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1

Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm

The security of digital images attracts much attention recently, especially when these digital images are stored in some types of memory or send through the communication networks. Many different image encryption methods have been proposed to keep the security of these images. Image encryption techniques tries to convert an image to another image that is hard to understand. In this proposed method, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to produce a new encryption method by exploitation the powerful ...

Al-husainy, Mohammed A. F.

2006-01-01

2

Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm

This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. ...

Catur Iswahyudi; Emy Setyaningsih

2012-01-01

3

Genetic Algorithm: Tool to Encrypt Image

Security is an important issue when digital images are transmitted through the internet and cellular phones, as well as being important in encryption of the satellite images, and image encryption is the most useful technique employed for this purpose. Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be regarded as a randomized search procedure that is commonly used to solve the optimization problems. The genetic algorithm uses two reproduction operators - crossover and mutation. Crossover assembles existing genes ...

Dr. Mohammed Abbas Fadhil Al-Husainy

2012-01-01

4

Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Universal Modular Transformation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is essential to assure information security. Universal modular transformation is a widely applied encryption method, but it has some disadvantages such as a relatively small quantity of keys and insecurity. A uniform block encryption method is proposed in this study to improve the image entropy of encryption and an image is encrypted with the universal modular transform combined with a chaotic mapping. Experimental results show that this algorithm can provide good encryption quality and reach high safety. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is robust to shear attack and noise attack.

Jiaying Jia

2010-01-01

5

RC4 Enrichment Algorithm Approach for Selective Image Encryption

This paper is introduces RC4 Enrichment Algorithm Approach for selective image encryption. This approach is derived from the standard RC4 algorithm. RC4 algorithm is already used for image encryption and also for the selective image encryption. Currently RC4 is vulnerable. Lots of cryptanalytic found the lots of weakness, vulnerable point and attacks inside the RC4 algorithm. So in this concern, this paper has worked. This paper has designed the RC4 based new enrichment approach to making str...

Pramod Kumar; Pushpendra Kumar Pateriya

2012-01-01

6

An Image Encryption Algorithm Utilizing Julia Sets and Hilbert Curves

Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets’ parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few para...

Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing

2014-01-01

7

An Image Encryption Algorithm based on 3D Lorenz map

In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this paper a new approach for image encryption is based on chaotic baker map and chaotic Lorenz map in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external secret key of 128 bit and two chaotic maps are employed. The initial conditions for both maps are derived using the external secr...

Anto Steffi, A.; Dipesh Sharma

2013-01-01

8

Color Image Encryption Algorithm Combining Compressive Sensing with Arnold Transform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new color image encryption algorithm combining compressive sensing with Arnold transform is proposed, which can encrypt the color image into a gray image. Considering the dimensional reduction and random projection of compressive sensing, we utilize compressive sensing to encrypt and compress the three color components of color image simultaneously. The three encrypted and compressed color components’ dimensions are smaller than the original image, thus they can be grouped into a gray image, and then the gray image is scrambled by Arnold transform to enhance the security. The proposed algorithm can also be applied in the multiple-image encryption. The experimental results show the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm.

Aidi Zhang

2013-11-01

9

A Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Hill Cipher System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a technique of image encryption based on Hill cipher system that provides better security than existing approach of Bibhudendra Acharya et al. by rendering the image content completely scrambled using multiple self-invertible keys, block shuffling and a new developed pel transformation. The Hill cipher algorithm is one of the symmetric key algorithms having several advantages in encryption. However, the inverse of the matrix used for encrypting the plain text in this algorithm may not always exist. Moreover this algorithm is susceptible to known plain text attack. Our proposed algorithm is aimed at better encryption of all types of images even ones with uniform background and makes the image encryption scheme more secure.

S.K. Muttoo

2012-03-01

10

A Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Hill Cipher System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a technique of image encryption based on Hill cipher system that provides better security than existing approach of Bibhudendra Acharya et al. by rendering the image content completely scrambled using multiple self-invertible keys, block shuffling and a new developed pel transformation. The Hill cipher algorithm is one of the symmetric key algorithms having several advantages in encryption. However, the inverse of the matrix used for encrypting the plain text in this algorithm may not always exist. Moreover this algorithm is susceptible to known plain text attack. Our proposed algorithm is aimed at better encryption of all types of images even ones with uniform background and makes the image encryption scheme more secure.

S.K. Muttoo

2011-12-01

11

Image encryption a communication perspective

Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches encryption and substitution-based approaches.Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard,

Abd El-Samie, Fathi E; Elashry, Ibrahim F; Shahieen, Mai H; Faragallah, Osama S; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M; Alshebeili, Saleh A

2013-01-01

12

A high performance hardware implementation image encryption with AES algorithm

This paper describes implementation of a high-speed encryption algorithm with high throughput for encrypting the image. Therefore, we select a highly secured symmetric key encryption algorithm AES(Advanced Encryption Standard), in order to increase the speed and throughput using pipeline technique in four stages, control unit based on logic gates, optimal design of multiplier blocks in mixcolumn phase and simultaneous production keys and rounds. Such procedure makes AES suitable for fast image encryption. Implementation of a 128-bit AES on FPGA of Altra company has been done and the results are as follow: throughput, 6 Gbps in 471MHz. The time of encrypting in tested image with 32*32 size is 1.15ms.

Farmani, Ali; Jafari, Mohamad; Miremadi, Seyed Sohrab

2011-06-01

13

Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Decomposition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed chaos-based image encryption algorithm consists of four stages: decomposition, shuffle, diffusion and combination. Decomposition is that an original image is decomposed to components according to some rule. The purpose of the shuffle is to mask original organization of the pixels of the image, and the diffusion is to change their values. Combination is not necessary in the sender. To improve the efficiency, the parallel architecture is taken to process the shuffle and diffusion. To enhance the security of the algorithm, firstly, a permutation of the labels is designed. Secondly, two Logistic maps are used in diffusion stage to encrypt the components. One map encrypts the odd rows of the component and another map encrypts the even rows. Experiment results and security analysis demonstrate that the encryption algorithm not only is robust and flexible, but also can withstand common attacks such as statistical attacks and differential attacks.

Xiuli Song

2013-07-01

14

An Image Encryption Algorithm based on 3D Lorenz map

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this paper a new approach for image encryption is based on chaotic baker map and chaotic Lorenz map in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external secret key of 128 bit and two chaotic maps are employed. The initial conditions for both maps are derived using the external secret key by providing different weight age to all its bits. The results of experiment show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission.

Mrs. A.Anto Steffi

2013-02-01

15

RC4 Enrichment Algorithm Approach for Selective Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is introduces RC4 Enrichment Algorithm Approach for selective image encryption. This approach is derived from the standard RC4 algorithm. RC4 algorithm is already used for image encryption and also for the selective image encryption. Currently RC4 is vulnerable. Lots of cryptanalytic found the lots of weakness, vulnerable point and attacks inside the RC4 algorithm. So in this concern, this paper has worked. This paper has designed the RC4 based new enrichment approach to making strong the RC4 algorithm, “PC1-RC4”. This approach is based on new KSA and PRGA algorithm process, which are the two stages inside the RC4 algorithm.

Pramod Kumar

2012-04-01

16

Improving a New Logistic Map as a New Chaotic Algorithm for Image Encryption

Image encryption is not a new field, but the techniques used to encrypt images are constantly being re-evaluated. As computer processing power grows, the need for better encryption algorithms grows with it. In this paper, the attention was focused on the encryption of still images. In particular, a precise look at encryption using chaotic techniques was subjected. In this paper we present improving existing chaotic algorithm (NCA) for image encryption proposed in 2005. The analysis of the ...

Saraereh, Omar A.; Qais Alsafasfeh; Aodeh Arfoa

2013-01-01

17

Design and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithm Using Chaos

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Images are widely used in diverse areas such as medical, military, science, engineering, art, advertising, entertainment, education as well as training, increasing the use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing images. So maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of images has become a major concern. This makes encryption necessary. The pixel values of neighbouring pixels in a plain image are strongly correlated. The proposed algorithm breaks this correlation increasing the entropy. Correlation is reduced by changing the pixel position this which is called confusion. Histogram is equalized by changing the pixel value this which is called diffusion. The proposed method of encryption algorithm is based on chaos theory. The plain-image is divided into blocks and then performs three levels of shuffling using different chaotic maps. In the first level the pixels within the block are shuffled. In the second level the blocks are shuffled and in the third level all the pixels in an image are shuffled. Finally the shuffled image is diffused using a chaotic sequence generated using symmetric keys, to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed algorithm can be used successfully to encrypt/decrypt the images with the secret keys. The analysis of the algorithm also shows that the algorithm gives larger key space and a high key sensitivity. The encrypted image has good encryption effect, information entropy and low correlation coefficient.

Sandhya Rani M.H.

2014-06-01

18

An image encryption algorithm utilizing julia sets and hilbert curves.

Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets' parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few parameters for the key generation, which greatly reduces the storage space. Moreover, because of the Julia sets' properties, such as infiniteness and chaotic characteristics, the keys have high sensitivity even to a tiny perturbation. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has large key space, good statistical property, high sensitivity for the keys, and effective resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack. PMID:24404181

Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing

2014-01-01

19

Breaking a novel colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos

Recently, a colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos was proposed by cascading two position permutation operations and one substitution operation, which are all determined by some pseudo-random number sequences generated by iterating the Logistic map. This paper evaluates the security level of the encryption algorithm and finds that the position permutation-only part and the substitution part can be separately broken with only $\\lceil (\\log_2(3MN))/8 \\rceil$ and 2 chosen plain-images, respectively, where $MN$ is the size of the plain-image. Concise theoretical analyses are provided to support the chosen-plaintext attack, which are verified by experimental results also.

Li, Chengqing; Ou, Rong; Wong, Kwok-Wo

2012-01-01

20

Breaking a chaotic image encryption algorithm based on perceptron model

Recently, a chaotic image encryption algorithm based on perceptron model was proposed. The present paper analyzes security of the algorithm and finds that the equivalent secret key can be reconstructed with only one pair of known-plaintext/ciphertext, which is supported by both mathematical proof and experiment results. In addition, some other security defects are also reported.

Zhang, Yu; Li, Chengqing; Li, Qin; Zhang, Dan; Shu, Shi

2011-01-01

21

Using Genetic Algorithm for Symmetric key Generation in Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protectinginformation as the importance of security is increasing dayby day with the advent of online transaction processing ande commerce. In now a day the security of digital imagesattracts much attention, especially when these digitalimages are stored in memory or send through thecommunication networks. Genetic algorithms are a class ofoptimization algorithms. Many problems can be solvedusing genetic algorithms through modelling a simplifiedversion of genetic processes. In this paper, I proposed amethod based on Genetic Algorithm which is used togenerate key by the help of pseudo random numbergenerator. Random number will be generated on the basisof current time of the system. Using Genetic Algorithm wecan keep the strength of the key to be good, still make thewhole algorithm good enough. Symmetric key algorithmAES has been proposed for encrypting the image as it isvery secure method for symmetric key encryption.

Aarti Soni, Suyash Agrawal

2012-12-01

22

Key Generation Using Genetic Algorithm for Image Encryption?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protecting information as the importance of security is increasingday by day with the advent of online transaction processing and e commerce. Now a day the security of digitalimages are major area of concern, especially when we deal with digital images where it may be stored orsend through the communication channel. Genetic algorithms are a class of optimization algorithms.Genetic algorithms can be used to solve different problems through modeling a simplified version of geneticprocesses. This paper proposed a method based on Genetic Algorithm which is used to generate key by thehelp of random number generator to make the key complex. Key generation will go through a number ofprocess and main criteria for key selection will be the fitness value of the population. AES which is asymmetric key encryption algorithm is used to encrypt the image.

Aarti Soni

2013-06-01

23

An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding

Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting.

Deng, Jia-Xian; Deng, Hai-Tao

2013-09-01

24

Double color image encryption using iterative phase retrieval algorithm in quaternion gyrator domain

This paper describes a novel algorithm to encrypt double color images into a single undistinguishable image in quaternion gyrator domain. By using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, the phase masks used for encryption are obtained. Subsequently, the encrypted image is generated via cascaded quaternion gyrator transforms with different rotation angles. The parameters in quaternion gyrator transforms and phases serve as encryption keys. By knowing these keys, the original color images can ...

Shao, Zhuhong; Shu, Huazhong; Wu, Jiasong; Dong, Zhifang; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Coatrieux, Jean-louis

2014-01-01

25

Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

X. W. Li

2013-08-01

26

Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum-length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process [...] , the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

X. W., Li; D. H., Kim; S. J., Cho; S. T., Kim.

2013-08-01

27

A New Algorithm of Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Chaotic Mapping

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combination of chaotic theory and cryptography forms an important field of information security. In the past decade, chaos based image encryption is given much attention in the research of information security and a lot of image encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps have been proposed. Due to some inherent features of images like bulk data capacity and high data redundancy, the encryption of images is different from that of texts; therefore it is difficult to handle them by traditional encryption methods. In this communication, a new image encryption algorithm based on three different chaotic maps is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the plain-image is first decomposed into 8x8 size blocks and then the block based shuffling of image is carried out using 2D Cat map. Further, the control parameters of shuffling are randomly generated by employing 2D coupled Logistic map. After that the shuffled image is encrypted using chaotic sequence generated by one-dimensional Logistic map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully encrypt/decrypt the images with same secret keys, and the algorithm has good encryption effect, large key space and high sensitivity to a small change in secret keys. Moreover, the simulation analysis also demonstrates that the encrypted images have good information entropy, very low correlation coefficients and the distribution of gray values of an encrypted image has random-like behavior.

Musheer Ahmad

2010-01-01

28

The primary goal of this paper is to provide knowledge of safety of images which is traveling over internet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effort during encryption and decryption. In this paper I present some advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithm for encryption and decryption of an image with the same objective. Moreover we are also doing analysis of entropy and correlation between pixels value of various image encryption algorithm. From the analysis we are observin...

Hiral Rathod; Mahendra Singh Sisodia, Sanjay Kumar Sharma

2011-01-01

29

In this paper, we propose a new joint watermarking/encryption algorithm for the purpose of verifying the reliability of medical images in both encrypted and spatial domains. It combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation (QIM), with a block cipher algorithm, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), in CBC mode of operation. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins even though the image is stored encrypted. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded Ultrasound images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. By making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed solution is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22256213

Bouslimi, D; Coatrieux, G; Roux, Ch

2011-01-01

30

Chaos-based image encryption using a hybrid genetic algorithm and a DNA sequence

The paper studies a recently developed evolutionary-based image encryption algorithm. A novel image encryption algorithm based on a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) masking, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a logistic map is proposed. This study uses DNA and logistic map functions to create the number of initial DNA masks and applies GA to determine the best mask for encryption. The significant advantage of this approach is improving the quality of DNA masks to obtain the best mask that is compatible with plain images. The experimental results and computer simulations both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates excellent encryption but also resists various typical attacks.

Enayatifar, Rasul; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

2014-05-01

31

A chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a number of image encryption algorithms based on the permutation-diffusion structure have been proposed. However, the control parameters used in the permutation stage are usually fixed in the whole encryption process, which favors attacks. In this paper, a chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters is proposed. The control parameters used in the permutation stage and the keystream employed in the diffusion stage are generated from two chaotic maps related to the plain-image. As a result, the algorithm can effectively resist all known attacks against permutation-diffusion architectures. Theoretical analyses and computer simulations both confirm that the new algorithm possesses high security and fast encryption speed for practical image encryption.

32

An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

33

A new image encryption algorithm based on the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system

We propose a new image encryption algorithm on the basis of the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system. While in the process of generating a key stream, the system parameters and the derivative order are embedded in the proposed algorithm to enhance the security. Such an algorithm is detailed in terms of security analyses, including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme has the advantages of large key space and high security for practical image encryption.

Wang, Zhen; Huang, Xia; Li, Yu-Xia; Song, Xiao-Na

2013-01-01

34

A double-image encryption technique that based on an asymmetric algorithm is proposed. In this method, the encryption process is different from the decryption and the encrypting keys are also different from the decrypting keys. In the nonlinear encryption process, the images are encoded into an amplitude cyphertext, and two phase-only masks (POMs) generated based on phase truncation are kept as keys for decryption. By using the classical double random phase encoding (DRPE) system, the primary images can be collected by an intensity detector that located at the output plane. Three random POMs that applied in the asymmetric encryption can be safely applied as public keys. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and security of the proposed protocol. PMID:22714185

Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

2012-05-21

35

Analysis and improvement of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The security of digital image attracts much attention recently. In Guan et al. [Guan Z, Huang F, Guan W. Chaos-based image encryption algorithm. Phys Lett A 2005; 346: 153-7.], a chaos-based image encryption algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, the cause of potential flaws in the original algorithm is analyzed in detail, and then the corresponding enhancement measures are proposed. Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome these flaws and maintain all the merits of the original one.

36

With the fast evolution of digital data exchange and increased usage of multi media images, it is essential to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In natural images the values and position of the neighbouring pixels are strongly correlated. The method proposed in this paper, breaks this correlation increasing entropy of the position and entropy of pixel values using block shuffling and encryption by chaotic sequence respectively. The plain-image is initially row wise shuffled and first level of encryption is performed using addition modulo operation. The image is divided into blocks and then block based shuffling is performed using Arnold Cat transformation, further the blocks are uniformly scrambled across the image. Finally the shuffled image undergoes second level of encryption by bitwise XOR operation, and then the image as a whole is shuffled column wise to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully enc...

Rakesh, S; Shadakshari, B C; Annappa, B

2012-01-01

37

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to provide knowledge of safety of images which is traveling over internet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effort during encryption and decryption. In this paper I present some advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithm for encryption and decryption of an image with the same objective. Moreover we are also doing analysis of entropy and correlation between pixels value of various image encryption algorithm. From the analysis we are observing that which one is the best approach to calculate these things. Finally, it sums up with thoughts and suggestions about information security, along with a chosen example of the current proposals in security.

Hiral Rathod

2011-09-01

38

Design of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Compound Two-dimensional Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the application of image in internet, security of image became an important issue. The paper designs an image encryption algorithm. Firstly, it analyzes a symmetric image encryption scheme based on a new chaotic map. Analysis shows it isn’t enough safe. Because there are a lot of week keys and duplicate keys in encryption. The diffusion mechanism is too simple to resist plain-text attack. The paper uses two chaotic maps at the same time to solve the problems. The maps are completely different. It designs a method of key generation. Thus it has large key space and avoids the duplicate key. At the same time parts of the key are used as the parameters of classic logistic map. It solves the problem of weak key. Several simulation results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Feng Huang

2011-10-01

39

Nonlinear multiple-image encryption based on mixture retrieval algorithm in Fresnel domain

We propose a novel nonlinear multiple-image encryption based on mixture retrieval algorithm and phase mask multiplexing in Fresnel domain. The encryption process is realized by applying the Yang-Gu algorithm cascaded with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA), which generate a private key and an intermediate phase to ensure high security. In the proposed method, all images are encoded separately into a phase only function (POF). Obtained POFs are integrated into a final POF based on phase mask multiplexing. As a result, cross-talk noise is removed resulting in a large improvement of the encryption capacity. A spatial light modulator (SLM) based optical setup has been suggested for decryption. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system. Results also indicate the high robustness of the system against occlusion and noise attacks.

Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

2014-11-01

40

A fast image encryption algorithm based on only blocks in cipher text

In this paper, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed, in which the shuffling and diffusion is performed simultaneously. The cipher-text image is divided into blocks and each block has k ×k pixels, while the pixels of the plain-text are scanned one by one. Four logistic maps are used to generate the encryption key stream and the new place in the cipher image of plain image pixels, including the row and column of the block which the pixel belongs to and the place where the pixel would be placed in the block. After encrypting each pixel, the initial conditions of logistic maps would be changed according to the encrypted pixel's value; after encrypting each row of plain image, the initial condition would also be changed by the skew tent map. At last, it is illustrated that this algorithm has a faster speed, big key space, and better properties in withstanding differential attacks, statistical analysis, known plaintext, and chosen plaintext attacks.

Wang, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Qian

2014-03-01

41

Single-channel color image encryption using phase retrieve algorithm in fractional Fourier domain

A single-channel color image encryption is proposed based on a phase retrieve algorithm and a two-coupled logistic map. Firstly, a gray scale image is constituted with three channels of the color image, and then permuted by a sequence of chaotic pairs generated by the two-coupled logistic map. Secondly, the permutation image is decomposed into three new components, where each component is encoded into a phase-only function in the fractional Fourier domain with a phase retrieve algorithm that is proposed based on the iterative fractional Fourier transform. Finally, an interim image is formed by the combination of these phase-only functions and encrypted into the final gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using chaotic diffusion, which has camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, chaotic permutation and diffusion makes the resultant image nonlinear and disorder both in spatial domain and frequency domain, and the proposed phase iterative algorithm has faster convergent speed. Additionally, the encryption scheme enlarges the key space of the cryptosystem. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

Sui, Liansheng; Xin, Meiting; Tian, Ailing; Jin, Haiyan

2013-12-01

42

In this paper we propose a joint encryption/watermarking algorithm for the purpose of protecting medical images. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins as its attachment to one patient even if the image is stored encrypted. In this study, the given solution combines the RC4 stream cipher and two substitutive watermarking modulations: the Least Significant Bit Method and the Quantization Index Modulation. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded echographic images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. At least, a capacity rate of 1 and 0.5 bits of message per pixel of image can be embedded in the spatial and the encrypted domains respectively, with a peak signal to noise ratio greater than 49 dB. PMID:22054815

Bouslimi, Dalel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Roux, Christian

2012-04-01

43

A novel image encryption algorithm based on chaos maps with Markov properties

In order to construct high complexity, secure and low cost image encryption algorithm, a class of chaos with Markov properties was researched and such algorithm was also proposed. The kind of chaos has higher complexity than the Logistic map and Tent map, which keeps the uniformity and low autocorrelation. An improved couple map lattice based on the chaos with Markov properties is also employed to cover the phase space of the chaos and enlarge the key space, which has better performance than the original one. A novel image encryption algorithm is constructed on the new couple map lattice, which is used as a key stream generator. A true random number is used to disturb the key which can dynamically change the permutation matrix and the key stream. From the experiments, it is known that the key stream can pass SP800-22 test. The novel image encryption can resist CPA and CCA attack and differential attack. The algorithm is sensitive to the initial key and can change the distribution the pixel values of the image. The correlation of the adjacent pixels can also be eliminated. When compared with the algorithm based on Logistic map, it has higher complexity and better uniformity, which is nearer to the true random number. It is also efficient to realize which showed its value in common use.

Liu, Quan; Li, Pei-yue; Zhang, Ming-chao; Sui, Yong-xin; Yang, Huai-jiang

2015-02-01

44

Strengths and weaknesses of optical encryption algorithms

Many image encryption algorithms have been proposed over recent years Refs. 1-8, to cite a few. Many of these algorithms can be implemented using optical techniques taking advantage of both the natural two dimensional (2D) imaging capabilities of optics and the parallelisms achievable with optical processing. Optical systems are also capable of encrypting real world 3D objects [9]. The output of an encryption system is complex valued. Digital holographic techniques have been used to record hi...

2005-01-01

45

Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.

Mr. Balika J. Chelliah

2014-03-01

46

A novel chaotic block image encryption algorithm based on dynamic random growth technique

This paper proposes a new block image encryption scheme based on hybrid chaotic maps and dynamic random growth technique. Since cat map is periodic and can be easily cracked by chosen plaintext attack, we use cat map in another securer way, which can completely eliminate the cyclical phenomenon and resist chosen plaintext attack. In the diffusion process, an intermediate parameter is calculated according to the image block. The intermediate parameter is used as the initial parameter of chaotic map to generate random data stream. In this way, the generated key streams are dependent on the plaintext image, which can resist the chosen plaintext attack. The experiment results prove that the proposed encryption algorithm is secure enough to be used in image transmission systems.

Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Lintao; Zhang, Yingqian

2015-03-01

47

The existing ways to encrypt images based on compressive sensing usually treat the whole measurement matrix as the key, which renders the key too large to distribute and memorize or store. To solve this problem, a new image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm is proposed to realize compression and encryption simultaneously, where the key is easily distributed, stored or memorized. The input image is divided into 4 blocks to compress and encrypt, then the pixels of the two adjacent blocks are exchanged randomly by random matrices. The measurement matrices in compressive sensing are constructed by utilizing the circulant matrices and controlling the original row vectors of the circulant matrices with logistic map. And the random matrices used in random pixel exchanging are bound with the measurement matrices. Simulation results verify the effectiveness, security of the proposed algorithm and the acceptable compression performance.

Zhou, Nanrun; Zhang, Aidi; Zheng, Fen; Gong, Lihua

2014-10-01

48

Image Encryption Based on Improved Chaotic Sequences

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is an active and challenging research area. This article proposes a transposing and scrambling image encryption algorithm based on improved hyper-chaotic sequence to provide enhanced security for encrypted image transmission. The algorithm processes the hyper-chaotic sequence according to the pixel information, which makes the keys be sensitive to original image. Then we apply scrambling and transposing operation to the pixels in image, according to separate scrambling keys and grayscale transposing keys. The result of simulation shows that, the encryption algorithm proposed by this article is effective in image encryption and decryption, which could enhance the security of image encryption and reduce the risk of attack

Ming-yang YU

2013-12-01

49

Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.

50

Novel Image Encryption based on Quantum Walks.

Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889

Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng

2015-01-01

51

Novel Image Encryption based on Quantum Walks

Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889

Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng

2015-01-01

52

Novel Image Encryption based on Quantum Walks

Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng

2015-01-01

53

3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.

Pawan N. Khade

2012-05-01

54

IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is one of the most methods of information hiding. A novel secure encryption method for image encryption is presented in this study. The proposed algorithm based on using singular value decomposition SVD. In this study we start to scramble the image data according to suggested keys (two sequence scrambling process with two different keys to finally create two different matrices. The diagonal matrix from the SVD will be interchanged with the resulted matrices. Another scrambling and diagonal matrices interchange will apply to increase the complexity. The resulted two matrices combine to one matrix according to predefined procedure. The encrypted image is a meaningfull image. The suggested method tested with many images encryption and gives promised results.

Nidhal K. El Abbadi

2014-01-01

55

METRICS OF A NEW SYMMETRICAL ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,CAST, UMARAM and RC6 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. The authentication protocols have been used for authentication and key-exchange processes. A new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper to prevent the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data-exchange in Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN. The new symmetrical algorithm avoids the key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption, decryption, and authentication processes. It operates at a data rate higher than DES, 3DES, AES, UMARAM and RC6 algorithms. It is applied on a text file and an image as an application. The encryption becomes more secure and high data rate than DES,3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for the encryption algorithms like DES, 3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6 at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

Dr. R. UMARANI

2011-12-01

56

3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substit...

Khade, Pawan N.; Manish Narnaware

2012-01-01

57

A Novel Text to Image Encryption Technique by AES Rijndael Algorithm with Color Code Conversion

Transmission of secure data through the communication spectrum is major issue in current scenario. To ensure the security of the data, many techniques and algorithms were evolved in which the cryptographic techniques are most powerful. Through cryptographic algorithms, the conversion of plain text into unintelligible form made it more secure and protect data from unauthorized users. The proposed scheme focus on the block cipher substitution method that encrypts the given text into blocks. In ...

Shanthi; Palanisamy, Dr V.

2014-01-01

58

Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform

In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.

Vilardy, Juan M.; Useche, J.; Torres, C. O.; Mattos, L.

2011-01-01

59

Image encryption using P-Fibonacci transform and decomposition

Image encryption is an effective method to protect images or videos by transferring them into unrecognizable formats for different security purposes. To improve the security level of bit-plane decomposition based encryption approaches, this paper introduces a new image encryption algorithm by using a combination of parametric bit-plane decomposition along with bit-plane shuffling and resizing, pixel scrambling and data mapping. The algorithm utilizes the Fibonacci P-code for image bit-plane decomposition and the 2D P-Fibonacci transform for image encryption because they are parameter dependent. Any new or existing method can be used for shuffling the order of the bit-planes. Simulation analysis and comparisons are provided to demonstrate the algorithm's performance for image encryption. Security analysis shows the algorithm's ability against several common attacks. The algorithm can be used to encrypt images, biometrics and videos.

Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos; Chen, C. L. Philip

2012-03-01

60

Efficient Image Encryption Using a Chaos-based PWL Memristor

An image encryption algorithm based on the chaotic system has been increasingly used, but the disadvantages of small key space, weak security in low dimensional chaotic cryptosystems, simple chaotic system, and inconvenient for hardware implementation, are obvious. This paper presents a new image encryption algorithm based on chaos with the PWL memristor in Chua?s circuit. This encryption algorithm includes two main operations of image scrambling and pixel replacement. Simulations show...

Lin Zhaohui; Wang Hongxia

2010-01-01

61

A Literature Review on Image Encryption Techniques

Image encryption plays a paramount part to guarantee classified transmission and capacity of image over web. Then again, a real-time image encryption confronts a more noteworthy test because of vast measure of information included. This paper exhibits an audit on image encryption in spatial, frequency and hybrid domains with both full encryption and selective encryption strategy.

Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq

2014-12-01

62

Hybrid Encryption Algorithms in Cloud Computing

The security issues of user privacy and data have become one of the most important factors in cloud computing. In this paper we focus on data encryption and study how to improve the security of data in the cloud through data encryption. Combining the feature of traditional encryption algorithms and the character of cloud platform, we design three hybrid encryption algorithms 3DES-AES, TDAES and TDAESalt. Experiment results show that the designed algorithms ...

Ping Guo; Liping Su; Lijiang Ning; Guangxiang Dan

2013-01-01

63

Scalable Image Encryption Based Lossless Image Compression

Present days processing of the image compression is the main protective representation with considerable data process on each image progression. Traditionally more number of techniques were introduced for during efficient progression in image compression on the data set representation process of application development. A content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, a data hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image...

Mrs. Nimse Madhuri S; Mahajan, Dr P. M.

2014-01-01

64

A Summarization on Image Encryption

With the fast development of the computer technology and information processing technology, the problem of information security is becoming more and more important. Information hiding is usually used to protect the important information from disclosing when it is transmitting over an insecure channel. Digital image encryption is one of the most important methods of image information hiding and camouflage. The image encryption techniques mainly include compression methodology, modern cryptogra...

Zhou Shihua; Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Zhou Changjun

2010-01-01

65

A NOVEL THRESHOLD BASED IMAGE ENCRYPTION FOR BITMAP IMAGES?

Cryptography is the science of converting confidential information into unintelligible format. To provide security and authentication to the data, many algorithms and techniques were evolved, in which the cryptographic techniques remains best. For the encryption process, Images were considered as the best source to maintain security. The usage of image is good solution for providing better communication. In this proposed method, a new image encryption method is placed. According to proposed m...

Berlin, K.; Padmapriya?, A.

2014-01-01

66

Image Encryption with Space-filling Curves

Conventional encryption techniques are usually applicable for text data and often unsuited for encrypting multimedia objects for two reasons. Firstly, the huge sizes associated with multimedia objects make conventional encryption computationally costly. Secondly, multimedia objects come with massive redundancies which are useful in avoiding encryption of the objects in their entirety. Hence a class of encryption techniques devoted to encrypting multimedia objects like images have been develop...

Suresh, V.; Veni Madhavan, C. E.

2012-01-01

67

Degradative encryption: An efficient way to protect SPIHT compressed images

Degradative encryption, a new selective image encryption paradigm, is proposed to encrypt only a small part of image data to make the detail blurred but keep the skeleton discernible. The efficiency is further optimized by combining compression and encryption. A format-compliant degradative encryption algorithm based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is then proposed, and the scheme is designed to work in progressive mode for gaining a tradeoff between efficiency and security. Extensive experiments are conducted to evaluate the strength and efficiency of the scheme, and it is found that less than 10% data need to be encrypted for a secure degradation. In security analysis, the scheme is verified to be immune to cryptographic attacks as well as those adversaries utilizing image processing techniques. The scheme can find its wide applications in online try-and-buy service on mobile devices, searchable multimedia encryption in cloud computing, etc.

Xiang, Tao; Qu, Jinyu; Yu, Chenyun; Fu, Xinwen

2012-11-01

68

Optical double image encryption employing a pseudo image technique in the Fourier domain

A novel optical encryption method is proposed involving double image encryption in which one image is introduced as the pseudo image while the other is the original object image. The Double Random Phase Encoding technique is used to encrypt both the pseudo and object images into complex images. A unique binary image is then employed to first generate the random phase key for the object image encryption and then to embed the encrypted object image into the encrypted pseudo image, which acts as host image. Both the second random phase mask used for encoding the pseudo image and the binary image act as encryption keys. If an attacker attempts to crack the random phase key and decrypt the original object image, the pseudo image will be obtained instead. Simulation results and robustness tests are performed which demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm.

Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.

2014-06-01

69

A review of optical image encryption techniques

In this paper we review a number of optical image encryption techniques proposed in the literature inspired by the architecture of the classic optical Double Random Phase Encoding (DRPE) system. The optical DRPE method and its numerical simulation algorithm are first investigated in relation to the sampling considerations at various stages of the system according to the spreading of the input signal in both the space and spatial frequency domains. Then the several well-known optically inspired encryption techniques are examined and categorized into all optical techniques and image scrambling techniques. Each method is numerically implemented and compared with the optical DRPE scheme, in which random phase diffusers (masks) are applied after different transformations. The optical system used for each method is first illustrated and the corresponding unitary numerical algorithm implementation is then investigated in order to retain the properties of the optical counterpart. The simulation results for the sensitivities of the various encryption keys are presented and the robustness of each method is examined. This overview allows the numerical simulations of the corresponding optical encryption systems, and the extra degree of freedom (keys) provided by different techniques that enhance the optical encryption security, to be generally appreciated and briefly compared and contrasted.

Liu, Shi; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.

2014-04-01

70

A NOVEL THRESHOLD BASED IMAGE ENCRYPTION FOR BITMAP IMAGES?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is the science of converting confidential information into unintelligible format. To provide security and authentication to the data, many algorithms and techniques were evolved, in which the cryptographic techniques remains best. For the encryption process, Images were considered as the best source to maintain security. The usage of image is good solution for providing better communication. In this proposed method, a new image encryption method is placed. According to proposed methodology, the given image is encrypted as stream ciphers based on the threshold value computed. Two stages were being defined for proposed methodology, first one is the threshold computation, and second one is encryption. This method remains securable and quick access of data is taken place.

K.Berlin

2014-07-01

71

We present a novel method for multiple-image encryption by combining modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) with phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In this proposal, the primitive images are firstly encoded into a single synthetic complex image by phase mutual encoding and MGSA based on GT. Then the complex encoded image is further converted into two computer-generated POMs by carrying out MGSA again in GT domains. The proposed scheme has not any capability limitation that is caused by crosstalk effect between multiplexing images. An optical cascaded GT architecture, in which two POM ciphertexts and decryption phase keys are displayed in the input planes of GTs, respectively, can be employed for decryption. Combined with the POMs as main keys, the transform angles and wavelength of GTs can further increase the security of this system by offering very sensitive additional keys. Moreover, one can adjust the transform angles of GT flexibly without using any axis movement. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang

2014-06-01

72

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SECURITY BASED ON ENCRYPTED HYBRID COMPRESSION

In this research, we propose an image security scheme using hybrid compression techniques. In this scheme, the data is being provided two-fold security by both encryption stage and hiding stage. The data/message which has to be secured undergoes encryption technique at the initial stage. In this stage, the permutation algorithm is employed which requires a pair of numbers as a key to permute the original message. Following the encryption stage, the deformed message is then embedded onto a JPE...

Ramkumar, D.; Jacob Raglend, I.

2014-01-01

73

Evaluating The Performance of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the needs to protect such applications are increased. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information security systems. On the other side, those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. This paper provides evaluation of six of the most common encryption algorithms namely: AES (Rijndael, DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

Diaa Salama Abd Elminaam

2010-05-01

74

Performance Evaluation of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the needs to protect such applications are increased. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information security systems. On the other side, those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. This paper provides evaluation of six of the most common encryption algorithms namely: AES (Rijndael, DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types ,battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

D. S. Abdul. Elminaam

2009-12-01

75

Image Encryption Using Novel Mappings over GF(2^n

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galois Field GF(2^n is valuable to encryption and has been used in some famous encryption algorithms, such as BCH and AES. In practical application, image encryptions are used widely to protect information in transmission. This paper will propose two image encryption techniques based on two novel mappings over GF(2^n: One involves a transformation consisting of a linear transformation and a Frobenius automorphism, which shuffles pixels’ positions, that is, a permutation, giving a good diffusion effect, and another one alters pixels’ values and gives dramatic confusion effect. Key Words: Galois field; Frobenius automorphism; Linear transformation; Confusion; Diffusion

Ruisong YE

2011-02-01

76

What we believe to be a new technique, based on a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) and a phase modulation scheme in the Fresnel-transform domain, is proposed to reduce cross talks existing in multiple-image encryption and multiplexing. First, each plain image is encoded and multiplexed into a phase function by using the MGSA and a different wavelength/position parameter. Then all the created phase functions are phase modulated to result in different shift amounts of the reconstruction images before being combined together into a single phase-only function. Simulation results show that the cross talks between multiplexed images have been significantly reduced, compared with prior methods [Opt. Lett.30, 1306 (2005); J. Opt. A8, 391 (2006)], thus presenting high promise in increasing the multiplexing capacity and encrypting grayscale and color images. PMID:20016657

Hwang, Hone-Ene; Chang, Hsuan T; Lie, Wen-Nung

2009-12-15

77

Fractional Fourier transform and chaos functions play a key role in many of encryption-decryption algorithms. In this work performance of image encryption-decryption algorithms is quantified and compared using the computation time i.e. the time consumption of encryption-decryption process and resemblance of input image to the restored image, quantified by MSE. This work proposes an improvement in computation-time of image encryptiondecryption algorithms by utilizing image co...

Sharma, Prerana

2013-01-01

78

Image encryption with fractional wavelet packet method

We introduce a new method called fractional wavelet packet transform to encrypt images in this paper, in which fractional orders and wavelet packet filter are its two series of keys. Fractional orders are additional keys in this method compared to wavelet packet encryptions. Selected image encryption is also proposed in this paper, and it is quite more flexible and effective than wavelet, fractional wavelet or wavelet packet encryptions. The possible optical implementation and digital computation are proposed. Computer simulations prove its feasibility.

Chen, Linfei; Zhao, Daomu

2008-05-01

79

Digital image encryption with chaotic map lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a secure approach for encryption and decryption of digital images with chaotic map lattices. In the proposed encryption process, eight different types of operations are used to encrypt the pixels of an image and one of them will be used for particular pixels decided by the outcome of the chaotic map lattices. To make the cipher more robust against any attacks, the secret key is modified after encrypting each block of sixteen pixels of the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme achieves high security and efficiency. (general)

80

A novel image encryption scheme based on spatial chaos map

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, the chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. In this paper, spatial chaos system are used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail. The basic idea is to encrypt the image in space with spatial chaos map pixel by pixel, and then the pixels are confused in multiple directions of space. Using this method one cycle, the image becomes indistinguishable in space due to inherent properties of spatial chaotic systems. Several experimental results, key sensitivity tests, key space analysis, and statistical analysis show that the approach for image cryptosystems provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission from the cryptographic viewpoint.

Sun Fuyan [College of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: fuyan.sun@gmail.com; Liu Shutang [College of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li Zhongqin [HeiLongJiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China); Lue Zongwang [Information and Communication College, Guilin University of Electronic and Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Corporate Engineering Department, Johnson Electric Co. Ltd., Shenzhen 518125 (China)

2008-11-15

81

Studying the Effects of Most Common Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless networks play critical roles in present work, home, and public places, so the needs of protecting of suchnetworks are increased. Encryption algorithms play vital roles in information systems security. Those algorithms consume asignificant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. CPU and memory usability areincreasing with a suitable rates, but battery technology is increasing at slower rate. The problem of the slower increasingbattery technology forms “battery gap”. The design of efficient secure protocols for wireless devices from the view of batteryconsumption needs to understand how encryption techniques affect the consumption of battery power with and without datatransmission. This paper studies the effects of six of the most common symmetric encryption algorithms on power consumptionfor wireless devices. at different settings for each algorithm. These setting include different sizes of data blocks, different datatypes (text, images, and audio file, battery power consumption, different key size, different cases of transmission of the data ,effect of varying signal to noise ratio and finally encryption/decryption speed. The experimental results show the superiority oftwo encryption algorithm over other algorithms in terms of the power consumption, processing time, and throughput .Theseresults can aid in new design of security protocol where energy efficiency is the main focus. Some suggestions for design ofsecure communications systems to handle the varying wireless environment have been provided to reduce the energyconsumption of security protocols.

Diaa Salama

2011-01-01

82

Image Encryption: An Information Security Perceptive

Information security purported, yet another retrospected technique for secret sharing, highlighted by image encryption. Encryption of images is proven a successful method to communicate confidential information for which countless procedures are unearthed. Still, it continues attracting researchers as usage of images in every means of digital communication has phenomenally increased. Cryptography embraces various encryption methods and offers four chief modes where each one has found its plac...

Narasimhan Aarthie; Rengarajan Amirtharajan

2014-01-01

83

Image Encryption Based on Diffusion and Multiple Chaotic Maps

In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative way to ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one of them has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the image encryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption technique using multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by using chaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformation leads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on the initial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps. Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key for the encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryption algorit...

Sathishkumar, G A; Sriraam, Dr N; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3214

2011-01-01

84

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SECURITY BASED ON ENCRYPTED HYBRID COMPRESSION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, we propose an image security scheme using hybrid compression techniques. In this scheme, the data is being provided two-fold security by both encryption stage and hiding stage. The data/message which has to be secured undergoes encryption technique at the initial stage. In this stage, the permutation algorithm is employed which requires a pair of numbers as a key to permute the original message. Following the encryption stage, the deformed message is then embedded onto a JPEG image by considering the low and high quantization tables. The main motivation behind this research work is to provide image security through compression. The final result is an encrypted and compressed JPEG image with a different image quality. The receiver has to perform the reverse process to extract the original data/information. The performance analysis is performed in terms of PSNR for different quantization tables.

D. Ramkumar

2014-01-01

85

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digitalni multimedijalni sadržaj postaje zastupljeniji i sve više se razmenjuje putem ra?unarskih mreža i javnih kanala (satelitske komunikacije, beži?ne mreže, internet, itd. koji predstavljaju nebezbedne medijume za prenos informacija osetljive sadržine. Sve više na zna?aju dobijaju mehanizmi kriptološke zaštite slika i video sadržaja. Tradicionalni sistemi kriptografske obrade u sistemima za prenos ovih vrsta informacija garantuju visok stepen sigurnosti, ali i imaju svoje nedostatke - visoku cenu implementacije i znatno kašnjenje u prenosu podataka. Pomenuti nedostaci se prevazilaze primenom algoritama selektivnog šifrovanja. / Digital multimedia content is becoming widely used and increasingly exchanged over computer network and public channels (satelite, wireless networks, Internet, etc. which is unsecured transmission media for ex changing that kind of information. Mechanisms made to encrypt image and video data are becoming more and more significant. Traditional cryptographic techniques can guarantee a high level of security but at the cost of expensive implementation and important transmission delays. These shortcomings can be exceeded using selective encryption algorithms. Introduction In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES - Data Encryption Algorithm, IDEA - International Data Encryption Algorithm, AES - Advanced Encryption Algorithm etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data, high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth, make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of traditional systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities on the delivery site coder and decoder on the receiving site. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. As its name says, it consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. Theoretical foundation of selective encryption The first theoretical foundation of selective encryption was given indirectly by Claude Elwood Shannon in his work about communication theory of secrecy systems. It is well known that statistics for image and video data differ much from classical text data. Indeed, image and video data are strongly correlated and have strong spatial/temporal redundancy. Evaluation criteria for selective encryption algorithm performance evaluation We need to define a set of evaluation criteria that will help evaluating and comparing selective encryption algorithms. - Tunability - Visual degradation - Cryptographic security - Encryption ratio - Compression friendliness - Format compliance - Error tolerance Classification of selective encryption algorithms One possible classification of selective encryption algorithms is relative to when encryption is performed with respect to compression. This classification is adequate since it has intrinsic consequences on selective encryption algorithms behavior. We consider three classes of algorithms as follows: - Precompression - Incompression - Postcompression Overview of selective encryption algorithms In accordance with their precedently defined classification, selective encryption algorithms were compared, briefly described with advantages and disadvantages and their quality was assessed. Applications Selective encryption mechanisms became more and more important and can be applied in many different areas. Some potential application areas of this mechanism are: - Monitoring encrypted content - PDAs (PDA - Personal Digital Assistant, mobile phones, and other mobile terminals - Multiple encryptions - Transcodability/scalability of encrypted content Conclusion As we can see through foregoing analysis, we can notice that tunability, cryptographic security and error tolerance are the main unsatisfied criteria. Sel

Boriša Ž. Jovanovi?

2010-10-01

86

How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?

Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, da...

El-zoghdy, Said F.; Nada, Yasser A.; Abdo, A. A.

2011-01-01

87

Securing Image Transmission Using in- Compression Encryption Technique

Multimedia is one of the most popular data shared in the Web, and the protection of it via encryption techniques is of vast interest. In this paper, a secure and computationally feasible Algorithm called Optimized Multiple Huffman Tables (OMHT) technique is proposed. OMHT depends on using statisticalmodelbased compression method to generate different tables from the same data type of images or videos to be encrypted leading to increase compression efficiency and security of the used tables. A...

El-said, Shaimaa A.; Hussein, Khalid F. A.; Fouad, Mohamed M.

2010-01-01

88

Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption

This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations in the dynamics of the system. Such defects are illuminated through a new technique of generalized post proceeding with very low hardware cost. The thesis further discusses two encryption algorithms designed and implemented as a block cipher and a stream cipher. The security of both systems is thoroughly analyzed and the performance is compared with other reported systems showing a superior results. Both systems are realized on Xilinx Vetrix-4 FPGA with a hardware and throughput performance surpassing known encryption systems.

Barakat, Mohamed L.

2012-06-01

89

Techniques for a selective encryption of uncompressed and compressed images

This paper describes several techniques to encrypt uncompressed and compressed images. We first present the aims of image encryption. In the usual ways to encryption, all the information is encrypted. But this is not mandatory. In this paper we follow the principles of a technique initially proposed by MAPLES et al. [1] and encrypt only a part of the image content in order to be able to visualize the encrypted images, although not with full precision. This concept leads to techniques that can...

Droogenbroeck, Marc; Benedett, Raphae?l

2002-01-01

90

Optical image encryption by random shifting in fractional Fourier domains.

A number of methods have recently been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional information by use of optical systems based on the fractional Fourier transform. Typically, these methods require random phase screen keys for decrypting the data, which must be stored at the receiver and must be carefully aligned with the received encrypted data. A new technique based on a random shifting, or jigsaw, algorithm is proposed. This method does not require the use of phase keys. The image is encrypted by juxtaposition of sections of the image in fractional Fourier domains. The new method has been compared with existing methods and shows comparable or superior robustness to blind decryption. Optical implementation is discussed, and the sensitivity of the various encryption keys to blind decryption is examined. PMID:12653368

Hennelly, B; Sheridan, J T

2003-02-15

91

Image Encryption Using Novel Mappings over GF(2^n

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galois Field GF(2^*n* is valuable to encryption and has been used in some famous encryption algorithms, such as BCH and AES. In practical application, image encryptions are used widely to protect information in transmission. This paper will propose two image encryption techniques based on two novel mappings over GF(2^*n*: One involves a transformation consisting of a linear transformation and a *Frobenius automorphism*, which shuffles pixels’ positions, that is, a permutation, giving a good diffusion effect, and another one alters pixels’ values and gives dramatic confusion effect. **Key Words:** Galois field; Frobenius automorphism; Linear transformation; Confusion; Diffusion

Liebin YAN

2010-12-01

92

The Application Research of MD5 Encryption Algorithm in DCT Digital Watermarking

This article did the preliminary study of the application of algorithm for MD5 in the digital watermark. It proposed that copyright information will be encrypted using an algorithm MD5, and made rules for the second value image watermarks, through DCT algorithm that embeds an image by the carrier. The extraction algorithms can pick up the watermark and restore MD5 code.

Xijin, Wang; Linxiu, Fan

93

VLSI Implementation of Data Encryption Standard Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are two main types of cryptography in use today –symmetrico rsecret key cryptography and a symmetric or public key cryptography. Symmetric key cryptography is the oldest type whereas asymmetric cryptography is only being used publicly since the late 1970’s 1 . Asymmetric cryptography was a major milestone in the search for a perfect encryption scheme. Secret key cryptography goes back to at least Egyptian times and is of concern here. It involves the use of only one key which is used for both encryption and decryption (hence the use of the term symmetric. Figure 2.1 depicts this idea. It is necessary for security purposes that the secret key never be revealed To accomplish encryption, most secret key algorithms use two main techniques known assubstitutionandpermutation. Substitution is simply a mapping of one value to another whereas permutation is a reordering of the bit positions for each of the inputs. These techniques are used a number of times in iterations called rounds. Generally, the more rounds there are, the more secure the algrithm. A non-linearity is also introduced into the encryption so that decryption will be computationally infeasible 2 without the secret key. This is achieved with the use of S-boxes which are basically non-linear substitution tables where either the output is smaller than the input or viceversa.

Naveen Kumar,

2012-11-01

94

Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method

95

Image Encryption Based On Diffusion And Multiple Chaotic Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative wayto ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one ofthem has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the imageencryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption techniqueusing multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by usingchaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformationleads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on theinitial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps.Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key forthe encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryptionalgorithm. The input image of 2-D is transformed into a 1- D array by using two different scanningpattern (raster and Zigzag and then divided into various sub blocks. Then the position permutation andvalue permutation is applied to each binary matrix based on multiple chaos maps. Finally the receiveruses the same sub keys to decrypt the encrypted images. The salient features of the proposed imageencryption method are loss-less, good peak signal –to noise ratio (PSNR, Symmetric key encryption, lesscross correlation, very large number of secret keys, and key-dependent pixel value replacement.

G.A.Sathishkumar

2011-03-01

96

OCML-based colour image encryption

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new ways to develop efficient image-encryption schemes. While most of these schemes are based on low-dimensional chaotic maps, it has been proposed recently to use high-dimensional chaos namely spatiotemporal chaos, which is modelled by one-way coupled-map lattices (OCML). Owing to their hyperchaotic behaviour, such systems are assumed to enhance the cryptosystem security. In this paper, we propose an OCML-based colour image encryption scheme with a stream cipher structure. We use a 192-bit-long external key to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of the OCML. We have made several tests to check the security of the proposed cryptosystem namely, statistical tests including histogram analysis, calculus of the correlation coefficients of adjacent pixels, security test against differential attack including calculus of the number of pixel change rate (NPCR) and unified average changing intensity (UACI), and entropy calculus. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well.

Rhouma, Rhouma [6' tel, Ecole Superieure de Telecommunications (Sup' com), BP Numero 50, 6014 Mtorech, Gabes (Tunisia)], E-mail: rhoouma@yahoo.fr; Meherzi, Soumaya [6' tel, Ecole Superieure de Telecommunications (Sup' com), BP Numero 50, 6014 Mtorech, Gabes (Tunisia); LSS/SUPELEC/CNRS, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France)], E-mail: mehrzi@lss.supelec.fr; Belghith, Safya [6' tel, Ecole Superieure de Telecommunications (Sup' com), BP Numero 50, 6014 Mtorech, Gabes (Tunisia)], E-mail: safya.belghith@enit.rnu.tn

2009-04-15

97

Image Encryption: An Information Security Perceptive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information security purported, yet another retrospected technique for secret sharing, highlighted by image encryption. Encryption of images is proven a successful method to communicate confidential information for which countless procedures are unearthed. Still, it continues attracting researchers as usage of images in every means of digital communication has phenomenally increased. Cryptography embraces various encryption methods and offers four chief modes where each one has found its place in many journals. This study takes cryptographic Cipher Block Chaining (CBC mode as the fundamental footing which is manipulated in a unique fashion to achieve the goal. This script is coalescing of both Steganography and Cryptography thus ensuring enhanced security. Tentative results testify the routine and thus making it more upright of previously existing image encryption techniques.

Narasimhan Aarthie

2014-01-01

98

We propose a new method using coherent diffractive imaging for optical color-image encryption and synthesis in the Fresnel domain. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encryption system is applied, and a strategy based on lateral translations of a phase-only mask is employed during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to extract high-quality decrypted color images from diffraction intensity maps (i.e., ciphertexts). In addition, optical color-image synthesis is also investigated based on coherent diffractive imaging. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with conventional interference methods, coherent diffractive imaging approach may open up a new research perspective or can provide an effective alternative for optical color-image encryption and synthesis. PMID:22418142

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

2012-02-13

99

this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.

Krishnamurthy G N; Ramaswamy, Dr V.

2009-01-01

100

this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.

Krishnamurthy, G N

2010-01-01

101

Efficient compression of encrypted grayscale images.

Lossless compression of encrypted sources can be achieved through Slepian-Wolf coding. For encrypted real-world sources, such as images, the key to improve the compression efficiency is how the source dependency is exploited. Approaches in the literature that make use of Markov properties in the Slepian-Wolf decoder do not work well for grayscale images. In this correspondence, we propose a resolution progressive compression scheme which compresses an encrypted image progressively in resolution, such that the decoder can observe a low-resolution version of the image, study local statistics based on it, and use the statistics to decode the next resolution level. Good performance is observed both theoretically and experimentally. PMID:20028632

Liu, Wei; Zeng, Wenjun; Dong, Lina; Yao, Qiuming

2010-04-01

102

Image encryption using TSRMSC associated with DWT

A novel technique for gray scale image encryption and decryption scheme using two stage random matrix shift cipher (TSRMSC) associated with discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is proposed. Earlier proposed schemes for encoding and decoding of images discuss only about the keys, but in our proposed approach, keys and the arrangement of random matrix shift cipher parameters are mandatory. We have formulated a formula for the all possible range to choose keys for encrypting and decrypting an image. An examples of computer simulation are give to analyze the capability of this proposed technique. The encrypted image is robust to decoding even on the application of exact keys if the correct arrangement is unknown to the decoder. We have also given comparison between our proposed approach with P. Kumar et al. (J. Opt. 14 (2012) 045401 (8pp)).

Kumar, Manish

2013-10-01

103

Encryption of database is an important topic for research, as secure and efficient encryption algorithms are needed that provide the ability to query over encrypted database and allow optimized encryption and decryption of data. There is always a compromise between the degree of security provided by encryption algorithm and the efficient querying on the database, because the encryption and decryption on database greatly degrade query performance. For this, we propose a new encryption algorith...

Priti V Bhagat, Rohit Singhal

2013-01-01

104

A Novel Encryption Scheme for Digital Image - Based on One Dimensional Logistic Map

In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on one dimensional logistic map is proposed. The chaotic cryptography technique concentrates in general on the symmetric key cryptographic technique. In the proposed algorithm, a random key table lookup criterion was combined with a one-dimensional chaotic map were used for high degree 2-stage security image encryption while maintaining acceptable overhead delay time. The proposed algorithm is based on image row shuf...

Al-hazaimeh, Obaida M.

2014-01-01

105

Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging

Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods.

Zafari, Mohammad; kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

2014-10-01

106

Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images

Information security plays a very important role in fast growing information and communication technology. Few applications like medical image security and satellite image security needs to secure only selected portion of the image. This paper describes a concept of selective image encryption in two ways. First method divides the image in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are applied to encryption process. Second method automatically detects the positions of objects, and then selected objec...

NaveenKumar S K; Panduranga H.T

2013-01-01

107

Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information security plays a very important role in fast growing information and communication technology. Few applications like medical image security and satellite image security needs to secure only selected portion of the image. This paper describes a concept of selective image encryption in two ways. First method divides the image in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are applied to encryption process. Second method automatically detects the positions of objects, and then selected objects are applied to encryption process. Morphological techniques are used to detect the positions of the objects in given images. These two approaches are specifically developed to encrypt the portion of an image in medical images and satellite image.

NaveenKumar S K

2013-02-01

108

Developing and Evaluation of New Hybrid Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks consist of hundreds or thousands of low cost, low power and self-organizing nodes which are highly distributed. As wireless sensor networks continue to grow, so does the need for effective security mechanisms because sensor networks may interact with sensitive data. Encryption algorithms play good roles in information security systems (ISS. Those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as battery power. Wireless Sensor networks are powered by a battery which is a very limited resource. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on networks, but there are also has some drawbacks. The present asymmetric encryption methods and symmetric encryption methods can offer the security levels but with many limitations. For instance key maintenance is a great problem faced in symmetric encryption methods and less security level is the problem of asymmetric encryption methods even though key maintenance is easy. To improve the strength of these algorithms, we propose a new hybrid cryptographic algorithm in this paper. The algorithm is designed using combination of two symmetric cryptographic techniques and two Asymmetric cryptographic techniques. This protocol provides three cryptographic primitives, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. It is a hybrid encryption method where elliptical curve cryptography (ECC and advanced encryption (AES are combined to provide node encryption. RSA algorithm and Blowfish are combined to provide authentication and (MD5 for integrity. The results show that the proposed hybrid cryptographic algorithm gives better performance in terms of computation time and the size of cipher text.This paper tries to present a fair comparison between the new protocols with four existing different hybrid protocols according to power consumption. A comparison has been conducted for those protocols at different settings for each protocol such as different sizes of data blocks, and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

DiaaSalama AbdElminaam

2014-03-01

109

High Throughput AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation on FPGA

This paper describes an efficient hardware realization of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm using FPGA. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard on October 2, 2000 by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels.We use AES 128- bit block size and 128-bit cipher key for the implementation on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. Xilinx ISETM12.4 design tool is used for synthesis ...

Gurmail Singh; Rajesh Mehra,

2011-01-01

110

Image encryption based on synchronization of fractional chaotic systems

This paper deals with a synchronization scheme for two fractional chaotic systems which is applied in image encryption. Based on Pecora and Carroll (PC) synchronization, fractional-order Lorenz-like system forms a master-slave configuration, and the sufficient conditions are derived to realize synchronization between these two systems via the Laplace transformation theory. An image encryption algorithm is introduced where the original image is encoded by a nonlinear function of a fractional chaotic state. Simulation results show that the original image is well masked in the cipher texts and recovered successfully through chaotic signals. Further, the cryptanalysis is conducted in detail through histogram, information entropy, key space and sensitivity to verify the high security.

Xu, Yong; Wang, Hua; Li, Yongge; Pei, Bin

2014-10-01

111

Design and Implementation of Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on FPGA?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development and wide application of computer and communication networks, theinformation security has aroused high attention. Information security is not only applied to the political,military and diplomatic fields, but also applied to the common fields of people’s daily lives. With thecontinuous development of cryptographic techniques, the long-serving DES algorithm with 56-bit key lengthhas been broken because of the defect of short keys. The "Rijndael encryption algorithm" invented byBelgian cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen's had been chosen as the standard AES(Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm whose packet length is 128 bits and the key length is 128 bits, 192bits, or 256 bits. Since 2006, the Rijndael algorithm of advanced encryption standard has become one of themost popular algorithms in symmetric key encryption. AES can resist various currently known attacks.

K. Soumya

2013-09-01

112

Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hardware implementation. The compression algorithm decomposes images into several different parts. We have used a secured encryption algorithm to encrypt only the crucial parts, which are considerably smaller than the original image, which result in significant reduction in processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. The breadth-first traversal linear lossless quadtree decomposition method is used for the partial compression and RSA is used for the encryption. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system on four different images. We have validated the advantage of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2928 units of LC with a system frequency of 13.42MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA prototyping of a partial encryption of compressed images using lossless quadtree compression and RSA encryption has been successfully implemented with minimum logic cells. It is found that the compression process is faster than the decompression process in linear quadtree approach. Moreover, the RSA simulations show that the encryption process is faster than the decryption process for all four images tested.

Mamun B.I. Reaz

2011-01-01

113

Optical image encryption based on interference under convergent random illumination

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an optical image encryption system based on the interference principle, two pure phase masks are designed analytically to hide an image. These two masks are illuminated with a plane wavefront to retrieve the original image in the form of an interference pattern at the decryption plane. Replacement of the plane wavefront with convergent random illumination in the proposed scheme leads to an improvement in the security of interference based encryption. The proposed encryption scheme retains the simplicity of an interference based method, as the two pure masks are generated with an analytical method without any iterative algorithm. In addition to the free-space propagation distance and the two pure phase masks, the convergence distance and the randomized lens phase function are two new encryption parameters to enhance the system security. The robustness of this scheme against occlusion of the random phase mask of the randomized lens phase function is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with numerical simulation results

114

A New Encryption Method for Secure Transmission of Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach is designed for transmitting images securely using a technique called Gödelization followed by the public key encryption. The image which is to be transmitted is transformed into a sequence called Gödel Number Sequence (GNS using a new technique called Gödelization. This is compressed using Alphabetic coding AC and encrypted by an encryption method. This encryption string is transmitted and reconstructed at the decoding end by using thereverse process.

B.V.Rama Devi,

2010-12-01

115

AN IMAGE ENCRYPTION METHOD: SD-ADVANCED IMAGE ENCRYPTION STANDARD: SD-AIES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The security of digital information in modern times is one of the most important factors to keep in mind. For this reason, in this paper, the author has proposed a new standard method of image encryption. The proposed method consists of 4 different stages: 1 First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2 In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3 In third stage, generalized modified Vernam Cipher with feedback mechanism is used on the file to create the next level of encryption; 4 Finally in fourth stage, the whole image file is randomized multiple number of times using modified MSA randomization encryption technique and the randomization is dependent on another number, which is generated from the password provided for encryption method. SD-AIES is an upgraded version of SD-AEI Image Encryption Technique. The proposed method, SD-AIES is tested on different image files and the results were far more than satisfactory.

Somdip Dey

2012-01-01

116

Securing Image Transmission Using in- Compression Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia is one of the most popular data shared in the Web, and the protection of it via encryption techniques is of vast interest. In this paper, a secure and computationally feasible Algorithm called Optimized Multiple Huffman Tables (OMHT technique is proposed. OMHT depends on using statisticalmodelbased compression method to generate different tables from the same data type of images or videos to be encrypted leading to increase compression efficiency and security of the used tables. A systematic study on how to strategically integrate different atomic operations to build a multimedia encryption system is presented. The resulting system can provide superior performance over other techniques by both its generic encryption and its simple adaptation to multimedia in terms of a joint consideration of security, and bitrate overhead. The effectiveness and robustness of this scheme is verified by measuring its security strength and comparing its computational cost against other techniques. The proposed technique guarantees security, and fastness without noticeable increase in encoded image size

Shaimaa A. El-said

2010-12-01

117

Image Encryption Using Fibonacci-Lucas Transformation

Secret communication techniques are of great demand since last 3000 years due to the need of information security and confidentiality at various levels of communication such as while communicating confidential personal data, medical data of patients, defence and intelligence information of countries, data related to examinations etc. With advancements in image processing research, Image encryption and Steganographic techniques have gained popularity over other forms of hidde...

Mishra, Minati; Mishra, Priyadarsini; Adhikary, M. C.; Kumar, Sunit

2012-01-01

118

Performance Analysis of AES and MARS Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Block ciphers are very important in communication systems as they provide confidentiality through encryption. The popular block ciphers are Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and MARS algorithms. Each cipher uses several rounds of fixed operations to achieve desired security level. The security level is measured in terms of diffusion and confusion. The diffusion level should be at least equal to strict avalanche criterion (SAC value. Therefore, the number of rounds are chosen such that the algorithm provides the SAC value. This paper presents measured diffusion value of AES and MARS algorithms. Diffusion values are compared for both the algorithms: AES and MARS. Similarly, speed of each algorithm is compared.

H S Mohan

2011-07-01

119

Optimized OFDM Transmission of Encrypted Image Over Fading Channel

This paper compares the quality of diffusion-based and permutation-based encrypted image transmission using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) over wireless fading channel. Sensitivity to carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) is one of the limitations in OFDM transmission that was compensated here. Different OFDM diffusions are investigated to study encrypted image transmission optimization. Peak signal-to-noise ratio between the original image and the decrypted image is used to evaluate the received image quality. Chaotic encrypted image modulated with CFOs compensated FFT-OFDM was found to give outstanding performance against other encryption and modulation techniques.

Eldin, Salwa M. Serag

2014-11-01

120

SMOOTHING AND OPTIMAL COMPRESSION OF ENCRYPTED GRAY SCALE IMAGES

Compression efficiency of encrypted real-world sources such as images can be improved by exploiting source dependency. Lossless compression of encrypted images can be achieved through SlepianWolf coding. In this correspondence, we propose a resolution progressive compression scheme which compresses an encrypted image progressively in resolution, such that the decoder can observe a lowresolution version of the image, study local statistics based on it, and use the statistics to decode the next...

Kishore, P. S.

2012-01-01

121

On the Design of Perceptual MPEG-Video Encryption Algorithms

In this paper, some existing perceptual encryption algorithms of MPEG videos are surveyed, and a more effective design is proposed, which selectively encrypts fixed-length codewords (FLC) in MPEG-video bitstreams under the control of three perceptibility factors. Compared with the previously-proposed schemes, the new design can provide more useful features, such as strict size-preservation, on-the-fly encryption and multiple perceptibility, which makes it possible to support more applications with different requirements. Four different methods are suggested to provide better security against known/chosen-plaintext attacks.

Li, S; Cheung, A; Bhargava, B; Li, Shujun; Chen, Guanrong; Cheung, Albert; Bhargava, Bharat

2005-01-01

122

USING DYNAMIC DUAL KEYS ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM AS PARTIAL ENCRYPTION FOR A REAL-TIME DIGITAL VIDEO

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in digital video transmission have increased in the past few years. Security and privacy issues of the transmitted data have become an important concern in multimedia technology. Digital video stream is quite different from traditional textual data because interframe dependencies exist in digital video. Special digital video encryption algorithms are required because of their special characteristics, such as coding structure, large amount of data and real-time constraints. This paper presents a real-time partial encryption to digital video technique depends on Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields which is fast enough to meet the real-time requirements with high level of security. In this technique the I-frame (Intra-frame of the digital video scene is extracted and decomposed the color picture into its three color channels: luma channel (Y and two chrominance channels Cb and Cr, with note that the frames of digital video is in YCbCr color system, the Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields is applied to the Y channel. The encryption technique achieves best timing results, and it provides high level of security by its great resistant against brute force attacks.

Basima Z.Yacob

2012-01-01

123

Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain

This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...

Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105

2011-01-01

124

Image Encryption Using Chaotic Map and Block Chaining

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Full Text Available In this paper, a new Chaotic Map with Block Chaining (CMBC cryptosystem for image encryption is proposed. It is a simple block cipher based on logistic chaotic maps and cipher block chaining (CBC. The new system utilizes simplicity of implementation, high quality, and enhanced security by the combined properties of chaos and CBC cipher. Implementation of the proposed technique has been realized for experimental purposes, and tests have been carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating its high security. Results confirm that the scheme is unbreakable with reference to many of the well-known attacks. Comparative study with other algorithms indicates the superiority of CMBC security with slight increase in encryption time.

Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

2012-07-01

125

Image Encryption with Space-filling Curves (Short Communication

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Full Text Available Conventional encryption techniques are usually applicable for text data and often unsuited for encrypting multimedia objects for two reasons. Firstly, the huge sizes associated with multimedia objects make conventional encryption computationally costly. Secondly, multimedia objects come with massive redundancies which are useful in avoiding encryption of the objects in their entirety. Hence a class of encryption techniques devoted to encrypting multimedia objects like images have been developed. These techniques make use of the fact that the data comprising multimedia objects like images could in general be seggregated into two disjoint components, namely salient and non-salient. While the former component contributes to the perceptual quality of the object, the latter only adds minor details to it. In the context of images, the salient component is often much smaller in size than the non-salient component. Encryption effort is considerably reduced if only the salient component is encrypted while leaving the other component unencrypted. A key challenge is to find means to achieve a desirable seggregation so that the unencrypted component does not reveal any information about the object itself. In this study, an image encryption approach that uses fractal structures–known as space-filling curves- in order to reduce the encryption overload is presented. In addition, the approach also enables a high quality lossy compression of images.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.46-50, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1441

V. Suresh

2012-01-01

126

Implementation Of Encryption Algorithm For Communication By Microcontrollers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract- This paper presents novel architecture for the Advanced Encryption algorithm to use it on low end microcontrollers with less number of bits. Now a day’s communication with high data rate transmission and less power consuming system is required which will deliver less error. Though the data rate is enhanced we try to keep things less complicated with respect to its manufacturing and packaging. Thus rather than going for more bits microcontroller we try to implement it with low bit size microcontrollers, which is also a cost effective. As we have heard that from ancient times it was the trend to use coded language for highly secured data as well as for fast communication on the same basis The algorithm used here encrypts frame information using an encrypted key. The key undergoes 4 stages of encryption. Then the frame information is passed through 15 stages of encryption using the encrypted key to create a cipher text. So that system will deliver less error and guaranteed communication is possible.

Udayan Patankar

2014-04-01

127

A joint encryption/watermarking system for verifying the reliability of medical images.

In this paper, we propose a joint encryption/water-marking system for the purpose of protecting medical images. This system is based on an approach which combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation, with an encryption algorithm: a stream cipher algorithm (e.g., the RC4) or a block cipher algorithm (e.g., the AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode of operation). Our objective is to give access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origin even though the image is stored encrypted. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. The security analysis of our scheme and experimental results achieved on 8-bit depth ultrasound images as well as on 16-bit encoded positron emission tomography images demonstrate the capability of our system to securely make available security attributes in both spatial and encrypted domains while minimizing image distortion. Furthermore, by making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed system is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22801525

Bouslimi, Dalel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cozic, Michel; Roux, Christian

2012-09-01

128

ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES FOR SECURITY OF IMAGES

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Full Text Available With the proliferation in technology and advent of internet the data has been digitized, so more emphasis is required for security while transmission and storage to save from unauthorized users. Protecting data in a safe and secure way which does not hamper the access of an authorized authority is difficult and interesting research problem. Many attempts have been made to solve this problem within the cryptographic community. Visual cryptography provides a very powerful technique by which one secret can be distributed into two or more images known as shares. When the shares on transparencies are superimposed exactly together, original secret can be discovered without computer involvement. Image cryptography disrupts the image so that no useful information is seen. The keys used for disruption is used in reverse manner to decrypt the image. This paper discusses the various encryption techniques for better image security and to protect them from unintentional user.

DR. DHIRENDRA MISHRA

2014-01-01

129

Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation

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Full Text Available Measurement of image quality is important for many image processing applications. Image quality assessment is closely related to image similarity assessment in which quality is based on the differences (or similarity between a degraded image and the original, unmodified image. There are two ways to measure image quality by subjective or objective assessment. Subjective evaluations are expensive and time-consuming. It is impossible to implement them into automatic real-time systems. Objective evaluations are automatic and mathematical defined algorithm. Subjective measurements can be used to validate the usefulness of objective measurements. Therefore objective methods have attracted more attentions in recent years. Well-known objective evaluation algorithms for measuring image quality include mean squared error (MSE, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, and structural similarity (SSIM. MSE & PSNR are very simple and easy to use. In this paper Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation. Proposed Partial Encryption algorithm based on the amount of encryption needed (i.e. percentage of encryption. Various objective evaluation algorithms for measuring image quality like Mean Squared Error (MSE, Peak Signal-To-Noise Ratio (PSNR and Structural Similarity (SSIM etc. will be studied and their results will be compared.

Parameshachai B D,

2013-02-01

130

SMOOTHING AND OPTIMAL COMPRESSION OF ENCRYPTED GRAY SCALE IMAGES

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Full Text Available Compression efficiency of encrypted real-world sources such as images can be improved by exploiting source dependency. Lossless compression of encrypted images can be achieved through SlepianWolf coding. In this correspondence, we propose a resolution progressive compression scheme which compresses an encrypted image progressively in resolution, such that the decoder can observe a lowresolution version of the image, study local statistics based on it, and use the statistics to decode the next resolution level. Good performance is observed both theoretically and experimentally. We deploy smoothing for images at the receiver to mitigate noise.

P.S.Kishore

2012-05-01

131

Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains

In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for optical information hiding (encryption) of two-dimensional images by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains. The image is initially randomly shifted using the jigsaw transform algorithm, and then a pixel scrambling technique based on the Arnold transform (ART) is applied. The scrambled image is then encrypted in a randomly chosen fractional Fourier domain. These processes can then be iteratively repeated. The parameters of the architecture, including the jigsaw permutation indices, Arnold frequencies, and fractional Fourier orders, form a very large key space enhancing the security level of the proposed encryption system. Optical implementations are discussed as numerical implementation algorithms. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the system's flexibility and robustness.

Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.

2013-01-01

132

Triple-DES block of 96 Bits: An application to colour image encryption

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Full Text Available According to international standards, FIPS PUB 146-3, the cryptographic system Triple-Data Encryption Standard (Triple DES encrypts blocks of 64 bits. However, it isn’t difficult to extend the block to 96-bit encryption, which is called Triple-DES-96. This change includes a modification to Triple-DES cryptosystems that appeared recently as the Advanced Encryption Standard - AES - FIPS PUB 197. Including encryption, file M (with m bits is achieved in less time than Triple-DES. Developing Triple DES-96, intends to apply the Factorial Theorem that for this particular case tells us that any permutation on an array of 96 positions can be constructed from 3 permutations on arrays of 64 positions. According to Theorem JV, a given number n with 0 ? n ? 64! - 1 ? 1089, can associate a permutation of 64 positions in 63 steps. This allows applying a variable permutation on an array of 96 positions at the start of the third round, using 3 numbers with 0 ? n_i ? 1089 and for i = 1, 2, 3, instead of using numbers 0 ? n ? 96 ! - 1 ? 10150 for permutations on arrays of 96 positions directly. The algorithm illustrates Triple-DES-96 encryption images in colour, which is carried out without loss of information, that is, does not apply JPEG formats. There is a criterion of how many permutations have to be applied; also a randomness measure of the encrypted image for ?2 value is used.

C. Renteria-Marquez

2013-01-01

133

Optical image encryption in phase space

In the field of optical information security, the research of double random phase encoding is becoming deeper with each passing day, however the encryption system is linear, and the dependencies between plaintext and ciphertext is not complicated, with leaving a great hidden danger to the security of the encryption system. In this paper, we encrypted the higher dimensional Wigner distribution function of low dimensional plaintext by using the bilinear property of Wigner distribution function. Computer simulation results show that this method can not only enlarge the key space, but also break through the linear characteristic of the traditional optical encryption technology. So it can significantly improve the safety of the encryption system.

Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Situ, Guohai; Wu, Quanying

2014-11-01

134

Double-image encryption by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform

A novel double-image encryption algorithm is proposed by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform. Two original images are first regarded as the amplitude and phase of a complex function. Arnold transform is used to scramble pixels at a local area of the complex function, where the position of the scrambled area and the Arnold transform frequency are generated by the standard map and logistic map respectively. Then the changed complex function is converted by gyrator transform. The two operations mentioned will be implemented iteratively. The system parameters in local pixel scrambling and gyrator transform serve as the keys of this encryption algorithm. Numerical simulation has been performed to test the validity and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm.

Li, Huijuan; Wang, Yurong; Yan, Haitao; Li, Liben; Li, Qiuze; Zhao, Xiaoyan

2013-12-01

135

Optical image encryption based on coherent diffractive imaging using multiple wavelengths

Coherent diffractive imaging is an optical technique in which the information of an object is encoded in the diffraction intensity using a single-path wave propagation strategy. In recent years, coherent diffractive imaging has attracted much attention in many fields due to its marked advantages, such as robustness to vibration and the suitability for various wavelengths. In this paper, we propose to apply coherent diffractive imaging using multiple wavelengths for optical image encryption. A light wavelength is tuned during the encryption, and a series of diffraction intensity maps (i.e., ciphertexts) is sequentially recorded in the Fresnel domain. During image decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is further developed, and cryptosystem security and robustness of the proposed method are also analyzed. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

2012-02-01

136

MESSAGE ENCRYPTION USING NTRU ALGORITHM ON ANDROID

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Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS is getting more popular now-a-days. SMS was first used in December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry Christmas" via the Vodafone GSM network to the phone of Richard Jarvis in the UK. It will play a very important role in the future business areas of mobile commerce (M-Commerce. Presently many business organizations use SMS for their business purposes. SMS’s security has become a major concern for business organizations and customers. There is a need for an end to end SMS Encryption in order to provide a secure medium for communication. Security is main concern for any business company such as banks who will provide these mobile banking services. Till now there is no such scheme that provides complete SMSs security. The transmission of an SMS in GSM network is not secure at all. Therefore it is desirable to secure SMS for business purposes by additional encryption. In this thesis, we have analyzed different cryptosystems for implementing to the existing Secure Extensible and Efficient SMS (SEESMS. We planned to implement NTRU cryptosystem into existing SEESMS frame. The NTRU public key cryptosystem was developed in 1996 at Brown University by three mathematicians J. Hoffstein, J.Pipher and J.H. Silverman. It is not that much popular cryptosystems like RSA, ECC and other traditional. The major advantages of NTRU cryptosystem is much faster generating key, encryption time and decryption time as compared to others. It is easily compatible with mobile devices and other portable devices. We have compared theoretically and analysis of NTRU with RSA and ECC cryptosystems at end of my papers. It is theoretically proposed here. We are expecting our novel scheme may show better result than others. So it will provide improve the current security level and fastest speed with respect to key generation, encryption decryption with small key size. This proposal will suitable to any kind of mobile device for SMS communication with suitable data security.

Amanpreet Kaur

2013-10-01

137

A chaotic image encryption scheme owning temp-value feedback

Many round-based chaotic image encryption algorithms employ the permutation-diffusion structure. This structure has been found insecure when the iteration round is equal to one and the secret permutation of some existing schemes can be recovered even a higher round is adopted. In this paper, we present a single round permutation-diffusion chaotic cipher for gray image, in which some temp-value feedback mechanisms are introduced to resist the known attacks. Specifically, we firstly embed the plaintext feedback technique in the permutation process to develop different permutation sequences for different plain-images and then employ plaintext/ciphertext feedback for diffusion to generate equivalent secret key dynamically. Experimental results show that the new scheme owns large key space and can resist the differential attack. It is also efficient.

Zhang, Leo Yu; Hu, Xiaobo; Liu, Yuansheng; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Gan, Jie

2014-10-01

138

Plaintext Related Image Encryption Scheme Using Chaotic Map

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Full Text Available A plaintext related image blocking encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper, which includes two kinds of operations on inner-block confusion and inter-block diffusion. Firstly, a float-point lookup table need to be generated by iterating chaotic system; Secondly, choose one of the entries in the look-up table as initial value of chaotic system, and iterate it to produce one secret code sequence for inner-block confusion; Thirdly, by using one pixel value of the former block to locate another entry in the look-up table, iterate it to yield another secret code sequence for inter-block diffusion; Finally, through two rounds of the block-by-block processes, the plain-image will be transformed into the cipher-image. The simulation results show that the proposed method has many good characters.

Yong Zhang

2013-07-01

139

Enabling Similarity Search over Encrypted Images in Cloud

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Full Text Available With the growing popularity of cloud computing, more and more users are willing to outsource their private data to the cloud. To ensure the security of data, data owners usually encrypted their private data before outsourcing them to the cloud server. Though data encryption improves the security of data, it increases the difficulty of data operating. This study focuses on the search of encrypted images in the cloud and proposes an efficient similarity retrieval scheme over encrypted images. The proposed scheme enables data owners to outsource their personal images and the content-based image retrieval service to the cloud without revealing the actual content of the image database to the cloud. The proposed scheme in this study supports the global feature based image retrieval methods under the Euclidean distance metric. Besides, rigorous security analysis and extensive experiments show that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient.

Yi Zhu

2014-01-01

140

Selective Image Encryption Using DCT with Stream Cipher

Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, selective image encryption using DCT with Stream Cipher is done. In the DCT method, the basic idea is to decompose the image into 8×8 blocks and these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to the frequency domain by the DCT. Then, the DCT coefficients correlated...

Sapna Sasidharan; Jithin R

2010-01-01

141

MINIMIZATION OF DELAY TIME IN DYNAMIC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS (DEA-RTA?

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Full Text Available Real-Time Applications (RTA such as Voice-over IP (VoIP, Instant messages (IM, and video conferencing are sensitive to delay as they are packets base network services. Providing these services over the internet require high level of security to protect user, data and infrastructures. Encryption process is used to provide the security needed for RTA. The encryption and decryption has to take minimal time to achieve acceptable end-to-end delays. The research algorithm proposes a new symmetric encryption algorithm that reduces the encryption and decryption delay time which is known as Dynamic Encryption Algorithm for the Real-Time Applications (DEA-RTA.

Kuti Toyin Sadiq

2014-11-01

142

Design of F8 Encryption Algorithm Based on Customized Kasumi Block Cipher

Governmental bodies, such as military and national security agencies, keep looking for proprietary encryption algorithms to secure their confidential communication applications. Customizing published encryption algorithms is a trend to acquire proprietary encryption algorithms at affordable research and development cost. Cost, here, may be represented by the required efforts for designing and testing the customized algorithm. The security architecture of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project...

Shaker, Nabil H.; Issa, Hanady H.; Shehata, Khaled A.; Hashem, Somaia N.

2013-01-01

143

Noise removing in encrypted color images by statistical analysis

Cryptographic techniques are used to secure confidential data from unauthorized access but these techniques are very sensitive to noise. A single bit change in encrypted data can have catastrophic impact over the decrypted data. This paper addresses the problem of removing bit error in visual data which are encrypted using AES algorithm in the CBC mode. In order to remove the noise, a method is proposed which is based on the statistical analysis of each block during the decryption. The proposed method exploits local statistics of the visual data and confusion/diffusion properties of the encryption algorithm to remove the errors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used at the receiving end for the possible solution for noise removing in visual data in encrypted domain.

Islam, N.; Puech, W.

2012-03-01

144

Application of Cosine Zone Plates to Image Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyse the diffraction result of optical field after Cosine zone plate, and theoretically deduce its transform matrix. Under some conditions, its diffraction distribution is a mixture of fractional Fourier spectra. Then we use Cosine zone plate and its diffraction result to image encryption. Possible optical image encryption and decryption implementations are proposed, and some numerical simulation results are also provided. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

145

In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.

Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

2014-04-01

146

Multiple-image encryption in an interference-based scheme by lateral shift multiplexing

In this paper, a novel multiple-image encryption method is proposed by lateral shift multiplexing of phase-only mask. Multiple images are encrypted into three phase-only masks, one of which is generated in computer and saved as the secret key, and the other two can be obtained with a simple non-iterative algorithm. The optical scheme for decryption is quite simple, and different original images could be successfully retrieved at the output plane while the secret key is laterally shifted continuously with predefined intervals. In addition, the silhouette problem, which persecuted the previous interference-based encryption scheme, is simultaneously eliminated. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results.

Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong

2014-03-01

147

An Assessment on Irrevocable Compression of Encrypted Grayscale Image

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Full Text Available This paper may deals with the miscellaneous troubles that may be occurs during the irrevocable compression applied on an encrypted grayscale image. This work is a comparative learn with diverse methods of irrevocable compression such as Compressive sensing technique and Iterative reconstruction technique on encrypted grayscale image. But they practiced a multiplicity of limitations. The major obscurity is to achieve higher compression ratio as well as the better quality of the reconstructed image. The higher compression ratio and the smoother the original image may furnish the better quality of the reconstructed image.

S. Manimurugan,

2012-05-01

148

Graphics processing unit-accelerated double random phase encoding for fast image encryption

We propose a fast double random phase encoding (DRPE) algorithm using a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based stream-processing model. A performance analysis of the accelerated DRPE implementation that employs the Compute Unified Device Architecture programming environment is presented. We show that the proposed methodology executed on a GPU can dramatically increase encryption speed compared with central processing unit sequential computing. Our experimental results demonstrate that in encryption data of an image with a pixel size of 1000×1000, where one pixel has a 32-bit depth, our GPU version of the DRPE scheme can be approximately two times faster than the advanced encryption standard algorithm implemented on a GPU. In addition, the quality of parallel processing on the presented DRPE acceleration method is evaluated with performance parameters, such as speedup, efficiency, and redundancy.

Lee, Jieun; Yi, Faliu; Saifullah, Rao; Moon, Inkyu

2014-11-01

149

Programmable Cellular Automata Encryption Algorithm Implemented in Reconfigurable Hardware

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Full Text Available This article presents an encryption system based on the PCA (Programmable Cellular Automata theory and the implementation in reconfigurable hardware in order to achieve high speed communication for real time applications. The proposed encryption algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric key and the entire model was implemented on a reconfigurable hardware in FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays device of type Spartan 3E XC3S500E in order to take the full advantage of the inherent parallelism of the PCA. Based on PCA state transitions certain fundamental transformations are defined which represents block ciphering functions of the proposed enciphering scheme. The experimental results prove that the proposed enciphering scheme provides high speed, good security and it is ideally for hardware implementation in FPGA devices.

Petre Anghelescu

2013-03-01

150

This paper presents, a low power 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm based on a novel asynchronous self-timed architecture for encryption of audio signals. An asynchronous system is defined as one where the transfers of information between combinatorial blocks without a global clock signal. The self-timed architectures are asynchronous circuits which perform their function based on local synchronization signals called hand shake, independently from the other modules. This new...

Bahman Rashidi; Bahram Rashidi

2013-01-01

151

A novel and robust chaos-based pseudorandom permutation-substitution scheme for image encryption is proposed. It is a loss-less symmetric block cipher and specifically designed for the color images but may also be used for the gray scale images. A secret key of 161-bit, comprising of the initial conditions and system parameter of the chaotic map (the standard map), number of iterations and number of rounds, is used in the algorithm. The whole encryption process is the sequential execution of a preliminary permutation and a fix number of rounds (as specified in the secret key) of substitution and main permutation of the 2D matrix obtained from the 3D image matrix. To increase the speed of encryption all three processes: preliminary permutation, substitution and main permutation are done row-by-row and column-by-column instead of pixel-by-pixel. All the permutation processes are made dependent on the input image matrix and controlled through the pseudo random number sequences (PRNS) generated from the discretization of chaotic standard map which result in both key sensitivity and plaintext sensitivity. However each substitution process is initiated with the initial vectors (different for rows and columns) generated using the secret key and chaotic standard map and then the properties of rows and column pixels of input matrix are mixed with the PRNS generated from the standard map. The security and performance analysis of the proposed image encryption has been performed using the histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, differential analysis, key space analysis, encryption/decryption rate analysis etc. Results suggest that the proposed image encryption technique is robust and secure and can be used for the secure image and video communication applications.

Patidar, Vinod; Pareek, N. K.; Purohit, G.; Sud, K. K.

2011-09-01

152

Secure And Authenticated Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reversible data hiding a novel technique which is used to embed additional information in the encrypted images, applies in military and medical images, which can be recoverable with original media and the hided data without loss. A number of reversible data hiding techniques were proposed in the recent years, but on analysis, all lacks in providing the security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which work is separable, the receiver can extract the original image or extra embedded data or both according to the keys hold by the receiver. On the other hand the receiver can verify the data hided by the data hider, such that the work proposes both security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which poses both security and authentication for additional data stored in the encrypted images. Also proposed work is separable, the receiver can extract the original image or extra embedded data or both according to the keys hold by the receiver. On the other hand the receiver can verify the data hided by the data hider, such that the work proposes both security and authentication.This work proposes a novel scheme for separable reversible data hiding in encrypted images. In the first phase, a content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, adata-hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image using a data-hiding key to create a sparse space to accommodate some additional data. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data-hiding key, he can extract the additional data though he does not know the image content. If the receiver has the encryption key, he can decrypt the received data to obtain an image similar to the original one, but cannot extract the additional data. If the receiver has both the data-hiding key and the encryption key, he can extract the additional data and recover the original content without any error by exploiting the spatial correlation in natural image when the amount of additional data is not too larg

Dr.V.Khanaa

2013-03-01

153

Simultaneous Color Image Compression and Encryption using Number Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dependence on computing machines and utility of information has been growing tremendously in the last few decades. As a result, evolving effective techniques for storing and transmitting the ever increasing volumes of data has become a high priority issue. Image compression addresses the problem by reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the compression process is the removal of redundant data. Selection of a suitable of a suitable compression scheme for a given application depends on the available memory for processing, the number of mathematical computations and the available bandwidth for transmission. The security of digital images is another important issue that has been receiving considerable attention in the recent past. Different image encryption methods have been proposed in the literature towards ensuring the security of data. The encryption process transforms a 2 – D pixel array into a statistically uncorrelated data set. In this paper, an enhanced number theory based color image compression and encryption scheme is proposed. This technique encompasses the twin – based application of image compression and I age encryption simultaneously adopting a model based paradigm for the general compression – encryption standards.

Navaneethakrishnan Navaneethakrishnan

2012-09-01

154

Message Based Random Variable Length Key Encryption Algorithm

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Full Text Available Problem statement: A block ciphers provides confidentiality in cryptography but cryptanalysis of the classical block ciphers demonstrated some old weaknesses grabbing a partial key in any stage of encryption procedure leads to reconstructing the whole key. Exhaustive key search shows that key generation should be indeterminist and random for each round. Matching cipher-text attack shows that larger size of block is more secure. In order to overcome analysis mentioned above a new algorithm is designed that is based on random numbers and also can defeat time and memory constraints. Approach: Dynamic and message dependent key generator was created by producing a random number and it was selected as the size of first chunk. Residual value of second chunk divided by first chunk concatenating with first chunk forms the first cipher as an input for SP-boxes. These processes repeated until whole mesaage get involved into the last cipher. Encrypted messages are not equal under different run. Value of random number should be greater than 35 bits and plaintext must be at least 7 bits. A padding algorithm was used for small size messages or big random numbers. Results: Attack on the key generation process was prevented because of random key generation and its dependency to input message. Encryption and decryption times measured between 5 and 27 m sec in 2 GHz Pentium and java platform so time variant and fast enough key generation had been kept collision and timing attacks away due to small seized storage. Long and variable key length made key exhaustive search and differential attack impossible. None fixed size key caused avoidance of replaying and other attacks that can happen on fixed sized key algorithms. Conclusion: Random process employed in this block cipher increased confidentiality of the message and dynamic length substitution in proposed algorithm may lead to maximum cryptographic confusion and consequently makes it difficult for cryptanalysis.

Hamid Mirvaziri

2009-01-01

155

Programmable Cellular Automata Based Efficient Parallel AES Encryption Algorithm

Cellular Automata(CA) is a discrete computing model which provides simple, flexible and efficient platform for simulating complicated systems and performing complex computation based on the neighborhoods information. CA consists of two components 1) a set of cells and 2) a set of rules . Programmable Cellular Automata(PCA) employs some control signals on a Cellular Automata(CA) structure. Programmable Cellular Automata were successfully applied for simulation of biological systems, physical systems and recently to design parallel and distributed algorithms for solving task density and synchronization problems. In this paper PCA is applied to develop cryptography algorithms. This paper deals with the cryptography for a parallel AES encryption algorithm based on programmable cellular automata. This proposed algorithm based on symmetric key systems.

Das, Debasis

2011-01-01

156

SECURE IMAGE DATA BY USING DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES A REVIEW

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Full Text Available Information security is an increasingly important problem in the present era of advanced technology, because of which encryption is becoming very important to ensure security. Popular application of multimedia technology and increasing transmission ability of network gradually leads us to acquire information directly and clearly through Images. The digital images, which are transmitted over the internet, must be protected from unauthorized access during storage and transmission for communication, copyright protection and authentication purposes. This can be accomplished using image encryption which is an intelligent hiding of information. In this paper, I survey on existing work which is used different techniques for image encryption and also give the general introduction about cryptography.

GAYATHRI D.

2013-03-01

157

Satellite Image Security Improvement by Combining DWT-DCT Watermarking and AES Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the large-scale research in space sciences and technologies, there is a great demand of satellite image security system for providing secure storage and transmission of satellite images. As the demand to protect the sensitive and valuable data from satellites has increased and hence proposed a new method for satellite image security by combining DWT-DCT watermarking and AES encryption. Watermarking techniques developed for multimedia data cannot be directly applied to the satellite images because here the analytic integrity of the data, rather than perceptual quality, is of primary importance. To improve performance, combine discrete wavelet transform (DWT with another equally powerful transform; the discrete cosine transform (DCT. The combined DWT-DCT watermarking algorithm’s imperceptibility was better than the performance of the DWT approach. Modified decision based unsymmetrical trimmed median filter (MDBUTMF algorithm is proposed for the restoration of satellite images that are highly corrupted by salt and pepper noise. Satellite images desire not only the watermarking for copyright protection but also encryption during storage and transmission for preventing information leakage. Hence this paper investigates the security and performance level of joint DWT-DCT watermarking and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES for satellite imagery. Theoretical analysis can be done by calculating PSNR and MSE. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme, which fulfils the strict requirements concerning alterations of satellite images.

Naida.H.Nazmudeen

2014-06-01

158

Multiple-image encryption based on optical asymmetric key cryptosystem

We propose a multiple-image encryption scheme with asymmetric keys and demonstrate it by optical experiments. The original secret images are multiplexed and encoded into a real-valued ciphertext using only one public encryption key. In the decryption process, each secret image can only be de-multiplexed by its corresponding private decryption key. The multiplexing capacity is analyzed through examining the distribution of cross-talk noise and the key space of private decryption key. Numerical simulations and optical experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the validity, high security, and large multiplexing capacity of the proposed method.

Liu, Wei; Xie, Zhenwei; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shutian

2015-01-01

159

Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 1017 and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value

160

A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM AND RC4

Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band) is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time...

Deepu Sleeba Philip; Sapna Sasidharan

2011-01-01

161

An Improved Public Key Encryption Algorithm Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved public key encryption algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials. On the base of the semi-group property of Chebyshev polynomials, we import the alternative multiply coefficientto forge the ciphertext tactfully which can make the cipher text-only aattack out of work. The chosen of is decided by the the value of, and the number of can be chosen as required. Besides, The digital signature of the ciphertext not only can prevent the result from faking and tampering attack, but also can make the algorithm have the function of identity authentication. Experimental results and performance analyses show that the improved algorithm has much higher security and practical value.

Xufei Li

2013-02-01

162

This paper presents a new method for three-dimensional (3D) scene acquisition via reconstruction with multispectral information and its Fourier-based encryption using computational integral imaging, by which the field of view, resolution, and information security are increased, respectively. The color imaging sensors covered with a Bayer color filter array captures elemental images (EI) at different spectral bands (400 and 700 nm intervals in the visible spectrum). Subsequently, double random phase encryption (DRPE) in the Fourier domain is employed on Bayer formatted EI to encrypt the captured 3D scene. Proper 3D object reconstruction only can be achieved by applying inverse decryption and a geometric ray backpropagation algorithm on the encrypted EI. Further, the high-resolution multispectral 3D scene can be visualized by using various adaptive interpolation algorithms. To objectively evaluate our proposed method, we carried out computational experiments for 3D object sensing, reconstruction, and digital simulations for DRPE. Experiment results validate the feasibility and robustness of our proposed approach, even under severe degradation. PMID:25322135

Muniraj, Inbarasan; Kim, Byoungho; Lee, Byung-Guen

2014-09-20

163

Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images

We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added with original image to obtain encrypted image. The scan methodology is applied to either original image or carrier image, after the addition of original image and carrier image to obtain highly distorted encrypted image. The resulting image is found to be more distorted in hybrid technique. By applying the reverse process we get the decrypted image.

T, Panduranga H

2010-01-01

164

We propose a new method for multiple color images encryption by using triplets recombination. In this proposed technique, triplet (R, G and B) components of the secret color image are recorded simultaneously as a real and positive gray image exploiting parallel multi-wavelength recording technology. Arnold transform and phase retrieval algorithm adapted to Fresnel transform domain are used to encode the parallel hybrid result. By using of the proposed technique, each color image is encrypted into a pure phase distribution and combined by superposition. Phase modulation is introduced to eliminate the cross-talk caused by multiple images superposition. The wavelength and transform parameters are provided as keys to enhance the system security. In addition, computer simulations are performed and numerical results are presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

Shi, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Daomu; Huang, Yinbo; Pan, Jianjiang

2013-10-01

165

A Chaos Based Encryption Method for Monochrom Images and Text.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose a new method for encryption of monochrome (Black & White image and text documents using Hilbert transform and chaos theory with added security feature of Rubik Cube Operation. The input text or image is transformed using Hilbert transform. Random phase mask is generated using a logistic map function .The transformed image is combined with the random phase mask. The pixels of the image obtained from the combination are shifted row and column wise according to a random number sequence ,which also acts as a key .We call this as Rubik Cube Operation as it resembles the Rubik cube .The image obtained after Rubik Cube operation is the encrypted image. The image has been decrypted and the MSE and correlation coefficient between the decrypted and input image is calculated.

Varsha S

2012-08-01

166

The New Image Encryption and Decryption Using Quasi Group

Multimedia Communication is the new age of communication. Image Communication is one of the most popular types of multimedia communication. This type of communication always faces security challenges. Security breach is rising at a rapid rate. Image privacy is facing an even bigger threat. There are several image cryptography techniques having both positive and negative consequences. Via this paper, we are presenting a new approach for image encryption and decryption by using pixel shifting a...

Ankit Agarwal; Amit Varma; Durgesh Kumar

2014-01-01

167

Efficient Digital Encryption Algorithm Based on Matrix Scrambling Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem ofinformation which is transmitted in Internet. We propose a new technique on matrix scrambling which isbased on random function, shifting and reversing techniques of circular queue. We give statisticalanalysis, sequence random analysis, and sensitivity analysis to plaintext and key on the proposed scheme.The experimental results show that the new scheme has a very fast encryption speed and the key space isexpanded and it can resist all kinds of cryptanalytic, statistical attacks, and especially, our new methodcan be also used to solve the problem that is easily exposed to chosen plaintext attack. We give ourdetailed report to this algorithm, and reveal the characteristic of this algorithm by utilizing an example.

M. Kiran Kumar

2010-10-01

168

A symmetrical image encryption scheme in wavelet and time domain

There has been an increasing concern for effective storages and secure transactions of multimedia information over the Internet. Then a great variety of encryption schemes have been proposed to ensure the information security while transmitting, but most of current approaches are designed to diffuse the data only in spatial domain which result in reducing storage efficiency. A lightweight image encryption strategy based on chaos is proposed in this paper. The encryption process is designed in transform domain. The original image is decomposed into approximation and detail components using integer wavelet transform (IWT); then as the more important component of the image, the approximation coefficients are diffused by secret keys generated from a spatiotemporal chaotic system followed by inverse IWT to construct the diffused image; finally a plain permutation is performed for diffusion image by the Logistic mapping in order to reduce the correlation between adjacent pixels further. Experimental results and performance analysis demonstrate the proposed scheme is an efficient, secure and robust encryption mechanism and it realizes effective coding compression to satisfy desirable storage.

Luo, Yuling; Du, Minghui; Liu, Junxiu

2015-02-01

169

Secure Image Encryption without Size Limitation Using Arnold Transform and Random Strategies

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is an efficient way to protect the contents of digital media. Arnold transform is a significant technique of image encryption, but has weaknesses in security and applications to images of any size. To solve these problems, we propose an image encryption scheme using Arnold transform and random strategies. It is achieved by dividing the image into random overlapping square blocks, generating random iterative numbers and random encryption order, and scrambling pixels of each block using Arnold transform. Experimental results show that the proposed encryption scheme is robust and secure. It has no size limitation, indicating the application to any size images.

Zhenjun Tang

2011-04-01

170

IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES USING CHAOTIC SCHEMES: A REVIEW

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary. It encompasses many problems like encryption, authentication, and key distribution to name a few. The field of modern cryptography providesa theoretical foundation based on which one can understand what exactly these problems are, how to evaluate protocols that purport to solve them and how to build protocols in whose security one can haveconfidence. Advanced digital technologies have made multimedia data widely available. Recently, multimedia applications become common in practice and thus security of multimedia data has become main concern.The basic issues pertaining to the problem of encryption has been discussed and also a survey on image encryption techniques based on chaotic schemes has been dealt in the present communication.The chaotic image encryption can be developed by using properties of chaos including deterministic dynamics, unpredictable behavior and non-linear transform. This concept leads to techniques that can simultaneously provide security functions and an overall visualcheck, which might be suitable in some applications. Digital images are widely used in various applications, that include military, legal and medical systems and these applications need to control access toimages and provide the means to verify integrity of images.

Monisha Sharma

2010-06-01

171

Image encryption using the two-dimensional logistic chaotic map

Chaos maps and chaotic systems have been proved to be useful and effective for cryptography. In our study, the two-dimensional logistic map with complicated basin structures and attractors are first used for image encryption. The proposed method adopts the classic framework of the permutation-substitution network in cryptography and thus ensures both confusion and diffusion properties for a secure cipher. The proposed method is able to encrypt an intelligible image into a random-like one from the statistical point of view and the human visual system point of view. Extensive simulation results using test images from the USC-SIPI image database demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Security analysis results of using both the conventional and the most recent tests show that the encryption quality of the proposed method reaches or excels the current state-of-the-art methods. Similar encryption ideas can be applied to digital data in other formats (e.g., digital audio and video). We also publish the cipher MATLAB open-source-code under the web page https://sites.google.com/site/tuftsyuewu/source-code.

Wu, Yue; Yang, Gelan; Jin, Huixia; Noonan, Joseph P.

2012-01-01

172

A Hierarchical Selective Encryption Technique in a Scalable Image Codec

Modern still image codecs furnish more than just good distortion-rate performances. They must also provide some services. Scalability in resolution and quality, er- ror resilience and embedded bitstreams were among the first one to be available. There is still room for enhance- ment, especially when it comes to security-oriented fea- tures. Image encryption is one of the aspect of image security. This paper presents the embedding of an encryptionservice in a multiresolution lossless codec. Pa...

Fonteneau, Cyril; Motsch, Jean; Babel, Marie; De?forges, Olivier

2008-01-01

173

Improving Security of Parallel Algorithm Using Key Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent cloud era, computing moves to a new plane of running large scale scientific applications. Many parallel algorithms have been created to support a large dataset. MapReduce is one such parallel data processing framework adopted widely for scientific research, machine learning and high end computing. The most prevalent implementation of MapReduce is the open source project Hadoop. To protect the integrity and confidentiality of data uploaded, MapReduce introduced a Kerberos-based model with tokens for datablocks and processing nodes. The tokens are symmetrically encrypted and distributed across the nodes. Such a technique is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks like data loss, data modification and stealing of keys. In this study, a novel technique is proposed based on public key encryption on top of the Kerberos model to enhance Security. The various attack scenarios on the current Hadoop implementation model has been analyzed and a secure environment has been proposed. The study shows that the proposed framework provides an improved level of security when using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman with 65,537 keysize consumed 23 milli seconds, while using 257 bits keysize which consumed 21 milli seconds.

R. Swarna Raja

2013-01-01

174

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel single-channel color image encryption algorithm is proposed, which utilizes the reality-preserving fractional discrete cosine transform in YCbCr space. The color image to be encrypted is decomposed into Y, Cb, and Cr components, which are then separately transformed by Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. The resulting three spectra sequences, obtained by zig-zag scanning the spectra matrices, are truncated and the lower frequency coefficients of the three components are scrambled up into a single matrix of the same size with the original color image. Then the obtained single matrix is encrypted by the fractional discrete cosine transform, which is a kind of encryption with secrecy of pixel value and pixel position simultaneously. The encrypted image is convenient for display, transmission and storage, thanks to the reality-preserving property of the fractional discrete cosine transform. Additionally, the proposed algorithm enlarges the key space by employing the generating sequence as an extra key in addition to the fractional orders. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate the proposed algorithm is feasible, effective and secure. The robustness to noise attack is also guaranteed to some extent.

Jianhua Wu

2013-11-01

175

Vector Quantization Techniques For Partial Encryption of Wavelet-based Compressed Digital Images

The use of image communication has increased in recent years. In this paper, newpartial encryption schemes are used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Only6.25-25% of the original data is encrypted for four different images, resulting in asignificant reduction in encryption and decryption time. In the compression step, anadvanced clustering analysis technique (Fuzzy C-means (FCM)) is used. In the encryptionstep, the permutation cipher is used. The effect of number of different clust...

Younis, H. A.; Abdalla, T. Y.; Abdalla, A. Y.

2009-01-01

176

A Review On Data Hiding Techniques In Encrypted Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking into the networking era. There are number of techniques available in the industry to overcome this problem. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is one of the solution, but the problem is the original cover cannot be losslessly recovered by this technique. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent property that the original cover can be recovered without any los after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. This paper enlists the various methods of data hiding in the image like differential expansion, histogram shift or the combination of both the techniques. This is useful in the way that these methods recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.

Ms. Anagha Markandey

2013-10-01

177

Design of F8 Encryption Algorithm Based on Customized Kasumi Block Cipher

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Governmental bodies, such as military and national security agencies, keep looking for proprietary encryption algorithms to secure their confidential communication applications. Customizing published encryption algorithms is a trend to acquire proprietary encryption algorithms at affordable research and development cost. Cost, here, may be represented by the required efforts for designing and testing the customized algorithm. The security architecture of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP mobile communications includes a standardized encryption algorithm F8 which is based on the KASUMI block cipher algorithm. In this paper we propose a newly customized version of the KASUMI block cipher. The customization is targeting the S-boxes of KASUMI. New S-Boxes are generated and tested to verify the required cryptographic features.

Nabil H. Shaker

2013-07-01

178

Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplified data encryption standard can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. In this paper, a comparison between memetic algorithm and genetic algorithm were made in order to investigate the performance for the cryptanalysis on simplified data encryption standard problems(SDES). The methods were tested and various experimental results show that memetic algorithm performs better than the genetic algorithms for such type of NP-Hard combinatorial problem. This paper represents our first effort toward efficient memetic algo...

Garg, Poonam

2010-01-01

179

DATA SECURITY IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK BASED ON FAST ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hacking is one of the greatest problems in the wireless local area networks. Many algorithms have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user safely and correctly. In this paper, a new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed that prevents the outside attacks. The new algorithm avoids key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption and decryption. It operates at high data rate in comparison with The Data Encryption Standard (DES, Triple DES (TDES, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-256, and RC6 algorithms. The new algorithm is applied successfully on both text file and voice message.

G. Ramesh

2010-06-01

180

Design and Analysis of a Novel Digital Image Encryption Scheme

In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 144-bits is proposed. In the substitution process of the scheme, image is divided into blocks and subsequently into color components. Each color component is modified by performing bitwise operation which depends on secret key as well as a few most significant bits of its previous and next color component. Three rounds are taken to complete substitution process. To make cipher more robust, a feedback mechanis...

Narendra K Pareek,

2012-01-01

181

SECURE IMAGE DATA BY USING DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES A REVIEW

Information security is an increasingly important problem in the present era of advanced technology, because of which encryption is becoming very important to ensure security. Popular application of multimedia technology and increasing transmission ability of network gradually leads us to acquire information directly and clearly through Images. The digital images, which are transmitted over the internet, must be protected from unauthorized access during storage and transmission for communicat...

Gayathri, D.

2013-01-01

182

Secure And Authenticated Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images

Reversible data hiding a novel technique which is used to embed additional information in the encrypted images, applies in military and medical images, which can be recoverable with original media and the hided data without loss. A number of reversible data hiding techniques were proposed in the recent years, but on analysis, all lacks in providing the security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which work is separable, the receiver can extract ...

Khanaa, Dr V.; Dr Krishna Mohanta

2013-01-01

183

Embedding Multilevel Image Encryption in the LAR Codec

A still image codec should not only to be good from compression point of view, it might also provide services. The LAR interleaved S+P codec allows lossless to lossy coding, presenting both resolution and distortion scalability. The proposed method brings image encryption at no cost in the LAR framework. It exploits the embedded quadtree decomposition of the LAR to provide multilevel protection to the whole bit-stream. Theoretical aspects are considered and experimental results show the effec...

Motsch, Jean; De?forges, Olivier; Babel, Marie

2006-01-01

184

A Multilayered Secure, Robust and High Capacity Image Steganographic Algorithm

It is observed that all of the current steganographic algorithms rely heavily on the conventional encryption systems which do not serve well in the context of image steganography. Advanced encryption standard (AES) is one of the most powerful techniques of cryptography which can be used as an integral part of steganographic system for better confidentiality and security. In this paper we propose a reversible image steganographic embedding algorithm consisting of three parts. First, we use the...

Muttoo, S. K.; Sushil Kumar,

2011-01-01

185

The New Image Encryption and Decryption Using Quasi Group

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia Communication is the new age of communication. Image Communication is one of the most popular types of multimedia communication. This type of communication always faces security challenges. Security breach is rising at a rapid rate. Image privacy is facing an even bigger threat. There are several image cryptography techniques having both positive and negative consequences. Via this paper, we are presenting a new approach for image encryption and decryption by using pixel shifting and using Quasigroup (Latin Square without performing translation. It requires low computation as a key. Image pixel reshuffling is done randomly and in a non-repeated manner.

Ankit Agarwal

2014-07-01

186

An efficient diffusion approach for chaos-based image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the existing chaos-based image cryptosystems is composed of alternative substitution and diffusion stages. A multi-dimensional chaotic map is usually employed in the substitution stage for image pixel permutation while a one-dimensional (1D) chaotic map is used for diffusion purpose. As the latter usually involves real number arithmetic operations, the overall encryption speed is limited by the diffusion stage. In this paper, we propose a more efficient diffusion mechanism using simple table lookup and swapping techniques as a light-weight replacement of the 1D chaotic map iteration. Simulation results show that at a similar security level, the proposed cryptosystem needs about one-third the encryption time of a similar cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved.

187

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and anticipated reciver, imagine the existence of the information, a form of security through obscurity. It is an emerging area which is used for secured data broadcast over any public media. In this study a novel advance of image steganography based on LSB (Least Significant Bit insertion, RSA encryption and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm technique for the lossless jpeg images has been proposed. In this paper, we present a strategy of attaining maximum embedding ability in an image in a way that maximum possible neighboring pixels are analyzed for their frequencies, to determine the amount of content to be added in each pixel. The techniques provide a seamless insertion of data into the carrier image and reduce the error consideration and artifacts insertion required to a minimal. We validate our approach with the help of an experimental evaluation on a prototypic implementation of the proposed model.

K Kamalam

2014-12-01

188

From the perspective of cryptography, collision is an undesirable situation that occurs when two or more distinct inputs into a security system produce undistinguishable outputs. In this paper we present a study of the collision property of the optical image encryption technique based on interference (Zhang et al. Optics Letters; 2008:33(21)). For an arbitrary secret image (output) to be encrypted, we can find various distinct pairs of phase-only masks (inputs), which yield almost the same outputs by use of a modified phase retrieval algorithm. Meanwhile, we also provide an efficient way to avoid this potential risk by adding an extra unit in the original structure, which can thus be called a double-factor verification system. A series of computer simulations were also carried out to demonstrate our concern and strategy.

He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng; Liu, Xiaoli

2013-04-01

189

Based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code, a new optical encryption technology that only needs to record one intensity distribution is proposed. In this encryption process, firstly, the QR code is generated from the information to be encrypted; and then the generated QR code is placed in the input plane of 4-f system to have a double random phase encryption. For only one intensity distribution in the output plane is recorded as the ciphertext, the encryption process is greatly simplified. In the decryption process, the corresponding QR code is retrieved using phase retrieval algorithm. A priori information about QR code is used as support constraint in the input plane, which helps solve the stagnation problem. The original information can be recovered without distortion by scanning the QR code. The encryption process can be implemented either optically or digitally, and the decryption process uses digital method. In addition, the security of the proposed optical encryption technology is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations show that this optical encryption system is invulnerable to various attacks, and suitable for harsh transmission conditions.

Wang, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Hong-zhao; Qin, Yi

2014-12-01

190

A Review on Keyless User Defined Reversible Encryption for Color Image

Some limitation of Key oriented techniques, to maintain the key records and increase highcomputational cost. To overcome this limitation to proposed an improved reversible image encryptionrandom hiding approach for keyless image encryption. The objective of this paper to increase the secrecyand confidentiality of images is a multimedia and vibrant area of research. There are two differentapproaches being followed in image encryption, the first approach to key oriented encryption and secondapp...

Ghode, Pratibha S.; Prof. Pragati Patil??

2013-01-01

191

Quantum secret key encryption algorithm based on quantum discrete logarithm problem

In this paper, we first define the quantum discrete logarithm problem (QDLP)which is similar to classical discrete logarithm problem. But, this problem cannot be solved by Shor's quantum algorithm. Based on quantum discrete logarithm problem, we present a novel quantum secret key encryption algorithm. The receiver constructs his quantum channel using their secret key. Then, the sender can use the receiver's quantum channel to encrypt the message. Finally, the receiver dencry...

Chen, Chien-yuan; Hsueh, Chih-cheng

2004-01-01

192

Vector Quantization Techniques For Partial Encryption of Wavelet-based Compressed Digital Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of image communication has increased in recent years. In this paper, newpartial encryption schemes are used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Only6.25-25% of the original data is encrypted for four different images, resulting in asignificant reduction in encryption and decryption time. In the compression step, anadvanced clustering analysis technique (Fuzzy C-means (FCM is used. In the encryptionstep, the permutation cipher is used. The effect of number of different clusters is studied.The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast and secure, and do not reduce thecompression performance of the underlying selected compression methods as shown inexperimental results and conclusion.

H. A. Younis

2009-01-01

193

Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware.

Donggeon Lee

2014-01-01

194

New fractional matrix with its applications in image encryption

In this paper, new fractional matrix generation by using different the periodic matrix sequences are considered. For a periodic matrix with period P, its integer forms and fractional forms can constitute different periodic matrix sequences. The series of the periodic matrix sequence can be used to compute and construct different fractional matrices, which is depended on the relationship between the period and the size of the periodic matrix sequence. The proposed fractional matrix generation method is general and can be used to any periodic matrices. Then, we extend the new fractional matrices to multi-order forms, which can be used in image encryption. Simulation results and the application example in image encryption using the obtained new fractional matrix are also presented.

Zhang, Feng; Hu, Yang; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

2014-12-01

195

A Novel Chaos-Based Stream Cipher for Image Encryption

In this paper, we introduce a novel chaos-based image encryption scheme. We perform our scheme using both the binary form and decimal form of chaotic maps. We also use two chaotic maps; one generates the initial values of the other. Thus, we utilize the best two properties of chaos ergodicity and sensitivity to the initial value. We increase the security of the cipher by introducing a reverse order round to resist cryptanalysis attacks.

Abd-el-hafiz, Salwa K.; Fuad, Gamal A.; Sayed, Lina A.

2014-01-01

196

A Novel Chaos-Based Stream Cipher for Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel chaos-based image encryption scheme. We perform our scheme using both the binary form and decimal form of chaotic maps. We also use two chaotic maps; one generates the initial values of the other. Thus, we utilize the best two properties of chaos ergodicity and sensitivity to the initial value. We increase the security of the cipher by introducing a reverse order round to resist cryptanalysis attacks.

Salwa K. Abd-El-Hafiz

2014-03-01

197

Cryptanalyzing an image encryption scheme based on logistic map

Recently, an image encryption scheme based on logistic map was proposed. It has been reported by a research group that its equivalent secret key can be reconstructed with only one pair of known-plaintext and the corresponding cipher-text. Utilizing stable distribution of the chaotic states generated by iterating the logistic map, this paper further demonstrates that much more information about the secret key can be derived under the same condition.

Li, Chengqing; Xie, Tao; Liu, Qi

2013-01-01

198

A Review on Keyless User Defined Reversible Encryption for Color Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some limitation of Key oriented techniques, to maintain the key records and increase highcomputational cost. To overcome this limitation to proposed an improved reversible image encryptionrandom hiding approach for keyless image encryption. The objective of this paper to increase the secrecyand confidentiality of images is a multimedia and vibrant area of research. There are two differentapproaches being followed in image encryption, the first approach to key oriented encryption and secondapproach to keyless to random encryption technique for every pixel and to maintain the originality of animage without any loss of quality.

Pratibha S. Ghode

2013-10-01

199

A Light-weight Symmetric Encryption Algorithm Based on Feistel Cryptosystem Structure

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available WSNs is usually deployed in opening wireless environment, its data is easy to be intercepted by attackers. It is necessary to adopt some encryption measurements to protect data of WSNs. But the battery capacity, CPU performance and RAM capacity of WSNs sensors are all limited, the complex encryption algorithm is not fitted for them. The paper proposed a light-level symmetrical encryption algorithm: LWSEA, which adopt minor encryption rounds, shorter data packet and simplified scrambling function. So the calculation cost of LWSEA is very low. We also adopt longer-bit Key and circular interpolation method to produce Child-Key, which raised the security of LWSEA. The experiments demonstrate that the LWSEA possess better "avalanche effect" and data confusion degree, furthermore, its calculation speed is far faster than DES, but its resource cost is very low. Those excellent performances make LWSEA is much suited for resource-restrained WSNs.

Jingli Zheng

2014-12-01

200

An image encryption approach based on chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well-known that images are different from texts in many aspects, such as highly redundancy and correlation, the local structure and the characteristics of amplitude-frequency. As a result, the methods of conventional encryption cannot be applicable to images. In this paper, we improve the properties of confusion and diffusion in terms of discrete exponential chaotic maps, and design a key scheme for the resistance to statistic attack, differential attack and grey code attack. Experimental and theoretical results also show that our scheme is efficient and very secure

201

Design and Analysis of a Novel Digital Image Encryption Scheme

In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 144-bits is proposed. In the substitution process of the scheme, image is divided into blocks and subsequently into color components. Each color component is modified by performing bitwise operation which depends on secret key as well as a few most significant bits of its previous and next color component. Three rounds are taken to complete substitution process. To make cipher more robust, a feedback mechanism is also applied by modifying used secret key after encrypting each block. Further, resultant image is partitioned into several key based dynamic sub-images. Each sub-image passes through the scrambling process where pixels of sub-image are reshuffled within itself by using a generated magic square matrix. Five rounds are taken for scrambling process. The propose scheme is simple, fast and sensitive to the secret key. Due to high order of substitution and permutation, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasibl...

Pareek, Narendra K

2012-01-01

202

High Security Nested PWLCM Chaotic Map Bit-Level Permutation Based Image Encryption

Chaotic systems produce pseudo-random sequences with good randomness; therefore, these systems are suitable to efficient image encryption. In this paper, a low complexity image encryption based on Nested Piece Wise Linear Chaotic Map (NPWLCM) is proposed. Bit planes of the grey or color levels are shuffled to increase the encryption complexity. A security analysis of the proposed system is performed and presented. The proposed method combine pixel shuffling, bit shuffling, and diffusion, whic...

Qassim Nasir; Abdlrudha, Hadi H.

2012-01-01

203

A Novel Chaotic Map and an Improved Chaos-Based Image Encryption Scheme

In this paper, we present a novel approach to create the new chaotic map and propose an improved image encryption scheme based on it. Compared with traditional classic one-dimensional chaotic maps like Logistic Map and Tent Map, this newly created chaotic map demonstrates many better chaotic properties for encryption, implied by a much larger maximal Lyapunov exponent. Furthermore, the new chaotic map and Arnold's Cat Map based image encryption method is designed and proved to be of solid rob...

Xianhan Zhang; Yang Cao

2014-01-01

204

By reverse-engineering the modified amplitude-phase retrieval-based attack that has deciphered the phase-truncated double random phase encoding scheme, we proposed a new cryptosystem to encode a target image into a preselected fake image using a modified phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of phase-truncated double random phase encoding. With two private keys that are generated during the encryption, the decryption can be optically realized using a classical linear double random phase encoding method. The proposed cryptosystem has immunity against the recently proposed specific attack and the new attack based on a modified amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity and good performance of our proposed algorithm.

Wang, Xiaogang; Dai, Chaoqing; Chen, Junlang

2014-10-01

205

A Security Routing Algorithm of P2P Network Based on Multiple Encryption and Positive Detection

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Full Text Available Routing plays a fundamental role in the P2P network. Most attacks are aiming at P2P routing. We proposed a novel security routing algorithm to fight against those attacks. The algorithm adopt the means of multiple encryption and positive detection and periodically detect each node in routing path using encryption packet, which can accurately find malicious or instable nodes in routing path and exclude them from routing table. Simulation experiments also demonstrate the algorithm can effectively enhance the routing security and reliability of P2P network.

Lu Chuiwei

2013-03-01

206

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption.

Tzu-Hsiang Hung

2012-06-01

207

This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption. PMID:22969355

Yau, Her-Terng; Hung, Tzu-Hsiang; Hsieh, Chia-Chun

2012-01-01

208

Design an Algorithm for Data Encryption and Decryption Using Pentaoctagesimal SNS

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Full Text Available Encryption is the most effective way of computer science concerned with developing schemes and formula to achieve data and information security through the use of codes. Today the privacy is the main issue to sending information from one point to another in data transmission. Encryption is the procedure that allows messages or information to be encoded in such a way that it is extremely difficult to read or understand where decryption is the procedure to transforming encoded text into the original message and information. In this paper we present an algorithm for data encryption and decryption which is based on number theory. In addition, data encryption using strange number system (especially using pentaoctagesimal (SNS can provide real physical security to data—allowing only authorized users to delete or update data. This algorithm is used pentaoctagesimal strange number system to encrypt data and we propose a better data encryption and decryption strategy, which will offer better security towards all possible ways of attacks while data transmission.

Debasis Das

2013-12-01

209

Performance Analysis of Most Common Encryption Algorithms on Different Web Browsers

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Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,UMARAM, RC6 and UR5 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. We have proposed a Web programming language to be analyzed with five Web browsers in term of their performances to process the encryption of the programming language’s script with the Web browsers. This is followed by conducting tests simulation in order to obtain the best encryption algorithm versus Web browser. The results of the experimental analysis are presented in the form of graphs. We finally conclude on the findings that different algorithms perform differently to different Web browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Netscape Navigator. Hence, we now determine which algorithm works best and most compatible with which Web browser.A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as encryption/decryption speed in the different web Browsers. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

R. Umarani

2012-11-01

210

Robust Watermarking Framework with DCT Based Encryption

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Full Text Available Since several years,, the protection of multimedia data is becoming extremely important. The protection of the multimedia data might be performed with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To address the transmission time, information compression is required. If you take benefit from the character of cryptographic schemes and digital watermarking, the copyright of multimedia contents can possibly be well protected. Our objective will be to give access to the outcomes of one's image integrity and of their origin regardless of the fact that the reputation is stored encrypted. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly for the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption might be applied independently. With the source end original image and watermarked encrypted image is processed. This encrypted watermark image is finally decoded at the receiver end. This proposed work proposes a novel encryption algorithm to encrypt image. The entropy of this very watermarked image and correlation coefficient of extracted watermark image is amazingly not far away from ideal values, proving the correctness of proposed algorithm. In the proposed system, a Watermarking Scheme based on DWT with encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. Also experimental results show resiliency of a given scheme against large blurring attack like mean and Gaussian filtering, linear filtering Thus proving the security, effectiveness and robustness of a given proposed watermarking algorithm

L.Sri Lakshmi

2013-11-01

211

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Full Text Available Visual Cryptography is a special type of encryption technique to obscure image-based secret information which can be decrypted by Human Visual System (HVS. It is imperceptible to reveal the secret information unless a certain number of shares (k or more among n number of shares are superimposed. As the decryption process is done by human visual system, secret information can be retrieved by anyone if the person gets at least k number of shares. For this, simple visual cryptography is very in secure. In this current work we have proposed a method where we done the encryption in several level. First we use a variable length image key to encrypt the original image then bit sieve procedure is used on resultant image and lastly we perform K-N secret sharing scheme on the final encrypted image. Decryption is done in reverse level of encryption that means we do K-N secret sharing scheme, bit sieve method and image key decryption respectively. As multiple levels of encryptions are being used thus the security is being increased in great extant.

Anupam Bhakta,

2013-06-01

212

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Full Text Available A secure image encryption scheme based on 2D skew tent map is proposed for the encryption of color images. The proposed encryption scheme is composed of one permutation process and one substitution process. The 3D color plain-image matrix is converted to 2D image matrix first, then 2D skew tent map is utilized to generate chaotic sequences, which are used for both permutation process and substitution process. The chaotic sequence for permutation process is dependent on plain-image and cipher keys, resulting in good key sensitivity and plaintext sensitivity. The substitution process is first initiated with the initial vectors generated by the cipher keys and 2D skew tent map, then the gray values of row and column pixels of 2D image matrix are mixed with the pseudorandom number sequences via bitxoring operation. Both permutation process and substitution process are executed row-by-row and column-by-column instead of pixel-by-pixel to improve the speed of encryption. The security and performance of the proposed image encryption have been analyzed, including histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, differential analysis, encryption/decryption rate analysis etc. All the experimental results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is robust and secure and can be used for secure image and video communication applications.

Ruisong Ye

2014-03-01

213

A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed based on the asymmetric technique, in which the encryption keys are not identical to the decryption ones. First, each plain image is scrambled based on a sequence of chaotic pairs generated with a system of two symmetrically coupled identical logistic maps. Then, the phase-only function of each scrambled image is retrieved with an iterative phase retrieval process in the fractional Fourier transform domain. Second, all phase-only functions are modulated into an interim, which is encrypted into the ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using the fractional Fourier transform and chaotic diffusion. In the encryption process, three random phase functions are used as encryption keys to retrieve the phase-only functions of plain images. Simultaneously, three decryption keys are generated in the encryption process, which make the proposed encryption scheme has high security against various attacks, such as chosen plaintext attack. The peak signal-to-noise is used to evaluate the quality of the decrypted image, which shows that the encryption capacity of the proposed scheme is enhanced considerably. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Meng, Haining

2014-11-01

214

At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent light. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. However this applies new restrictions on encryption keys: Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of encryption key should overlap Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of image to be encrypted otherwise loss of information is unavoidable. Therefore it seems that best key should have white spectrum. On the other hand due to fact that only light intensity distribution is registered, spectra of image to be encrypted and encryption key always have peaks at zero frequency and their heights depend on corresponding total energy. Since encrypted image contains noise, ratio of its average spectrum energy to noise average energy determines signal to noise ratio of decrypted image. Therefore ratio of amplitude at zero frequency to average spectrum amplitude (RZA) of encryption key defines decrypted images quality. For generation of encryption keys with low RZA method of direct search with random trajectory (DSRT) was used. To estimate impact of key RZA on decrypted images error numerical experiments were conducted. For experiments keys with different RZA values but with same energy value were generated and used. Numerically simulated optical encryption and decryption of set of test images was conducted. Results of experiment demonstrate that application of keys with low RZA generated by DSRT method leads to up to 20% lower error in comparison to keys generated by means of uniform random distribution.

Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

2014-05-01

215

The hybrid hiding encryption algorithm, as its name implies, embraces concepts from both steganography and cryptography. In this exertion, an improved micro-architecture Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of this algorithm is presented. This design overcomes the observed limitations of a previously-designed micro-architecture. These observed limitations are: no exploitation of the possibility of parallel bit replacement, and the fact that the input plaintext was encrypted serially, which caused a dependency between the throughput and the nature of the used secret key. This dependency can be viewed by some as vulnerability in the security of the implemented micro-architecture. The proposed modified micro-architecture is constructed using five basic modules. These modules are; the message cache, the message alignment module, the key cache, the comparator, and at last the encryption module. In this work, we provide comprehensive simulation and implementation results. These are: the timing diagra...

Farouk, Hala A

2011-01-01

216

AN IMAGE ENCRYPTION USING BIT LEVEL PERMUTATION AND DEPENDENT DIFFUSION?

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Full Text Available Chaos-based cryptosystems have been studied extensively due to their superior properties insecurity and complexity. Recently, quite a lot of chaos-based image encryption schemes have been proposed.Most of them adopt the traditional permutation and diffusion operations. The drawbacks are: thearchitecture is not sensitive to changes in the plain-image and they are insecure upon chosen/known plainimageattack. Due to the favourable properties of bit-level permutation, we propose a bit-level confusion anddependent diffusion to enhance the security of the cryptosystem and to reduce the computation redundancyin traditional architectures. Simulations have been carried out and the results demonstrate the superiorsecurity and high efficiency of the proposed scheme.

G.S. Nandeesh

2013-05-01

217

Image encryption based on the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform

In recent years, a number of methods have been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional information by using the fractional Fourier transform, but most of their encryptions are complex values and need digital hologram technique to record information, which is inconvenient for digital transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach for image encryption based on the real-valuedness and decorrelation property of the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transmission. In the proposed scheme, the original and encrypted images are respectively in the spatial domain and the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transformed domain determined by the encryption keys. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is reliable and more robust to blind decryption than several existing methods.

Lang, Jun

2012-05-01

218

Efficient Digital Encryption Algorithm Based on Matrix Scrambling Technique

This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem ofinformation which is transmitted in Internet. We propose a new technique on matrix scrambling which isbased on random function, shifting and reversing techniques of circular queue. We give statisticalanalysis, sequence random analysis, and sensitivity analysis to plaintext and key on the proposed scheme.The experimental results show that the new scheme has a very fast encryption speed and the key sp...

Kiran Kumar, M.; Mukthyar Azam, S.; Shaik Rasool

2010-01-01

219

This paper studies the security of an improved fast encryption algorithm for multimedia (FEA-M). A simple differential chosen-plaintext attack is proposed to completely break the improved FEA-M. The proposed attack is very efficient in complexity and needs only two pairs of chosen plaintext blocks.

Li, S; Li, Shujun; Lo, Kwok-Tung

2005-01-01

220

A new double-image encryption method on the joint transform correlator using two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography, based on the calculated intensity of reference beam is proposed. The technique realizes the double-image encryption using one random phase encoding on the joint transform correlator; and only records two quadrature-phase holograms on CCD camera without recording reference-wave intensity or object-wave intensity. With the acquired reference-wave intensity from 2-D correlation coefficient and the keys known, the clear retrieved image can be obtained at high speed by certain algorithm. Its feasibility and validity were verified by a series of computer simulations.

Li, Jun; Zheng, Tao; Liu, Qing-zhi; Li, Rong

2012-04-01

221

We propose an optical color image cryptosystem based on position multiplexing technique and phase truncation operation. Compared with the reported color image encryption method, we employ the position multiplexing technique to encrypt the color image in only one spatial channel. Meanwhile, our proposed method can maintain the nonlinear characteristic of the cryptosystem and avoid various types of the currently existing attacks, especially the iterative attack. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the security and robustness performance of the proposed method.

Ding, Xiangling; Chen, Guangyi

2014-04-01

222

NEW INNOVATION OF ARABIC LANGUAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE USING NEW SYMMETRIC KEY ALGORITHM

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Full Text Available Security is the one of the biggest concern in different type of network communication as well as individual countries. Cryptography algorithms become much more important in data transmission through unsecured channel. One third of the world using Arabic language, unfortunately, there is no cryptography algorithm to encrypt/decrypt for the Arabic communication country. The main goal of this research is to introduce effective symmetric key algorithm on Arabic characters. In our research we have proposed a modular 37 and Arabic letters assigning to the integer value also numerals 0-9 also assigned as an integer number called as synthetic value. The procedure of encryption and decryption is simple and effective. We are selecting random integer and calculate inverse of the selected integer with modular 37. The symmetric key distribution should be done in the secured channel for decrypting message. Here we are attempting simple symmetric key algorithm on Arabic language with ground-breaking sense.

Prakash Kuppuswamy

2014-03-01

223

Image Retrieval Algorithm Based on Discrete Fractional Transforms

The discrete fractional transforms is a signal processing tool which suggests computational algorithms and solutions to various sophisticated applications. In this paper, a new technique to retrieve the encrypted and scrambled image based on discrete fractional transforms has been proposed. Two-dimensional image was encrypted using discrete fractional transforms with three fractional orders and two random phase masks placed in the two intermediate planes. The significant feature of discrete fractional transforms benefits from its extra degree of freedom that is provided by its fractional orders. Security strength was enhanced (1024!)4 times by scrambling the encrypted image. In decryption process, image retrieval is sensitive for both correct fractional order keys and scrambling algorithm. The proposed approach make the brute force attack infeasible. Mean square error and relative error are the recital parameters to verify validity of proposed method.

Jindal, Neeru; Singh, Kulbir

2013-06-01

224

Applying Encryption Algorithm for Data Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing

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Full Text Available Cloud computing is the next big thing after internet in the field of information technology; some say its a metaphor for internet. It is an Internet-based computing technology, in which software, shared recourses and information, are provided to consumers and devices on-demand, and as per users requirement on a pay per use model. Even though the cloud continues to grow in popularity, Usability and respectability, Problems with data protection and data privacy and other Security issues play a major setback in the field of Cloud Computing. Privacy and security are the key issue for cloud storage. Encryption is a well known technology for protecting sensitive data. Use of the combination of Public and Private key encryption to hide the sensitive data of users, and cipher text retrieval. The paper analyzes the feasibility of the applying encryption algorithm for data security and privacy in cloud Storage.

Mohit Marwaha

2013-01-01

225

A New Data Encryption Algorithm Based on the Location of Mobile Users

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Full Text Available The wide spread of WLAN and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. However, most of the data encryption technology is location-independent. An encrypted data can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict the location of data decryption. In order to meet the demand of mobile users in the future, a location-dependent approach, called Location-Dependent Data Encryption Algorithm (LDEA, is proposed in this study. A target latitude/longitude coordinate is determined firstly. The coordinate is incorporated with a random key for data encryption. The receiver can only decrypt the ciphertext when the coordinate acquired from GPS receiver is matched with the target coordinate. However, current GPS receiver is inaccuracy and inconsistent. The location of a mobile user is difficult to exactly match with the target coordinate. A Toleration Distance (TD is also designed in LDEA to increase its practicality. The security analysis shows that the probability to break LDEA is almost impossible since the length of the random key is adjustable. A prototype is also implemented for experimental study. The results show that the ciphertext can only be decrypted under the restriction of TD. It illustrates that LDEA is effective and practical for data transmission in mobile environment.

Hsien- Chou Liao

2008-01-01

226

Security and confidentiality of data is one important aspect of an information system. The information can be misused very large losses in high-profile cases such vital information confidential corporate, customer data banks and etc. Information security solutions in one of them can be used with cryptography. Cryptographic algorithms used in this study is a tiny encryption algorithm. Cryptographic data security attacks can always wear can occur, with this in mind the authors added security te...

Alfian, Muhammad

2013-01-01

227

Fast ghost imaging and ghost encryption based on the discrete cosine transform

We introduce the discrete cosine transform as an advanced compression tool for images in computational ghost imaging. A novel approach to fast imaging and encryption, the discrete cosine transform, promotes the security level of ghost images and reduces the image retrieval time. To discuss the advantages of this technique we compare experimental outcomes with simulated ones.

Tanha, Mehrdad; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Kheradmand, Reza

2013-11-01

228

A Modified Location-Dependent Image Encryption for Mobile Information System

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Full Text Available The wide spread use of WLAN (Wireless LAN and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. In such scenario, a need for Secure Communication arises. Secure communication is possible through encryption of data. A lot of encryption techniques have evolved over time. However, most of the data encryption techniques are location-independent. Data encrypted with such techniques can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict the location of data decryption. GPS-based encryption (or geoencryption is an innovative technique that uses GPS-technology to encode location information into the encryption keys to provide location based security. In this paper a location-dependent approach is proposed for mobile information system. The mobile client transmits a target latitude/longitude coordinate and an LDEA key is obtained for data encryption to information server. The client can only decrypt the ciphertext when the coordinate acquired form GPS receiver matches with the target coordinate. For improved security, a random key (R-key is incorporated in addition to the LDEA key. The proposed method is applied for images.

Prasad Reddy.P.V.G.D

2010-05-01

229

A Safety Algorithm of P2P Routing based on Multiple-Encryption Detecting Technology

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Full Text Available The nodes can freely join or leave the P2P network, which will lead to much false routing information that can cripple the performance of P2P network. Many hackers also utilize the weaken point to attack the P2P network. We propose a safety routing algorithm for P2P network to resist the routing attack. The algorithm adopts the multiple-encryption detecting technology. The node which launches the communicating connection will periodically detect every node in its routing path by sending some multiple-encryption detecting packets. By the responding message of the detected nodes, the malicious or disable nodes in its routing path will be accurately located and kicked out of the routing table. Simulation experiments demonstrate the algorithm can effectively improve the safety of the P2P routing and topology stability of the P2P network.

Chuiwei Lu

2013-10-01

230

Color image encryption scheme based on 4-weighted fractional Fourier transform

We propose an image encryption technique for color images by using conventional logarithms operator, chaotic map and 4-weighted fractional Fourier transform (4-WFRFT). The color image to be encrypted is initially separated into its primary color channels, red, green, and blue; each channel is concealed inside the same random mask by using the base-changing axiom of logarithms. Subsequently, each logarithmic-concealed channel is encrypted independently by using double random 4-WFRFT plane encoding technique. This technique utilizes two random phase mask that are developed by using a chaotic map. The parameters of RPMs and transform orders of 4-WFRFT utilized in each logarithm channel are considered as secret keys for encryption/decryption process. The robustness of the proposed technique is analyzed and discussed by presenting the experimental results.

Keshari, Sudhir; Modani, Shri Gopal

2012-07-01

231

We propose an optoelectronic image encryption and decryption technique based on coherent superposition principle and digital holography. With the help of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) that is generated by using logistic map, a real-valued primary image is encoded into a phase-only version and then recorded as an encoded hologram. As for multiple-image encryption, only one digital hologram is to be transmitted as the encrypted result by using the multiplexing technique changing the reference wave angle. The bifurcation parameters, the initial values for the logistic maps, the number of the removed elements and the reference wave parameters are kept and transmitted as private keys. Both the encryption and decryption processes can be implemented in opto-digital manner or fully digital manner. Simulation results are given for testing the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

2012-10-01

232

Cryptanalyzing an image encryption scheme based on hybrid chaotic system and cyclic elliptic curve

Recently, an image encryption scheme was proposed based on hybrid chaotic system and cyclic elliptic curve. This paper evaluates the security of the scheme and finds that known-plaintext attack can break it with only a pair of plain image/cipher image while chosen-plaintext attack cryptanalyzes it by choosing one plain image with all the zero-value pixels and corresponding cipher image. Meanwhile, experimental results are provided to support the found points. Moreover, some other defects and corresponding improvements are also given. Finally, a rough comparison between chaos theory and optical technique applied to image encryption is done in terms of robustness and statistical analysis. Both of them have own strengths and weaknesses, which motivates the cipher designers to combine their advantages together to construct new-type image encryption schemes.

Liu, Hong; Liu, Yanbing

2014-03-01

233

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A LMS (Learning Management System service is described in this project using Blowfish algorithm. It promotes more accessibility to LMS service providers to send their training modules and syllabus via Internet at any point of the hour much more efficiently. This gives rise to reduced cost of hardware and software tools, which in return would scale-up the e-learning environment. In the existing system RSA algorithm used. It requires more computation time for large volumes of data. To reduce this computation time we are using Blowfish algorithm. The LMS Service utilizes three cloud systems, including an encryption and decryption system, a storagesystem, and LMS application system.

G.Devi, M.Pramod Kumar

2012-08-01

234

An image encryption scheme is proposed based on fractional Mellin transform and phase retrieval technique. Any image can be chosen as ciphertext, the selected annular domain of the specified image is first transformed by fractional Mellin transform. With the transformed result and original image, phase-key can be extracted by using phase retrieval technique in fractional Fourier domain. The proposed scheme can reduce the burden of transmission, enlarge key space, and can be extended to multiple-image encryption. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Zhou, Nanrun; Liu, Xingbin; Zhang, Ye; Yang, Yixian

2013-04-01

235

A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed. In the proposed method, the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly, then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out. The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image, which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The computer simulation results of statistical analysis, information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.

236

A CONFIGURABLE SECURED IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE USING 3D ARRAY BLOCK ROTATION

Security of the information was the exclusive domain of the multimedia applications and transfer of the data over the insecure mode of communication. A few years after the necessity of information security was invented researchers became aware of encryption/decryption techniques development by various agencies.In this paper a new technique of enciphering data which enables good diffusion for obscuring the redundancies in a plaintext messages. Image encryption is achieved using 3D array block ...

Lokeshwari, G.; Udaya Kumar, Dr S.; Aparna, G.

2012-01-01

237

Lossless Image Compression and Selective Encryption Using a Discrete Radon Transform

In this paper we propose a new joint encryption and loss- less compression technique designed for large images 1 . The proposed technique takes advantage of the Mojette transform properties, and can easily be included in a distributed storage architecture. The basic crypto-compression scheme presented is based on a cascade of Radon projection which enables fast encryption of a large amount of digital data. Standard encryp- tion techniques, such as AES, DES, 3DES, or IDEA can be applied to enc...

Kingston, Andrew; Colosimo, Simone; Campisi, Patrizio; Autrusseau, Florent

2007-01-01

238

A Selective Encryption for Heterogenous Color JPEG Images Based on VLC and AES Stream Cipher

Nowadays, the most important engine to provide confidentiality is encryption. Therefore, the classical and modern ciphers are not suitable for huge quantity of data in real-time environment. Selective encryption (SE) is an approach to encode only the most important portion of the data in order to provide a proportional privacy and to reduce computational requirements. The objective of our work is to leave free the low-resolution image and give full-resolution access only for authorized person...

Rodrigues, Jose?; Puech, William; Bors, Adrian

2006-01-01

239

New Visual Cryptography Algorithm For Colored Image

Visual Cryptography is a special encryption technique to hide information in images, which divide secret image into multiple layers. Each layer holds some information. The receiver aligns the layers and the secret information is revealed by human vision without any complex computation. The proposed algorithm is for color image, that presents a system which takes four pictures as an input and generates three images which correspond to three of the four input pictures. The decoding requires only selecting some subset of these 3 images, making transparencies of them, and stacking them on top of each other, so the forth picture is reconstructed by printing the three output images onto transparencies and stacking them together. The reconstructed image achieved in same size with original secret image.

Abdulla, Sozan

2010-01-01

240

A New Loss-Tolerant Image Encryption Scheme Based on Secret Sharing and Two Chaotic Systems

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Full Text Available In this study, we propose an efficient loss-tolerant image encryption scheme that protects both confidentiality and loss-tolerance simultaneously in shadow images. In this scheme, we generate the key sequence based on two chaotic maps and then encrypt the image during the sharing phase based on Shamir’s method. Experimental results show a better performance of the proposed scheme for different images than other methods from human vision. Security analysis confirms a high probability to resist both brute-force and collusion attacks.

Li Li

2012-04-01

241

High Security Nested PWLCM Chaotic Map Bit-Level Permutation Based Image Encryption

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Full Text Available Chaotic systems produce pseudo-random sequences with good randomness; therefore, these systems are suitable to efficient image encryption. In this paper, a low complexity image encryption based on Nested Piece Wise Linear Chaotic Map (NPWLCM is proposed. Bit planes of the grey or color levels are shuffled to increase the encryption complexity. A security analysis of the proposed system is performed and presented. The proposed method combine pixel shuffling, bit shuffling, and diffusion, which is highly disorder the original image. The initial values and the chaos control parameters of NPWLCM maps are derived from external secret key. The cipher image generated by this method is the same size as the original image and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet. The experimental results of the proposed method show advantages of low complexity, and high-level security.

Qassim Nasir

2012-09-01

242

An Efficient Stream Cipher Algorithm for Data Encryption

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Full Text Available Nowadays the data telecommunication security has been provided by most of well-known stream cipher algorithms which are already implemented in different secure protocols such as GSM, SSL, TLS, WEP, Bluetooth etc. These algorithms are A5/1, A5/2, E0 and RC4. On the other hand, these public algorithms already faced to serious security weakness such that they do not provide enough security of proportional plain data in front of cryptanalysis attacks. In this paper we proposed an efficient stream cipher algorithm which generates 23 random bits in each round of processing by parallel random number generator and 115 bits of Initial Vector. This algorithm can implement in high speed communication link more than 100Mb/s and it has passed all of standard cryptographic tests successfully, also it can resist in front of well-known attacks such as algebraic and correlation.

Majid Bakhtiari

2011-05-01

243

Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then ...

Somdip Dey; Kalyan Mondal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath,

2012-01-01

244

Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the robustness properties of 2D chaotic map image encryption schemes. We investigate the behavior of such block ciphers under different channel error types and find the transmission error robustness to be highly dependent on on the type of error occurring and to be very different as compared to the effects when using traditional block ciphers like AES. Additionally, chaotic-mixing-based encryption schemes are shown to be robust to lossy compression as long as the security requirements are not too high. This property facilitates the application of these ciphers in scenarios where lossy compression is applied to encrypted material, which is impossible in case traditional ciphers should be employed. If high security is required chaotic mixing loses its robustness to transmission errors and compression, still the lower computational demand may be an argument in favor of chaotic mixing as compared to traditional ciphers when visual data is to be encrypted.

Michael Gschwandtner

2007-11-01

245

Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the robustness properties of 2D chaotic map image encryption schemes. We investigate the behavior of such block ciphers under different channel error types and find the transmission error robustness to be highly dependent on on the type of error occurring and to be very different as compared to the effects when using traditional block ciphers like AES. Additionally, chaotic-mixing-based encryption schemes are shown to be robust to lossy compression as long as the security requirements are not too high. This property facilitates the application of these ciphers in scenarios where lossy compression is applied to encrypted material, which is impossible in case traditional ciphers should be employed. If high security is required chaotic mixing loses its robustness to transmission errors and compression, still the lower computational demand may be an argument in favor of chaotic mixing as compared to traditional ciphers when visual data is to be encrypted.

Gschwandtner Michael

2007-01-01

246

We present a hybrid configuration of joint transform correlator (JTC) and joint fractional transform correlator (JFTC) for encryption purpose. The original input is encoded in the joint fractional power spectrum distribution of JFTC. In our experimental arrangement, an additional random phase mask (master key) is holographically generated beforehand by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a JTC as the object arm. The fractional order of JFTC, together with the master key, can remarkably strengthen the safety level of encryption. Different from many previous digital-holography-based encryption schemes, the stability and alignment requirement for our system is not high, since the interferometric operation is only performed in the generation procedure of the master key. The advantages and feasibility of the proposed scheme have been verified by the experimental results. By combining with a multiplex technique, an application for multiple images encryption using the system is also given a detailed description.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

2013-04-01

247

A SURVEY ON SECURED WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES FOR JPEG IMAGES ON COMPRESSED-ENCRYPTED DOMAIN

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the digital world, the digital media is currentlyevolving at such a rapid pace, intellectual copyright protectionis becoming increasingly important. Now a day, the digitalmedia is available with various image formats, due to whichthey are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality. Awide range of digital media is often distributed by multiplelevels of distributers in a compressed and encrypted format. Itis sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encryptedmedia items in the compressed-encrypted domain itself fortamper detection or ownership declaration or copyrightmanagement purposes. The compression pack the informationof raw media into a lower number of bits and an encryptionprocess randomize the compressed bit stream. The encryptionalgorithm used was a stream cipher. While the techniqueembeds watermark in the compressed-encrypted domain, theextraction of watermark can be done in the encrypted anddecrypted domain.

Aparna Soni , Deepty Dubey

2013-01-01

248

A new optical security system for image encryption based on optical interference principle and translation property of Fresnel transform (FrT) has been proposed in this article. The algorithm of this proposal is specially designed for single-beam optical decryption and can thoroughly resolve the silhouette problem existing in the previous interference-based scheme. Different from earlier schemes using interference of phase-only masks (POMs), the inverse FrT of primitive image is digitally decomposed into a random POM and a complex field distribution. Information associated with the primitive images can be completely smoothed away by the modulation of this random POM. Through the translation property of FrT, two linear phase-only terms are then used to modulate the obtained random POM and the complex distribution, respectively. Two complex ciphertexts are generated by performing digital inverse FrT again. One cannot recover any visible information of secret image using only one ciphertext. Moreover, to recover the primitive image correctly, the correct ciphertexts must be placed in the certain positions of input plane of decryption system, respectively. As additional keys, position center coordinates of ciphertexts can increase the security strength of this encryption system against brute force attacks greatly. Numerical simulations have been given to verify the performance and feasibility of this proposal. To further enhance the application value of this algorithm, an alternative approach based on Fourier transform has also been discussed briefly.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

2014-12-01

249

On the security of 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption scheme

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption algorithm, which significantly increases the resistance against statistical and differential attacks, has been proposed recently. It employs a 3D Cat map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and uses the Logistic map to diffuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Based on the factor that it is sufficient to break this cryptosystem only with the equivalent control parameters, some fundamental weaknesses of the cryptosystem are pointed out. With the knowledge of symbolic dynamics and some specially designed plain-images, we can calculate the equivalent initial condition of diffusion process and rebuild a valid equivalent 3D Cat matrix. In this Letter, we will propose a successful chosen-plain-text cryptanalytic attack, which is composed of two mutually independent procedures: the cryptanalysis of the diffusion process and the cryptanalysis of the spatial permutation process. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the lack of security discourages the use of these cryptosystems for practical applications

250

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Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm is an algorithm based on population and many optimization problems are solved with this method, successfully. With increasing demand for computer attacks, security, efficient and reliable Internet has increased. Cryptographic systems have studied the science of communication is hidden, and includes two case categories including encryption, password and analysis. In this paper, several code analyses based on genetic algorithms, tabu search and simulated annealing for a permutation of encrypted text are investigated. The study also attempts to provide and to compare the performance in terms of the amount of check and control algorithms and the results are compared.

Mahdi Sadeghzadeh

2014-02-01

251

Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm upto 4 Round on Spartan 3

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Full Text Available Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized upto 4 round using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3 Modelsim. The paper deals with various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc. used in order to provide optimized results.

Nimmi Gupta

2012-02-01

252

Double image encryption using double pixel scrambling and random phase encoding

A novel double image encryption method is proposed by utilizing double pixel scrambling technique and random fractional Fourier domain encoding. One of the two original images is encoded into the phase of a complex signal after being scrambled by one matrix, and the other original image encoded into its amplitude after being scrambled by another matrix. The complex signal is then encrypted into stationary white noise by utilizing double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. By applying the correct keys with fractional orders, the random phase masks and the pixel scrambling operation, the two original images can be retrieved without cross-talk. Numerical simulations have been done to prove the validity and the security of the proposed encryption method.

Zhong, Zhi; Chang, Jie; Shan, Mingguang; Hao, Bengong

2012-03-01

253

Hierarchical encrypted image watermarking using fractional Fourier domain random phase encoding

In this paper, a hierarchical encrypted image watermarking technique based on a fractional domain random phase encoding method is proposed. Multiple watermarks encrypted at multiple levels are multiplexed in the fractional Fourier domain and added into a host image. The watermarks are encrypted by the conventional fractional Fourier domain double random phase encoding scheme. The proposed method offers extra security. The invisible watermark is recovered by applying correct random phase masks along with the correct fractional orders. The metric peak signal-to-noise ratio is used to evaluate the visual quality of the watermarked image. To check the robustness of the proposed technique, the effects of image processing operations, such as cropping, mean filtering, median filtering, and noise, are also studied. For watermark authentication, the correlation value is calculated between the original and retrieved watermarks. Simulation results are presented in support of the proposed idea.

Nishchal, Naveen Kumar

2011-09-01

254

Fractional Fourier-domain random encoding and pixel scrambling technique for double image encryption

A double image encryption method is proposed using fractional Fourier-domain random encoding and pixel scrambling technique. One of the two original images is encoded into the phase function of a synthesized input signal after being scrambled, and the other original image encoded into its amplitude. The phase function serves as phase mask in the input domain, and the synthesized input signal is then encrypted into stationary white noise by utilizing random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. The two original images can be retrieved without cross-talk by using the correct keys with fractional orders, the random phase mask and the pixel scrambling operator. Numerical simulations and security analysis have been done to prove the validity and the security of the proposed encryption method.

Zhong, Zhi; Chang, Jie; Shan, Mingguang; Hao, Bengong

2012-01-01

255

Improvement of Networked Control Systems Performance Using a New Encryption Algorithm

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Full Text Available Networked control systems are control systems which controllers and plants are connected via telecommunication network. One of the most important challenges in networked control systems is the problem of network time delay. Increasing of time delay may affect on control system performance extremely. Other important issue in networked control systems is the security problems. Since it is possible that unknown people access to network especially Internet, the probability of terrible attacks such as deception attacks is greater, therefore presentation of methods which could decrease time delay and increase system immunity are desired. In this paper a symmetric encryption with low data volume against deception attacks is proposed. This method has high security and low time delay rather than the other encryption algorithms and could improve the control system performance against deception attacks.

Seyed Ali Mesbahifard

2014-07-01

256

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Full Text Available Storing, transmitting and security of DNA sequences are well known research challenge. The problem has got magnified with increasing discovery and availability of DNA sequences. We have represent DNA sequence compression algorithm based on Dynamic Look Up Table (DLUT and modified Huffman technique. DLUT consists of 43(64 bases that are 64 sub-stings, each sub-string is of 3 bases long. Each sub-string are individually coded by single ASCII code from 33(! to 96(` and vice versa. Encode depends on encryption key choose by user from four base pair {a,t.g and c}and decode also require decryption key provide by the encoded user. Decoding must require authenticate input for encode the data. The sub-strings are combined into a Dynamic Look up Table based pre-coding routine. This algorithm is tested on reverse; complement & reverse complement the DNA sequences and also test on artificial DNA sequences of equivalent length. Speed of encryption and security levels are two important measurements for evaluating any encryption system. Due to proliferate of ubiquitous computing system, where digital contents are accessible through resource constraint biological database security concern is very important issue. A lot of research has been made to find an encryption system which can be run effectively in those biological databases. Information security is the most challenging question to protect the data from unauthorized user. The proposed method may protect the data from hackers. It can provide the three tier security, in tier one is ASCII code, in tier two is nucleotide (a,t,g and c choice by user and tier three is change of label or change of node position in Huffman Tree. Compression of the genome sequences will help to increase the efficiency of their use. The greatest advantage of this algorithm is fast execution, small memory occupation and easy implementation. Since the program to implement the technique have been written originally in the C language, (Windows XP platform, and TC compiler it is possible to run in other microcomputers with small changes (depending on platform and Compiler used. The execution is quite fast, all the operations are carried out in fraction of seconds, depending on the required task and on the sequence length. The technique can approach an effective compression ratio of 1.98 bits/base and even lower. When a user searches for any sequence for an organism, an encrypted compressed sequence file can be sent from the data source to the user. The encrypted compressed file then can be decrypted & decompressed at the client end resulting in reduced transmission time over the Internet. An encrypt compression algorithm that provides a moderately high compression with encryption rate with minimal decryption with decompression time.

Syed Mahamud Hossein

2013-09-01

257

Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption

Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encrypted using chaos based logistic map. This provides an efficient and secure way for image encryption and transmission. The watermarked image is decrypted and a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of the primary as well as secondary watermark from the distorted image.

Dhanalakshmi, R

2010-01-01

258

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Advanced Standard Encryption Algorithm (AES is widely used in modern consumer electronicproducts for security. The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate wireless sensor networks also use AES algorithm wherelow power consumption is the priority. To reduce the time taken for encryption of huge data, the algorithm hasto be implemented in hardware. To meet the requirement for low area the algorithm has to be implemented insoftware. Hence, a balance has to be achieved between hardware and software implementations in terms of areaand speed, so as to improve the overall performance of the system. Also with the co-design methodology totalthermal power dissipation is reduced. In this paper, 128 bit AES algorithm is implemented with hardware incombination with software using Altera NIOS II Processor platform. Altera’s Quartus II environment is used fordesign of the system. Cyclone II FPGA is used as a development platform. Software program is written in C language. NIOS II ntegrated Development Environment (IDE is used to integrate hardware and software together. By adopting hardware / software co-design methodology for implementation of AES, results show that a onsiderable improvement in speed can be achieved as compared to software only approach. Further, the significant reduction in area is achieved as compared to hardware only approach. By the approach of co-design an optimized design in terms of speed and area is achieved and also the thermal power dissipation is reduced

MEGHANA A. HASAMNIS

2012-05-01

259

Novel image encryption/decryption based on quantum Fourier transform and double phase encoding

A novel gray-level image encryption/decryption scheme is proposed, which is based on quantum Fourier transform and double random-phase encoding technique. The biggest contribution of our work lies in that it is the first time that the double random-phase encoding technique is generalized to quantum scenarios. As the encryption keys, two phase coding operations are applied in the quantum image spatial domain and the Fourier transform domain respectively. Only applying the correct keys, the original image can be retrieved successfully. Because all operations in quantum computation must be invertible, decryption is the inverse of the encryption process. A detailed theoretical analysis is given to clarify its robustness, computational complexity and advantages over its classical counterparts. It paves the way for introducing more optical information processing techniques into quantum scenarios.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Xia, Juan; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Hua

2013-11-01

260

Cryptanalysis and improvement of a digital image encryption method with chaotic map lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A digital image encryption scheme using chaotic map lattices has been proposed recently. In this paper, two fatal flaws of the cryptosystem are pointed out. According to these two drawbacks, cryptanalysts could recover the plaintext by applying the chosen plaintext attack. Therefore, the proposed cryptosystem is not secure enough to be used in the image transmission system. Experimental results show the feasibility of the attack. As a result, we make some improvements to the encryption scheme, which can completely resist our chosen plaintext attack. (general)

261

Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system

A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security.

Wang, Zhen; Huang, Xia; Li, Ning; Song, Xiao-Na

2012-05-01

262

Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security. (general)

263

In this work a new algorithm for encryption image is introduced. This algorithm makes it possible to cipher and decipher images by guaranteeing a maximum security. The algorithm introduced is based on stream cipher with nonlinear filtering function. The Boolean function used in this algorithm is resilient function satisfying all the cryptographic criteria necessary carrying out the best possible compromises. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a serie...

Belmeguenaď Aďssa; Derouiche Nadir; Mansouri Khaled

2012-01-01

264

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Full Text Available In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES. Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is the application. High-speed designs are not always desired solutions. In some applications, such as mobile computing and wireless communications, smaller throughput is demanded. Architecture presented uses memory modules (i.e., Dual-Port RAMs of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs for storing all the results of the fixed operations (i.e., Look-Up Table, and Digital Clock Manager (DCM that we used effectively to optimize the execution time, reduce design area and facilitates implementation in FPGA. The architecture consumes only 326 slices plus 3 Block Random Access Memory (BRAMs. The throughput obtained was of 270 Mbits/s. The target hardware used in this paper is Spartan XC3S500E FPGA from Xilinx. Results are presented and compared with other reference implementations, as known from the technical literature. The presented architecture can be used in a wide range of embedded applications.

Samir El Adib

2012-06-01

265

We propose a novel interference-based method for multiple-image encryption by phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing. The information of multiple images can be encrypted into two POMs (i.e. ciphertexts) without any iterative process. For correct decryption, one should hold the ciphertexts as well as the private keys, which are also POMs obtained analytically. Moreover, the bothersome silhouette problem can also be thoroughly resolved during the generation procedure of these POMs. The retrieved images by this method are totally free from the cross-talk noise that puzzles previous interference-based multiple-image encryption methods. Numerical results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

Qin, Yi; Jiang, Hualong; Gong, Qiong

2014-11-01

266

IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES USING CHAOTIC SCHEMES: A REVIEW

Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary. It encompasses many problems like encryption, authentication, and key distribution to name a few. The field of modern cryptography providesa theoretical foundation based on which one can understand what exactly these problems are, how to evaluate protocols that purport to solve them and how to build protocols in whose security one can haveconfidence. Advanced digital technologies have made multimedia data widely available. R...

Monisha Sharma; Manoj Kumar Kowar

2010-01-01

267

An Adaptive Blind Watermarking Algorithm for Color Image

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Full Text Available This paper proposed a novel blind color digital watermarking algorithm based on Integer Discrete Wavelet Transform (IDWT and Human Visual System (HVS. Firstly, color watermark image was processed into one dimension digital information, and color host image was converted into YIQ color space. Then, according to the features of HVS, encrypted watermark was embedded adaptively into the Y luminance component of the YIQ color space in IDWT domain. The proposed algorithm allowed extracting watermark without the help of original watermark and host image. Experiment results show that the embedded watermark is invisible and robust against common image attacks.

Qiming Liu

2013-01-01

268

Image transmission takes place as an important research branch in multimedia broadcasting communication systems in the last decade. Our paper presents image transmission over a FFT-OFDM (Fast Fourier Transform Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The need for encryption techniques increase with the appearance of the expression which said that our world became small village, and the use of image application such as conference and World Wide Web which increase rapidly in recent years. Encryption is an effective method for protecting the transmitted data by converting it into a form being invisible over transmission path and visible in receiver side. This paper presents a new hybrid encryption technique based on combination of Backer maps and logistic map. This proposed technique aims to increase PSNR and reduce the noise in the received image. The encryption is done by shuffling the positions of a pixel image using two dimensional Baker maps then encrypt using XOR operation with logistic map to generate cipher image over orthogonal frequency multiplexing (OFDM). The encryption approach adopted in this paper is based on chaotic Baker maps because the encoding and decoding steps in this approach are simple and fast enough for HDTV applications. The experimental results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic based image encryption technique using two logistic maps and two dimensional Backer map over normal Backer map.

Kasem, Hossam M.; Nasr, Mohamed E.; Sallam, Elsayed A.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

2011-10-01

269

A novel technique, based on a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) in the Fresnel-transform (FrT) domain, is proposed to encode a color image into three phase-only functions (POFs) for three separated channels: red (R), green (G), and blue (B). The decomposed three RBG channels can avoid the interference of crosstalks efficiently. In proposed decryption process, a color image can be promptly reconstructed by summing of the three decrypted RGB images after the created three POFs which are decrypted one by one. In this paper, all the created three POFs and the system parameters of FrT can be used as the keys for increasing security that are also demonstrated. The computer application simulations to the partial color encryption and decryption are given to validate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Hwang, Hone-Ene

2012-03-01

270

Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, speed, compression friendliness, format compliance and cryptographic security is presented.

Shah, Jolly

2011-01-01

271

Double-image encryption using discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps

A double-image encryption is proposed based on the discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps. Firstly, an enlarged image is composited from two original plaintexts, in which the pixel positions are relocated and the intensity values are changed by a chaotic confusion-diffusion process, and then two scrambled plaintexts are recovered from the enlarged image. Secondly, the two scrambled plaintexts are encoded into the phase and amplitude part of a complex function which is encrypted into a ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using the discrete fractional random transform generated based on logistic map. Not only the initial values of the logistic maps used in the cryptosystem but also the phase distribution produced in the encryption process can be used as private keys, which makes the proposed scheme has the characteristic of asymmetric encryption technique and high resistance against to the conventional attacks such as chosen plaintext attack, ciphertext-only attack. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Sui, Liansheng; Lu, Haiwei; Wang, Zhanmin; Sun, Qindong

2014-05-01

272

A NEW CHAOTIC IMAGE ENCRYPTION USING PARAMETRIC SWITCHING BASED PERMUTATION AND DIFFUSION

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Full Text Available In this paper, a new loss-less symmetric image encryption using a permutation and diffusion structure is proposed. A new key generation process generates secondary keys that act as control parameter for permutation order and diffusion bit generator. The Image pixels are scrambled in bit level. Permutation order is generated using the parametric switching type that permutes the pixel in bit wise manner. In the diffusion stage the different keys were used to diffuse in each round. In the diffusion stage the image pixel bits are masked with the randomly generated binary sequence. Three chaotic systems employed to generate the secondary key, permutation order and diffusion bits. The simulation results prove the satisfactory level of security for image encryption.

R. Ranjith Kumar

2014-05-01

273

A Security Enhanced Approach For Digital Image Steganography Using DWT And RC4 Encryption

Steganography is the art of hiding the existence of data in another transmission medium to achieve secret communication . Steganography method used in this paper is based on biometrics, ie biometric steganography. And the biometric feature used to implement steganography is skin tone region of images. Here secret data is embedded within skin region of image that will provide an excellent secure location for data hiding. Before embedding secret data is needed to be encrypted using stream ciphe...

Amritha G, Meethu Varkey

2013-01-01

274

A Chaos-based Image Encryption Scheme using Chaotic Coupled Map Lattices

In recent years, information security essential in various arenas like internet communication, multimedia systems, medical imaging, tele-medicine and military communication. However, most of them faced with some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this letter, after reviewing the main points of the chaotic trigonometric maps and the coupled map lattices, we introduce the scheme of chaos-based image encryption based on coupled map lat tices. The scheme de...

Ahadpour, Sodeif; Sadra, Yaser

2012-01-01

275

Fast encryption of RGB color digital images using a tweakable cellular automaton based schema

We propose a new tweakable construction of block-enciphers using second-order reversible cellular automata, and we apply it to encipher RGB-colored images. The proposed construction permits a parallel encryption of the image content by extending the standard definition of a block cipher to take into account a supplementary parameter used as a tweak (nonce) to control the behavior of the cipher from one region of the image to the other, and hence avoid the necessity to use slow sequential encryption's operating modes. The proposed construction defines a flexible pseudorandom permutation that can be used with efficacy to solve the electronic code book problem without the need to a specific sequential mode. Obtained results from various experiments show that the proposed schema achieves high security and execution performances, and enables an interesting mode of selective area decryption due to the parallel character of the approach.

Faraoun, Kamel Mohamed

2014-12-01

276

Hide and Encryption Fingerprint Image by using LSB and Transposition Pixel by Spiral Method?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The communication provides many methods to distribute information to the people, especially after the growth of multiple applications. Consequently, the security of information has become a fundamental issue. There are two techniques for protect the data: Steganography and cryptography, the combination of these two methods will enhance the security of the data embedded. This paper is about encryption and decryption of fingerprint image using transposition pixel by spiral method that designed to increase security and to improve performance. The process begins when encrypted the fingerprint image by using transposition method and then embed inside an image using LSB method. A comparative analysis is made to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by computing MSE and PSNR by using MATLAB.

Hyder Yahya Atown?

2014-12-01

277

A Secure Dual Encryption Scheme Combined With Steganography

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Full Text Available In this paper a new encoding scheme is proposed which combines encryption and steganography there by ensuring secure data exchange..Encryption hides the confidential information for the purpose of security, by converting the data in to an unintelligible form and steganography hides the data in medias like image, video, audio etc so that the detection of hidden secret is prevented. In the proposed system, the data is dual encrypted and the resultant cipher is then embedded within an image using LSB steganographic technique to ensure secrecy and privacy. The encryption algorithms used is much secure as each step in the process is fully dependent on the key. The LSB steganographic technique hides the data in least significant bits of the pixels of the image and therefore the reflected change in the stego image is hardly noticeable to human eye. The key management for the system is done using RSA encryption technique.

A Aswathy Nair

2014-07-01

278

A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

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Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.

John Justin M

2012-03-01

279

A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...

John Justin M; Manimurugan S

2012-01-01

280

Optical image encryption with silhouette removal based on interference and phase blend processing

To completely eliminate the silhouette problem that inherently exists in the earlier interference-based encryption scheme with two phase-only masks (POMs), we propose a simple new encryption method based on optical interference of one random POM and two analytically obtained POMs. Different from the previous methods which require time-consuming iterative computation or postprocessing of the POMs for silhouette removal, our method can resolve the problem during the production of the POMs based on interference principle. Information associated with the original image is smoothed away by modulation of the random POM. Illegal deciphers cannot retrieve the primitive image using only one or two of the POMs. Incorporated with the linear phase blend operation, our method can provide higher robustness against brute force attacks. Simulation results are presented to support the validity and feasibility of our method.

Wang, Qu

2012-10-01

281

Synchronization of spatiotemporal semiconductor lasers and its application in color image encryption

Optical chaos is a topic of current research characterized by high-dimensional nonlinearity which is attributed to the delay-induced dynamics, high bandwidth and easy modular implementation of optical feedback. In light of these facts, which adds enough confusion and diffusion properties for secure communications, we explore the synchronization phenomena in spatiotemporal semiconductor laser systems. The novel system is used in a two-phase colored image encryption process. T...

Banerjee, S.; Rondoni, L.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Misra, A. P.

2011-01-01

282

A Secure Symmetric Image Encryption Based on Bit-wise Operation

This paper shows a symmetric image encryption based on bit-wise operation (XORing and Shifting). The basic idea is block ciphering (size of each block is 4 bytes) technique to cipher the secret bytes, after that ciphered bytes are again shuffled among N positions (N is the size of secret file). The scheme is combination of substitution as well as transposition techniques which provides additional protection of the secret data. The substitution and transposition are done using dynamic substitu...

Prabir Kr Naskar; Atal Chaudhuri

2014-01-01

283

Blowfish Encryption Using Key Secured Block Based Transformation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is a process of converting a one form of information in another form which is hard to understand .Now a days, a large amount of information get transfer with wired or wireless network. Information contents may be textual data or image data. Therefore encryption of text or image is most important during secure transmission of information. Images are widely used in several processes like military field, medical imaging, video conferencing where confidentiality about image information is very important. As we know, pixels in plain image are strongly correlated. Image information get perceive due to this high correlation. Most of available image encryption algorithms are used for encryption of pixel information only but key secured block based transformation technique change the position of pixels and provide low correlation among image pixels so that less amount of information get perceived . The block transformation algorithm divides the image in to no. of blocks and shuffles their position of blocks to decrease the Correlation and increase its entropy value. Divide an image in more no. of blocks gives the more security of image. Transformation table will decide new positions of blocks. The aim of Key secured block transformation is to enhance the security of an image. Here, key provide a security for transformation table .Different keys generated for different types of image so ,if input image data changed automatically key will also get change. Here key is used for two purposes, one for to build transformation table and second to encrypt image data. So as key changed, transformation table will also get change and image get transformed with this new transformation table. Block Transformed image is then passed for encryption process. Here we used Blowfish image encryption algorithm because of variable and longest key size. At the receiver side these blocks are retransformed in to their original position and performed a decryption process which gives the original image.

Mrs.Dhanashri M.Torgalkar

2014-03-01

284

A Novel Statistical Analysis of Chaotic S-box in Image Encryption

The S-box is utilized within different block ciphers and the complexity of encryption basically relies on the quality of S-box. The quality of S-box could be measured by breaking down its statistical properties. The S-box is the main non-linear component in different block ciphers fit for creating confusion. Numerous S-boxes have been proposed with comparative algebraic and statistical properties. Thusly, it is off and on again hard to pick S-box for a specific application. The performances of these S-boxes vary and rely on the way of information and their applications. In this paper; we have proposed a novel chaotic S-box by applying affine transformation to study their strengths in order to determine their suitability in image encryption. The proposed chaotic S-box is tested for different criterion such mean squared error, root mean squared error, mean absolute error, peak signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, universal image quality index and enhancement error. The results of these analyses are further examined and are used to determine the appropriateness of S-box to image encryption applications.

Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq

2014-09-01

285

A wavelet domain adaptive image watermarking method based on chaotic encryption

A digital watermarking technique is a specific branch of steganography, which can be used in various applications, provides a novel way to solve security problems for multimedia information. In this paper, we proposed a kind of wavelet domain adaptive image digital watermarking method using chaotic stream encrypt and human eye visual property. The secret information that can be seen as a watermarking is hidden into a host image, which can be publicly accessed, so the transportation of the secret information will not attract the attention of illegal receiver. The experimental results show that the method is invisible and robust against some image processing.

Wei, Fang; Liu, Jian; Cao, Hanqiang; Yang, Jun

2009-10-01

286

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedded system design is becoming complex day by day, combined with reduced time-to-market deadlines. Due to the constraints and complexity in the design of embedded systems, it incorporates hardware / software co-design methodology. An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software parts integrated together on a common platform. A soft-core processor which is a hardware description language (HDL model of a specific processor (CPU can be customized for any application and can be synthesized for FPGA target. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the development environment for embedded systems using LEON 3 and NIOS II Processor, both soft core processors. LEON3 is an open source processor and NIOS II is a commercial processor. Case study under consideration is Rijindael’s Encryption Algorithm (AES. It is a standard encryption algorithm used to encrypt huge bulk of data and for security. Using the co-design methodology the algorithm is implemented on two different platforms. One using the open source and other using the commercial processor and the comparative results of the two different platforms is stated in terms of its performance parameters. The algorithm is partitioned in hardware and software parts and integrated on a common platform.

Meghana Hasamnis

2012-06-01

287

VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some function which can recognize and correct the error in the received data. Hamming code is one of such forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper the algorithm for hamming code is discussed and then implementation of it in verilog is done to get the results. Hamming code is an upgrading over parity check method. Here a code is implemented in verilog in which 4-bit of information data is transmitted with 3-redundancy bits. In order to do that the proposed method uses a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. It is known that FPGA provides quick implementation and fast hardware verification. It gives facilities of reconfiguring the design construct unlimited number of times. The HDL code is written in verilog, Gate Level Circuit and Layout is implemented in CMOS technology.

Fazal Noorbasha

2014-04-01

288

A Modified Location-Dependent Image Encryption for Mobile Information System

The wide spread use of WLAN (Wireless LAN) and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. In such scenario, a need for Secure Communication arises. Secure communication is possible through encryption of data. A lot of encryption techniques have evolved over time. However, most of the data encryption techniques are location-independent. Data encrypted with such techniques can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict...

Prasad Reddy.P.V.G.D; Sudha, K. R.; Sanyasi Naidu, P.

2010-01-01

289

Simultaneous Color Image Compression and Encryption using Number Theory

The dependence on computing machines and utility of information has been growing tremendously in the last few decades. As a result, evolving effective techniques for storing and transmitting the ever increasing volumes of data has become a high priority issue. Image compression addresses the problem by reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the compression process is the removal of redundant data. Selection of a suitable of a suitable compre...

Navaneethakrishnan Navaneethakrishnan

2012-01-01

290

Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accurately. It could recover tampered block with good image quality when tamper occured within the limits of the anti-tamper radius. It could effectively resist vector quantization and synchronous counterfeiting attacks on self-embedding watermarking schemes.

Shengbing Che

2010-06-01

291

A Security Enhanced Approach For Digital Image Steganography Using DWT And RC4 Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the existence of data in another transmission medium to achieve secret communication . Steganography method used in this paper is based on biometrics, ie biometric steganography. And the biometric feature used to implement steganography is skin tone region of images. Here secret data is embedded within skin region of image that will provide an excellent secure location for data hiding. Before embedding secret data is needed to be encrypted using stream cipher encryption scheme RC4.Skin color tone detection is performed by using HSV color space.DWT is the frequency domain in which this biometric steganography is implemented.Secret data is embedded in one of the high frequency subband by tracing the number of skin pixels in that band. . Different embedding steps are applied on the cropped region of the image.ie value of this cropped region will act as a key at the decoder side. This study shows that by adopting an object oriented steganography mechanism, in the sense that, we track skin tone objects in image, we get a higher security and satisfactory PSNR obtained

Amritha.G#1, Meethu Varkey

2013-06-01

292

In recent years, a number of methods have been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional information by use of the fractional Fourier transform, but most of their encryptions are complex value and need digital hologram technique to record their encrypted information, which is inconvenience for digital transmission. In this paper, we first propose a novel reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform which share real-valuedness outputs as well as most of the properties required for a fractional transform. Then we propose a new approach for image encryption based on the real-valuedness of the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform and the decorrelation property of chaotic maps in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transmission. In the proposed scheme, the image is encrypted by juxtaposition of sections of the image in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier domains and the alignment of sections is determined by chaotic logistic maps. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is reliable and more robust to blind decryption than several existing methods.

Lang, Jun

2012-07-01

293

Enhancement of Image Security Using Random Permutation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent days transmitting digital media having large size data through the internet became simple task but providing security and security became big issue these days. Using pseudorandom permutation, image encryption is obtained. Confidentiality and access control is done by encryption. Image encryption has to be conducted prior to image compression. In this paper how to design a pair of image encryption and compression algorithms such that compressing encrypted images can still be efficiently performed .This paper introduced a highly efficient image encryption-then compression (ETC system. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction error domain is able to provide a reasonably high level of security. More notably, the proposed compression approach applied to encrypted images is only slightly worse, unencrypted images as inputs.

S.Vasu Deva Simha

2014-11-01

294

Image Steganography Using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Blowfish Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is one of the methods of secret communication that hides the existence of message so that a viewer cannot detect the transmission of message and hence cannot try to decrypt it. It is the process of embedding secret data in the cover image without significant changes to the cover image. A cryptography algorithm is used to convert the secret messages to an unreadable form before embedding. These algorithms keep the messages from stealing, destroying from unintended users on the internet and hence provide security. Cryptography was introduced for making data secure. But alone cryptography cannot provide a better security approach because the scrambled message is still available to the eavesdropper. There arises a need of data hiding. So the propose technique use a combination of steganography and cryptography for improving the security. The proposed technique use Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Blowfish algorithm. The proposed method calculates LSB of each DC coefficient and replace with each bit of secret message. The proposed embedding method using DCT with LSB obtained better PSNR values. Blowfish algorithm is used for encryption and decryption of text message using a secret-key block cipher. This technique makes sure that the message has been encrypted before hiding it into a cover image. Blowfish is an improvement over DES, 3DES, etc designed to increase security and to improve performance.

Monika Gunjal

2014-05-01

295

Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes.

Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

2012-01-01

296

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work a new algorithm for encryption image is introduced. This algorithm makes it possible to cipher and decipher images by guaranteeing a maximum security. The algorithm introduced is based on stream cipher with nonlinear filtering function. The Boolean function used in this algorithm is resilient function satisfying all the cryptographic criteria necessary carrying out the best possible compromises. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. Experimental results illustrate that the scheme is highly key sensitive, highly resistance to the noises and shows a good resistance against brute-force, Berlekamp-Massey Attack and algebraic attack.

Belmeguenaď Aďssa

2012-09-01

297

Public-key cryptosystems for quantum messages are considered from two aspects: public-key encryption and public-key authentication. Firstly, we propose a general construction of quantum public-key encryption scheme, and then construct an information-theoretic secure instance. Then, we propose a quantum public-key authentication scheme, which can protect the integrity of quantum messages. This scheme can both encrypt and authenticate quantum messages. It is information-theoretic secure with regard to encryption, and the success probability of tampering decreases exponentially with the security parameter with regard to authentication. Compared with classical public-key cryptosystems, one private-key in our schemes corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys, and every quantum public-key used by the sender is an unknown quantum state to the sender.

Liang, Min

2012-01-01

298

Ghost imaging has attracted more and more current attention due to its marked physical characteristics, and many physical applications, such as sensing and optical security, have been explored. In this letter, we propose ghost imaging using labyrinth-like phase modulation patterns for optical encryption. Since only one phase-only mask should be pre-set and the labyrinth patterns occupy only few spaces, high-efficiency storage or transmission of system keys can be implemented. In addition, each labyrinth pattern (i.e., phase modulation pattern) possesses high randomness and flexibility, hence high security can be guaranteed for the proposed optical encryption.

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

2015-01-01

299

In this paper, a new multiple-image encryption and decryption technique that utilizes the compressive sensing (CS) concept along with a double-random phase encryption (DRPE) has been proposed. The space multiplexing method is employed for integrating multiple-image data. The method, which results in a nonlinear encryption system, is able to overcome the vulnerability of classical DRPE. The CS technique and space multiplexing are able to provide additional key space in the proposed method. A numerical experiment of the proposed method is implemented and the results show that the proposed method has good accuracy and is more robust than classical DRPE. The proposed system is also employed against chosen-plaintext attacks and it is found that the inclusion of compressive sensing enhances robustness against the attacks. PMID:25090076

Deepan, B; Quan, C; Wang, Y; Tay, C J

2014-07-10

300

Automatic Color Images Classification Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous research works about the extraction of objects from images have been published. However only recently the focus has shifted to exploiting low-level features to classify images automatically into semantically meaningful and broad categories. This paper presents a novel automatic color image classification algorithm. Initially the color image is divided into classes; each class is a group of pixels that they have the same color after that the object is extracted from the image. In the recent work, an automatic color images classification algorithm is synthesized and analyzed. The suggested method was running on group of color images to determine the best parameters of suggested algorithm. We run our algorithm with initial value of elaboration coefficient and we found that the automatic classification algorithm achieved minimum classification error and minimum running time when incremented by step and becomes .

Rushdi Saleem Hussein Abu Zneit

2012-03-01

301

Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-15

302

We introduce a double optimization procedure for spectrally multiplexing multiple images. This technique is adapted from a recently proposed optical setup implementing the discrete cosine transformation (DCT). The new analysis technique is a combination of spectral fusion based on the properties of DCT, specific spectral filtering, and quantization of the remaining encoded frequencies using an optimal number of bits. Spectrally multiplexing multiple images defines a first level of encryption. A second level of encryption based on a real key image is used to reinforce encryption. A set of numerical simulations and a comparison with the well known JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard have been carried out to demonstrate the improved performances of this method. The focus here will differ from the method of simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images (SFCE) [Opt. Express 19, 24023 (2011)] in the following ways. Firstly, we shall be concerned with optimizing the compression rate by adapting the size of the spectral block to each target image and decreasing the number of bits required to encode each block. This size adaptation is achieved by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) time-frequency criterion. We found that this size adaptation provides a good tradeoff between bandwidth of spectral plane and number of reconstructed output images. Secondly, the encryption rate is improved by using a real biometric key and randomly changing the rotation angle of each block before spectral fusion. By using a real-valued key image we have been able to increase the compression rate of 50% over the original SFCE method. We provide numerical examples of the effects for size, rotation, and shifting of DCT-blocks which play noteworthy roles in the optimization of the bandwidth of the spectral plane. Inspection of the results for different types of attack demonstrates the robustness of our procedure. PMID:23571893

Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Abdallah, N; Jridi, M

2013-04-01

303

Selective object encryption for privacy protection

This paper introduces a new recursive sequence called the truncated P-Fibonacci sequence, its corresponding binary code called the truncated Fibonacci p-code and a new bit-plane decomposition method using the truncated Fibonacci pcode. In addition, a new lossless image encryption algorithm is presented that can encrypt a selected object using this new decomposition method for privacy protection. The user has the flexibility (1) to define the object to be protected as an object in an image or in a specific part of the image, a selected region of an image, or an entire image, (2) to utilize any new or existing method for edge detection or segmentation to extract the selected object from an image or a specific part/region of the image, (3) to select any new or existing method for the shuffling process. The algorithm can be used in many different areas such as wireless networking, mobile phone services and applications in homeland security and medical imaging. Simulation results and analysis verify that the algorithm shows good performance in object/image encryption and can withstand plaintext attacks.

Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Cherukuri, Ravindranath; Agaian, Sos

2009-05-01

304

Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptana...

Poonam Garg

2010-01-01

305

Image Compression Algorithms Using Dct

Image compression is the application of Data compression on digital images. The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is a technique for converting a signal into elementary frequency components. It is widely used in image compression. Here we develop some simple functions to compute the DCT and to compress images. An image compression algorithm was comprehended using Matlab code, and modified to perform better when implemented in hardware description language. The IMAP block and IMA...

Er. Abhishek Kaushik; Er. Deepti Nain

2014-01-01

306

A Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Color Image Based on DWT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient digital watermark embedding algorithm for color image was presented in this paper, which is based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT and the spectral characteristics of human vision system. Firstly, three color separations was performed for color image, and color components of color image were transformed by DWT. Secondly, the embedding position of the watermark was confirmed by comparing the energy value of the low frequency sub-band in the transformed blue component and green component. Thirdly, the watermark was made Arnold Transform for encryption and was embedded in the color component with a larger power. Finally, this paper made the simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of the watermark. The simulation results showed that the embedded watermark had good invisibility and robustness for the common image processing, such as filtering, noise, especially compression and cropping.

Huming Gao

2013-06-01

307

Recently, a stream encryption scheme using d-bit segment sequences has been proposed. This scheme may generate key avalanche effect. The randomness tests of d-bit segment pseudorandom number generator will be important for implementing such a scheme. Firstly this paper extends Beker and Piper's binary pseudorandom sequence statistical test suite to d-bit segment sequences case. Secondly, a novel 3-dimensional polynomial discrete chaotic map (3DPDCM) is proposed. The calculated Lyapunov exponents of the 3DPCDM are 0.213, 0.125 and - 3.228. Using the 3DPDCM constructs a 6-dimensional generalized synchronization chaotic system. Based on this system, a 8-bit segment chaotic pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG) is introduced. Using the generalized test suite tests 100 key streams generated via the 8-bit PRNG with different initial conditions and perturbed system parameters. The tested results are similar to those of the key streams generated via RC4 PRNG. As an application, using the key streams generated via the CPRNG and the RC4 PRNG encrypts an RGB image Landscape. The results have shown that the encrypted RGB images have significant avalanche effects. This research suggests that the requirements for PRNGs are not as strict as those under the traditional avalanche criteria. Suitable designed chaos-based d-bit string PRNGs may be qualified candidates for the stream encryption scheme with avalanche effect.

Hao, Longjie; Min, Lequan

2014-06-01

308

Three-dimensional image sensing, encryption, compression, and transmission using digital holography

We present the results of applying data compression techniques to encrypted three-dimensional (3D) objects. The objects are captured using phase-shift digital holography and encrypted using a random phase mask in the Fresnel domain. Both the amplitude and the phase of our 3D objects are encrypted using this technique. The advantage of a digital representation of the optical wavefronts is that they can be processed and transmitted using conventional means. Arbitrary views of the 3D...

Naughton, Thomas J.; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Mcdonald, John B.; Javidi, Bahram

2004-01-01

309

In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption.

Chen, Jun-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Yushu

2014-12-01

310

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this era of digital world, with the evolution of technology, there is an essential need for optimization of online digital data and information. Nowadays, Security and Authenticity of digital data has become a big challenge. This paper proposes an innovative method to authenticate the digital documents. A new method is introduced here, which allows multiple encryption and decryption of digital data.

Mamtha Shetty

2014-04-01

311

Testing a Variety of Encryption Technologies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Review and test speeds of various encryption technologies using Entrust Software. Multiple encryption algorithms are included in the product. Algorithms tested were IDEA, CAST, DES, and RC2. Test consisted of taking a 7.7 MB Word document file which included complex graphics and timing encryption, decryption and signing. Encryption is discussed in the GIAC Kickstart section: Information Security: The Big Picture--Part VI.

Henson, T J

2001-04-09

312

Novel Fast Encryption Algorithms for Multimedia Transmission over Mobile WiMax Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Security support is mandatory for any communication networks. For wireless systems, security support is even more important to protect the users as well as the network. Since wireless medium is available to all, the attackers can easily access the network and the network becomes more vulnerable for the user and the network service provider. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax is going to be an emerging wireless technology nowadays. With the increasing popularity of Broadband internet, wireless networking market is thriving. In the IEEE 802.16e, security has been considered as the main issue during the design of the protocol. However, security mechanism of WiMax still remains an open research field. WiMax is relatively a new technology not deployed widely to justify the evidence of threats, risk and vulnerability in real situations. In this paper, a research is described three proposed chaos encryption techniques for multimedia transmission over Mobile WiMax physical and MAC layers. At first a global overview of the technology WiMax is given followed by an explanation of traditional encryption techniques used in WiMax. Then the proposed encryption techniques are presented with its chaos systems. Next, these techniques will be applied to different multimedia contents to compare between them and traditional techniques such as AES, IDEA, Blowfish and DES.

M.A. Mohamed

2012-11-01

313

A Space-bit-plane Scrambling Algorithm for Image Based on Chaos

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image scrambling is an important technique in digital image encryption and digital image watermarking. This paper's main purpose is to research how to scramble image by space-bit-plane operation (SBPO. Based on analyzing traditional bit operation of individual pixels image scrambling method, this paper proposed a new scrambling algorithm. The new scrambling algorithm combined with SBPO and chaotic sequence. First, every eight pixels from different areas of image were selected according to chaotic sequence, and grouped together to form a collection. Second, the SBPO was performed in every collection and built eight pixels of the image with new values. The scrambling image was generated when all pixels were processed. In this way, the proposed algorithm transforms drastically the statistical characteristic of original image information, so, it increases the difficulty of an unauthorized individual to break the encryption. The simulation results and the performance analysis show that the algorithm has large secret-key space, high security, fast scrambling speed and strong robustness, and is suitable for practical use to protect the security of digital image information over the Internet.

Rui Liu

2011-10-01

314

A Novel Steganographic Scheme Based on Hash Function Coupled With AES Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present scenario the use of images increased extremely in the cyber world so that we can easily transfer data with the help of these images in a secured way. Image steganography becomes important in this manner. Steganography and cryptography are the two techniques that are often confused with each other. The input and output of steganogra phy looks alike, but for cryptography the output will be in an encrypted form which always draws attraction to the attacker. This paper combines both steganography and cryptography so that attacker doesn’t know about the existence of message and the message itself is encrypted to ensure more security. The textual data entered by the user is encrypted using AES algorithm. After encryption, the encrypted data is stored in the colour image by using a hash based algorithm. Most of the steganographic algorithms available today is suitable for a specific image format and these algorithms suffers from poor quality of the embedded image. The proposed work does not corrupt the images quality in any form. The striking feature is that this algorithm is suitable for almost all image formats e.g.: jpeg/jpg, Bitmap, TIFF and GIF

Rinu Tresa M J

2014-04-01

315

Investigating Encrypted Material

When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.

McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe

316

At EUROCRYPT '10, van Dijk et al. presented simple fully- homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes based on the hardness of approximate integer common divisors problems, which were introduced in 2001 by Howgrave-Graham. There are two versions for these problems: the partial version (PACD) and the general version (GACD). The seemingly easier problem PACD was recently used by Coron et al. at CRYPTO '11 to build a more efficient variant of the FHE scheme by van Dijk et al.. We present a new PACD alg...

Chen, Yuanmi; Nguyen, Phong Q.

2012-01-01

317

A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is always very important in data origin authentications, entity authentication, data integrity and confidentiality. In recent years, a variety of chaotic cryptographic schemes have been proposed. These schemes has typical structure which performed the permutation and the diffusion stages, alternatively. The random number generators are intransitive in cryptographic schemes and be used in the diffusion functions of the image encryption for diffused pixels of plain image. In this paper, we propose a chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by a novel logistic pseudorandom image algorithm. To evaluate the security of the cipher image of this scheme, the key space analysis, the correlation of two adjacent pixels and differential attack were performed. This scheme tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space and level of security.

Sodeif Ahadpour

2012-01-01

318

A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding

Cryptography is always very important in data origin authentications, entity authentication, data integrity and confidentiality. In recent years, a variety of chaotic cryptographic schemes have been proposed. These schemes has typical structure which performed the permutation and the diffusion stages, alternatively. The random number generators are intransitive in cryptographic schemes and be used in the diffusion functions of the image encryption for diffused pixels of plain image. In this paper, we propose a chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by a novel logistic pseudorandom image algorithm. To evaluate the security of the cipher image of this scheme, the key space analysis, the correlation of two adjacent pixels and differential attack were performed. This scheme tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space and level of security.

Sadra, Yaser; Fard, Zahra Arasteh

2012-01-01

319

A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too

320

A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too.

Yu, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, J [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Ren, H E [Information and Computer Engineering College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150000 (China); Li, S [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, X D [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China)

2006-10-15

321

Unicity Distance of Quantum Encryption Protocols

Shannon's concept of the unicity distance is present for classical encryption protocols, we attempt to develop it into the quantum context. Firstly we present a classification of the private key encryption protocols, there are five kinds of them. Then we present the definition of the unicity distance of encryption protocols whose plaintext space and key space are both set by classical bits and the algorithm is a quantum algorithm, we call this CCQ-unicity distance. Based on this definition we show two quantum encryption protocols whose CCQ-unicity distance is finite but much bigger than Shannon's unicity distance, and show a quantum encryption protocol with infinite CCQ-unicity distance.

Xiang, Chong

2012-01-01

322

Image Fusion using Evolutionary Algorithm (GA)

Image fusion is the process of combining images taken from different sources to obtain better situational awareness. In fusing source images the objective is to combine the most relevant information from source images into composite image. Genetic algorithm is used for solving optimization problems. Genetic algorithm can be employed to image fusion where some kind of parameter optimization is required.In this paper we proposed genetic algorithm based schemes for image fusion and proved that t...

Jyothi, V.; Rajesh Kumar, B.; Krishna Rao, P.; Rama Koti Reddy, D. V.

2011-01-01

323

A New Public-Key Encryption Scheme Based on Non-Expansion Visual Cryptography and Boolean Operation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, most of the existing public-key encryption schemes are based on complex algorithms with heavy computations. In 1994, Naor and Shamir proposed a simple cryptography method for digital images called visual cryptography. Existing visual cryptography primitives can be considered as a special kind of secret-key cryptography that does not require heavy computations for encrypting and decrypting an image. In this paper, we propose a new public-key encryption scheme for image based on non-expansion visual cryptography and Boolean operation. The proposed scheme uses only Boolean operations and therefore requires comparatively lower computations.

Abdullah M. Jaafar

2010-07-01

324

We develop an experimental protocol to visualize decrypted images that otherwise would have been barely recognizable, while keeping the standard security levels. This image deterioration is partly due to the natural speckle noise as well as the practical limitations arising from the optical elements composing the setup. This protocol is based on an optical image synthesis with digital holography using enlarged sub-samples of an entire image together with a multiplexing technique. We implement the process using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a joint transform correlator encrypting architecture. As a result, we get smaller speckle patterns on the final assembled image and a spatial frequency enhancement with respect to the decoded image obtained with the conventional procedures.

Barrera, John Fredy; Rueda, Edgar; Rios, Carlos; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

2011-09-01

325

Image Compression Using Harmony Search Algorithm

Image compression techniques are important and useful in data storage and image transmission through the Internet. These techniques eliminate redundant information in an image which minimizes the physical space requirement of the image. Numerous types of image compression algorithms have been developed but the resulting image is still less than the optimal. The Harmony search algorithm (HSA), a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the music improvisation process of musicians, was...

Daga, Ryan Rey M.; Yusiong, John Paul T.

2012-01-01

326

SRI RAMSHALAKA: A VEDIC METHOD OF TEXT ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates usability of SriRamshalakha, a vedic tool used in Indian Astrology, in the encryption and decryption of plain English text. Sri Ram Shalaka appears in Sri RamChartmanas, one of the very popular sacred epic of Hindu religion, written by great Saint Tulsidasji. SriRamshalakha is used to fetch/infer the approximate answer of questions/decisions by the believers. Basically, the said shalaka embed nine philosophical verses from Sri RamCharitmanas in a matrix form based on which answers to queries are inferred and ingrained. However, none of the verses are visible and directly readable. Thus here we take SriRamshalakha as the ancient Indian method of text encryption and decryption and based on the same algorithms for the encryption and decryption of plain English text areproposed. The developed algorithms are presented with examples and possibility of its use in steganography and text to image transformation are also discussed.

Rajkishore Prasad

2013-07-01

327

Improved decryption quality and security of a joint transform correlator-based encryption system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some image encryption systems based on modified double random phase encoding and joint transform correlator architecture produce low quality decrypted images and are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. In this work, we analyse the algorithm of some reported methods that optically implement the double random phase encryption in a joint transform correlator. We show that it is possible to significantly improve the quality of the decrypted image by introducing a simple nonlinear operation in the encrypted function that contains the joint power spectrum. This nonlinearity also makes the system more resistant to chosen-plaintext attacks. We additionally explore the system resistance against this type of attack when a variety of probability density functions are used to generate the two random phase masks of the encryption–decryption process. Numerical results are presented and discussed. (paper)

328

Image Compression Using Harmony Search Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression techniques are important and useful in data storage and image transmission through the Internet. These techniques eliminate redundant information in an image which minimizes the physical space requirement of the image. Numerous types of image compression algorithms have been developed but the resulting image is still less than the optimal. The Harmony search algorithm (HSA, a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the music improvisation process of musicians, was applied as the underlying algorithm for image compression. Experiment results show that it is feasible to use the harmony search algorithm as an algorithm for image compression. The HSA-based image compression technique was able to compress colored and grayscale images with minimal visual information loss.

Ryan Rey M. Daga

2012-09-01

329

New Way for Encryption Data Using Hourglas

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many encryption algorithms to protect information. Data confidentiality is one of themost important functions of encryption algorithms, it means when the transferring data between differentsystems is vague for unauthorized systems or people. Moreover Encryption algorithms must maintain dataintegrity and provide availability for information. New encryption methods cause the attackers cannot simplyaccess to the information and do not allow discovering the relationship between information and theencrypted one. Therefore availability can be difficult for them. Existing complexities make their longevityand effectiveness increase (Mandal, 2012.In This Article, It has been tried to present an encryption methodwhich has the characteristic of encryption algorithms and also has some unique complexities which are noteasily detectable and efficient.

Hamid Mehdi

2013-10-01

330

Design and Implementation proposed encryption and Hiding Secure Image In an Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography and cryptography are two general methods of transfer vital information in a top-secret method. When we hide the secure image the malicious want to distort this secure image itself. Therefore, the cryptography techniques used must be one of the most powerful techniques. Also cryptography and Steganography are the two major techniques for secret communication. The contents of secret message are scrambled in cryptography, where as in steganography the secret message is embedded into the cover medium. This paper presents hybrid method of cryptography which combined two nonlinear feedbacks register in one non-linear function to produce a strong cryptography technique. The cryptography method is working on the image resulted from the DWT which, used the orthogonal filter. In steganography part we have used most significant method to hide the secret true image into true image. To evaluate our system number of measurements used such as Mean Square Error, Normalized Cross Correlation, Average Difference, Structural Content, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR have been computed between the cover and stego image. Finally histogram plot of cover image, stego image, secret ciphered images have been plotted.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Baheja k.Shukur,

2014-02-01

331

Steganography and Encryption Systems Based on Spatial Correlators with Meaningful Output Images

Three different optical security systems are surveyed in this chapter. Their common feature is the appearance of meaningful images on the system's output. In the first system, two phase-only transparencies are placed in a 4f correlator such that a known output image is received. In the second system, two phase-only transparencies are placed together in a joint-transform correlator for the same purposes. In both cases, the two phase masks are designed with an iterative optimization algorithm with constraints in the input and the output domains. In addition to simple verification, these security systems are capable of identifying the type of input mask according to the corresponding output image it generates. The third system is different from the two others in the sense that the system's input signal also is a meaningful image. This last system can offer various solutions for steganography, watermarking, and information coding. This chapter summarizes research first published in [1-3].

Rosen, Joseph; Javidi, Bahram

332

Image feature extraction in encrypted domain with privacy-preserving SIFT.

Privacy has received considerable attention but is still largely ignored in the multimedia community. Consider a cloud computing scenario where the server is resource-abundant, and is capable of finishing the designated tasks. It is envisioned that secure media applications with privacy preservation will be treated seriously. In view of the fact that scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) has been widely adopted in various fields, this paper is the first to target the importance of privacy-preserving SIFT (PPSIFT) and to address the problem of secure SIFT feature extraction and representation in the encrypted domain. As all of the operations in SIFT must be moved to the encrypted domain, we propose a privacy-preserving realization of the SIFT method based on homomorphic encryption. We show through the security analysis based on the discrete logarithm problem and RSA that PPSIFT is secure against ciphertext only attack and known plaintext attack. Experimental results obtained from different case studies demonstrate that the proposed homomorphic encryption-based privacy-preserving SIFT performs comparably to the original SIFT and that our method is useful in SIFT-based privacy-preserving applications. PMID:22711774

Hsu, Chao-Yung; Lu, Chun-Shien; Pei, Soo-Chang

2012-11-01

333

Image Fusion using Evolutionary Algorithm (GA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image fusion is the process of combining images taken from different sources to obtain better situational awareness. In fusing source images the objective is to combine the most relevant information from source images into composite image. Genetic algorithm is used for solving optimization problems. Genetic algorithm can be employed to image fusion where some kind of parameter optimization is required.In this paper we proposed genetic algorithm based schemes for image fusion and proved that these schemes perform better than the conventional methods through comparison of parameters namely image quality index, mutual information, root mean square error and peak signal to noise ratio.

V Jyothi

2011-03-01

334

Enhanced Throughput AES Encryption

This paper presents our experience in implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. We have used 128 bit block size and 128 bit cipher key for the implementation. The AES also known as Rijndael algorithm is used to ensure security of transmission channels. Xilinx design tool 13.3 and Xilinx project navigator design tool are used for synthesis and simulation. Very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) is used for coding. The fully pipelined desig...

Kunal Lala; Ajay Kumar; Amit Kumar

2012-01-01

335

An optical encryption and authentication scheme using asymmetric keys.

We propose a novel optical information encryption and authentication scheme that uses asymmetric keys generated by the phase-truncation approach and the phase-retrieval algorithm. Multiple images bonded with random phase masks are Fourier transformed, and obtained spectra are amplitude- and phase-truncated. The phase-truncated spectra are encoded into a single random intensity image using the phase-retrieval algorithm. Unlike most of the authentication schemes, in this study, only one encrypted reference image is required for verification of multiple secured images. The conventional double random phase encoding and correlation techniques are employed for authentication verification. Computer simulation results and theoretical explanation prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:24977361

Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K

2014-06-01

336

Review on Reserving Room Before Encryption for Reversible Data Hiding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking. There are number of techniques available in the industry to maintain security of data. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is comes into the picture, but the problem is the occurrence of distortion in original cover at the time of data extraction. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent way so that the original cover can be recovered without any loss after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. In This paper we propose a novel method by reserving room before encryption (RRBE with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. Using RRBE we can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error and also we can increase the rate of data to be hidden. This is useful in the way that these method recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.

Akshata Malwad

2014-03-01

337

Practical algorithmic probability: an image inpainting example

Possibility of practical application of algorithmic probability is analyzed on an example of image inpainting problem that precisely corresponds to the prediction problem. Such consideration is fruitful both for the theory of universal prediction and practical image inpaiting methods. Efficient application of algorithmic probability implies that its computation is essentially optimized for some specific data representation. In this paper, we considered one image representation, namely spectral representation, for which an image inpainting algorithm is proposed based on the spectrum entropy criterion. This algorithm showed promising results in spite of very simple representation. The same approach can be used for introducing ALP-based criterion for more powerful image representations.

Potapov, Alexey; Scherbakov, Oleg; Zhdanov, Innokentii

2013-12-01

338

Public Key Encryption Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks In tinyOS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available generally, when people consider wireless devices they think of items such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, or laptops. These items are costly, target specialized applications, and rely on the pre-deployment of extensive infrastructure support. In contrast, wireless sensor networks use small, low-cost embedded devices for a wide range of applications and do not rely on any pre-existing infrastructure. The emerging field of wireless sensor networks (WSN combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device called sensor nodes or motes. Through advanced mesh networking protocols, these devices form a sea of connectivity that extends the reach of cyberspace out into the physical world. here some algorithms are implemented and result is analyzed on different platforms like PC MICA,Mica 2, Mica2dot and analyze which algorithm is best for which platform.

Chandni Vaghasia,

2013-03-01

339

a New Color Image Encryption Based on High-Dimensional Chaotic Systems

The high-dimensional chaotic systems (HDCS) have a lot of advantages as more multifarious mechanism, greater the key space, more ruleless for the time series of the system variable than with the low-dimensional chaotic systems (LDCS), etc. Thus, a novel encryption scheme using Lorenz system is suggested. Moreover, we use substitution-diffusion architecture to advance the security of the scheme. The theoretical and experimental results show that the suggested cryptosystem has higher security.

Li, Pi; Wang, Xing-Yuan; Fu, Hong-Jing; Xu, Da-Hai; Wang, Xiu-Kun

2014-12-01

340

A Hiding Algorithm for OFDM Constellation Mapping Based on Wireless Physical Layer Encryption

With the rapid development of wireless and cognitive network technology, the security of wireless communication has faced great challenge, in which parameters of wireless communication such as modulation type and frequency are more likely to be detected. As a result, business, especially military communication faces the problems of pertinence interference and content security, which are becoming more and more serious. In this study, a hiding algorithm for OFDM co...

Gao Baojian; Wang Yujie; Luo Yongling; Lei Beibei

2013-01-01

341

Storing, transmitting and security of DNA sequences are well known research challenge. The problem has got magnified with increasing discovery and availability of DNA sequences. We have represent DNA sequence compression algorithm based on Dynamic Look Up Table (DLUT) and modified Huffman technique. DLUT consists of 43(64) bases that are 64 sub-stings, each sub-string is of 3 bases long. Each sub-string are individually coded by single ASCII code from 33(!) to 96(`) and vice versa. Encode dep...

Syed Mahamud Hossein; Roy, S.

2013-01-01

342

General Research on Image Segmentation Algorithms

As one of the fundamental approaches of digital image processing, image segmentation is the premise of feature extraction and pattern recognition. This paper enumerates and reviews main image segmentation algorithms, then presents basic evaluation methods for them, and finally discusses the prospect of image segmentation. Some valuable characteristics of image segmentation come out based on a large number of comparative experiments.

Qingqiang Yang; Wenxiong Kang

2009-01-01

343

A new parallel binary image shrinking algorithm.

A new parallel binary image shrinking algorithm that can be considered as an improvement of Levialdi's (1972) parallel shrinking algorithm and can be used in many image labeling algorithms as a basic operation in order to reduce the storage requirements for local memory and speed up the labeling process is presented. This new parallel shrinking algorithm shrinks an nxn binary image to an image with no black pixels in O(n) parallel steps with a multiplicative constant of 1.5, preserving the 8-connectivity in the shrinking process. PMID:18289974

Shi, H; Ritter, G X

1995-01-01

344

Genetic algorithm applied to fractal image compression

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the technique of Genetic Algorithm (GA is applied for Fractal Image Compression (FIC. With the help of this evolutionary algorithm effort is made to reduce the search complexity of matching between range block and domain block. One of the image compression techniques in the spatial domain is Fractal Image Compression but the main drawback of FIC is that it involves more computational time due to global search. In order to improve the computational time and also the acceptable quality of the decoded image, Genetic algorithm is proposed. Experimental results show that the Genetic Algorithm is a better method than the traditional exhaustive search method.

Y. Chakrapani

2009-02-01

345

An Algorithm for image stitching and blending

In many clinical studies, including those of cancer, it is highly desirable to acquire images of whole tumour sections whilst retaining a microscopic resolution. A usual approach to this is to create a composite image by appropriately overlapping individual images acquired at high magnification under a microscope. A mosaic of these images can be accurately formed by applying image registration, overlap removal and blending techniques. We describe an optimised, automated, fast and reliable method for both image joining and blending. These algorithms can be applied to most types of light microscopy imaging. Examples from histology, from in vivo vascular imaging and from fluorescence applications are shown, both in 2D and 3D. The algorithms are robust to the varying image overlap of a manually moved stage, though examples of composite images acquired both with manually-driven and computer-controlled stages are presented. The overlap-removal algorithm is based on the cross-correlation method; this is used to determine and select the best correlation point between any new image and the previous composite image. A complementary image blending algorithm, based on a gradient method, is used to eliminate sharp intensity changes at the image joins, thus gradually blending one image onto the adjacent 'composite'. The details of the algorithm to overcome both intensity discrepancies and geometric misalignments between the stitched images will be presented and illustrated with several examples.

Rankov, Vladan; Locke, Rosalind J.; Edens, Richard J.; Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj

2005-03-01

346

Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurredness are the types of noise that occur during transmission and capturing. For denoising the image there are some algorithms which denoise the image.

Aarti

2014-05-01

347

IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT WITH CRYPTOGRAPHY

To increase the security of messages sent over the internet steganography is used. This paper discussed a technique based on the LSB(least significant bit) and a new encryption algorithm. By matching data to an image, there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover data. Before hiding the data in an image the application first encrypts it. Keywords- Steganography, LSB(least significant bit), Encryption, Decryption.

Vikas Tyagi

2012-01-01

348

A Survey on Image Denoising Algorithms (IDA)

Very few traditional noise removal algorithms provide appreciable results in producing denoised images. The hyper spectral images and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Images are severely affected due to different kind of noises. Several denoising procedures are proposed to preserve the image quality in textured images by removing the noise encountered .In this paper the effective noise removal techniques are discussed for various types of images and the suggestions for improving the interpretab...

Gayathri, Prof R.; Sabeenian, Dr R. S.

2013-01-01

349

CHAOS-BASED ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD

This thesis introduces a new chaos-based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES is a well-known encryption algorithm that was standardized by U.S National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) in 2001. The thesis investigates and explores the behavior of the AES algorithm by replacing two of its original modules, namely the S-Box and the Key Schedule, with two other chaos- based modules. Three chaos systems are considered in designing the new modules which are Lorenz system with multiplication nonlinearity, Chen system with sign modules nonlinearity, and 1D multiscroll system with stair case nonlinearity. The three systems are evaluated on their sensitivity to initial conditions and as Pseudo Random Number Generators (PRNG) after applying a post-processing technique to their output then performing NIST SP. 800-22 statistical tests. The thesis presents a hardware implementation of dynamic S-Boxes for AES that are populated using the three chaos systems. Moreover, a full MATLAB package to analyze the chaos generated S-Boxes based on graphical analysis, Walsh-Hadamard spectrum analysis, and image encryption analysis is developed. Although these S-Boxes are dynamic, meaning they are regenerated whenever the encryption key is changed, the analysis results show that such S-Boxes exhibit good properties like the Strict Avalanche Criterion (SAC) and the nonlinearity and in the application of image encryption. Furthermore, the thesis presents a new Lorenz-chaos-based key expansion for the AES. Many researchers have pointed out that there are some defects in the original key expansion of AES and thus have motivated such chaos-based key expansion proposal. The new proposed key schedule is analyzed and assessed in terms of confusion and diffusion by performing the frequency and SAC test respectively. The obtained results show that the new proposed design is more secure than the original AES key schedule and other proposed designs in the literature. The proposed design is then enhanced to increase the operating speed using the divide- and-conquer concept. Such enhancement, did not only make the AES algorithm more secure, but also enabled the AES to be faster, as it can now operate on higher frequencies, and more area-efficient.

Abdulwahed, Naif B.

2013-05-01

350

Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing

This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse) noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurrednes...

Aarti .; Gaurav Pushkarna

2014-01-01

351

Ultrasound medical image deconvolution using CLEAN algorithm

The problem of reconstruction of ultrasound medical images using blind deconvolution algorithm has been recognized as one of the most important aspect in ultrasound images. The image resolution is deteriorated by many parameters such as the diffusive effect in tissues, which produce the speckle noise. We intend to implement a nonlinear algorithm based on joint use of the well known CLEAN method and the Hybrid Parametric Inverse Filtering method. This method suppose an iterative process for ex...

Chira, Liviu-teodor; Girault, Jean-marc; Mateo, Tony; Me?nigot, Se?bastien; Rusu, Corneliu

2012-01-01

352

Stego-audio Using Genetic Algorithm Approach

With the rapid development of digital multimedia applications, the secure data transmission becomes the main issue in data communication system. So the multimedia data hiding techniques have been developed to ensure the secured data transfer. Steganography is an art of hiding a secret message within an image/audio/video file in such a way that the secret message cannot be perceived by hacker/intruder. In this study, we use RSA encryption algorithm to encrypt the message and Genetic Algorithm ...

Santhi, V.; Logeswari Govindaraju

2014-01-01

353

Enhanced Throughput AES Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents our experience in implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. We have used 128 bit block size and 128 bit cipher key for the implementation. The AES also known as Rijndael algorithm is used to ensure security of transmission channels. Xilinx design tool 13.3 and Xilinx project navigator design tool are used for synthesis and simulation. Very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL is used for coding. The fully pipelined design was implemented on Virtex 6 FPGA family and a throughput of 49.3Gbits/s was achieved with an operational frequency of 384.793 MHz.

Kunal Lala

2012-09-01

354

Design of AES Algorithm for 128/192/256 Key Length in FPGA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cryptographic algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol changes. The available AES algorithm is used for data and it is also suitable for image encryption and decryption to protect the confidential image from an unauthorized access. This project proposes a method in which the image data is an input to AES algorithm, to obtain the encrypted image. and the encrypted image is the input to AES Decryption to get the original image. This project proposed to implement the 128,192 & 256 bit AES algorithm for data encryption and decryption, also to compare the speed of operation, efficiency, security and frequency . The proposed work will be synthesized and simulated on FPGA family of Xilink ISE 13.2 and Modelsim tool respectively in Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL.

Pravin V. Kinge

2014-05-01

355

A Review on Otsu Image Segmentation Algorithm

Image segmentation is the fundamental approach of digital image processing. Among all the segmentation methods, Otsu method is one of the most successful methods for image thresholding because of its simple calculation. Otsu is an automatic threshold selection region based segmentation method. This paper studies various Otsu algorithms.

Miss Hetal J Vala, Prof Astha Baxi

2013-01-01

356

IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS FOR DUAL MODE IMAGING SYSTEMS

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level of detail discernable in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes where information barriers are mandatory. However, if a balance can be struck between sufficient information barriers and feature extraction to verify or identify objects of interest, imaging may significantly advance verification efforts. This paper describes the development of combined active (conventional) radiography and passive (auto) radiography techniques for imaging sensitive items assuming that comparison images cannot be furnished. Three image analysis algorithms are presented, each of which reduces full image information to non-sensitive feature information and ultimately is intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying features present in the image. These algorithms are evaluated on both their technical performance in image analysis and their application with or without an explicitly constructed information barrier. The first algorithm reduces images to non-invertible pixel intensity histograms, retaining only summary information about the image that can be used in template comparisons. This one-way transform is sufficient to discriminate between different image structures (in terms of area and density) without revealing unnecessary specificity. The second algorithm estimates the attenuation cross-section of objects of known shape based on transition characteristics around the edge of the object's image. Th around the edge of the object's image. The third algorithm compares the radiography image with the passive image to discriminate dense, radioactive material from point sources or inactive dense material. By comparing two images and reporting only a single statistic from the combination thereof, this algorithm can operate entirely behind an information barrier stage. Together with knowledge of the radiography system, the use of these algorithms in combination can be used to improve verification capability to inspection regimes and improve and substantially increase the likelihood of detecting material diversion.

357

A Novel Pavement Distress Image Filtering Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combined the Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT with compressed sensing de-noising theory, this study proposed a compressed sensing image filtering algorithm in the NSCT transform domain. This algorithm adopted the transform domain filtering method. Firstly, the NSCT was used to do multi-scale and multi-directional transform on the input noisy pavement distress Image which was mapped to the transform domain. Then the compressed sensing theory was used to filter the high-frequency sub-band coefficients. The experiment results show that this algorithm improves the effectiveness and timeliness of the pavement distress image filtering.

Feng Xin

2013-01-01

358

Implementation of Image Morphing Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphing" describes the combination of image warping with a cross-dissolve between images. This term is basically derived from "image metamorphosis". It is an image processing technique which is used as an tool of animation for the metamorphosis from one image to another. The idea is to specify a warp that distorts the first image into the second and its inverse will distort the second image into the first. The first image is gradually distorted and is faded out, while the second image starts out totally distorted toward the first and is faded in. Thus, the early images in the sequence are much like the first source image. The middle image of the sequence is the average of the first source image distorted halfway toward the second one and the destinationimage distorted halfway back toward the first one. The middle image is key if it looks good then probably the entire animated sequence will look good. For morph between faces, the middle image often looks strikingly life-like, like a real person, but clearly it is neither the person in the first nor second image. The morph process consists of warping two images so that they have the same "shape", and then cross dissolving the resulting images.

Nitika Dahiya#1 , Kanika Khanna

2013-06-01

359

Colony image acquisition system and segmentation algorithms

This paper presents a novel colony analysis system including an adjustable image acquisition subsystem and a wavelet-watershed-based image segmentation algorithm. An illumination box was constructed--both front lightning and back lightning illuminations can be chosen by users based on the properties of Petri dishes. In the illumination box, the lightning is uniform, which makes image processing easy. A digital camera at the top of the box is connected to a PC computer; all the camera functions are controlled by the developed computer software in this study. As usual, in the image processing part, the hardest task is image segmentation which is carried out by the four different algorithms: 1. recursive image segmentation on gray similarity; 2. canny edge detection-based segmentation; 3. the combination of 1 and 2, and 4. colony delineation on wavelet and watershed. The first three algorithms can obtain good results for ordinary colony images, and for the images including a lot of small (tiny) colonies and dark colonies and overlapping (or touching) colonies, the algorithm 4 can obtain better results than the others. The algorithms are tested by using a large number of different colony images, and the testing results are satisfactory.

Wang, Weixing

2011-12-01

360

Medical Image Segmentation by Using the Pillar K Means Algorithm

This paper presents the new algorithms for medical image segmentation .this paperpresents the to extract malignant part from the t1 weighted MR brain Image and analyze the performance of it with various algorithm .in different algorithms we use k means algorithm,cmeans algorithm ,pillar k means algorithm .k means and c means algorithm are already existent algorithms the new proposed algorithm is pillar k means algorithm. This segmentation process includes a new mechanism for clustering the el...

S Vaseem Akram, K. Sravya

2013-01-01

361

A Survey on Image Denoising Algorithms (IDA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Very few traditional noise removal algorithms provide appreciable results in producing denoised images. The hyper spectral images and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Images are severely affected due to different kind of noises. Several denoising procedures are proposed to preserve the image quality in textured images by removing the noise encountered .In this paper the effective noise removal techniques are discussed for various types of images and the suggestions for improving the interpretability or the perception of information in the image are listed

PROF. R.GAYATHRI

2013-05-01

362

The ability to construct software, call it a functional ciphertext, which can be remotely executed in encrypted form as an entirely self-contained unit, has the potential for some interesting applications. One such application is the construction of autonomous mobile agents capable of entering into certain types of legally binding contracts on behalf of the sender. At a premium in such circumstances is the ability to protect secret cryptographic keys or other secret information, whi...

Brekne, Třnnes

2001-01-01

363

Detection algorithm for multiple rice seeds images

The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of multiple rice seeds images. The rice seeds used for this study involved a hybrid rice seed variety. Images of multiple rice seeds were acquired with a machine vision system for quality inspection of bulk rice seeds, which is designed to inspect rice seeds on a rotating disk with a CCD camera. Combining morphological operations and parallel processing gave improvements in accuracy, and a reduction in computation time. Using image features selected based on classification ability; a highly acceptable defects classification was achieved when the algorithm was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability.

Cheng, F.; Ying, Y. B.

2006-10-01

364

Algorithms for reconstructing images for industrial applications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several algorithms for reconstructing objects from their projections are being studied in our Laboratory, for industrial applications. Such algorithms are useful locating the position and shape of different composition of materials in the object. A Comparative study of two algorithms is made. The two investigated algorithsm are: The MART (Multiplicative - Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) and the Convolution Method. The comparison are carried out from the point view of the quality of the image reconstructed, number of views and cost. (Author)

365

Why Information Security Demands Transform Domain, Compression and Encryption?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the advancement of technology and networking techniques, it is possible to transmit images at a lower bit rate and at the same time with high security. In order to fulfil the security needs of image transmission, several encryption, decryption and image encoding techniques have been put forward. The encryption discussed in this study is the PN (Pseudo Random Number sequence based encryption using Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG algorithm. In the proposed method, initially the image is portioned into blocks. Run length encoding is done for the level shifted image. Then Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and quantization was done and Difference of Quantized DC (DQDC was calculated. Then the quantized blocks are shuffled based on the PN sequence and then the scrambled images are arranged in zigzag order. Then finally run length and Huffman lossless compression are done to eliminate the additional bits generated using PN codes. Metrics like correlation coefficient, Unified Average Changing Intensity (UACI, Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR were computed to prove the sternness of the proposed method.

Padmapriya Praveenkumar

2014-01-01

366

We present a novel image hiding method based on phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of nonlinear double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. Two phase-only masks (POMs) are efficiently determined by using the phase retrieval algorithm, in which two cascaded phase-truncated fractional Fourier transforms (FrFTs) are involved. No undesired information disclosure, post-processing of the POMs or digital inverse computation appears in our proposed method. In order to achieve the reduction in key transmission, a modified image hiding method based on the modified phase retrieval algorithm and logistic map is further proposed in this paper, in which the fractional orders and the parameters with respect to the logistic map are regarded as encryption keys. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:25321769

Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

2014-09-22

367

Image Classification Optimization Algorithm based on SVM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development of computer technology and multimedia technology, there are a large number of images data in our daily life. If we cannot effectively manage the images, a lot of image information will be lost. As a result, people can't timely and quickly retrieve the needed image data. At present, for the image classification optimization algorithm it mainly includes neural network, Bayesian and Fuzzy sets, etc. But these algorithms have high training complexity, low convergence speed, etc. In view of this, this paper proposed an image classification optimization algorithm based on support vector machine (SVM. When does the image classification, this study followed the following steps (1 Select the proper kernel function. (2 Determine the parameters of the kernel function through the grid search method. (3 Give the feature extraction for the image based on color and texture which will be as the input to achieve the image classification. The experimental results show that the proposed method in image classification optimization has the very high accuracy. Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM; image classification; feature extraction; grid research

Zemin Liu

2013-10-01

368

Color Image Clustering using Block Truncation Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the advancement in image capturing device, the image data been generated at high volume. If images are analyzed properly, they can reveal useful information to the human users. Content based image retrieval address the problem of retrieving images relevant to the user needs from image databases on the basis of low-level visual features that can be derived from the images. Grouping images into meaningful categories to reveal useful information is a challenging and important problem. Clustering is a data mining technique to group a set of unsupervised data based on the conceptual clustering principal: maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. Proposed framework focuses on color as feature. Color Moment and Block Truncation Coding (BTC are used to extract features for image dataset. Experimental study using K-Means clustering algorithm is conducted to group the image dataset into various clusters.

Manish Maheshwari

2009-09-01

369

Color Image Clustering using Block Truncation Algorithm

With the advancement in image capturing device, the image data been generated at high volume. If images are analyzed properly, they can reveal useful information to the human users. Content based image retrieval address the problem of retrieving images relevant to the user needs from image databases on the basis of low-level visual features that can be derived from the images. Grouping images into meaningful categories to reveal useful information is a challenging and important problem. Clustering is a data mining technique to group a set of unsupervised data based on the conceptual clustering principal: maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. Proposed framework focuses on color as feature. Color Moment and Block Truncation Coding (BTC) are used to extract features for image dataset. Experimental study using K-Means clustering algorithm is conducted to group the image dataset into various clusters.

Silakari, Sanjay; Maheshwari, Manish

2009-01-01

370

Quantum probabilistic encryption protocol based on conjugate coding

We present a quantum probabilistic encryption algorithm of private-key encryption scheme based on conjugate coding of qubit-string. Usually, probabilistic encryption algorithm is adopted in public-key encryption protocols. Here we consider its function of increasing the unicity distance of both classical and quantum private-key encryption scheme. The security of quantum probabilistic private-key encryption against two kinds of attacks is analyzed. Based on no-signalling postulate we show that the scheme can resist the attack to the key. The protocol's security against plaintext attack is also investigated under the concept of information-theoretic indistinguishability of encryption. Finally, we give a conjecture related with the Breidbart's attack.

Yang, Li; Li, Bao

2012-01-01

371

AN ENSEMBLE CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM FOR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyperspectral image analysis has been used for many purposes in environmental monitoring, remote sensing, vegetation research and also for land cover classification. A hyperspectral image consists of many layers in which each layer represents a specific wavelength. The layers stack on top of one another making a cube-like image for entire spectrum. This work aims to classify the hyperspectral images and to produce a thematic map accurately. Spatial information of hyperspectral images is collected by applying morphological profile and local binary pattern. Support vector machine is an efficient classification algorithm for classifying the hyperspectral images. Genetic algorithm is used to obtain the best feature subjected for classification. Selected features are classified for obtaining the classes and to produce a thematic map. Experiment is carried out with AVIRIS Indian Pines and ROSIS Pavia University. Proposed method produces accuracy as 93% for Indian Pines and 92% for Pavia University.

K.Kavitha

2014-04-01

372

Image Compression Based on Improved FFT Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression is a crucial step in image processing area. Image Fourier transforms is the classical algorithm which can convert image from spatial domain to frequency domain. Because of its good concentrative property with transform energy, Fourier transform has been widely applied in image coding, image segmentation, image reconstruction. This paper adopts Radix-4 Fast Fourier transform (Radix-4 FFT to realize the limit distortion for image coding, and to discuss the feasibility and the advantage of Fourier transform for image compression. It aims to deal with the existing complex and time-consuming of Fourier transform, according to the symmetric conjugate of the image by Fourier transform to reduce data storage and computing complexity. Using Radix-4 FFT can also reduce algorithm time-consuming, it designs three different compression requirements of non-uniform quantification tables for different demands of image quality and compression ratio. Take the standard image Lena as experimental data using the presented method, the results show that the implementation by Radix-4 FFT is simple, the effect is ideal and lower time-consuming.

Juanli Hu

2011-07-01

373

A Comparative Study of Image Restoration Algorithms using Images from different areas of imaging

In this paper we consider a comparative study of different image restoration algorithms. The images are blurred by using both known and unknown degradation functions. The study emphases on restoration of blurred images by using both blind and non-blind restoration techniques like Lucy Richardson Algorithm (LRA), Weiner Filter Deconvolution (WFD), Regularized Filter Deconvolution (RFD) and Blind Image Deconvolution Algorithm (BIDA). Apart from regular images, images from different areas of ima...

Sruti Sruba Bharali; Daisy Das

2013-01-01

374

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CHAOTIC ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drastic growth in multimedia communication resulted to numerous security issues in the transmission of data. Moreover, the network used for the digital communication does not provide much security for the data transfer. During this time, tens of millions people using the internet options for essential communication and is being a tool for commercial field increased, So that security is an enormously important issue to deal with. We need to be protected confidentiality of data and provide secure connections for it. Hence we necessitate recognizing the different aspects of security and their applications. Many of these applications ranging from secure commerce, protecting passwords or pin and payments to private communications. As we know that, Cryptography is now becoming an essential aspect of the secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing secret code with confident algorithm and key. The basic components of cryptography are encryption and decryption algorithms, digital signature and hashed message authentication code. We know that encryption is the synonym of cryptography. Different kinds of encryption are used in this modern era. Chaotic encryption is the type of the encryption which has adopted the concept of chaos. In this study, we are studying the history of cryptography until chaotic cryptography and analyzing the performance of chaotic encryption technique. The evaluation is performed in terms of encryption speed, the CPU utilization with time and the battery power consumption. The experimental results are specified the efficiency of the algorithms.

Ancy Mariam Babu

2013-01-01

375

Dermoscopic Image Segmentation using Machine Learning Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Malignant melanoma is the most frequent type of skin cancer. Its incidence has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Medical image segmentation is the most essential and crucial process in order to facilitate the characterization and visualization of the structure of interest in medical images. Approach: This study explains the task of segmenting skin lesions in Dermoscopy images based on intelligent systems such as Fuzzy and Neural Networks clustering techniques for the early diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma. The various intelligent system based clustering techniques used are Fuzzy C Means Algorithm (FCM, Possibilistic C Means Algorithm (PCM, Hierarchical C Means Algorithm (HCM; C-mean based Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Network, Adaline Neural Network and Regression Neural Network. Results: The segmented images are compared with the ground truth image using various parameters such as False Positive Error (FPE, False Negative Error (FNE Coefficient of similarity, spatial overlap and their performance is evaluated. Conclusion: The experimental results show that the Hierarchical C Means algorithm( Fuzzy provides better segmentation than other (Fuzzy C Means, Possibilistic C Means, Adaline Neural Network, FHNN and GRNN clustering algorithms. Thus Hierarchical C Means approach can handle uncertainties that exist in the data efficiently and useful for the lesion segmentation in a computer aided diagnosis system to assist the clinical diagnosis of dermatologists.

L. P. Suresh

2011-01-01

376

Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for morphological image processing

This thesis deals with efficient algorithms for morphological image processing. Each chapter deals with some algorithm from the field of mathematical morphology. Reviews of existing algorithms, as well as new algorithms or improvements to existing algorithms are given. In most chapters, the focus is on the design and implementation of parallel algorithms. The interest for parallel algorithms is mainly driven by the growing demand of real-time 2D image processing applications, and algorithms f...

Meijster, Arnold

2004-01-01

377

Performance evaluation of image segmentation algorithms on microscopic image data.

In our paper, we present a performance evaluation of image segmentation algorithms on microscopic image data. In spite of the existence of many algorithms for image data partitioning, there is no universal and 'the best' method yet. Moreover, images of microscopic samples can be of various character and quality which can negatively influence the performance of image segmentation algorithms. Thus, the issue of selecting suitable method for a given set of image data is of big interest. We carried out a large number of experiments with a variety of segmentation methods to evaluate the behaviour of individual approaches on the testing set of microscopic images (cross-section images taken in three different modalities from the field of art restoration). The segmentation results were assessed by several indices used for measuring the output quality of image segmentation algorithms. In the end, the benefit of segmentation combination approach is studied and applicability of achieved results on another representatives of microscopic data category - biological samples - is shown. PMID:25233873

Beneš, Miroslav; Zitová, Barbara

2015-01-01

378

KAIRUAIN-algorithm applied on electromagnetic imaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For time-harmonic Maxwell equations, we consider an inverse scattering problem for the 3D imaging of the constitutive material of an unknown object from the boundary measurements of the electric field. This problem is ill-posed and nonlinear. We introduce the KAIRUAIN-algorithm which is an iterative method of Newton–Kaczmarz type, where we use the approximate inverse for regularizing the solution of the linearized equation at each Newton iteration. We study the convergence of the algorithm and develop a strategy for the choice of the regularizing parameter in a quite general setting. We apply the KAIRUAIN-algorithm to derive an efficient and stable reconstruction method for electromagnetic imaging. We use experimental data provided by the Institut Fresnel, France, to validate the capability of the reconstruction algorithm to retrieve blindly, without any a priori information, the geometry and the dielectric permittivity of the scattering object. (paper)

379

Color Secret Image Encryption and Share Generation for Multiple-Secret Threshold Visual Cryptography

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual Cryptography Scheme (VCS is a type of secret sharing scheme which allows the encoding of a secret image into n shares that distributed to n participants. Each share constitutes some information and when k shares out of n stack together the secret will reveal. However; less than k shares are not work. The advantage of the visual secret sharing scheme is its decryption process i.e. to decrypt the secret using Human Visual System without any computation. Traditional Visual Cryptography suffers from share identification problem. This problem can be solved by Multiple-Secret threshold visual cryptography (MVCS, which adds a meaningful cover image in each share. The proposed work presents threshold Visual cryptographic schemes in Color Images. This method uses half toning method to provide color image as a secret image. Then the secret image can be embedded in the original image by generating shares using Zigzags scanning method. Experimental result of proposed system provides robust security than conventional visual cryptographic schemes.

P. Kavipriya M.E

2014-02-01

380

Integral imaging can provide a feasible and efficient technique for multiple-image encoding system. The computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique reconstructs a set of plane images along the output plane, whereas the resolution of the reconstructed images will degrade due to the partial occlusion of other reconstructed images. Meanwhile, CIIR is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction method, in which the superimposition causes the undesirable interference. To overcome these problems, we first utilize the block matching algorithm to eliminate the occlusion-disturbance and introduce the back-propagation neural network algorithm to compensate for the low-resolution image. In the encryption, a computational integral imaging pickup technique is employed to record the multiple-image simultaneously to form an elemental image array (EIA). The EIA is then encrypted by combining the use of maximum length cellular automata (CA) and the double random phase encoding algorithm. Some numerical simulations have been made to demonstrate the performance of this encryption algorithm.

Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

2014-03-01

381

Algorithm for Fast Registration of Radar Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radar imagery provides an all-weather and 24 h coverage, making it ideal for critical defence applications. In some applications, multiple images acquired of an area need to be registered for further processing. Such situations arise for battlefield surveillance based on satellite imagery. The registration has to be done between an earlier (reference image and a new (live image. For automated surveillance, registration is a prerequisite for change detection. Speed is essential due to large volumes of data involved and the need for quick responses. The registration transformation is quite simple, being mainly a global translation. (Scale and rotation corrections can be applied based on known camera parameters. The challenge lies in the fact that the radar images are not as feature-rich as optical images and the image content variation can be as high as 90 per cent. Even though the change on the ground may not be drastic, seasonal variations can significantly alter the radar signatures of ground, vegetation, and water bodies. This necessitates a novel approach different from the techniques developed for optical images. An algorithm has been developed that leads to fast registration of radar images, even in the presence of specular noise and significant scene content variation. The key features of this approach are adaptability to sensor/terrain types, ability to handle large content variations and false positive rejection. The present work shows that this algorithm allows for various cost-performance trade-offs, making it suitable for a wide variety of applications. The algorithm, in various cost-performance configurations, is tested on a set of ERS images. Results of such tests have been reported, indicating the performance of the algorithm for various cost-performance trade-offs.

Subrata Rakshit

2012-04-01

382

Digital Image Watermarking in Frequency Domain Using ECC and Dual Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presented an algorithm to protect the copyright watermark by providing Hamming codes as error correcting technique. Watermark was embedded in frequency domain using discrete cosine transformation and discrete wavelet transformation, to enhance the susceptibility. Combinations of two techniques are used to target medium frequencies only. Randomness of the watermark is also created before embedding. Instead of embedding in the same place in every block, it is embedded adaptively which depends upon the row and column of that particular block. Results prove the effectiveness of the algorithm against various attacks like jpeg attack, filtering and addition of noises like Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise and speckle noise. ECC proved to be effective to recover the watermark after certain attacks performed.

G.S. Kalra

2013-10-01

383

This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed ...

Tzu-Hsiang Hung; Her-Terng Yau; Chia-Chun Hsieh

2012-01-01

384

Digital Image Watermarking in Frequency Domain Using ECC and Dual Encryption Technique

This study presented an algorithm to protect the copyright watermark by providing Hamming codes as error correcting technique. Watermark was embedded in frequency domain using discrete cosine transformation and discrete wavelet transformation, to enhance the susceptibility. Combinations of two techniques are used to target medium frequencies only. Randomness of the watermark is also created before embedding. Instead of embedding in the same place in every block, it is embedded adaptively whic...

Kalra, G. S.; Talwar, R.; Sadawarti, H.

2013-01-01

385

Image compression via improved quadtree decomposition algorithms.

Quadtree decomposition is a simple technique used to obtain an image representation at different resolution levels. This representation can be useful for a variety of image processing and image compression algorithms. This paper presents a simple way to get better compression performances (in MSE sense) via quadtree decomposition, by using near to optimal choice of the threshold for quadtree decomposition; and bit allocation procedure based on the equations derived from rate-distortion theory. The rate-distortion performance of the improved algorithm is calculated for some Gaussian field, and it is examined vie simulation over benchmark gray-level images. In both these cases, significant improvement in the compression performances is shown. PMID:18291920

Shusterman, E; Feder, M

1994-01-01

386

An Automatic Image Inpainting Algorithm Based on FCM

There are many existing image inpainting algorithms in which the repaired area should be manually determined by users. Aiming at this drawback of the traditional image inpainting algorithms, this paper proposes an automatic image inpainting algorithm which automatically identifies the repaired area by fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm. FCM algorithm classifies the image pixels into a number of categories according to the similarity principle, making the similar pixels clustering into the same cate...

Jiansheng Liu; Hui Liu; Shangping Qiao; Guangxue Yue

2014-01-01

387

IMAGE SEGMENTATION: A WATERSHED TRANSFORMATION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this work is to present a new method for image segmentation using mathematicalmorphology. The approach used is based on the watershed transformation. In order to avoid an oversegmentation, we propose to adapt the topological gradient method. The watershed transformation combined with a fast algorithm based on the topological gradient approach gives good results. The numerical tests obtained illustrate the efficiency of our approach for image segmentation.

Lamia Jaafar Belaid

2011-05-01

388

Coherent Interferometry Algorithms for Photoacoustic Imaging

The aim of this paper is to develop new coherent interferometry (CINT) algorithms to correct the effect of an unknown cluttered sound speed (random fluctuations around a known constant) on photoacoustic images. By back-propagating the correlations between the preprocessed pressure measurements, we show that we are able to provide statistically stable photoacoustic images. The preprocessing is exactly in the same way as when we use the circular or the line Radon inversion to obtain photoacoust...

Ammari, Habib; Bretin, Elie; Garner, Josselin; Jugnon, Vincent

2010-01-01

389

Proximity algorithms for image models: denoising

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces a novel framework for the study of the total-variation model for image denoising. In the model, the denoised image is the proximity operator of the total-variation evaluated at a given noisy image. The total-variation can be viewed as the composition of a convex function (the l1 norm for the anisotropic total-variation or the l2 norm for the isotropic total-variation) with a linear transformation (the first-order difference operator). These two facts lead us to investigate the proximity operator of the composition of a convex function with a linear transformation. Under the assumption that the proximity operator of a given convex function (e.g., the l1 norm or the l2 norm) can be readily obtained, we propose a fixed-point algorithm for computing the proximity operator of the composition of the convex function with a linear transformation. We then specialize this fixed-point methodology to the total-variation denoising models. The resulting algorithms are compared with the Goldstein–Osher split-Bregman denoising algorithm. An important advantage of the fixed-point framework leads us to a convenient analysis for convergence of the proposed algorithms as well as a platform for us to develop efficient numerical algorithms via various fixed-point iterations. Our numerical experience indicates that the methods proposed here perform favorably

390

Lossless compression algorithm for multispectral imagers

Multispectral imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring the earth and its environment from space borne and airborne platforms. Multispectral imaging data consists of visible and IR measurements from a scene across space and spectrum. Growing data rates resulting from faster scanning and finer spatial and spectral resolution makes compression an increasingly critical tool to reduce data volume for transmission and archiving. Research for NOAA NESDIS has been directed to finding for the characteristics of satellite atmospheric Earth science Imager sensor data what level of Lossless compression ratio can be obtained as well as appropriate types of mathematics and approaches that can lead to approaching this data's entropy level. Conventional lossless do not achieve the theoretical limits for lossless compression on imager data as estimated from the Shannon entropy. In a previous paper, the authors introduce a lossless compression algorithm developed for MODIS as a proxy for future NOAA-NESDIS satellite based Earth science multispectral imagers such as GOES-R. The algorithm is based on capturing spectral correlations using spectral prediction, and spatial correlations with a linear transform encoder. In decompression, the algorithm uses a statistically computed look up table to iteratively predict each channel from a channel decompressed in the previous iteration. In this paper we present a new approach which fundamentally differs from our prior work. In this new approach, instead of having a single predictor for each pair of bands we introduce a piecewise spatially varying predictor which significantly improves the compression results. Our new algorithm also now optimizes the sequence of channels we use for prediction. Our results are evaluated by comparison with a state of the art wavelet based image compression scheme, Jpeg2000. We present results on the 14 channel subset of the MODIS imager, which serves as a proxy for the GOES-R imager. We will also show results of the algorithm for on NOAA AVHRR data and data from SEVIRI. The algorithm is designed to be adapted to the wide range of multispectral imagers and should facilitate distribution of data throughout globally. This compression research is managed by Roger Heymann, PE of OSD NOAA NESDIS Engineering, in collaboration with the NOAA NESDIS STAR Research Office through Mitch Goldberg, Tim Schmit, Walter Wolf.

Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Gottipati, Srikanth

2008-08-01

391

Calibration algorithms for an imaging spectrometer

This paper presents a software calibration/characterization utility aimed to automatically perform the laboratory calibration of an imaging spectrometer. Quantitative remote sensing algorithms requires well-documented instrument optical performances along with characterization of nonuniformities as, for instance, smile and keystone. Automatic calibration data acquisition and processing facilitate the understanding of the instrument properties and allow the implementation of specif...

APEX team,; Endice, F.; Schaepman, M. E.

2009-01-01

392

Wireless Physical Layer Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development of wireless and cognitive network technology, the security of wireless communication has faced great challenge, in which parameters of wireless communication such as modulation type and frequency are more likely to be detected. As a result, business, especially military communication faces the problems of pertinence interference and content security, which are becoming more and more serious. In this study, a hiding algorithm for OFDM constellation mapping based on physical layer encryption is proposed. A secret seed key is adopted to control the phase rotation factor and amplitude size, thus the OFDM constellation mapping process based on MPSK/MQAM was disrupted. In this way, modulation modes used by legitimate users cannot be detected, thus modulation protection was achieved and illegal users cannot distinguish the modulation type. Simulation results show that this algorithm has a high capacity of modulation hiding on the premise of not changing the original system performance.

Gao Baojian

2013-01-01

393

Medical Image Communication Using Halftone Algorithms

Physicians frequently need to see retinal, biopsy, and other images, produced originally by medical diagnostic equipment and then processed by computers. At present this is done using either time-consuming photography or expensive video equipment. We have used digital halftoning as a method for fast communication of images both on print and on computer terminal screens. This method quickly produces a good-quality halftone rendition of a grey-scale image. These images are suitable for display and printout on inexpensive devices that normally do not have grey-scale capability. The algorithm is based on a previously published error-propagation technique. We improved the algorithm by including a factor that accounts for the difference in size between light and dark points on various devices. The algorithm is extended to devices that have two bitplanes (VT240), and the execution and transmission times are reduced. At Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, this program has been used in processing and reporting the results of muscle and nerve biopsies. At the Eye Research Institute in Boston, it has been used to report the results of retinal visual field mapping. This technique has a wide range of applications. It allows "image processing" to be done on computers that have no traditional image-processing hardware. It allows several users to operate simultaneously on time-shared systems that have only a single image-processor. Images are displayed on 1 or 2 bitplane devices (LA50 printers or VT240 terminals). It allows image transmission over long distances --replacing video communication equipment with RS232 cables and modems.

Goldstein, Robert B.; Peli, Eli; Wooledge, Karl

1987-10-01

394

Tuning Range Image Segmentation by Genetic Algorithm

Several range image segmentation algorithms have been proposed, each one to be tuned by a number of parameters in order to provide accurate results on a given class of images. Segmentation parameters are generally affected by the type of surfaces (e.g., planar versus curved) and the nature of the acquisition system (e.g., laser range finders or structured light scanners). It is impossible to answer the question, which is the best set of parameters given a range image within a class an...

Gianluca Pignalberi; Luigi Cinque; Rita Cucchiara; Stefano Levialdi

2003-01-01

395

Image Safe Transfer by Combination of Compression, Encryption and Data Hiding Techniques

The networks have been developing strongly these last years and became inevitablefor the modern communication. The images transmitted on these networks are particulardata because of their large quantity of information. The transmission of the imagesthus raises a significant number of problems which the majority of them have no solutionyet. We enumerate for example safety, confidentiality, integrity and the authenticity ofthese data during their transmission. Some...

Rodrigues, Jose? Marconi

2006-01-01

396

IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES AND GENETIC ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image Segmentation is a decomposition of sceneinto its components. It is a key step in analysis. Edge, point, line,boundary texture and region detection are the various forms ofimage segmentation. Various technologies for imagesegmentation are there like thresholding, cluster based, edgebased, region based and watershed segmentation. Two of themain image segmentation techniques thresholding and regiongrowing are highly in use for image segmentation. Imagesegmentation by region growing method is robust fast and veryeasy to implement, but it suffers from: the thresholding problem,initialization, and sensitivity to noise. OTSU method ofthresholding is also used for image segmentation but it alsosuffers from thresholding problems. Genetic algorithms areparticular methods for optimizing functions; they have a greatability to find the global optimum of a problem. Here I proposeda genetic algorithm which provides the better solution thanregion growing and OTSU methods for the image segmentation.In proposed algorithm we will see that we get better peak signalto noise ratio and maximum absolute error comparatively thanregion growing and OTSU.

Dinesh Maru, Brijesh Shah

2013-04-01

397

Analysis of Image Segmentation Algorithms Using MATLAB

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image segmentation has played an important role in computer vision especially for human tracking. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image or a set of contours extracted from the image. Its accuracy but very elusive is very crucial in areas as medical, remote sensing and image retrieval where it may contribute to save, sustain and protect human life. This paper presents the analysis and implementation using MATLAB features and one best result can be selected for any algorithm using the subjective evaluation. We considered the techniques under the following five groups: Edge-based, Clustering-based, Region-based, Threshold-based and Graph-based.

Deepika Khare

2012-02-01

398

ALGORITHMIC IMAGING APPROACH TO IMPOTENCE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Impotence is a common problem that has great impact on the quality of life. Clinical evaluation usually can exclude endocrinologic imbalance, neurogenic dysfunction, and psychological problems as the etiology. A patient who fails to get an erection after vasoactive medications which are injected probably, has hemodynamic impotence. Dynamic studies that include imaging techniques are now available to discriminate between arterial and venous pathology.Doppler ultrasound with color flow and spectral analysis,dynamic infusion corpus cavernosometry and cavernosography, and selective internal pudendal arteriography are outpatient diagnostic procedures that will differentiate, image and quantify the abnormalities in patients with hemodynamic impotence. Not all tests are needed in every patient. Each of these examinations is preceded with the intracavernosal injection of vasoactive medication. Papaverine hydrochloride, phentolamine mesylate, or prostaglandin El will overcome normal sympathetic tone and produce an erection by smooth muscle relaxation and arterial dilatation in a normal patient. Color-flow Doppler and spectral analysis will showthe cavernosal arteries and can identify the hemodynamic effects of stricture or occlusion. Peak systolic velocity is measured. Normal ranges are well established. Spectral analysis also is used to predict the presence of venous disease. Sizable venous leaks in the dorsal penile vein are readily imaged.While the technique may not adequately identify low-grade venous pathology, it will identify the size and location of fibrous plaque formation associated with Peyronie's disease. Cavernosography or cavernosometry is a separate procedure that will quantitate the severity of venousincompetence as well as specifically identify the various avenues of systemic venous return that must be localized if venous occlusive therapy is chosen. In this study, the peak arterial systolic occlusion pressure is quantified during erection,and the presence of arterial pathology can be confirmed.The arterial data are not as reliable as the ultrasound-obtained data because they rely on audible Doppler, which can be obscured in the underlying "noise" heard with erection. The arterial data obtained with both of these examinations are quantitative and replace the qualitative audible Doppler used previously. Specialized equipment allows dynamic data acquisition, ensuring that the needed information is obtained at peak stimulation.Arteriography is done only if reconstructive surgery is contemplated. The examination includes subselective catheterization of the internal pudendal arteries, magnification technique, and evaluation of the recurrent epigastric arteries, which will be harvested for revascularization. An arterial operation is usually successful in younger patients with perineal trauma with a single point of stenosis or occlusion but has been least successful in those patients with atherosclerosis because of the multifocal nature of this disease. Diagnostic information available today is more specific and reliable than at any time in the past and can realistically estimate the severity of the hemodynamic disorder and allow individual treatment options. Ongoing studies will show whether the data these studies provide make an important difference in the treatment of vascular impotence.

Mahyar Ghafoori

2012-05-01

399

MR Brain Image Segmentation using Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm

The most important task in digital image processing is image segmentation. This paper put forward an unique image segmentation algorithm that make use of a Markov Random Field (MRF) hybrid with biologically inspired technique Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) for Brain Magnetic Resonance Images The proposed new algorithm works on the image pixel data and a region/neighborhood map to form a context in which they can merge. Hence, the MR brain image is segmented using MRF-BFOA and...

Ben George, E.; Karnan, M.

2012-01-01

400

Color encryption scheme based on adapted quantum logistic map

This paper presents a new color image encryption scheme based on quantum chaotic system. In this scheme, a new encryption scheme is accomplished by generating an intermediate chaotic key stream with the help of quantum chaotic logistic map. Then, each pixel is encrypted by the cipher value of the previous pixel and the adapted quantum logistic map. The results show that the proposed scheme has adequate security for the confidentiality of color images.

Zaghloul, Alaa; Zhang, Tiejun; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

2014-04-01

401

Encrypted With Fuzzy Compliment-Max-Product Matrix in Watermarking

Watermark is used to protect copyright and to authenticate images. In digital media, today’s world images are in electronic form available in the internet. For its protection and authentication invisible watermarking in encrypted form are used. In this paper encryption is done using fuzzy Compliment-Max-Product matrix and then encrypted watermark is embedded in the digital media at desired places using fuzzy rule. The Region of Interest (ROI) is decided with fuzzification. Then, watermark i...

Sharbani Bhattacharya

2014-01-01

402

Pavement Image Segmentation Based on FCM Algorithm Using Neighborhood Information

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard FCM algorithm takes the pixel gray-scale information into account only, while ignoring the spatial location of pixels, so the standard FCM algorithm is sensitive to noise. This paper present a pavement image segmentation algorithm based on FCM algorithm using neighborhood information. The presented algorithm introduces neighborhood information into membership function to improve the standard FCM algorithm. It can eliminate noise effectively and retain the boundary information. The experiments by synthetic images and real pavement images show that the presented algorithm in this paper performs more robust to noise than the standard FCM algorithm and retain the boundary information effectively.

Guofeng Qin

2012-11-01

403

A Fast SIFT Image Mosaic Algorithm Based on Wavelet Transformation

Recently, SIFT feature matching algorithm is becoming the focus of the image mosaic. In traditional SIFT algorithm, the mosaic procedure is computationally intensive and time-comsuming. For solving this problem, an improved SIFT algorithm is presented in this paper. The proposed algorithm combing wavelet transform into SIFT to simplify the scale-invariant feature extraction process, and speed up the image mosaic. The tests of two images mosaicing with the classical SIFT algorithm and the algo...

Zuo, Yi; Chen, Yong; You, Hua

2014-01-01

404

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we made a comprehensive BER simulation study of a quasi- orthogonal space time block encoded (QO-STBC multiple-input single output(MISO system. The communication system under investigation has incorporated four digital modulations (QPSK, QAM, 16PSK and 16QAM over an Additative White Gaussian Noise (AWGN and Raleigh fading channels for three transmit and one receive antennas. In its FEC channel coding section, three schemes such as Cyclic, Reed-Solomon and ˝-rated convolutionally encoding have been used. Under implementation of merely low complexity ML decoding based channel estimation and RSA cryptographic encoding /decoding algorithms, it is observable from conducted simulation test on encrypted text message transmission that the communication system with QAM digital modulation and ˝-rated convolutionally encoding techniques is highly effective to combat inherent interferences under Raleigh fading and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channels. It is also noticeable from the study that the retrieving performance of the communication system degrades with the lowering of the signal to noise ratio (SNR and increasing in order of modulation.

Most. Farjana Sharmin

2012-04-01

405

Image Steganography combined with Cryptography

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the science of invisible communication. Apart from the sender and intended recipient no one suspects the existence of the message. Using Steganography, information can be hidden in various mediums known as carriers. The carriers can be images, audio files, video files and text files. Image Steganography is a technique of using an image file as a carrier. Cryptography protects the information by applying the encryption and decryption techniques, so that the secret message can be understood only by the right person.This paper proposes a method, which combines the techniques of Steganography and cryptography, to hide the secret data in an image. In the first phase, the sender will embed the secret data in an image by using the Least Significant Bit (LSB technique. The embedded image will be encrypted by using an encryption algorithm. At final, the encrypted image will be decrypted and the hidden data will be retrieved by supplying the valid secret key by the receiver. The process includes the phases of Data embedding, Image Encryption and recovery of both original image and secret data from the encrypted image.

Vijaya Lakshmi Paruchuri

2013-07-01

406

Non-search algorithm of image angle estimation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-search algorithm of image angle estimation is presented. This algorithm improves precision of image angle estimation by means of estimation of particular angles, which are less than real angle. Analysis of algorithm includes investigation of test and real images rotation.

O. M. Machnyev

2008-05-01

407

New Interpolation Algorithm for Image Inpainting

In this paper, the relationship between image pixels' coordinators and their colors is considered as a mapping function. A novel algorithm based on radial basis function network is applied to construct a local best approximation of this function, and then the damaged pixels are restored via interpolation. In the algorithm, the mapping function is constructed pixel by pixel to minimize the interpolation error and decrease its complexity. To proceed over lager damaged areas, we compute interpolations of different overlapping coefficients to combine global frequency and local spatial information together. This contributes to restore more detail information. Experimental results show that the algorithm can restore the missing information correctly and can be effectively used in reconstruction of complex signal functions.

Chang, Lin; Chongxiu, Yu

408

Endmember extraction algorithms from hyperspectral images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last years, several high-resolution sensors have been developed for hyperspectral remote sensing applications. Some of these sensors are already available on space-borne devices. Space-borne sensors are currently acquiring a continual stream of hyperspectral data, and new efficient unsupervised algorithms are required to analyze the great amount of data produced by these instruments. The identification of image endmembers is a crucial task in hyperspectral data exploitation. Once the individual endmembers have been identified, several methods can be used to map their spatial distribution, associations and abundances. This paper reviews the Pixel Purity Index (PPI, N-FINDR and Automatic Morphological Endmember Extraction (AMEE algorithms developed to accomplish the task of finding appropriate image endmembers by applying them to real hyperspectral data. In order to compare the performance of these methods a metric based on the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE between the estimated and reference abundance maps is used.

M. C. Cantero

2006-06-01

409

A speedy pixon image reconstruction algorithm

A speedy pixon algorithm for image reconstruction is described. Two applications of the method to simulated astronomical data sets are also reported. In one case, galaxy clusters are extracted from multiwavelength microwave sky maps using the spectral dependence of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect to distinguish them from the microwave background fluctuations and the instrumental noise. The second example involves the recovery of a sharply peaked emission profile, such as might...

Eke, Vincent

1999-01-01

410

A Survey on Joint Compression and Encryption Techniques for Video Data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: When we send any video data over the network it consumes more time. This is due to the huge size of the video file when compared to text file. Therefore, video data should be compressed before sending to the destination. Another important factor during data transfer is security. Joint compression and encryption is employed to enable faster and secured transmission of video data. Approach: Compression and encryption algorithms can be classified into two main categories: Independent encryption technique and joint compression and encryption technique. Independent encryption techniques can further be classified as heavy weight and light weight encryption algorithms. There are many algorithms available in the joint compression and encryption technique. Comparative study of the above mentioned algorithms is done in this study. Results: Based on our study, found joint compression and encryption algorithms reduced 40% of the memory storage size and they increased execution speed up to 21%. Conclusion: Joint compression and encryption algorithms perform better in terms of speed and security when compared to independent encryption algorithms. This is because they employ compression before encryption.

R. Manimegalai

2012-01-01

411

An Improved LSB Based Steganography Technique for RGB Color Images

This paper proposes an improved LSB(least Significant bit) based Steganography technique for images imparting better information security .It presents an embedding algorithm for hiding encrypted messages in nonadjacent and random pixel locations in edges and smooth areas of images. It first encrypts the secret message, and detects edges in the cover-image using improved edge detection filter. Message bits are then, embedded in the least significant byte of randomly selected edge area pixels a...

Mamta Juneja; Sandhu, Parvinder S.

2013-01-01

412

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan- Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro sort algorithm begins with Quick sort and switches to heap sort when the recursion depth exceeds a level based on the number of elements being sorted. This approach has the advantage of fast noise reduction by reducing the comparison time. It also significantly speed up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time image processing. This approach will extend the Infrared images applications for medicine and video conferencing.

Gupta, Kapil Kumar; Niranjan, Jitendra Kumar

2012-01-01

413

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan-Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro sort algorithm begins with Quick sort and switches to heap sort when the recursion depth exceeds a level based on the number of elements being sorted. This approach has the advantage of fast noise reduction by reducing the comparison time. It also significantly speed up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time image processing. This approach will extend the Infrared images applications for medicine and video conferencing.

Kapil Kumar Gupta

2011-11-01

414

AN EFFICIENT MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise suppression in medical images is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A trade-offbetween noise reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made in a way thatenhances the diagnostically relevant image content. Image processing specialists usually lack thebiomedical expertise to judge the diagnostic relevance of the De-noising results. For example, in ultrasoundimages, speckle noise may contain information useful to medical experts the use of speckled texture for adiagnosis was discussed in. Also biomedical images show extreme variability and it is necessary to operateon a case by case basis. This motivates the construction of robust and Efficient denoising methods that areapplicable to various circumstances, rather than being optimal under very specific conditions. In this paper,we propose one robust method that adapts itself to various types of image noise as well as to the preferenceof the medical expert: a single parameter can be used to balance the preservation of relevant details againstthe degree of noise reduction. The proposed algorithm is simple to implement and fast. We demonstrate itsusefulness for denoising and enhancement of the CT, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance images.

M.VENUGOPAL RAO

2013-05-01

415

Encrypted Domain DCT Based on Homomorphic Cryptosystems

Signal processing in the encrypted domain (s.p.e.d.) appears an elegant solution in application scenarios, where valuable signals must be protected from a possibly malicious processing device. In this paper, we consider the application of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) to images encrypted by using an appropriate homomorphic cryptosystem. An s.p.e.d. 1-dimensional DCT is obtained by defining a convenient signal model and is extended to the 2-dimensional case by using separable pro...

Tiziano Bianchi; Alessandro Piva; Mauro Barni

2009-01-01

416

Digital Image Mosaic Technology Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image mosaic technology is an important technology in the field of image processing. Based on the general adaptability and clustering of genetic algorithm, we improve it, and apply it to the mosaic algorithm in image processing. In this paper, we test the validity and reliability of the designed algorithm in the process of image mosaic algorithm. Based on the image illumination mosaic and painting texture mosaic image we achieve certain artistic effect. From the convergence results of general algorithm, the results of numerical show substantially concussion, oscillation amplitude reaches a maximum of . The calculation results of the genetic algorithm still have certain degree of concussion, oscillation amplitude reaches a maximum of , convergence results are slightly better than the general algorithm. The improved genetic algorithm results have no concussion, the stability is very good, and the results have better astringency.

Li Yan

2014-03-01

417

The hurried development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information. In additional, digital document is also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it may face many threats. It became necessary to find an appropriate protection due to the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information. Furthermore, there is no formal method to be followed to discover a hidden data. In this paper, a new information hiding framework is presented.The proposed framework aim is implementation of framework computation between advance encryption standard (AES) and distortion technique (DT) which embeds information in image page within executable file (EXE file) to find a secure solution to cover file without change the size of cover file. The framework includes two main functions; first is the hiding of the information in the image page of EXE file, through the execution of four process (specify the cover file, spec...

Naji, A W; Zaidan, B B; Al-Khateeb, Wajdi F; Khalifa, Othman O; Zaidan, A A; Gunawan, Teddy S

2009-01-01

418

A Comparative Study of Image Restoration Algorithms using Images from different areas of imaging

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we consider a comparative study of different image restoration algorithms. The images are blurred by using both known and unknown degradation functions. The study emphases on restoration of blurred images by using both blind and non-blind restoration techniques like Lucy Richardson Algorithm (LRA, Weiner Filter Deconvolution (WFD, Regularized Filter Deconvolution (RFD and Blind Image Deconvolution Algorithm (BIDA. Apart from regular images, images from different areas of imaging like medical images and satellite images are considered for this study. Experimental results for the four different image restoration techniques are compared on the basis of performance metrics like PSNR(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, MSE(Mean Square Error and RMSE( Root Mean Square Error.

Sruti Sruba Bharali

2013-08-01

419

Modified Curvelet Thresholding Algorithm for Image Denoising

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study introduced an adaptive thresholding method for removing additive white Gaussian noise from digital images. Approach: Curvelet transform employed in the proposed scheme provides sparse decomposition as compared to the wavelet transform methods which being nongeometrical lack sparsity and fail to show optimal rate of convergence. Results: Different behaviors of curvelet transform maxima of image and noise across different scales allow us to design the threshold operator adaptively. Multiple thresholds depending on the scale and noise variance are calculated to locally suppress the curvelet transform coefficients so that the level of threshold is different at every scale. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed algorithm succeeded in providing improved denoising performance to recover the shape of edges and important detailed components. Simulation results proved that the proposed method can obtain a better image estimate than the wavelet based restoration methods.

Al D. Ali

2010-01-01

420

Evaluation of various deformable image registration algorithms for thoracic images.

We evaluated the accuracy of one commercially available and three publicly available deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for thoracic four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Five patients with esophagus cancer were studied. Datasets of the five patients were provided by DIR-lab (dir-lab.com) and consisted of thoracic 4D CT images and a coordinate list of anatomical landmarks that had been manually identified. Expert landmark correspondence was used for evaluating DIR spatial accuracy. First, the manually measured displacement vector field (mDVF) was obtained from the coordinate list of anatomical landmarks. Then the automatically calculated displacement vector field (aDVF) was calculated by using the following four DIR algorithms: B-spine implemented in Velocity AI (Velocity Medical, Atlanta, GA, USA), free-form deformation (FFD), Horn-Schunk optical flow (OF) and Demons in DIRART of MATLAB software. Registration error is defined as the difference between mDVF and aDVF. The mean 3D registration errors were 2.7 ± 0.8 mm for B-spline, 3.6 ± 1.0 mm for FFD, 2.4 ± 0.9 mm for OF and 2.4 ± 1.2 mm for Demons. The results showed that reasonable accuracy was achieved in B-spline, OF and Demons, and that these algorithms have the potential to be used for 4D dose calculation, automatic image segmentation and 4D CT ventilation imaging in patients with thoracic cancer. However, for all algorithms, the accuracy might be improved by using the optimized parameter setting. Furthermore, for B-spline in Velocity AI, the 3D registration error was small with displacements of less than ?10 mm, indicating that this software may be useful in this range of displacements. PMID:23869025

Kadoya, Noriyuki; Fujita, Yukio; Katsuta, Yoshiyuki; Dobashi, Suguru; Takeda, Ken; Kishi, Kazuma; Kubozono, Masaki; Umezawa, Rei; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Matsushita, Haruo; Jingu, Keiichi

2014-01-01

421

Noise-resilient edge detection algorithm for brain MRI images.

In this paper we introduce a noise-resilient edge detection algorithm for brain MRI images. Also, an improved edge detection based on Canny edge detection algorithm is proposed. Computer simulations show that the proposed algorithm is resilient to impulsive noise which makes up for the disadvantages of Canny algorithm, and can detect more edges of MRI brain images effectively. Also, the concept of images fusion is utilized for effective edge detection. PMID:19965004

Agaian, Sos; Almuntashri, Ali

2009-01-01

422

Random Image Embedded in Videos using LSB Insertion Algorithm

Video Steganography is one of the important techniques for hiding user data in secure manner. Now – a – days the security of the data transmission in the broadcasting spectrum remains more complex to do. Hence there exists many techniques such as encryption of data, compression of data, Stegno of data were evolved. Video Steganography is a technique to hide any kind of files into a carrying Video. In this paper a new technique is proposed to hide the image file within the frames of video....

Parvathi Divya, K.; Mahesh, K.

2014-01-01

423

Study on Airspace Covert Communication Algorithm of Covert Communication System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the security of information transmission through network in the information society, the paper puts forward covert communication technology which is more reliable than the prior encryption algorithm, analyzes channel covertness and information hiding of covert communication technology based on spread-spectrum communication technology, and establishes a covert communication system including image steganalysis, Arnold transformation and scrambling of carrier image, embedding of secret information, generation of encrypted image and recovering of carrier image by image-based covert communication technology. The simulation result shows: in order to ensure there is no serious degrading problem after embedding the secret information, the carrier image must have a large capacity; the larger the scrambling times is, the better the scrambling and encrypting effect is. Therefore, the airspace covert communication algorithm based on spread-spectrum communication technology well achieves safe transmission of information and has good application prospect.

Yinpu Zhang

2012-04-01

424

Performance analysis of Non Linear Filtering Algorithms for underwater images

Image filtering algorithms are applied on images to remove the different types of noise that are either present in the image during capturing or injected in to the image during transmission. Underwater images when captured usually have Gaussian noise, speckle noise and salt and pepper noise. In this work, five different image filtering algorithms are compared for the three different noise types. The performances of the filters are compared using the Peak Signal to Noise Rati...

Mr. Suresh Kumar Thakur; Subashini, Dr P.; Muthu Kumar, M.; Padmavathi, Dr G.

2009-01-01

425

An Efficient Encryption Algorithm for P2P Networks Robust Against Man-in-the-Middle Adversary

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P networks have become popular as a new paradigm for information exchange and are being used in many applications such as file sharing, distributed computing, video conference, VoIP, radio and TV broadcasting. This popularity comes with security implications and vulnerabilities that need to be addressed. Especially duo to direct communication between two end nodes in P2P networks, these networks are potentially vulnerable to Man-in-the-Middle attacks. In this paper, we propose a new public-key cryptosystem for P2P networks that is robust against Man-in-the-Middle adversary. This cryptosystem is based on RSA and knapsack problems. Our precoding-based algorithm uses knapsack problem for performing permutation and padding random data to the message. We show that comparing to other proposed cryptosystems, our algorithm is more efficient and it is fully secure against an active adversary.

Roohallah Rastaghi

2012-11-01

426

Here we discuss two security problems, video data encryption and multicast security, in wireless networks. ^ Selective encryption is a technique that is used to minimize computational complexity or enable system functionality by only encrypting a portion of a compressed bitstream while still achieving reasonable security. For selective encryption to work, we need to rely not only on the beneficial effects of redundancy reduction, but also on the characteristics of the compression algorithm ...

Um, Hwa Young

2006-01-01

427

[Colposcopy image database design and application of retrieval algorithm].

Due to the insufficiency in colposcopy image database collection in china, a novel image database is developed and it will be the basis of a computer-aided-diagnosis system for colposcopy. An improved search algorithm of color is designed based on the current content-based image retrieval algorithms for the characteristics of colposcopy images. This algorithm is authenticated by more than one hundred of clinical pictures with primary satisfactory result. PMID:20812635

Zhu, Ying; Tang, Nan; Zhao, Jun

2010-05-01

428

A CNN Based Algorithm for Medical Images Correlation

This paper propose a CNN algorithm toprocess medical images for diagnosis. The algorithm isbased on image correlation in CNN manner. Imagecorrelation generally needs a lot of time to get a result.In CNN domain most of operations are achieved byparallel processing, so we can compute the correlationcoefficients between two images in parallel manner.We can use such algorithm in a medical diagnosisassistance system, to process and analyze computertomography images or in a system developed to assi...

T?epelea, Laviniu; Gavrilu? Ioan; Gacsádi Alexandru

2011-01-01

429

Optimization-Based Image Segmentation by Genetic Algorithms

Abstract Many works in the literature focus on the definition of evaluation metrics and criteria that enable to quantify the performance of an image processing algorithm. These evaluation criteria can be used to define new image processing algorithms by optimizing them. In this paper, we propose a general scheme to segment images by a genetic algorithm. The developed method uses an evaluation criterion which quantifies the quality of an image segmentation result. The proposed segmen...

Rosenberger C; Emile B; Laurent H; Chabrier S

2008-01-01

430

Medical Image Segmentation Based on Genetic Clustering Algorithm

In view of medical image segmentation greatly influenced by noise and low segmentation accuracy, a image segmentation algorithm based on genetic clustering is put forward. Firstly, according to sliding window we divide image into several sub-domains and using genetic algorithm searches the optimal population in each sub-domain. The following thing is the most optimal population is treated as clustering initial value of fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm for image segmentation. Finally, we obt...

Peng Taile; Zhang Wenjun

2013-01-01

431

Inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging principles, algorithms and applications

Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications is based on the latest research on ISAR imaging of moving targets and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR). With a focus on the advances and applications, this book will provide readers with a working knowledge on various algorithms of ISAR imaging of targets and implementation with MATLAB. These MATLAB algorithms will prove useful in order to visualize and manipulate some simulated ISAR images.

Chen , Victor C

2014-01-01

432

Algorithms evaluation for fundus images enhancement

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Color images of the retina inherently involve noise and illumination artifacts. In order to improve the diagnostic quality of the images, it is desirable to homogenize the non-uniform illumination and increase contrast while preserving color characteristics. The visual result of different pre-processing techniques can be very dissimilar and it is necessary to make an objective assessment of the techniques in order to select the most suitable. In this article the performance of eight algorithms to correct the non-uniform illumination, contrast modification and color preservation was evaluated. In order to choose the most suitable a general score was proposed. The results got good impression from experts, although some differences suggest that not necessarily the best statistical quality of image is the one of best diagnostic quality to the trained doctor eye. This means that the best pre-processing algorithm for an automatic classification may be different to the most suitable one for visual diagnosis. However, both should result in the same final diagnosis.

433

Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding

Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733

2014-01-01

434

Improved bat algorithm applied to multilevel image thresholding.

Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733

Alihodzic, Adis; Tuba, Milan

2014-01-01

435

Steganography Algorithm to Hide Secret Message inside an Image

In this paper, the authors propose a new algorithm to hide data inside image using steganography technique. The proposed algorithm uses binary codes and pixels inside an image. The zipped file is used before it is converted to binary codes to maximize the storage of data inside the image. By applying the proposed algorithm, a system called Steganography Imaging System (SIS) is developed. The system is then tested to see the viability of the proposed algorithm. Various sizes of data are stored inside the images and the PSNR (Peak signal-to-noise ratio) is also captured for each of the images tested. Based on the PSNR value of each images, the stego image has a higher PSNR value. Hence this new steganography algorithm is very efficient to hide the data inside the image.

Ibrahim, Rosziati

2011-01-01

436

Performance Comparison Of Evolutionary Algorithms For Image Clustering

Evolutionary computation tools are able to process real valued numerical sets in order to extract suboptimal solution of designed problem. Data clustering algorithms have been intensively used for image segmentation in remote sensing applications. Despite of wide usage of evolutionary algorithms on data clustering, their clustering performances have been scarcely studied by using clustering validation indexes. In this paper, the recently proposed evolutionary algorithms (i.e., Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CS), Adaptive Differential Evolution Algorithm (JADE), Differential Search Algorithm (DSA) and Backtracking Search Optimization Algorithm (BSA)) and some classical image clustering techniques (i.e., k-means, fcm, som networks) have been used to cluster images and their performances have been compared by using four clustering validation indexes. Experimental test results exposed that evolutionary algorithms give more reliable cluster-centers than classical clustering techniques, but their convergence time is quite long.

Civicioglu, P.; Atasever, U. H.; Ozkan, C.; Besdok, E.; Karkinli, A. E.; Kesikoglu, A.

2014-09-01

437

Robust digital image-in-image watermarking algorithm using the fast Hadamard transform

In this paper, a robust and efficient digital image watermarking algorithm using the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) is proposed for the copyright protection of digital images. This algorithm can embed or hide an entire image or pattern as a watermark such as a company's logo or trademark directly into the original image. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using Stirmark 3.1 that consists of 90 different types of image attacks. Results show that this algorithm is very rob...

Ho, Anthony T. S.; Shen, Jun; Chow, Andrew K. K.; Woon, Jerry

2003-01-01

438

The aim of image fusion is to combine relevant information from two or more source images into one single image such that the single image contains most of the information from all the source images. The successful fusion of images acquired from different modalities or instruments is of great importance in many applications, such as medical imaging, microscopic imaging, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics. The algorithm begins by applying 2D-DWT to decompose the input images. The low...

Indhumadhi, N.; Padmavathi, G.

2011-01-01

439

PARAMETRIC EVALUATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS IMAGE COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wavelet analysis plays a vital role in the signal processing especially in image compression. In this paper, various compression algorithms like block truncation coding, EZW and SPIHT are studied and ana- lyzed; its algorithm idea and steps are given. The parameters for all these algorithms are analyzed and the best parameter for each of these compression algorithms is found out.

V. Sutha Jebakumari

2011-05-01

440

PARAMETRIC EVALUATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS IMAGE COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS

Wavelet analysis plays a vital role in the signal processing especially in image compression. In this paper, various compression algorithms like block truncation coding, EZW and SPIHT are studied and ana- lyzed; its algorithm idea and steps are given. The parameters for all these algorithms are analyzed and the best parameter for each of these compression algorithms is found out.

Sutha Jebakumari, V.; Arockia Jansi Rani, P.

2011-01-01