) and inverse-FFT is used to extract the encrypted image. This is especially useful for machine-readable applications. The results show that the developed process in this research does have the ability to automatically generate the desired latent image without any artifact. It also saves the costly retouching in the existing process. A frequency domain detection method is applied to extract latent images. The proposed techniques in this research also have great potential to proceed security printing in a digital way.

Wang, Hsi-Chun; Sung, Juo-Han; Chen, Yung-Hui

2004-06-01

354

Testing a Variety of Encryption Technologies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Review and test speeds of various encryption technologies using Entrust Software. Multiple encryption algorithms are included in the product. Algorithms tested were IDEA, CAST, DES, and RC2. Test consisted of taking a 7.7 MB Word document file which included complex graphics and timing encryption, decryption and signing. Encryption is discussed in the GIAC Kickstart section: Information Security: The Big Picture--Part VI.

Henson, T J

2001-04-09

355

A Novel Steganographic Scheme Based on Hash Function Coupled With AES Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present scenario the use of images increased extremely in the cyber world so that we can easily transfer data with the help of these images in a secured way. Image steganography becomes important in this manner. Steganography and cryptography are the two techniques that are often confused with each other. The input and output of steganogra phy looks alike, but for cryptography the output will be in an encrypted form which always draws attraction to the attacker. This paper combines both steganography and cryptography so that attacker doesn’t know about the existence of message and the message itself is encrypted to ensure more security. The textual data entered by the user is encrypted using AES algorithm. After encryption, the encrypted data is stored in the colour image by using a hash based algorithm. Most of the steganographic algorithms available today is suitable for a specific image format and these algorithms suffers from poor quality of the embedded image. The proposed work does not corrupt the images quality in any form. The striking feature is that this algorithm is suitable for almost all image formats e.g.: jpeg/jpg, Bitmap, TIFF and GIF

Rinu Tresa M J

2014-04-01

356

Opto-digital spectrum encryption by using Baker mapping and gyrator transform

A concept of spectrum information hidden technology is proposed in this paper. We present an optical encryption algorithm for hiding both the spatial and spectrum information by using the Baker mapping in gyrator transform domains. The Baker mapping is introduced for scrambling the every single band of the hyperspectral image before adding the random phase functions. Subsequently, three thin cylinder lenses are controlled by PC for implementing the gyrator transform. The amplitude and phase information in the output plane can be regarded as the encrypted information and main key. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and capability of the proposed encryption algorithm.

Chen, Hang; Zhao, Jiguang; Liu, Zhengjun; Du, Xiaoping

2015-03-01

357

Image Compression Using Harmony Search Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression techniques are important and useful in data storage and image transmission through the Internet. These techniques eliminate redundant information in an image which minimizes the physical space requirement of the image. Numerous types of image compression algorithms have been developed but the resulting image is still less than the optimal. The Harmony search algorithm (HSA, a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the music improvisation process of musicians, was applied as the underlying algorithm for image compression. Experiment results show that it is feasible to use the harmony search algorithm as an algorithm for image compression. The HSA-based image compression technique was able to compress colored and grayscale images with minimal visual information loss.

Ryan Rey M. Daga

2012-09-01

358

Simple Encryption/Decryption Application

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an Encryption/Decryption application that is able to work with any type of file; for example: image files, data files, documentation filesÃ¢â‚¬Â¦etc. The method of encryption is simple enough yet powerful enough to fit the needs of students and staff in a small institution. The application uses simple key generation method of random number generation and combination. The final encryption is a binary one performed through rotation of bits and XOR operation applied on each block of data in any file using a symmetric decimal key. The key generation and Encryption are all done by the system itself after clicking the encryption button with transparency to the user. The same encryption key is also used to decrypt the encrypted binary file.

Majdi Al-qdah

2007-06-01

359

Algorithms for Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the 1980s, there have been many research activities devoted to quantitatively characterizing and imaging human tissues based on sound speed, attenuation coefficient, density, nonlinear B/A parameter, etc., but those efforts have not yet reached the stage of commercialization. However, a new imaging technology termed elastography, which was proposed in the early 1980s, has recently been implemented in commercial clinical ultrasound scanners, and is now being used to diagnose prostates, breasts, thyroids, livers, blood vessels, etc., more quantitatively as a complementary adjunct modality to the conventional B-mode imaging. The purpose of this article is to introduce and review various elastographic algorithms for use in quasistatic or static compression type elasticity imaging modes. Most of the algorithms are based on the cross correlation or autocorrelation function methods, and the fundamental difference is that the time shift is estimated by changing the lag variable in the former, while it is directly obtained from the phase shift at a fixed lag in the latter.

360

Algorithms for Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the 1980s, there have been many research activities devoted to quantitatively characterizing and imaging human tissues based on sound speed, attenuation coefficient, density, nonlinear B/A parameter, etc., but those efforts have not yet reached the stage of commercialization. However, a new imaging technology termed elastography, which was proposed in the early 1980s, has recently been implemented in commercial clinical ultrasound scanners, and is now being used to diagnose prostates, breasts, thyroids, livers, blood vessels, etc., more quantitatively as a complementary adjunct modality to the conventional B-mode imaging. The purpose of this article is to introduce and review various elastographic algorithms for use in quasistatic or static compression type elasticity imaging modes. Most of the algorithms are based on the cross correlation or autocorrelation function methods, and the fundamental difference is that the time shift is estimated by changing the lag variable in the former, while it is directly obtained from the phase shift at a fixed lag in the latter.

Kwon, Sung Jae [Department of Communication Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

361

Biometric Encryption: enrollment and verification procedures

Biometric EncryptionTM is an algorithm which has been developed to securely link and retrieve a digital key using the interaction of a biometric image, such as a fingerprint, with a secure block of data, known as a BioscryptTM. The key can be used, for example, as an encryption/decryption key. The Bioscrypt comprises a stored filter function, produced by a correlation-based image processing algorithm, as well as other information which is required to first retrieve, and then verify the validity of, the key. The process of securely linking a key with a biometric is known as enrollment, while the process of retrieving this key is known as verification. This paper presents details of the enrollment and verification procedures.

Soutar, Colin; Roberge, Danny; Stoianov, Alex; Gilroy, Rene; Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula

1998-03-01

362

A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is always very important in data origin authentications, entity authentication, data integrity and confidentiality. In recent years, a variety of chaotic cryptographic schemes have been proposed. These schemes has typical structure which performed the permutation and the diffusion stages, alternatively. The random number generators are intransitive in cryptographic schemes and be used in the diffusion functions of the image encryption for diffused pixels of plain image. In this paper, we propose a chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by a novel logistic pseudorandom image algorithm. To evaluate the security of the cipher image of this scheme, the key space analysis, the correlation of two adjacent pixels and differential attack were performed. This scheme tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space and level of security.

Sodeif Ahadpour

2012-01-01

363

Investigating Encrypted Material

When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.

McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe

364

A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too.

Yu, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, J [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Ren, H E [Information and Computer Engineering College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150000 (China); Li, S [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, X D [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China)

2006-10-15

365

A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too

366

Quantum states cannot be cloned. I show how to extend this property to classical messages encoded using quantum states, a task I call "uncloneable encryption." An uncloneable encryption scheme has the property that an eavesdropper Eve not only cannot read the encrypted message, but she cannot copy it down for later decoding. She could steal it, but then the receiver Bob would not receive the message, and would thus be alerted that something was amiss. I prove that any authentication scheme for quantum states acts as a secure uncloneable encryption scheme. Uncloneable encryption is also closely related to quantum key distribution (QKD), demonstrating a close connection between cryptographic tasks for quantum states and for classical messages. Thus, studying uncloneable encryption and quantum authentication allows for some modest improvements in QKD protocols. While the main results apply to a one-time key with unconditional security, I also show uncloneable encryption remains secure with a pseudorandom key. In...

Gottesman, D

2002-01-01

367

Image Compression Based on Improved FFT Algorithm

Image compression is a crucial step in image processing area. Image Fourier transforms is the classical algorithm which can convert image from spatial domain to frequency domain. Because of its good concentrative property with transform energy, Fourier transform has been widely applied in image coding, image segmentation, image reconstruction. This paper adopts Radix-4 Fast Fourier transform (Radix-4 FFT) to realize the limit distortion for image coding, and to discuss the feasibility and the...

Juanli Hu; Jiabin Deng; Juebo Wu

2011-01-01

368

A Novel Architecture for an efficient data encryption system

The standard techniques for providing privacy and security in data networks include encryption/decryption algorithms such as Advanced Encryption System (AES) (private-key) and RSA (public-key). RSA is one of the safest standard algorithms, based on public-key, for providing security in networks. Even though the RSA Algorithm is an old and simple encryption technique, there is a scope to improve its performance. One of the most time consuming processes in RSA encryption/ decryption algorithm i...

Bhaskar R, Ramakrishna A.

2013-01-01

369

Image Classification Algorithm Based on Sparse Coding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the sparse coding and local features of images are combined to propose a new image classification algorithm. Firstly, online dictionary learning algorithm is employed to train the visual vocabulary based on SIFT features. Secondly, SIFT features are extracted from images and these features are encoded into sparse vector through visual vocabulary. Thirdly, the images are evenly divided into I*I areas and the sparse vectors in each area are pooled, getting a fixed dimension feature vector which represents the whole image. Lastly, to achieve the purpose of image classification, we use support vector machine classifier for learning and recognition. Results from the Caltech-101 and Scene-15 data sets show that, compared with the existing algorithm, the proposed algorithm has a better performance, which can effectively represent the feature of images and improve the accuracy of image classification greatly

Liping Wang

2014-01-01

370

Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurredness are the types of noise that occur during transmission and capturing. For denoising the image there are some algorithms which denoise the image.

Aarti

2014-05-01

371

STEGANOGRAPHY FOR TWO AND THREE LSBs USING EXTENDED SUBSTITUTION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Security of data on internet has become a prior thing. Though any message is encrypted using a stronger cryptography algorithm, it cannot avoid the suspicion of intruder. This paper proposes an approach in such way that, data is encrypted using Extended Substitution Algorithm and then this cipher text is concealed at two or three LSB positions of the carrier image. This algorithm covers almost all type of symbols and alphabets. The encrypted text is concealed variably into the LSBs. Therefore, it is a stronger approach. The visible characteristics of the carrier image before and after concealment remained almost the same. The algorithm has been implemented using Matlab.

R.S. Gutte

2013-03-01

372

Algorithms for boundary detection in radiographic images

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Edge detecting techniques applied to radiographic digital images are discussed. Some algorithms have been implemented and the results are displayed to enhance boundary or hide details. An algorithm applied in a pre processed image with contrast enhanced is proposed and the results are discussed

373

A CHALLENGE IN HIDING ENCRYPTED MESSAGE IN LSB AND LSB+1 BIT POSITIONS IN VARIOUS Cover Files

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work basically shows us how one can hide information in encrypted form to any cover file such as .exe files, Microsoft office files, .dbf files, image files, audio files and video files. However, the size of the hidden message must be very small in comparison to cover file which is an executable file. So far no one has tried to hide information inside any executable file. To make the system fully secured we first encrypt the secret message using MSA algorithm (Nath et al.(1 and then we hide the encrypted message inside the cover file. introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have changed both LSB and LSB+1 bits of each byte of the cover file. A generalized method was proposed by Nath etal(2 where they embed the secret message without going for any encryption.. The MSA(1 algorithm introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. The MSA (1 method also incorporates the multiple encryption and decryption process. To initiate the MSA algorithm the user has to enter a text_key, which can be of 16 characters long. This text_key is used to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and the MSA algorithm ensures that any of the pattern may be used for encryption as well as decryption process. To hide encrypted secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 4 consecutive bytes of the cover file such that only LSB and LSB+1 bits are changed depending on the bit pattern of the encrypted secret message. To make system further secured one has to enter a password before the actual steganography process starts. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any non-standard cover file such as executable file, compiler, MS-Office files, Data Base files such as .DBF, text editor such as notepad plus the standard cover files such as image, audio, video files etc. The size of the secret message be very small in comparison to the executable cover file. The present method may be implemented in mobile network, Bank data transactions in government sectors, in police department.

Joyshree Nath

2011-05-01

374

Wavelet Based Image Compression Algorithms – A Study

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression is a process which helps us to minimize the utilization of storage space by compressing the image effectively which in turn it increases the data transmission rate. Image compression can be divided into lossy and lossless compression. Wavelet transform provide extensive improvement in picture quality at privileged compression ratio. EZW algorithm is based on liberal encoding to wrapping an image into a bit stream with accumulative precision. SPIHT is a very proficient image compression algorithm that is depends on the idea of coding groups of wavelet coefficients as zero trees. EBCOT algorithm exhibits state-of-the-art compression presentation while manufacturing a bit-stream with a rich superiority set. In this paper, we are going to make a study on merits and demerits of various compression algorithms such as Wavelet based compression algorithms EZW, SPIHT, EBCOT.

T.Karthikeyan

2014-03-01

375

Implementing of microscopic images mosaic revising algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microscopic image mosaic stitches several adjacent images into an integrated seamless picture, and is of significant practical value to remote medicine applications, especially in remote diagnosis. However, due to limitation in image acquisition method, a mismatch could occur as a result of variance in adjacent image stitching data and accumulation of errors. The current image stitching method still has room for improvement regarding processing speed and effectiveness, particularly in precision. In this paper, we proposed a new image mosaic revising algorithms based on the relativity of adjacent images and expounding the principal and equations on image mosaic error revising, as well as achieving automatic intelligent calculation with the revised algorithm. Through experiment, inaccurate pathological mosaic images from 20 groups were revised rapidly and accurately with error controlled within one pixel. It was proved that the approach is effective in revising the error matching in microscopic images mosaic. Moreover, it is easy to operate and effective for more accurate image stitching.

Haishun Wang

2011-04-01

376

Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing

This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse) noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurrednes...

Aarti .; Gaurav Pushkarna

2014-01-01

377

High-flexibility optical encryption via aperture movement.

We present a new method using single-path beam-propagation-based imaging via aperture movement for optical encryption. The aperture is sequentially moved in the transverse domain, and a series of diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) are correspondingly recorded during optical encryption. An iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied for the decryption. It is illustrated that the proposed optical security system possesses several significant advantages, such as high flexibility and high security. The proposed optical security system also provides an effective channel to control information assignment and authentication. PMID:24150312

Chen, Wen; Situ, Guohai; Chen, Xudong

2013-10-21

378

Enhancing Progressive Encryption for Scalable Video Streams

The technique called progressive encryption is used in many areas of content security. However, the plain algorithm itself is only applicable in real transmission scenarios where no packet loss occurs, otherwise additional error correction techniques need to be used in order to achieve maximum decodeability of network packets. The cipher-stepping method (CSM) described in this article adds error correction to progressive encryption in the case where stream ciphers are used to encrypt stream data. It is also explained how the CSM method along with progressive encryption can be used in the encryption of scalable video streams.

Gergely, Viktor; Fehér, Gábor

379

Public Key Encryption Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks In tinyOS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available generally, when people consider wireless devices they think of items such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, or laptops. These items are costly, target specialized applications, and rely on the pre-deployment of extensive infrastructure support. In contrast, wireless sensor networks use small, low-cost embedded devices for a wide range of applications and do not rely on any pre-existing infrastructure. The emerging field of wireless sensor networks (WSN combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device called sensor nodes or motes. Through advanced mesh networking protocols, these devices form a sea of connectivity that extends the reach of cyberspace out into the physical world. here some algorithms are implemented and result is analyzed on different platforms like PC MICA,Mica 2, Mica2dot and analyze which algorithm is best for which platform.

Chandni Vaghasia,

2013-03-01

380

Implementation of Image Morphing Algorithm

Morphing" describes the combination of image warping with a cross-dissolve between images. This term is basically derived from "image metamorphosis". It is an image processing technique which is used as an tool of animation for the metamorphosis from one image to another. The idea is to specify a warp that distorts the first image into the second and its inverse will distort the second image into the first. The first image is gradually distorted and is faded out, while the second image starts...

Nitika Dahiya, Kanika Khanna

2013-01-01

381

An automated retinal image quality grading algorithm.

This paper introduces an algorithm for the automated assessment of retinal fundus image quality grade. Retinal image quality grading assesses whether the quality of the image is sufficient to allow diagnostic procedures to be applied. Automated quality analysis is an important preprocessing step in algorithmic diagnosis, as it is necessary to ensure that images are sufficiently clear to allow pathologies to be visible. The algorithm is based on standard recommendations for quality analysis by human screeners, examining the clarity of retinal vessels within the macula region. An evaluation against a reference standard data-set is given; it is shown that the algorithm's performance correlates closely with that of clinicians manually grading image quality. PMID:22255696

Hunter, Andrew; Lowell, James A; Habib, Maged; Ryder, Bob; Basu, Ansu; Steel, David

2011-01-01

382

IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS FOR DUAL MODE IMAGING SYSTEMS

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level of detail discernable in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes where information barriers are mandatory. However, if a balance can be struck between sufficient information barriers and feature extraction to verify or identify objects of interest, imaging may significantly advance verification efforts. This paper describes the development of combined active (conventional) radiography and passive (auto) radiography techniques for imaging sensitive items assuming that comparison images cannot be furnished. Three image analysis algorithms are presented, each of which reduces full image information to non-sensitive feature information and ultimately is intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying features present in the image. These algorithms are evaluated on both their technical performance in image analysis and their application with or without an explicitly constructed information barrier. The first algorithm reduces images to non-invertible pixel intensity histograms, retaining only summary information about the image that can be used in template comparisons. This one-way transform is sufficient to discriminate between different image structures (in terms of area and density) without revealing unnecessary specificity. The second algorithm estimates the attenuation cross-section of objects of known shape based on transition characteristics around the edge of the object's image. Th around the edge of the object's image. The third algorithm compares the radiography image with the passive image to discriminate dense, radioactive material from point sources or inactive dense material. By comparing two images and reporting only a single statistic from the combination thereof, this algorithm can operate entirely behind an information barrier stage. Together with knowledge of the radiography system, the use of these algorithms in combination can be used to improve verification capability to inspection regimes and improve and substantially increase the likelihood of detecting material diversion.

383

Private predictive analysis on encrypted medical data.

Increasingly, confidential medical records are being stored in data centers hosted by hospitals or large companies. As sophisticated algorithms for predictive analysis on medical data continue to be developed, it is likely that, in the future, more and more computation will be done on private patient data. While encryption provides a tool for assuring the privacy of medical information, it limits the functionality for operating on such data. Conventional encryption methods used today provide only very restricted possibilities or none at all to operate on encrypted data without decrypting it first. Homomorphic encryption provides a tool for handling such computations on encrypted data, without decrypting the data, and without even needing the decryption key. In this paper, we discuss possible application scenarios for homomorphic encryption in order to ensure privacy of sensitive medical data. We describe how to privately conduct predictive analysis tasks on encrypted data using homomorphic encryption. As a proof of concept, we present a working implementation of a prediction service running in the cloud (hosted on Microsoft's Windows Azure), which takes as input private encrypted health data, and returns the probability for suffering cardiovascular disease in encrypted form. Since the cloud service uses homomorphic encryption, it makes this prediction while handling only encrypted data, learning nothing about the submitted confidential medical data. PMID:24835616

Bos, Joppe W; Lauter, Kristin; Naehrig, Michael

2014-08-01

384

A Novel Pavement Distress Image Filtering Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combined the Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT with compressed sensing de-noising theory, this study proposed a compressed sensing image filtering algorithm in the NSCT transform domain. This algorithm adopted the transform domain filtering method. Firstly, the NSCT was used to do multi-scale and multi-directional transform on the input noisy pavement distress Image which was mapped to the transform domain. Then the compressed sensing theory was used to filter the high-frequency sub-band coefficients. The experiment results show that this algorithm improves the effectiveness and timeliness of the pavement distress image filtering.

Feng Xin

2013-01-01

385

On the security of a new image encryption scheme based on chaotic map lattices.

This paper reports a detailed cryptanalysis of a recently proposed encryption scheme based on the logistic map [A. Pisarchik et al., Chaos 16, 033118 (2006)]. Some problems are emphasized concerning the key space definition and the implementation of the cryptosystem using floating-point operations. It is also shown how it is possible to reduce considerably the key space through a ciphertext-only attack. Moreover, a timing attack allows for the estimation of part of the key due to the existent relationship between this part of the key and the encryption/decryption time. As a result, the main features of the cryptosystem do not satisfy the demands of secure communications. Some hints are offered to improve the cryptosystem under study according to those requirements. PMID:19045450

Arroyo, David; Rhouma, Rhouma; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Li, Shujun; Fernandez, Veronica

2008-09-01

386

Implementation of Image Morphing Algorithm

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Full Text Available Morphing" describes the combination of image warping with a cross-dissolve between images. This term is basically derived from "image metamorphosis". It is an image processing technique which is used as an tool of animation for the metamorphosis from one image to another. The idea is to specify a warp that distorts the first image into the second and its inverse will distort the second image into the first. The first image is gradually distorted and is faded out, while the second image starts out totally distorted toward the first and is faded in. Thus, the early images in the sequence are much like the first source image. The middle image of the sequence is the average of the first source image distorted halfway toward the second one and the destinationimage distorted halfway back toward the first one. The middle image is key if it looks good then probably the entire animated sequence will look good. For morph between faces, the middle image often looks strikingly life-like, like a real person, but clearly it is neither the person in the first nor second image. The morph process consists of warping two images so that they have the same "shape", and then cross dissolving the resulting images.

Nitika Dahiya#1 , Kanika Khanna

2013-06-01

387

a New Color Image Encryption Based on High-Dimensional Chaotic Systems

The high-dimensional chaotic systems (HDCS) have a lot of advantages as more multifarious mechanism, greater the key space, more ruleless for the time series of the system variable than with the low-dimensional chaotic systems (LDCS), etc. Thus, a novel encryption scheme using Lorenz system is suggested. Moreover, we use substitution-diffusion architecture to advance the security of the scheme. The theoretical and experimental results show that the suggested cryptosystem has higher security.

Li, Pi; Wang, Xing-Yuan; Fu, Hong-Jing; Xu, Da-Hai; Wang, Xiu-Kun

2014-12-01

388

Advanced Reversible Data Hiding With Encrypted Data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advanced RDH work focuses on both data encryption and image encryption which makes it more secure and free of errors. All previous methods embed data without encrypting the data which may subject to errors on the data extraction or image recovery. The proposed work provides a novel RDH scheme in which both data and image can be encrypted and extracted reversibly without any errors. In the proposed work, data extraction and image recovery are free of any errors. The PSNR is significantly improved in the proposed work. This advanced work also performs data hiding in videos.

Shilpa Sreekumar

2014-07-01

389

An Improved Algorithm For Image Compression Using Geometric Image Approximation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract- Our dependence on digital media continues to grow and therefore finding competent ways of storing and conveying these large amounts of data has become a major concern. The technique of image compression has then become very essential and highly applicable. In this paper, the performance of an efficient image coding method based on Geometric Wavelets that divides the desired image using a recursive procedure for image coding is explored. The objective of the work is to optimize the performance of geometric wavelet based image coding scheme and to suggest a method to reduce the time complexity of the algorithm. We have used the polar coordinate form of the straight line in the BSP scheme for partitioning the image domain. A novel pruning algorithm is tried to optimize the rate distortion curve and achieve the desired bit rate. The algorithm is also implemented with the concept of no tiling and its effect in PSNR and computation time is explored. The enhanced results show a gain of 2.24 dB over the EZW algorithm and 1.4 dB over the SPIHT algorithm at the bit-rate 0.0625 bpp for the Lena test image. Image tiling is found to reduce considerably the computational complexity and in turn the time complexity of the algorithm without affecting its coding efficiency. The algorithm offers remarkable results in terms of PSNR compared to existing techniques.

V. J. Rehna

2014-06-01

390

A Novel Pavement Distress Image Filtering Algorithm

Combined the Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) with compressed sensing de-noising theory, this study proposed a compressed sensing image filtering algorithm in the NSCT transform domain. This algorithm adopted the transform domain filtering method. Firstly, the NSCT was used to do multi-scale and multi-directional transform on the input noisy pavement distress Image which was mapped to the transform domain. Then the compressed sensing theory was used to filter the high-frequency...

Feng Xin; Dang Jian-Wu; Shen Yu; Wang Yang-Ping

2013-01-01

391

Fast image restoration algorithm of differential confocal microscopy imaging

Super resolution image restoration algorithm proposed in this paper uses the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to take image restoration processing of 2D steps image scanned by differential confocal imaging system, assuming that the image is based on Poisson distribution. For optical imaging system, this paper puts forward the more accurate point spread function (PSF) and the concept of image interval matching, and introduces automatic acceleration method and the iteration terminating standard. Experiments on the 2-D image of standard steps indicated that a lateral resolution of 0.1?m has achieved and the recovery time has been obviously shorten.

Wang, Guanyi; Liu, Dali; Qiu, Lirong

2013-12-01

392

Color Image Clustering using Block Truncation Algorithm

With the advancement in image capturing device, the image data been generated at high volume. If images are analyzed properly, they can reveal useful information to the human users. Content based image retrieval address the problem of retrieving images relevant to the user needs from image databases on the basis of low-level visual features that can be derived from the images. Grouping images into meaningful categories to reveal useful information is a challenging and important problem. Clustering is a data mining technique to group a set of unsupervised data based on the conceptual clustering principal: maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. Proposed framework focuses on color as feature. Color Moment and Block Truncation Coding (BTC) are used to extract features for image dataset. Experimental study using K-Means clustering algorithm is conducted to group the image dataset into various clusters.

Silakari, Sanjay; Maheshwari, Manish

2009-01-01

393

Stego-audio Using Genetic Algorithm Approach

With the rapid development of digital multimedia applications, the secure data transmission becomes the main issue in data communication system. So the multimedia data hiding techniques have been developed to ensure the secured data transfer. Steganography is an art of hiding a secret message within an image/audio/video file in such a way that the secret message cannot be perceived by hacker/intruder. In this study, we use RSA encryption algorithm to encrypt the message and Genetic Algorithm ...

Santhi, V.; Logeswari Govindaraju

2014-01-01

394

Encryption dynamics and avalanche parameter for "delayed dynamics"-based cryptosystems

The presented article attempts to characterize the encryption dynamics of delayed dynamics based block ciphers, designed for the encryption of binary data. For such encryption algorithms, the encryption process relies on a coupling dynamics with time delay between different bits in the plaintext (i.e.\\ the "initial" message to be encrypted). Here, the principal dynamics of the encryption process is examined and the Hammingdistance is used to quantify the change in ciphertext...

Melchert, O.

2012-01-01

395

Algorithms for image processing and computer vision

A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It's an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists wh

Parker, J R

2010-01-01

396

AN ENSEMBLE CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM FOR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

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Full Text Available Hyperspectral image analysis has been used for many purposes in environmental monitoring, remote sensing, vegetation research and also for land cover classification. A hyperspectral image consists of many layers in which each layer represents a specific wavelength. The layers stack on top of one another making a cube-like image for entire spectrum. This work aims to classify the hyperspectral images and to produce a thematic map accurately. Spatial information of hyperspectral images is collected by applying morphological profile and local binary pattern. Support vector machine is an efficient classification algorithm for classifying the hyperspectral images. Genetic algorithm is used to obtain the best feature subjected for classification. Selected features are classified for obtaining the classes and to produce a thematic map. Experiment is carried out with AVIRIS Indian Pines and ROSIS Pavia University. Proposed method produces accuracy as 93% for Indian Pines and 92% for Pavia University.

K.Kavitha

2014-04-01

397

A Comparative Study of Image Restoration Algorithms using Images from different areas of imaging

In this paper we consider a comparative study of different image restoration algorithms. The images are blurred by using both known and unknown degradation functions. The study emphases on restoration of blurred images by using both blind and non-blind restoration techniques like Lucy Richardson Algorithm (LRA), Weiner Filter Deconvolution (WFD), Regularized Filter Deconvolution (RFD) and Blind Image Deconvolution Algorithm (BIDA). Apart from regular images, images from different areas of ima...

Sruti Sruba Bharali; Daisy Das

2013-01-01

398

Image Compression Based on Improved FFT Algorithm

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Full Text Available Image compression is a crucial step in image processing area. Image Fourier transforms is the classical algorithm which can convert image from spatial domain to frequency domain. Because of its good concentrative property with transform energy, Fourier transform has been widely applied in image coding, image segmentation, image reconstruction. This paper adopts Radix-4 Fast Fourier transform (Radix-4 FFT to realize the limit distortion for image coding, and to discuss the feasibility and the advantage of Fourier transform for image compression. It aims to deal with the existing complex and time-consuming of Fourier transform, according to the symmetric conjugate of the image by Fourier transform to reduce data storage and computing complexity. Using Radix-4 FFT can also reduce algorithm time-consuming, it designs three different compression requirements of non-uniform quantification tables for different demands of image quality and compression ratio. Take the standard image Lena as experimental data using the presented method, the results show that the implementation by Radix-4 FFT is simple, the effect is ideal and lower time-consuming.

Juanli Hu

2011-07-01

399

Dermoscopic Image Segmentation using Machine Learning Algorithm

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Malignant melanoma is the most frequent type of skin cancer. Its incidence has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Medical image segmentation is the most essential and crucial process in order to facilitate the characterization and visualization of the structure of interest in medical images. Approach: This study explains the task of segmenting skin lesions in Dermoscopy images based on intelligent systems such as Fuzzy and Neural Networks clustering techniques for the early diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma. The various intelligent system based clustering techniques used are Fuzzy C Means Algorithm (FCM, Possibilistic C Means Algorithm (PCM, Hierarchical C Means Algorithm (HCM; C-mean based Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Network, Adaline Neural Network and Regression Neural Network. Results: The segmented images are compared with the ground truth image using various parameters such as False Positive Error (FPE, False Negative Error (FNE Coefficient of similarity, spatial overlap and their performance is evaluated. Conclusion: The experimental results show that the Hierarchical C Means algorithm( Fuzzy provides better segmentation than other (Fuzzy C Means, Possibilistic C Means, Adaline Neural Network, FHNN and GRNN clustering algorithms. Thus Hierarchical C Means approach can handle uncertainties that exist in the data efficiently and useful for the lesion segmentation in a computer aided diagnosis system to assist the clinical diagnosis of dermatologists.

L. P. Suresh

2011-01-01

400

Morphological Algorithms for Image Processing

Mathematical morphological operators are based on set theoretic approach and are suitable for extracting shape information. Some important operators are dilation, erosion, opening and closing. Image intensity profile may be viewed as a topographical surface, where pixel co-ordinate stands for the location and the intensity for the altitude. Thus, the surface relief and slope represent different types of object features. Hence, morphological tools are found very effective for image processing....

Chanda Bhabatosh

2008-01-01

401

Edge detection algorithm for SST images

An algorithm to detect fronts in satellite-derived sea surface temperature fields is presented. Although edge detection is the main focus, the problem of cloud detection is also addressed since unidentified clouds can lead to erroneous edge detection. The algorithm relies on a combination of methods and it operates at the picture, the window, and the local level. The resulting edge detection is not based on the absolute strength of the front, but on the relative strength depending on the context, thus, making the edge detection temperature-scale invariant. The performance of this algorithm is shown to be superior to that of simpler algorithms commonly used to locate edges in satellite-derived SST images. This evaluation was performed through a careful comparison between the location of the fronts obtained by applying the various methods to the SST images and the in situ measures of the Gulf Stream position.

Cayula, Jean-Francois; Cornillon, Peter

1992-01-01

402

KAIRUAIN-algorithm applied on electromagnetic imaging

For time-harmonic Maxwell equations, we consider an inverse scattering problem for the 3D imaging of the constitutive material of an unknown object from the boundary measurements of the electric field. This problem is ill-posed and nonlinear. We introduce the KAIRUAIN-algorithm which is an iterative method of Newton-Kaczmarz type, where we use the approximate inverse for regularizing the solution of the linearized equation at each Newton iteration. We study the convergence of the algorithm and develop a strategy for the choice of the regularizing parameter in a quite general setting. We apply the KAIRUAIN-algorithm to derive an efficient and stable reconstruction method for electromagnetic imaging. We use experimental data provided by the Institut Fresnel, France, to validate the capability of the reconstruction algorithm to retrieve blindly, without any a priori information, the geometry and the dielectric permittivity of the scattering object.

Lakhal, A.

2013-09-01

403

Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery

We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on the unknown linear degra...

Bolte, Je?ro?me; Combettes, Patrick; Pesquet, Jean-christophe

2010-01-01

404

Image Processing Algorithm JPEG to Binary Conversion

The JPEG processing algorithm works best on photographs and paintings of realistic scenes with smooth variations of tone and colour but is not well suited to files that will undergo multiple edits. The direct conversion of jpeg image into binary format is very low in efficiency. In this paper, the process of conversion of jpeg image to binary image is being done in a step by step manner, without using direct inbuilt function of jpeg to binary in MATLAB. As the binary image is used for compari...

Mansi Gupta; Meha Garg; Prateek Dhawan

2010-01-01

405

Hierarchical Image Segmentation Algorithm in Depth Image Processing

Because the traditional iterative graph cut algorithm is time consuming and low in segmentation accuracy, I proposes the method of iterative graph cut to segment images, by analyzing the basic theory of image segmentation, I introduces the balance factor to balance the degree of importance between color texture and depth. Finally it passes detailed experimental simulation, the experiment shows that the result of hierarchical iterative graph cut based on depth image is better than iterative gr...

Junping Yin; Suran Kong

2013-01-01

406

Comparative Study Of Image Edge Detection Algorithms

Since edge detection is in the forefront of image processing for object detection, it is crucial to have a good understanding of edge detection algorithms. The reason for this is that edges form the outline of an object. An edge is the boundary between an object and the background, and indicates the boundary between overlapping objects. This means that if the edges in an image can be identified accurately, all of the objects can be located and basic properties such as area, ...

Saini, Shubham; Kasliwal, Bhavesh; Bhatia, Shraey

2013-01-01

407

Multiplexing of encrypted data using fractal masks

In this Letter, we present to the best of our knowledge a new all-optical technique for multiple-image encryption and multiplexing, based on fractal encrypting masks. The optical architecture is a joint transform correlator. The multiplexed encrypted data are stored in a photorefractive crystal. The fractal parameters of the key can be easily tuned to lead to a multiplexing operation without cross talk effects. Experimental results that support the potential of the method are presented.

Monsoriu Serra, Juan Antonio; Barrera, J. F.; Tebaldi, M.; Furlan, W. D.; Bolognini, Nestor Alberto; Torroba, Roberto Daniel; Amaya, D.

2012-01-01

408

ALGORITHMIC IMAGING APPROACH TO IMPOTENCE

Impotence is a common problem that has great impact on the quality of life. Clinical evaluation usually can exclude endocrinologic imbalance, neurogenic dysfunction, and psychological problems as the etiology. A patient who fails to get an erection after vasoactive medications which are injected probably, has hemodynamic impotence. Dynamic studies that include imaging techniques are now available to discriminate between arterial and venous pathology.Doppler ultrasound with color flow and spec...

Mahyar Ghafoori

2012-01-01

409

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the security measures implemented. Steganography is a method which is used to give high level security. Approach: Today, email management and email authenticity must be unquestionable with strong chains of custody, constant availability and tamper-proof security. A secure communication can be achieved through neural based steganography. Email is insecure. Results: This research developed an application which can check the Email content of corporate mails by S-DES algorithm along with the neural networks back propagation approach. A new filtering algorithm is also developed which can used to extract only the JPG images from the corporate emails. Experimental research shows that this algorithm is more accurate and reliable than the conventional methods. Conclusion: We anticipate that this study can also give a clear picture of the current trends in Steganography and the experimental results indicate this method is valid in steganalysis. This method can be used for internet/network security.

P. T. Anitha

2012-01-01

410

Enhanced Throughput AES Encryption

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Full Text Available This paper presents our experience in implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. We have used 128 bit block size and 128 bit cipher key for the implementation. The AES also known as Rijndael algorithm is used to ensure security of transmission channels. Xilinx design tool 13.3 and Xilinx project navigator design tool are used for synthesis and simulation. Very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL is used for coding. The fully pipelined design was implemented on Virtex 6 FPGA family and a throughput of 49.3Gbits/s was achieved with an operational frequency of 384.793 MHz.

Kunal Lala

2012-09-01

411

Lossless compression algorithm for multispectral imagers

Multispectral imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring the earth and its environment from space borne and airborne platforms. Multispectral imaging data consists of visible and IR measurements from a scene across space and spectrum. Growing data rates resulting from faster scanning and finer spatial and spectral resolution makes compression an increasingly critical tool to reduce data volume for transmission and archiving. Research for NOAA NESDIS has been directed to finding for the characteristics of satellite atmospheric Earth science Imager sensor data what level of Lossless compression ratio can be obtained as well as appropriate types of mathematics and approaches that can lead to approaching this data's entropy level. Conventional lossless do not achieve the theoretical limits for lossless compression on imager data as estimated from the Shannon entropy. In a previous paper, the authors introduce a lossless compression algorithm developed for MODIS as a proxy for future NOAA-NESDIS satellite based Earth science multispectral imagers such as GOES-R. The algorithm is based on capturing spectral correlations using spectral prediction, and spatial correlations with a linear transform encoder. In decompression, the algorithm uses a statistically computed look up table to iteratively predict each channel from a channel decompressed in the previous iteration. In this paper we present a new approach which fundamentally differs from our prior work. In this new approach, instead of having a single predictor for each pair of bands we introduce a piecewise spatially varying predictor which significantly improves the compression results. Our new algorithm also now optimizes the sequence of channels we use for prediction. Our results are evaluated by comparison with a state of the art wavelet based image compression scheme, Jpeg2000. We present results on the 14 channel subset of the MODIS imager, which serves as a proxy for the GOES-R imager. We will also show results of the algorithm for on NOAA AVHRR data and data from SEVIRI. The algorithm is designed to be adapted to the wide range of multispectral imagers and should facilitate distribution of data throughout globally. This compression research is managed by Roger Heymann, PE of OSD NOAA NESDIS Engineering, in collaboration with the NOAA NESDIS STAR Research Office through Mitch Goldberg, Tim Schmit, Walter Wolf.

Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Gottipati, Srikanth

2008-08-01

412

Tomographic image reconstructing using systolic array algorithms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Computed Tomography (CT), two-dimensional (2-D) slices or three-dimensional (3-D) volumes of an object are reconstructed from many projected line-integrals (usually x-ray transmission data) around the object. As the data collection capabilities and reconstruction algorithms for CT have become more sophisticated over the years, the demands on computer systems have become correspondingly greater. Also, recent limited-data reconstruction algorithms using iterative schemes between image and projection domains require large amounts of very time-consuming calculations. In this case, repeated use of a constrained projection model (or the Radon transform, named after mathematician Johann Radon) followed by a reconstruction algorithm (or inverse Randon transform) is used to converge on the correct answer. The commonly used algorithm for computing the inverse Radon transform in the above problems is some form of filtered backprojection (FBP). In this paper we look at ways to parallelize this algorithm so that a computer with multiple interconnected processing elements can achieve reconstructed images more rapidly than before. The class of multiprocessor architectures we suggest is known as systolic arrays, which are highly-parallel regularly connected multiprocessors with simple control and data flows. We show, in simulated and experimental results, how this architecture can compute the forward and back-projection algorithms efficiently and at very high rates depending on thtly and at very high rates depending on the number of processors employed

413

Tuning Range Image Segmentation by Genetic Algorithm

Several range image segmentation algorithms have been proposed, each one to be tuned by a number of parameters in order to provide accurate results on a given class of images. Segmentation parameters are generally affected by the type of surfaces (e.g., planar versus curved) and the nature of the acquisition system (e.g., laser range finders or structured light scanners). It is impossible to answer the question, which is the best set of parameters given a range image within a class and a ran...

Gianluca Pignalberi; Luigi Cinque; Rita Cucchiara; Stefano Levialdi

2003-01-01

414

Why Information Security Demands Transform Domain, Compression and Encryption?

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Full Text Available With the advancement of technology and networking techniques, it is possible to transmit images at a lower bit rate and at the same time with high security. In order to fulfil the security needs of image transmission, several encryption, decryption and image encoding techniques have been put forward. The encryption discussed in this study is the PN (Pseudo Random Number sequence based encryption using Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG algorithm. In the proposed method, initially the image is portioned into blocks. Run length encoding is done for the level shifted image. Then Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and quantization was done and Difference of Quantized DC (DQDC was calculated. Then the quantized blocks are shuffled based on the PN sequence and then the scrambled images are arranged in zigzag order. Then finally run length and Huffman lossless compression are done to eliminate the additional bits generated using PN codes. Metrics like correlation coefficient, Unified Average Changing Intensity (UACI, Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR were computed to prove the sternness of the proposed method.

Padmapriya Praveenkumar

2014-01-01

415

IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES AND GENETIC ALGORITHM

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Full Text Available Image Segmentation is a decomposition of sceneinto its components. It is a key step in analysis. Edge, point, line,boundary texture and region detection are the various forms ofimage segmentation. Various technologies for imagesegmentation are there like thresholding, cluster based, edgebased, region based and watershed segmentation. Two of themain image segmentation techniques thresholding and regiongrowing are highly in use for image segmentation. Imagesegmentation by region growing method is robust fast and veryeasy to implement, but it suffers from: the thresholding problem,initialization, and sensitivity to noise. OTSU method ofthresholding is also used for image segmentation but it alsosuffers from thresholding problems. Genetic algorithms areparticular methods for optimizing functions; they have a greatability to find the global optimum of a problem. Here I proposeda genetic algorithm which provides the better solution thanregion growing and OTSU methods for the image segmentation.In proposed algorithm we will see that we get better peak signalto noise ratio and maximum absolute error comparatively thanregion growing and OTSU.

Dinesh Maru, Brijesh Shah

2013-04-01

416

Image segmentation using an improved differential algorithm

Among all the existing segmentation techniques, the thresholding technique is one of the most popular due to its simplicity, robustness, and accuracy (e.g. the maximum entropy method, Otsu's method, and K-means clustering). However, the computation time of these algorithms grows exponentially with the number of thresholds due to their exhaustive searching strategy. As a population-based optimization algorithm, differential algorithm (DE) uses a population of potential solutions and decision-making processes. It has shown considerable success in solving complex optimization problems within a reasonable time limit. Thus, applying this method into segmentation algorithm should be a good choice during to its fast computational ability. In this paper, we first propose a new differential algorithm with a balance strategy, which seeks a balance between the exploration of new regions and the exploitation of the already sampled regions. Then, we apply the new DE into the traditional Otsu's method to shorten the computation time. Experimental results of the new algorithm on a variety of images show that, compared with the EA-based thresholding methods, the proposed DE algorithm gets more effective and efficient results. It also shortens the computation time of the traditional Otsu method.

Gao, Hao; Shi, Yujiao; Wu, Dongmei

2014-10-01

417

A NOVEL DECONVOLUTION ALGORITHM FOR IMAGE RESTORATION

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Full Text Available A novel deconvolution algorithm for restoring blurred image is introduced. The proposed algorithm can behave two multi-scale frameworks to restore the fuzzy blurred image. One multi-scale framework is used to optimize whole process containing kernel estimation and deconvolution by incorporating an average difference criterion for evaluating the restored image quality, another is applied to optimize kernel estimation process, which are generated kernels in different sizes. Furthermore, the Expectation Maximization (EM method is applied to handle outliers in deconvolution process for suppressing ringing effects. The experimental result shows that the proposed method offers an efficient way to estimate and optimize the blur kernel and obtain good results for deconvolution process.

Phu Ninh Tran

2015-01-01

418

Integral imaging can provide a feasible and efficient technique for multiple-image encoding system. The computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique reconstructs a set of plane images along the output plane, whereas the resolution of the reconstructed images will degrade due to the partial occlusion of other reconstructed images. Meanwhile, CIIR is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction method, in which the superimposition causes the undesirable interference. To overcome these problems, we first utilize the block matching algorithm to eliminate the occlusion-disturbance and introduce the back-propagation neural network algorithm to compensate for the low-resolution image. In the encryption, a computational integral imaging pickup technique is employed to record the multiple-image simultaneously to form an elemental image array (EIA). The EIA is then encrypted by combining the use of maximum length cellular automata (CA) and the double random phase encoding algorithm. Some numerical simulations have been made to demonstrate the performance of this encryption algorithm.

Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

2014-03-01

419

Variable Weighted Ordered Subset Image Reconstruction Algorithm

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Full Text Available We propose two variable weighted iterative reconstruction algorithms (VW-ART and VW-OS-SART to improve the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART and establish their convergence. In the two algorithms, the weighting varies with the geometrical direction of the ray. Experimental results with both numerical simulation and real CT data demonstrate that the VW-ART has a significant improvement in the quality of reconstructed images over ART and OS-SART. Moreover, both VW-ART and VW-OS-SART are more promising in convergence speed than the ART and SART, respectively.

Ming Jiang

2006-10-01

420

Image Compression Algorithms Optimized for MATLAB

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Full Text Available This paper describes implementation of the Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT algorithm to MATLAB. This approach is used in JPEG or MPEGstandards for instance. The substance of these specifications is toremove the considerable correlation between adjacent picture elements.The objective of this paper is not to improve the DCT algorithm itself, but to re-write it to the preferable version for MATLAB thusallows the enumeration with insignificant delay. The method proposed inthis paper allows image compression calculation almost two hundredtimes faster compared with the DCT definition.

S. Hanus

2003-12-01

421

In this paper, a secure and robust cryptographic CDMA watermark algorithm based on DWT2, YIQ color space and Arnold transform is proposed. In the approach, for more security of watermark, the binary watermark image W, after scrambling with Arnold cat map is converted to a sequence and then, to determine the pixel to be used on a given key, a random binary sequence R of size n is adopted to encrypt the watermark using a pseudo-random number generator; where n is the size of the watermark. Afte...

Mehdi Khalil

2011-01-01

422

Steganography Algorithm to Hide Secret Message inside an Image

In this paper, the authors propose a new algorithm to hide data inside image using steganography technique. The proposed algorithm uses binary codes and pixels inside an image. The zipped file is used before it is converted to binary codes to maximize the storage of data inside the image. By applying the proposed algorithm, a system called Steganography Imaging System (SIS) is developed. The system is then tested to see the viability of the proposed algorithm. Various sizes ...

Ibrahim, Rosziati; Kuan, Teoh Suk

2011-01-01

423

A remote sensing image classification algorithm based on image activity measure is proposed, which is used for adaptive image compression applications. The image activity measure has been studied and the support vector machine(SVM) is introduced. Then, the relationship between the image activity measure and the distortion caused by quantization is discussed in our image compression experiments (JPEG2000, CCSDS and SPIHT). Another two image activity measures are proposed as well. Then a feature vector is constructed by image activity measures in order to describe the image compression features of different images. The test images are classified by support vector machine classifier. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested using an image data set, which demonstrates the advantage of the proposed algorithm.

Tian, Xin; Wu, Lin; Li, Tao; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Li, Song

2013-10-01

424

Endmember extraction algorithms from hyperspectral images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last years, several high-resolution sensors have been developed for hyperspectral remote sensing applications. Some of these sensors are already available on space-borne devices. Space-borne sensors are currently acquiring a continual stream of hyperspectral data, and new efficient unsupervised algorithms are required to analyze the great amount of data produced by these instruments. The identification of image endmembers is a crucial task in hyperspectral data exploitation. Once the individual endmembers have been identified, several methods can be used to map their spatial distribution, associations and abundances. This paper reviews the Pixel Purity Index (PPI, N-FINDR and Automatic Morphological Endmember Extraction (AMEE algorithms developed to accomplish the task of finding appropriate image endmembers by applying them to real hyperspectral data. In order to compare the performance of these methods a metric based on the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE between the estimated and reference abundance maps is used.

M. C. Cantero

2006-06-01

425

A speedy pixon image reconstruction algorithm

A speedy pixon algorithm for image reconstruction is described. Two applications of the method to simulated astronomical data sets are also reported. In one case, galaxy clusters are extracted from multiwavelength microwave sky maps using the spectral dependence of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect to distinguish them from the microwave background fluctuations and the instrumental noise. The second example involves the recovery of a sharply peaked emission profile, such as might...

Eke, Vincent

1999-01-01

426

Data Based Text Encrypting in Audio

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays data authentication plays a major for the secrete transmission of the data respectively. Here in this data oriented authentication involves encryption followed by the respective decryption. Where in the encryption process takes place in the transmitter end while decryption takes place or handled at the receiver end respectively. Here an algorithm is designed based on the above strategy where complete privacy is maintained by the system. This one of the data hiding technique. Some of the data hiding techniques include cryptography, Stenography and watermarking. Therefore there is a slight variation between all these techniques in their implementation. Here the protection is also follows where we can hide text in text, Speech in the song which is related to the audio based scenario, Text in the song, Image in the image and text in the image respectively. Here the main aim of the projects is to hide the data in the form of text I the signal respectively. Here in this present methodology we are going to implement the method by the name of RSA respectively. Where the experimental analysis show that this particular method is used for the accurate hiding of the data takes place that is in the form of security based scenario.

Bommala Suneel Kumar

2013-08-01

427

Multi-direction Fuzzy Morphology Algorithm for Image Edge Detection

A multi-direction fuzzy morphology algorithm, for image edge detection is proposed to deal with edge blur and inaccuracy of boundary localization. In the algorithm, two thresholds are selected to conduct image segmentation and image obtaining respectively, fuzzy enhancement for the image is adopted to resolve the loss of edge information and multi-directional structural elements are used to detect image edge. Based on it, experiments are carried out, the results show the proposed algorithm ha...

Shaosheng Fan; Hainan Wang

2011-01-01

428

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan- Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro sort algorithm begins with Quick sort and switches to heap sort when the recursion depth exceeds a level based on the number of elements being sorted. This approach has the advantage of fast noise reduction by reducing the comparison time. It also significantly speed up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time image processing. This approach will extend the Infrared images applications for medicine and video conferencing.

Gupta, Kapil Kumar; Niranjan, Jitendra Kumar

2012-01-01

429

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan-Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro sort algorithm begins with Quick sort and switches to heap sort when the recursion depth exceeds a level based on the number of elements being sorted. This approach has the advantage of fast noise reduction by reducing the comparison time. It also significantly speed up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time image processing. This approach will extend the Infrared images applications for medicine and video conferencing.

Kapil Kumar Gupta

2011-11-01

430

Image Colour Segmentation by Genetic Algorithms

Segmentation of a colour image composed of different kinds of texture regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields and a decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or unstationary texture fields. In this work, a method is described for evolving adaptive procedures for these problems. In many real world applications data clustering constitutes a fundamental issue whenever behavioural or feature domains can be mapped into topological domains. We formulate the segmentation problem upon such images as an optimisation problem and adopt evolutionary strategy of Genetic Algorithms for the clustering of small regions in colour feature space. The present approach uses k-Means unsupervised clustering methods into Genetic Algorithms, namely for guiding this last Evolutionary Algorithm in his search for finding the optimal or sub-optimal data partition, task that as we know, requires a non-trivial search because of its intrinsic NP-complet...

Ramos, V; Ramos, Vitorino; Muge, Fernando

2004-01-01

431

A Self-synchronizing Stream Encryption Scheme Based on One-Dimensional Coupled Map Lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a self-synchronizing stream encryption scheme based on one-dimensional coupled map lattices which is introduced as a model with the essential features of spatiotemporal chaos, and of great complexity and diffusion capability of the little disturbance in the initial condition. To evaluate the scheme, a series of statistical tests are employed, and the results show good random-look nature of the ciphertext. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to encrypt a grey-scale image to show the key sensitivity.

432

A Self-synchronizing Stream Encryption Scheme Based on One-Dimensional Coupled Map Lattices

We present a self-synchronizing stream encryption scheme based on one-dimensional coupled map lattices which is introduced as a model with the essential features of spatiotemporal chaos, and of great complexity and diffusion capability of the little disturbance in the initial condition. To evaluate the scheme, a series of statistical tests are employed, and the results show good random-look nature of the ciphertext. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to encrypt a grey-scale image to show the key sensitivity.

Ma, Hui; Zhu, Kai-En; Chen, Tian-Lun

2007-04-01

433

Image Tag Recommendation Algorithm Using Tensor Factorization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to provide high quality tags for digital images according to users’ interest. As there are three main elements in image tag recommendation problem, tensor factorization technology is utilized in this work. In this paper, the parameters of the tensor factorization model are represented as latent variables, and the key functions of the tensor factorization model can be implemented by integrating three matrices(person matrix, image matrix, and tag matrix into one tensor. The key problem of image tag recommendation is to obtain the top ranked tags which are suitable not only to image visual contents but also to users’ interest. Afterwards, the top ranked tags are obtained by a predictor utilizing the proposed tensor factorization model. Therefore, the image tag recommendation problem can be converted to calculate the ranking scores by maximizing the ranking statistic AUC. Finally, performance evaluation is conducted on the NUS-WIDE dataset using MRR, S@k, P@k, and NDCG metric. Experimental results show that the proposed image tag recommendation algorithm performs better than other methods

Yong-sheng Wang

2014-03-01

434

Machine Learning Algorithms Implemented in Image Analysis

A typical core facility is faced with a wide variety of experimental paradigms, samples, and images to be analyzed. They typically have one thing in common: a need to segment features of interest from the rest of the image. In many cases, for example fluorescence images with good contrast and signal to noise, intensity segmentation may be successful. Often, however, images may not be acquired in optimum conditions, or features of interest are not distinguished by intensity alone. Examples we encountered are: retina fundus photographs, histological stains, DAB immunohistochemistry, etc. We used machine learning algorithms as implemented in FIJI to isolate specific features in longitudinal retinal photographs of non-human primates. Images acquired over several years with different technologies, cameras and skills were analyzed to evaluate small changes with precision. The protocol used includes: Scale-Invariant feature Transform (SIFT) registration, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and Weka training. Variance of results for different images of the same time point and for different raters of the same images was less than 10% in most cases.

Chen, J.; Renner, L.; Neuringer, M.; Cornea, A.

2014-01-01

435

Multiply-agile encryption in high speed communication networks

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different applications have different security requirements for data privacy, data integrity, and authentication. Encryption is one technique that addresses these requirements. Encryption hardware, designed for use in high-speed communications networks, can satisfy a wide variety of security requirements if that hardware is key-agile, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile. Hence, multiply-agile encryption provides enhanced solutions to the secrecy, interoperability and quality of service issues in high-speed networks. This paper defines these three types of agile encryption. Next, implementation issues are discussed. While single-algorithm, key-agile encryptors exist, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile encryptors are still research topics.

Pierson, L.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Witzke, E.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-05-01