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Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Universal Modular Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is essential to assure information security. Universal modular transformation is a widely applied encryption method, but it has some disadvantages such as a relatively small quantity of keys and insecurity. A uniform block encryption method is proposed in this study to improve the image entropy of encryption and an image is encrypted with the universal modular transform combined with a chaotic mapping. Experimental results show that this algorithm can provide good encryption quality and reach high safety. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is robust to shear attack and noise attack.

Xue Yang; Xiaoyang Yu; Qifeng Zou; Jiaying Jia

2010-01-01

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Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Decomposition  

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Full Text Available The proposed chaos-based image encryption algorithm consists of four stages: decomposition, shuffle, diffusion and combination. Decomposition is that an original image is decomposed to components according to some rule. The purpose of the shuffle is to mask original organization of the pixels of the image, and the diffusion is to change their values. Combination is not necessary in the sender. To improve the efficiency, the parallel architecture is taken to process the shuffle and diffusion. To enhance the security of the algorithm, firstly, a permutation of the labels is designed. Secondly, two Logistic maps are used in diffusion stage to encrypt the components. One map encrypts the odd rows of the component and another map encrypts the even rows. Experiment results and security analysis demonstrate that the encryption algorithm not only is robust and flexible, but also can withstand common attacks such as statistical attacks and differential attacks.

Hongyao Deng; Xiuli Song

2013-01-01

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A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Subsequence Operation  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation. Different from the traditional DNA encryption methods, our algorithm does not use complex biological operation but just uses the idea of DNA subsequence operations (such as elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, etc.) combining with the logistic chaotic map to scramble the location and the value of pixel points from the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed algorithm is easy to be implemented, can get good encryption effect, has a wide secret key's space, strong sensitivity to secret key, and has the abilities of resisting exhaustive attack and statistic attack.

Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Xianglian; Wei, Xiaopeng

2012-01-01

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Comparative Analysis and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithms?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of digital communication and multimedia application, security becomesan important issue of communication and storage of images. Image security has found a great need in manyapplications where the information (in the form of image) is to be protected from unauthorized access.Encryption is one of the ways to ensure high security. In recent years, encryption technology has beendeveloped and many image encryption methods have been used. These methods produce randomness in theimage so that the content is not visible. Encryption and decryption consume a considerable amount of time.So there is a need for an efficient algorithm. This paper proposed three different image encryptiontechniques for color image. Simulation results are presented and a comparative analysis of the differentmethods is discussed.

Rajinder Kaur; Er. Kanwalpreet Singh?

2013-01-01

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Breaking a novel colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos  

CERN Multimedia

Recently, a colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos was proposed by cascading two position permutation operations and one substitution operation, which are all determined by some pseudo-random number sequences generated by iterating the Logistic map. This paper evaluates the security level of the encryption algorithm and finds that the position permutation-only part and the substitution part can be separately broken with only $\\lceil (\\log_2(3MN))/8 \\rceil$ and 2 chosen plain-images, respectively, where $MN$ is the size of the plain-image. Concise theoretical analyses are provided to support the chosen-plaintext attack, which are verified by experimental results also.

Li, Chengqing; Ou, Rong; Wong, Kwok-Wo

2012-01-01

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Breaking an image encryption algorithm based on chaos  

CERN Document Server

Recently, a chaos-based image encryption algorithm called MCKBA (Modified Chaotic-Key Based Algorithm) was proposed. This paper analyzes the security of MCKBA and finds that it can be broken with a differential attack, which requires only four chosen plain-images. Performance of the attack is verified by experimental results. In addition, some defects of MCKBA, including insensitivity with respect to changes of plain-image/secret key, are reported.

Li, Chengqing; Lo, Kwok-Tung

2010-01-01

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SECURE PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME USING SCAN BASED ALGORITHM  

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Full Text Available Today data security is very important and high priority topic. With rapid growth in communication and computer technologies, there is a huge data transaction interment, teleconferencing and military applications. For all these applications we need a security. Encryption is the primary solution to provide security to the data, which is travelling on a communication link between any pair of nodes, but Partial encryption is a technique to save computational power, overhead, speed, time and to provide quick security by only encrypting a selected portion of a bit stream. The focus of this paper is on selecting the important part of the image that can efficiently achieve by conceptually selecting the important part of the image. This paper proposes a new approach for partial image encryption using SCAN algorithm. The main idea behind the present work is to select the part of the image is performed by SCAN based permutation of pixels and substitution rule which together form an iterated product cipher. The issue in traditional cryptosystem in many different areas such as wireless networking, mobile phone services and applications in homeland security is energy consumption for encryption of the large volume visual data. So we are dealing with partial encryption.

Parameshachari B D; K. M. Sunjiv Soyjaudah; Sumithra Devi K A

2013-01-01

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Using Genetic Algorithm for Symmetric key Generation in Image Encryption  

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Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protectinginformation as the importance of security is increasing dayby day with the advent of online transaction processing ande commerce. In now a day the security of digital imagesattracts much attention, especially when these digitalimages are stored in memory or send through thecommunication networks. Genetic algorithms are a class ofoptimization algorithms. Many problems can be solvedusing genetic algorithms through modelling a simplifiedversion of genetic processes. In this paper, I proposed amethod based on Genetic Algorithm which is used togenerate key by the help of pseudo random numbergenerator. Random number will be generated on the basisof current time of the system. Using Genetic Algorithm wecan keep the strength of the key to be good, still make thewhole algorithm good enough. Symmetric key algorithmAES has been proposed for encrypting the image as it isvery secure method for symmetric key encryption.

Aarti Soni, Suyash Agrawal

2012-01-01

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Key Generation Using Genetic Algorithm for Image Encryption?  

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Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protecting information as the importance of security is increasingday by day with the advent of online transaction processing and e commerce. Now a day the security of digitalimages are major area of concern, especially when we deal with digital images where it may be stored orsend through the communication channel. Genetic algorithms are a class of optimization algorithms.Genetic algorithms can be used to solve different problems through modeling a simplified version of geneticprocesses. This paper proposed a method based on Genetic Algorithm which is used to generate key by thehelp of random number generator to make the key complex. Key generation will go through a number ofprocess and main criteria for key selection will be the fitness value of the population. AES which is asymmetric key encryption algorithm is used to encrypt the image.

Aarti Soni; Suyash Agrawal?

2013-01-01

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Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata  

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Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

X. W. Li; D. H. Kim; S. J. Cho; S. T. Kim

2013-01-01

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Image Encryption Algorithm Based on a Chaotic Iterative Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes a symmetric encryption algorithm based on bit permutations and using an iterative process combined with a chaotic function. The main advantages of such a cryptosystem is its ability to encrypt securely bit sequences and assuring confusion, diffusion and indistinguishability prope...

Michael François; Thomas Grosges; Dominique Barchiesi; Robert Erra

12

The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata  

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Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.

Shuiping Zhang; Huijune Luo

2012-01-01

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A Digital Image Encryption Algorithm Based A Composition of Two Chaotic Logistic Maps  

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Full Text Available The chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested several advantages over the traditional encryption algorithms such as high security, speed, reasonable computational overheads and computational power. This paper introduces an efficient chaos-based stream cipher, composing two chaotic logistic maps and a large enough external secret key for image encryption. The external secret key is used to derive the initial conditions for the chaotic maps, and is employed with the two chaotic maps to confuse the relationship between the cipher image and the plain image. In the encryption phase, the pixels are encrypted using an iterative cipher module based feedback and data-dependent inputs mechanism for mixing the current encryption parameters with previously encrypted information. To make the cipher more robust against any attack, the secret key is modified after encryption of each pixel of the plain image. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

Ismail Amr Ismail; Mohammed Amin; Hossam Diab

2010-01-01

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An Improved Image Encryption Algorithm based on Chaotic System  

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Full Text Available The security of stream cipher, which is known as one of the main cipher techniques, is dependents completely on the quality of generated pseudo-stochastic sequences. Chaotic systems can produce the pseudo-random sequences with good randomness, therefore, these systems are suitable to the stream cipher. In this paper, a new encryption algorithm is proposed by analyzing the principle of the chaos encryption algorithm based on logistic map. Moreover, the security and performance of the proposed algorithm is also estimated. The experimental results based on coupled chaotic maps approve the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the coupled chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet.

Shubo Liu; Jing Sun; Zhengquan Xu

2009-01-01

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Quality of Encryption Measurement of Bitmap Images with RC6, MRC6, and Rijndael Block Cipher Algorithms  

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Full Text Available RC6, MRC6, and Rijndael are three block cipher algorithms. Different types of Bitmap images are encrypted with each of the three encryption algorithms. Visual inspection is not enough on judging the quality of encrypted images. So, other measuring factors are considered based on: measuring the maximum deviation between the original and the encrypted images, measuring the correlation coefficient between the encrypted and the original images, the difference between the pixel value of the original image and its corresponding pixel value of the encrypted one, the encryption time and the throughput. These measuring factors are applied on the three encryption algorithms to evaluate images containing many high frequency components and others containing very large areas of single colors as an example of binary images. The results of the nominal electronic code book are not enthusiastic, so the Cipher Block Chaining and the output feed back modes are implemented and the results are compared.

Nawal El-Fishawy; Osama M. Abu Zaid

2007-01-01

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A Novel Image Encryption using an Integration Technique of Blocks Rotation based on the Magic cube and the AES Algorithm  

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Full Text Available In recent years, several encryption algorithms have been proposed to protect digital images from cryptographic attacks. These encryption algorithms typically use a relatively small key space and therefore, provide safe, especially if they are of a dimension. In this paper proposes an encryption algorithm for a new image protection scheme based on the rotation of the faces of a Magic Cube. The original image is divided into six sub-images and these sub-images are divided amongst a number of blocks and attached to the faces of a Magic Cube. The faces are then scrambled using rotation of the Magic Cube. Then the rotated image is fed to the AES algorithm which is applied to the pixels of the image to encrypt the scrambled image. Finally, experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme not only encrypts the picture to achieve perfect hiding, but the algorithm can also withstand exhaustive, statistical and differential attacks.

Ahmed Bashir Abugharsa; Abd. Samad Bin Hasan Basari; Hamida Mohamed Almangush

2012-01-01

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A Review and Comparative Study of Block based Symmetric Transformation Algorithm for Image Encryption  

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Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to provide knowledge of safety of images which is traveling over internet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effort during encryption and decryption. In this paper I present some advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithm for encryption and decryption of an image with the same objective. Moreover we are also doing analysis of entropy and correlation between pixels value of various image encryption algorithm. From the analysis we are observing that which one is the best approach to calculate these things. Finally, it sums up with thoughts and suggestions about information security, along with a chosen example of the current proposals in security.

Hiral Rathod; Mahendra Singh Sisodia, Sanjay Kumar Sharma

2011-01-01

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A joint encryption/watermarking algorithm for verifying the reliability of medical images: application to echographic images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we propose a joint encryption/watermarking algorithm for the purpose of protecting medical images. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins as its attachment to one patient even if the image is stored encrypted. In this study, the given solution combines the RC4 stream cipher and two substitutive watermarking modulations: the Least Significant Bit Method and the Quantization Index Modulation. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded echographic images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. At least, a capacity rate of 1 and 0.5 bits of message per pixel of image can be embedded in the spatial and the encrypted domains respectively, with a peak signal to noise ratio greater than 49 dB.

Bouslimi D; Coatrieux G; Roux C

2012-04-01

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A joint encryption/watermarking algorithm for verifying the reliability of medical images: application to echographic images.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we propose a joint encryption/watermarking algorithm for the purpose of protecting medical images. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins as its attachment to one patient even if the image is stored encrypted. In this study, the given solution combines the RC4 stream cipher and two substitutive watermarking modulations: the Least Significant Bit Method and the Quantization Index Modulation. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded echographic images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. At least, a capacity rate of 1 and 0.5 bits of message per pixel of image can be embedded in the spatial and the encrypted domains respectively, with a peak signal to noise ratio greater than 49 dB. PMID:22054815

Bouslimi, Dalel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Roux, Christian

2011-11-04

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Novel Data Encryption Algorithm  

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Full Text Available We always strive to get better algorithms for securing data. A variety of such algorithms are being used in cryptography. Manly block and stream ciphers are available and one of them is International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), which was regarded arguably as one of the best for encryption purposes. A considerable time has elapsed since its advent and this period has witnessed a wide development in process approaches and applications. The number of transactions and exchanges of data has increased exponentially. Consequently, better and novel attacks on data evolved. Researchers believe that the security of the algorithm needs to be improved keeping a check on the time and space complexity. Within this research work we are looking for a robust algorithm known as NDEA which can be applied for securing modern environment applications.

Rajat Goel; Ripu R Sinha; O P Rishi

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A weighted discrete imperialist competitive algorithm (WDICA) combined with chaotic map for image encryption  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the security of digital images. This study focuses on binary image encryption using the weighted discrete imperialist competitive algorithm (WDICA).In the proposed method, a chaotic map is first used to create a specified number of cipher images. Then, to improve the results, WDICA is applied to the cipher images. In this study, entropy and correlation coefficient are used as WDICA's fitness functions. The goal is to maximize the entropy and minimize correlation coefficients. The advantage of this method is its ability to optimize the outcome of all iterations using WDICA. Simulation results show that WDICA not only demonstrates excellent encryption but also resists various typical attacks. The obtained correlation coefficient and entropy of the proposed WDICA are approximately 0.004 and 7.9994, respectively.

Enayatifar, Rasul; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey

2013-09-01

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Analysis and improvement of a hash-based image encryption algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

The security of digital image attracts much attention recently. A hash-based digital image encryption algorithm has been proposed in Ref. [1]. But both the theoretical analysis and computer simulation show the characteristic of diffusion is too weak to resist Chosen Plaintext Attack and Known Plaintext Attack. Besides, one bit difference of the plain pixel will lead to only one corresponding bit change of the cipher pixel. In our improved algorithm, coupled with self-adaptive algorithm, only one pixel difference of the plain-image will cause changes of almost all the pixels in the cipher-image (NPCR > 98.77%), and the unified average changing intensity is high (UACI > 30.96%). Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome these flaws and maintain all the merits of the original one.

Deng, Shaojiang; Zhan, Yanping; Xiao, Di; Li, Yantao

2011-08-01

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A novel algorithm for image encryption based on mixture of chaotic maps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chaos-based encryption appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on the mixture of chaotic systems is reported. The chaotic cryptography technique used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography. In this algorithm, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, along with its security analysis and implementation. The experimental results based on mixture of chaotic maps approves the effectiveness of the proposed method and the implementation of the algorithm. This mixture application of chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet.

Behnia, S. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: s.behnia@iaurmia.ac.ir; Akhshani, A.; Mahmodi, H. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, A. [Department of Engineering, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-01-15

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A novel algorithm for image encryption based on mixture of chaotic maps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Chaos-based encryption appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on the mixture of chaotic systems is reported. The chaotic cryptography technique used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography. In this algorithm, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, along with its security analysis and implementation. The experimental results based on mixture of chaotic maps approves the effectiveness of the proposed method and the implementation of the algorithm. This mixture application of chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet

2008-01-01

25

A Summarization on Image Encryption  

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Full Text Available With the fast development of the computer technology and information processing technology, the problem of information security is becoming more and more important. Information hiding is usually used to protect the important information from disclosing when it is transmitting over an insecure channel. Digital image encryption is one of the most important methods of image information hiding and camouflage. The image encryption techniques mainly include compression methodology, modern cryptography mechanism, chaos techniques, DNA techniques, and so on. In this paper, we summarize the main encryption algorithms and classify them based on the means. In particular, chaos-based and DNA cryptography-based image encryption algorithms are illustrated and analyzed in detail. Finally, the future direction in this field is discussed.

Zhou Shihua; Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Zhou Changjun

2010-01-01

26

Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.

2009-09-15

27

Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm  

CERN Document Server

Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.

Arroyo, David; Li, Shujun; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Halang, Wolfgang A

2007-01-01

28

Encryption and Decryption of Digital Image Using Color Signal  

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Full Text Available This paper aims at improving the level of security and secrecy provided by the digital color signal-based image encryption. The image encryption and decryption algorithm is designed and implemented to provide confidentiality and security in transmission of the image based data as well as in storage. This new proposed encryption algorithm can ensure the lossless of transmissions of images. The proposed encryption algorithm in this study has been tested on some images and showed good results.

Gamil R. S. Qaid; S.N. Talbar

2012-01-01

29

METRICS OF A NEW SYMMETRICAL ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM  

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Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN). Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,CAST, UMARAM and RC6 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. The authentication protocols have been used for authentication and key-exchange processes. A new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper to prevent the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data-exchange in Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN). The new symmetrical algorithm avoids the key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption, decryption, and authentication processes. It operates at a data rate higher than DES, 3DES, AES, UMARAM and RC6 algorithms. It is applied on a text file and an image as an application. The encryption becomes more secure and high data rate than DES,3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for the encryption algorithms like DES, 3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6 at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

G. RAMESH; Dr. R. UMARANI

2011-01-01

30

Efficient Image Encryption Using a Chaos-based PWL Memristor  

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Full Text Available An image encryption algorithm based on the chaotic system has been increasingly used, but the disadvantages of small key space, weak security in low dimensional chaotic cryptosystems, simple chaotic system, and inconvenient for hardware implementation, are obvious. This paper presents a new image encryption algorithm based on chaos with the PWL memristor in Chua?s circuit. This encryption algorithm includes two main operations of image scrambling and pixel replacement. Simulations show that the key space is large, and the attacker cannot decrypt an encrypted image without the correct key. The encryption algorithm has high-level security.

Lin Zhaohui; Wang Hongxia

2010-01-01

31

Security enhancement of a phase-truncation based image encryption algorithm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The asymmetric cryptosystem, which is based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms (PTFTs), can break the linearity of conventional systems. However, it has been proven to be vulnerable to a specific attack based on iterative Fourier transforms when the two random phase masks are used as public keys to encrypt different plaintexts. An improvement from the asymmetric cryptosystem may be taken by relocating the amplitude values in the output plane. In this paper, two different methods are adopted to realize the amplitude modulation of the output image. The first one is to extend the PTFT-based asymmetrical cryptosystem into the anamorphic fractional Fourier transform domain directly, and the second is to add an amplitude mask in the Fourier plane of the encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations are presented to prove the good performance of the proposed cryptosystems. PMID:22193194

Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

2011-12-20

32

Security enhancement of a phase-truncation based image encryption algorithm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The asymmetric cryptosystem, which is based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms (PTFTs), can break the linearity of conventional systems. However, it has been proven to be vulnerable to a specific attack based on iterative Fourier transforms when the two random phase masks are used as public keys to encrypt different plaintexts. An improvement from the asymmetric cryptosystem may be taken by relocating the amplitude values in the output plane. In this paper, two different methods are adopted to realize the amplitude modulation of the output image. The first one is to extend the PTFT-based asymmetrical cryptosystem into the anamorphic fractional Fourier transform domain directly, and the second is to add an amplitude mask in the Fourier plane of the encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations are presented to prove the good performance of the proposed cryptosystems.

Wang X; Zhao D

2011-12-01

33

Image encryption using P-Fibonacci transform and decomposition  

Science.gov (United States)

Image encryption is an effective method to protect images or videos by transferring them into unrecognizable formats for different security purposes. To improve the security level of bit-plane decomposition based encryption approaches, this paper introduces a new image encryption algorithm by using a combination of parametric bit-plane decomposition along with bit-plane shuffling and resizing, pixel scrambling and data mapping. The algorithm utilizes the Fibonacci P-code for image bit-plane decomposition and the 2D P-Fibonacci transform for image encryption because they are parameter dependent. Any new or existing method can be used for shuffling the order of the bit-planes. Simulation analysis and comparisons are provided to demonstrate the algorithm's performance for image encryption. Security analysis shows the algorithm's ability against several common attacks. The algorithm can be used to encrypt images, biometrics and videos.

Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos; Chen, C. L. Philip

2012-03-01

34

Simple and secure Image Encryption  

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Full Text Available Image Encryption is a wide area of research. Encryption basically deals with converting data or information from its original form to some other form that hides the information in it. The protection of image data from unauthorized access is important. Encryption is employed to increase the data security. The Encrypted Image is secure from any kind cryptanalysis. In the proposed work, the image to be encrypted is decomposed into 8X8 blocks, these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to frequency domain by the DCT , Then, only selected DCT coefficients i.e the DCT coefficients correlated to the higher frequencies of the image block are encrypted. For encryption the DCT coefficients are xored with pseudorandom bit, Pseudorandom bit is generated by Non-Linear Shift back Register. The bits generated by Non-Linear Shift back Register can not be predicted so cryptanalysis becomes difficult. To enhance the security further the unencrypted DCT coefficients are shuffled, since some information may also be stored in DCT coefficient correlating to lower frequency, While encrypting selected DCT coefficients alone will provide complete perceptual encryption, it would be possible for an attacker to gain information about the image from the other coefficients, especially in images that have a lot of edges.

V.V.Divya; S.K.Sudha; V.R.Resmy

2012-01-01

35

Integration of chaotic sequences uniformly distributedin a new image encryption algorithm  

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Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new chaotic secret key cryptosystem, adapted for image encryption in continuous mode, which is based on the use of tow one-dimensional discrete chaotic systems: Bernoulli map and Tent map. The pseudorandom sequences generated by the two maps are characterized by independence of their states, uniformly distributed, so hear integration provides excellent properties of confusion and diffusion, and an important space for the secret key, because it consists of parameters and initial states of the chaotic maps. The security tests results of our cryptosystem are very satisfactory.

Nassiba Wafa Abderrahim; Fatima Zohra Benmansour; Omar Seddiki

2012-01-01

36

Analyzing the Superlative Symmetric Cryptographic Encryption Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Cryptology is a science that deals with codes and passwords. Cryptology is alienated into cryptography and cryptanalysis. The Cryptography produces methods to protect the data, and cryptanalysis hack the protected data . Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas - confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange finally which leads to the security of information .Encryption algorithms play a key role in information security systems. This paper provides critical analysis of six most common encryption algorithms namely: DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, AES (Rijndael), and RC6. A comparative study has been carried out for the above six encryption algorithms in terms of encryption key size ,block size, Number of Rounds ,Encryption/decryption time ,CPU process time, CPU clock cycles (in the form of throughput), Power consumption. And these comparisons are used to conclude the best Symmetric Cryptography Encryption algorithm.

panchamukesh chandaka

2011-01-01

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Encryption Algorithm of RSH (Round Sheep Hash)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to the characteristics of hash function, the one-way hash encryption algorithm based on high diophantine equation (RSH) is proposed. RSH not only can be used for password encryption, but also can be used for Data integrity check and the digital signature of message digest. These algorithms...

Chaoqun Liu; Yang Zhou; Yunhua Xiao; Guang Sun

38

Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work proposes a novel scheme for separable reversible data hiding in encrypted images. In the first phase, a content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, a data-hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image using a data-hiding key ...

Zhang, Xinpeng

39

Selective Image Encryption Using DCT with Stream Cipher  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, selective image encryption using DCT with Stream Cipher is done. In the DCT method, the basic idea is to decompose the image into 8×8 blocks and these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to the frequency domain by the DCT. Then, the DCT coefficients correlated to the lower frequencies of the image block are encrypted using the RC4 Stream Cipher. The resulted encrypted blocks are shuffled using the Shuffling Algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach where only parts of the data are encrypted to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.

Sapna Sasidharan; Jithin R

2010-01-01

40

Improved Cryptanalysis of CMC Chaotic Image Encryption Scheme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, chaos has attracted much attention in the field of cryptography. To study the security with a known image of a symmetric image encryption scheme, the attack algorithm of equivalent key is given. We give the known image attacks under different other conditions to obtain the equivalent key. The concrete step and complexity of the attack algorithm is given. So the symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps is not secure.

Jiansheng Guo; Lei Zhang

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

A reversible data hiding method for encrypted images  

Science.gov (United States)

Since several years, the protection of multimedia data is becoming very important. The protection of this multimedia data can be done with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To decrease the transmission time, the data compression is necessary. Since few years, a new problem is trying to combine in a single step, compression, encryption and data hiding. So far, few solutions have been proposed to combine image encryption and compression for example. Nowadays, a new challenge consists to embed data in encrypted images. Since the entropy of encrypted image is maximal, the embedding step, considered like noise, is not possible by using standard data hiding algorithms. A new idea is to apply reversible data hiding algorithms on encrypted images by wishing to remove the embedded data before the image decryption. Recent reversible data hiding methods have been proposed with high capacity, but these methods are not applicable on encrypted images. In this paper we propose an analysis of the local standard deviation of the marked encrypted images in order to remove the embedded data during the decryption step. We have applied our method on various images, and we show and analyze the obtained results.

Puech, W.; Chaumont, M.; Strauss, O.

2008-03-01

42

Image Encryption Using Novel Mappings over GF(2^n)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galois Field GF(2^n) is valuable to encryption and has been used in some famous encryption algorithms, such as BCH and AES. In practical application, image encryptions are used widely to protect information in transmission. This paper will propose two image encryption techniques based on two novel mappings over GF(2^n): One involves a transformation consisting of a linear transformation and a Frobenius automorphism, which shuffles pixels’ positions, that is, a permutation, giving a good diffusion effect, and another one alters pixels’ values and gives dramatic confusion effect. Key Words: Galois field; Frobenius automorphism; Linear transformation; Confusion; Diffusion

Liebin YAN; Ruisong YE

2011-01-01

43

Image Encryption Using Novel Mappings over GF(2^n)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galois Field GF(2^n) is valuable to encryption and has been used in some famous encryption algorithms, such as BCH and AES. In practical application, image encryptions are used widely to protect information in transmission. This paper will propose two image encryption techniques based on two novel mappings over GF(2^n): One involves a transformation consisting of a linear transformation and a Frobenius automorphism, which shuffles pixels’ positions, that is, a permutation, giving a good diffusion effect, and another one alters pixels’ values and gives dramatic confusion effect. Key Words: Galois field; Frobenius automorphism; Linear transformation; Confusion; Diffusion

Liebin YAN; Ruisong YE

2010-01-01

44

Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes  

CERN Document Server

Image applications have been increasing in recent years.Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness,format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.

Shah, Jolly

2011-01-01

45

Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image applications have been increasing in recent years. Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness, format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.

Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena

2011-01-01

46

Studying the Effects of Most Common Encryption Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless networks play critical roles in present work, home, and public places, so the needs of protecting of suchnetworks are increased. Encryption algorithms play vital roles in information systems security. Those algorithms consume asignificant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. CPU and memory usability areincreasing with a suitable rates, but battery technology is increasing at slower rate. The problem of the slower increasingbattery technology forms “battery gap”. The design of efficient secure protocols for wireless devices from the view of batteryconsumption needs to understand how encryption techniques affect the consumption of battery power with and without datatransmission. This paper studies the effects of six of the most common symmetric encryption algorithms on power consumptionfor wireless devices. at different settings for each algorithm. These setting include different sizes of data blocks, different datatypes (text, images, and audio file), battery power consumption, different key size, different cases of transmission of the data ,effect of varying signal to noise ratio and finally encryption/decryption speed. The experimental results show the superiority oftwo encryption algorithm over other algorithms in terms of the power consumption, processing time, and throughput .Theseresults can aid in new design of security protocol where energy efficiency is the main focus. Some suggestions for design ofsecure communications systems to handle the varying wireless environment have been provided to reduce the energyconsumption of security protocols.

Diaa Salama; Hatem Abdual Kader; Mohiy Hadhoud

2011-01-01

47

Scalable coding of encrypted images.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a novel scheme of scalable coding for encrypted images. In the encryption phase, the original pixel values are masked by a modulo-256 addition with pseudorandom numbers that are derived from a secret key. After decomposing the encrypted data into a downsampled subimage and several data sets with a multiple-resolution construction, an encoder quantizes the subimage and the Hadamard coefficients of each data set to reduce the data amount. Then, the data of quantized subimage and coefficients are regarded as a set of bitstreams. At the receiver side, while a subimage is decrypted to provide the rough information of the original content, the quantized coefficients can be used to reconstruct the detailed content with an iteratively updating procedure. Because of the hierarchical coding mechanism, the principal original content with higher resolution can be reconstructed when more bitstreams are received. PMID:22345536

Zhang, Xinpeng; Feng, Guorui; Ren, Yanli; Qian, Zhenxing

2012-02-13

48

Scalable coding of encrypted images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper proposes a novel scheme of scalable coding for encrypted images. In the encryption phase, the original pixel values are masked by a modulo-256 addition with pseudorandom numbers that are derived from a secret key. After decomposing the encrypted data into a downsampled subimage and several data sets with a multiple-resolution construction, an encoder quantizes the subimage and the Hadamard coefficients of each data set to reduce the data amount. Then, the data of quantized subimage and coefficients are regarded as a set of bitstreams. At the receiver side, while a subimage is decrypted to provide the rough information of the original content, the quantized coefficients can be used to reconstruct the detailed content with an iteratively updating procedure. Because of the hierarchical coding mechanism, the principal original content with higher resolution can be reconstructed when more bitstreams are received.

Zhang X; Feng G; Ren Y; Qian Z

2012-06-01

49

Encryption Algorithm of RSH (Round Sheep Hash)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the characteristics of hash function, the one-way hash encryption algorithm based on high diophantine equation (RSH) is proposed. RSH not only can be used for password encryption, but also can be used for Data integrity check and the digital signature of message digest. These algorithms hash the arbitrary length message into 128 bits, then make the multi-iterations by high diophantine equation, finally produce the numeral string of 128 bits. In the conversion process, because we do not know the high indefinite equation iterative power law, so the resulting string of numbers is very reliable and safe.

Chaoqun Liu; Yang Zhou; Yunhua Xiao; Guang Sun

2011-01-01

50

A Framework for Encrypting the Huffman Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we describe possibilities of adding encryption to the compression features of Huffman algorithm. The encryption ciphers used are Polyalphabetic substitution cipher (public key) and Stream cipher (private key). The former encodes by representing two or more ciphertext in the substitution process. This made it very difficult for snifers to be able to decode with simple statistical analysis. The latter encodes the binary digit (bit) of each symbol by operating an XOR (exclusive-or) gate. Thus, a well-confused text document is achieved with a fast and low computational power. This new method proved more efficient and effective than ordinary Huffman algorithm.

O. Folorunso; H.O.D. Longe; A.C. Ikekwere; S.K. Sharma

2006-01-01

51

SECURING THE INFORMATION USING HYPER-CHAOS ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the fact that communication is taking place, by hiding information in other information. Many different carrier file formats can be used, but digital images are the most popular because of their frequency on the Internet. For hiding secret information in images, there exists a large variety of steganographic techniques some are more complex than others and all of them have respective strong and weak points. Different applications have different requirements of the steganography technique used. In this paper presents hiding the data behind the image then encrypt the image by using hyper-chaos encryption algorithm. In this algorithm, shuffling matrix and diffusing matrix are generated based on Chen’s hyper-chaotic system. Firstly, the Chen’s hyperchaotic system is used to shuffle the position of the image pixels, and then use Chen’s hyper-chaotic system to confuse the relationship between the original image and the cipher image.

S.Lakshmi

2012-01-01

52

Image Encryption based on the RGB PIXEL Transposition and Shuffling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Privacy is one of the key issues information Security addresses. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.

Quist Aphetsi Kester

2013-01-01

53

Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

2009-11-15

54

Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

Mazloom, Sahar [Faculty of Electrical, Computer and IT Engineering, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sahar.mazloom@gmail.com; Eftekhari-Moghadam, Amir Masud [Faculty of Electrical, Computer and IT Engineering, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: eftekhari@qazviniau.ac.ir

2009-11-15

55

Image Encryption Based on Diffusion and Multiple Chaotic Maps  

CERN Multimedia

In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative way to ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one of them has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the image encryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption technique using multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by using chaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformation leads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on the initial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps. Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key for the encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryption algorit...

Sathishkumar, G A; Sriraam, Dr N; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3214

2011-01-01

56

Lossy Image Compression and Data Embedded In Compressed Encrypted Image  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work is based on lossy image compression and data embedded in compressed encrypted image. In this, the original image is compressed by lossy compression method and encrypted using the encryption key. Data is hided into the compressed encrypted image using the data hiding key. If the receiver has encryption key then he can recover the image after decompression, if data hiding key he can extract the data, if both data hiding key and encryption key then he can extract the data and recover the original image after decryption and decompression.

Suguna; Logesh Kumar,; Lavanya

2013-01-01

57

Multiple-image encryption by compressive holography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present multiple-image encryption (MIE) based on compressive holography. In the encryption, a holographic technique is employed to record multiple images simultaneously to form a hologram. The two-dimensional Fourier data of the hologram are then compressed by nonuniform sampling, which gives rise to compressive encryption. Decryption of individual images is cast into a minimization problem. The minimization retains the sparsity of recovered images in the wavelet basis. Meanwhile, total variation regularization is used to preserve edges in the reconstruction. Experiments have been conducted using holograms acquired by optical scanning holography as an example. Computer simulations of multiple images are subsequently demonstrated to illustrate the feasibility of the MIE scheme.

Di H; Zheng K; Zhang X; Lam EY; Kim T; Kim YS; Poon TC; Zhou C

2012-03-01

58

International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) – A Typical Illustration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are several symmetric and asymmetric data encryption algorithms. IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is one of the strongest secret-key block ciphers. In this article, I try to represent the existing IDEA algorithm in a different way. In the following illustration, we would see how ...

Sandipan Basu

59

Efficient Image Encryption Using a Chaos-based PWL Memristor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An image encryption algorithm based on the chaotic system has been increasingly used, but the disadvantages of small key space, weak security in low dimensional chaotic cryptosystems, simple chaotic system, and inconvenient for hardware implementation, are obvious. This paper presents a new image en...

Lin Zhaohui; Wang Hongxia

60

A LOW COST IMPLEMENTATION OF MODIFIED ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD ALGORITHM USING 8085A MICROPROCESSOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high security communication systems became an urgent need in recent years for both governments and peoples desiring protection from signal interception. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a famous block encryption algorithm which has several advantages in data encryption. However, AES suffer from some drawbacks such as high computations, pattern appearance if apply for image encryption, and more hardware requirements. These problems are more complicated when the AES algorithm is used for multimedia encryption. New modification to AES-128 algorithm which reduce the computations and hardware requirements are proposed by enforcement Mixcolumn transformation in five rounds instead of nine rounds as in original AES-128. Second proposed is suggest new simple S-box used for encryption and decryption. The implementation of advanced encryption standard algorithm is important requirement where many researches proposed different items to this purpose. A simply item proposed in this paper to speedy, low cost implementation of Modified Advanced Encryption Standard (MAES) cryptographic algorithm is 8085A microprocessor. The results prove that the modifications of AES make implementation it by 8085A microprocessor more effective.

SALIM M. WADI; NASHARUDDIN ZAINAL

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

OCML-based colour image encryption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new ways to develop efficient image-encryption schemes. While most of these schemes are based on low-dimensional chaotic maps, it has been proposed recently to use high-dimensional chaos namely spatiotemporal chaos, which is modelled by one-way coupled-map lattices (OCML). Owing to their hyperchaotic behaviour, such systems are assumed to enhance the cryptosystem security. In this paper, we propose an OCML-based colour image encryption scheme with a stream cipher structure. We use a 192-bit-long external key to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of the OCML. We have made several tests to check the security of the proposed cryptosystem namely, statistical tests including histogram analysis, calculus of the correlation coefficients of adjacent pixels, security test against differential attack including calculus of the number of pixel change rate (NPCR) and unified average changing intensity (UACI), and entropy calculus. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well.

2009-04-15

62

OCML-based colour image encryption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new ways to develop efficient image-encryption schemes. While most of these schemes are based on low-dimensional chaotic maps, it has been proposed recently to use high-dimensional chaos namely spatiotemporal chaos, which is modelled by one-way coupled-map lattices (OCML). Owing to their hyperchaotic behaviour, such systems are assumed to enhance the cryptosystem security. In this paper, we propose an OCML-based colour image encryption scheme with a stream cipher structure. We use a 192-bit-long external key to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of the OCML. We have made several tests to check the security of the proposed cryptosystem namely, statistical tests including histogram analysis, calculus of the correlation coefficients of adjacent pixels, security test against differential attack including calculus of the number of pixel change rate (NPCR) and unified average changing intensity (UACI), and entropy calculus. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well.

Rhouma, Rhouma [6' tel, Ecole Superieure de Telecommunications (Sup' com), BP Numero 50, 6014 Mtorech, Gabes (Tunisia)], E-mail: rhoouma@yahoo.fr; Meherzi, Soumaya [6' tel, Ecole Superieure de Telecommunications (Sup' com), BP Numero 50, 6014 Mtorech, Gabes (Tunisia); LSS/SUPELEC/CNRS, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France)], E-mail: mehrzi@lss.supelec.fr; Belghith, Safya [6' tel, Ecole Superieure de Telecommunications (Sup' com), BP Numero 50, 6014 Mtorech, Gabes (Tunisia)], E-mail: safya.belghith@enit.rnu.tn

2009-04-15

63

Image Encryption Based On Diffusion And Multiple Chaotic Maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative wayto ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one ofthem has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the imageencryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption techniqueusing multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by usingchaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformationleads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on theinitial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps.Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key forthe encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryptionalgorithm. The input image of 2-D is transformed into a 1- D array by using two different scanningpattern (raster and Zigzag ) and then divided into various sub blocks. Then the position permutation andvalue permutation is applied to each binary matrix based on multiple chaos maps. Finally the receiveruses the same sub keys to decrypt the encrypted images. The salient features of the proposed imageencryption method are loss-less, good peak signal –to noise ratio (PSNR), Symmetric key encryption, lesscross correlation, very large number of secret keys, and key-dependent pixel value replacement.

G.A.Sathishkumar; K.Bhoopathy bagan; N.Sriraam

2011-01-01

64

Joint reversible data hiding and image encryption  

Science.gov (United States)

Image encryption process is jointed with reversible data hiding in this paper, where the data to be hided are modulated by different secret keys selected for encryption. To extract the hided data from the cipher-text, the different tentative decrypted results are tested against typical random distribution in both spatial and frequency domain and the goodnessof- fit degrees are compared to extract one hided bit. The encryption based data hiding process is inherently reversible. Experiments demonstrate the proposed scheme's effectiveness on natural and textural images, both in gray-level and binary forms.

Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph; Niu, Xiamu

2010-02-01

65

Image Encryption Using Discrete Fourier Transform and Fractional Fourier Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growing with the fast evolution of digital data exchange, security information becomes much important in data storage and transmission. Due to the increasing use of images in industrial process, it is essential to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. The security system based on the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is protected by only a certain order of FRFT. In this paper, we proposed a novel method to encrypt an image by using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT). In this paper, we analyze the image encryption using DFT and FRFT based on double random phase matrix. The implementation of both techniques has been realized for experimental purposes. Detailed results in terms of security analysis and implementation are given. Comparative study with traditional encryption algorithms is shown the superiority. The proposed encoding scheme significantly enhances the data security in comparatively than DFT and FRFT.

Ashutosh,; Deepak Sharma,

2013-01-01

66

A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM AND RC4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band) is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time is reduced by encrypting only the part of the image and maintains a high level of security by shuffling the rest of the image using the shuffling algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.

Sapna Sasidharan; Deepu Sleeba Philip

2011-01-01

67

Encryption Quality Analysis and Security Evaluation of CAST-128 Algorithm and its Modified Version using Digital Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.

Krishnamurthy G N; Dr. V Ramaswamy

2009-01-01

68

Comparative Study of Speech Encryption Algorithms Using Mobile Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Speech communication is most popular now days. Everyone wants secure communication that’s way use encrypts and decrypt data scheme. It is basically used for military and business purpose. People want high security level during their communication..The numbers of algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption. However in this paper the work is done on three different kinds of algorithms i.e. NTRU, RSA and RINJDAEL these three popular algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption approach. Basically NTRU and RSA algorithms are asymmetric in nature and RINJDAEL algorithm is symmetric in nature. In speech encryption, first the speech is converted into text then further the text is converted into cipher text. The cipher text is sent to be particular receiver in which transmitter want to communicate. At the receiver end, receiver receives the original data through decryption process. At the end the performance is analyzed of these three approaches respectively. The parameters calculated are Encryption, Decryption and Delay time, complexity, and packet lost, Security level. In this three approaches, Encryption, decryption and delay time, are varying according to the number of bits per seconds. On the Other hand, complexity and packet lost are approximately same. There is no packet lost during transmitting and receiving the data. After the analysis of these three algorithms, The NTRU algorithm is faster in encryption and decryption time than others algorithms. The security level are very high than other algorithms. The android platform are used for these three algorithm to find the results in which algorithm took less time for encrypt or decrypt the data and help to evaluate the performance in speech encryption algorithms.

Jaspreet kaur#1 , Er. Kanwal preet Singh

2013-01-01

69

An Improved Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on NiosII  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through the data storage of Rijndael encryption algorithm and the analysis of the characteristics of column mixing and wheel transformation, the author put forward some suggestions for the optimization of Rijndael. Meanwhile, the author design and realize the optimized Rijndael encryption through the SOPC (System on Program Chip). Based on the SOPC of Altera FPGA (Field Programmable Gata Array), the algorithm design is put forward and the center is the embedded soft core NiosII. It is also realized the encryption and decryption verification by using the ModelSim software. Compared with the traditional design, Rijndael encryption algorithm undergoes a great breakthrough. The author also evaluated the Rijndael encryption algorithm performance and logic resources occupation.

Tang Jun; Wang Liejun

2013-01-01

70

Performance Analysis of AES and MARS Encryption Algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Block ciphers are very important in communication systems as they provide confidentiality through encryption. The popular block ciphers are Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and MARS algorithms. Each cipher uses several rounds of fixed operations to achieve desired security level. The security lev...

H S Mohan; A Raji Reddy

71

Study on Digital Image Scrambling Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption algorithm of traditional cryptology has strong safety, but the effect of encrypting images is not good. Digital image scrambling means that a digital image is transformed into a chaotic image which has no evident significance, but the operator can reconstruct the chaotic image into the original image by using the specific algorithm. Image scrambling encryption technology based on chaos theory makes use of chaotic signal to encrypt image data flow, which has the advantages of high safety, rapid encryption speed, large key space and good scrambling effect. The paper studies invalid-key and quasi invalid-key existed in chaotic sequence which is generated by Logistic map, and proposes image scrambling encryption algorithm based on mixed and chaotic sequence. The algorithm has a good robustness for the JPEG compression with the fixed coefficient, and a good fragileness for the illegal manipulation.

Wu Xue

2013-01-01

72

Design and Implementation of Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on FPGA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development and wide application of computer and communication networks, theinformation security has aroused high attention. Information security is not only applied to the political,military and diplomatic fields, but also applied to the common fields of people’s daily lives. With thecontinuous development of cryptographic techniques, the long-serving DES algorithm with 56-bit key lengthhas been broken because of the defect of short keys. The "Rijndael encryption algorithm" invented byBelgian cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen's had been chosen as the standard AES(Advanced Encryption Standard) algorithm whose packet length is 128 bits and the key length is 128 bits, 192bits, or 256 bits. Since 2006, the Rijndael algorithm of advanced encryption standard has become one of themost popular algorithms in symmetric key encryption. AES can resist various currently known attacks.

K. Soumya; G. Shyam Kishore

2013-01-01

73

Image encryption using TSRMSC associated with DWT  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel technique for gray scale image encryption and decryption scheme using two stage random matrix shift cipher (TSRMSC) associated with discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is proposed. Earlier proposed schemes for encoding and decoding of images discuss only about the keys, but in our proposed approach, keys and the arrangement of random matrix shift cipher parameters are mandatory. We have formulated a formula for the all possible range to choose keys for encrypting and decrypting an image. An examples of computer simulation are give to analyze the capability of this proposed technique. The encrypted image is robust to decoding even on the application of exact keys if the correct arrangement is unknown to the decoder. We have also given comparison between our proposed approach with P. Kumar et al. (J. Opt. 14 (2012) 045401 (8pp)).

Kumar, Manish

2013-10-01

74

Interference-based multiple-image encryption with silhouette removal by position multiplexing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An approach for multiple-image encryption based on interference and position multiplexing is proposed. In the encryption process, multiple images are analytically hidden into three phase-only masks (POMs). The encryption algorithm for this method is quite simple and does not need iterative encoding. For decryption, both the digital method and optical method could be employed. Also, we analyze the multiplexing capacity through the correlation coefficient. In addition, the silhouette problem that exists in previous interference-based encryption methods with two POMs can be eliminated during the generation procedure of POMs based on the interference principle. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

Qin Y; Gong Q

2013-06-01

75

Optical image encryption with spatially incoherent illumination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple optical image encryption system with spatially incoherent illumination is proposed. Only one Fourier lens and one random phase plate are contained in this system. The original image is perturbed by a random phase-only mask located on the aperture plane. The encrypted information is the only intensity distribution that can be directly recorded by a CCD or CMOS. The decryption procedure can be performed digitally and the random phase distribution works as the decryption key. Numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

Zang J; Xie Z; Zhang Y

2013-04-01

76

Performance Analysis of AES and MARS Encryption Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Block ciphers are very important in communication systems as they provide confidentiality through encryption. The popular block ciphers are Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and MARS algorithms. Each cipher uses several rounds of fixed operations to achieve desired security level. The security level is measured in terms of diffusion and confusion. The diffusion level should be at least equal to strict avalanche criterion (SAC) value. Therefore, the number of rounds are chosen such that the algorithm provides the SAC value. This paper presents measured diffusion value of AES and MARS algorithms. Diffusion values are compared for both the algorithms: AES and MARS. Similarly, speed of each algorithm is compared.

H S Mohan; A Raji Reddy

2011-01-01

77

ROI Based Double Encryption Approach for Secure Transaction of Medical Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is on enabling, supporting process in the health care industry for implementing a secure, robust and privacy complaint system for the safe distribution and use of medical image. In this paper, a new method that combines image encryption and watermarking technique for safe transaction of medical image is proposed. This method is based on selecting the ROI in the image as the watermark. This portion is encrypted by linear feedback shift register based stream ciphering which is again encrypted by the key generated by Diffie Hellman Algorithm. The encrypted ROI is embedded into the medical image by Spread spectrum technique. The proposed approach proves to be highly secure as two keys are used for encryption and the secret message is spreaded throughout the Medical image.

VRATESH KUMAR KUSHWAHA; K. ANUSUDHA

2013-01-01

78

Color image encryption and decryption for twin images in fractional Fourier domain  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a method for the encryption of twin color images using fractional Fourier transform (FRT). The color images to be encrypted are converted into the indexed image formats before being processed through twin image encryption algorithm based on the FRT. The proposed algorithm uses one random code in the image domain and one random phase code in the FRT domain to perform double image encryption. The conversion of both the input RGB images into their indexed formats facilitates single-channel processing for each image, and is more compact and robust as compared to multichannel techniques. Different fractional orders, the random masks in image- and FRT domain are the keys to enhance the security of the proposed system. The algorithms to implement the proposed encryption and decryption schemes are discussed, and results of digital simulation are presented. We examine sensitivity of the proposed scheme against the use of unauthorized keys (e.g. incorrect fractional orders, incorrect random phase mask etc.). Robustness of the method against occlusion and noise has also been discussed.

Joshi, Madhusudan; Chandrashakher; Singh, Kehar

2008-12-01

79

A 24-Bit Encryption Algorithm for Linking Protection (Johnson Algorithm)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes an unclassified algorithm for the encryption anddecryption of 24-bit words which was specifically developed for use inscrambling the transmissions of the high-frequency radio automatic linkestablishment protocol specified in MIL-STD-188-141A/FED-STD-1045.IntroductionThe purpose of this report is to present an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting 24-bitquantities which may be used to provide some protection against low-level cryptographicthreats. It is not intended for use in conventional cryptographic applications (i.e., COMSEC).The application for which this algorithm was developed is the scrambling of 24-bitautomatic link establishment (ALE) words used by high-frequency (HF) radios adhering toMIL-STD-188-141A/FED-STD-1045 [1]. This scrambling is intended to provide "linkingprotection" by preventing radios which do not have the current key in use by a protected radiofrom linking with that radio.In terms of the ISO Open Systems Interconnection ref...

Eric E. Johnson

80

An improvement over an image encryption method based on total shuffling  

Science.gov (United States)

Confidentiality is an important issue in transmitting digital images over public networks such as the Internet. Image encryption is a useful solution to achieve confidentiality. Among existing encryption schemes, chaos-based approach has suggested fast, efficient and highly secure algorithms. Recently an efficient image encryption method based on chaos and permutation-diffusion architecture is suggested in [G. Zhang, Q. Liu, Opt. Commun. 284 (2011) 2775-2780]. However, the plain-text sensitivity, as reported by the authors, is not satisfying and it is recommended to iterate the algorithm more than twice to get a good ability to resist differential attack. The aim of this paper is to promote the plain-text sensitivity of their approach. As a result, the diffusion performance is significantly enhanced and the overall security of the image cryptosystem is improved. Results of various analyses and computer simulations confirm that the new algorithm has high security and is suitable for practical image encryption.

Eslami, Ziba; Bakhshandeh, Atieh

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

On the Design of Perceptual MPEG-Video Encryption Algorithms  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, some existing perceptual encryption algorithms of MPEG videos are surveyed, and a more effective design is proposed, which selectively encrypts fixed-length codewords (FLC) in MPEG-video bitstreams under the control of three perceptibility factors. Compared with the previously-proposed schemes, the new design can provide more useful features, such as strict size-preservation, on-the-fly encryption and multiple perceptibility, which makes it possible to support more applications with different requirements. Four different methods are suggested to provide better security against known/chosen-plaintext attacks.

Li, S; Cheung, A; Bhargava, B; Li, Shujun; Chen, Guanrong; Cheung, Albert; Bhargava, Bharat

2005-01-01

82

Adapted Encryption Algorithm with Multiple Skew Tent Map?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have some optional and efficient waysto develop secure encryption techniques. In this paper, we proposed a modified approach for encryptionbased on chaotic skew tent maps in order to meet the requirements of the secure transfer. In the projectedencryption scheme, an external secret key of 128-bit and two chaotic skew tent maps are employed. Theinitial conditions for the both skew tent maps are derived using the external secret key. The results of severalexperimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed encryption scheme providesan efficient and secure way for encryption and transmission.

Sarika Tyagi; Deepak chaudhary

2013-01-01

83

AN IMAGE ENCRYPTION METHOD: SD-ADVANCED IMAGE ENCRYPTION STANDARD: SD-AIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The security of digital information in modern times is one of the most important factors to keep in mind. For this reason, in this paper, the author has proposed a new standard method of image encryption. The proposed method consists of 4 different stages: 1) First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2) In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3) In third stage, generalized modified Vernam Cipher with feedback mechanism is used on the file to create the next level of encryption; 4) Finally in fourth stage, the whole image file is randomized multiple number of times using modified MSA randomization encryption technique and the randomization is dependent on another number, which is generated from the password provided for encryption method. SD-AIES is an upgraded version of SD-AEI Image Encryption Technique. The proposed method, SD-AIES is tested on different image files and the results were far more than satisfactory.

Somdip Dey

2012-01-01

84

Multiple-image encryption based on phase mask multiplexing in fractional Fourier transform domain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed based on the phase retrieval process and phase mask multiplexing in the fractional Fourier transform domain. First, each original gray-scale image is encoded into a phase only function by using the proposed phase retrieval process. Second, all the obtained phase functions are modulated into an interim, which is encrypted into the final ciphertext by using the fractional Fourier transform. From a plaintext image, a group of phase masks is generated in the encryption process. The corresponding decrypted image can be recovered from the ciphertext only with the correct phase mask group in the decryption process. Simulation results show that the proposed phase retrieval process has high convergence speed, and the encryption algorithm can avoid cross-talk; in addition, its encrypted capacity is considerably enhanced.

Liansheng S; Meiting X; Ailing T

2013-06-01

85

Enhanced Fast and Secure Hybrid Encryption Algorithm for Message Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem of information which is transmitted in Internet. The encryption standards such as DES (Data Encryption Standard), AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) are widely used to solve the problem of communication over an insecure channel. With advanced technologies in computer hardware and software, these standards seem not to be as secure and fast as one would like. In this paper we propose a hybrid encryption technique which provides security to both the message and the secret key. The Symmetric algorithm used has two advantages over traditional schemes. First, the encryption and decryption procedures are much simpler, and consequently, much faster. Second, the security level is higher due to the inherent poly-alphabetic nature of the substitution mapping method used here, together with the translation and transposition operations performed in the algorithm. Asymmetric algorithm RSA is worldwide known for its high security. In this paper a detailed report of the process is presented and analysis is done comparing our proposed technique with familiar techniques.

Shaik Rasool; Md Ateeq ur Rahman; G. Sridhar; K. Hemanth Kunar

2011-01-01

86

Securing Image Transmission Using in- Compression Encryption Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia is one of the most popular data shared in the Web, and the protection of it via encryption techniques is of vast interest. In this paper, a secure and computationally feasible Algorithm called Optimized Multiple Huffman Tables (OMHT) technique is proposed. OMHT depends on using statisticalmodelbased compression method to generate different tables from the same data type of images or videos to be encrypted leading to increase compression efficiency and security of the used tables. A systematic study on how to strategically integrate different atomic operations to build a multimedia encryption system is presented. The resulting system can provide superior performance over other techniques by both its generic encryption and its simple adaptation to multimedia in terms of a joint consideration of security, and bitrate overhead. The effectiveness and robustness of this scheme is verified by measuring its security strength and comparing its computational cost against other techniques. The proposed technique guarantees security, and fastness without noticeable increase in encoded image size

Shaimaa A. El-said; Khalid F. A. Hussein; Mohamed M. Fouad

2010-01-01

87

A cryptographic Image Encryption technique based on the RGB PIXEL shuffling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Confidentiality is one of the ultimate goals in information security. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. Rigorous use of advanced mathematical algorithms has played a major role in the success of modern day cryptography. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a new cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.

Quist-Aphetsi Kester, MIEEE

2013-01-01

88

LOW POWER ENCRYPTED MIPS PROCESSOR BASED ON AES ALGORITHM  

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Full Text Available The paper describes the Low power 32-bit encrypted MIPS processor based on AES algorithm and MIPS pipeline architecture. The pipeline stages of MIPS processor are arranged in such a way that pipeline can be clocked at high frequency and clock gating technique is used for reducing power consumption. Encryption blocks of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptosystem and dependency among pipeline stages are explained in detail with the help of block diagram. In order to reduce the power consumption, especially for portable devices and security application switching activity is used inside pipeline stages. The design has been synthesized at 40nm process technology targeting using Xilinx Virtex-6 device. The encrypted MIPS pipeline processor can work at 210MHz and power consumption is 1.313W.

Kirat Pal Singh; Shivani Parmar

2012-01-01

89

Design of FPGA Based Encryption Algorithm using KECCAK Hashing Functions  

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Full Text Available Security makes the people to stay in the sense of vital modern technological improvements, especially focused in Cryptography process. We have to consider the high level of security, the speed of encryption and the level of hardware which decides the cost in trade basis. The work in this paper concentrates on KECCAK SHA-3 algorithm and the sponge construction encryption process with iterative permutation. Thus it leads to reduced amount of encryption time and more importantly provides the ultimate security level among the previous techniques followed so far. The algorithm uses the hashing function which is used for secured message authentication of data, digital signatures and password protection. The main advantage of this algorithm is it exhibits high level of parallelism. The hardware implementation process on FPGA is very fast and effective

Deepthi Barbara Nickolas#1, Mr. A. Sivasankar

2013-01-01

90

Secrecy and Performance Analysis of Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithms  

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Full Text Available There can be two vital criteria of selecting an algorithm to fulfil one’s encryption requirement. The security level of the cipher (secrecy) and the encryption time (performance). There is less focus on secrecy of ciphers as a security measurement, thus in this research, Shannon’s theories on secrecy of ciphers are used in-order to calculate the average secrecy of each cipher. Depending on the secrecy level and performance of the algorithm, suitable algorithm for encryption can be selected. This paper presents an analysis of some of the widely used symmetric key algorithms which fall under the categories of block and stream ciphers together with the two combined algorithms. [DES, TripleDES, AES, RC2, RC4, Hybrid1 (TripleDES+RC4) and Hybrid2 (AES+RC4) are used]. Analysis is done based on two measurement criteria under two circumstances which is described later in this paper. All the algorithms are implemented in Java using classes available in JAVA package javax.crypto. Separate classes are written to calculate the secrecy of ciphers and the encryption time.   Performances of all stream ciphers are higher than that of block ciphers and the combined algorithms have similar performance level to block ciphers. Secrecy level of block ciphers are comparatively higher than that of stream ciphers but there are drastic changes as the data size increases. Hybrid ones have more stable secrecy level.

Tharindu Darshana Bandara Weerasinghe

2012-01-01

91

Steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents a steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding (DRPE) techniques. Conventional optical image encryption systems can securely transmit valuable images using an encryption method for possible application in optical transmission systems. The steganographic optical image encryption system based on the DRPE technique has been investigated to hide secret data in encrypted images. However, the DRPE techniques vulnerable to attacks and many of the data hiding methods in the DRPE system can distort the decrypted images. The proposed system, based on reversible data hiding, uses a JBIG2 compression scheme to achieve lossless decrypted image quality and perform a prior encryption process. Thus, the DRPE technique enables a more secured optical encryption process. The proposed method extracts and compresses the bit planes of the original image using the lossless JBIG2 technique. The secret data are embedded in the remaining storage space. The RSA algorithm can cipher the compressed binary bits and secret data for advanced security. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves a high data embedding capacity and lossless reconstruction of the original images.

Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin

2013-02-01

92

Analization and Comparison of Selective Encryption Algorithms with Full Encryption for Wireless Networks  

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Full Text Available Cryptography has been widely accepted as a traditional platform of data protection for decades.The most significant and efficient cryptosystems these days are the Symmetric key algorithms for cryptography. Hence, they have a very wide range of applications in many realms. Ad-hoc networks are the most commonly used type in the present scenario because of their non-fixed infrastructure. Providing security to such kinds of network is the main objective of the work here. In this project, we present a systematic approach for selective encryption of data. In the present day scenario where all the wireless ad-hoc network nodes run or work on battery, Full encryption of all the data may lead to a high overhead and also waste the computational power or the resources. Hence, two selective encryption algorithms are introduced and a secure method for communication between the user and the entrusted is also being carried out. Eventually, we carry out an extensive set of experiments using Core Java and Java cryptosystems. A very attractive GUI is being designed to make it more user friendly. This can be used whenever people work remotely and connect to their host server through VPN. We first create an ad-hoc network and communicate between the nodes of the network using basic server client methodology. Two selective encryption algorithms were developed and more than 50 percent encryption of the data was maintained in both the algorithms. However, the security aspect can be changed depending on the kind of the data which is being communicated.

Pavithra. C#1 , Vinod. B. Durdi

2013-01-01

93

Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image and Separating the Image and Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since many years, the protection of multimedia system knowledge is changing into vital. The protection of this multimedia system knowledge is often finished coding or knowledge concealment algorithms. To decrease the UTC, the information compression is critical. Since few years, a replacement drawback is making an attempt to mix in a very single step, compression, and coding and knowledge concealment. So far, few solutions are planned to mix image coding and compression for instance. Nowadays, a replacement challenge consists to plant knowledge in encrypted pictures. Since the entropy of encrypted image is supreme, the embedding step, thought of like noise, isn't doable by victimization customary knowledge concealment algorithms. A replacement plan is to use reversible knowledge hiding algorithms on encrypted pictures by wish to get rid of the embedded knowledge before the image decoding. Recent reversible knowledge concealment ways are planned with high capability, however these ways aren't applicable on encrypted pictures. During this paper we tend to propose associate analysis of the native variance of the marked encrypted pictures so as to get rid of the embedded knowledge throughout the decoding step. We’ve got applied our methodology on varied pictures, and that we show and analyze the obtained results.

Naresh Achari B., Sri. Swami Naik J

2013-01-01

94

Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...

Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105

2011-01-01

95

An Enhanced Text to Image Encryption Technique using RGB Substitution and AES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In network security applications, before transmitting data to a remote machine it is encrypted at the sender side using any standard encryption algorithm. Most of the encryption algorithms make use of secret key without which it becomes very difficult to retrieve the actual data In this paper we propose a method which at first transforms the text into an image using an RGB substitution, and then encrypts the resulting image using AES Algorithm, under this approach, the secret key is smartly sent along with the cipher text in a single transmission, thus it also solves the key exchange problem that generally arises in most of the encryption models. The encryption and decryption process make the use of a combination database for text to image transformation. This paper is divided into following four sections; in section- I, we presented basic introduction of Network Security, in section-II, a survey on related algorithms has been presented, section-III discusses the proposed model and section IV concludes the paper.

Sourabh Singh1 , Anurag Jain

2013-01-01

96

MESSAGE ENCRYPTION USING NTRU ALGORITHM ON ANDROID  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS) is getting more popular now-a-days. SMS was first used in December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry Christmas" via the Vodafone GSM network to the phone of Richard Jarvis in the UK. It will play a very important role in the future business areas of mobile commerce (M-Commerce). Presently many business organizations use SMS for their business purposes. SMS’s security has become a major concern for business organizations and customers. There is a need for an end to end SMS Encryption in order to provide a secure medium for communication. Security is main concern for any business company such as banks who will provide these mobile banking services. Till now there is no such scheme that provides complete SMSs security. The transmission of an SMS in GSM network is not secure at all. Therefore it is desirable to secure SMS for business purposes by additional encryption. In this thesis, we have analyzed different cryptosystems for implementing to the existing Secure Extensible and Efficient SMS (SEESMS). We planned to implement NTRU cryptosystem into existing SEESMS frame. The NTRU public key cryptosystem was developed in 1996 at Brown University by three mathematicians J. Hoffstein, J.Pipher and J.H. Silverman. It is not that much popular cryptosystems like RSA, ECC and other traditional. The major advantages of NTRU cryptosystem is much faster generating key, encryption time and decryption time as compared to others. It is easily compatible with mobile devices and other portable devices. We have compared theoretically and analysis of NTRU with RSA and ECC cryptosystems at end of my papers. It is theoretically proposed here. We are expecting our novel scheme may show better result than others. So it will provide improve the current security level and fastest speed with respect to key generation, encryption decryption with small key size. This proposal will suitable to any kind of mobile device for SMS communication with suitable data security.

Amanpreet Kaur

2013-01-01

97

A joint encryption/watermarking system for verifying the reliability of medical images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we propose a joint encryption/water-marking system for the purpose of protecting medical images. This system is based on an approach which combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation, with an encryption algorithm: a stream cipher algorithm (e.g., the RC4) or a block cipher algorithm (e.g., the AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode of operation). Our objective is to give access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origin even though the image is stored encrypted. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. The security analysis of our scheme and experimental results achieved on 8-bit depth ultrasound images as well as on 16-bit encoded positron emission tomography images demonstrate the capability of our system to securely make available security attributes in both spatial and encrypted domains while minimizing image distortion. Furthermore, by making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed system is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard.

Bouslimi D; Coatrieux G; Cozic M; Roux C

2012-09-01

98

A joint encryption/watermarking system for verifying the reliability of medical images.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a joint encryption/water-marking system for the purpose of protecting medical images. This system is based on an approach which combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation, with an encryption algorithm: a stream cipher algorithm (e.g., the RC4) or a block cipher algorithm (e.g., the AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode of operation). Our objective is to give access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origin even though the image is stored encrypted. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. The security analysis of our scheme and experimental results achieved on 8-bit depth ultrasound images as well as on 16-bit encoded positron emission tomography images demonstrate the capability of our system to securely make available security attributes in both spatial and encrypted domains while minimizing image distortion. Furthermore, by making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed system is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22801525

Bouslimi, Dalel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cozic, Michel; Roux, Christian

2012-07-10

99

Reducing Computational Time of Basic Encryption and Authentication Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today most of data are sending via the internet for sharing, so the trust of data files is decreased. For the trust more security and authentication is needed, less security increase the liability ofattacks on data. Digital signature of the data is a solution to this security problem which provides the reliability, authenticity and accuracy. Most basic algorithm for security and authentication is RSA, DSA, algorithms which uses the different key of different sizes. This work presents ECDSA algorithm to encrypt the data, use parameterized hash algorithm to authenticate the data and also compare both RSA and ECDSA methods in respect of time parameters.

Sandeep Kumar,; Gautam Kumar,; Navjot Singh

2011-01-01

100

High Throughput AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation on FPGA  

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Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient hardware realization of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm using FPGA. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard on October 2, 2000 by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels.We use AES 128- bit block size and 128-bit cipher key for the implementation on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. Xilinx ISETM12.4 design tool is used for synthesis of the design.The design is coded using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language(VHDL). In our fully pipelined design, the operational frequency can be upto 347.6MHz and the throughput can be upto 44.5Gbits/s. The proposed fully pipelined AES realization achieves high throughput requirements and can be used for cryptology applications such as data security

Gurmail Singh; Rajesh Mehra

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation  

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Full Text Available Measurement of image quality is important for many image processing applications. Image quality assessment is closely related to image similarity assessment in which quality is based on the differences (or similarity) between a degraded image and the original, unmodified image. There are two ways to measure image quality by subjective or objective assessment. Subjective evaluations are expensive and time-consuming. It is impossible to implement them into automatic real-time systems. Objective evaluations are automatic and mathematical defined algorithm. Subjective measurements can be used to validate the usefulness of objective measurements. Therefore objective methods have attracted more attentions in recent years. Well-known objective evaluation algorithms for measuring image quality include mean squared error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural similarity (SSIM). MSE & PSNR are very simple and easy to use. In this paper Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation. Proposed Partial Encryption algorithm based on the amount of encryption needed (i.e. percentage of encryption). Various objective evaluation algorithms for measuring image quality like Mean Squared Error (MSE), Peak Signal-To-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity (SSIM) etc. will be studied and their results will be compared.

Parameshachai B D,; Dr. K. M. Sunjiv Soyjaudah,; Dr. Sumitra Devi K A,

2013-01-01

102

Shannon Entropy based Randomness Measurement and Test for Image Encryption  

CERN Document Server

The quality of image encryption is commonly measured by the Shannon entropy over the ciphertext image. However, this measurement does not consider to the randomness of local image blocks and is inappropriate for scrambling based image encryption methods. In this paper, a new information entropy-based randomness measurement for image encryption is introduced which, for the first time, answers the question of whether a given ciphertext image is sufficiently random-like. It measures the randomness over the ciphertext in a fairer way by calculating the averaged entropy of a series of small image blocks within the entire test image. In order to fulfill both quantitative and qualitative measurement, the expectation and the variance of this averaged block entropy for a true-random image are strictly derived and corresponding numerical reference tables are also provided. Moreover, a hypothesis test at significance?-level is given to help accept or reject the hypothesis that the test image is ideally encrypted/random-...

Wu, Yue; Agaian, Sos

2011-01-01

103

SMOOTHING AND OPTIMAL COMPRESSION OF ENCRYPTED GRAY SCALE IMAGES  

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Full Text Available Compression efficiency of encrypted real-world sources such as images can be improved by exploiting source dependency. Lossless compression of encrypted images can be achieved through SlepianWolf coding. In this correspondence, we propose a resolution progressive compression scheme which compresses an encrypted image progressively in resolution, such that the decoder can observe a lowresolution version of the image, study local statistics based on it, and use the statistics to decode the next resolution level. Good performance is observed both theoretically and experimentally. We deploy smoothing for images at the receiver to mitigate noise.

P.S.Kishore

2012-01-01

104

Optical stream-cipher-like system for image encryption based on Michelson interferometer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel optical image encryption scheme based on interference is proposed. The original image is digitally encoded into one phase-only mask by employing an improved Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm together with another predefined random phase mask which serves as the encryption key. The decryption process can be implemented optically based on Michelson interferometer by using the same key. The scheme can be regarded as a stream-cipher-like encryption system, the encryption and decryption keys are the same, however the operations are different. The position coordinates and light wavelength can also be used as additional keys during the decryption. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the validity and robustness of the proposed method.

Yang B; Liu Z; Wang B; Zhang Y; Liu S

2011-01-01

105

Three Tier Encryption Algorithm For Secure File Transfer  

CERN Multimedia

This encryption algorithm is mainly designed for having a secure file transfer in the low privilege servers and as well as in a secured environment too. This methodology will be implemented in the data center and other important data transaction sectors of the organisation where the encoding process of the software will be done by the database administrator or system administrators and his trusted clients will have decoding process of the software. This software will not be circulated to the unauthorised customers.

Balakrishnan, Bhargav

2011-01-01

106

Triple-DES block of 96 Bits: An application to colour image encryption  

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Full Text Available According to international standards, FIPS PUB 146-3, the cryptographic system Triple-Data Encryption Standard (Triple DES) encrypts blocks of 64 bits. However, it isn’t difficult to extend the block to 96-bit encryption, which is called Triple-DES-96. This change includes a modification to Triple-DES cryptosystems that appeared recently as the Advanced Encryption Standard - AES - FIPS PUB 197. Including encryption, file M (with m bits) is achieved in less time than Triple-DES. Developing Triple DES-96, intends to apply the Factorial Theorem that for this particular case tells us that any permutation on an array of 96 positions can be constructed from 3 permutations on arrays of 64 positions. According to Theorem JV, a given number n with 0 ? n ? 64! - 1 ? 1089, can associate a permutation of 64 positions in 63 steps. This allows applying a variable permutation on an array of 96 positions at the start of the third round, using 3 numbers with 0 ? n_i ? 1089 and for i = 1, 2, 3, instead of using numbers 0 ? n ? 96 ! - 1 ? 10150 for permutations on arrays of 96 positions directly. The algorithm illustrates Triple-DES-96 encryption images in colour, which is carried out without loss of information, that is, does not apply JPEG formats. There is a criterion of how many permutations have to be applied; also a randomness measure of the encrypted image for ?2 value is used.

V. M. Silva-Garcia; R. Flores-Carapia; C. Renteria-Marquez

2013-01-01

107

Fractional Fourier transform based image multiplexing and encryption technique for four-color images using input images as keys  

Science.gov (United States)

A digital technique for multiplexing and encryption of four RGB images has been proposed using the fractional Fourier transform (FRT). The four input RGB images are first converted into their indexed image formats and subsequently multiplexed into a single image through elementary mathematical steps prior to the encryption. The encryption algorithm uses two random phase masks in the input- and the FRT domain, respectively. These random phase masks are especially designed using the input images. As the encryption is carried out through a single channel, the technique is more compact and faster as compared to the multichannel techniques. Different fractional orders, the random masks in input-, and FRT domain are the keys for decryption as well as de-multiplexing. The algorithms to implement the proposed multiplexing-, and encryption scheme are discussed, and results of digital simulation are presented. Simulation results show that the technique is free from cross-talk. The performance of the proposed technique has also been analyzed against occlusion, noise, and attacks using partial windows of the correct random phase keys. The robustness of the technique against known-, and chosen plain-text attacks has also been explained.

Joshi, Madhusudan; Shakher, Chandra; Singh, Kehar

2010-06-01

108

A Chaotic Encryption Algorithm Based on Skew Tent Map  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development and extensive applications of computer technology, network technology, communication technology, and Internet in particular, the security of network information is becoming increasingly key problems that must be solved urgently. The applying chaos theory to secure communication and information encryption has already become one of the hot research projects on the combination of nonlinear science and information science, and it is a novel branch of high-tech research fields. In this paper, a chaotic encryption algorithm based on skew tent map is proposed. In the process of encryption, its update look-up table depends on plaintext and external key, the 8-bit subkey is dynamically generated with skew tent map and depends on updating look-up table, the key is initial condition X0 of skew tent map, control parameter p and a external key K. Theoretical analysis and simulated experiments show that the algorithm can resist the statistic and differential attacks, and the algorithm has high security.

ZHU Kai; YANG De-gang; Chen Shou-gang

2009-01-01

109

A pipelined FPGA implementation of an encryption algorithm based on genetic algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

With the evolution of digital data storage and exchange, it is essential to protect the confidential information from every unauthorized access. High performance encryption algorithms were developed and implemented by software and hardware. Also many methods to attack the cipher text were developed. In the last years, the genetic algorithm has gained much interest in cryptanalysis of cipher texts and also in encryption ciphers. This paper analyses the possibility to use the genetic algorithm as a multiple key sequence generator for an AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) cryptographic system, and also to use a three stages pipeline (with four main blocks: Input data, AES Core, Key generator, Output data) to provide a fast encryption and storage/transmission of a large amount of data.

Thirer, Nonel

2013-05-01

110

Plaintext Related Image Encryption Scheme Using Chaotic Map  

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Full Text Available A plaintext related image blocking encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper, which includes two kinds of operations on inner-block confusion and inter-block diffusion. Firstly, a float-point lookup table need to be generated by iterating chaotic system; Secondly, choose one of the entries in the look-up table as initial value of chaotic system, and iterate it to produce one secret code sequence for inner-block confusion; Thirdly, by using one pixel value of the former block to locate another entry in the look-up table, iterate it to yield another secret code sequence for inter-block diffusion; Finally, through two rounds of the block-by-block processes, the plain-image will be transformed into the cipher-image. The simulation results show that the proposed method has many good characters.

Yong Zhang

2013-01-01

111

Image encryption based on the multiple-order discrete fractional cosine transform  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel scheme for image encryption based-on the multiple-order discrete fractional cosine transform (MODFrCT) is proposed. The DFrCT has a similar relationship with the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT). Not only has the DFrCT many useful properties similar to the conventional discrete cosine transform, but it also has another property, namely its fraction, or its transform order. The image to be encrypted is transformed with the multiple-order DFrCT using a random row cipher key vector and a random column key vector successively, and the corresponding cipher key vectors of decryption are also very sensitive. The transmission of the encrypted image with the algorithm of the multiple-order DFrCT is faster due to its reality. The digital simulation results proved the validity and safety of this algorithm.

Wu, Jianhua; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Nanrun

2010-05-01

112

A Technique for Image Encryption with Combination of Pixel Rearrangement Scheme Based On Sorting Group-Wise Of RGB Values and Explosive Inter-Pixel Displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is used to prevent data from unauthorized access and with the appalling headway in network technology seen in the past decade; it has become the need of time to encrypt the images before sending over open network. Though researchers has proposed contrastive methods to encrypt images but correlation between pixels RGB value play a imperative part to guess for original image. So, here we introduce a new image encryption method which first rearranges the pixels within image on basis of RGB values and then forward intervening image for encryption. Experimentally it has shown that pixel rearrangement is enough from image encryption point of view but to send image over open network; inter-pixel displacement algorithm is applied to dispense more armament to image before transmission.

Amnesh Goel; Nidhi Chandra

2012-01-01

113

Color Image Encryption Based on Secret Sharing and Iterations  

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Full Text Available This study proposes a novel simple scheme for color image encryption. The RGB color components of the input image are permuted and transformed into the YCbCr color space. Then three simultaneous equations are constructed for secret sharing of the luminance and two chrominance components. After several iterations, the output of this equation set is the encrypted content. These encrypted channels are recomposed to the encrypted image. In image decryption, we merely need to solve the simultaneous equation set based on Largrange’s interpolation with several inverse iterations. The decrypted image is of very high quality for only slight degradation is introduced due to the color space mapping. Security of our scheme is well preserved as long as the permutation key kept secret. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Hao Luo; Fa-Xin Yu; Hui Li; Zheng-Liang Huang

2010-01-01

114

A Modified Image using DES Algorithm – A Review  

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Full Text Available Image encryption is distinct from text encryption. Normal text encryption algorithms are not work efficiently onmultimedia objects. To increase security of multimedia data we propose a novel technique. In this paper, we propose anovel scheme to encrypt image object to protect it from external attacks in transmission. This method is based on DataEncryption Algorithm and can be used in data parallel fashion to reduce the time required time to encrypt and decryptimage so that we can attain the purpose of high speed. The method is implemented by block cipher method. Key generationis done using amplitude modulation technique and provides more security against attacks. Pixels of image are rearrangedand algorithm is applied on the basis of channels. Basics are very much similar to DES algorithm with some new schemesrelated to image processing. Significant increment in security is expected to be achieved in the proposed method.

Kushal S. Patel

2013-01-01

115

Message Based Random Variable Length Key Encryption Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: A block ciphers provides confidentiality in cryptography but cryptanalysis of the classical block ciphers demonstrated some old weaknesses grabbing a partial key in any stage of encryption procedure leads to reconstructing the whole key. Exhaustive key search shows that key generation should be indeterminist and random for each round. Matching cipher-text attack shows that larger size of block is more secure. In order to overcome analysis mentioned above a new algorithm is designed that is based on random numbers and also can defeat time and memory constraints. Approach: Dynamic and message dependent key generator was created by producing a random number and it was selected as the size of first chunk. Residual value of second chunk divided by first chunk concatenating with first chunk forms the first cipher as an input for SP-boxes. These processes repeated until whole mesaage get involved into the last cipher. Encrypted messages are not equal under different run. Value of random number should be greater than 35 bits and plaintext must be at least 7 bits. A padding algorithm was used for small size messages or big random numbers. Results: Attack on the key generation process was prevented because of random key generation and its dependency to input message. Encryption and decryption times measured between 5 and 27 m sec in 2 GHz Pentium and java platform so time variant and fast enough key generation had been kept collision and timing attacks away due to small seized storage. Long and variable key length made key exhaustive search and differential attack impossible. None fixed size key caused avoidance of replaying and other attacks that can happen on fixed sized key algorithms. Conclusion: Random process employed in this block cipher increased confidentiality of the message and dynamic length substitution in proposed algorithm may lead to maximum cryptographic confusion and consequently makes it difficult for cryptanalysis.

Hamid Mirvaziri; Kasmiran J.M. Ismail; Zurina M. Hanapi

2009-01-01

116

Programmable Cellular Automata Based Efficient Parallel AES Encryption Algorithm  

CERN Document Server

Cellular Automata(CA) is a discrete computing model which provides simple, flexible and efficient platform for simulating complicated systems and performing complex computation based on the neighborhoods information. CA consists of two components 1) a set of cells and 2) a set of rules . Programmable Cellular Automata(PCA) employs some control signals on a Cellular Automata(CA) structure. Programmable Cellular Automata were successfully applied for simulation of biological systems, physical systems and recently to design parallel and distributed algorithms for solving task density and synchronization problems. In this paper PCA is applied to develop cryptography algorithms. This paper deals with the cryptography for a parallel AES encryption algorithm based on programmable cellular automata. This proposed algorithm based on symmetric key systems.

Das, Debasis

2011-01-01

117

Programmable Cellular Automata Based Efficient Parallel AES Encryption Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cellular Automata(CA) is a discrete computing model which provides simple, flexible and efficient platform for simulating complicated systems and performing complex computation based on the neighborhoods information. CA consists of two components 1) a set of cells and 2) a set of rules . Programmable Cellular Automata(PCA) employs some control signals on a Cellular Automata(CA) structure. Programmable Cellular Automata were successfully applied for simulation of biological systems, physical systems and recently to design parallel and distributed algorithms for solving task density and synchronization problems. In this paper PCA is applied to develop cryptography algorithms.This paper deals with the cryptography for a parallel AES encryption algorithm based on programmable cellular automata. This proposed algorithm based on symmetric key systems.

Debasis Das; Rajiv Misra

2011-01-01

118

A Novel Technique for Copyright Protection of Images Using Hybrid Encryption Model  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we present a robust and novel strategic invisible watermarking scheme which can be used in the field of copyright protection. The novelty of our algorithm lies in the creation of a compound watermark image using the target image and the key image, where both of them are self encrypted. The self encryption concept adds an extra level of data security along with the security supported by the watermarking technique. Again, our method results a single invisible watermarked image which will be sent to the recipient and from that image, both the key and the target image can be extracted with no distortion using only the proposed extraction algorithm. Results of exhaustive experimentation using standard input color images demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our approach.

Swarnendu Mukherjee; Debashis Gangulyb; Partha Mukherjee; Prasenjit Mitra

2012-01-01

119

VIRTEX-5 Fpga Implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present an implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm using state-of-the-art Virtex-5 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The design is coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL). Timing simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the designed circuit. Performance evaluation is also done in terms of throughput and area. The design implemented on Virtex-5 (XC5VLX50FFG676-3) FPGA achieves a maximum throughput of 4.34 Gbps utilizing a total of 399 slices.

Rais, Muhammad H.; Qasim, Syed M.

2010-06-01

120

A Digital Watermarking for Lifting Based Compression And Encryption of JPEG 2000 Images  

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Full Text Available In the digital world the digital media is currently evolving at such rapidly;copyright protection is become increasingly important.Now a days these media is available with various image formats,due to which they are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality.A wide range of digital media is often distributed by multiple levels of distributors in a compressed and encrypted format.It is sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encrypted media items in the compressed encrypted domain itself for tamper detection or ownership declaration or copyright management purposes.The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data inorder to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.This paper deals with the watermarking of compressed and encrypted JPEG 2000 images.The compression is achieved on JPEG 2000 images by lifting based architecture.The encryption algorithm used is stream cipher.The identification of watermark can be done in the decrypted domain.The watermarking technique used is spread spectrum.This can be implemented through matlab.

Ansu Anna Ponnachen1 , Lidiya Xavier

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

SECURE NETWORK COMMUNICATION BASED ON TEXT-TO-IMAGE ENCRYPTION  

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Full Text Available Security becomes an important issue when secure or sensitive information is sent over a network where all computers are connected together. In such a network a computer is recognized by its IP address. Unfortunately, an IP address is attacked by hackers; this is where one host claims to have the IP address of another host and thus sends packets to a certain machine causing it to take some sort of action. In order to overcome this problem cryptography is used. In cryptographic application, the data sent are encrypted first at the source machine using an encryption key then the encrypted data are sent to the destination machine. This way the attacker will not have the encryption key which is required to get the original data and thus the hacker is unable to do anything with the session. In this paper, we propose a novel method for data encryption. Our method is based on private key encryption. We call our method Text-To-Image Encryption (TTIE).

Ahmad Abusukhon; Mohamad Talib; Issa Ottoum

2012-01-01

122

An Assessment on Irrevocable Compression of Encrypted Grayscale Image  

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Full Text Available This paper may deals with the miscellaneous troubles that may be occurs during the irrevocable compression applied on an encrypted grayscale image. This work is a comparative learn with diverse methods of irrevocable compression such as Compressive sensing technique and Iterative reconstruction technique on encrypted grayscale image. But they practiced a multiplicity of limitations. The major obscurity is to achieve higher compression ratio as well as the better quality of the reconstructed image. The higher compression ratio and the smoother the original image may furnish the better quality of the reconstructed image.

K. Porkumaran,; S. Manimurugan,; Pradeep P Mathew

2012-01-01

123

Advanced Steganography Algorithm Using Randomized Intermediate QR Host Embedded With Any Encrypted Secret Message: ASA_QR Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then randomized and then, finally embed that randomized QR Code inside some common image. Quick Response Codes (or QR Codes) are a type of two-dimensional matrix barcodes used for encoding information. It has become very popular recently for its high storage capacity. The present method is ASA_QR is a combination of strong encryption algorithm and data hiding in two stages to make the entire process extremely hard to break. Here, the secret message is encrypted first and hide it in a QR CodeTM and then again that QR CodeTM is embed in a cover file (picture file) in random manner, using the standard method of steganography. In this way the data, which is secured, is almost impossible to be retrieved without knowing the cryptography key, steganography password and the exact unhide method. For encrypting data The authors used a method developed by Nath et al i.e. TTJSA, which is based on generalized modified Vernam Cipher, MSA and NJJSA method; and from the cryptanalysis it is seen that TTJSA is free from any standard cryptographic attacks, like differential attack, plain-text attack or any brute force attack. After encrypting the data using TTJSA,the authors have used standard steganographic method To hide data inside some host file. The present method may be used for sharing secret key, password, digital signature etc.

Somdip Dey; Kalyan Mondal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath

2012-01-01

124

Secure And Authenticated Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images  

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Full Text Available Reversible data hiding a novel technique which is used to embed additional information in the encrypted images, applies in military and medical images, which can be recoverable with original media and the hided data without loss. A number of reversible data hiding techniques were proposed in the recent years, but on analysis, all lacks in providing the security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which work is separable, the receiver can extract the original image or extra embedded data or both according to the keys hold by the receiver. On the other hand the receiver can verify the data hided by the data hider, such that the work proposes both security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which poses both security and authentication for additional data stored in the encrypted images. Also proposed work is separable, the receiver can extract the original image or extra embedded data or both according to the keys hold by the receiver. On the other hand the receiver can verify the data hided by the data hider, such that the work proposes both security and authentication.This work proposes a novel scheme for separable reversible data hiding in encrypted images. In the first phase, a content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, adata-hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image using a data-hiding key to create a sparse space to accommodate some additional data. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data-hiding key, he can extract the additional data though he does not know the image content. If the receiver has the encryption key, he can decrypt the received data to obtain an image similar to the original one, but cannot extract the additional data. If the receiver has both the data-hiding key and the encryption key, he can extract the additional data and recover the original content without any error by exploiting the spatial correlation in natural image when the amount of additional data is not too larg

Dr.V.Khanaa; Dr.Krishna Mohanta

2013-01-01

125

Efficient Digital Encryption Algorithm Based on Matrix Scrambling Technique  

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Full Text Available This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem ofinformation which is transmitted in Internet. We propose a new technique on matrix scrambling which isbased on random function, shifting and reversing techniques of circular queue. We give statisticalanalysis, sequence random analysis, and sensitivity analysis to plaintext and key on the proposed scheme.The experimental results show that the new scheme has a very fast encryption speed and the key space isexpanded and it can resist all kinds of cryptanalytic, statistical attacks, and especially, our new methodcan be also used to solve the problem that is easily exposed to chosen plaintext attack. We give ourdetailed report to this algorithm, and reveal the characteristic of this algorithm by utilizing an example.

M. Kiran Kumar; S. Mukthyar Azam; Shaik Rasool

2010-01-01

126

Simultaneous Color Image Compression and Encryption using Number Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dependence on computing machines and utility of information has been growing tremendously in the last few decades. As a result, evolving effective techniques for storing and transmitting the ever increasing volumes of data has become a high priority issue. Image compression addresses the problem by reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the compression process is the removal of redundant data. Selection of a suitable of a suitable compression scheme for a given application depends on the available memory for processing, the number of mathematical computations and the available bandwidth for transmission. The security of digital images is another important issue that has been receiving considerable attention in the recent past. Different image encryption methods have been proposed in the literature towards ensuring the security of data. The encryption process transforms a 2 – D pixel array into a statistically uncorrelated data set. In this paper, an enhanced number theory based color image compression and encryption scheme is proposed. This technique encompasses the twin – based application of image compression and I age encryption simultaneously adopting a model based paradigm for the general compression – encryption standards.

Navaneethakrishnan Navaneethakrishnan

2012-01-01

127

An Overview of Partial Shuffle for Database Access Pattern Protection Using Reverse Encryption Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Encryption of database is an important topic for research, as secure and efficient encryption algorithms are needed that provide the ability to query over encrypted database and allow optimized encryption and decryption of data. There is always a compromise between the degree of security provided by encryption algorithm and the efficient querying on the database, because the encryption and decryption on database greatly degrade query performance. For this, we propose a new encryption algorithm; Reverse Encryption Algorithm (REA). REA is simple and fast enough for most applications. REA provides maximum security and limits the added time cost for encryption and decryption to as to not degrade the performance of a database system. Privacy protection is one of the fundamental security requirements for database outsourcing. A major threat is information leakage from database access patterns generated by query executions. Recent works propose to protect access patterns by introducing a trusted component with constant storage size. The resulting privacy assurance is as strong as PIR, though with O(1) online computation cost, they still have O(n) amortized cost per query due to periodically full database shuffles. In this wok, we design a novel scheme in the same model with provable security, which only shuffles a portion of the database.

Priti V. Bhagat, Rohit Singhal

2013-01-01

128

Simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a new spectral multiple image fusion analysis based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and a specific spectral filtering method. In order to decrease the size of the multiplexed file, we suggest a procedure of compression which is based on an adapted spectral quantization. Each frequency is encoded with an optimized number of bits according its importance and its position in the DC domain. This fusion and compression scheme constitutes a first level of encryption. A supplementary level of encryption is realized by making use of biometric information. We consider several implementations of this analysis by experimenting with sequences of gray scale images. To quantify the performance of our method we calculate the MSE (mean squared error) and the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio). Our results consistently improve performances compared to the well-known JPEG image compression standard and provide a viable solution for simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images.

Alfalou A; Brosseau C; Abdallah N; Jridi M

2011-11-01

129

SECURE IMAGE DATA BY USING DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Information security is an increasingly important problem in the present era of advanced technology, because of which encryption is becoming very important to ensure security. Popular application of multimedia technology and increasing transmission ability of network gradually leads us to acquire information directly and clearly through Images. The digital images, which are transmitted over the internet, must be protected from unauthorized access during storage and transmission for communication, copyright protection and authentication purposes. This can be accomplished using image encryption which is an intelligent hiding of information. In this paper, I survey on existing work which is used different techniques for image encryption and also give the general introduction about cryptography.

GAYATHRI D.

2013-01-01

130

Improving Security of Parallel Algorithm Using Key Encryption Technique  

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Full Text Available In the recent cloud era, computing moves to a new plane of running large scale scientific applications. Many parallel algorithms have been created to support a large dataset. MapReduce is one such parallel data processing framework adopted widely for scientific research, machine learning and high end computing. The most prevalent implementation of MapReduce is the open source project Hadoop. To protect the integrity and confidentiality of data uploaded, MapReduce introduced a Kerberos-based model with tokens for datablocks and processing nodes. The tokens are symmetrically encrypted and distributed across the nodes. Such a technique is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks like data loss, data modification and stealing of keys. In this study, a novel technique is proposed based on public key encryption on top of the Kerberos model to enhance Security. The various attack scenarios on the current Hadoop implementation model has been analyzed and a secure environment has been proposed. The study shows that the proposed framework provides an improved level of security when using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman) with 65,537 keysize consumed 23 milli seconds, while using 257 bits keysize which consumed 21 milli seconds.

G. Sujitha; M. Varadharajan; Y. Vignesh Rao; R. Sridev; M.K. Sarvesh Gauthaum; Sowmy Narayanan; R. Swarna Raja; S. Mercy Shalinie

2013-01-01

131

A Novel Approach for Data Encryption Standard Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Now a day’s providing Security for data iscomplicated task we have so many security methods that areimplemented and deployed but out of them few are using andserving the needs of society. And we can’t say that any algorithm isperfect and avoids threats. The main goal of any design of anyencryption algorithm must be security against unauthorizedattacks. Within the last decade, data in both the private and publicsectors are increased which requires Availability, Authentication,Confidentiality, Integrity. In this paper we are considering TheDES algorithm that defines the mathematical steps that transformoriginal text (plain text) into a cipher text (secret code) and alsotransform the cipher text back to the original text. Here introducesa new method to enhance the performance of the Data EncryptionStandard (DES) algorithm. This is done by replacing the 8/32S-Box instead of 6/4 S-Box. The output of each S-Box undergoesAND and XOR operation before going to the permutation P. Inthis paper we also proposed a new operation Addition moduloinstead predefined XOR operation applied during the 16 round ofthe standard algorithm.

Prashanti.G; Deepthi.S; Sandhyarani.K,; Now a day’s providing Security for data is complicated task we have so many security methods that are implemented and deployed but out of them few are using and serving the needs of society. And we can’t say that any algorithm is perfect and avoids threa

2013-01-01

132

A Reversible Data Hiding Method for Encrypted Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since several years, the protection of multimedia data is becoming very important. The protection of this multimedia data can be done with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To decrease the transmission time, the data compression is necessary. Since few years, a new problem is trying to combine i...

Puech, William; Chaumont, Marc; Strauss, Olivier

133

A Comparison between Memetic algorithm and Genetic algorithm for the cryptanalysis of Simplified Data Encryption Standard algorithm  

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Full Text Available Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classicalgenetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplified data encryption standard can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. In this paper, a comparison between memetic algorithm and genetic algorithm were made in order to investigate the performance for the cryptanalysis on simplified data encryption standard problems(SDES). The methods were tested and various experimental results show that memetic algorithm performs better than the genetic algorithms for such type of NP-Hard combinatorial problem. This paper represents our first effort toward efficient memetic algorithm for the cryptanalysis of SDES.

Poonam Garg

2009-01-01

134

Comment on ‘A technique for image encryption using digital signature’  

Science.gov (United States)

The security of a recently proposed technique for encryption images by Sinha and Singh [A. Sinha, K. Singh, Opt. Commun. 218 (2003) 229], based on the use of digital signatures and error correcting codes, is analyzed. The proposed cryptosystem is shown to have some weakness. In fact, the secret key and the original image can be recovered efficiently by a brute force attack.

Hernández Encinas, L.; Peinado Domínguez, A.

2006-12-01

135

A Comparison between Memetic algorithm and Genetic algorithm for the cryptanalysis of Simplified Data Encryption Standard algorithm  

CERN Document Server

Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplified data encryption standard can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. In this paper, a comparison between memetic algorithm and genetic algorithm were made in order to investigate the performance for the cryptanalysis on simplified data encryption standard problems(SDES). The methods were tested and various experimental results show that memetic algorithm performs better than the genetic algorithms for such type of NP-Hard combinatorial problem. This paper represents our first effort toward efficient memetic algo...

Garg, Poonam

2010-01-01

136

Chaos Encryption Algorithm to Deal with Security Threat to Internet of Things RFID  

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Full Text Available Internet of Things RFID system is mainly studied problem in current communication area, where the safety of code message become rather important. Chaos encryption algorithm can disperse not only the time area but the scale, which is suitable for computer to deal with and overcome the limitation of block encryption in DES and AES. Using Sequence of the digital to deal with initial value and combining the one dimensional Logistic chaos and three dimensional Lorenz algorithm realize common encryption algorithm of these two chaos methods to calculate the long-term random sequence under the limitation of precision and improve the security.

Tian Xiaoyong

2013-01-01

137

A Chaos Based Encryption Method for Monochrom Images and Text.  

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Full Text Available We propose a new method for encryption of monochrome (Black & White image ) and text documents using Hilbert transform and chaos theory with added security feature of Rubik Cube Operation. The input text or image is transformed using Hilbert transform. Random phase mask is generated using a logistic map function .The transformed image is combined with the random phase mask. The pixels of the image obtained from the combination are shifted row and column wise according to a random number sequence ,which also acts as a key .We call this as Rubik Cube Operation as it resembles the Rubik cube .The image obtained after Rubik Cube operation is the encrypted image. The image has been decrypted and the MSE and correlation coefficient between the decrypted and input image is calculated.

Varsha S; Avinash Kumar Jha

2012-01-01

138

Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added with original image to obtain encrypted image. The scan methodology is applied to either original image or carrier image, after the addition of original image and carrier image to obtain highly distorted encrypted image. The resulting image is found to be more distorted in hybrid technique. By applying the reverse process we get the decrypted image.

T, Panduranga H

2010-01-01

139

An Efficient Pixel-shuffling Based Approach to Simultaneously Perform Image Compression, Encryption and Steganography?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With fast growing network, many people utilize the internet to transfer digital image information.The need of the time is to implement an extremely securable, economic and perfect system of imageencryption that can be well protected from unauthorized access. Also, the bulk size of the image dataproduces many problems in their transmission via internet. So, in this paper, a very new and combinedapproach for DCT based image compression, pixel shuffling based encryption, decryption and steganographyis proposed for real-time applications and also comparison is done with the traditional lowly securable keybasedencryption algorithm to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Navita Agarwal; Himanshu Sharma?

2013-01-01

140

Image Encryption Based on the General Approach for Multiple Chaotic Systems  

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Full Text Available In the recent years, researchers developed image encryption methods based on chaotic systems. This paper proposed new image encryption technique based on new chaotic system by adding two chaotic systems: the Lorenz chaotic system and the Rössler chaotic system. The main advantage of this technique is stronger security, as is shown in the encryption tests.

Qais H. Alsafasfeh; Aouda A. Arfoa

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Quasi-Linear Time Fully Homomorphic Public Key Encryption Algorithm (ZK111)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ZK111 is a quasi-linear O(n · log n) fully Homomorphic encryption (FHE) algorithm. It works on a novel idea of “perfectly colorblind function” which is nothing but a very unique way of creating p-adic ring homomorphism from p-adic ring X to p-adic ring Y. Unlike its other FHE counterparts, there is NO “noise” in the cipher text. ZK111 preserves full algebraic homomorphism without compromising its quasi-linear efficiency. It is not only FHE, but also the fastest public-key encryption (PKE) algorithm known as of today.. Both encryption and decryption are O(n · log n) and algorithm still retains it FHE property. Hence it solves the most intriguing and outstanding problem of cryptography. ZK111 is a probabilistic encryption algorithm by nature, and despite being FHE; it is absolutely immune to chosen and adoptive plaintext attack by design.

Zaryab Khan

2012-01-01

142

Unified compression and encryption algorithm for fast and secure network communications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compression and encryption of data are two vital requirements for the fast and secure transmission of data in the network based communications. In this paper an algorithm is presented based on adaptive Huffman encoding for unified compression and encryption of Unicode encoded textual data. The Huffman encoding weakness that same tree is needed for decoding is utilized in the algorithm presented as an extra layer of security, which is updated whenever the frequency change is above the specified threshold level. The results show that we get compression comparable to popular zip format and in addition to that data has got an additional layer of encryption that makes it more secure. Thus unified algorithm presented here can be used for network communications between different branches of banks, e- Government programs and national database and registration centers where data transmission requires both compression and encryption. (author)

2005-01-01

143

FPGA Based A New Low Power and Self-Timed AES 128-bit Encryption Algorithm for Encryption Audio Signal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents, a low power 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm based on a novel asynchronous self-timed architecture for encryption of audio signals. An asynchronous system is defined as one where the transfers of information between combinatorial blocks without a global clock signal. The self-timed architectures are asynchronous circuits which perform their function based on local synchronization signals called hand shake, independently from the other modules. This new architecture reduced spikes on current consumption and only parts with valid data are working, and also this design does not need any clock pulse. A combinational logic based Rijndael S-Box implementation for the Substitution Byte transformation in AES is proposed, its low area occupancy and high throughput therefore proposed digital design leads to reduction in power consumption. Mix-columns transformation is implemented only based on multiply-by-2 and multiply-by-3 modules with combinational logic. The proposed novel asynchronous self-timed AES algorithm is modeled and verified using FPGA and simulation results from encryption of sound signals is presented, until original characteristics are preserved anymore and have been successfully synthesized and implemented using Xilinx ISE V7.1 and Virtex IV FPGA to target device Xc4vf100. The achieved power consumption is 283 mW in clock frequency of 100 MHz.

Bahram Rashidi; Bahman Rashidi

2013-01-01

144

Cryptographic analysis on the key space of optical phase encryption algorithm based on the design of discrete random phase mask  

Science.gov (United States)

The key space of phase encryption algorithm using discrete random phase mask is investigated by numerical simulation in this paper. Random phase mask with finite and discrete phase levels is considered as the core component in most practical optical encryption architectures. The key space analysis is based on the design criteria of discrete random phase mask. The role of random amplitude mask and random phase mask in optical encryption system is identified from the perspective of confusion and diffusion. The properties of discrete random phase mask in a practical double random phase encoding scheme working in both amplitude encoding (AE) and phase encoding (PE) modes are comparably analyzed. The key space of random phase encryption algorithm is evaluated considering both the encryption quality and the brute-force attack resistibility. A method for enlarging the key space of phase encryption algorithm is also proposed to enhance the security of optical phase encryption techniques.

Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Li, Zengyan

2013-07-01

145

A fast image encryption scheme based on chaotic standard map  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image cryptosystems have been proposed. One of the architectures of this kind of cryptosystems is composed of multiple rounds of substitution and diffusion. As the confusion and diffusion effects are solely contributed by the substitution and the diffusion stages, respectively, the required overall rounds of operations in achieving a certain level of security is found more than necessary. In this Letter, we suggest to introduce a certain diffusion effect in the substitution stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. Although this leads to a longer processing time in a single round, the overall encryption time is reduced as fewer rounds are required. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing fast cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved.

Wong, K.-W. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: itkwwong@cityu.edu.hk; Kwok, B.S.-H.; Law, W.-S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

2008-04-07

146

Performance Analysis of Most Common Encryption Algorithms on Different Web Browsers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN). Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,UMARAM, RC6 and UR5 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. We have proposed a Web programming language to be analyzed with five Web browsers in term of their performances to process the encryption of the programming language’s script with the Web browsers. This is followed by conducting tests simulation in order to obtain the best encryption algorithm versus Web browser. The results of the experimental analysis are presented in the form of graphs. We finally conclude on the findings that different algorithms perform differently to different Web browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Netscape Navigator. Hence, we now determine which algorithm works best and most compatible with which Web browser.A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as encryption/decryption speed in the different web Browsers. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

G. Ramesh; R. Umarani

2012-01-01

147

Full Restoration of Visual Encrypted Color Images  

CERN Multimedia

While strictly black and white images have been the basis for visual cryptography, there has been a lack of an easily implemented format for colour images. This paper establishes a simple, yet secure way of implementing visual cryptography with colour, assuming a binary data representation.

Persson, Simeon

2011-01-01

148

Design and Analysis of a Novel Digital Image Encryption Scheme  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 144-bits is proposed. In the substitution process of the scheme, image is divided into blocks and subsequently into color components. Each color component is modified by performing bitwise operation which depends on secret key as well as a few most significant bits of its previous and next color component. Three rounds are taken to complete substitution process. To make cipher more robust, a feedback mechanism is also applied by modifying used secret key after encrypting each block. Further, resultant image is partitioned into several key based dynamic sub-images. Each sub-image passes through the scrambling process where pixels of sub-image are reshuffled within itself by using a generated magic square matrix. Five rounds are taken for scrambling process. The propose scheme is simple, fast and sensitive to the secret key. Due to high order of substitution and permutation, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasibl...

Pareek, Narendra K

2012-01-01

149

An RSA Encryption Hardware Algorithm using a Single DSP Block and a Single Block RAM on the FPGA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main contribution of this paper is to present an efficient hardware algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption based on Montgomery multiplication. Modern FPGAs have a number of embedded DSP blocks (DSP48E1) and embedded memory blocks (BRAM). Our hardware algorithm supporting 2048-bit RSA encryption...

Song Bo; Kensuke Kawakami; Koji Nakano; Yasuaki Ito

150

A NEW APPROACH FOR REDUCING CACHE TIMING ATTACK IN ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD USING DCF ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being accepted by many security related applications as the most secured cipher, The AES- Rijndael algorithm has a long successful existence in the field of global security. Despite of this, the AES is recently found to be broken theoretically. However, a few years back, Daniel Bernstein devised a cachetimingattack that was capable enough to break Rijndael’s seal that encapsulates the encryption key. Our paper proposes a new solution called Dynamic Cache Flushing (DCF) algorithm, which provides better security by encrypting key at a constant time over cache timing attack.

SOWMYA SREE DANNINA, K.RAJENDRA PRASAD

2012-01-01

151

Partial Encryption of Co mpressed Image Using Threshold Quantization and AES Cipher  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is one of the technological means to provide security to data beingtransmitted on information and communication systems.When it is necessary to securelytransmit data in limited bandwidth, both compression and encryption must be performed.Researchers have combined compression and encryption together to reduce the overallprocessing time.In this paper, new partial encryption schemes are proposed to encrypt only part of thecompressed image.Soft and hard threshold compression methods are used in thecompressionstep and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher is used forthe encryption step. The effect of different threshold values on the performance of the proposed schemes are studied. The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast, secure, and do not reduce the compression performance of the underlying selected compression methods.

H.A.Younis; A.Y. Abdalla; Y. Abdalla

2012-01-01

152

An Improved FPGA Implementation of the Modified Hybrid Hiding Encryption Algorithm (MHHEA) for Data Communication Security  

CERN Multimedia

The hybrid hiding encryption algorithm, as its name implies, embraces concepts from both steganography and cryptography. In this exertion, an improved micro-architecture Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of this algorithm is presented. This design overcomes the observed limitations of a previously-designed micro-architecture. These observed limitations are: no exploitation of the possibility of parallel bit replacement, and the fact that the input plaintext was encrypted serially, which caused a dependency between the throughput and the nature of the used secret key. This dependency can be viewed by some as vulnerability in the security of the implemented micro-architecture. The proposed modified micro-architecture is constructed using five basic modules. These modules are; the message cache, the message alignment module, the key cache, the comparator, and at last the encryption module. In this work, we provide comprehensive simulation and implementation results. These are: the timing diagra...

Farouk, Hala A

2011-01-01

153

Phase image encryption of colored images using double random phase encoding technique in HSV color space  

Science.gov (United States)

A double random phase encoding based digital phase encryption technique for colored images is proposed in the Fourier domain. The RGB input image is brought to HSV color space and then converted into phase, prior to the encryption. In the decryption process the HSV image is and converted back to the RGB format. The random phase codes used during encryption are prepared by stacking three two-dimensional random phase masks. These random phase codes serve as keys for encryption and decryption. The proposed technique carries all the advantages of phase encryption and is supposedly three-dimensional in nature. Robustness of the technique is analyzed against the variations in random phase codes and shuffling of the random phase masks of a given phase code. Performance of the scheme is also verified against occlusion of Fourier plane random phase code as well as the encrypted image. Effects of noise attacks and attacks using partial windows of correct random phase codes have also been checked. Digital simulations are presented to support the idea.

Joshi, Madhusudan; Shakher, Chandra; Singh, Kehar

2009-09-01

154

FPGA Can Be Implemented By Using Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper mainly focused in implementation of AES encryption and decryption standard AES-128. All the transformations of both Encryption and Decryption are simulated using an iterative design approach in order to minimize the hardware consumption.. This method can make it a very low-complex architecture, especially in saving the hardware resource in implementing the AES InverseSub Bytes module and Inverse Mix columns module. As the S -box is implemented by look-up-table in this design, the chip area and power can still be optimized. The new Mix Column transformation improves the performance of the inverse cipher and also reduces the complexity of the system that supports the inverse cipher. As a result this transformation has relatively low relevant diffusion power .This allows for scaling of the architecture towards vulnerable portable and cost-sensitive communications devices in consumer and military applications.

P.AATHEESWARAN; DR. R.SURESH BABU

2013-01-01

155

A proposed Modified Data Encryption Standard algorithm by Using Fusing Data Techniqu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a block cipher that encrypts data in 64-bit blocks. A 64-bit block of plaintext goes in one end of the algorithm and a 64-bit block of cipher text comes out of the other end. Blowfish is a block cipher that encrypts data in 8-byte blocks .Blowfish consists of two parts: a key-expansion part and a data-encryption part. Key expansion converts a variable-length key of at most 56 bytes (448 bits) into several subkey arrays totaling 4168 bytes. Blowfish has 16 rounds, such as DES. In this research the fusion philosophy will be used to fuse DES’s with blowfish and Genetic Algorithms by taking the strong points in all of these techniques to create a proposed Fused DES-Blowfish algorithm. The proposed algorithm is presented as a modified DES depending on the advantage in key generation complexity in blowfish and advantage of optimization in Genetic Algorithm to give the optimal solution. The solution will be the depended tool for creation of the strong keys.

Alaa H. AL-Hamami; Mohammad A. AL-Hamami; Soukaena H. Hashem

2011-01-01

156

An Investigation into Encrypted Message Hiding Through Images Using LSB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data security has become a cause of concern because of the electronic spying especially in the military, government and many sectors of communication fields. This paper investigates a representation forembedding secure data within an image based on substitution method which gives the scope of large amount of secret message hiding within digital images. Specifically we used least significant bit (LSB)substitution method to encrypt the message in image file. For improving the performance of LSB which is very simple by nature, we performed noise filtering at the beginning of the process to ensure noise-free data to be transmitted through the image. Also, after the extraction of the secure message at the receiver portion of the network, we used Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) method as the error detection and correction process to ensure that the correct data has been transmitted and no information is lost. The improved framework resulted in satisfactory outcomes.

FAHIM IRFAN ALAM; FATEHA KHANAM BAPPEE,; FARID UDDIN AHMED KHONDKER

2011-01-01

157

Two-chip implementation of the RSA public-key encryption algorithm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system has been developed which employs two identical integrated circuits to perform the encryption algorithm developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA) on a 336-bit message. The integrated circuit used in the system employs the 3-micron polysilicon gate, radiation-hard, CMOS technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

Rieden, R.F.; Snyder, J.B.; Widman, R.J.; Barnard, W.J.

1982-01-01

158

AES Encryption Algorithm Hardware Implementation: Throughput and Area Comparison of 128, 192 and 256-bits Key  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES), as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high security in their systems may look for a key size bigger than 128-bit AES. In this paper, 128, 192 and 256-bit AES hardware are implemented and compared in terms of throughput and area. The target hardware used in this paper is Virtex XC5VLX50 FPGA from Xilinx. Total area and Throughput results are presented and graphically compared.

Samir El Adib; Naoufal Raissouni

2012-01-01

159

A sensitive data extraction algorithm based on the content associated encryption technology for ICS  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of HD video, the protection of copyright becomes more complicated. More advanced copyright protection technology is needed. Traditional digital copyright protection technology generally uses direct or selective encryption algorithm and the key does not associate with the video content [1]. Once the encryption method is cracked or the key is stolen, the copyright of the video will be violated. To address this issue, this paper proposes a Sensitive Data Extraction Algorithm (SDEA) based on the content associated encryption technology which applies to the Internet Certification Service (ICS). The principle of content associated encryption is to extract some data from the video and use this extracted data as the key to encrypt the rest data. The extracted part from video is called sensitive data, and the rest part is called the main data. After extraction, the main data will not be played or poorly played. The encrypted sensitive data reach the terminal device through the safety certificated network and the main data are through ICS disc. The terminal equipments are responsible for synthesizing and playing these two parts of data. Consequently, even if the main data on disc is illegally obtained, the video cannot be played normally due to the lack of necessary sensitive data. It is proved by experiments that ICS using SDEA can destruct the video effectively with 0.25% extraction rates and the destructed video cannot be played well. It can also guarantee the consistency of the destructive effect on different videos with different contents. The sensitive data can be transported smoothly under the home Internet bandwidth.

Wang, Wei; Hao, Huang; Xie, Changsheng

160

RSA Algorithm Implementation for Ciphering Medical Imaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we will present a software designed for remote visualization of medical images with data security transfer. This interface is implemented under MATLAB environment. The implementation of the image cryptography system uses the RSA algorithm with 64 bits private key length. The transfer of images in a secure way for medical diagnosis is insured by generating a watermarked key to encrypt the original image. More, we introduced a comparison study between the obtained performances and those computed with other algorithms such as DES and IDEA.  

Samoud Ali; Cherif Adnen

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

A Novel Image Encryption Supported by Compression Using Multilevel Wavelet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose a novel approach for image encryption supported by lossy compression using multilevel wavelet transform. We first decompose the input image using multilevel 2-D wavelet transform, and thresholding is applied on the decomposed structure to get compressed image. Then we carry out encryption by decomposing the compressed image by multi-level 2-D Haar Wavelet Transform at the maximum allowed decomposition level. These results in the decomposition vector C and the corresponding bookkeeping matrix S. The decomposition vector C is reshaped into the size of the input image. The reshaped vector is rearranged by performing permutation to produce encrypted image. The vector C and the matrix S serve as key in the process of both encryption and decryption. In this analysis, we have noticed that the reconstructed image is a close replica of the input image.

Ch. Samson; V. U. K. Sastry

2012-01-01

162

An Application to prevent SQL Injection Attacks using Randomized Encryption Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the advanced usage of web, numbers of data we are fetched from anywhere within a minute. So by that way it is very beneficial to us but with the beneficial some issues are there so now we are discussed about that issues. The issues are security of data from the hackers or unauthorized users who change, corrupt, delete or access the data from the web, for handle these issues the developers who develop the website, they used some algorithm by which the data change in encrypted form either from the safety of the hackers we also use the some algorithm at the time of inserting username and password due to that the username and password become encrypted and then they send through url, so the data will be safe. In this paper we discussed about the security of data from the hackers so for that we used the Random Encryption for encrypting the data or username and password and also we use this concept for the RTA process. In which the users request for the number plate number for the vehicle with his/her favorite digits.

Pravallika Thatavarthi #1 , Betam Suresh

2013-01-01

163

An Efficient Stream Cipher Algorithm for Data Encryption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays the data telecommunication security has been provided by most of well-known stream cipher algorithms which are already implemented in different secure protocols such as GSM, SSL, TLS, WEP, Bluetooth etc. These algorithms are A5/1, A5/2, E0 and RC4. On the other hand, these public algorithm...

Majid Bakhtiari; Mohd Aizaini Maarof

164

Ensemble Of Blowfish With Chaos Based S Box Design For Text And Image Encryption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid and extensive usage of Internet in the present decade has put forth information security as an utmost concern. Most of the commercial transactions taking place over the Internet involves a wide variety of data including text, images, audio and video. With the increasing use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing Multimedia data, the fundamental issue of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the information poses a major challenge for security professionals and hassled to the major developments in Cryptography . In cryptography, an S-Box (Substitution-box) is a basic componentof symmetric key algorithms, which performs substitution and is typically used to make the relationship between the key and the cipher text non linear and most of the symmetric key algorithms like DES, Blowfish makes use of S boxes. This paper proposes a new method for design of S boxes based on chaos theory. Chaotic equations are popularly known for its randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and ergodicity. The modified design has been tested with blowfish algorithm which has no effective crypt analysis reported against its design till date because of its salient design features including the key dependant s boxes and complex key generation process. However every new key requires pre-processing equivalent to encrypting about 4 kilobytes of text, which is very slow compared to other block ciphers and it prevents its usage in memory limited applications and embedded systems. The modified design of S boxesmaintains the non linearity [3] [5] and key dependency factors of S boxes with a major reduction in time complexity of generation of S boxes and P arrays. The algorithm has been implemented and the proposed design has been analyzed for size of key space, key sensitivity and Avalanche effect. Experimental results on text and Image Encryption show that the modified design of key generation continues to offer the same level of security as the original Blowfish cipher with a less computational overhead in key generation

Jeyamala Chandrasekaran; Subramanyan B; Raman G.S

2011-01-01

165

Cloud Computing: A CRM Service Based on a Separate Encryption and Decryption using Blowfish algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A LMS (Learning Management System) service is described in this project using Blowfish algorithm. It promotes more accessibility to LMS service providers to send their training modules and syllabus via Internet at any point of the hour much more efficiently. This gives rise to reduced cost of hardware and software tools, which in return would scale-up the e-learning environment. In the existing system RSA algorithm used. It requires more computation time for large volumes of data. To reduce this computation time we are using Blowfish algorithm. The LMS Service utilizes three cloud systems, including an encryption and decryption system, a storagesystem, and LMS application system.

G.Devi, M.Pramod Kumar

2012-01-01

166

Ultra Encryption Standard (UES) Version-III: Advanced Symmetric Key Cryptosystem With Bit-level Encryption Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper a new cryptographic method called UES Version-III has been introduced. Nath et al recently developed few efficient encryption methods such as UES version-I, Modified UES-I, UES version-II, TTJSA, DJMNA Nath et. al showed that TTJSA and DJMNA is most suitable methods to encrypt password or any small message. The name of the present method is Ultra Encryption Standard Version-III. It is a Symmetric key Cryptosystem which includes multiple encryption, bit-wise randomization, new advanced bit-wise encryption technique with feedback. In this paper, the authors have performed encryption entirely at the bit-level to achieve greater strength of encryption. In the result section the authors have shown the spectral analysis of encrypted text as well as plain text. The spectral analysis shows that UES-III is free from standard cryptography attack such as brute force attack, known plain text attack and differential attack

Satyaki Roy; Navajit Maitra; Shalabh Agarwal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath

2012-01-01

167

A Multilayered Secure, Robust and High Capacity Image Steganographic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is observed that all of the current steganographic algorithms rely heavily on the conventional encryption systems which do not serve well in the context of image steganography. Advanced encryption standard (AES) is one of the most powerful techniques of cryptography which can be used as an integral part of steganographic system for better confidentiality and security. In this paper we propose a reversible image steganographic embedding algorithm consisting of three parts. First, we use the self-synchronization variable codes, viz., T-codes for encoding/compressing the original text message. Next, the encoded binary string is encrypted using an improved AES method. The encrypted message is then embedded in the high frequency bands obtained from the cover image by applying the 1-level decomposition of Double Density Dual Tree Discrete Wavelet Transform (DD DT DWT). This algorithm provides three layer of security- one layer at each level of compression, encryption and embedding, respectively. Thus, there is no chance that the intruder may detect the original message after couple of attacks. The algorithm is compared with the corresponding algorithm based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and found to be better in terms of imperceptibility, robustness and embedding capacity.

S.K.Muttoo; Sushil Kumar

2011-01-01

168

A Single Chip Design And Implementation Of AES -128/192/256 Encryption Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper an efficient hardware architecture design and implementation of all candidates of AES encryption standards AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256 on the same hardware is proposed. AES algorithm proposed by NIST has been widely accepted as best cryptosystem for wireless communication security. The hardware implementation is useful in wireless security like military and mobile phones. This contribution investigates implementation of AES Encryption with regards to FPGA and VHDL.Optimized and synthesized VHDL code for AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256 for encryption of 128-bit data is implemented. Xilinx ISE 9.2i software is used for simulation. Eachalgorithm is tested with sample vectors provided by NIST output results are perfect with minimal delay. The proposed design consumes less power and area which is suitable battery driven mobile phones. Throughput reaches the value of 666.67 Mbps for encryption of 128- bit data with AES-128 key with FPGA device XC2V6000BF957-6.

L.Thulasimani,; M.Madheswaran

2010-01-01

169

Authentication and Encryption in GSM and 3GUMTS: An Emphasis on Protocols and Algorithms  

CERN Multimedia

Mobile communication touches every aspect of our life, it become one of the major dependencies that the 21st Century civilizations rely on. Thereby, security is a major issue that should be targeted by communication technologies. In this paper we will target authentication and encryption in GSM and 3G/UMTS. In order to understand clearly how things work, we will start by presenting the architecture of each network, its major components, its authentication algorithms, protocols used, and KASUMI Block Cipher.

Elouafiq, Ali

2012-01-01

170

An Efficient Stream Cipher Algorithm for Data Encryption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays the data telecommunication security has been provided by most of well-known stream cipher algorithms which are already implemented in different secure protocols such as GSM, SSL, TLS, WEP, Bluetooth etc. These algorithms are A5/1, A5/2, E0 and RC4. On the other hand, these public algorithms already faced to serious security weakness such that they do not provide enough security of proportional plain data in front of cryptanalysis attacks. In this paper we proposed an efficient stream cipher algorithm which generates 23 random bits in each round of processing by parallel random number generator and 115 bits of Initial Vector. This algorithm can implement in high speed communication link more than 100Mb/s and it has passed all of standard cryptographic tests successfully, also it can resist in front of well-known attacks such as algebraic and correlation.

Majid Bakhtiari; Mohd Aizaini Maarof

2011-01-01

171

Multiple-image encryption scheme based on cascaded fractional Fourier transform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multiple-image encryption scheme based on cascaded fractional Fourier transform is proposed. In the scheme, images are successively coded into the amplitude and phase of the input by cascading stages, which ends up with an encrypted image and a series of keys. The scheme takes full advantage of multikeys and the cascaded relationships of all stages, and it not only realizes image encryption but also achieves higher safety and more diverse applications. So multiuser authentication and hierarchical encryption are achieved. Numerical simulation verifies the feasibility of the method and demonstrates the security of the scheme and decryption characteristics. Finally, flexibility and variability of the scheme in application are discussed, and the simple photoelectric mixed devices to realize the scheme are proposed.

Kong D; Shen X; Xu Q; Xin W; Guo H

2013-04-01

172

Double random phase encryption scheme to multiplex and simultaneous encode multiple images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we present a new approach of multiplexing and simultaneous encoding of target images. Our approach can enhance the encryption level of a classical double random phase (DRP) encryption system by adding a supplementary security layer. The new approach can be divided into two security layers. The first layer is called the multiplexing level, which consists in using iterative Fourier transformations along with several encryption key images. These latter can be a set of biometric images. At the second layer, we use a classical DRP system. The two layers enable us to encode several target images (multi-encryption) and to reduce, at the same time, the requested decoded information (transmitted or storage information). PMID:19881661

Alfalou, Ayman; Mansour, Ali

2009-11-01

173

Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm upto 4 Round on Spartan 3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers) cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized upto 4 round using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3 Modelsim. The paper deals with various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc. used in order to provide optimized results.

Nimmi Gupta

2012-01-01

174

A Compression & Encryption Algorithm on DNA Sequences Using Dynamic Look up Table and Modified Huffman Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Storing, transmitting and security of DNA sequences are well known research challenge. The problem has got magnified with increasing discovery and availability of DNA sequences. We have represent DNA sequence compression algorithm based on Dynamic Look Up Table (DLUT) and modified Huffman technique. DLUT consists of 43(64) bases that are 64 sub-stings, each sub-string is of 3 bases long. Each sub-string are individually coded by single ASCII code from 33(!) to 96(`) and vice versa. Encode depends on encryption key choose by user from four base pair {a,t.g and c}and decode also require decryption key provide by the encoded user. Decoding must require authenticate input for encode the data. The sub-strings are combined into a Dynamic Look up Table based pre-coding routine. This algorithm is tested on reverse; complement & reverse complement the DNA sequences and also test on artificial DNA sequences of equivalent length. Speed of encryption and security levels are two important measurements for evaluating any encryption system. Due to proliferate of ubiquitous computing system, where digital contents are accessible through resource constraint biological database security concern is very important issue. A lot of research has been made to find an encryption system which can be run effectively in those biological databases. Information security is the most challenging question to protect the data from unauthorized user. The proposed method may protect the data from hackers. It can provide the three tier security, in tier one is ASCII code, in tier two is nucleotide (a,t,g and c) choice by user and tier three is change of label or change of node position in Huffman Tree. Compression of the genome sequences will help to increase the efficiency of their use. The greatest advantage of this algorithm is fast execution, small memory occupation and easy implementation. Since the program to implement the technique have been written originally in the C language, (Windows XP platform, and TC compiler) it is possible to run in other microcomputers with small changes (depending on platform and Compiler used). The execution is quite fast, all the operations are carried out in fraction of seconds, depending on the required task and on the sequence length. The technique can approach an effective compression ratio of 1.98 bits/base and even lower. When a user searches for any sequence for an organism, an encrypted compressed sequence file can be sent from the data source to the user. The encrypted compressed file then can be decrypted & decompressed at the client end resulting in reduced transmission time over the Internet. An encrypt compression algorithm that provides a moderately high compression with encryption rate with minimal decryption with decompression time.

Syed Mahamud Hossein; S.Roy

2013-01-01

175

An RGB Image Encryption Supported by Wavelet-based Lossless Compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a method for an RGB image encryption supported by lifting scheme based lossless compression. Firstly we have compressed the input color image using a 2-D integer wavelet transform. Then we have applied lossless predictive coding to achieve additional compression. The compressed image is encrypted by using Secure Advanced Hill Cipher (SAHC) involving a pair of involutory matrices, a function called Mix() and an operation called XOR. Decryption followed by reconstruction shows that there is no difference between the output image and the input image. The proposed method can be used for efficient and secure transmission of image data.

Ch. Samson; V. U. K. Sastry

2012-01-01

176

AN APPROACH TO DESIGN ADVANCED STANDARD ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM USING HARDWARE / SOFTWARE CO-DESIGN METHODOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Advanced Standard Encryption Algorithm (AES) is widely used in modern consumer electronicproducts for security. The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate wireless sensor networks also use AES algorithm wherelow power consumption is the priority. To reduce the time taken for encryption of huge data, the algorithm hasto be implemented in hardware. To meet the requirement for low area the algorithm has to be implemented insoftware. Hence, a balance has to be achieved between hardware and software implementations in terms of areaand speed, so as to improve the overall performance of the system. Also with the co-design methodology totalthermal power dissipation is reduced. In this paper, 128 bit AES algorithm is implemented with hardware incombination with software using Altera NIOS II Processor platform. Altera’s Quartus II environment is used fordesign of the system. Cyclone II FPGA is used as a development platform. Software program is written in C language. NIOS II ntegrated Development Environment (IDE) is used to integrate hardware and software together. By adopting hardware / software co-design methodology for implementation of AES, results show that a onsiderable improvement in speed can be achieved as compared to software only approach. Further, the significant reduction in area is achieved as compared to hardware only approach. By the approach of co-design an optimized design in terms of speed and area is achieved and also the thermal power dissipation is reduced

MEGHANA A. HASAMNIS; S. S. LIMAYE

2012-01-01

177

Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication  

Science.gov (United States)

A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.

Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto

2012-07-01

178

An Implementation of BLOWFISH Encryption Algorithm using KERBEROS Authentication Mechanism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sensitive information stored on computers and transmitted over the Internet need to ensure information security and safety measures. Without our knowledge, the Intruders sneak into the systems, misuse it and even create back doors to our computer systems. Thus, there must not be any compromise in securing our resources. Hence, Cryptography is mainly used to ensure secrecy. Access Control Policy is used for securing the resources as initial state, which determines the potential threats, the solutions and the ways of implementation of the security. Various security solutions to block the unauthenticated users starts from a series mechanism from Firewalls to Kerberos, most of them need a strong cryptographic base. Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange ultimately which tend to the security of information. Among which Kerberos authentication promises most secured and unbreakable. It works on the basis of granting tickets for each session and resource access. This paper includes a mechanism that implements the Blowfish algorithm with a 64 bit length key with an improved security assurance.

Ch Panchamukesh; Prof.T.Venkat Narayana Rao; A.Vijay Kumar

2011-01-01

179

Optical image encryption based on joint fractional transform correlator architecture and digital holography  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a hybrid configuration of joint transform correlator (JTC) and joint fractional transform correlator (JFTC) for encryption purpose. The original input is encoded in the joint fractional power spectrum distribution of JFTC. In our experimental arrangement, an additional random phase mask (master key) is holographically generated beforehand by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a JTC as the object arm. The fractional order of JFTC, together with the master key, can remarkably strengthen the safety level of encryption. Different from many previous digital-holography-based encryption schemes, the stability and alignment requirement for our system is not high, since the interferometric operation is only performed in the generation procedure of the master key. The advantages and feasibility of the proposed scheme have been verified by the experimental results. By combining with a multiplex technique, an application for multiple images encryption using the system is also given a detailed description.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

2013-04-01

180

A SURVEY ON SECURED WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES FOR JPEG IMAGES ON COMPRESSED-ENCRYPTED DOMAIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the digital world, the digital media is currentlyevolving at such a rapid pace, intellectual copyright protectionis becoming increasingly important. Now a day, the digitalmedia is available with various image formats, due to whichthey are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality. Awide range of digital media is often distributed by multiplelevels of distributers in a compressed and encrypted format. Itis sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encryptedmedia items in the compressed-encrypted domain itself fortamper detection or ownership declaration or copyrightmanagement purposes. The compression pack the informationof raw media into a lower number of bits and an encryptionprocess randomize the compressed bit stream. The encryptionalgorithm used was a stream cipher. While the techniqueembeds watermark in the compressed-encrypted domain, theextraction of watermark can be done in the encrypted anddecrypted domain.

Aparna Soni , Deepty Dubey

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

AES Encryption Algorithm Hardware Implementation Architecture: Resource and Execution Time Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES). Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is the application. High-speed designs are not always desired solutions. In some applications, such as mobile computing and wireless communications, smaller throughput is demanded. Architecture presented uses memory modules (i.e., Dual-Port RAMs) of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) for storing all the results of the fixed operations (i.e., Look-Up Table), and Digital Clock Manager (DCM) that we used effectively to optimize the execution time, reduce design area and facilitates implementation in FPGA. The architecture consumes only 326 slices plus 3 Block Random Access Memory (BRAMs). The throughput obtained was of 270 Mbits/s. The target hardware used in this paper is Spartan XC3S500E FPGA from Xilinx. Results are presented and compared with other reference implementations, as known from the technical literature. The presented architecture can be used in a wide range of embedded applications.

Samir El Adib; Naoufal Raissouni

2012-01-01

182

Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption  

CERN Document Server

Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encrypted using chaos based logistic map. This provides an efficient and secure way for image encryption and transmission. The watermarked image is decrypted and a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of the primary as well as secondary watermark from the distorted image.

Dhanalakshmi, R

2010-01-01

183

Evaluation of security algorithms used for security processing on DICOM images  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we developed security approach to provide security measures and features in PACS image acquisition and Tele-radiology image transmission. The security processing on medical images was based on public key infrastructure (PKI) and including digital signature and data encryption to achieve the security features of confidentiality, privacy, authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation. There are many algorithms which can be used in PKI for data encryption and digital signature. In this research, we select several algorithms to perform security processing on different DICOM images in PACS environment, evaluate the security processing performance of these algorithms, and find the relationship between performance with image types, sizes and the implementation methods.

Chen, Xiaomeng; Shuai, Jie; Zhang, Jianguo; Huang, H. K.

2005-04-01

184

A FUZZY LOGIC APPROACH TO ENCRYPTED WATERMARKING FOR STILL IMAGES IN WAVELET DOMAIN ON FPGA  

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Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy logic approach is introduced to embed the encrypted watermark in the wavelet domain. The multi-resolution representation based on DWT incorporates a model of Human VisualSystem (HVS). Encryption and digital watermarking techniques need to be incorporated in digital right management. It is clear that these two technologies are complimenting each other, and the completesecurity of the digital contains depends on both. Encryption transforms the original contain into unreadable format and watermarking leaves the digital object intact and recognizable. The objective is to develop simple, real time and robust secure watermarking system, which can be achieved through the hardware implementation. To meet a real time constrain we have proposed parallel computing architecture for wavelet transform. The experimental results demonstrate the high robustness of theproposed algorithm to various attacks like noise additions etc

Pankaj U.Lande; Sanjay N. Talbar; G.N. Shinde

2010-01-01

185

A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes.

Kwok, H.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: hskwok@ee.cityu.edu.hk; Tang, Wallace K.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: kstang@ee.cityu.edu.hk

2007-05-15

186

A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes

2007-01-01

187

Video Encryption: A Survey  

CERN Multimedia

Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, speed, compression friendliness, format compliance and cryptographic security is presented.

Shah, Jolly

2011-01-01

188

A Two Layer Approach to Image Authentication and Encryption through ECC & Voice Features (MFCC, Pitch Value)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Speech Processing is an area in which we can find such unique features (Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients, Pitch value, zero crossing rates etc.) in voice segment for recognition of any individual and pre-processing for further synthesis. In this paper we are presenting a simplified approach to image authentication with MFCC (Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients) and Pitch Value and image Encryption through Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Because of ECC great advantages (small key size, no solution to discrete logarithmic problem, less time consuming encryption, infinite time taken for brute force attack) for handheld, portable devices. Applying MFCC and Pitch information with various methods on various encrypted images which is encrypted by Elliptic Curve Cryptography and at the receiver side we do reverse process of this approach for authentication and decryption of image .With this approach we can authenticate an image through voice segment which is advantageous because speech is a natural way to interact with people, Not required to sit and work with a keyboard and finally no specific training is required for end users.

Vikas Pardesi; N. S. Raghava

2013-01-01

189

Phase encryption of biometrics in diffractive optical elements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new technique for the optical encoding of images is presented. The method of generalized projections is used to design diffractive optical elements for the phase encryption of biometrics for security applications. The encryption algorithm converges rapidly, and the decryption is seen to be secure and tolerant to additive noise.

Johnson EG; Brasher JD

1996-08-01

190

Joint Watermarking and Encryption of Color Images in the Fibonacci-Haar Domain  

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Full Text Available A novel method for watermarking and ciphering color images, based on the joint use of a key-dependent wavelet transform with a secure cryptographic scheme, is presented. The system allows to watermark encrypted data without requiring the knowledge of the original data and also to cipher watermarked data without damaging the embedded signal. Since different areas of the proposed transform domain are used for encryption and watermarking, the extraction of the hidden information can be performed without deciphering the cover data and it is also possible to decipher watermarked data without removing the watermark. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Federica Battisti; Michela Cancellaro; Giulia Boato; Marco Carli; Alessandro Neri

2009-01-01

191

Modified Prime Number Factorization Algorithm (MPFA) For RSA Public Key Encryption  

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Full Text Available The Public key encryption security such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm based on positive integer N, which is the product of two prime numbers, the factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a factorization method is proposed, which is used to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The present work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers as per Fermat method and requires fewer steps for factorization process of RSA modulus N. By experimental results it has been shown that factorization speed becomes increasing as compare to traditional Trial Division method, Fermat Factorization method, Brent’s Factorization method and Pollard Rho Factorization method.

Kuldeep Singh; Rajesh Kr. Verma; Ritika Chehal

2012-01-01

192

An RSA Encryption Hardware Algorithm using a Single DSP Block and a Single Block RAM on the FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is to present an efficient hardware algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption based on Montgomery multiplication. Modern FPGAs have a number of embedded DSP blocks (DSP48E1) and embedded memory blocks (BRAM). Our hardware algorithm supporting 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption is designed to be implemented using one DSP48E1, one BRAM and few logic blocks (slices) in the Xilinx Virtex-6 family FPGA. The implementation results showed that our RSA module for 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption runs in 277.26ms. Quite surprisingly, the multiplier in DSP48E1 used to compute Montgomery multiplication works in more than 97% clock cycles over all clock cycles. Hence, our implementation is close to optimal in the sense that it has only less than 3% overhead in multiplication and no further improvement is possible as long as Montgomery multiplication based algorithm is used. Also, since our circuit uses only one DSP48E1 block and one Block RAM, we can implement a number of RSA modules in an FPGA that can work in parallel to attain high throughput RSA encryption/decryption.

Song Bo; Kensuke Kawakami; Koji Nakano; Yasuaki Ito

2011-01-01

193

An authenticated image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps and memory cellular automata  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a new image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps, cellular automata and permutation-diffusion architecture. In the permutation phase, a piecewise linear chaotic map is utilized to confuse the plain-image and in the diffusion phase, we employ the Logistic map as well as a reversible memory cellular automata to obtain an efficient and secure cryptosystem. The proposed method admits advantages such as highly secure diffusion mechanism, computational efficiency and ease of implementation. A novel property of the proposed scheme is its authentication ability which can detect whether the image is tampered during the transmission or not. This is particularly important in applications where image data or part of it contains highly sensitive information. Results of various analyses manifest high security of this new method and its capability for practical image encryption.

Bakhshandeh, Atieh; Eslami, Ziba

2013-06-01

194

A Reversible Image Steganographic Algorithm Based on Slantlet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present a reversible imagesteganography technique based on Slantlet transform (SLT)and using advanced encryption standard (AES) method. Theproposed method first encodes the message using two sourcecodes, viz., Huffman codes and a self-synchronizing variablelength code known as, T-code. Next, the encoded binarystring is encrypted using an improved AES method. Theencrypted data so obtained is embedded in the middle andhigh frequency sub-bands, obtained by applying 2-level ofSLT to the cover-image, using thresholding method. Theproposed algorithm is compared with the existing techniquesbased on wavelet transform. The Experimental results showthat the proposed algorithm can extract hidden message andrecover the original cover image with low distortion. Theproposed algorithm offers acceptable imperceptibility,security (two-layer security) and provides robustness againstGaussian and Salt-n-Pepper noise attack.

Sushil Kumar; S. K. Muttoo

2013-01-01

195

Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on the Hill cipher  

CERN Document Server

This paper studies the security of an image encryption scheme based on the Hill cipher and reports its following problems: 1) there is a simple necessary and sufficient condition that makes a number of secret keys invalid; 2) it is insensitive to the change of the secret key; 3) it is insensitive to the change of the plain-image; 4) it can be broken with only one known/chosen-plaintext; 5) it has some other minor defects.

Li, Chengqing; Chen, Guanrong

2007-01-01

196

Synchronization of spatiotemporal semiconductor lasers and its application in color image encryption  

CERN Multimedia

Optical chaos is a topic of current research characterized by high-dimensional nonlinearity which is attributed to the delay-induced dynamics, high bandwidth and easy modular implementation of optical feedback. In light of these facts, which adds enough confusion and diffusion properties for secure communications, we explore the synchronization phenomena in spatiotemporal semiconductor laser systems. The novel system is used in a two-phase colored image encryption process. The high-dimensional chaotic attractor generated by the system produces a completely randomized chaotic time series, which is ideal in the secure encoding of messages. The scheme thus illustrated is a two-phase encryption method, which provides sufficiently high confusion and diffusion properties of chaotic cryptosystem employed with unique data sets of processed chaotic sequences. In this novel method of cryptography, the chaotic phase masks are represented as images using the chaotic sequences as the elements of the image. The scheme dras...

Banerjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Misra, A P; 10.1016/j.optcom.2010.12.077

2011-01-01

197

On Perceptual Encryption: Variants of DCT Block Scrambling Scheme for JPEG Compressed Images  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a perceptual encryption scheme based on scrambling of DCT blocks in JPEG compressed images and its variants are proposed. These schemes are suitable for the environment where perceptual degradation of the multimedia content is required. The security of these techniques is shown to be sufficient against casual attacks. These discussed schemes are kept as light as possible in order to keep the encryption overhead and cost low. Also, an investigation in the progressive degradation of image by increasing the number of the DCT blocks to be scrambled has been carried out. The quality of the degraded multimedia content is measured with objective image quality assessment (IQA) metrics such as SSIM, MS-SSIM, VIF, VIFP and UQI. These IQA metrics provide choice for the selection of control factor.

Khan, Muhammad Imran; Jeoti, Varun; Malik, Aamir Saeed

198

Digital Watermarking through Embedding of Encrypted and Arithmetically Compressed Data into Image using Variable-Length Key  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we have encrypted a text to an array of data bits through arithmetic coding technique. Forthis, we have assigned a unique range for both, a number of characters and groups using those. Usingunique range we may assign range only 10 characters. If we want to encrypt a large number ofcharacters, then every character has to assign a range with their group range of hundred, thousand andso on. Long textual message which have to encrypt, is subdivided into a number of groups with fewcharacters. Then the group of characters is encrypted into floating point numbers concurrently to theirgroup range by using arithmetic coding, where they are automatically compressed. Depending on key,the data bits from text are placed to some suitable nonlinear pixel and bit positions about the image. Inthe proposed technique, the key length and the number of characters for any encryption process is bothvariable.

Sabyasachi Samanta; Saurabh Dutta; Goutam Sanyal

2011-01-01

199

Triple Layered Encryption Algorithm for IEEE 802.11 WLANs in E-Government Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless local area network (WLAN) can provide e-government services at all levels, from local to national as the WLAN enabled devices have the flexibility to move from one place to another within offices while maintaining connectivity with the network. However, government organizations are subject to strict security policies and other compliance requirements. Therefore, WLAN must ensure the safeguard the privacy of individual data with the strictest levels of security. The 802.11 MAC specifications describe an encryption protocol called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) which is used to protect wireless communications from eavesdropping. It is also capable of preventing unauthorized access. However, the WEP protocol often fails to accomplish its security goal due to the weakness in RC4 and the way it is applied in WEP protocol. This paper focuses the improvement of existing WEP protocol using the varying secret key for each transmission. This will remove the insecurities that currently make the RC4 unattractive for secured networking and this will add further cryptographic strength if applied to Rijndael algorithm. Our result shows that the proposed algorithm is more suitable for small and medium packets and AES for large packets.

M A Kabir; K A Sayeed; M A Matin; T Mehenaz; M Kamruzzaman

2013-01-01

200

Comparative Analysis of LEON 3 and NIOS II Processor Development Environment: Case Study Rijindael’s Encryption Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedded system design is becoming complex day by day, combined with reduced time-to-market deadlines. Due to the constraints and complexity in the design of embedded systems, it incorporates hardware / software co-design methodology. An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software parts integrated together on a common platform. A soft-core processor which is a hardware description language (HDL) model of a specific processor (CPU) can be customized for any application and can be synthesized for FPGA target. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the development environment for embedded systems using LEON 3 and NIOS II Processor, both soft core processors. LEON3 is an open source processor and NIOS II is a commercial processor. Case study under consideration is Rijindael’s Encryption Algorithm (AES). It is a standard encryption algorithm used to encrypt huge bulk of data and for security. Using the co-design methodology the algorithm is implemented on two different platforms. One using the open source and other using the commercial processor and the comparative results of the two different platforms is stated in terms of its performance parameters. The algorithm is partitioned in hardware and software parts and integrated on a common platform.

Meghana Hasamnis; Priti Chimankar; S. S. Limaye

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A wavelet domain adaptive image watermarking method based on chaotic encryption  

Science.gov (United States)

A digital watermarking technique is a specific branch of steganography, which can be used in various applications, provides a novel way to solve security problems for multimedia information. In this paper, we proposed a kind of wavelet domain adaptive image digital watermarking method using chaotic stream encrypt and human eye visual property. The secret information that can be seen as a watermarking is hidden into a host image, which can be publicly accessed, so the transportation of the secret information will not attract the attention of illegal receiver. The experimental results show that the method is invisible and robust against some image processing.

Wei, Fang; Liu, Jian; Cao, Hanqiang; Yang, Jun

2009-10-01

202

Hardware Implementation of Multimedia Encryption Techniques Using FPGA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multimedia encryption algorithm has gain importance nowadays for copyright protection. Many multimedia encryption Techniques had been designed and tested software base. We will implement a library of hardware realization using FPGA of seven multimedia encryption algorithms. Simulation results had s...

M.A. Mohamed; M.E. Abou-Elsoud; W.M. Kamal El-Din

203

Quantum public-key algorithms to encrypt and authenticate quantum messages with information-theoretic security  

CERN Multimedia

Public-key cryptosystems for quantum messages are considered from two aspects: public-key encryption and public-key authentication. Firstly, we propose a general construction of quantum public-key encryption scheme, and then construct an information-theoretic secure instance. Then, we propose a quantum public-key authentication scheme, which can protect the integrity of quantum messages. This scheme can both encrypt and authenticate quantum messages. It is information-theoretic secure with regard to encryption, and the success probability of tampering decreases exponentially with the security parameter with regard to authentication. Compared with classical public-key cryptosystems, one private-key in our schemes corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys, and every quantum public-key used by the sender is an unknown quantum state to the sender.

Liang, Min

2012-01-01

204

Integrating Error Detection with data encryption algorithm using Permutation Invariant RAO Alaka Shift transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper adopts a novel approach for ensuring security of data with error detection capability. RAS Transform is a nonlinear recursive Transform. This simple but very effective RAS transform is Permutation Invariant and used to code the digital data at two levels, so that the data is encrypted and also there is multilevel error detection mechanism based on the properties of the RAS Transform. The first type is data independent and the later is data dependent. In data dependant encryption, the partially encrypted data is subjected to RAS Transformation at two levels namely, byte level and block level before transmission. The outcome is 128 bits of encrypted data together with Encryption Key. A code book of only 20 valid code words is generated to represent 256 possible octets of 8-bit data words. From each of the code words, the data word can be uniquely recovered using the data dependent symmetric encryption key. The result of this coding on a sample text data of about 189 characters size is presented.

A.V. Narasimha Rao; K. Soundara Rajan; K. Srinivasa Rao

2008-01-01

205

A Fresnelet-Based Encryption of Medical Images using Arnold Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical images are commonly stored in digital media and transmitted via Internet for certain uses. If a medical information image alters, this can lead to a wrong diagnosis which may create a serious health problem. Moreover, medical images in digital form can easily be modified by wiping off or adding small pieces of information intentionally for certain illegal purposes. Hence, the reliability of medical images is an important criterion in a hospital information system. In this paper, the Fresnelet transform is employed along with appropriate handling of the Arnold transform and the discrete cosine transform to provide secure distribution of medical images. This method presents a new data hiding system in which steganography and cryptography are used to prevent unauthorized data access. The experimental results exhibit high imperceptibility for embedded images and significant encryption of information images.

Muhammad Nazeer; Dai-Gyoung Kim; Bibi Nargis; Yasir Mehmood Malik

2013-01-01

206

Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes.

Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

2012-01-01

207

An enhanced smoothness evaluation for reversible data hiding in encrypted images  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, Zhang proposed a reversible data hiding scheme for encrypted image with a low computational complexity which is made up of image encryption, data embedding and data-extraction/image-recovery phases. During the last phase, the embedded data are extracted according to a determined smoothness measuring function on each nonoverlapping block. However, not all pixels in a block are considered in his approach. This may cause higher error rate when extracting embedded data. In this paper, we propose a novel smoothness evaluating scheme to overcome the problem. Based on the Zhang's approach, we divide the pixels in each block into three different portions: four corners, four edges, and the rest of pixels. The smoothness of a whole block is determined by summing the smoothness of three portions and is utilized to extract embedded data and recovery image. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the error rate of data-extraction/image-recovery effectively. For a given normal testing image, such as Lena, supposing that the size of each block is 8 by 8, the error rate of our approach is less than 0.6% and Zhang's method is higher than 12%. Moreover, the error rate will be zero when the size of each block is defined as 12 by 12.

Hong, Wien; Chen, Tung-Shou; Wu, Han-Yan; Chang, Hsun-Li

2012-04-01

208

Video Encryption-A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, speed, compression friendliness, format compliance and cryptographic security is presented.

Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena

2011-01-01

209

An Efficient Chaos-based Image Encryption Scheme Using Affine Modular Maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Linear congruential generator has been widely applied to generate pseudo-random numbers successfully. This paper proposes a novel chaos-based image encryption scheme using affine modular maps, which are extensions of linear congruential generators, acting on the unit interval. A permutation process utilizes two affine modular maps to get two index order sequences for the shuffling of image pixel positions, while a diffusion process employs another two affine modular maps to yield two pseudo-random gray value sequences for a two-way diffusion of gray values. Experimental results are carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to frustrate brute-force attack efficiently and can resist statistical attack, differential attack, known-plaintext attack as well as chosen-plaintext attack thanks to the yielded gray value sequences in the diffusion process not only being sensitive to the control parameters and initial conditions of the considered chaotic maps, but also strongly depending on the plain-image processed.

Ruisong Ye; Haiying Zhao

2012-01-01

210

A Security Enhanced Approach For Digital Image Steganography Using DWT And RC4 Encryption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the existence of data in another transmission medium to achieve secret communication . Steganography method used in this paper is based on biometrics, ie biometric steganography. And the biometric feature used to implement steganography is skin tone region of images. Here secret data is embedded within skin region of image that will provide an excellent secure location for data hiding. Before embedding secret data is needed to be encrypted using stream cipher encryption scheme RC4.Skin color tone detection is performed by using HSV color space.DWT is the frequency domain in which this biometric steganography is implemented.Secret data is embedded in one of the high frequency subband by tracing the number of skin pixels in that band. . Different embedding steps are applied on the cropped region of the image.ie value of this cropped region will act as a key at the decoder side. This study shows that by adopting an object oriented steganography mechanism, in the sense that, we track skin tone objects in image, we get a higher security and satisfactory PSNR obtained

Amritha.G#1, Meethu Varkey

2013-01-01

211

Encryption And Decryption Using One Pad Time Algorithm In Mac Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides standard instructions on how to protect messages, text, audio, video with one-time pad encryption.The encryption is performed with nothing more than a pencil and paper, but provides absolute message security. If properly applied, it is mathematically impossible for any eavesdropper to decrypt or break the message without the proper key. Although the Internet can be used to provide high connectivity between two parties, it does not always provide strong protection for private communications. Here we describe a strong cryptographic solution to this problem using one-time pads.

SHACHISHARMA; VINTIGUPTA

2013-01-01

212

Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accurately. It could recover tampered block with good image quality when tamper occured within the limits of the anti-tamper radius. It could effectively resist vector quantization and synchronous counterfeiting attacks on self-embedding watermarking schemes.

Shengbing Che; Zuguo Che; Xu Shu

2010-01-01

213

Security Analysis of Image Cryptosystem Using Stream Cipher Algorithm with Nonlinear Filtering Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work a new algorithm for encryption image is introduced. This algorithm makes it possible to cipher and decipher images by guaranteeing a maximum security. The algorithm introduced is based on stream cipher with nonlinear filtering function. The Boolean function used in this algorithm is resilient function satisfying all the cryptographic criteria necessary carrying out the best possible compromises. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. Experimental results illustrate that the scheme is highly key sensitive, highly resistance to the noises and shows a good resistance against brute-force, Berlekamp-Massey Attack and algebraic attack.

Belmeguenaï Aïssa; Derouiche Nadir; Mansouri Khaled

2012-01-01

214

An Improved Image Encryption Algorithm based on Chaotic System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The security of stream cipher, which is known as one of the main cipher techniques, is de...

Shubo Liu; Jing Sun; Zhengquan Xu

215

Assessing the performance of a method of simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images and its resistance against various attacks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We introduce a double optimization procedure for spectrally multiplexing multiple images. This technique is adapted from a recently proposed optical setup implementing the discrete cosine transformation (DCT). The new analysis technique is a combination of spectral fusion based on the properties of DCT, specific spectral filtering, and quantization of the remaining encoded frequencies using an optimal number of bits. Spectrally multiplexing multiple images defines a first level of encryption. A second level of encryption based on a real key image is used to reinforce encryption. A set of numerical simulations and a comparison with the well known JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard have been carried out to demonstrate the improved performances of this method. The focus here will differ from the method of simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images (SFCE) [Opt. Express 19, 24023 (2011)] in the following ways. Firstly, we shall be concerned with optimizing the compression rate by adapting the size of the spectral block to each target image and decreasing the number of bits required to encode each block. This size adaptation is achieved by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) time-frequency criterion. We found that this size adaptation provides a good tradeoff between bandwidth of spectral plane and number of reconstructed output images. Secondly, the encryption rate is improved by using a real biometric key and randomly changing the rotation angle of each block before spectral fusion. By using a real-valued key image we have been able to increase the compression rate of 50% over the original SFCE method. We provide numerical examples of the effects for size, rotation, and shifting of DCT-blocks which play noteworthy roles in the optimization of the bandwidth of the spectral plane. Inspection of the results for different types of attack demonstrates the robustness of our procedure.

Alfalou A; Brosseau C; Abdallah N; Jridi M

2013-04-01

216

Assessing the performance of a method of simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images and its resistance against various attacks.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a double optimization procedure for spectrally multiplexing multiple images. This technique is adapted from a recently proposed optical setup implementing the discrete cosine transformation (DCT). The new analysis technique is a combination of spectral fusion based on the properties of DCT, specific spectral filtering, and quantization of the remaining encoded frequencies using an optimal number of bits. Spectrally multiplexing multiple images defines a first level of encryption. A second level of encryption based on a real key image is used to reinforce encryption. A set of numerical simulations and a comparison with the well known JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard have been carried out to demonstrate the improved performances of this method. The focus here will differ from the method of simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images (SFCE) [Opt. Express 19, 24023 (2011)] in the following ways. Firstly, we shall be concerned with optimizing the compression rate by adapting the size of the spectral block to each target image and decreasing the number of bits required to encode each block. This size adaptation is achieved by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) time-frequency criterion. We found that this size adaptation provides a good tradeoff between bandwidth of spectral plane and number of reconstructed output images. Secondly, the encryption rate is improved by using a real biometric key and randomly changing the rotation angle of each block before spectral fusion. By using a real-valued key image we have been able to increase the compression rate of 50% over the original SFCE method. We provide numerical examples of the effects for size, rotation, and shifting of DCT-blocks which play noteworthy roles in the optimization of the bandwidth of the spectral plane. Inspection of the results for different types of attack demonstrates the robustness of our procedure. PMID:23571893

Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Abdallah, N; Jridi, M

2013-04-01

217

Parallel algorithms for image analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper surveys the types of algorithms that are used in image processing and analysis, at both the pixel level and the region level, and discusses how such algorithms might be implemented in parallel using various types of cellular architectures.

Rosenfeld, A.

1982-06-01

218

Novel Fast Encryption Algorithms for Multimedia Transmission over Mobile WiMax Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Security support is mandatory for any communication networks. For wireless systems, security support is even more important to protect the users as well as the network. Since wireless medium is available to all, the attackers can easily access the network and the network becomes more vulnerable for the user and the network service provider. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) is going to be an emerging wireless technology nowadays. With the increasing popularity of Broadband internet, wireless networking market is thriving. In the IEEE 802.16e, security has been considered as the main issue during the design of the protocol. However, security mechanism of WiMax still remains an open research field. WiMax is relatively a new technology not deployed widely to justify the evidence of threats, risk and vulnerability in real situations. In this paper, a research is described three proposed chaos encryption techniques for multimedia transmission over Mobile WiMax physical and MAC layers. At first a global overview of the technology WiMax is given followed by an explanation of traditional encryption techniques used in WiMax. Then the proposed encryption techniques are presented with its chaos systems. Next, these techniques will be applied to different multimedia contents to compare between them and traditional techniques such as AES, IDEA, Blowfish and DES.

M.A. Mohamed; F.W. Zaki; A.M. Elmohandes

2012-01-01

219

New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protecting data is a very old art and wide use since the Egyptian when they identify the 1st encryption method in this world, the spiciest people categorize protecting data under computer forensic and others locate it under network security, cryptography methods are the backbone of this art, nowadays many of new techniques for the attacker's beings develops, a lot of methods for information protecting start dropping down such as RSA and stander encryption methods, in the same time a new methods has been appeared such as Quantum cryptography, the new methods has faced problems in the key distribution or key management and some time such as RSA there is a function may estimate the keys, In this paper we will make a comparative study between the key management distribution methods, in fact we will talk about QKD Encryption in the fiber optic area vice verse the KDM in the normal networks, for instant there are two known methods, KDM "Diffi- Hellman" and XKMS.

Bilal Bahaa Zaidan; Aws Alaa Zaidan; Harith Mwafak

2009-01-01

220

Double image encryption based on phase–amplitude mixed encoding and multistage phase encoding in gyrator transform domains  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel method for double image encryption that is based on amplitude–phase mixed encoding and multistage random phase encoding in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In the amplitude–phase mixed encoding operation, a random binary distribution matrix is defined to mixed encode two primitive images to a single complex-valued image, which is then encrypted into a stationary white noise distribution by the multistage phase encoding with GTs. Compared with the earlier methods that uses fully phase encoding, the proposed method reduces the difference between two primitive images in key space and sensitivity to the GT orders. The primitive images can be recovered exactly by applying correct keys with initial conditions of chaotic system, the GT orders and the pixel scrambling operation. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed scheme has considerably high security level and certain robustness against data loss and noise disturbance.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Testing a Variety of Encryption Technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Review and test speeds of various encryption technologies using Entrust Software. Multiple encryption algorithms are included in the product. Algorithms tested were IDEA, CAST, DES, and RC2. Test consisted of taking a 7.7 MB Word document file which included complex graphics and timing encryption, decryption and signing. Encryption is discussed in the GIAC Kickstart section: Information Security: The Big Picture--Part VI.

Henson, T J

2001-04-09

222

Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-15

223

Cryptosystem based on two-step phase-shifting interferometry and the RSA public-key encryption algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

A hybrid cryptosystem is proposed, in which one image is encrypted to two interferograms with the aid of double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and two-step phase-shifting interferometry (2-PSI), then three pairs of public-private keys are utilized to encode and decode the session keys (geometrical parameters, the second random-phase mask) and interferograms. In the stage of decryption, the ciphered image can be decrypted by wavefront reconstruction, inverse Fresnel diffraction, and real amplitude normalization. This approach can successfully solve the problem of key management and dispatch, resulting in increased security strength. The feasibility of the proposed cryptosystem and its robustness against some types of attack are verified and analyzed by computer simulations.

Meng, X. F.; Peng, X.; Cai, L. Z.; Li, A. M.; Gao, Z.; Wang, Y. R.

2009-08-01

224

Investigating Encrypted Material  

Science.gov (United States)

When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.

McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe

225

A Selective Encryption for Heterogenous Color JPEG Images Based on VLC and AES Stream Cipher  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, the most important engine to provide confidentiality is encryption. Therefore, the classical and modern ciphers are not suitable for huge quantity of data in real-time environment. Selective encryption (SE) is an approach to encode only the most important portion of the data in order to pr...

Rodrigues, José; Puech, William; Bors, Adrian

226

Optical Encryption with Jigsaw Transform using Matlab  

CERN Multimedia

This article will describe an optical encryption technical of images which it is proposed in an analogical and digital way. The development of the technical to a digital level, it is made to implementing algorithms (routines) in MATLAB. We will propose a functional diagram to the described analogical development from which designated the optical systems associated with each functional block. Level of security that the jigsaw algorithms provide applied on an image, which has been decomposed into its bit-planes, is significantly better if they are applied on an image that has not been previously decomposed.

Giraldo, Leidy Marcela

2012-01-01

227

Algorithms for cellular image processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Algorithms for performing basic image processing tasks on cellular machines are surveyed. Emphasis is on pixel-level algorithms for performing local operations, transforms, geometric operations and statistical computations. Operations involving nonarray structures (region representations, region graphs) are also discussed. 9 references.

Rosenfeld, A.

1983-01-01

228

A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding  

CERN Multimedia

Cryptography is always very important in data origin authentications, entity authentication, data integrity and confidentiality. In recent years, a variety of chaotic cryptographic schemes have been proposed. These schemes has typical structure which performed the permutation and the diffusion stages, alternatively. The random number generators are intransitive in cryptographic schemes and be used in the diffusion functions of the image encryption for diffused pixels of plain image. In this paper, we propose a chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by a novel logistic pseudorandom image algorithm. To evaluate the security of the cipher image of this scheme, the key space analysis, the correlation of two adjacent pixels and differential attack were performed. This scheme tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space and level of security.

Sadra, Yaser; Fard, Zahra Arasteh

2012-01-01

229

Unicity Distance of Quantum Encryption Protocols  

CERN Multimedia

Shannon's concept of the unicity distance is present for classical encryption protocols, we attempt to develop it into the quantum context. Firstly we present a classification of the private key encryption protocols, there are five kinds of them. Then we present the definition of the unicity distance of encryption protocols whose plaintext space and key space are both set by classical bits and the algorithm is a quantum algorithm, we call this CCQ-unicity distance. Based on this definition we show two quantum encryption protocols whose CCQ-unicity distance is finite but much bigger than Shannon's unicity distance, and show a quantum encryption protocol with infinite CCQ-unicity distance.

Xiang, Chong

2012-01-01

230

A Secure Image Based Steganographic Model Using RSA Algorithm and LSB Insertion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the term used to describe the hiding of data in images to avoid detection by attackers. It is an emerging area which is used for secured data transmission over any public media. In this study a novel approach of image steganography based on LSB (Least Significant Bit) insertion and RSA encryption technique for the lossless jpeg images has been proposed. This paper discusses an application which ranks images in a users library based on their suitability as cover objects for some data. The data is matched to an image; so there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover the data. The application first encrypts the data using RSA algorithm. The message bits are embedded into the image using Least Significant Bits insertion. Before embedding, the message bits are encrypted using RSA algorithm, resulting in increased robustness. This would decrease the intentional attacks which try to reveal the hidden message. At the receiver side reverse operation has been carried out to get back the original information

Swati Tiwari R. P. Mahajan

2012-01-01

231

Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)

2007-01-01

232

Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)

Palacios, R.

2007-07-01

233

An Integrated Algorithm Supporting Confidentiality and Integrity for Secured Access and Storage of DICOM Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In healthcare industry, the patient's medical data plays a vital role because diagnosis of anyailments is done by using those data. The high volume of medical data leads to scalability andmaintenance issues when using health-care provider's on-site picture archiving andcommunication system (PACS) and network oriented storage system. Therefore a standard isneeded for maintaining the medical data and for better diagnosis. Since the medical data reflectsin a similar way to individuals’ personal information, secrecy should be maintained. Maintainingsecrecy can be done by encrypting the data, but as medical data involves images and videos,traditional text based encryption/decryption schemes are not adequate for providingconfidentiality. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for securing the DICOM format medicalarchives by providing better confidentiality and maintaining their integrity. Our contribution in thisalgorithm is of twofold: (1) Development of Improved Chaotic based Arnold Cat Map forencryption/decryption of DICOM files and (2) Applying a new hash algorithm based on chaotictheory for those encrypted files for maintaining integrity. By applying this algorithm, the secrecy ofmedical data is maintained. The proposed algorithm is tested with various DICOM format imagearchives by studying the following parameters i) PSNR - for quality of images and ii) Key - forsecurity.

Suresh Jaganathan; Arun Fera M

2012-01-01

234

SIMD algorithms for image rendering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A parameterized cast model for SIMD machines is developed and used to rank projective image rendering algorithms. The ranking considers such an extremely broad range of remote communication costs that it holds for all practical situations. Ranked first is a new projective algorithm presented in the thesis. Empirical results support the ranking developed from the analytic models. The cost model is also applied to ray tracing, so that precomputed approximate sorts of surface primitives can be rigorously used to speed parallel ray tracing. The general-purpose architecture assumption is justified by showing that special-purpose machines actually render images more slowly. The author conjectures that neither SIMD nor MIMD architectures have a fundamental advantage when efficient algorithms are known for both machine types. The algorithms and analysis presented can serve as a model for SIMD computations in other applications domains.

Walsh, R.J.

1989-01-01

235

A New Public-Key Encryption Scheme Based on Non-Expansion Visual Cryptography and Boolean Operation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, most of the existing public-key encryption schemes are based on complex algorithms with heavy computations. In 1994, Naor and Shamir proposed a simple cryptography method for digital images called visual cryptography. Existing visual cryptography primitives can be considered as a special kind of secret-key cryptography that does not require heavy computations for encrypting and decrypting an image. In this paper, we propose a new public-key encryption scheme for image based on non-expansion visual cryptography and Boolean operation. The proposed scheme uses only Boolean operations and therefore requires comparatively lower computations.

Abdullah M. Jaafar; Azman Samsudin

2010-01-01

236

Morphological Algorithms for Image Processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical morphological operators are based on set theoretic approach and are suitable for extracting shape information. Some important operators are dilation, erosion, opening and closing. Image intensity profile may be viewed as a topographical surface, where pixel co-ordinate stands for the location and the intensity for the altitude. Thus, the surface relief and slope represent different types of object features. Hence, morphological tools are found very effective for image processing. In this paper we discuss various image processing algorithms using morphological tools and the results obtained by applying them on both grayscale as well as colour image.

Chanda Bhabatosh

2008-01-01

237

SRI RAMSHALAKA: A VEDIC METHOD OF TEXT ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates usability of SriRamshalakha, a vedic tool used in Indian Astrology, in the encryption and decryption of plain English text. Sri Ram Shalaka appears in Sri RamChartmanas, one of the very popular sacred epic of Hindu religion, written by great Saint Tulsidasji. SriRamshalakha is used to fetch/infer the approximate answer of questions/decisions by the believers. Basically, the said shalaka embed nine philosophical verses from Sri RamCharitmanas in a matrix form based on which answers to queries are inferred and ingrained. However, none of the verses are visible and directly readable. Thus here we take SriRamshalakha as the ancient Indian method of text encryption and decryption and based on the same algorithms for the encryption and decryption of plain English text areproposed. The developed algorithms are presented with examples and possibility of its use in steganography and text to image transformation are also discussed.

Rajkishore Prasad

2013-01-01

238

A CHALLENGE IN HIDING ENCRYPTED MESSAGE IN LSB AND LSB+1 BIT POSITIONS IN VARIOUS Cover Files  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work basically shows us how one can hide information in encrypted form to any cover file such as .exe files, Microsoft office files, .dbf files, image files, audio files and video files. However, the size of the hidden message must be very small in comparison to cover file which is an executable file. So far no one has tried to hide information inside any executable file. To make the system fully secured we first encrypt the secret message using MSA algorithm (Nath et al.(1)) and then we hide the encrypted message inside the cover file. introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1). For hiding secret message we have changed both LSB and LSB+1 bits of each byte of the cover file. A generalized method was proposed by Nath etal(2) where they embed the secret message without going for any encryption.. The MSA(1) algorithm introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. The MSA (1) method also incorporates the multiple encryption and decryption process. To initiate the MSA algorithm the user has to enter a text_key, which can be of 16 characters long. This text_key is used to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and the MSA algorithm ensures that any of the pattern may be used for encryption as well as decryption process. To hide encrypted secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 4 consecutive bytes of the cover file such that only LSB and LSB+1 bits are changed depending on the bit pattern of the encrypted secret message. To make system further secured one has to enter a password before the actual steganography process starts. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any non-standard cover file such as executable file, compiler, MS-Office files, Data Base files such as .DBF, text editor such as notepad plus the standard cover files such as image, audio, video files etc. The size of the secret message be very small in comparison to the executable cover file. The present method may be implemented in mobile network, Bank data transactions in government sectors, in police department.

Joyshree Nath

2011-01-01

239

Image feature extraction in encrypted domain with privacy-preserving SIFT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Privacy has received considerable attention but is still largely ignored in the multimedia community. Consider a cloud computing scenario where the server is resource-abundant, and is capable of finishing the designated tasks. It is envisioned that secure media applications with privacy preservation will be treated seriously. In view of the fact that scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) has been widely adopted in various fields, this paper is the first to target the importance of privacy-preserving SIFT (PPSIFT) and to address the problem of secure SIFT feature extraction and representation in the encrypted domain. As all of the operations in SIFT must be moved to the encrypted domain, we propose a privacy-preserving realization of the SIFT method based on homomorphic encryption. We show through the security analysis based on the discrete logarithm problem and RSA that PPSIFT is secure against ciphertext only attack and known plaintext attack. Experimental results obtained from different case studies demonstrate that the proposed homomorphic encryption-based privacy-preserving SIFT performs comparably to the original SIFT and that our method is useful in SIFT-based privacy-preserving applications.

Hsu CY; Lu CS; Pei SC

2012-11-01

240

Image Compression Using Harmony Search Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression techniques are important and useful in data storage and image transmission through the Internet. These techniques eliminate redundant information in an image which minimizes the physical space requirement of the image. Numerous types of image compression algorithms have been developed but the resulting image is still less than the optimal. The Harmony search algorithm (HSA), a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the music improvisation process of musicians, was applied as the underlying algorithm for image compression. Experiment results show that it is feasible to use the harmony search algorithm as an algorithm for image compression. The HSA-based image compression technique was able to compress colored and grayscale images with minimal visual information loss.

Ryan Rey M. Daga; John Paul T. Yusiong

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Hardware Implementation of Multimedia Encryption Techniques Using FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia encryption algorithm has gain importance nowadays for copyright protection. Many multimedia encryption Techniques had been designed and tested software base. We will implement a library of hardware realization using FPGA of seven multimedia encryption algorithms. Simulation results had shown that blowfish provided the best result. In addition we proposed new encryption method based on cascaded techniques. This cascaded method provides a great improvement .The discussed techniques were tested on multimedia database.

M.A. Mohamed; M.E. Abou-Elsoud; W.M. Kamal El-Din

2012-01-01

242

Photoacoustic imaging with deconvolution algorithm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The impulse response of the ultrasonic transducer used for detection is crucial for photoacoustic imaging with high resolution. We demonstrate a reconstruction method that allows the optical absorption distribution of a sample to be reconstructed without knowing the impulse response of the ultrasonic transducer. A convolution relationship between photoacoustic signals measured by an ultrasound transducer and optical absorption distribution is developed. Based on this theory, the projection of the optical absorption distribution of a sample can be obtained directly by deconvolving the recorded PA signal originating from a point source out of that from the sample. And a modified filtered back projection algorithm is used to reconstruct the optical absorption distribution. We constructed a photoacoustic imaging system to validate the reconstruction method and the experimental results demonstrated that the reconstructed images agreed well with the original phantom samples. The spatial resolution of the system reaches 0.3 mm

2004-07-21

243

Image Fusion using Evolutionary Algorithm (GA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image fusion is the process of combining images taken from different sources to obtain better situational awareness. In fusing source images the objective is to combine the most relevant information from source images into composite image. Genetic algorithm is used for solving optimization problems. Genetic algorithm can be employed to image fusion where some kind of parameter optimization is required.In this paper we proposed genetic algorithm based schemes for image fusion and proved that these schemes perform better than the conventional methods through comparison of parameters namely image quality index, mutual information, root mean square error and peak signal to noise ratio.

V Jyothi; B Rajesh Kumar; P Krishna Rao; D V Rama Koti Reddy

2011-01-01

244

AMALGAMATION OF CYCLIC BIT OPERATION IN SD-EI IMAGE ENCRYPTION METHOD: AN ADVANCED VERSION OF SD-EI METHOD: SD-EI VER-2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents an advanced version of image encryption technique, which is itself an upgraded version of SD-EI image encryption method. In this new method, SD-EI Ver-2, there are more bit wise manipulations compared to original SD-EI method. The proposed method consist of three stages: 1) First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2) In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3) In last stage, we perform modified Cyclic Bit manipulation. First, the pixel values are again converted to their 8 bit binary format. Then 8 consecutive pixels are chosen and a 8X8 matrix is formed out of these 8 bit 8 pixels. After that, matrix cyclic operation is performed randomized number of times, which is again dependent on the password provided for encryption. After the generation of new 8 bit value of pixels, they are again converted to their decimal format and the new value is written in place of the old pixel value. SD-EI Ver-2 has been tested on different image files and the results were very satisfactory.

Somdip Dey

2012-01-01

245

Robust Secure and Blind Watermarking Based on DWT DCT Partial Multi Map Chaotic Encryption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Commutative Watermarking and Partial Encryption (CWPE) algorithm based onDiscrete Wavelet Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform (DWT-DCT) for watermarking and Multi-MapWavelet Chaotic Encryption (MMW-CE) is proposed. The original host image is first decomposed into foursub-bands using (DWT), each sub-band coefficients are relocated using Arnold transform to create a noiselikeversion, then apply partial encryption scheme using chaotic scrambled random number pattern bitwiseXOR with the scrambled horizontal coefficients only and the shuffled approximation coefficients aredivided into non-overlapping and equal sized blocks. Watermark embedding process is based on extractingthe (DCT) middle frequencies of the encrypted approximation coefficients blocks. Comparison basedthreshold of the extracted DCT mid-band coefficients, watermark bits are embedded in the coefficients ofthe corresponding DCT middle frequencies. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm isrobust against common signal processing attacks. The proposed algorithm is able to reduce encryption toone quarter of the image information. Statistical and differential analyses are performed to estimate thesecurity strength of the proposed algorithm. The results of the security analysis show that the proposedalgorithm provides a high security level for real time application.

Esam A. Hagras; M. S. El-Mahallawy; A. Zein Eldin; M. W. Fakhr

2011-01-01

246

Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimiz...

Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

247

New parallel binary image thinning algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes new parallel thinning algorithm for binary images. The use of 3X3 mask for pixel deletability in parallel and pixel deletion criteria needed to preserve the connectivity of the image pattern is exclusively discussed. This algorithm preserves the connectivity of an input image. The experimental result shows the better performance in terms of thinning and excessive erosion.

A. Jagan; V. Kamakshiprasad

2010-01-01

248

Enhanced Throughput AES Encryption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents our experience in implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. We have used 128 bit block size and 128 bit cipher key for the implementation. The AES also known as Rijndael algorithm is used to ensure security of transmission channels. Xilinx design tool 13.3 and Xilinx project navigator design tool are used for synthesis and simulation. Very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) is used for coding. The fully pipelined design was implemented on Virtex 6 FPGA family and a throughput of 49.3Gbits/s was achieved with an operational frequency of 384.793 MHz.

Kunal Lala; Ajay Kumar; Amit Kumar

2012-01-01

249

Genetic algorithm applied to fractal image compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the technique of Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied for Fractal Image Compression (FIC). With the help of this evolutionary algorithm effort is made to reduce the search complexity of matching between range block and domain block. One of the image compression techniques in the spatial domain is Fractal Image Compression but the main drawback of FIC is that it involves more computational time due to global search. In order to improve the computational time and also the acceptable quality of the decoded image, Genetic algorithm is proposed. Experimental results show that the Genetic Algorithm is a better method than the traditional exhaustive search method.

Y. Chakrapani; K. Soundera Rajan

2009-01-01

250

A fast chaotic encryption scheme based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, a growing number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this Letter, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on one-dimensional piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps. The system is a measurable dynamical system with an interesting property of being either ergodic or having stable period-one fixed point. They bifurcate from a stable single periodic state to chaotic one and vice versa without having usual period-doubling or period-n-tippling scenario. Also, we present the KS-entropy of this maps with respect to control parameter. This algorithm tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space, encryption speed and level of security.

Behnia, S. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: s.behnia@iaurmia.ac.ir; Akhshani, A. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahadpour, S. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Tabriz University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Mohaghegh Ardabili University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmodi, H. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, A. [Department of Engineering, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2007-07-02

251

A fast chaotic encryption scheme based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In recent years, a growing number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this Letter, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on one-dimensional piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps. The system is a measurable dynamical system with an interesting property of being either ergodic or having stable period-one fixed point. They bifurcate from a stable single periodic state to chaotic one and vice versa without having usual period-doubling or period-n-tippling scenario. Also, we present the KS-entropy of this maps with respect to control parameter. This algorithm tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space, encryption speed and level of security

2007-07-02

252

General Research on Image Segmentation Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As one of the fundamental approaches of digital image processing, image segmentation is the premise of feature extraction and pattern recognition. This paper enumerates and reviews main image segmentation algorithms, then presents basic evaluation methods for them, and finally discusses the prospect of image segmentation. Some valuable characteristics of image segmentation come out based on a large number of comparative experiments.

Qingqiang Yang; Wenxiong Kang

2009-01-01

253

Fast and secure data transmission using symmetric encryption and lossless compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the fast progression of data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming more important in data storage and transmission. While storing and transmitting multimedia data are noteasy and they need large storage devices and high bandwidth network systems. Compression and encryption technologies are important to the efficient solving of network bandwidth and security issues. This paper focus on dual approach of compression and security where compression is achieved through lossless algorithm (either Huffman coding or LZW) according to size and type of image data and compressed data is encrypted using traditional DES Algorithm.

Mohini Chaudhari; Dr. Kanak Saxena

2013-01-01

254

THE JPEG IMAGE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basis for the JPEG algorithm is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) which extracts spatial frequency information from the spatial amplitude samples. These frequency components are then quantized to eliminate the visual data from the image that is least perceptually apparent, thereby reducing the amount of information that must be stored. The redundant properties of the quantized frequency samples are exploited through quantization, run-length and huffman coding to produce the compressed representation. Each of these steps is reversible to the extent that an acceptable approximation of the original space-amplitude samples can be reconstructed from the compressed form. This paper examines each step in the compression and decompression.

Muzhir Shaban AL-Ani; Fouad Hammadi Awad

2013-01-01

255

Asymmetric cryptosystem using random binary phase modulation based on mixture retrieval type of Yang-Gu algorithm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose an asymmetric optical image encryption scheme that uses an amplitude and phase mixture retrieval of the Yang-Gu algorithm. The encryption process is realized by employing a cascaded Yang-Gu algorithm together with two random phase masks that serve as the public encryption keys. The two private keys are generated in the encryption process and are randomly distributed binary matrices to be used for performing one-way binary phase modulations. Without the private keys, illegal users cannot retrieve the secret image. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the validity and security of the proposed scheme.

Liu W; Liu Z; Liu S

2013-05-01

256

AMBTC-Compressed Image Using Genetic Algorithm  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we present an image-hiding scheme based on genetic algorithm. The secret messages are embedded into a compressed image of AMBTC. Genetic algorithm is enveloped to find the best substitution of AMBTC bitmap. The proposed scheme provides high visual quality of the stego-image. The enhanced system of the proposed scheme increases embedding capacity while retaining good quality of the stego-image. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme outperform the comparative schemes.

Anubhuti Khare; Manish Saxena; Heena A Jain

2011-01-01

257

IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT WITH CRYPTOGRAPHY  

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Full Text Available To increase the security of messages sent over the internet steganography is used. This paper discussed a technique based on the LSB(least significant bit) and a new encryption algorithm. By matching data to an image, there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover data. Before hiding the data in an image the application first encrypts it. Keywords- Steganography, LSB(least significant bit), Encryption, Decryption.

Vikas Tyagi

2012-01-01

258

Mixing Compression and CA Encryption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the enciphering of a data stream while it is being compressed by a dictionary algorithm. This scheme has to be compared to the classical encryption after compression methods used in classical security protocols. Actually, most cryptanalysis techniques exploit patterns found in the plaint...

Martin, Bruno

259

Implementing of microscopic images mosaic revising algorithm  

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Full Text Available Microscopic image mosaic stitches several adjacent images into an integrated seamless picture, and is of significant practical value to remote medicine applications, especially in remote diagnosis. However, due to limitation in image acquisition method, a mismatch could occur as a result of variance in adjacent image stitching data and accumulation of errors. The current image stitching method still has room for improvement regarding processing speed and effectiveness, particularly in precision. In this paper, we proposed a new image mosaic revising algorithms based on the relativity of adjacent images and expounding the principal and equations on image mosaic error revising, as well as achieving automatic intelligent calculation with the revised algorithm. Through experiment, inaccurate pathological mosaic images from 20 groups were revised rapidly and accurately with error controlled within one pixel. It was proved that the approach is effective in revising the error matching in microscopic images mosaic. Moreover, it is easy to operate and effective for more accurate image stitching.

Haishun Wang; Rong Wang; Limin Chen

2011-01-01

260

A Separating Algorithm for Overlapping Cell Images  

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Full Text Available The cell overlapping and adhesion phenomenon often exists in cell image processing. Separating overlapped cell into single ones is of great important and difficult in cell image quantitative analysis and automatic recognition. In this paper, an algorithm based on concave region extraction and erosion limit has been proposed to judge and separate overlapping cell images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a good separation effects on analog cell images. Then the method is applying in actual cervical cell image and obtains good separation result.

Jinping Fan; Yonglin Zhang; Ruichun Wang; Shiguo Li

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A Novel Pavement Distress Image Filtering Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Combined the Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) with compressed sensing de-noising theory, this study proposed a compressed sensing image filtering algorithm in the NSCT transform domain. This algorithm adopted the transform domain filtering method. Firstly, the NSCT was used to do multi-scale and multi-directional transform on the input noisy pavement distress Image which was mapped to the transform domain. Then the compressed sensing theory was used to filter the high-frequency sub-band coefficients. The experiment results show that this algorithm improves the effectiveness and timeliness of the pavement distress image filtering.

Shen Yu; Dang Jian-Wu; Feng Xin; Wang Yang-Ping

2013-01-01

262

A Review on Otsu Image Segmentation Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Image segmentation is the fundamental approach of digital image processing. Among all the segmentation methods, Otsu method is one of the most successful methods for image thresholding because of its simple calculation. Otsu is an automatic threshold selection region based segmentation method. This paper studies various Otsu algorithms.

Miss Hetal J. Vala, Prof. Astha Baxi

2013-01-01

263

Multiply-agile encryption in high speed communication networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different applications have different security requirements for data privacy, data integrity, and authentication. Encryption is one technique that addresses these requirements. Encryption hardware, designed for use in high-speed communications networks, can satisfy a wide variety of security requirements if that hardware is key-agile, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile. Hence, multiply-agile encryption provides enhanced solutions to the secrecy, interoperability and quality of service issues in high-speed networks. This paper defines these three types of agile encryption. Next, implementation issues are discussed. While single-algorithm, key-agile encryptors exist, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile encryptors are still research topics.

Pierson, L.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Witzke, E.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-05-01

264

Data Based Text Encrypting in Audio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays data authentication plays a major for the secrete transmission of the data respectively. Here in this data oriented authentication involves encryption followed by the respective decryption. Where in the encryption process takes place in the transmitter end while decryption takes place or handled at the receiver end respectively. Here an algorithm is designed based on the above strategy where complete privacy is maintained by the system. This one of the data hiding technique. Some of the data hiding techniques include cryptography, Stenography and watermarking. Therefore there is a slight variation between all these techniques in their implementation. Here the protection is also follows where we can hide text in text, Speech in the song which is related to the audio based scenario, Text in the song, Image in the image and text in the image respectively. Here the main aim of the projects is to hide the data in the form of text I the signal respectively. Here in this present methodology we are going to implement the method by the name of RSA respectively. Where the experimental analysis show that this particular method is used for the accurate hiding of the data takes place that is in the form of security based scenario.

Bommala Suneel Kumar; S. Satyanarayana

2013-01-01

265

A segmentation algorithm for noisy images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a 2-D image segmentation algorithm and addresses issues related to its performance on noisy images. The algorithm segments an image by first constructing a minimum spanning tree representation of the image and then partitioning the spanning tree into sub-trees representing different homogeneous regions. The spanning tree is partitioned in such a way that the sum of gray-level variations over all partitioned subtrees is minimized under the constraints that each subtree has at least a specified number of pixels and two adjacent subtrees have significantly different ``average`` gray-levels. Two types of noise, transmission errors and Gaussian additive noise. are considered and their effects on the segmentation algorithm are studied. Evaluation results have shown that the segmentation algorithm is robust in the presence of these two types of noise.

Xu, Y.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.

1996-12-31

266

Advanced Web Image Retrievel Using Clustering Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose a novel methodology for Web Image retrieval system that takes an image as theinput query and retrieves images based on image content. Content Based Image Retrieval is an approachfor retrieving semantically-relevant images from an image store based on algorithmically-derived imagefeatures. We propose an algorithm to represent images using divisive and partitioned based clusteringapproaches. The HSV color component and Haar wavelet transform has been used to extract imagefeatures. These features are taken to segment an image to obtain objects. For segmenting an image,modified k-means clustering algorithm was used to group similar pixel together into K groups with clustercenters. To modify K-means, a divisive based clustering algorithm has been proposed to determine thenumber of cluster and get back with number of cluster to k-means to obtain significant object groups. Inaddition, the similarity distance measure using threshold value and object uniqueness to quantify theresults was also measured.

Umesh K K; Suresha

2011-01-01

267

Comparison of rotation algorithms for digital images  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a comparative study of several algorithms developed for digital image rotation. No losing generality we studied gray scale images. We have tested methods preserving gray values of the original images, performing some interpolation and two procedures implemented into the Corel Photo-paint and Adobe Photoshop soft packages. By the similar way methods for rotation of color images may be evaluated also.

Starovoitov, Valery V.; Samal, Dmitry

1999-09-01

268

Masking Digital Image using a Novel technique based on a Transmission Chaotic System and SPIHT Coding Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, a new transmission system of encrypted image based on novel chaotic system and SPIHT technique is proposed. This chaotic system is made up of two chaotic systems already developed: the discrete-time modified Henon chaotic system and the continuous-time Colpitts one. The transmission system is designed to take profit of two advantages. The first is the use of a robust and standard algorithm (SPIHT) which is appropriate to the digital transmission. The second is to introduce farther complexity of the encryption using the chaotic system over secure channel. Through these two advantages, our purpose is to obtain a robust system against pirate attacks. Cryptanalysis and various experiments have been carried out and the results were reported in this paper, which demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed scheme.

Hamiche Hamid; Lahdir Mourad; Tahanout Mohammed; Djennoune Said

2013-01-01

269

A Noise Removal Algorithm of Color Image  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An algorithm of the color image noise removal algorithm is put forward based on the pixel operations. The idea of the algorithm is to read every pixel in a set order and determine whether the pixel level is consistent with the probability density function of impulse noise or not. If it is similar to noise pixel, the number of impulse noise in a certain mask is counted. If the number is less than the given threshold, the pixel is considered as possible noise. The pixel value is not unchanged. Otherwise it is considered as noise, the result mask operation of the pixel is to replace the pixel value. Otherwise it isn’t considered as noise, the pixel value is also unchanged. The experimental results show that the algorithm is applicable to the gray noisy image and the color noisy image.It has the advantages of higher speed and more stable noise removal effects.

WANG Jianwei

2013-01-01

270

Color Image Clustering using Block Truncation Algorithm  

CERN Multimedia

With the advancement in image capturing device, the image data been generated at high volume. If images are analyzed properly, they can reveal useful information to the human users. Content based image retrieval address the problem of retrieving images relevant to the user needs from image databases on the basis of low-level visual features that can be derived from the images. Grouping images into meaningful categories to reveal useful information is a challenging and important problem. Clustering is a data mining technique to group a set of unsupervised data based on the conceptual clustering principal: maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. Proposed framework focuses on color as feature. Color Moment and Block Truncation Coding (BTC) are used to extract features for image dataset. Experimental study using K-Means clustering algorithm is conducted to group the image dataset into various clusters.

Silakari, Sanjay; Maheshwari, Manish

2009-01-01

271

Novel Algorithm for Classification of Medical Images  

Science.gov (United States)

Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods in medical image databases have been designed to support specific tasks, such as retrieval of medical images. These methods cannot be transferred to other medical applications since different imaging modalities require different types of processing. To enable content-based queries in diverse collections of medical images, the retrieval system must be familiar with the current Image class prior to the query processing. Further, almost all of them deal with the DICOM imaging format. In this paper a novel algorithm based on energy information obtained from wavelet transform for the classification of medical images according to their modalities is described. For this two types of wavelets have been used and have been shown that energy obtained in either case is quite distinct for each of the body part. This technique can be successfully applied to different image formats. The results are shown for JPEG imaging format.

Bhushan, Bharat; Juneja, Monika

2010-11-01

272

Color Image Clustering using Block Truncation Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the advancement in image capturing device, the image data been generated at high volume. If images are analyzed properly, they can reveal useful information to the human users. Content based image retrieval address the problem of retrieving images relevant to the user needs from image databases on the basis of low-level visual features that can be derived from the images. Grouping images into meaningful categories to reveal useful information is a challenging and important problem. Clustering is a data mining technique to group a set of unsupervised data based on the conceptual clustering principal: maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. Proposed framework focuses on color as feature. Color Moment and Block Truncation Coding (BTC) are used to extract features for image dataset. Experimental study using K-Means clustering algorithm is conducted to group the image dataset into various clusters.

Sanjay Silakari; Mahesh Motwani; Manish Maheshwari

2009-01-01

273

An algorithm for noisy image segmentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a segmentation algorithm for gray-level images and addresses issues related to its performance on noisy images. It formulates an image segmentation problem as a partition of an image into (arbitrarily-shaped) connected regions to minimize the sum of gray-level variations over all partitioned regions, under the constraints that (1) each partitioned region has at least a specified number of pixels, and (2) two adjacent regions have significantly different {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} gray-levels. To overcome the computational difficulty of directly solving this problem, a minimum spanning tree representation of a gray-level image has been developed. With this tree representation, an image segmentation problem is effectively reduced to a tree partitioning problem, which can be solved efficiently. To evaluate the algorithm, the authors have studied how noise affects the performance of the algorithm. Two types of noise, transmission noise and Gaussian additive noise, are considered, and their effects on both phases of the algorithm, construction of a tree representation and partition of a tree, are studied. Evaluation results have shown that the algorithm is stable and robust in the presence of these types of noise.

Xu, Ying; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.

1997-09-01

274

Digital Image Watermarking in Frequency Domain Using ECC and Dual Encryption Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presented an algorithm to protect the copyright watermark by providing Hamming codes as error correcting technique. Watermark was embedded in frequency domain using discrete cosine transformation and discrete wavelet transformation, to enhance the susceptibility. Combinations of two techniques are used to target medium frequencies only. Randomness of the watermark is also created before embedding. Instead of embedding in the same place in every block, it is embedded adaptively which depends upon the row and column of that particular block. Results prove the effectiveness of the algorithm against various attacks like jpeg attack, filtering and addition of noises like Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise and speckle noise. ECC proved to be effective to recover the watermark after certain attacks performed.

G.S. Kalra; R. Talwar; H. Sadawarti

2013-01-01

275

Three-dimensional photon counting double-random-phase encryption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) photon counting double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) technique using passive integral imaging. A 3D photon counting DRPE can encrypt a 3D scene and provides more security and authentications due to photon counting Poisson nonlinear transformation on the encrypted image. In addition, 3D imaging allows verification of the 3D object at different depths. Preliminary results and performance evaluation have been presented.

Cho M; Javidi B

2013-09-01

276

A New Algorithm to Represent Texture Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent times the spatial autoregressive models have been extensively used to represent images. In this paper we propose an algorithm to represent and reproduce texture images based on the estimation of spatial autoregressive processes. The image intensity is locally modeled by a first spatial autoregressive model with support in a strongly causal prediction region on the plane. A basic criteria to quantify similarity between two images is used to locally select this region among four different possibilities, corresponding to the four strongly causal regions on the plane. Two global image similarity measures are used to evaluate the performance of our proposal.

Silvia María Ojeda; Grisel Maribel Britos

2013-01-01

277

Encrypted message transmission in a QO-STBC encoded MISO wireless Communication system under implementation of low complexity ML decoding algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we made a comprehensive BER simulation study of a quasi- orthogonal space time block encoded (QO-STBC) multiple-input single output(MISO) system. The communication system under investigation has incorporated four digital modulations (QPSK, QAM, 16PSK and 16QAM) over an Additative White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Raleigh fading channels for three transmit and one receive antennas. In its FEC channel coding section, three schemes such as Cyclic, Reed-Solomon and ½-rated convolutionally encoding have been used. Under implementation of merely low complexity ML decoding based channel estimation and RSA cryptographic encoding /decoding algorithms, it is observable from conducted simulation test on encrypted text message transmission that the communication system with QAM digital modulation and ½-rated convolutionally encoding techniques is highly effective to combat inherent interferences under Raleigh fading and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. It is also noticeable from the study that the retrieving performance of the communication system degrades with the lowering of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and increasing in order of modulation.

Shaikh Enayet Ullah; Md. Golam Rashed; Most. Farjana Sharmin

2012-01-01

278

Image Compression Based on Improved FFT Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression is a crucial step in image processing area. Image Fourier transforms is the classical algorithm which can convert image from spatial domain to frequency domain. Because of its good concentrative property with transform energy, Fourier transform has been widely applied in image coding, image segmentation, image reconstruction. This paper adopts Radix-4 Fast Fourier transform (Radix-4 FFT) to realize the limit distortion for image coding, and to discuss the feasibility and the advantage of Fourier transform for image compression. It aims to deal with the existing complex and time-consuming of Fourier transform, according to the symmetric conjugate of the image by Fourier transform to reduce data storage and computing complexity. Using Radix-4 FFT can also reduce algorithm time-consuming, it designs three different compression requirements of non-uniform quantification tables for different demands of image quality and compression ratio. Take the standard image Lena as experimental data using the presented method, the results show that the implementation by Radix-4 FFT is simple, the effect is ideal and lower time-consuming.

Juanli Hu; Jiabin Deng; Juebo Wu

2011-01-01

279

KAIRUAIN-algorithm applied on electromagnetic imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

For time-harmonic Maxwell equations, we consider an inverse scattering problem for the 3D imaging of the constitutive material of an unknown object from the boundary measurements of the electric field. This problem is ill-posed and nonlinear. We introduce the KAIRUAIN-algorithm which is an iterative method of Newton–Kaczmarz type, where we use the approximate inverse for regularizing the solution of the linearized equation at each Newton iteration. We study the convergence of the algorithm and develop a strategy for the choice of the regularizing parameter in a quite general setting. We apply the KAIRUAIN-algorithm to derive an efficient and stable reconstruction method for electromagnetic imaging. We use experimental data provided by the Institut Fresnel, France, to validate the capability of the reconstruction algorithm to retrieve blindly, without any a priori information, the geometry and the dielectric permittivity of the scattering object.

Lakhal, A.

2013-09-01

280

Objective Evaluation Parameters of Image Segmentation Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into multiple segments, so as to change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. Several general-purpose algorithms and techniques have been developed for image segmentation. However ,evaluation of segmentation algorithms thus far has been largely subjective , leaving a system designer to judge the effectiveness of a technique based only on intuition and results in the form of few example segmented images .This is largely due to image segmentation being a ill defined problem-there is no unique ground truth segmentation of an image against which the output of an algorithm may be compared .There is a need for researchers to know on what parameters there suggested techniques can be evaluated .In this paper we have surveyed 100 papers to present various evaluation parameters. This paper presents 13 performance evaluation parameters that can be used to perform a quantitative comparison between image segmentation.

Manisha Sharma; Vandana Chouhan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Implementation of LBG Algorithm for Image Compression  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of LBG algorithm for image compression which makes it possible for creating file sizes of manageable, storable and transmittable dimensions. Image Compression techniques fall under two categories, namely, Lossless and Lossy. The Linde, Buzo, and Gray (LBG) algorithm is an iterative algorithm which alternatively solves the two optimality criteria i.e. Nearest neighbor condition and centroid condition. The algorithm requires an initial codebook to start with. Codebook is generated using a training set of images. There are different methods like Random Codes and Splitting in which the initial code book can be obtained. This initial codebook is obtained by the splitting method in LBG algorithm. In this method an initial code vector is set as the average of the entire training sequence. This code vector is then split into two. The iterative algorithm is run with these two vectors as the initial codebook. The final two code vectors are splitted into four and the process is repeated until the desired number of code vector is obtained. The LBGalgorithm is measured by calculating performances such as Compression Ratio (CR), Mean square error (MSE), PeakSignal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR)

Ms. Asmita A.Bardekar#1, Mr. P.A.Tijare

2011-01-01

282

A Survey on Keyword Based Search over Outsourced Encrypted Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ensure security, encryption techniques play a major role when data are outsourced to the cloud. Problem of retrieving the data from the cloud servers is considered. Many searching techniques are used for retrieving the data. This study focused on a set of keyword based search algorithms. It provides secure data retrieval with high efficiency. It concludes Ranked Searchable Symmetric Encryption (RSSE) scheme meant to be best methodology for searching the encrypted data.

S. Evangeline Sharon; N. Saravanan

2013-01-01

283

IMAGE SEGMENTATION: A WATERSHED TRANSFORMATION ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this work is to present a new method for image segmentation using mathematicalmorphology. The approach used is based on the watershed transformation. In order to avoid an oversegmentation, we propose to adapt the topological gradient method. The watershed transformation combined with a fast algorithm based on the topological gradient approach gives good results. The numerical tests obtained illustrate the efficiency of our approach for image segmentation.

Lamia Jaafar Belaid; Walid Mourou

2009-01-01

284

An Efficient Encryption Algorithm for P2P Networks Robust Against Man-in-the-Middle Adversary  

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Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become popular as a new paradigm for information exchange and are being used in many applications such as file sharing, distributed computing, video conference, VoIP, radio and TV broadcasting. This popularity comes with security implications and vulnerabilities that need to be addressed. Especially duo to direct communication between two end nodes in P2P networks, these networks are potentially vulnerable to Man-in-the-Middle attacks. In this paper, we propose a new public-key cryptosystem for P2P networks that is robust against Man-in-the-Middle adversary. This cryptosystem is based on RSA and knapsack problems. Our precoding-based algorithm uses knapsack problem for performing permutation and padding random data to the message. We show that comparing to other proposed cryptosystems, our algorithm is more efficient and it is fully secure against an active adversary.

Roohallah Rastaghi

2012-01-01

285

Tomographic image reconstructing using systolic array algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In Computed Tomography (CT), two-dimensional (2-D) slices or three-dimensional (3-D) volumes of an object are reconstructed from many projected line-integrals (usually x-ray transmission data) around the object. As the data collection capabilities and reconstruction algorithms for CT have become more sophisticated over the years, the demands on computer systems have become correspondingly greater. Also, recent limited-data reconstruction algorithms using iterative schemes between image and projection domains require large amounts of very time-consuming calculations. In this case, repeated use of a constrained projection model (or the Radon transform, named after mathematician Johann Radon) followed by a reconstruction algorithm (or inverse Randon transform) is used to converge on the correct answer. The commonly used algorithm for computing the inverse Radon transform in the above problems is some form of filtered backprojection (FBP). In this paper we look at ways to parallelize this algorithm so that a computer with multiple interconnected processing elements can achieve reconstructed images more rapidly than before. The class of multiprocessor architectures we suggest is known as systolic arrays, which are highly-parallel regularly connected multiprocessors with simple control and data flows. We show, in simulated and experimental results, how this architecture can compute the forward and back-projection algorithms efficiently and at very high rates depending on the number of processors employed

1988-08-05

286

Hybrid Compression Encryption Technique for Securing SMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile communication devices have become popular tools for gathering and disseminating information and data. When sensitive information is exchanged using SMS, it is crucial to protect the content from eavesdroppers as well as ensuring that the message is sent by a legitimate sender. Using an encryption technique to secure SMS data increases its length and accordingly the cost of sending it. This paper provides a hybrid compression encryption technique to secure the SMS data. The proposed technique compresses the SMS to reduce its length, then encrypts it using RSA algorithm. A signature is added to the encrypted SMS for signing it to differentiate it from other SMS messages in SMSINBOX. The experimental results which are based on Symbian OS show that the proposed technique guarantees SMS data security without increasing its size.

Ahmed M Mahfouz; Awny A. Ahmed; Bahgat A. Abdel-latef; Tarek

2010-01-01

287

Efficient parallel algorithms for covering binary images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given a black and white image, represented by an array of {radical}n x {radical}n binary valued pixels, the author wishes to cover the black pixels with a minimal set of (possibly overlapping) maximal squares. It was recently shown that obtaining a minimum cover with squares for a polygonal binary image having holes is NP-hard. He derives a processor-time-optimal parallel algorithm for the minimal square cover problem, which for any desired computation time T in (log n, n) runs on an EREW-PRAM with (n/T) processors. He also outlines an implementation on a mesh architecture which runs in O({radical}n) time, and is P-T-optimal. Finally, he also shows how to obtain a speedup in the running time of the algorithm when polymorphic communication primitives are available on the mesh. The cornerstone of the algorithm is a novel data structure, the cover graph, which compactly represents the covering relationships between the maximal squares of the image. The size of the cover graph is linear in the number of pixels. This algorithm has applications to problems in VLSI mask generation, incremental update of raster displays, and image compression.

Moitra, D.

1989-01-01

288

Tuning Range Image Segmentation by Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several range image segmentation algorithms have been proposed, each one to be tuned by a number of parameters in order to provide accurate results on a given class of images. Segmentation parameters are generally affected by the type of surfaces (e.g., planar versus curved) and the nature of the acquisition system (e.g., laser range finders or structured light scanners). It is impossible to answer the question, which is the best set of parameters given a range image within a class and a range segmentation algorithm? Systems proposing such a parameter optimization are often based either on careful selection or on solution space-partitioning methods. Their main drawback is that they have to limit their search to a subset of the solution space to provide an answer in acceptable time. In order to provide a different automated method to search a larger solution space, and possibly to answer more effectively the above question, we propose a tuning system based on genetic algorithms. A complete set of tests was performed over a range of different images and with different segmentation algorithms. Our system provided a particularly high degree of effectiveness in terms of segmentation quality and search time.

Stefano Levialdi; Luigi Cinque; Rita Cucchiara; Gianluca Pignalberi

2003-01-01

289

Coherent Interferometry Algorithms for Photoacoustic Imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to develop new coherent interferometry (CINT) algorithms to correct the effect of an unknown cluttered sound speed (random fluctuations around a known constant) on photoacoustic images. By back-propagating the correlations between the preprocessed pressure measurements, we s...

Ammari, Habib; Bretin, Elie; Garner, Josselin; Jugnon, Vincent

290

Panoramic Images Automatically Stitching Algorithm Introduction  

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Full Text Available The panorama is more effective image-based rendering one of the methods. Papers on the panorama generation process, and key technologies on one of the most panoramic picture of the stitching algorithm is classified, summarize and compare.

Shangchen Liu; Dakun Zhang

2009-01-01

291

Proximal algorithms for multicomponent image recovery problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, proximal splitting algorithms have been applied to various monocomponent signal and image recovery problems. In this paper, we address the case of multicomponent problems. We first provide closed form expressions for several important multicomponent proximity operators and then deri...

Briceno-Arias, Luis M.; Combettes, Patrick; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe; Pustelnik, Nelly

292

Enhanced Image Fusion Algorithm with Neural Networks for Sonar Images  

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Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple neural network based image fusion algorithm. Image fusion is defined as a process where a new image is constructed by integrating complementary, multi-temporal or multi-view information from a set of source images. Particle swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to find out the optimal size of the blocks to be fused. A detailed experimentation is done with different performance metrics for different set of images. We have compared the results and the proposed method outperforms the existing methods visually as well as quantitatively.

Mrs K.S.Jeen Marseline,; Dr.C.Meena

2013-01-01

293

Probabilistic Encryption Based ECC Mechanism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elliptic Curve Cryptography provides a secure means of  exchanging keys among communicating hosts using the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange algorithm. Encryption and Decryption of texts and messages have also been attempted. In the paper[15], the authors presented the implementation of ECC by first transforming the message into an affine point on the EC, and then applying the knapsack algorithm on ECC encrypted message over the finite field GF(p). The kanp sack problem is not secure in the present standards and more over in the work the authors in their decryption process used elliptic curve discrete logarithm to get back the plain text. This may form a computationally infeasible problem if the values are large enough in generating the plain text. In the present work the output of ECC algorithm is provided with probabilistic features which make the algorithm free from Chosen cipher text attack. Thus by having key lengths of even less than 160 bits, the present algorithm provides sufficient strength against crypto analysis and whose performance can be compared with standard algorithms like RSA. 

Addepalli V.N. Krishna

2011-01-01

294

IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES AND GENETIC ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image Segmentation is a decomposition of sceneinto its components. It is a key step in analysis. Edge, point, line,boundary texture and region detection are the various forms ofimage segmentation. Various technologies for imagesegmentation are there like thresholding, cluster based, edgebased, region based and watershed segmentation. Two of themain image segmentation techniques thresholding and regiongrowing are highly in use for image segmentation. Imagesegmentation by region growing method is robust fast and veryeasy to implement, but it suffers from: the thresholding problem,initialization, and sensitivity to noise. OTSU method ofthresholding is also used for image segmentation but it alsosuffers from thresholding problems. Genetic algorithms areparticular methods for optimizing functions; they have a greatability to find the global optimum of a problem. Here I proposeda genetic algorithm which provides the better solution thanregion growing and OTSU methods for the image segmentation.In proposed algorithm we will see that we get better peak signalto noise ratio and maximum absolute error comparatively thanregion growing and OTSU.

Dinesh Maru, Brijesh Shah

2013-01-01

295

Experimental Study of Fractal Image Compression Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Image compression applications have been increasing in recent years. Fractal compression is a lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals. The method is best suited for textures and natural images, relying on the fact that parts of an image often resemble other parts of the same image. In this paper, a study on fractal-based image compression and fixed-size partitioning will be made, analyzed for performance and compared with a standard frequency domain based image compression standard, JPEG. Sample images will be used to perform compression and decompression. Performance metrics such as compression ratio, compression time and decompression time will be measured in JPEG cases. Also the phenomenon of resolution/scale independence will be studied and described with examples. Fractal algorithms convert these parts into mathematical data called "fractal codes" which are used to recreate the encoded image. Fractal encoding is a mathematical process used to encode bitmaps containing a real-world image as a set of mathematical data that describes the fractal properties of the image. Fractal encoding relies on the fact that all natural, and most artificial, objects contain redundant information in the form of similar, repeating patterns called fractals.

Chetan R. Dudhagara

2012-01-01

296

ALGORITHMIC IMAGING APPROACH TO IMPOTENCE  

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Full Text Available Impotence is a common problem that has great impact on the quality of life. Clinical evaluation usually can exclude endocrinologic imbalance, neurogenic dysfunction, and psychological problems as the etiology. A patient who fails to get an erection after vasoactive medications which are injected probably, has hemodynamic impotence. Dynamic studies that include imaging techniques are now available to discriminate between arterial and venous pathology.Doppler ultrasound with color flow and spectral analysis,dynamic infusion corpus cavernosometry and cavernosography, and selective internal pudendal arteriography are outpatient diagnostic procedures that will differentiate, image and quantify the abnormalities in patients with hemodynamic impotence. Not all tests are needed in every patient. Each of these examinations is preceded with the intracavernosal injection of vasoactive medication. Papaverine hydrochloride, phentolamine mesylate, or prostaglandin El will overcome normal sympathetic tone and produce an erection by smooth muscle relaxation and arterial dilatation in a normal patient. Color-flow Doppler and spectral analysis will showthe cavernosal arteries and can identify the hemodynamic effects of stricture or occlusion. Peak systolic velocity is measured. Normal ranges are well established. Spectral analysis also is used to predict the presence of venous disease. Sizable venous leaks in the dorsal penile vein are readily imaged.While the technique may not adequately identify low-grade venous pathology, it will identify the size and location of fibrous plaque formation associated with Peyronie's disease. Cavernosography or cavernosometry is a separate procedure that will quantitate the severity of venousincompetence as well as specifically identify the various avenues of systemic venous return that must be localized if venous occlusive therapy is chosen. In this study, the peak arterial systolic occlusion pressure is quantified during erection,and the presence of arterial pathology can be confirmed.The arterial data are not as reliable as the ultrasound-obtained data because they rely on audible Doppler, which can be obscured in the underlying "noise" heard with erection. The arterial data obtained with both of these examinations are quantitative and replace the qualitative audible Doppler used previously. Specialized equipment allows dynamic data acquisition, ensuring that the needed information is obtained at peak stimulation.Arteriography is done only if reconstructive surgery is contemplated. The examination includes subselective catheterization of the internal pudendal arteries, magnification technique, and evaluation of the recurrent epigastric arteries, which will be harvested for revascularization. An arterial operation is usually successful in younger patients with perineal trauma with a single point of stenosis or occlusion but has been least successful in those patients with atherosclerosis because of the multifocal nature of this disease. Diagnostic information available today is more specific and reliable than at any time in the past and can realistically estimate the severity of the hemodynamic disorder and allow individual treatment options. Ongoing studies will show whether the data these studies provide make an important difference in the treatment of vascular impotence.

Mahyar Ghafoori

2012-01-01

297

An enhanced fractal image denoising algorithm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, there has been a significant development in image denoising using fractal-based method. This paper presents an enhanced fractal predictive denoising algorithm for denoising the images corrupted by an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) by using quadratic gray-level function. Meanwhile, a quantization method for the fractal gray-level coefficients of the quadratic function is proposed to strictly guarantee the contractivity requirement of the enhanced fractal coding, and in terms of the quality of the fractal representation measured by PSNR, the enhanced fractal image coding using quadratic gray-level function generally performs better than the standard fractal coding using linear gray-level function. Based on this enhanced fractal coding, the enhanced fractal image denoising is implemented by estimating the fractal gray-level coefficients of the quadratic function of the noiseless image from its noisy observation. Experimental results show that, compared with other standard fractal-based image denoising schemes using linear gray-level function, the enhanced fractal denoising algorithm can improve the quality of the restored image efficiently.

Lu Jian [College of Mathematics and Computational Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)], E-mail: jianlu1979@163.com; Ye Zhongxing [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zou Yuru [College of Mathematics and Computational Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Ye Ruisong [Institute of Mathematics, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

2008-11-15

298

A New Factorization Method to Factorize RSA Public Key Encryption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The security of public key encryption such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm is based on positive integer N, because each transmitting node generates pair of keys such as public and private. Encryption and decryption of any message depends on N. Wh...

Bhagvant Ram Ambedkar; Sarabjeet Singh Bedi

299

Attack on Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an attack on the fully homomorphic encryption over the integers by using lattice reduction algorithm. Our result shows that the FHE in [4] is not secure for some parameter settings. We also present an improvement FHE scheme to avoid this lattice attack. Keywords: Fully Homomorphic Encryption, Cryptanalysis, Lattice Reduction

Gu Chunsheng

2012-01-01

300

Elliptic Curve ElGamal Encryption and Signature Schemes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research Elliptic Curve ElGamal (ECEG) cryptosystems was studied. The ElGamal signature algorithm is similar to the encryption algorithm in that the public-key and private-key have the same form; however, encryption is not the same as signature verification, nor is decryption the same as signature creation as in RSA. The DSA is based in part on the ElGamal signature algorithm.

Kefa Rabah

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Analysis of Image Segmentation Algorithms Using MATLAB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image segmentation has played an important role in computer vision especially for human tracking. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image or a set of contours extracted from the image. Its accuracy but very elusive is very crucial in areas as medical, remote sensing and image retrieval where it may contribute to save, sustain and protect human life. This paper presents the analysis and implementation using MATLAB features and one best result can be selected for any algorithm using the subjective evaluation. We considered the techniques under the following five groups: Edge-based, Clustering-based, Region-based, Threshold-based and Graph-based.

Gajendra Singh Chandel; Ravindra Kumar; Deepika Khare; Sumita Verma

2012-01-01

302

Variable Weighted Ordered Subset Image Reconstruction Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose two variable weighted iterative reconstruction algorithms (VW-ART and VW-OS-SART) to improve the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and establish their convergence. In the two algorithms, the weighting varies with the geometrical direction of the ray. Experimental results with both numerical simulation and real CT data demonstrate that the VW-ART has a significant improvement in the quality of reconstructed images over ART and OS-SART. Moreover, both VW-ART and VW-OS-SART are more promising in convergence speed than the ART and SART, respectively.

Jinxiao Pan; Tie Zhou; Yan Han; Ming Jiang

2006-01-01

303

Image Compression Algorithms Optimized for MATLAB  

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Full Text Available This paper describes implementation of the Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT) algorithm to MATLAB. This approach is used in JPEG or MPEGstandards for instance. The substance of these specifications is toremove the considerable correlation between adjacent picture elements.The objective of this paper is not to improve the DCT algorithm itself, but to re-write it to the preferable version for MATLAB thusallows the enumeration with insignificant delay. The method proposed inthis paper allows image compression calculation almost two hundredtimes faster compared with the DCT definition.

T. Fryza; S. Hanus

2003-01-01

304

Accelerating RSA Encryption Using Random Precalculations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RSA encryption and digital signature algorithm is considered secure if keys are 1024-4096 bits long. Since it requires modular exponentiation on numbers of this length, embedded systems need either a cryptographic co-processor or a fast CPU to calculate ciphertexts and signatures. In many applications, the sender is resource-scare, so optimization is necessary. In our paper we show a method for precalculations that accelerates the real-time performance of the sender in the expense of additional calculations at the receiver. When completed, the receiver gets an RSA-equivalent ciphertext for the encryption algorithm.

Loránd Sz?ll?si; Tamás Marosits; Gábor Fehér

2010-01-01

305

Dual Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Block Truncation Code  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dual image watermarking algorithm based on block truncation code is proposed. In the algorithm, after the origin image is performed block truncation code and quad tree segmentation, the area of HF image and LF image could be obtained. The HF and LF image are decomposed using DWT. Moreover, the dual...

Minghui Shi; Bailiang Li

306

Novel Framework for Hidden Data in the Image Page within Executable File Using Computation between Advanced Encryption Standard and Distortion Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

The hurried development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information. In additional, digital document is also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it may face many threats. It became necessary to find an appropriate protection due to the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information. Furthermore, there is no formal method to be followed to discover a hidden data. In this paper, a new information hiding framework is presented.The proposed framework aim is implementation of framework computation between advance encryption standard (AES) and distortion technique (DT) which embeds information in image page within executable file (EXE file) to find a secure solution to cover file without change the size of cover file. The framework includes two main functions; first is the hiding of the information in the image page of EXE file, through the execution of four process (specify the cover file, spec...

Naji, A W; Zaidan, B B; Al-Khateeb, Wajdi F; Khalifa, Othman O; Zaidan, A A; Gunawan, Teddy S

2009-01-01

307

AN EFFICIENT MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise suppression in medical images is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A trade-off between noise reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made in a way that enhances the diagnostically relevant image content. Image processing specialists usually lack the biomedical expertise to judge the diagnostic relevance of the De-noising results. For example, in ultrasound images, speckle noise may contain information useful to medical experts the use of speckledtexture for a diagnosis was discussed in. Also biomedical images show extreme variability and it is necessary to operate on a case by case basis. This motivates the construction of robust and Efficient denoising methods that are applicable to various circumstances, rather than being optimal under very specific conditions. In this paper, we propose one robust method that adapts itself to various types of image noise as well as to the preference of the medical expert: a single parameter can be used to balance the preservation of relevant details against the degree of noise reduction. The proposed algorithm is simple to implement and fast. We demonstrate its usefulness for denoising and enhancement of the CT, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance images

SRINIVASAKIRAN GOTTAPU; M.VENUGOPAL RAO

2013-01-01

308

Key Generation of Attribute Based Broadcast Encryption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broadcast Encryption (BE) scheme is allows the sender to securely distribute a data to a dynamically changing set of users over a unsecure channel. Attribute based Broadcast Encryption (ABBE) is a excellent approach for broadcasting. Existing BE classical BE approach required an explicitly specified decrypter list. In ABBE differentiate groups of users by their attribute. In ABBE encrypter enforces an expressive access policy composed of one or more attributes. ABBE is more flexible and efficient with reduce storage overhead. Proposed algorithm is ABBE using RSA. Merge the advantage of both the algorithm. Using this scheme reduce the burden of key calculation of ABBE. RSA provide secure transmission over transmission channel. Main advantage of rsa is prime factorization. in this scheme use attribute as a prime number.

MANALI.B.CHAUDHARI, VIRAL.V.KAPADIA

2013-01-01

309

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan-Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro sort algorithm begins with Quick sort and switches to heap sort when the recursion depth exceeds a level based on the number of elements being sorted. This approach has the advantage of fast noise reduction by reducing the comparison time. It also significantly speed up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time image processing. This approach will extend the Infrared images applications for medicine and video conferencing.

Kapil Kumar Gupta; Kapil Kumar Gupta; M. Rizwan Beg; M. Rizwan Beg; Jitendra Kumar Niranjan; Jitendra Kumar Niranjan

2011-01-01

310

AN EFFICIENT MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise suppression in medical images is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A trade-offbetween noise reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made in a way thatenhances the diagnostically relevant image content. Image processing specialists usually lack thebiomedical expertise to judge the diagnostic relevance of the De-noising results. For example, in ultrasoundimages, speckle noise may contain information useful to medical experts the use of speckled texture for adiagnosis was discussed in. Also biomedical images show extreme variability and it is necessary to operateon a case by case basis. This motivates the construction of robust and Efficient denoising methods that areapplicable to various circumstances, rather than being optimal under very specific conditions. In this paper,we propose one robust method that adapts itself to various types of image noise as well as to the preferenceof the medical expert: a single parameter can be used to balance the preservation of relevant details againstthe degree of noise reduction. The proposed algorithm is simple to implement and fast. We demonstrate itsusefulness for denoising and enhancement of the CT, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance images.

SRINIVASAKIRAN GOTTAPU; M.VENUGOPAL RAO

2013-01-01

311

Study on Airspace Covert Communication Algorithm of Covert Communication System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the security of information transmission through network in the information society, the paper puts forward covert communication technology which is more reliable than the prior encryption algorithm, analyzes channel covertness and information hiding of covert communication technology based on spread-spectrum communication technology, and establishes a covert communication system including image steganalysis, Arnold transformation and scrambling of carrier image, embedding of secret information, generation of encrypted image and recovering of carrier image by image-based covert communication technology. The simulation result shows: in order to ensure there is no serious degrading problem after embedding the secret information, the carrier image must have a large capacity; the larger the scrambling times is, the better the scrambling and encrypting effect is. Therefore, the airspace covert communication algorithm based on spread-spectrum communication technology well achieves safe transmission of information and has good application prospect.

Yinpu Zhang

2012-01-01

312

Photonic encryption using all optical logic.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines two classes of all optical logic (SEED, gain competition) and how each discrete logic element can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of the SEED and gain competition devices in an optical circuit were modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model of the SEED or gain competition device takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay characteristics. These 'black box' models are interconnected and cascaded in an encrypting/scrambling algorithm based on a study of candidate encryption algorithms. We found that a low gate count, cascadable encryption algorithm is most feasible given device and processing constraints. The modeling and simulation of optical designs using these components is proceeding in parallel with efforts to perfect the physical devices and their interconnect. We have applied these techniques to the development of a 'toy' algorithm that may pave the way for more robust optical algorithms. These design/modeling/simulation techniques are now ready to be applied to larger optical designs in advance of our ability to implement such systems in hardware.

Blansett, Ethan L.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tang, Jason D.; Robertson, Perry J.; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tarman, Thomas David; Pierson, Lyndon George

2003-12-01

313

Robust matching algorithm for image mosaic  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the matching accuracy and the level of automation for image mosaic, a matching algorithm based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) features is proposed as detailed below. Firstly, according to the result of cursory comparison with the given basal matching threshold, the collection corresponding SIFT features which contains mismatch is obtained. Secondly, after calculating all the ratio of Euclidean distance from the closest neighbor to the distance of the second closest of corresponding features, we select the image coordinates of corresponding SIFT features with the first eight smallest ratios to solve the initial parameters of pin-hole camera model, and then calculate maximum error ? between transformation coordinates and original image coordinates of the eight corresponding features. Thirdly, calculating the scale of the largest original image coordinates of the eight corresponding features to the entire image size, the scale is regarded as control parameter k of matching error threshold. Finally, computing the difference of the transformation coordinates and the original image coordinates of all the features in the collection of features, deleting the corresponding features with difference larger than 3k?. We can then obtain the exact collection of matching features to solve the parameters for pin-hole camera model. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is stable and reliable in case of the image having some variation of view point, illumination, rotation and scale. This new method has been used to achieve an excellent matching accuracy on the experimental images. Moreover, the proposed method can be used to select the matching threshold of different images automatically without any manual intervention.

Zeng, Luan; Tan, Jiu-Bin

2010-08-01

314

MR Brain Image Segmentation using Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm  

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Full Text Available The most important task in digital image processing is image segmentation. This paper put forward an unique image segmentation algorithm that make use of a Markov Random Field (MRF) hybrid with biologically inspired technique Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) for Brain Magnetic Resonance Images The proposed new algorithm works on the image pixel data and a region/neighborhood map to form a context in which they can merge. Hence, the MR brain image is segmented using MRF-BFOA and the results are compared to traditional metaheuristic segmentation method Genetic Algorithm. All the experiment results show that MRF-BFOA has better performancethan that of standard MRF-GA

E. Ben George; M.Karnan

2012-01-01

315

[Colposcopy image database design and application of retrieval algorithm].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to the insufficiency in colposcopy image database collection in china, a novel image database is developed and it will be the basis of a computer-aided-diagnosis system for colposcopy. An improved search algorithm of color is designed based on the current content-based image retrieval algorithms for the characteristics of colposcopy images. This algorithm is authenticated by more than one hundred of clinical pictures with primary satisfactory result.

Zhu Y; Tang N; Zhao J

2010-05-01

316

Optimized fusion method based on adaptation of the RMS time-frequency criterion for simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images  

Science.gov (United States)

An extension of the recently proposed method of simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images [Opt. Lett. 35, 1914-1916 (2010)] is developed. This analysis allows us to find a compromise between compression rate and quality of the reconstructed images for target detection applications. This spectral compression method can significantly reduce memory size and can be easily implemented with a VanderLugt correlator (VLC). For that purpose, we determine the size of the useful spectra for each target image by exploiting the root-mean-square time-frequency criterion. This parameter is used to determine the allowed area of each target image within the compressed spectrum. Moreover, this parameter is adapted in order to minimize overlapping between the different spectra. For that purpose we add a shift function adapted to each spectra. Finally, the spectra are merged together by making use of a segmentation criterion. The latter compares the local energy relative to each pixel for each spectrum. Furthermore, it optimizes assignment of the considered pixel by taking into account the adjacent areas to the considered pixel. This permits to avoid the presence of isolated areas and small sized areas (less than 10 pixels). In this paper, we analyse and optimize the shift function needed to separate the different spectra. We use mean square error (MSE) for comparing compression rates. A series of tests with several video sequences show the benefit of this shift function on the quality of reconstructed images and compression rate.

Aldossari, M.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

2013-03-01

317

Breaking AES Encryption Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Breaking the AES Cipher Model encrypts a plaintext message using AES encryption and attempts to break this encryption using a plaintext attack. The attacker (Eve) obtains both the plaintext and the cyphered text for a message between two people, Alice and Bob, and systematically encrypts the plaintext using the AES encryption function with all possible keys until the function's output matches the known cyphered text. Eve starts with a key, feeds the key and the plaintext into the encryption function, and checks whether the cyphered text is equal to the known value. If so, Eve has found the correct key. Otherwise, Eve systematically changes the key until she is successful. If the key is small or if Eve knows some of the key, the computational task may be manageable. This model displays the computation time using both a sequential and a parallel do-loop implementation of the plaintext attack. The model is designed to show how Java performs standard AES encryption and to test the speedup and sizeup of parallel computation using multi-core processors. The Breaking the AES Cipher Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the model's jar file will run the simulation if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-02-18

318

New image fusion algorithm for auto-stereoscopic display  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing image fusion algorithms have the problem of edge aliasing, and 3-D image looks rough, have a sense of particles. This paper presents a new interpolation algorithm in which new gray value are re-computed according to the sub-pixel divided situation. We are able to create 3-D images with the new gray value calculated by our algorithm. Experimental result shows that the improved algorithm creates an anti-aliased 3-D image with higher quality and makes the 3-D image looks more exquisite and smooth.

Pan, Chunyan; Yang, Qing; Xing, Liang; Li, Jianjun

2013-08-01

319

Discrete wavelet transform based signal stegnography & encryption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stegnography and signal encryption are the most important tools that provide data and information security by hiding the signal under cover signal. It is usually done through mathematical manipulation of the data with on in comprehensible format for unauthorized user. Some time it is essential to transmit Real Time signal through internet with appreciable confidentiality for preventing unauthorized information access, this is prime consideration for growing use of signal stenography. Proposed algorithm based on Discrete WaveletTransform technique for signal stegnography and one stage of encryption; both methods are used for secure communication Cryptograph which deals with data or signal encryption at sender side and decryption at receiver side [3] with help of key or password, stegnography used for secure data transmission.

Mr. Arun Kumar; Miss Sarita Chokhandre; Dr. Anup Mishra

2012-01-01

320

Application of Genetic Algorithm for Image Enhancement and Segmentation.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic algorithm is the type of Soft Computing method. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a model of machine learning which derives its behavior from a metaphor of the processes of evolution in nature. The aim is to enhance the quality of the image and to convert the image into segments to get more meaningful image and it will be easy to analyze the image using genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithm is the unbiased optimization technique. It is useful in image enhancement and segmentation. GA was proven to be the most powerful optimization technique in a large solution space. This explains the increasing popularity of GAs applications in image processing and other fields. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are increasingly being explored in many areas of image analysis to solve complex optimization problems. This paper gives a brief overview of the canonical genetic algorithm and it also reviews the tasks of image pre-processing. The main task of machine vision is to enhance image quality with respect to get a required image per-ception. The GAs were adopted to achieve better results, faster processing times and more specialized applications. This paper introduces various approaches based on genetic algorithm to get image with good and natural contrast. The image enhancement is the most fundamental image processing tasks. And Image Segmentation is very difficult task. This paper includes the definition of image enhancement and image segmentation and also the need of Image Enhancement and the image can be enhanced using the Genetic Algorithm and the Image Segmentation using Genetic Algorithm.

Miss. Komal R. Hole, Prof. Vijay S. Gulhane, Prof. Nitin D. Shellokar

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Edge Detection of Medical Images Using Morpholgical Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical images edge detection is an important work for object recognition of the human organs and it is an important pre-processing step in medical image segmentation and 3D reconstruction. Conventionally, edge is detected according to some early brought forward algorithms such as gradient-based algorithm and template-based algorithm, but they are not so good for noise medical image edge detection. In this paper, basic mathematical morphological theory and operations are introduced at first, and then a novel mathematical morphological edge detection algorithm is proposed to detect the edge of lungs CT image with salt-and-pepper noise. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient for medical image denoising and edge detection than the usually used template-based edge detection algorithms and general morphological edge detection algorithms.

Anurag Sharma; Pankaj Sharma; Rashmi; Hardeep Kumar

2012-01-01

322

An Algorithm for Transforming Color Images into Tactile Graphics  

CERN Multimedia

This paper presents an algorithm that transforms color visual images, like photographs or paintings, into tactile graphics. In the algorithm, the edges of objects are detected and colors of the objects are estimated. Then, the edges and the colors are encoded into lines and textures in the output tactile image. Design of the method is substantiated by various qualities of haptic recognizing of images. Also, means of presentation of the tactile images in printouts are discussed. Example translated images are shown.

Rataj, A

2004-01-01

323

RAmM Algorithm(Simplex)  

CERN Multimedia

The evolution of encryption algorithms have led to the development of very complicated and highly versatile algorithms that sacrifice efficiency for better and harder to decrypt results. But by the application of a genetic schema to the encryption of data, a new structure can be created. Genetic methods and procedures are lethal in the way they handle and manipulate data. The RAmM algorithm uses four genetic operations that have been developed specifically for encryption of data. The operations are Replication, Augmentation, Mutation and Multiplication. The proper application of these methods according to the rules that have been found to be the best for getting optimal and correct results produces a "fingerprint" that is unique to a pair of . This means that every single data entry can only be decrypted by using the correct set of key. The application of the RAmM algorithm is in the field of image encryption and restoration. The boundary and the pixel values are separately encrypted to produce a very genuine...

Manimala, Jose Mathew

2010-01-01

324

CifrarFS – Encrypted File System Using FUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a file system that enables transparent encryption and decryption of files by using advanced, standard cryptographic algorithm, Data Encryption Standard (DES) [1]. Any individual, including super user, or program, that doesn't possess the appropriate passphrase for the directory which contains encrypted files cannot read the encrypted data. Encrypted files can be protected even from those who gain physical possession of the computer on which files reside [2]. ‘CifrarFS’, an encrypted file system using ‘File system in USEr space (FUSE)’ maintains all the files in a specific directory in an encrypted form and decrypts them on demand. It encodes the file name while storing but decodes it while viewed from the mount point. We propose an idea of watermark in every encrypted file that is validated before decryption and also log all the operations on ‘CifrarFS’. It is a stackable file system that operates on top of ext3. It does not need root privileges.

Anagha Kulkarni; Vandana Inamdar

2009-01-01

325

Secure Communication with Flipping Substitute Permutation Algorithm for Electronic Copy right Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to detect the existence of secret information hidden within an image. Cryptography is one of the most interested and important area in the computer industry that deals with secures transmission of information. Encryption, the process which helps for such secure transmission prevents hackers to access the information. And decryption helps to retrieve the original information. Cryptography provides many methods and techniques for secure communication. Currently there are many industry standard encryption/decryption algorithms including RSA, Rijndael, Blowfish and so forth. However, they are fairly complex and require that one spend a lot of time to comprehend and implement them. This paper introduces simple Encryption/decryption algorithm that is fast and fairly secure. The algorithm manipulates a 128-bit input using flipping, Substitution, and Permutation to achieve its encryption/decryption.

C. Parthasarathy; G. Ramesh Kumar; S. K. Srivatsa

2011-01-01

326

Convergence of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most iterative image reconstruction algorithms are based on some form of optimization, such as minimization of a data-fidelity term plus an image regularizing penalty term. While achieving the solution of these optimization problems may not directly be clinically relevant, accurate optimization solutions can aid in iterative image reconstruction algorithm design. This issue is particularly acute for iterative image reconstruction in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT), where the corresponding data model IS particularly poorly conditioned. The impact of this poor conditioning is that iterative algorithms applied to this system can be slow to converge. Recent developments in first-order algorithms are now beginning to allow for accurate solutions to optimization problems of interest to tomographic imaging in general. In particular, we investigate an algorithm developed by Chambolle and Pock (2011 J. Math. Imag. Vol. 40, pgs 120-145) and apply it to iterative image reconstruction in DBT.

Sidky, Emil; JØrgensen, Jakob Heide

2012-01-01

327

Testing of infrared image enhancing algorithm in different spectral bands  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents results of testing the infrared image quality enhancing algorithm based on histogram processing. Testing were performed on real images registered in NIR, MWIR, and LWIR spectral bands. Infrared images are a very specific type of information. The perception and interpretation of such image depends not only on radiative properties of observed objects and surrounding scenery. Probably still most important are skills and experience of an observer itself. In practice, the optimal settings of the camera as well as automatic temperature range or contrast control do not guarantee the displayed images are optimal from observer's point of view. The solution to this are algorithms of image quality enhancing based on digital image processing methods. Such algorithms can be implemented inside the camera or applied later, after image registration. They must improve the visibility of low-contrast objects. They should also provide effective dynamic contrast control not only across entire image but also selectively to specific areas in order to maintain optimal visualization of observed scenery. In the paper one histogram equalization algorithm was tested. Adaptive nature of the algorithm should assure significant improvement of the image quality and the same effectiveness of object detection. Another requirement and difficulty is that it should also be effective for any given thermal image and it should not cause a visible image degradation in unpredictable situations. The application of tested algorithm is a promising alternative to a very effective but complex algorithms due to its low complexity and real time operation.

Dulski, R.; Sosnowski, T.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.

2012-05-01

328

Image Security Using Steganography And Cryptographic Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the fact communication is taking place, by hiding information in other information.Many different carrier file formats can be used,but digital images are the most popular because of their frequency on the internet.This paper introduces two new methods where in cryptography and steganography are combined to encrypt the data as well as to hide the data in another medium through image processing . This paper securing the image by encryption is done by DES algorithm using the key image. The encrypted image can be hide in another image by using LSB techniques,so that the secret’s very existence is concealed. The decryption can be done by the same key image using DES algorithm.

R.Nivedhitha, Dr.T.Meyyappan

2012-01-01

329

Design of an Encryption-Decryption Module Oriented for Internet Information Security SOC Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to protect the security of network data, a high speed chip module for encrypting and decrypting of network data packet is designed. The chip module is oriented for internet information security SOC (System on Chip) design. During the design process, AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and 3DES (Data Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm are adopted to protect the security of network data. The following points are focused: (1) The SOC (System on Chip) design methodology based on IP (Intellectual Property) core is used. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and 3DES (Data Encryption Standard) IP (Intellectual Property) cores are embedded in the chip module, peripheral control sub-modules are designed to control the encryption-decryption module, which is capable of shortening the design period of the chip module. (2) The implementation of encryption-decryption with hardware was presented, which improves the safety of data through the encryption-decryption chip and reduce the load of CPU. (3) In our hardware solution, two AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) cores are used to work in parallel, which improves the speed of the encryption module. Moreover, the key length of AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm is designed with three optional configurations at 128 bits, 256 bits and 192 bits respectively and six optional encryption algorithm modes: CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) mode, ECB (Electronic Code Book) mode, GCM (Galois/Counter Mode) mode, XTS(cipherteXT Stealing) mode, CTR (CounTeR) mode and 3DES respectively, which adds the flexibility to its applications.

Yixin Liu 1; Haipeng Zhang 2; Tao Feng 3

2012-01-01

330

Enhanced Image Fusion Algorithm Using Laplacian Pyramid and Spatial frequency Based Wavelet Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of image fusion is to combine relevant information from two or more source images into one single image such that the single image contains most of the information from all the source images. The successful fusion of images acquired from different modalities or instruments is of great importance in many applications, such as medical imaging, microscopic imaging, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics. The algorithm begins by applying 2D-DWT to decompose the input images. The lower approximations are subjected to pixel-based Laplacian fusion algorithm. The SF algorithm combined with wavelet fusion algorithm is used for higher approximations. The new sets of detailed and approximate coefficients from each image are then added to get the new fused coefficients. The final step then performs inverse DWT with the new coefficients to construct the fused image. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed fusion algorithm can obtain the quality output image, both in visual effect and objective evaluation criteria. Four performance metrics, namely, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and speed of fusing images, were used during experimentation. All the experiments showed that the proposed hybrid model is an improved version to fuse images when compared with pixel-based and wavelet-based algorithms.

N. INDHUMADHI; G. PADMAVATHI

2011-01-01

331

New imaging algorithm in diffusion tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel imaging algorithm for diffusion/optical tomography is presented for the case of the time dependent diffusion equation. Numerical tests are conducted for ranges of parameters realistic for applications to an early breast cancer diagnosis using ultrafast laser pulses. This is a perturbation-like method which works for both homogeneous a heterogeneous background media. Its main innovation lies in a new approach for a novel linearized problem (LP). Such an LP is derived and reduced to a boundary value problem for a coupled system of elliptic partial differential equations. As is well known, the solution of such a system amounts to the factorization of well conditioned, sparse matrices with few non-zero entries clustered along the diagonal, which can be done very rapidly. Thus, the main advantages of this technique are that it is fast and accurate. The authors call this approach the elliptic systems method (ESM). The ESM can be extended for other data collection schemes.

Klibanov, Michael V.; Lucas, Thomas R.; Frank, Robert M.

1997-08-01

332

Medical Image Segmentation by Using the Pillar K Means Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the new algorithms for medical image segmentation .this paperpresents the to extract malignant part from the t1 weighted MR brain Image and analyze the performance of it with various algorithm .in different algorithms we use k means algorithm,cmeans algorithm ,pillar k means algorithm .k means and c means algorithm are already existent algorithms the new proposed algorithm is pillar k means algorithm. This segmentation process includes a new mechanism for clustering the elements of high-resolution images in order to improve precision and reduce computation time. The system applies K-means clustering to the image segmentation after optimized by Pillar Algorithm The Pillar algorithm considers the pillars’ placement which should be located as far as possible from each other to withstand against the pressure distribution of a roof, as identical to the number of centroids amongst the data distribution. This algorithm is able to optimize the K-means clustering for image segmentation in aspects of precision and computation time. It designates the initial centroids’ positions by calculating the accumulated distance metric between each data point and all previous centroids, and then selects data points which have the maximum distance as new initial centroids. This algorithm distributes all initial centroids according to the maximum accumulated distance metric. This evaluates the proposed approach for image segmentation by comparing with K-means and c means in medical image segmentation. this we will compare the all the three algorithm statistic values like as computational value and segmented index.

S.Vaseem Akram1 , K.Sravya

2013-01-01

333

Key management for large scale end-to-end encryption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Symmetric end-to-end encryption requires separate keys for each pair of communicating confidants. This is a problem of Order N{sup 2}. Other factors, such as multiple sessions per pair of confidants and multiple encryption points in the ISO Reference Model complicate key management by linear factors. Public-key encryption can reduce the number of keys managed to a linear problem which is good for scaleability of key management, but comes with complicating issues and performance penalties. Authenticity is the primary ingredient of key management. If each potential pair of communicating confidants can authenticate data from each other, then any number of public encryption keys of any type can be communicated with requisite integrity. These public encryption keys can be used with the corresponding private keys to exchange symmetric cryptovariables for high data rate privacy protection. The Digital Signature Standard (DSS), which has been adopted by the United States Government, has both public and private components, similar to a public-key cryptosystem. The Digital Signature Algorithm of the DSS is intended for authenticity but not for secrecy. In this paper, the authors will show how the use of the Digital Signature Algorithm combined with both symmetric and asymmetric (public-key) encryption techniques can provide a practical solution to key management scaleability problems, by reducing the key management complexity to a problem of order N, without sacrificing the encryption speed necessary to operate in high performance networks.

Witzke, E.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pierson, L.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01

334

An algorithm for identifying digital image orientation based on c#  

Science.gov (United States)

In research for machine vision, the discrimination of image orientation is one of practical problems. An algorithm for identifying image orientation was proposed, and to be realized by c# programming.

Jia, Da-Chun; Yao, Xu-Dong; Jia, Xin

2011-04-01

335

Encryption Of Data Using Elliptic Curve Over Finite Fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is the study of techniques for ensuring the secrecy and authentication of the information. Public –key encryption schemes are secure only if the authenticity of the public-key is assured. Elliptic curve arithmetic can be used to develop a variety of elliptic curve cryptographic (ECC) schemes including key exchange, encryption and digital signature. The principal attraction of elliptic curve cryptography compared to RSA is that it offers equal security for a smaller key-size, thereby reducing the processing overhead. In the present paper we propose a new encryption algorithm using Elliptic Curve over finite fields.

D. Sravana Kumar; CH. Suneetha; A. ChandrasekhAR

2012-01-01

336

Encryption of Data using Elliptic Curve over Finite fields  

CERN Document Server

Cryptography is the study of techniques for ensuring the secrecy and authentication of the information. Public-key encryption schemes are secure only if the authenticity of the public-key is assured. Elliptic curve arithmetic can be used to develop a variety of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) schemes including key exchange, encryption and digital signature. The principal attraction of elliptic curve cryptography compared to RSA is that it offers equal security for a smaller key-size, thereby reducing the processing overhead. In the present paper we propose a new encryption algorithm using some Elliptic Curve over finite fields

Kumar, D Sravana; Chandrasekhar, A; 10.5121/ijdps.2012.3125

2012-01-01

337

Segmentation of Medical Image using Clustering and Watershed Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging. Segmentation of an image is the division or separation of the image into dissimilar regions of similar attribute. In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates clustering algorithm and marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm for medical image segmentation. The use of the conservative watershed algorithm for medical image analysis is pervasive because of its advantages, such as always being able to construct an entire division of the image. On the other hand, its disadvantages include over segmentation and sensitivity to false edges. Approach: In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates K-Means clustering with marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm and integrates Fuzzy C-Means clustering with marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm separately for medical image segmentation. The Clustering algorithms are unsupervised learning algorithms, while the marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm makes use of automated thresholding on the gradient magnitude map and post-segmentation merging on the initial partitions to reduce the number of false edges and over-segmentation. Results: In this study, we compared K-means clustering and marker controlled watershed algorithm with Fuzzy C-means clustering and marker controlled watershed algorithm. And also we showed that our proposed method produced segmentation maps which gave fewer partitions than the segmentation maps produced by the conservative watershed algorithm. Conclusion: Integration of K-means clustering with marker controlled watershed algorithm gave better segmentation than integration of Fuzzy C-means clustering with marker controlled watershed algorithm. By reducing the amount of over segmentation, we obtained a segmentation map which is more diplomats of the several anatomies in the medical images.

M. C.J. Christ; R. M.S. Parvathi

2011-01-01

338

Performance analysis of Non Linear Filtering Algorithms for underwater images  

CERN Multimedia

Image filtering algorithms are applied on images to remove the different types of noise that are either present in the image during capturing or injected in to the image during transmission. Underwater images when captured usually have Gaussian noise, speckle noise and salt and pepper noise. In this work, five different image filtering algorithms are compared for the three different noise types. The performances of the filters are compared using the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE). The modified spatial median filter gives desirable results in terms of the above two parameters for the three different noise. Forty underwater images are taken for study.

Padmavathi, Dr G; Kumar, Mr M Muthu; Thakur, Suresh Kumar

2009-01-01

339

Encryption and Digital Signature Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Encryption can be used to safeguard transmitted data, minimize unauthorized access to data during storage, and authenticate the identities of users, terminals and computers. Data encryption shall be used whenever it is the most appropriate method availabl...

L. B. Holcomb

2001-01-01

340

Comparison between different tomographic reconstruction algorithms in nuclear medicine imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares the image quality obtained with each of the algorithms is evaluated and its running time, to optimize the choice of algorithm to use taking into account both the quality of the reconstructed image as the time spent on the reconstruction.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Novel Architecture for an efficient data encryption system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The standard techniques for providing privacy and security in data networks include encryption/decryption algorithms such as Advanced Encryption System (AES) (private-key) and RSA (public-key). RSA is one of the safest standard algorithms, based on public-key, for providing security in networks. Even though the RSA Algorithm is an old and simple encryption technique, there is a scope to improve its performance. One of the most time consuming processes in RSA encryption/ decryption algorithm is the computation of ab mod n where “a” is the text, (b, n) is the key. Generally the prime number used for RSA Encryption system will around 100 to 150 decimal digits. The computations involved are tedious and time consuming. Also the hardware is quite complex. To increase the computation speed, the multiplication principle of Vedic mathematics is used and also an improvement is made in the conventional restoring algorithm which does the modulus operation.“Urdhva-tiryakbhyam” is the sutra (principle) which used to compute the multiplication. It literally means vertical and crosswise manipulation. The significance of this technique is that it computes the partial products in one step and avoids the shifting operation which saves both time and hardware. Also an improvement is made in the restoring algorithm by avoiding unnecessary restorations when they are not required.The Verilog HDL code is simulated and synthesized in ModelSim 6.5 and Xilinx ISE 12.1 version tools respectively

Bhaskar.R; Ramakrishna.A; Venkateshwarlu.K; Haribabu.M

2013-01-01

342

Genetic Algorithms for Image Segmentation using Active Contours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm is a search technique used in computing to find approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. As a search strategy, genetic algorithm has been applied successfully in many fields. Firstly, this paper describes the genetic algorithms evolution process .It then describes the active contours to detect the boundaries of the object whose boundaries are not defined. Then it describes the use of genetic algorithm with active contours in image segmentation.

Neeru Gulati; Poonam Panwar

2013-01-01

343

Patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture SAR image formation algorithms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synthetic Aperture Radar image formation algorithms typically use transform techniques that often requires trading between image resolution, algorithm efficiency, and focussed image scene size limits. This is due to assumptions for the data such as simplified (often straight-line) flight paths, simplified imaging geometry, and simplified models for phase functions. Many errors in such assumptions are typically untreatable due to their dependence on both data domain positions and image domain positions. The result is that large scenes often require inefficient multiple image formation iterations, followed by a mosaicking operation of the focussed image patches. One class of image formation algorithms that performs favorably divides the spatial and frequency apertures into subapertures, and perhaps those subapertures into sub-subapertures, and so on, in a tiered subaperture fashion. This allows a gradual shift from data domain into image domain that allows correcting many types of errors that limit other image formation algorithms, even in a dynamic motion environment, thereby allowing larger focussed image patches without mosaicking. This paper presents and compares focussed patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture (TSA) image formation algorithms, for various numbers of tiers of subapertures. Examples are given that show orders-of-magnitude improvement in non-mosaicked focussed image patch size over traditional polar format processing, and that patch size limits increase with the number of tiers of subapertures, although with diminishing returns.

Doerry, A.W.

1994-12-31

344

Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm to improve brain MR Image Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image segmentation is a primary step in image analysis used to separate the input image into meaningful regions. MRI is an advanced medical imaging technique widely used in detecting brain tumors. Segmentation of Brain MR image is a complex task. Among the many approaches developed for the segmentation of MR images, a popular method is fuzzy C-mean (FCM). In the proposed method, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is used to improve the efficiency of FCM on abnormal brainimages.

Kamalam Balasubramani; Dr. Karnan Marcus

2013-01-01

345

Optical encryption in a JTC encrypting architecture without the use of an external reference wave  

Science.gov (United States)

In practical optodigital encrypting architectures, the use of a reference wave is always necessary. In this paper, we present a protocol for image encryption and decryption by the use of a JTC architecture without the need of an external reference wave. We describe the practical implementation of this architecture, along with computer simulation results that support the proposal. We also find that image retrieved by our approach owns a better quality compared with that by the conventional method. Besides, some other advantages of the proposed protocol are discussed.

Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong

2013-10-01

346

Adaptive compression algorithm from projections: application on medical greyscale images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Image compression plays a crucial role in medical imaging, allowing efficient manipulation, storage, and transmission of binary, grey-scale, or colour images. Nevertheless, in medical applications the need to conserve the diagnostic validity of the image requires the use of lossless compression methods, producing low compression factors. In this paper, a novel near-lossless compression algorithm from projections, which almost eliminates both redundant information and noise from a greyscale image while retaining all relevant structures and producing high compression factors, is proposed. The algorithm is tested on experimental medical greyscale images from different modalities and different body districts and results are reported.

Placidi G

2009-11-01

347

Adaptive compression algorithm from projections: application on medical greyscale images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Image compression plays a crucial role in medical imaging, allowing efficient manipulation, storage, and transmission of binary, grey-scale, or colour images. Nevertheless, in medical applications the need to conserve the diagnostic validity of the image requires the use of lossless compression methods, producing low compression factors. In this paper, a novel near-lossless compression algorithm from projections, which almost eliminates both redundant information and noise from a greyscale image while retaining all relevant structures and producing high compression factors, is proposed. The algorithm is tested on experimental medical greyscale images from different modalities and different body districts and results are reported. PMID:19683709

Placidi, Giuseppe

2009-08-15

348

Testing of hardware implementation of infrared image enhancing algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

The interpretation of IR images depends on radiative properties of observed objects and surrounding scenery. Skills and experience of an observer itself are also of great importance. The solution to improve the effectiveness of observation is utilization of algorithm of image enhancing capable to improve the image quality and the same effectiveness of object detection. The paper presents results of testing the hardware implementation of IR image enhancing algorithm based on histogram processing. Main issue in hardware implementation of complex procedures for image enhancing algorithms is high computational cost. As a result implementation of complex algorithms using general purpose processors and software usually does not bring satisfactory results. Because of high efficiency requirements and the need of parallel operation, the ALTERA's EP2C35F672 FPGA device was used. It provides sufficient processing speed combined with relatively low power consumption. A digital image processing and control module was designed and constructed around two main integrated circuits: a FPGA device and a microcontroller. Programmable FPGA device performs image data processing operations which requires considerable computing power. It also generates the control signals for array readout, performs NUC correction and bad pixel mapping, generates the control signals for display module and finally executes complex image processing algorithms. Implemented adaptive algorithm is based on plateau histogram equalization. Tests were performed on real IR images of different types of objects registered in different spectral bands. The simulations and laboratory experiments proved the correct operation of the designed system in executing the sophisticated image enhancement.

Dulski, R.; Sosnowski, T.; PiÄ tkowski, T.; Trzaskawka, P.; Kastek, M.; Kucharz, J.

2012-10-01

349

Dual Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Block Truncation Code  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dual image watermarking algorithm based on block truncation code is proposed. In the algorithm, after the origin image is performed block truncation code and quad tree segmentation, the area of HF image and LF image could be obtained. The HF and LF image are decomposed using DWT. Moreover, the dual watermarks are performed an m-sequence transformation. Select LH coefficients and use SVD method. Embed the watermark into V component of the SVD domain. The dual watermark image can be got after the inverse SVD and DWT transformed. The experimental results demonstrate that the watermarking algorithm has good robustness against the attacks such as rotation, image compression, noise addition, filtering and other image processing actions.

Minghui Shi; Bailiang Li

2012-01-01

350

Pixel Size Reduction Loss-Less Image Compression Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The digital signal processing and multimedia Computing is used to produce and process a large numberimages. Storing of raw image takes more space on storage device and more bandwidth over network duringtransmission. Very few image compression algorithms exist in loss-less image compression category toachieve compression ratio without transforming the image from the spatial domain. This paper proposesnew spatial domain loss-less image compression algorithm for synthetic color images of 24 bits. Theproposed algorithm does compression of an image by reducing the size of pixel. The size of pixel is reducedby representing pixel using only required number of bits instead of 8 bits per color. The pre-processing steptakes care of re-valuing pixel based on occurrence to get better compression ratio. The proposed algorithmhas been applied on set of test images and the results obtained are encouraging. The compression ratio hasbeen compared with Huffman, TIFF, PPM-Tree, GPPM, PCX [19] and found better.

Pralhadrao V Shantagiri; Saravanan K N

2013-01-01

351

A new modified fast fractal image compression algorithm  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, a new fractal image compression algorithm is proposed, in which the time of the encoding process is considerably reduced. The algorithm exploits a domain pool reduction approach, along with the use of innovative predefined values for contrast scaling factor, S, instead of searching it across. Only the domain blocks with entropy greater than a threshold are considered to belong to the domain pool. The algorithm has been tested for some well-known images and the results have been compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm has considerably lower encoding time than the other algorithms giving approximately the same quality for the encoded images.

Salarian, Mehdi; Nadernejad, Ehsan

2013-01-01

352

Restoration of pinhole images using Lucy-Richardson algorithm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The matrix of the point spread function for an X-ray pinhole camera system has been calculated. The computer-simulated pinhole images and real pinhole images measured in laser-plasma experiments have been restored using Lucy-Richardson algorithm. The number of iterations the resolution of the restored imaging and the details of the restore method have been discussed. The reliability of the restoration algorithm is also verified by a simulated optical experiment. (authors)

2006-01-01

353

Low-complexity chaotic encryption system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La seguridad en sistemas de comunicación de multimedia (texto, audio, imagen y video) representa un reto difícil de alcanzar para los actuales estandares de cifrado (RSA-Rivest-Shamir-Adelman, AES-Advanced Encryption Standard e IDEA-International Data Encryption algorithm) (28). Se requiere el procesamiento de grandes cantidades de información a velocidades que fluctúan entre los Kilobits/seg (Kbs) hasta los Megabits/seg (Mbs). Enfocados en este problema se propone un (more) sistema de cifrado seguro y eficiente basado en un arreglo de mapas logísticos independientemente iterados junto con un sistema de retroalimentación espacio-temporal usado como proceso de difusión de la información. Adicionalmente se hace uso de tres niveles de perturbación para modificar el estado actual del sistema e incrementar así su robustez contra ataques de oponentes; una perturbación es a nivel de la llave del sistema y dos adicionales a nivel de los mapas caóticos. El análisis de resultados muestra excelentes propiedades estadísticas del sistema propuesto, sensibilidad a las condiciones iniciales y la mas alta velocidad de ejecución reportada en la literatura para llevar a cabo comunicaciones de multimedia en tiempo real. Abstract in english Secure multimedia communication presents new challenges that are difficult to handle using by currently adopted encryption schemes (RSA-Rivest-Shamir-Adelman, AES-Advanced Encryption Standard, and IDEA-International Data Encryption algorithm) (28). It requires the processing of huge amounts of information at speeds ranging from Kilobits/sec (Kbs) to the order of Megabits/sec (Mbs). With this in mind, we propose a secure low-complexity encryption system based on a 4-array (more) of independently iterated chaotic logistic maps with a new Spatiotemporal feedback scheme as a diffusion process. The robustness of the system to opponents' attack is enhanced by using a periodic three-level pseudo-random perturbation scheme, one at the system-key level and two at the map array level. An analysis of the proposed scheme regarding its vulnerability to attacks, statistical properties and implementation performance is presented. To the best of our knowledge we provide a simple and secure encryption system for real-time multimedia communications with the fastest software execution time reported in the literature.

Hasimoto-Beltrán, R

2007-02-01

354

Double Encryption Based Secure Biometric Authentication System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays bio-metric authentication systems are widely used in order to provide authentication without possessing any physical materials. Bio-metric authentication systems are mainly concentrating on security, revocability, privacy, and accuracy. In this paper, we propose a provably two way secured biometric authentication system, which addresses the concerns of user’s privacy, template protection, trust issues, network security, and accuracy. The system is two way secured in the sense, biometric details are going to be encrypted twice, the system won’t reveal any additional information about the user or biometric, to the authenticating server’s database or to the insecure network. In this system two different encryption algorithms have been used both in the client and server side. One is public key cryptography another one is private key cryptography. User’s privacy as concern it is revealing only the identity of the user. In template protection this protocol will store the template as encrypted form. Protocol will provide trust between remote user and server, while a remote user cannot be reliably identified without biometric information. Since network security as concern protocol is not revealing the plain biometric details while it is passed through the network. The proposed approach has no restrictions on the biometric data used and it is applicable for multiple biometrics (face, iris, hand geometry, and finger print). Authentication by using two way encryption will give additional layer of security when comparing with existing systems.

S.Kavin hari hara sudhan, Prof.S.Ramamoorthy

2012-01-01

355

An Improved Image Restoration Algorithm for Overcast Based on MSR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to degradation model of cloudy images, the paper uses MSR (multi-scale retinex) algorithm for restoration. But MSR algorithm can’t effectively restore the details and color of images in processing cloudy images, so the paper proposes a new MSR improvement algorithm to process cloudy images. Three scales of traditional MSR is changed into four scales, which means that a Gaussian function with middle scale keeping the details and color of images is added to. And information fusion strategy based on wavelet transform domain is substituted for linear weighted strategy of multi-scale reflection images for MSR algorithm. The basic idea of fusion is that: Firstly, the images to be fused are for two layers of wavelet decomposition. Then high-frequency component are taken the absolute value maximum to stress the details in image. And local energy method is used for low frequency component to adjust the background and color, which realizes the effect of fidelity. Lastly, subjective observation and objective evaluation in the paper indicates that the algorithm of the paper has better effect on details restoration and color fidelity than the traditional MSR algorithm for restoring cloudy images.

Zhen Chen; Jihong Shen

2013-01-01

356

Comparative Analysis of Public-Key Encryption Schemes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The introduction of public-key cryptography by Diffie and Hellman in 1976 was an important watershed in the history of cryptography. The work sparked off interest in the cryptographic research community and soon several public-key schemes were proposed and implemented. The Rivest, Shamir and Adleman (RSA), being the first realisation of this abstract model, is the most widely used public-key scheme today. However, increased processing power and availability of cheaper processing technology occasioned by the exponential growth in digital technology has generated some security concerns, necessitating the review of security parameters for enhanced security. Enhanced processing power requirement does not favour the present class of ubiquitous mobile devices that are characterised by low power consumption, limited memory and bandwidth as they may not be able to run this cryptographic algorithm due to computational burden associated with long key lengths. And since future increase in key lengths looks likely given the current technological developments, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has been proposed as an alternative cryptosystem because it satisfies both security requirements and efficiency with shorter key lengths. This research work focuses on the comparative analysis of RSA Encryption algorithm, ElGamal Elliptic Curve Encryption algorithm and Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Encryption algorithm. These elliptic curve analogues of ElGamal Encryption scheme were implemented in Java, using classes from the Flexiprovider library of ECC. The RSA algorithm used in the comparison is the Flexiprovider implementation. Performance evaluation on the three algorithms based on the time lapse for their Key generation, encryption and decryption algorithms, and encrypted data size was carried out and compared. The results show that our elliptic curve-based implementations are more superior to the RSA algorithm on all comparative parameters.

Alese, B. K.; Philemon E. D.; Falaki, S. O.

2012-01-01

357

Thinning an object boundary on digital image using pipelined algorithm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In digital image processing, the thinning process to an object boundary is required to analyze the image structure with a measurement of parameter such as area, circumference of the image object. The process needs a sufficient large memory and time consuming if all the image pixels stored in the memory and the following process is done after all the pixels has ben transformed. pipelined algorithm can reduce the time used in the process. This algorithm uses buffer memory where its size can be adjusted. the next thinning process doesn't need to wait all the transformation of pixels. This paper described pipelined algorithm with some result on the use of the algorithm to digital image

1997-01-01

358

Hamming Distance Polygram Substitution Algorithm for Coding Optimization & Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The joint approach of integrating selective encryption & coding optimization is presented in this paper. Binary bit stream of the input is divided into the plaintext chunk of 64 bits. Random Key of 128 bits is generated. Key bits are then selected randomly. These randomly selected bits are change again randomly according to plaintext bits. Hamming distance is calculated in between the plaintext & changed key bits. Based on this Hamming distance codebook is form. Index of the codeword is treated as a cipher text which is itself a compressed code. Two levels of encryption is achieved in this work which makes the algorithm more secured than other encryption algorithm. The proposed algorithm is compared for standard test image on the basis compression performance & computational complexity. The result taken shows better performance of the proposed method over other standard methods

Prof. Atul S.Joshi,; Dr.P.R.Deshmukh

2013-01-01

359

A Tool for Compressing Images Based on Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been successfully applied to codebook design for Vector Quantization (VQ). This work uses the facilities of the genetic algorithm (Crossover and Mutation Operations) to enhance the use of one popular compression method, Vector Quantization (VQ) method. After studying the VQ method, a new algorithm for mixing it with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed and implemented for testing on some popular image datasets. A good enhancement was recorded for the performance of the (VQ) method when mixed with the (GA). Some fidelity measures are calculated to evaluate the performance of the new proposed algorithm.

Mohammed A.F. Al-Husainy

2007-01-01

360

Fast Software AES Encryption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents new software speed records for AES-128 encryption for architectures at both ends of the performance spectrum. On the one side we target the low-end 8-bit AVR rnicrocontrollers and 32-bit ARM microprocessors, while on the other side of the spectrum we consider the high-performing ...

Osvik, Dag Arne; Bos, Joppe Willem; Stefan, Deian; Canright, David

 
 
 
 
361

A Simple Algorithm to Strengthen the Brightness of Color Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper puts forward a simple algorithm to make color images lighter based on Wavelet transformation and histogram smoothing. This algorithm uses HIS space which is based on human visual features. Without changing hue, it can conduct histogram smoothing in low brightness frequency domain through wavelet decomposition and make the images lighter, which at the same time avoids vagueness of details and increase of noises. According to experiment results, this algorithm can make low brightness color images lighter effectively with low time complexity.

Hua ZHANG

2011-01-01

362

Decision tree Induction Algorithm for Classification of Image Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image classification is one of the challenge problems of image processing. This paper proposes a novel method for classification of image data. The paper emphasis on major classification methods and some extension on existing decision tree induction algorithm [4

Kesari verma; Ligendra Kumar Verma; Ajay Dewangan

2011-01-01

363

Compression Independent Reversible Encryption for Privacy in Video Surveillance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the wide use of video surveillance is the loss of individual privacy. Individuals who are not suspects need not be identified on camera recordings. Mechanisms that protect the identity while ensuring legitimate security needs are necessary. Selectively encrypting regions that reveal identity (e.g., faces or vehicle tags) are necessary to preserve individuals' right to privacy while recognizing the legitimate needs for video surveillance. The video used in surveillance applications usually needs to be transcoded or recoded for distribution and archival. Transcoding a traditionally encrypted video is not possible without decrypting the video first. This paper presents a compression algorithm independent solution that provides privacy in video surveillance applications. The proposed approach uses permutation-based encryption in the pixel domain to hide identity revealing features. The permutation-based encryption tolerates lossy compression and transcoding and allows decryption of the transcoded video at a later time. The use of permutation-based encryption makes the proposed solution independent of the compression algorithms used and robust to transcoding. The cost of providing this privacy is an increase in bitrate that depends on the percentage of blocks encrypted.

Paula Carrillo; Hari Kalva; Spyros Magliveras

2009-01-01

364

Ultrasonic particle image velocimetry for improved flow gradient imaging: algorithms, methodology and validation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a new algorithm for ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (Echo PIV) for improving the flow velocity measurement accuracy and efficiency in regions with high velocity gradients. The conventional Echo PIV algorithm has been modified by incorporating a multiple iterative algorithm, sub-pixel method, filter and interpolation method, and spurious vector elimination algorithm. The new algorithms' performance is assessed by analyzing simulated images with known displacements, and ultrasonic B-mode images of in vitro laminar pipe flow, rotational flow and in vivo rat carotid arterial flow. Results of the simulated images show that the new algorithm produces much smaller bias from the known displacements. For laminar flow, the new algorithm results in 1.1% deviation from the analytically derived value, and 8.8% for the conventional algorithm. The vector quality evaluation for the rotational flow imaging shows that the new algorithm produces better velocity vectors. For in vivo rat carotid arterial flow imaging, the results from the new algorithm deviate 6.6% from the Doppler-measured peak velocities averagely compared to 15% of that from the conventional algorithm. The new Echo PIV algorithm is able to effectively improve the measurement accuracy in imaging flow fields with high velocity gradients.

Niu Lili; Qian Ming; Yu Wentao; Jin Qiaofeng; Ling Tao; Zheng Hairong [Paul C Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China); Wan Kun; Gao Shen [Department of Pharmacy, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: hr.zheng@siat.ac.cn

2010-04-07

365

A research on the PIV algorithm using image coding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A particle image velocimetry(PIV) algorithm is developed to analyze whole flow field both qualitatively and quantitatively. The practical use of PIV requires the use of fast, reliable, computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a flow field. The TSS, NTSS, FFT-Hybrid, which are developed in the area of image compression and coding, are introduced to develop fast vector search algorithm. The numerical solution of the lid-driven cavity flow by the ADI algorithm with the Wachspress Formula is introduced to produce synthetic data for the validation of the tracking algorithms. The algorithms are applied to image data of real flow experiments. The comparisons in CPU time and mean error show, with a small loss of accuracy, CPU time for tracking is reduced considerably. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Kim, S.K. [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea)

2000-02-01

366

Arm Implementation of LSB Algorithm of Steganography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Network security and protection of data have been of great concern and a subject of research over the years There are many different forms of steganography mechanisms like LSB, Masking and filtering and Transform techniques. All of them have respective strong and weak points. The Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding Technique suggests that data can be hidden in the least significant bits of the cover image and the human eye would be unable to notice the hidden image in the cover file. This technique can be used for hiding images in 24-Bit, 8-Bit, Gray scale format. This paper explains the LSB embedding technique and Presents the evaluation for various file Formats. In a network, the success of the algorithm depends on hiding technique used to store information into the image. This paper is based on the study of steganography with its LSB algorithm. Human biometrics like iris, fingerprint, and face are the unique things for human. That’s why we propose a unique authentication and encryption technique using IRIS biometric pattern of a person. Text message encrypted by cryptographic key which is generated by iris image. Then using LSB algorithm this encrypted text message hide into the iris image. LSB algorithm is implemented in ARM7 LPC2148.

Ms. Pallavi Hemant Dixit; Dr. Uttam L. Bombale

2013-01-01

367

An Image Hash Algorithm Based on Chaos Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hash algorithm for digital image authentication based on chaos theory. For beginning, the paper proposed the idea of constructing the image matrix from the quantifying image blocks, and used the chaos theory of logistic mapping method to make a scrambling matrix. Then, the differential matrix can gain from the scrambling matrix and image matrix. A modulated matrix generated by N turbidity modulator and one bit Hash sequence received from the binarization of the modulated matrix. Then an image sequence Hash obtained through multiple modulation and quantization. Finally, the algorithm is validated by simulation experiment, and the results show that the algorithm was effectively and powerful, it’s also certificated for the image scaling.

YU Hai-peng; WEN Zheng-ying

2013-01-01

368

Real-Time DMB Video Encryption in Recording on PMP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At July 2008, the nationwide DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) has got started. As DMB device's volume of sales has been over 12 million already, the development of rapidly changing network systems has increased the dangers of infringing the copyright of DMB contents. For solving this problem, we suggest that real-time encryption algorithm without additional expenses, and implemented that on PMP. We used the SEED algorithm for encryption. As the experimental result, we confirmed that the real-time encryption and decryption of DMB videos were working well. Also confirmed that recorded contents in PMP were not replayed in other devices, and also the contents recorded by other devices were not played in PMP. Suggested algorithms can be useful in the VOD, IPTV or cable TV.

Seong-Yeon Lee; Jong-Nam Kim

2009-01-01

369

Fuzzy algorithms with applications to image processing and pattern recognition  

CERN Multimedia

This text deals with the subject of fuzzy algorithms and their applications to image processing and pattern recognition. Subjects covered include membership functions; fuzzy clustering; fuzzy rulers and defuzzification; fuzzy classifiers; and combined classifiers.

Hong, Yan

1996-01-01

370

Video Serial Images Registration Based on FBM Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the video serial images registration based on fbm algorithm. In order to overcome low contrast and complex distortion and limited field of view, computer image processing technology must be used to video serial images for obtaining the image. It is hard to find and evaluate the change in the scene which appeared between the aeronautic consecutive image acquisitions to mosaic. So registration is important to successful image mosaic. A matching method based on the improved FBM algorithm can get good image fusion and image registration which is introduced for attaining more precise aggregate of matching points. In order to estimate the fundamental matrix which encapsulated the whole geometry accurately and robustly, an improved SVD decomposition with weighted normalized fundamental matrix calculating method is proposed. By using geometric invariant, cross ratio to rectify the matching points, the rectification is realized automatically and coarse error is reduced effectively.

Bing Wang; Xiaoli Wang

2013-01-01

371

A Novel Image Reconstruction Algorithm Based on Concatenated Dictionary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image sparse representation plays a vital role in the process of image reconstruction. In recent years, several pioneering works suggested that signals/images could be represented sparsely with a redundant dictionary. The selection of components from the dictionary directly influences the precision of the reconstructed image, while the scale of dictionary influences the computational efficiency. This paper presents a novel method for image reconstruction, which decomposites the image by concatenating a redundant dictionary of several bases and then reconstruct the image efficiently by means of Matching Pursuit algorithm. The proposed method constructs the concatenated dictionary with cosine bases, wavelet bases and contourlet bases, which will lead to a better approximation of the original image. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly reduce the computational complexity and generate a better reconstruction effect compared with previous methods.

Zhe Liu; Xiaoxian Zhen; Cong Ma

2012-01-01

372

Algorithm for the correction of phase wrapping in MR images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The motion of blood along the direction of magnetic field gradients induces a shift in the phase of the signal from the moving blood which can be measured for flow estimation. However, shifts in the phase of stationary tissue also arise due to factors such as imbalanced gradients. The subtraction of two phase images with different amounts of motion compensation can cancel these effects. Confusion can arise in the interpretation of subtraction images due to phase wrapping in the original images. An algorithm has been developed that resolves ambiguity by computing absolute phase prior to image subtraction. Both signal magnitude and contextual information are employed in the algorithm

1987-12-04

373

Naturalness preserved enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Image enhancement plays an important role in image processing and analysis. Among various enhancement algorithms, Retinex-based algorithms can efficiently enhance details and have been widely adopted. Since Retinex-based algorithms regard illumination removal as a default preference and fail to limit the range of reflectance, the naturalness of non-uniform illumination images cannot be effectively preserved. However, naturalness is essential for image enhancement to achieve pleasing perceptual quality. In order to preserve naturalness while enhancing details, we propose an enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images. In general, this paper makes the following three major contributions. First, a lightness-order-error measure is proposed to access naturalness preservation objectively. Second, a bright-pass filter is proposed to decompose an image into reflectance and illumination, which, respectively, determine the details and the naturalness of the image. Third, we propose a bi-log transformation, which is utilized to map the illumination to make a balance between details and naturalness. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can not only enhance the details but also preserve the naturalness for non-uniform illumination images.

Wang S; Zheng J; Hu HM; Li B

2013-09-01

374

Naturalness preserved enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Image enhancement plays an important role in image processing and analysis. Among various enhancement algorithms, Retinex-based algorithms can efficiently enhance details and have been widely adopted. Since Retinex-based algorithms regard illumination removal as a default preference and fail to limit the range of reflectance, the naturalness of non-uniform illumination images cannot be effectively preserved. However, naturalness is essential for image enhancement to achieve pleasing perceptual quality. In order to preserve naturalness while enhancing details, we propose an enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images. In general, this paper makes the following three major contributions. First, a lightness-order-error measure is proposed to access naturalness preservation objectively. Second, a bright-pass filter is proposed to decompose an image into reflectance and illumination, which, respectively, determine the details and the naturalness of the image. Third, we propose a bi-log transformation, which is utilized to map the illumination to make a balance between details and naturalness. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can not only enhance the details but also preserve the naturalness for non-uniform illumination images. PMID:23661319

Wang, Shuhang; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Hai-Miao; Li, Bo

2013-05-02

375

OS-EM algorithm for SPECT image reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ordered Subsets method is a modification of the ML-EM algorithm of image reconstruction that is successfully used in emission tomography. By changing the way of how the set of projection data is processed, OS-EM algorithm considerably accelerates the process of image reconstruction. In this paper some of results of a numerical experiment using two digital phantoms performed for the purpose to test OS-EM theoretical bases are shown (author)

2000-01-01

376

FAIR: a Fast Algorithm for Document Image Restoration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present in this paper the FAIR algorithm: a Fast Algorithm for document Image Restoration. This algorithm has been submitted to different contests where it showed good performance in comparison to the state of the art. In addition, this method is scale invariant and fast enough to be used in real-time applications. The method is based on a double-threshold edge detection approach which makes it possible to detect small details while remaining robust against noise. The performance of the proposition is evaluated on several types of degraded document images where considerable background noise or variation in contrast and illumination exist.

Lelore T; Bouchara F

2013-03-01

377

Image Compression Using Partitioning Around Medoids Clustering Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clustering is a unsupervised learning technique. This paper presents a clustering based technique that may be applied to Image compression. The proposed technique clusters all the pixels into predetermined number of groups and produces a representative color for each group. Finally for each pixel only clusters number is stored during compression. This technique can be obtained in machine learning which one of the best methods for clustering is. The k-medoids algorithm is a clustering algorithm related to the K-means algorithm and the medoidshift algorithm.

Valmik B Nikam; Vinod J Kadam; B.B.Meshram

2011-01-01

378

Image processing algorithm for robot tracking in reactor vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we proposed an image processing algorithm to find the position of an underwater robot in the reactor vessel. Proposed algorithm is composed of Modified SURF(Speeded Up Robust Feature) based on Mean-Shift and CAMSHIFT(Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift Algorithm) based on color tracking algorithm. Noise filtering using luminosity blend method and color clipping are preprocessed. Initial tracking area for the CAMSHIFT is determined by using modified SURF. And then extracting the contour and corner points in the area of target tracked by CAMSHIFT method. Experiments are performed at the reactor vessel mockup and verified to use in the control of robot by visual tracking

2011-01-01

379

ON THE VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF GEOSPATIAL IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Verification and validation (V&V) of geospatial image analysis algorithms is a difficult task and is becoming increasingly important. While there are many types of image analysis algorithms, we focus on developing V&V methodologies for algorithms designed to provide textual descriptions of geospatial imagery. In this paper, we present a novel methodological basis for V&V that employs a domain-specific ontology, which provides a naming convention for a domain-bounded set of objects and a set of named relationship between these objects. We describe a validation process that proceeds through objectively comparing benchmark imagery, produced using the ontology, with algorithm results. As an example, we describe how the proposed V&V methodology would be applied to algorithms designed to provide textual descriptions of facilities

Roberts, Randy S.; Trucano, Timothy G.; Pope, Paul A.; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Jiang , Ming; Wei, Thomas; Chilton, Lawrence; Bakel, A. J.

2010-07-25

380

A Demons algorithm for image registration with locally adaptive regularization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirion's Demons is a popular algorithm for nonrigid image registration because of its linear computational complexity and ease of implementation. It approximately solves the diffusion registration problem by successively estimating force vectors that drive the deformation toward alignment and smoothing the force vectors by Gaussian convolution. In this article, we show how the Demons algorithm can be generalized to allow image-driven locally adaptive regularization in a manner that preserves both the linear complexity and ease of implementation of the original Demons algorithm. We show that the proposed algorithm exhibits lower target registration error and requires less computational effort than the original Demons algorithm on the registration of serial chest CT scans of patients with lung nodules.

Cahill ND; Noble JA; Hawkes DJ

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

A Comparative Study of Image Compression Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital images in their uncompressed form require an enormous amount of storage capacity. Such uncompressed data needs large transmission bandwidth for the transmission over the network. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is one of the widely used image compression method and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) provides substantial improvements in the quality of picture because of multi resolution nature. Image compression reduces the storage space of image and also maintains the quality information of the image. In this research study the performance of three most widely used techniques namely DCT, DWT and Hybrid DCT-DWT are discussed for image compression and their performance is evaluated in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Compression Ratio (CR). The experimental results obtained from the study shows that the Hybrid DCT- DWT technique for image compression has in general a better performance than individual DCT or DWT.

Kiran Bindu; Anita Ganpati; Aman Kumar Sharma

2012-01-01

382

Secure Client Server Message Integrity Verification Using Robust Encrypted Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary goal guiding the design of any encryption algorithm must provide security against unauthorized attacks. Integrity checking is the crucial for message modification in client server communications. This project provides secure message integrity verification at the receiver’s side. This project provides the performance comparison between the proposed algorithm BEST with the existing algorithms like AES,DES.The chief motive leading the design in an encryption method must share security against unauthorized attacks. In this Proposed system, a Block Encryption Standard for Transfer of data (BEST) is planned to gain the various goals of security i.e., Availability, Confidentiality and Integrity. The evaluation has been performed by performing several algorithms. to process different sizes of data blocks to assess the algorithms encryption and decryption speed.In this proposed work BEST algorithm is implemented in order to verify intergrity security for data as well as files are concern.Experimental results shows that BEST outperformed for protecting important information at receivers end of client server communication.

Madhuri Marey #1 , Mr.M.Babu Rao #2

2012-01-01

383

A New Adaptive Visible Watermarking Algorithm for Document Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many previous visible image watermarking schemes are not applicable for document images. A novel visible watermarking algorithm is proposed by considering the unique visual perception of document images. To obtain good visual quality of watermarked images and good perceptual watermark translucence, an adaptive scaling factor and embedding factor calculation method is designed by exploiting luminance and edge masking characteristics of document images. Experimental results prove that the scheme has both good visual quality of watermarked images and satisfactory visible watermark translucence. In addition, it successfully resists removal attacks.

Mingfang Jiang

2012-01-01

384

An effective hair removal algorithm for dermoscopy images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized image analysis techniques have become important tools in this research area. Hair removal from skin lesion images is one of the key problems for the precise segmentation and analysis of the skin lesions. In this study, we present a new scheme that automatically detects and removes hairs from dermoscopy images. METHODS: The proposed algorithm includes two steps: firstly, light and dark hairs and ruler marking are segmented through adaptive canny edge detector and refinement by morphological operators. Secondly, the hairs are repaired based on multi-resolution coherence transport inpainting. RESULTS: The algorithm was applied to 50 dermoscopy images. To estimate the accuracy of the proposed hair detection algorithm, quantitative analysis was performed using TDR, FPR, and DA metrics. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the proposed hair repaired algorithm, three statistical metrics namely entropy, standard deviation, and co-occurrence matrix were used. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is highly accurate and able to detect and repair the hair pixels with few errors. In addition, the segmentation veracity of the skin lesion is effectively improved after our proposed hair removal algorithm.

Toossi MT; Pourreza HR; Zare H; Sigari MH; Layegh P; Azimi A

2013-08-01

385

CTR-Mode Encryption  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Counter-mode encryption ("CTR mode") was introduced by Diffie and Hellman already in 1979 [5] and is alreadystandardized by, for example, [1, Section 6.4]. It is indeed one of the best known modes that are not standardizedin [10]. We suggest that NIST, in standardizing AES modes of operation, should include CTR-mode encryption as onepossibility for the next reasons. First, CTR mode has significant efficiency advantages over the standard encryptionmodes without weakening the security. In particular its tight security has been proven. Second, most of the perceiveddisadvantages of CTR mode are not valid criticisms, but rather caused by the lack of knowledge.1 Review of Counter-Mode EncryptionNotation. Let EK Xdenote the encipherment of an n-bit block X using key K and a block cipher E. For concretenesswe assume that EAES, so n128. If X is a nonempty string and i is a nonnegative integer, then Xi denotestheX-bit string that one gets by regardin...

Helger Lipmaa; Phillip Rogaway; David Wagner

386

Performance Comparison of Symmetric Data Encryption Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present scenario various data encryption algorithms are available for data security which has always been important in all aspects of life. Data may contain confidential form of information that one want to secure from any third party access. As we are having number of cryptographic algorithm so sometimes it can create little bit confusion to select best one. This paper provides a view to choose the best available one on the basis of their performance parameter. It can be all the more important as technology continues to control various operations in our day to day life Reprogrammable devices are highly attractive options for hardware implementations of encryption algorithms as they provide cryptographic algorithm agility, physical security, and potentially much higher performance, therefore this paper investigates a hardware design to efficiently implement a special type block ciphers in VHDL and its comparative analysis in different parameter variation . This hardware design is applied to the new secret and variable size key block cipher called Blowfish designed to meet the requirements of the previous known standard and to increase security and to improve performance. The proposed algorithm will be used a variable key size.

Deepak Kumar Dakate, Pawan Dubey

2012-01-01

387

EXTENDING THE VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY ALGORITHM USING IMAGE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE  

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Full Text Available Visual cryptography is a secret information sharing technique which shares the information in the form of images. It generates noise-like random pixels on share images to hide secret information which on overlay decrypt the information. This technique is known as conventional visual secret sharing schemes. It suffers a management problem, because of which dealers cannot visually identify each share. This problem is solved by the extended visual cryptography scheme (EVCS), which adds a meaningful cover image in each share. While removing the extra cover image it produces extra noise or degrades the hidden image quality. So we propose a new image watermarking technique in this Visual Cryptography Algorithm that places a small image on the noisy image pair at the bottom right corner. So that the cover images need not be removed and it doesn't degrade  resolution of the secret image.

Dilip Kumar Kotthapalli; Dr. V.R. Anitha

2013-01-01

388

An Adaptive Algorithm for Improving the Fractal Image Compression (FIC)  

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Full Text Available In this paper an adaptive algorithm is proposed to reduce the long time that has been taken in the Fractal Image Compression (FIC) technique. This algorithm worked on reducing the number of matching operations between range and domain blocks by reducing both of the range and domain blocks needed in the matching process, for this purpose, two techniques have been proposed; the first one is called Range Exclusion (RE), in this technique variance factor is used to reduce the number of range blocks by excluding ranges of the homogenous or flat regions from the matching process; the second technique is called Reducing the Domain Image Size (RDIZ), it is responsible for the reduction of the domain by minimizing the Domain Image Size to 1/16th instead of 1/4th of the original image size used in the traditional FIC. This in turn will affect the encoding time, compression ratio and the reconstructed image quality. For getting best results, the two techniques are coupled in one algorithm; the new algorithm is called (RD-RE). The tested (256x256) gray images are partitioned into fixed (4x4) blocks and then compressed using visual C++ 6.0 code. The results show that RE technique is faster and gets more compression ratio than the traditional FIC and keeping a high reconstructed images quality while RD-RE is faster and it gets higher compression ratio than RE but with slight loss in the reconstructed image quality.

Taha Mohammed Hasan; Xiangqian Wu

2011-01-01

389

Texture-based algorithm for color image classification  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a texture based algorithm is developed for classifying color images. The images are filtered by a set of Gabor filters at different scales and orientations. The energy of the filtered images in each channel and between channels are computed and used for classification. The normalized RGB, xyY and HIQ color spaces are used to identify the best space for classifying the color images. The best representation of the textures are found to be using normalized RGB and HIQ space and chrominance values. A filter selection process using texture similarity is adopted. Unichannel and interchannel features are computed. A feature reduction process is applied before using a classifier. The algorithm is used to classify sets of textures from databases of color texture images and it gives good results. It is also applied to Landsat TM images. The 7 channels are used and the best channels for classification of the image are found to be R and G. The algorithm has been designed to use the appropriate Gabor filters based on texture transition characteristics within and between channels. The algorithm performs better than using only the gray scale values of the color images.

Manian, Vidya B.; Castro, Marcel; Vasquez, Ramon E.

2000-06-01

390

A Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Color Image Based on DWT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An efficient digital watermark embedding algorithm for color image was presented in this paper, which is based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the spectral characteristics of human vision system. Firstly, three color separations was performed for color image, and color components of colo...

Huming Gao; Liyuan Jia; Meiling Liu

391

Color Image Compression Algorithm Based on the DCT Blocks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the performance of different block-based discrete cosine transform (DCT) algorithms for compressing color image. In this RGB component of color image are converted to YCbCr before DCT transform is applied. Y is luminance component; Cb and Cr are chrominance components of the ima...

Walaa M. Abd-Elhafiez; Wajeb Gharibi

392

A New Method for Medical Image Clustering Using Genetic Algorithm  

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Full Text Available Segmentation is applied in medical images when the brightness of the images becomes weaker so that making different in recognizing the tissues borders. Thus, the exact segmentation of medical images is an essential process in recognizing and curing an illness. Thus, it is obvious that the purpose of clustering in medical images is the recognition of damaged areas in tissues. Different techniques have been introduced for clustering in different fields such as engineering, medicine, data mining and so on. However, there is no standard technique of clustering to present ideal results for all of the imaging applications. In this paper, a new method combining genetic algorithm and k-means algorithm is presented for clustering medical images. In this combined technique, variable string length genetic algorithm (VGA) is used for the determination of the optimal cluster centers. The proposed algorithm has been compared with the k-means clustering algorithm. The advantage of the proposed method is the accuracy in selecting the optimal cluster centers compared with the above mentioned technique.

Akbar Shahrzad Khashandarag; Mirkamal Mirnia; Aidin Sakhavati

2013-01-01

393

Improving Diagnostic Viewing of Medical Images using Enhancement Algorithms  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Various images are low quality and difficultly to detect and extract information. Therefore, the image has to get under a process called image enhancement which contains an aggregation of techniques that look for improving the visual aspect of an image. Medical images are one of the fundamental images, because they are used in more sensitive field which is a medical field. The raw data obtained straight from devices of medical acquisition may afford a comparatively poor image quality representation and may destroy by several types of noises. Image Enhancement (IE) and denoising algorithms for executing the requirements of digital medical image enhancement is introduced. The main goal of this study is to improve features and gain better characteristics of medical images for a right diagnosis. Approach: The proposed techniques start by the median filter for removing noise on images followed by unsharp mask filter which is believable the usual type of sharpening. Medical images were usually poor quality especially in contrast. For solving this problem, we proposed Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) which is one of the techniques in a computer image processing domain. It was used to amend contrast in images. Results: For testing purposes, different sizes and various types of medical images were used and more than 60 images in different parts of the body. From the experts? evaluation, they noted that the enhanced images improved up to 80% from the original images depends on medical images modalities. Conclusion: The proposed algorithms results were significant for increasing the visibleness of relatively details without distorting the images.

Hanan S.S. Ahmed; Md J. Nordin

2011-01-01

394

Numerical algorithms for image geometric transformations and applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

To facilitate images under the nonlinear geometric transformation T and its inverse transformation T(-1), we have developed numerical algorithms. A cycle conversion T(-1)T of image transformations is said if an image is distorted by a transformation T and then restored back to itself. The combination (CSIM) of splitting-shooting-integrating methods was first proposed in Li for T(-1)T. In this paper other two combinations, CIIM and C I# I M, of splitting integrating methods for T(-1)T are provided. Combination CSIM has been successfully applied to many topics in image processing and pattern recognition. Since combination CSIM causes large greyness errors, it well suited to a few greyness level images, but needs a huge computation work for 256 greyness level images of enlarged transformations. We may instead choose combination CIIM which involves nonlinear solutions. However, the improved combination C I# I M may bypass the nonlinear solutions completely. Hence, both CIIM and C I# I M can be applied to q(q > or = 256) greyness level images of any enlarged transformations. On the other hand, the combined algorithms, CSIM, CIIM, and C I# I M, are applied to several important topics of image processing and pattern recognition: binary images, multi-greyness level images, image condensing, illumination, affine transformations, prospective and projection, wrapping images, handwriting characters, image concealment, the transformations with arbitrary shapes, and face transformation. This paper may also be regarded as a review of our recent research papers. PMID:15369058

Li, Zi-Cai; Wang, Huaiqing; Liao, Stephen S Y

2004-02-01

395

Numerical algorithms for image geometric transformations and applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To facilitate images under the nonlinear geometric transformation T and its inverse transformation T(-1), we have developed numerical algorithms. A cycle conversion T(-1)T of image transformations is said if an image is distorted by a transformation T and then restored back to itself. The combination (CSIM) of splitting-shooting-integrating methods was first proposed in Li for T(-1)T. In this paper other two combinations, CIIM and C I# I M, of splitting integrating methods for T(-1)T are provided. Combination CSIM has been successfully applied to many topics in image processing and pattern recognition. Since combination CSIM causes large greyness errors, it well suited to a few greyness level images, but needs a huge computation work for 256 greyness level images of enlarged transformations. We may instead choose combination CIIM which involves nonlinear solutions. However, the improved combination C I# I M may bypass the nonlinear solutions completely. Hence, both CIIM and C I# I M can be applied to q(q > or = 256) greyness level images of any enlarged transformations. On the other hand, the combined algorithms, CSIM, CIIM, and C I# I M, are applied to several important topics of image processing and pattern recognition: binary images, multi-greyness level images, image condensing, illumination, affine transformations, prospective and projection, wrapping images, handwriting characters, image concealment, the transformations with arbitrary shapes, and face transformation. This paper may also be regarded as a review of our recent research papers.

Li ZC; Wang H; Liao SS

2004-02-01

396

Analysis of Cuckoo Search with Genetic Algorithm for Image Compression  

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Full Text Available Compressing an image is different than compressing raw binary data. Of course, general purpose compression Techniques can be used to compress images, but the result is less than optimal. Statistical properties of image have been exploited by encoders specifically designed for them. This also means that lossy compression techniques can be used in this area. In this paper, cuckoo algorithmis integrated with genetic algorithm in image compression framework. Here image compression is implemented with the combination of cuckoo search and genetic algorithm optimization with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). The experimental result clearly shows that the efficiency proposed image compression method is better than other based on statistical parameter of PSNR, MSE and CR.

S. Akila Pradeep,R.Manavalan

2013-01-01

397

Development of Anonymous Networks Based on Symmetric Key Encryptions  

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Full Text Available Anonymous networks enable entities to send messages without disclosing their identities. Many anonymous networks had been proposed already, such as Mixnet, DC-net, Crowds, etc., however, they still have serious drawbacks. Namely, they require tremendous computation overheads to transmit messages over networks. That is because asymmetric key encryption algorithms are used. This paper proposes ESEBM (Enhanced Symmetric Key Encryption based Mixnet), a new mechanism for anonymous communication that removes drawbacks of existing anonymous networks while exploiting symmetric key encryption algorithms. According to experimentations, throughput of ESEBM is about 1/4.4 of usual non-anonymous networks, and it achieves more than 36 times higher throughput compared with Mixnet. In addition, different from existing anonymous networks, ESEBM can handle reply messages without any additional mechanism, and it can protect itself from various threats, e.g. DOS attacks and message forgeries.

Hazim Haddad; Shinsuke Tamura; Shuji Taniguchi; Tatsuro Yanase

2011-01-01

398

Note: Thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples.

Beer SK; Lawson SA

2013-08-01

399

Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples. PMID:24007128

Beer, S K; Lawson, S A

2013-08-01

400

Experience with CANDID: Comparison algorithm for navigating digital image databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents results from the authors experience with CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases), which was designed to facilitate image retrieval by content using a query-by-example methodology. A global signature describing the texture, shape, or color content is first computed for every image stored in a database, and a normalized similarity measure between probability density functions of feature vectors is used to match signatures. This method can be used to retrieve images from a database that are similar to a user-provided example image. Results for three test applications are included.

Kelly, P.; Cannon, M.

1994-10-01

 
 
 
 
401

An Efficient Low Complexity Lossless Coding Algorithm for Medical Images  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays a large number of various medical images are generated from hospitals and medical centers with sophisticated image acquisition devices, the movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve and transmit the volume of digital images. Thus digital image data compression is necessary in order to solve this problem. So in a wide range of medical applications such as disease diagnostic and during the compression process, the loss of information is unacceptable; hence medical images are required to be at high resolution as possible. Instead of lossy compression with relatively high compression ratio, mathematical lossless compression methods are favored in this field. Approach: In this study, an efficient new lossless image coding algorithm using a simple technique was presented. Our coding algorithm was based on pixel redundancy reduction by formulating two matrices only, which were Gray Scale Matrix (GSM) and Binary Matrix (BM). These matrices had been used for coding and decoding processes. Results: Results showed that the maximum compression ratio achieved using the proposed method was 4:1, which was more efficient than the present lossless techniques, moreover the computational complexity is greatly simplified; therefore producing very fast coding and decoding. Conclusion: This algorithm was most suitable for those images where lossy compression was avoided such as medical images used for teleradiology and other telemedicine purposed and it can be applied to other medical modalities.

S. E. Ghrare; M. A.M. Ali; K. Jumari; M. Ismail

2009-01-01

402

[A compression algorithm for multi-spectral TDICCD image].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the problem of edge and texture blurring of multi-spectral image caused by the wavelet transform and bit-plane encoder of traditional method not taking into account image characteristics, a compression algorithm of multi-spectral TDICCD image having few bands is proposed in the present paper. The proposed direction-adaptive lifting DWT can adaptively choose the best lifting direction and use the Lagrange interpolation technique to make prediction according to its local characteristics. This method makes good use of the image texture features. The proposed rate control algorithm can adaptively allocate the rate bits according to image content. The experiments results showed that the proposed compression algorithm has good compressive property. Compared with traditional approaches, the performance of our method corresponds to the conventional approach for smooth images. However, it was superior to others for images with rich texture and a large number of edge detail information. In the compression ration 4 : 1, the average peak signal to noise ratio of the proposed compression algorithmcould improve the average PSNR by 1.939 dB. They effectively protect the edge and texture detail information for multi-spectral image. It is very suitable for the application of space multi-spectral CCD image with rich texture and a large number of edge detail information. PMID:23705467

Liu, Yan-Yan; Gao, Yin-Han; Li, Jin; Jin, Long-Xu; Han, Shuang-Li; Li, Guo-Ning

2013-03-01