Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm
Mohammed A.F. Al-Husainy
2006-01-01
The security of digital images attracts much attention recently, especially when these digital images are stored in some types of memory or send through the communication networks. Many different image encryption methods have been proposed to keep the security of these images. Image encryption techniques tries to convert an image to another image that is hard to understand. In this proposed method, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to produce a new encryption method by exploitation the powerful ...
Image Encryption Using a Lightweight Stream Encryption Algorithm
Saeed Bahrami; Majid Naderi
2012-01-01
Security of the multimedia data including image and video is one of the basic requirements for the telecommunications and computer networks. In this paper, we consider a simple and lightweight stream encryption algorithm for image encryption, and a series of tests are performed to confirm suitability of the described encryption algorithm. These tests include visual test, histogram analysis, information entropy, encryption quality, correlation analysis, differential analysis, and performance a...
Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm
Catur Iswahyudi; Emy Setyaningsih
2012-01-01
This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. The...
A new chaotic algorithm for image encryption
Recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper presents a new nonlinear chaotic algorithm (NCA) which uses power function and tangent function instead of linear function. Its structural parameters are obtained by experimental analysis. And an image encryption algorithm in a one-time-one-password system is designed. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption algorithm based on NCA shows advantages of large key space and high-level security, while maintaining acceptable efficiency. Compared with some general encryption algorithms such as DES, the encryption algorithm is more secure
Genetic Algorithm: Tool to Encrypt Image
Dr. Mohammed Abbas Fadhil Al-Husainy
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Security is an important issue when digital images are transmitted through the internet and cellular phones, as well as being important in encryption of the satellite images, and image encryption is the most useful technique employed for this purpose. Genetic Algorithm (GA can be regarded as a randomized search procedure that is commonly used to solve the optimization problems. The genetic algorithm uses two reproduction operators - crossover and mutation. Crossover assembles existing genes into new combinations, and mutation produces new genes.In this paper, a new approach of employing the crossover and the mutation operations of the genetic algorithms (GA to encrypt images was proposed. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.
ALGORITHM FOR IMAGE MIXING AND ENCRYPTION
Ayman M. Abdalla
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This new algorithm mixes two or more images of different types and sizes by employing a shuffling procedure combined with S-box substitution to perform lossless image encryption. This combines stream cipher with block cipher, on the byte level, in mixing the images. When this algorithm was implemented, empirical analysis using test images of different types and sizes showed that it is effective and resistant to attacks.
Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Universal Modular Transformation
Jiaying Jia; Qifeng Zou; Xiaoyang Yu; Xue Yang
2010-01-01
Image encryption is essential to assure information security. Universal modular transformation is a widely applied encryption method, but it has some disadvantages such as a relatively small quantity of keys and insecurity. A uniform block encryption method is proposed in this study to improve the image entropy of encryption and an image is encrypted with the universal modular transform combined with a chaotic mapping. Experimental results show that this algorithm can provide good encryption ...
Parallel image encryption algorithm based on discretized chaotic map
Recently, a variety of chaos-based algorithms were proposed for image encryption. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for parallel image encryption. Based on this framework, a new algorithm is designed using the discretized Kolmogorov flow map. It fulfills all the requirements for a parallel image encryption algorithm. Moreover, it is secure and fast. These properties make it a good choice for image encryption on parallel computing platforms
Enhancement and Analysis of Chaotic Image Encryption Algorithms
R.Raja Kumar; Sampath, A.; Indumathi, P.
2011-01-01
The focus of this paper is to improve the level of security and secrecy provided by the chaotic map based image encryption.An encryption algorithm based on the Logistic and the Henon maps is proposed. The algorithm uses chaotic iteration to generate the encryption keys, and then carries out the XOR and cyclic shift operations on the plain text to change the values of image pixels. Chaotic Map Lattice based image encryption algorithm suggested by Pisarchik is also examined which...
Quantum Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Quantum Image XOR Operations
Gong, Li-Hua; He, Xiang-Tao; Cheng, Shan; Hua, Tian-Xiang; Zhou, Nan-Run
2016-03-01
A novel encryption algorithm for quantum images based on quantum image XOR operations is designed. The quantum image XOR operations are designed by using the hyper-chaotic sequences generated with the Chen's hyper-chaotic system to control the control-NOT operation, which is used to encode gray-level information. The initial conditions of the Chen's hyper-chaotic system are the keys, which guarantee the security of the proposed quantum image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that the proposed quantum image encryption algorithm has larger key space, higher key sensitivity, stronger resistance of statistical analysis and lower computational complexity than its classical counterparts.
Color Image Encryption Algorithm Combining Compressive Sensing with Arnold Transform
Aidi Zhang; Nanrun Zhou; Lihua Gong
2013-01-01
A new color image encryption algorithm combining compressive sensing with Arnold transform is proposed, which can encrypt the color image into a gray image. Considering the dimensional reduction and random projection of compressive sensing, we utilize compressive sensing to encrypt and compress the three color components of color image simultaneously. The three encrypted and compressed color components’ dimensions are smaller than the original image, thus they can be grouped into a gray...
Ari Shawakat Tahir
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Steganography is an art and science of hiding information by embedding messages within other, seemingly harmless messages and lots of researches are working in it. Proposed system is using AES Algorithm and Lossy technique to overcome the limitation of previous work and increasing the processâ€™s speed. The sender uses AES Algorithm to encrypt message and image, then using LSB technique to hide encrypted data in encrypted message. The receive get the original data using the keys that had been used in encryption process. The proposed system has been implemented in NetBeans 7.3 software uses image and data in different size to find the systemâ€™s speed.
RC4 Enrichment Algorithm Approach for Selective Image Encryption
Pramod Kumar; Pushpendra Kumar Pateriya
2012-01-01
This paper is introduces RC4 Enrichment Algorithm Approach for selective image encryption. This approach is derived from the standard RC4 algorithm. RC4 algorithm is already used for image encryption and also for the selective image encryption. Currently RC4 is vulnerable. Lots of cryptanalytic found the lots of weakness, vulnerable point and attacks inside the RC4 algorithm. So in this concern, this paper has worked. This paper has designed the RC4 based new enrichment approach to making str...
A Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Rubik's Cube Principle
Khaled Loukhaoukha; Jean-Yves Chouinard; Abdellah Berdai
2012-01-01
In the past few years, several encryption algorithms based on chaotic systems have been proposed as means to protect digital images against cryptographic attacks. These encryption algorithms typically use relatively small key spaces and thus offer limited security, especially if they are one-dimensional. In this paper, we proposed a novel image encryption algorithm based on Rubik's cube principle. The original image is scrambled using the principle of Rubik's cube. Then, XOR operator is appli...
A new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos
This Letter presents a new image encryption scheme, which employs an image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses a hyper-chaotic system to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted y image has a random-like behavior
A Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Hill Cipher System
S. K. Muttoo; Deepika Aggarwal; Bhavya Ahuja
2012-01-01
We present a technique of image encryption based on Hill cipher system that provides better security than existing approach of Bibhudendra Acharya et al. by rendering the image content completely scrambled using multiple self-invertible keys, block shuffling and a new developed pel transformation. The Hill cipher algorithm is one of the symmetric key algorithms having several advantages in encryption. However, the inverse of the matrix used for encrypting the plain text in this algorithm may ...
Chaos-based image encryption algorithm
In this Letter, a new image encryption scheme is presented, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Firstly, the Arnold cat map is used to shuffle the positions of the image pixels in the spatial-domain. Then the discrete output signal of the Chen's chaotic system is preprocessed to be suitable for the grayscale image encryption, and the shuffled image is encrypted by the preprocessed signal pixel by pixel. The experimental results demonstrate that the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior
An Image Encryption Algorithm based on 3D Lorenz map
Mrs. A.Anto Steffi; Dipesh Sharma,
2013-01-01
In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this paper a new approach for image encryption is based on chaotic baker map and chaotic Lorenz map in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external secret key of 128 bit and two chaotic maps are employed. The initial conditions for both maps are derived using the external secr...
Meteosat Images Encryption based on AES and RSA Algorithms
Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Satellite image Security is playing a vital role in the field of communication system and Internet. This work is interested in securing transmission of Meteosat images on the Internet, in public or local networks. To enhance the security of Meteosat transmission in network communication, a hybrid encryption algorithm based on Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA algorithms is proposed. AES algorithm is used for data transmission because of its higher efficiency in block encryption and RSA algorithm is used for the encryption of the key of the AES because of its management advantages in key cipher. Our encryption system generates a unique password every new session of encryption. Cryptanalysis and various experiments have been carried out and the results were reported in this paper, which demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed scheme.
Image encryption based on a new total shuffling algorithm
This paper presents image encryption scheme, which employs a new image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses the states combination of two chaotic systems to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the new image total shuffling algorithm has a low time complexity and the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior
Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Decomposition
Xiuli Song
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The proposed chaos-based image encryption algorithm consists of four stages: decomposition, shuffle, diffusion and combination. Decomposition is that an original image is decomposed to components according to some rule. The purpose of the shuffle is to mask original organization of the pixels of the image, and the diffusion is to change their values. Combination is not necessary in the sender. To improve the efficiency, the parallel architecture is taken to process the shuffle and diffusion. To enhance the security of the algorithm, firstly, a permutation of the labels is designed. Secondly, two Logistic maps are used in diffusion stage to encrypt the components. One map encrypts the odd rows of the component and another map encrypts the even rows. Experiment results and security analysis demonstrate that the encryption algorithm not only is robust and flexible, but also can withstand common attacks such as statistical attacks and differential attacks.
An Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Balanced Pixel and Chaotic Map
Jian Zhang; Yutong Zhang
2014-01-01
Image encryption technology has been applied in many fields and is becoming the main way of protecting the image information security. There are also many ways of image encryption. However, the existing encryption algorithms, in order to obtain a better effect of encryption, always need encrypting several times. There is not an effective method to decide the number of encryption times, generally determined by the human eyes. The paper proposes an image encryption algorithm based on chaos and ...
Cryptanalyzing a nonlinear chaotic algorithm (NCA) for image encryption
Alvarez, G.; Li, SJ
2009-01-01
This paper describes the security weakness of a recently proposed image encryption algorithm based on a logistic-like new chaotic map. We show that the chaotic map s distribution is far from ideal, thus making it a bad candidate as a pseudo-random stream generator. As a consequence, the images encrypted with this algorithm are shown to be breakable through different attacks of variable complexity.
A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Subsequence Operation
Qiang Zhang; Xianglian Xue; Xiaopeng Wei
2012-01-01
We present a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation. Different from the traditional DNA encryption methods, our algorithm does not use complex biological operation but just uses the idea of DNA subsequence operations (such as elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, etc.) combining with the logistic chaotic map to scramble the location and the value of pixel points from the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the ...
Image encryption a communication perspective
Abd El-Samie, Fathi E; Elashry, Ibrahim F; Shahieen, Mai H; Faragallah, Osama S; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M; Alshebeili, Saleh A
2013-01-01
Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches encryption and substitution-based approaches.Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard,
Design and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithm Using Chaos
Sandhya Rani M.H.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Images are widely used in diverse areas such as medical, military, science, engineering, art, advertising, entertainment, education as well as training, increasing the use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing images. So maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of images has become a major concern. This makes encryption necessary. The pixel values of neighbouring pixels in a plain image are strongly correlated. The proposed algorithm breaks this correlation increasing the entropy. Correlation is reduced by changing the pixel position this which is called confusion. Histogram is equalized by changing the pixel value this which is called diffusion. The proposed method of encryption algorithm is based on chaos theory. The plain-image is divided into blocks and then performs three levels of shuffling using different chaotic maps. In the first level the pixels within the block are shuffled. In the second level the blocks are shuffled and in the third level all the pixels in an image are shuffled. Finally the shuffled image is diffused using a chaotic sequence generated using symmetric keys, to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed algorithm can be used successfully to encrypt/decrypt the images with the secret keys. The analysis of the algorithm also shows that the algorithm gives larger key space and a high key sensitivity. The encrypted image has good encryption effect, information entropy and low correlation coefficient.
Improving a New Logistic Map as a New Chaotic Algorithm for Image Encryption
Omar A Saraereh; Qais Alsafasfeh; Aodeh Arfoa
2013-01-01
Image encryption is not a new field, but the techniques used to encrypt images are constantly being re-evaluated. As computer processing power grows, the need for better encryption algorithms grows with it. In this paper, the attention was focused on the encryption of still images. In particular, a precise look at encryption using chaotic techniques was subjected. In this paper we present improving existing chaotic algorithm (NCA) for image encryption proposed in 2005. The analysis of the fou...
An image encryption algorithm utilizing julia sets and hilbert curves.
Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing
2014-01-01
Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets' parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few parameters for the key generation, which greatly reduces the storage space. Moreover, because of the Julia sets' properties, such as infiniteness and chaotic characteristics, the keys have high sensitivity even to a tiny perturbation. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has large key space, good statistical property, high sensitivity for the keys, and effective resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack. PMID:24404181
Breaking a novel colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos
Li, Chengqing; Ou, Rong; Wong, Kwok-Wo
2012-01-01
Recently, a colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos was proposed by cascading two position permutation operations and one substitution operation, which are all determined by some pseudo-random number sequences generated by iterating the Logistic map. This paper evaluates the security level of the encryption algorithm and finds that the position permutation-only part and the substitution part can be separately broken with only $\\lceil (\\log_2(3MN))/8 \\rceil$ and 2 chosen plain-images, respectively, where $MN$ is the size of the plain-image. Concise theoretical analyses are provided to support the chosen-plaintext attack, which are verified by experimental results also.
Analyzing the Efficiency of Text-to-Image Encryption Algorithm
Ahmad Abusukhon; Mohammad Talib; Maher A. Nabulsi
2012-01-01
Today many of the activities are performed online through the Internet. One of the methods used to protect the data while sending it through the Internet is cryptography. In a previous work we proposed the Text-to-Image Encryption algorithm (TTIE) as a novel algorithm for network security. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of (TTIE) for large scale collection.
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
Li, X.W.; Kim, D.H.; Cho, S.J.; Kim, S. T.
2013-01-01
A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-...
Cryptanalyzing a RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaos map
Liu, Yuansheng
2013-01-01
Recently, a RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaos map has been proposed. It was reported that the encryption algorithm can be broken with four pairs of chosen plain-images and the corresponding cipher-images. This paper re-evaluates the security of the encryption algorithm, and finds that the encryption algorithm can be broken efficiently with only one known plain-image. The effectiveness of the proposed known-plaintext attack is supported by both rigorous theoretical...
Using Genetic Algorithm for Symmetric key Generation in Image Encryption
Aarti Soni, Suyash Agrawal
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protectinginformation as the importance of security is increasing dayby day with the advent of online transaction processing ande commerce. In now a day the security of digital imagesattracts much attention, especially when these digitalimages are stored in memory or send through thecommunication networks. Genetic algorithms are a class ofoptimization algorithms. Many problems can be solvedusing genetic algorithms through modelling a simplifiedversion of genetic processes. In this paper, I proposed amethod based on Genetic Algorithm which is used togenerate key by the help of pseudo random numbergenerator. Random number will be generated on the basisof current time of the system. Using Genetic Algorithm wecan keep the strength of the key to be good, still make thewhole algorithm good enough. Symmetric key algorithmAES has been proposed for encrypting the image as it isvery secure method for symmetric key encryption.
An Improved Piecewise Linear Chaotic Map Based Image Encryption Algorithm
Yuping Hu; Congxu Zhu; Zhijian Wang
2014-01-01
An image encryption algorithm based on improved piecewise linear chaotic map (MPWLCM) model was proposed. The algorithm uses the MPWLCM to permute and diffuse plain image simultaneously. Due to the sensitivity to initial key values, system parameters, and ergodicity in chaotic system, two pseudorandom sequences are designed and used in the processes of permutation and diffusion. The order of processing pixels is not in accordance with the index of pixels, but it is from beginning or end alter...
Cryptanalysis of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm
A chaos-based image encryption algorithm was proposed in [Z.-H. Guan, F. Huang, W. Guan, Phys. Lett. A 346 (2005) 153]. In this Letter, we analyze the security weaknesses of the proposal. By applying chosen-plaintext and known-plaintext attacks, we show that all the secret parameters can be revealed
Security Analysis of A Chaos-based Image Encryption Algorithm
Lian, Shiguo; Sun, Jinsheng; Wang, Zhiquan
2006-01-01
The security of Fridrich Image Encryption Algorithm against brute-force attack, statistical attack, known-plaintext attack and select-plaintext attack is analyzed by investigating the properties of the involved chaotic maps and diffusion functions. Based on the given analyses, some means are proposed to strengthen the overall performance of the focused cryptosystem.
A New Chaos-Based Image-Encryption and Compression Algorithm
Afnan Al-Ali; Turki Abdalla; Somaya Al-Maadeed
2012-01-01
We propose a new and efficient method to develop secure image-encryption techniques. The new algorithm combines two techniques: encryption and compression. In this technique, a wavelet transform was used to decompose the image and decorrelate its pixels into approximation and detail components. The more important component (the approximation component) is encrypted using a chaos-based encryption algorithm. This algorithm produces a cipher of the test image that has good diffusion and confusio...
Double color image encryption using iterative phase retrieval algorithm in quaternion gyrator domain
Shao, Zhuhong; Shu, Huazhong; Wu, Jiasong; Dong, Zhifang; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis
2014-01-01
This paper describes a novel algorithm to encrypt double color images into a single undistinguishable image in quaternion gyrator domain. By using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, the phase masks used for encryption are obtained. Subsequently, the encrypted image is generated via cascaded quaternion gyrator transforms with different rotation angles. The parameters in quaternion gyrator transforms and phases serve as encryption keys. By knowing these keys, the original color images can ...
An improved piecewise linear chaotic map based image encryption algorithm.
Hu, Yuping; Zhu, Congxu; Wang, Zhijian
2014-01-01
An image encryption algorithm based on improved piecewise linear chaotic map (MPWLCM) model was proposed. The algorithm uses the MPWLCM to permute and diffuse plain image simultaneously. Due to the sensitivity to initial key values, system parameters, and ergodicity in chaotic system, two pseudorandom sequences are designed and used in the processes of permutation and diffusion. The order of processing pixels is not in accordance with the index of pixels, but it is from beginning or end alternately. The cipher feedback was introduced in diffusion process. Test results and security analysis show that not only the scheme can achieve good encryption results but also its key space is large enough to resist against brute attack. PMID:24592159
Hiral Rathod,; Mahendra Singh Sisodia, Sanjay Kumar Sharma
2011-01-01
The primary goal of this paper is securitymanagement. This will provide authentication of users, andintegrity, accuracy and safety of images which is traveling overinternet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effortduring encryption and decryption. The Proposed Architecturefor encryption and decryption of an image using suitable userdefinedkey is developed with the same objective. In this paper,we introduce a new permutation technique based on thecombination of image permutation and ...
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
X. W. Li
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.
Color Image Encryption Algorithm Based on TD-ERCS System and Wavelet Neural Network
Kun Zhang; Jian-bo Fang
2015-01-01
In order to solve the security problem of transmission image across public networks, a new image encryption algorithm based on TD-ERCS system and wavelet neural network is proposed in this paper. According to the permutation process and the binary XOR operation from the chaotic series by producing TD-ERCS system and wavelet neural network, it can achieve image encryption. This encryption algorithm is a reversible algorithm, and it can achieve original image in the rule inverse process of encr...
A Novel Algorithm for Watermarking and Image Encryption
Rakesh S
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Digital watermarking is a method of copyright protection of audio, images, video and text. We propose a new robust watermarking technique based on contourlet transform and singular value decomposition. The paper also proposes a novel encryption algorithm to store a signed double matrix as an RGB image. The entropy of the watermarked image and correlation coefficient of extracted watermark image is very close to ideal values, proving the correctness of proposed algorithm. Also experimental results show resiliency of the scheme against large blurring attack like mean and gaussian filtering, linear filtering (high pass and low pass filtering , non-linear filtering (median filtering, addition of a constant offset to the pixel values and local exchange of pixels .Thus proving the security, effectiveness and robustness of the proposed watermarking algorithm.
Fractional Fourier transform-based image encryption: phase retrieval algorithm
Hennelly, Bryan; Sheridan, J. T.
2003-01-01
A number of methods have been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional image information using optical systems based on the fractional Fourier transform (FRT). We present an image encryption technique, which is based on a recently proposed method of phase retrieval using the FRT. The optical implementation of the method is mentioned and digital simulations are presented. The technique is shown to be a powerful method of digital data and image encryption. In...
An improved image encryption algorithm based on chaotic maps
Recently, two chaotic image encryption schemes have been proposed, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined. This paper provides the chosen plaintext attack to recover the corresponding plaintext of a given ciphertext. Furthermore, it points out that the two schemes are not sufficiently sensitive to small changes of the plaintext. Based on the given analysis, it proposes an improved algorithm which includes two rounds of substitution and one round of permutation to strengthen the overall performance. (general)
Shao, Zhuhong; Shu, Huazhong; Wu, Jiasong; Dong, Zhifang; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Coatrieux, Jean Louis
2014-03-10
This paper describes a novel algorithm to encrypt double color images into a single undistinguishable image in quaternion gyrator domain. By using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, the phase masks used for encryption are obtained. Subsequently, the encrypted image is generated via cascaded quaternion gyrator transforms with different rotation angles. The parameters in quaternion gyrator transforms and phases serve as encryption keys. By knowing these keys, the original color images can be fully restituted. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the validity of the proposed encryption system as well as its robustness against loss of data and additive Gaussian noise. PMID:24663832
Hiral Rathod; Mahendra Singh Sisodia, Sanjay Kumar Sharma
2011-01-01
The primary goal of this paper is to provide knowledge of safety of images which is traveling over internet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effort during encryption and decryption. In this paper I present some advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithm for encryption and decryption of an image with the same objective. Moreover we are also doing analysis of entropy and correlation between pixels value of various image encryption algorithm. From the analysis we are observin...
A new image encryption algorithm based on logistic chaotic map with varying parameter.
Liu, Lingfeng; Miao, Suoxia
2016-01-01
In this paper, we proposed a new image encryption algorithm based on parameter-varied logistic chaotic map and dynamical algorithm. The parameter-varied logistic map can cure the weaknesses of logistic map and resist the phase space reconstruction attack. We use the parameter-varied logistic map to shuffle the plain image, and then use a dynamical algorithm to encrypt the image. We carry out several experiments, including Histogram analysis, information entropy analysis, sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, correlation analysis and computational complexity to evaluate its performances. The experiment results show that this algorithm is with high security and can be competitive for image encryption. PMID:27066326
A self-adapting image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix
To ensure the security of a digital image, a new self-adapting encryption algorithm based on the spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix is proposed in this paper. First, the plain-image is divided into different blocks of the same size, and each block is sorted in ascending order to obtain the corresponding standard ergodic matrix. Then each block is encrypted by the spatiotemporal chaotic system and shuffled according to the standard ergodic matrix. Finally, all modules are rearranged to acquire the final encrypted image. In particular, the plain-image information is used in the initial conditions of the spatiotemporal chaos and the ergodic matrices, so different plain-images will be encrypted to obtain different cipher-images. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the performance and security of the proposed encryption scheme can encrypt the image effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)
A chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters
In recent years, a number of image encryption algorithms based on the permutation-diffusion structure have been proposed. However, the control parameters used in the permutation stage are usually fixed in the whole encryption process, which favors attacks. In this paper, a chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters is proposed. The control parameters used in the permutation stage and the keystream employed in the diffusion stage are generated from two chaotic maps related to the plain-image. As a result, the algorithm can effectively resist all known attacks against permutation-diffusion architectures. Theoretical analyses and computer simulations both confirm that the new algorithm possesses high security and fast encryption speed for practical image encryption.
A Color Image Encryption Algorithm Based on a Fractional-Order Hyperchaotic System
Xia Huang; Tiantian Sun; Yuxia Li; Jinling Liang
2014-01-01
In this paper, a new color image encryption algorithm based on a fractional-order hyperchaotic system is proposed. Firstly, four chaotic sequences are generated by a fractional-order hyperchaotic system. The parameters of such a system, together with the initial value, are regarded as the secret keys and the plain image is encrypted by performing the XOR and shuf?ing operations simultaneously. The proposed encryption scheme is described in detail with security analyses, including correlation ...
An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding
Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
A new image encryption algorithm based on the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system
We propose a new image encryption algorithm on the basis of the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system. While in the process of generating a key stream, the system parameters and the derivative order are embedded in the proposed algorithm to enhance the security. Such an algorithm is detailed in terms of security analyses, including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme has the advantages of large key space and high security for practical image encryption. (general)
A novel hybrid color image encryption algorithm using two complex chaotic systems
Wang, Leyuan; Song, Hongjun; Liu, Ping
2016-02-01
Based on complex Chen and complex Lorenz systems, a novel color image encryption algorithm is proposed. The larger chaotic ranges and more complex behaviors of complex chaotic systems, which compared with real chaotic systems could additionally enhance the security and enlarge key space of color image encryption. The encryption algorithm is comprised of three step processes. In the permutation process, the pixels of plain image are scrambled via two-dimensional and one-dimensional permutation processes among RGB channels individually. In the diffusion process, the exclusive-or (XOR for short) operation is employed to conceal pixels information. Finally, the mixing RGB channels are used to achieve a multilevel encryption. The security analysis and experimental simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and has excellent encryption performance.
A novel bit-level image encryption algorithm based on chaotic maps
Xu, Lu; Li, Zhi; Li, Jian; Hua, Wei
2016-03-01
Recently, a number of chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been proposed at the pixel level, but little research at the bit level has been conducted. This paper presents a novel bit-level image encryption algorithm that is based on piecewise linear chaotic maps (PWLCM). First, the plain image is transformed into two binary sequences of the same size. Second, a new diffusion strategy is introduced to diffuse the two sequences mutually. Then, we swap the binary elements in the two sequences by the control of a chaotic map, which can permute the bits in one bitplane into any other bitplane. The proposed algorithm has excellent encryption performance with only one round. The simulation results and performance analysis show that the proposed algorithm is both secure and reliable for image encryption.
Target Image Classification through Encryption Algorithm Based on the Biological Features
Zhiwu Chen; Qing E. Wu; Weidong Yang
2014-01-01
In order to effectively make biological image classification and identification, this paper studies the biological owned characteristics, gives an encryption algorithm, and presents a biological classification algorithm based on the encryption process. Through studying the composition characteristics of palm, this paper uses the biological classification algorithm to carry out the classification or recognition of palm, improves the accuracy and efficiency of the existing biological classifica...
Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Wavelet Transforms and Dual Chaotic Maps
Shucong Liu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In view of characteristics of digital image,such as bulk data capacity,high redundancy and poor security, a new image encryption algorithm was put forward by combining chaotic maps with wavelet transform. Mallat algorithm in wavelet transform firstly was used to decompose the original image, leaving only the low-frequency information, and then oversampled Chebyshev chaotic maps were used to achieve space chaos of compressed image, oversampled Logistic chaotic maps were used for encryption. Finally, security analysis of the encryption algorithm are analyzed from the perspective of key space, statistical analysis, key sensitivity analysis and so on. Simulation results show that the method can effectively compress image, the amount of information transmission is low and the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and with good encryption effect .
Separable Encrypted Data Embedding in Encrypted Image with Large Data Embedding Capacity
Supriya S. Sonawane; Prof.N.M.Shahane
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a novel scheme of separable encrypted data embedding in encrypted image with large data embedding capacity. An image encrypts using cryptography algorithm and secret data encrypts using hybrid cryptography. Then, the encrypted secret data can be successfully embedded in the encrypted cover image using Modified BPCS steganography. An encrypted image containing encrypted data is sent. At the receiver side, with an encrypted image containing embedded encrypted data, if a rece...
Chaotic Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Circulant Operation
Guodong Ye; Xiaoling Huang; Kwok-Wo Wong
2013-01-01
A novel chaotic image encryption scheme based on the time-delay Lorenz system is presented in this paper with the description of Circulant matrix. Making use of the chaotic sequence generated by the time-delay Lorenz system, the pixel permutation is carried out in diagonal and antidiagonal directions according to the first and second components. Then, a pseudorandom chaotic sequence is generated again from time-delay Lorenz system using all components. Modular operation is further employed fo...
Analysis and improvement of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm
The security of digital image attracts much attention recently. In Guan et al. [Guan Z, Huang F, Guan W. Chaos-based image encryption algorithm. Phys Lett A 2005; 346: 153-7.], a chaos-based image encryption algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, the cause of potential flaws in the original algorithm is analyzed in detail, and then the corresponding enhancement measures are proposed. Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome these flaws and maintain all the merits of the original one.
A Digital Image Encryption Algorithm Based A Composition of Two Chaotic Logistic Maps
Ismail Amr Ismail; Mohammed Amin; Hossam Diab
2010-01-01
The chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested several advantages over the traditional encryption algorithms such as high security, speed, reasonable computational overheads and computational power. This paper introduces an efficient chaos-based stream cipher, composing two chaotic logistic maps and a large enough external secret key for image encryption. The external secret key is used to derive the initial conditions for the chaotic maps, and is employed with the two chaotic maps t...
Zhang, B.; Sang, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.
2013-03-01
An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image was encrypted into two phase-only masks M1 and M2 via cascaded iterative Fourier transform (CIFT) algorithm. Then, the public-key encryption algorithm RSA was adopted to encrypt M2 into M2' . Finally, a host image was enlarged by extending one pixel into 2×2 pixels and each element in M1 and M2' was multiplied with a superimposition coefficient and added to or subtracted from two different elements in the 2×2 pixels of the enlarged host image. To recover the secret image from the stego-image, the two masks were extracted from the stego-image without the original host image. By applying public-key encryption algorithm, the key distribution was facilitated, and also compared with the image hiding method based on optical interference, the proposed method may reach higher robustness by employing the characteristics of the CIFT algorithm. Computer simulations show that this method has good robustness against image processing.
An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps
Del Rey, A. MartĂn; SĂˇnchez, G. RodrĂguez
2015-05-01
A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing
2015-09-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.
A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Encoding and Spatiotemporal Chaos
Chunyan Song
2015-10-01
Full Text Available DNA computing based image encryption is a new, promising field. In this paper, we propose a novel image encryption scheme based on DNA encoding and spatiotemporal chaos. In particular, after the plain image is primarily diffused with the bitwise Exclusive-OR operation, the DNA mapping rule is introduced to encode the diffused image. In order to enhance the encryption, the spatiotemporal chaotic system is used to confuse the rows and columns of the DNA encoded image. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption algorithm is of high key sensitivity and large key space, and it can resist brute-force attack, entropy attack, differential attack, chosen-plaintext attack, known-plaintext attack and statistical attack.
A Brief Study of Video Encryption Algorithms
Pranali Pasalkar,
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Video is a set of images .Video encryption is encrypting those set of images .Thus video encryption is simply hiding your video from prying eyes .Video monitoring has always been in concerned .Multimedia security is very important for multimedia commerce on Internet such as video on demand and Real time video multicast. There are various video encryption algorithm. All have some kind of weakness .In this paper classification of various existing algorithm, its advantages and disadvantages is discussed.
Hiral Rathod
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to provide knowledge of safety of images which is traveling over internet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effort during encryption and decryption. In this paper I present some advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithm for encryption and decryption of an image with the same objective. Moreover we are also doing analysis of entropy and correlation between pixels value of various image encryption algorithm. From the analysis we are observing that which one is the best approach to calculate these things. Finally, it sums up with thoughts and suggestions about information security, along with a chosen example of the current proposals in security.
Novel Data Encryption Algorithm
Rajat Goel; Ripu R Sinha; O. P. Rishi
2011-01-01
We always strive to get better algorithms for securing data. A variety of such algorithms are being used in cryptography. Manly block and stream ciphers are available and one of them is International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), which was regarded arguably as one of the best for encryption purposes. A considerable time has elapsed since its advent and this period has witnessed a wide development in process approaches and applications. The number of transactions and exchanges of data has ...
Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian
2016-05-01
In this paper, a novel approach based on compressive sensing and chaos is proposed for simultaneously compressing, fusing and encrypting multi-modal images. The sparsely represented source images are firstly measured with the key-controlled pseudo-random measurement matrix constructed using logistic map, which reduces the data to be processed and realizes the initial encryption. Then the obtained measurements are fused by the proposed adaptive weighted fusion rule. The fused measurement is further encrypted into the ciphertext through an iterative procedure including improved random pixel exchanging technique and fractional Fourier transform. The fused image can be reconstructed by decrypting the ciphertext and using a recovery algorithm. The proposed algorithm not only reduces data volume but also simplifies keys, which improves the efficiency of transmitting data and distributing keys. Numerical results demonstrate the feasibility and security of the proposed scheme.
A fast image encryption algorithm based on only blocks in cipher text
In this paper, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed, in which the shuffling and diffusion is performed simultaneously. The cipher-text image is divided into blocks and each block has k Ă—k pixels, while the pixels of the plain-text are scanned one by one. Four logistic maps are used to generate the encryption key stream and the new place in the cipher image of plain image pixels, including the row and column of the block which the pixel belongs to and the place where the pixel would be placed in the block. After encrypting each pixel, the initial conditions of logistic maps would be changed according to the encrypted pixel's value; after encrypting each row of plain image, the initial condition would also be changed by the skew tent map. At last, it is illustrated that this algorithm has a faster speed, big key space, and better properties in withstanding differential attacks, statistical analysis, known plaintext, and chosen plaintext attacks
Rakesh, S; Shadakshari, B C; Annappa, B
2012-01-01
With the fast evolution of digital data exchange and increased usage of multi media images, it is essential to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In natural images the values and position of the neighbouring pixels are strongly correlated. The method proposed in this paper, breaks this correlation increasing entropy of the position and entropy of pixel values using block shuffling and encryption by chaotic sequence respectively. The plain-image is initially row wise shuffled and first level of encryption is performed using addition modulo operation. The image is divided into blocks and then block based shuffling is performed using Arnold Cat transformation, further the blocks are uniformly scrambled across the image. Finally the shuffled image undergoes second level of encryption by bitwise XOR operation, and then the image as a whole is shuffled column wise to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully enc...
Asymmetric optical image encryption based on an improved amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm
Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.
2016-03-01
We propose a new asymmetric optical image encryption scheme based on an improved amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm. Using two random phase masks that serve as public encryption keys, an iterative amplitude and phase retrieval process is employed to encode a primary image into a real-valued ciphertext. The private keys generated in the encryption process are used to perform one-way phase modulations. The decryption process is implemented optically using conventional double random phase encoding architecture. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed system. The results illustrate that the computing efficiency of the proposed method is improved and the number of iterations required is much less than that of the cryptosystem based on the Yang-Gu algorithm.
Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K
2014-01-20
We propose a novel nonlinear image-encryption scheme based on a Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) phase-retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel transform domain. The decryption process can be performed using conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) architecture. The encryption is realized by applying G-S phase-retrieval algorithm twice, which generates two asymmetric keys from intermediate phases. The asymmetric keys are generated in such a way that decryption is possible optically with a conventional DRPE method. Due to the asymmetric nature of the keys, the proposed encryption process is nonlinear and offers enhanced security. The cryptanalysis has been carried out, which proves the robustness of proposed scheme against known-plaintext, chosen-plaintext, and special attacks. A simple optical setup for decryption has also been suggested. Results of computer simulation support the idea of the proposed cryptosystem. PMID:24514127
Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian
2015-12-01
We report a simultaneous image compression and encryption scheme based on solving a typical optical inverse problem. The secret images to be processed are multiplexed as the input intensities of a cascaded diffractive optical system. At the output plane, a compressed complex-valued data with a lot fewer measurements can be obtained by utilizing error-reduction phase retrieval algorithm. The magnitude of the output image can serve as the final ciphertext while its phase serves as the decryption key. Therefore the compression and encryption are simultaneously completed without additional encoding and filtering operations. The proposed strategy can be straightforwardly applied to the existing optical security systems that involve diffraction and interference. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and security of the proposal.
A novel algorithm for image encryption based on mixture of chaotic maps
Chaos-based encryption appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on the mixture of chaotic systems is reported. The chaotic cryptography technique used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography. In this algorithm, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, along with its security analysis and implementation. The experimental results based on mixture of chaotic maps approves the effectiveness of the proposed method and the implementation of the algorithm. This mixture application of chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet
A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Encoding and Spatiotemporal Chaos
Chunyan Song; Yulong Qiao
2015-01-01
DNA computing based image encryption is a new, promising field. In this paper, we propose a novel image encryption scheme based on DNA encoding and spatiotemporal chaos. In particular, after the plain image is primarily diffused with the bitwise Exclusive-OR operation, the DNA mapping rule is introduced to encode the diffused image. In order to enhance the encryption, the spatiotemporal chaotic system is used to confuse the rows and columns of the DNA encoded image. The experiments demonstrat...
Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique
Balika J. Chelliah
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.
Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique
Mr. Balika J. Chelliah
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.
A Novel Text to Image Encryption Technique by AES Rijndael Algorithm with Color Code Conversion
Shanthi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Transmission of secure data through the communication spectrum is major issue in current scenario. To ensure the security of the data, many techniques and algorithms were evolved in which the cryptographic techniques are most powerful. Through cryptographic algorithms, the conversion of plain text into unintelligible form made it more secure and protect data from unauthorized users. The proposed scheme focus on the block cipher substitution method that encrypts the given text into blocks. In this paper, our proposed method extends such that, the user given plain text is divided into blocks that are fed to the AES Rijndael encryption process, converted to unreadable format. Each character of the block is then shifted into ASCII value which is, in turn formulated into equivalent color code. Thus, the final encrypted text is in image format which make available for more enrichment to the data. The AES algorithm is chosen for its quick and legible conversion of data. Our proposed method is very flexible technology for 256 ASCII values that is converted into 256 color code.
A Novel Gray Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Modified Transcendental Equation
Li Tu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper a modified transcendental equation is proposed, and we analyzed its chaotic characteristics and periodic. It is a simple non-linear mode, l but it has complex dynam ics.Then it was used in gray image encryption. This is a digital image encryption algorithm, dual scrambling that based on chaos of pixel position and pixel value.Compared with the traditional transcendental equation, the improved transcendental equation has only chaos characteristic, when the number of iterations is less than 5, the equation has periodicity,and when iterative times are more than 20, the equation has chaotic characteristic only, so the modified transcendental equation has larger key space.Performance test and security analysis are performed using key space analysis, the pixels distribution character, correlation coefficients, the ability to resist attack and key sensitivity test. Results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is secure and efficient, with high potential to be adopted for the secure image communication applications.
Jun Sang; Jun Zhao; Zhili Xiang; Bin Cai; Hong Xiang
2015-01-01
Gyrator transform has been widely used for image encryption recently. For gyrator transform-based image encryption, the rotation angle used in the gyrator transform is one of the secret keys. In this paper, by analyzing the properties of the gyrator transform, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed to search the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since the gyrator transform is continuous, it is time-consuming to exhaustedly search the rotation angle, ...
Cryptanalyzing a chaos-based image encryption algorithm using alternate structure
Zhang, Yu; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Shu, Shi; Chen, Guanrong
2011-01-01
Recently, a chaos-based image encryption algorithm using alternate structure (IEAS) was proposed. This paper focuses on differential cryptanalysis of the algorithm and finds that some properties of IEAS can support a differential attack to recover equivalent secret key with a little small number of known plain-images. Detailed approaches of the cryptanalysis for cryptanalyzing IEAS of the lower round number are presented and the breaking method can be extended to the case of higher round number. Both theoretical analysis and experiment results are provided to support vulnerability of IEAS against differential attack. In addition, some other security defects of IEAS, including insensitivity with respect to changes of plain-images and insufficient size of key space, are also reported.
Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm
Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.
Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm
Arroyo, D; Li, CQ; Li, SJ; Alvarez, G.; Halang, WA
2007-01-01
Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.
Image Encryption Based on Improved Chaotic Sequences
Ming-yang YU
2013-01-01
Image encryption is an active and challenging research area. This article proposes a transposing and scrambling image encryption algorithm based on improved hyper-chaotic sequence to provide enhanced security for encrypted image transmission. The algorithm processes the hyper-chaotic sequence according to the pixel information, which makes the keys be sensitive to original image. Then we apply scrambling and transposing operation to the pixels in image, according to separate scrambling keys a...
Wang, Zhipeng; Lv, Xiaodong; Wang, Hongjuan; Hou, Chenxia; Gong, Qiong; Qin, Yi
2016-03-01
Based on the chaos and phase retrieval algorithm, a hierarchical multiple binary image encryption is proposed. In the encryption process, each plaintext is encrypted into a diffraction intensity pattern by two chaos-generated random phase masks (RPMs). Thereafter, the captured diffraction intensity patterns are partially selected by different binary masks and then combined together to form a single intensity pattern. The combined intensity pattern is saved as ciphertext. For decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is performed, in which a support constraint in the output plane and a median filtering operation are utilized to achieve a rapid convergence rate without a stagnation problem. The proposed scheme has a simple optical setup and large encryption capacity. In particular, it is well suited for constructing a hierarchical security system. The security and robustness of the proposal are also investigated.
A joint image encryption and watermarking algorithm based on compressive sensing and chaotic map
Xiao, Di; Cai, Hong-Kun; Zheng, Hong-Ying
2015-06-01
In this paper, a compressive sensing (CS) and chaotic map-based joint image encryption and watermarking algorithm is proposed. The transform domain coefficients of the original image are scrambled by Arnold map firstly. Then the watermark is adhered to the scrambled data. By compressive sensing, a set of watermarked measurements is obtained as the watermarked cipher image. In this algorithm, watermark embedding and data compression can be performed without knowing the original image; similarly, watermark extraction will not interfere with decryption. Due to the characteristics of CS, this algorithm features compressible cipher image size, flexible watermark capacity, and lossless watermark extraction from the compressed cipher image as well as robustness against packet loss. Simulation results and analyses show that the algorithm achieves good performance in the sense of security, watermark capacity, extraction accuracy, reconstruction, robustness, etc. Project supported by the Open Research Fund of Chongqing Key Laboratory of Emergency Communications, China (Grant No. CQKLEC, 20140504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61173178, 61302161, and 61472464), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 106112013CDJZR180005 and 106112014CDJZR185501).
Adrian-Viorel Diaconu; Khaled Loukhaoukha
2013-01-01
A recently proposed secure image encryption scheme has drawn attention to the limited security offered by chaos-based image encryption schemes (mainly due to their relatively small key space) proposing a highly robust approach, based on Rubik's cube principle. This paper aims to study a newly designed image cryptosystem that uses the Rubik's cube principle in conjunction with a digital chaotic cipher. Thus, the original image is shuffled on Rubik's cube principle (due to its proven confusion ...
Cryptanalysis on an image block encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos
An image block encryption scheme based on spatiotemporal chaos has been proposed recently. In this paper, we analyse the security weakness of the proposal. The main problem of the original scheme is that the generated keystream remains unchanged for encrypting every image. Based on the flaws, we demonstrate a chosen plaintext attack for revealing the equivalent keys with only 6 pairs of plaintext/ciphertext used. Finally, experimental results show the validity of our attack. (general)
Sang, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Xiang, Zhili; Cai, Bin; Xiang, Hong
2015-01-01
Gyrator transform has been widely used for image encryption recently. For gyrator transform-based image encryption, the rotation angle used in the gyrator transform is one of the secret keys. In this paper, by analyzing the properties of the gyrator transform, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed to search the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since the gyrator transform is continuous, it is time-consuming to exhaustedly search the rotation angle, even considering the data precision in a computer. Therefore, a computational intelligence-based search may be an alternative choice. Considering the properties of severe local convergence and obvious global fluctuations of the gyrator transform, an improved PSO algorithm was proposed to be suitable for such situations. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed improved PSO algorithm can significantly improve the efficiency of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since gyrator transform is the foundation of image encryption in gyrator transform domains, the research on the method of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform is useful for further study on the security of such image encryption algorithms. PMID:26251910
Jun Sang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Gyrator transform has been widely used for image encryption recently. For gyrator transform-based image encryption, the rotation angle used in the gyrator transform is one of the secret keys. In this paper, by analyzing the properties of the gyrator transform, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm was proposed to search the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since the gyrator transform is continuous, it is time-consuming to exhaustedly search the rotation angle, even considering the data precision in a computer. Therefore, a computational intelligence-based search may be an alternative choice. Considering the properties of severe local convergence and obvious global fluctuations of the gyrator transform, an improved PSO algorithm was proposed to be suitable for such situations. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed improved PSO algorithm can significantly improve the efficiency of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since gyrator transform is the foundation of image encryption in gyrator transform domains, the research on the method of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform is useful for further study on the security of such image encryption algorithms.
Compressive optical image encryption.
Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong
2015-01-01
An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume. PMID:25992946
Compressive Optical Image Encryption
Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong
2015-05-01
An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume.
Proposed Hyperchaotic System for Image Encryption
Asst. Prof. Dr. Alia Karim Abdul Hassan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new hyper chaos system based on Hénon and Logistic maps which provides characteristics of high capacity, security and efficiency. The Proposed hyper chaos system is employed to generate the key for diffusion in an image encryption algorithm. The simulation experiments to the image encryption algorithm which based on the proposed hyper chaos system show that the algorithm security analysis it has large key space (10 84 that ensures a strong resistance against attack of exhaustion as the key space will be greater, strong sensitivity of encryption key and good statistical characteristics. Encryption and decryption time is suitable for different applications.
IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION
Nidhal K. El Abbadi; Adil Mohamad; Mohammed Abdul-Hameed
2014-01-01
Image encryption is one of the most methods of information hiding. A novel secure encryption method for image encryption is presented in this study. The proposed algorithm based on using singular value decomposition SVD. In this study we start to scramble the image data according to suggested keys (two sequence scrambling process with two different keys) to finally create two different matrices. The diagonal matrix from the SVD will be interchanged with the resulted matrices. Another scrambli...
Encryption and Decryption of Digital Image Using Color Signal
Gamil R. S. Qaid; S.N. Talbar
2012-01-01
This paper aims at improving the level of security and secrecy provided by the digital color signal-based image encryption. The image encryption and decryption algorithm is designed and implemented to provide confidentiality and security in transmission of the image based data as well as in storage. This new proposed encryption algorithm can ensure the lossless of transmissions of images. The proposed encryption algorithm in this study has been tested on some images and showed good results.
Novel image encryption based on quantum walks.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889
Simple and secure Image Encryption
V.V.Divya; S.K.Sudha; V.R.Resmy
2012-01-01
Image Encryption is a wide area of research. Encryption basically deals with converting data or information from its original form to some other form that hides the information in it. The protection of image data from unauthorized access is important. Encryption is employed to increase the data security. The Encrypted Image is secure from any kind cryptanalysis. In the proposed work, the image to be encrypted is decomposed into 8X8 blocks, these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain ...
METRICS OF A NEW SYMMETRICAL ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
Dr. R. UMARANI
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,CAST, UMARAM and RC6 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. The authentication protocols have been used for authentication and key-exchange processes. A new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper to prevent the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data-exchange in Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN. The new symmetrical algorithm avoids the key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption, decryption, and authentication processes. It operates at a data rate higher than DES, 3DES, AES, UMARAM and RC6 algorithms. It is applied on a text file and an image as an application. The encryption becomes more secure and high data rate than DES,3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for the encryption algorithms like DES, 3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6 at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
Compression of Encrypted Images Using Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees Algorithm
Sarika, G.; Unnithan, Harikuttan; Peter, Smitha
2011-10-01
When it is desired to transmit redundant data over an insecure channel, it is customary to encrypt the data. For encrypted real world sources such as images, the use of Markova properties in the slepian-wolf decoder does not work well for gray scale images. Here in this paper we propose a method of compression of an encrypted image. In the encoder section, the image is first encrypted and then it undergoes compression in resolution. The cipher function scrambles only the pixel values, but does not shuffle the pixel locations. After down sampling, each sub-image is encoded independently and the resulting syndrome bits are transmitted. The received image undergoes a joint decryption and decompression in the decoder section. By using the local statistics based on the image, it is recovered back. Here the decoder gets only lower resolution version of the image. In addition, this method provides only partial access to the current source at the decoder side, which improves the decoder's learning of the source statistics. The source dependency is exploited to improve the compression efficiency. This scheme provides better coding efficiency and less computational complexity.
Simultaneous transmission for an encrypted image and a double random-phase encryption key
Yuan, Sheng; Zhou, Xin; Li, Da-Hai; Zhou, Ding-Fu
2007-06-01
We propose a method to simultaneously transmit double random-phase encryption key and an encrypted image by making use of the fact that an acceptable decryption result can be obtained when only partial data of the encrypted image have been taken in the decryption process. First, the original image data are encoded as an encrypted image by a double random-phase encryption technique. Second, a double random-phase encryption key is encoded as an encoded key by the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. Then the amplitude of the encrypted image is modulated by the encoded key to form what we call an encoded image. Finally, the encoded image that carries both the encrypted image and the encoded key is delivered to the receiver. Based on such a method, the receiver can have an acceptable result and secure transmission can be guaranteed by the RSA cipher system.
Stream Deniable-Encryption Algorithms
N.A. Moldovyan
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A method for stream deniable encryption of secret message is proposed, which is computationally indistinguishable from the probabilistic encryption of some fake message. The method uses generation of two key streams with some secure block cipher. One of the key streams is generated depending on the secret key and the other one is generated depending on the fake key. The key streams are mixed with the secret and fake data streams so that the output ciphertext looks like the ciphertext produced by some probabilistic encryption algorithm applied to the fake message, while using the fake key. When the receiver or/and sender of the ciphertext are coerced to open the encryption key and the source message, they open the fake key and the fake message. To disclose their lie the coercer should demonstrate possibility of the alternative decryption of the ciphertext, however this is a computationally hard problem.
Proposed Hyperchaotic System for Image Encryption
Asst. Prof. Dr. Alia Karim Abdul Hassan
2016-01-01
This paper presents a new hyper chaos system based on HĂ©non and Logistic maps which provides characteristics of high capacity, security and efficiency. The Proposed hyper chaos system is employed to generate the key for diffusion in an image encryption algorithm. The simulation experiments to the image encryption algorithm which based on the proposed hyper chaos system show that the algorithm security analysis it has large key space (10 84 that ensures a strong resistance against attack of ex...
3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption
Pawan N. Khade
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.
Chaotic Image Encryption Based On Discrete Wavelet
Amirhoushang Arab Avval
Full Text Available In this paper, a digital image encryption algorithm based on discrete wavelet transform and chaos theory is referred. The value of the discrete wavelet transformation coefficient matrix was encrypted and the scrambled by adjusting chaos sequence. The prop ...
Dr. T. Bhaskara Reddy
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Data security has become most important aspect while transmission of data and storage. The transmission and exchange of image also needs a high security. Cryptography is used to maintain security. In this paper, we implemented security for image. We have considered an image, read its pixels and convert it into pixels matrix of order as height and width of the image. Replace that pixels into some fixed numbers, generate the key using random generation technique .Encrypting the image using this key ,performing random transposition on encrypted image, converting it into one dimensional encrypted array and finally applied Huffman coding on that array , due this size of the encrypted image is reduced and image is encrypted again .The decryption is reverse process of encryption. Hence the proposed method provides a high security for an image with minimum memory usage.
Hybrid Encryption Algorithms in Cloud Computing
Ping Guo; Liping Su; Lijiang Ning; Guangxiang Dan
2013-01-01
The security issues of user privacy and data have become one of the most important factors in cloud computing. In this paper we focus on data encryption and study how to improve the security of data in the cloud through data encryption. Combining the feature of traditional encryption algorithms and the character of cloud platform, we design three hybrid encryption algorithms 3DES-AES, TDAES and TDAESalt. Experiment results show that the designed algorithms ...
3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption
Pawan N. Khade; Manish Narnaware
2012-01-01
This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substit...
Cryptanalysis of a new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos
Rhouma, Rhouma [6' com laboratory, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (ENIT) (Tunisia)], E-mail: rhoouma@yahoo.fr; Belghith, Safya [6' com laboratory, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (ENIT) (Tunisia)], E-mail: safya.belghith@enit.rnu.tn
2008-09-15
This Letter proposes two different attacks on a recently proposed image based on hyper-chaos. The cryptosystem under study proceed first by shuffling the image rows and columns to disturb the high correlation among pixels by iterating the logistic map. Second, a keystream is generated to mix it with the pixels of the shuffled image using hyper-chaos. These two processes in the encryption stage present weakness, and a chosen plaintext attack and a chosen ciphertext attack can be done to recover the ciphered-image without any knowledge of the key value. It just demands three couples of plaintext/ciphertext to break totally the cryptosystem.
Cryptanalysis of a new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos
This Letter proposes two different attacks on a recently proposed image based on hyper-chaos. The cryptosystem under study proceed first by shuffling the image rows and columns to disturb the high correlation among pixels by iterating the logistic map. Second, a keystream is generated to mix it with the pixels of the shuffled image using hyper-chaos. These two processes in the encryption stage present weakness, and a chosen plaintext attack and a chosen ciphertext attack can be done to recover the ciphered-image without any knowledge of the key value. It just demands three couples of plaintext/ciphertext to break totally the cryptosystem
Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message
Joyshree Nath
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2. In MSA(1 method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. We have also introduced a new algorithm for encrypting the plain text multiple times. Our method is totally dependent on the random text_key which is to be supplied by the user. The maximum length of the text_key can be of 16 characters long and it may contain any character(ASCII code 0 to 255. We have developed an algorithm to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and hence if someone applies the brute force method then he/she has to give trail for 256! times which is quite absurd. Moreover the multiple encryption method makes the system further secured. For hiding secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 8 consecutive bytes of the cover file. We have introduced password for hiding data in the cover file. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any standard cover file such as image, audio, video files. Because the hidden message is encrypted hence it will be almost impossible for the intruder to unhide the actual secret message from the embedded cover file. This method may be the most secured method in digital water marking.
Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform
In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.
Integration of chaotic sequences uniformly distributedin a new image encryption algorithm
Nassiba Wafa Abderrahim
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new chaotic secret key cryptosystem, adapted for image encryption in continuous mode, which is based on the use of tow one-dimensional discrete chaotic systems: Bernoulli map and Tent map. The pseudorandom sequences generated by the two maps are characterized by independence of their states, uniformly distributed, so hear integration provides excellent properties of confusion and diffusion, and an important space for the secret key, because it consists of parameters and initial states of the chaotic maps. The security tests results of our cryptosystem are very satisfactory.
Image encryption using P-Fibonacci transform and decomposition
Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos; Chen, C. L. Philip
2012-03-01
Image encryption is an effective method to protect images or videos by transferring them into unrecognizable formats for different security purposes. To improve the security level of bit-plane decomposition based encryption approaches, this paper introduces a new image encryption algorithm by using a combination of parametric bit-plane decomposition along with bit-plane shuffling and resizing, pixel scrambling and data mapping. The algorithm utilizes the Fibonacci P-code for image bit-plane decomposition and the 2D P-Fibonacci transform for image encryption because they are parameter dependent. Any new or existing method can be used for shuffling the order of the bit-planes. Simulation analysis and comparisons are provided to demonstrate the algorithm's performance for image encryption. Security analysis shows the algorithm's ability against several common attacks. The algorithm can be used to encrypt images, biometrics and videos.
Novel Image Encryption based on Quantum Walks
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for ima...
Image Encryption and Compression for Medical Image Security
Puech, William
2009-01-01
This tutorial presents the problem of protecting the transmission of medical images. The presented algorithms will be applied to images, videos and 3D objects. The main keywords are compression, encryption, watermarking and data hiding.
A Hybrid Approach of Image Encryption and Compression for Secure Transmission
Posa Naga Lavanya Yedida; P. Ravi Kiran
2014-01-01
In addition to provide the security for data through image, we are using the concepts hybrid approach of encryption and compression techniques, before transmission of data we can encrypt it by using cryptographic technique. In this paper we are using triple DES algorithm for data encryption and decryption, after encryption of data the cipher data can be stored into image using LSB technique and image can be encrypted by using PTT(pixel transpose technique),after encryption ,image can be compr...
On the security of an image encryption method
Li, SJ; Zheng, X.
2002-01-01
The security of digital images has attracted much attention, and many different image encryption methods have been proposed. Yen and Guo (see Proc. IEEE Workshop Signal Processing Systems, p.430-37, 1999) proposed a novel image encryption algorithm called BRIE (bit recirculation image encryption). This paper points out that BRIE is not secure enough from strict cryptographic viewpoint. It has been found that some defects exist in BRIE, and a known/chosen-plaintext attack can break BRIE with o...
Image encryption by redirection and cyclical shift
Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Wiatrek, Bryan A.; Agaian, Sos S.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we present a novel method for encrypting and decrypting large amounts of data such as two-dimensional (2-D) images, both gray-scale and color, without the loss of information, and using private keys of varying lengths. The proposed method is based on the concept of the tensor representation of an image and splitting the 2-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT) by one-dimensional (1-D) DFTs of signals from the tensor representation, or transform. The splitting of the transform is accomplished in a three-dimensional (3-D) space, namely on the 3-D lattice placed on the torus. Each splitting-signal of the image defines the 2-D DFT along the frequency-points located on the spirals on the torus. Spirals have different form and cover the lattice on the torus in a complex form, which makes them very effective when moving data through and between the spirals, and data along the spirals. The encryption consists of several iterative applications of mapping the 3-D torus into several ones of smaller sizes, and rotates then moves the data around the spirals on all tori. The encryption results in the image which is uncorrelated. The decryption algorithm uses the encrypted data, and processes them in inverse order with an identical number of iterations. The proposed method can be extended to encrypt and decrypt documents as well as other types of digital media. Simulation results of the purposed method are presented to show the performance for image encryption.
An Image Encryption Approach Using a Shuffling Map
A new image encryption approach is proposed. First, a sort transformation based on nonlinear chaotic algorithm is used to shuffle the positions of image pixels. Then the states of hyper-chaos are used to change the grey values of the shuffled image according to the changed chaotic values of the same position between the above nonlinear chaotic sequence and the sorted chaotic sequence. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption scheme based on a shuffling map shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. Compared with some encryption algorithms, the suggested encryption scheme is more secure. (general)
Mosso, F.; Bolognini, N.; PĂ©rez, D. G.
2015-06-01
We propose, and experimentally demonstrate, a single-lens imaging system as a compact encoding architecture by using a hybrid protocol for data processing. The encryption process consists of coherent light illuminating a random phase mask attached to an input image (the data), then the outgoing complex field propagates until reaching a second random phase mask next to a lens: encrypted data is obtained at some output plane after the lens. We demonstrate the feasibility of this proposal, and highlight the advantages of using tridimensional speckle as a secure random carrier instead of a standard ciphertext recordingâ€”holographic-based encryption techniques. Moreover, we expose the compact system benefits compared to conventional encrypting architectures in terms of energy loss and tolerance against classical attacks applicable to any linear cryptosystem. Experimental results validate our approach.
VLSI Implementation of Image Compression And Encryption Using SPIHT And Stream Cipher Method
Miss.Sampada Dange; Mrs.Sumedha S. Borde
2014-01-01
This technique is proposed for compression and encryption. Here an image is first compressed using SPIHT compression algorithm combined with Huffman coding and then the compressed image is encrypted using stream cipher. This technique is mainly used for highly efficient encryption and good compression. The Stream cipher method is chosen for their high encryption rate and they are mainly of bit-by-bit encryption. They don’t simply mean encryption but provides authenticity and integ...
Images encryption using AES and variable permutations
Silva-GarcĂa, V. M.; Flores-Carapia, R.; RenterĂa-MĂˇarquez, C.; Luna-Benoso, B.; VĂˇzquez, C. A. JimĂ©nez
2014-01-01
This work proposes a different procedure to encrypt images of 256 grey levels and colour, using the symmetric system Advanced Encryption Standard with a variable permutation in the first round, after the x-or operation. Variable permutation means using a different one for each input block of 128 bits. In this vein, an algorithm is constructed that defines a Bijective function between sets Nm = {n in N, 0 = 2 and Pm = {pi, pi is a permutation of 0, 1, ..., m-1}. This algorithm calculates permu...
Multilevel Permutation with Different Block Size/ Stream Cipher Image Encryption
Abbas A. Jasim
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, a new image encryption method using a combined multilevel permutation with stream cipher is proposed. In the permutation algorithm, image is divided into blocks in each level and its blocks are rearranged by using pseudorandom permutation method. A new non linear stream cipher algorithm is also proposed that is based on combining several keys generated by Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR. The results shown that the proposed algorithm has a high security feature and it is efficient for image encryption. Practical tests proved that the proposed encryption algorithm is robust, provides high level of security and gives perfect reconstruction of the decrypted image.
Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli
2015-11-01
A double-image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and high dimension chaotic system in gyrator transform domain, in which three chaotic random sequences are generated by using Chen system. First, an enlarged image constituted with two plaintext images is scrambled by using the first two sequences, and then separated into two new interim images. Second, one interim image is converted to the private phase key with the help of the third sequence, which is modulated by a random phase key generated based on logistic map. Based on this private phase key, another interim image is converted to the ciphertext with white noise distribution in the Yang-Gu amplitude-phase retrieval process. In the process of encryption and decryption, the images both in spatial domain and gyrator domain are nonlinear and disorder by using high dimension chaotic system. Moreover, the ciphertext image is only a real-valued function which is more convenient for storing and transmitting, and the security of the proposed encryption scheme is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of initial values of Chen system and rotation angle of gyrator transform. Extensive cryptanalysis and simulation results have demonstrated the security, validity and feasibility of the propose encryption scheme.
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang
2014-06-01
We present a novel method for multiple-image encryption by combining modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) with phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In this proposal, the primitive images are firstly encoded into a single synthetic complex image by phase mutual encoding and MGSA based on GT. Then the complex encoded image is further converted into two computer-generated POMs by carrying out MGSA again in GT domains. The proposed scheme has not any capability limitation that is caused by crosstalk effect between multiplexing images. An optical cascaded GT architecture, in which two POM ciphertexts and decryption phase keys are displayed in the input planes of GTs, respectively, can be employed for decryption. Combined with the POMs as main keys, the transform angles and wavelength of GTs can further increase the security of this system by offering very sensitive additional keys. Moreover, one can adjust the transform angles of GT flexibly without using any axis movement. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.
SALIM M. WADI; NASHARUDDIN ZAINAL
2013-01-01
The high security communication systems became an urgent need in recent years for both governments and peoples desiring protection from signal interception. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a famous block encryption algorithm which has several advantages in data encryption. However, AES suffer from some drawbacks such as high computations, pattern appearance if apply for image encryption, and more hardware requirements. These problems are more complicated when the AES algorithm is used f...
SELECTIVE IMAGE ENCRYPTION USING DCT WITH AES CIPHER
Belazi Akram
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Selective encryption presents a great solution to optimize time efficiency during encryption process. In this paper a novel selective encryption scheme based on DCT transform with AES algorithm is presented. In the DCT method, the basic idea is to decompose the image into 8Ă—8 blocks and these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to the frequency domain by the DCT. Then, the DCT coefficients correlated to the lower frequencies of the image block are encrypted. The proposed cryptosystem is evaluated using various security and statistical analysis; results show that the proposed algorithm is strong against attacks and suitable for practical application.
Fisher-Yates Chaotic Shuffling Based Image Encryption
Saeed, Swaleha; Umar, M Sarosh; Ali, M Athar; Ahmad, Musheer
2014-01-01
In Present era, information security is of utmost concern and encryption is one of the alternatives to ensure security. Chaos based cryptography has brought a secure and efficient way to meet the challenges of secure multimedia transmission over the networks. In this paper, we have proposed a secure Grayscale image encryption methodology in wavelet domain. The proposed algorithm performs shuffling followed by encryption using states of chaotic map in a secure manner. Firstly, the image is tra...
Er. Maninder Kaur*
2015-01-01
mages can be encrypted in many ways; several techniques have used different encryption methods. In this research, we apply a new modified International Data Encryption Algorithm to encrypt the full image in an efficient secure manner, after encryption the original file will be compressed and we get compressed image. This paper introduced a highly efficient image encryption - then compression (ETC) system using wavelet. The proposed image e...
Optical image encryption via ptychography.
Shi, Yishi; Li, Tuo; Wang, Yali; Gao, Qiankun; Zhang, Sanguo; Li, Haifei
2013-05-01
Ptychography is combined with optical image encryption for the first time. Due to the nature of ptychography, not only is the interferometric optical setup that is usually adopted not required any more, but also the encryption for a complex-valued image is achievable. Considering that the probes overlapping with each other is the crucial factor in ptychography, their complex-amplitude functions can serve as a kind of secret keys that lead to the enlarged key space and the enhanced system security. Further, since only introducing the probes into the input of common system is required, it is convenient to combine ptychography with many existing optical image encryption systems for varied security applications. PMID:23632506
Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes
Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena
2011-01-01
Image applications have been increasing in recent years. Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness, format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.
Image Encryption Using the Chaotic Josephus Matrix
Gelan Yang; Huixia Jin; Na Bai
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new image encryption solution using the chaotic Josephus matrix. It extends the conventional Josephus traversing to a matrix form and proposes a treatment to improve the randomness of this matrix by mixing chaotic maps. It also derives the corresponding encryption primitives controlled by the chaotic Josephus matrix. In this way, it builds up an image encryption system with very high sensitivities in both encryption key and input image. Our simulation results demonstrate...
A New Color Image Encryption Scheme Using CML and a Fractional-Order Chaotic System
WU, XIANGJUN; Li, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
The chaos-based image cryptosystems have been widely investigated in recent years to provide real-time encryption and transmission. In this paper, a novel color image encryption algorithm by using coupled-map lattices (CML) and a fractional-order chaotic system is proposed to enhance the security and robustness of the encryption algorithms with a permutation-diffusion structure. To make the encryption procedure more confusing and complex, an image division-shuffling process is put forward, wh...
Cryptanalysis of an ergodic chaotic encryption algorithm
In this paper, we present the results for the security and the possible attacks on a new symmetric key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity property of a logistic map. After analysis, we use mathematical induction to prove that the algorithm can be attacked by a chosen plaintext attack successfully and give an example to show how to attack it. According to the cryptanalysis of the original algorithm, we improve the original algorithm, and make a brief cryptanalysis. Compared with the original algorithm, the improved algorithm is able to resist a chosen plaintext attack and retain a considerable number of advantages of the original algorithm such as encryption speed, sensitive dependence on the key, strong anti-attack capability, and so on. (general)
Er. Maninder Kaur*
2015-01-01
Images can be encrypted in many ways; several techniques have used different encryption methods. In this research, we apply a new modified International Data Encryption Algorithm to encrypt the full image in an efficient secure manner, after encryption the original file will be compressed and we get compressed image. This paper introduced a highly efficient image encryption-then compression (ETC) system using wavelet. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction...
A Framework for Encrypting the Huffman Algorithm
O. Folorunso
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we describe possibilities of adding encryption to the compression features of Huffman algorithm. The encryption ciphers used are Polyalphabetic substitution cipher (public key and Stream cipher (private key. The former encodes by representing two or more ciphertext in the substitution process. This made it very difficult for snifers to be able to decode with simple statistical analysis. The latter encodes the binary digit (bit of each symbol by operating an XOR (exclusive-or gate. Thus, a well-confused text document is achieved with a fast and low computational power. This new method proved more efficient and effective than ordinary Huffman algorithm.
Image Encryption Using Chebyshev Map and Rotation Equation
Borislav Stoyanov; Krasimir Kordov
2015-01-01
We propose a novel image encryption algorithm based on two pseudorandom bit generators: Chebyshev map based and rotation equation based. The first is used for permutation, and the second one for substitution operations. Detailed security analysis has been provided on the novel image encryption algorithm using visual testing, key space evaluation, histogram analysis, information entropy calculation, correlation coefficient analysis, differential analysis, key sensitivity test, and computationa...
Akanksha Mathur
2012-01-01
Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext into the ciphertext where plaintext is the input to the encryption process and ciphertext is the output of the encryption process. Decryption isthe process of transforming ciphertext into the plaintext where ciphertext is the input to the decryption process and plaintext is the output of the decryption process. There are various encryption algorithms exist classified as symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms. Here, I present an algor...
Implementation of RSA Encryption Algorithm on FPGA
Amit Thobbi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a scheme for implementation of RSA encryption algorithm on FPGA. A 64 bit cipher text is accepted and using 128 bit public key RSA encryption technique, a 64 bit encrypted message is generated. Each block is coded using VHDL and the code is synthesized and simulated using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.7.Unlike previous approaches we have systematically provided timing, area and power measures for Spartan 3 and Virtex 6 FPGA using Pre and Post synthesis simulations. The design is optimized for either speed or power and a tradeoff is presented between speed, power and space. If the design is optimized for power then fewer resources are consumed but the maximum usable frequency is also reduced. Spartan 3 FPGAs are best suited for low power designs. As a major practical result we show that it is possible to implement RSA algorithm at secure bit lengths on a single commercially available FPGA.
International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) â€“ A Typical Illustration
Sandipan Basu
2011-01-01
There are several symmetric and asymmetric data encryption algorithms. IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is one of the strongest secret-key block ciphers. In this article, I try to represent the existing IDEA algorithm in a different way. In the following illustration, we would see how the encryption can be expressed in a simpler way.
Digital image encryption with chaotic map lattices
This paper proposes a secure approach for encryption and decryption of digital images with chaotic map lattices. In the proposed encryption process, eight different types of operations are used to encrypt the pixels of an image and one of them will be used for particular pixels decided by the outcome of the chaotic map lattices. To make the cipher more robust against any attacks, the secret key is modified after encrypting each block of sixteen pixels of the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme achieves high security and efficiency. (general)
Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli
2015-12-01
A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.
A novel image encryption scheme based on spatial chaos map
In recent years, the chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. In this paper, spatial chaos system are used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail. The basic idea is to encrypt the image in space with spatial chaos map pixel by pixel, and then the pixels are confused in multiple directions of space. Using this method one cycle, the image becomes indistinguishable in space due to inherent properties of spatial chaotic systems. Several experimental results, key sensitivity tests, key space analysis, and statistical analysis show that the approach for image cryptosystems provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission from the cryptographic viewpoint
Self Contained Encrypted Image Folding
Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Constantinides, Anthony; Plastino, Angel
2012-01-01
The recently introduced approach for Encrypted Image Folding is generalized to make it Self Contained. The goal is achieved by enlarging the folded image so as to embed all the necessary information for the image recovery. The need for extra size is somewhat compensated by considering a transformation with higher folding capacity. Numerical examples show that the size of the resulting cipher image may be significantly smaller than the plain text one. The implementation of the approach is further extended to deal also with color images.
Image Encryption based on the RGB PIXEL Transposition and Shuffling
Quist Aphetsi Kester
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Privacy is one of the key issues information Security addresses. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.
Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map
Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.
How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?
Said F. El-Zoghdy; Yasser A. Nada; Abdo, A. A.
2011-01-01
Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in todayâ€™s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, data...
Image Encryption: An Information Security Perceptive
Narasimhan Aarthie; Rengarajan Amirtharajan
2014-01-01
Information security purported, yet another retrospected technique for secret sharing, highlighted by image encryption. Encryption of images is proven a successful method to communicate confidential information for which countless procedures are unearthed. Still, it continues attracting researchers as usage of images in every means of digital communication has phenomenally increased. Cryptography embraces various encryption methods and offers four chief modes where each one has found its plac...
A New Quaternion-Based Encryption Method for DICOM Images.
Dzwonkowski, Mariusz; Papaj, Michal; Rykaczewski, Roman
2015-11-01
In this paper, a new quaternion-based lossless encryption technique for digital image and communication on medicine (DICOM) images is proposed. We have scrutinized and slightly modified the concept of the DICOM network to point out the best location for the proposed encryption scheme, which significantly improves speed of DICOM images encryption in comparison with those originally embedded into DICOM advanced encryption standard and triple data encryption standard algorithms. The proposed algorithm decomposes a DICOM image into two 8-bit gray-tone images in order to perform encryption. The algorithm implements Feistel network like the scheme proposed by Sastry and Kumar. It uses special properties of quaternions to perform rotations of data sequences in 3D space for each of the cipher rounds. The images are written as Lipschitz quaternions, and modular arithmetic was implemented for operations with the quaternions. A computer-based analysis has been carried out, and the obtained results are shown at the end of this paper. PMID:26276993
A fractal-based image encryption system
Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.
2014-12-01
This study introduces a novel image encryption system based on diffusion and confusion processes in which the image information is hidden inside the complex details of fractal images. A simplified encryption technique is, first, presented using a single-fractal image and statistical analysis is performed. A general encryption system utilising multiple fractal images is, then, introduced to improve the performance and increase the encryption key up to hundreds of bits. This improvement is achieved through several parameters: feedback delay, multiplexing and independent horizontal or vertical shifts. The effect of each parameter is studied separately and, then, they are combined to illustrate their influence on the encryption quality. The encryption quality is evaluated using different analysis techniques such as correlation coefficients, differential attack measures, histogram distributions, key sensitivity analysis and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite. The obtained results show great potential compared to other techniques.
Dual-Layer Video Encryption using RSA Algorithm
Chadha, Aman; Mallik, Sushmit; Chadha, Ankit; Johar, Ravdeep; Mani Roja, M.
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a video encryption algorithm using RSA and Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence, aimed at applications requiring sensitive video information transfers. The system is primarily designed to work with files encoded using the Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) codec, although it can be easily ported for use with Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded files. The audio and video components of the source separately undergo two layers of encryption to ensure a reasonable level of security. Encryption of the video component involves applying the RSA algorithm followed by the PN-based encryption. Similarly, the audio component is first encrypted using PN and further subjected to encryption using the Discrete Cosine Transform. Combining these techniques, an efficient system, invulnerable to security breaches and attacks with favorable values of parameters such as encryption/decryption speed, encryption/decryption ratio and visual degradation; has been put forth. For applications requiring encryption of sensitive data wherein stringent security requirements are of prime concern, the system is found to yield negligible similarities in visual perception between the original and the encrypted video sequence. For applications wherein visual similarity is not of major concern, we limit the encryption task to a single level of encryption which is accomplished by using RSA, thereby quickening the encryption process. Although some similarity between the original and encrypted video is observed in this case, it is not enough to comprehend the happenings in the video.
How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?
Said F. El-Zoghdy
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, data encryption standard algorithm is an entrenched technology and still useful for many purposes. In this paper, we use some of the image quality encryption measuring factors to study the effect of data encryption standard algorithm in image ciphering. The results show that the data encryption standard algorithm is fast and it achieves a good encryption rate for image ciphering using different modes of operation.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SECURITY BASED ON ENCRYPTED HYBRID COMPRESSION
D. Ramkumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this research, we propose an image security scheme using hybrid compression techniques. In this scheme, the data is being provided two-fold security by both encryption stage and hiding stage. The data/message which has to be secured undergoes encryption technique at the initial stage. In this stage, the permutation algorithm is employed which requires a pair of numbers as a key to permute the original message. Following the encryption stage, the deformed message is then embedded onto a JPEG image by considering the low and high quantization tables. The main motivation behind this research work is to provide image security through compression. The final result is an encrypted and compressed JPEG image with a different image quality. The receiver has to perform the reverse process to extract the original data/information. The performance analysis is performed in terms of PSNR for different quantization tables.
Chaos-Based Bit Planes Image Encryption
Giesl, Jiri; Podoba, Tomas; Vlcek, Karel
Bit planes of discrete signal can be used not only for encoding or compressing, but also for encrypting purposes. This paper investigates composition of bit planes of an image and their utilization in the encryption process. Proposed encryption scheme is based on chaotic maps of Peter de Jong and it is designed for image signals primarily. Positions of all components of bit planes are permutated according to chaotic behaviour of Peter de Jong's system.
Optical encryption for large-sized images
Sanpei, Takuho; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2016-02-01
We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.
Ahmed A. Abd El-Latif; Li Li; Ning Wang; Jia-Liang Peng; Zhenfeng Shi; Xiamu Niu
2012-01-01
In recent times, research on image encryption using chaotic systems has emerged. However, some of the proposed schemes still hinder the system performance and security. In this study, we introduce an efficient image encryption scheme based on pixel bit and combination of polynomial chaotic maps with variable initial parameters. The algorithm takes advantage of the best features of chaotic maps combined with the pixel value bits. The initial parameters and the keystream employed in the encrypt...
Machkour, M.; Saaidi, A.; Benmaati, M. L.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we introduce a new hybrid system consisting of a permutation-substitution network based on two different encryption techniques: chaotic systems and the Latin square. This homogeneity between the two systems allows us to provide the good properties of confusion and diffusion, robustness to the integration of noise in decryption. The security analysis shows that the system is secure enough to resist brute-force attack, differential attack, chosen-plaintext attack, known-plaintext attack and statistical attack. Therefore, this robustness is proven and justified.
Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2012-06-01
This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations in the dynamics of the system. Such defects are illuminated through a new technique of generalized post proceeding with very low hardware cost. The thesis further discusses two encryption algorithms designed and implemented as a block cipher and a stream cipher. The security of both systems is thoroughly analyzed and the performance is compared with other reported systems showing a superior results. Both systems are realized on Xilinx Vetrix-4 FPGA with a hardware and throughput performance surpassing known encryption systems.
PDES, Fips Standard Data Encryption Algorithm
Description of program or function: PDES performs the National Bureau of Standards FIPS Pub. 46 data encryption/decryption algorithm used for the cryptographic protection of computer data. The DES algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher blocks of data consisting of 64 bits under control of a 64-bit key. The key is generated in such a way that each of the 56 bits used directly by the algorithm are random and the remaining 8 error-detecting bits are set to make the parity of each 8-bit byte of the key odd, i. e. there is an odd number of '1' bits in each 8-bit byte. Each member of a group of authorized users of encrypted computer data must have the key that was used to encipher the data in order to use it. Data can be recovered from cipher only by using exactly the same key used to encipher it, but with the schedule of addressing the key bits altered so that the deciphering process is the reverse of the enciphering process. A block of data to be enciphered is subjected to an initial permutation, then to a complex key-dependent computation, and finally to a permutation which is the inverse of the initial permutation. Two PDES routines are included; both perform the same calculation. One, identified as FDES.MAR, is designed to achieve speed in execution, while the other identified as PDES.MAR, presents a clearer view of how the algorithm is executed
Two Phase Clandestain Image Encryption
V Hemanth
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In today’s internet world is full of data steals and hackers. So, there is a essential to design a system that assists the internet users to interchange their secret and private data safely across the web. Informationhiding process in a Steganography system starts by identifying medium’s redundant bits. The encryptionprocess creates a stego medium by replacing these redundant bits with data from the hidden message. So, we propose a method for encrypting the image, which has two phases. In the first phase, Perform Circular Shift Operations on the image pixels and the number of rotations have been calculated based on the length of the password. In the second phase, the first phase has undergone some bitwise operationswith a carriage image, by doing this; breaking of the cipher text is difficult.
A new color image encryption scheme using CML and a fractional-order chaotic system.
Wu, Xiangjun; Li, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
The chaos-based image cryptosystems have been widely investigated in recent years to provide real-time encryption and transmission. In this paper, a novel color image encryption algorithm by using coupled-map lattices (CML) and a fractional-order chaotic system is proposed to enhance the security and robustness of the encryption algorithms with a permutation-diffusion structure. To make the encryption procedure more confusing and complex, an image division-shuffling process is put forward, where the plain-image is first divided into four sub-images, and then the position of the pixels in the whole image is shuffled. In order to generate initial conditions and parameters of two chaotic systems, a 280-bit long external secret key is employed. The key space analysis, various statistical analysis, information entropy analysis, differential analysis and key sensitivity analysis are introduced to test the security of the new image encryption algorithm. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well. Experimental results confirm that, in comparison to other image encryption schemes, the new algorithm has higher security and is fast for practical image encryption. Moreover, an extensive tolerance analysis of some common image processing operations such as noise adding, cropping, JPEG compression, rotation, brightening and darkening, has been performed on the proposed image encryption technique. Corresponding results reveal that the proposed image encryption method has good robustness against some image processing operations and geometric attacks. PMID:25826602
Multiple-image encryption with bit-plane decomposition and chaotic maps
Tang, Zhenjun; Song, Juan; Zhang, Xianquan; Sun, Ronghai
2016-05-01
Image encryption is an efficient technique of image content protection. In this work, we propose a useful image encryption algorithm for multiple grayscale images. The proposed algorithm decomposes input images into bit-planes, randomly swaps bit-blocks among different bit-planes, and conducts XOR operation between the scrambled images and secret matrix controlled by chaotic map. Finally, an encrypted PNG image is obtained by viewing four scrambled grayscale images as its red, green, blue and alpha components. Many simulations are done to illustrate efficiency of our algorithm.
Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomial and Duffing Map
Borislav Stoyanov; Krasimir Kordov
2014-01-01
We present a novel image encryption algorithm using Chebyshev polynomial based on permutation and substitution and Duffing map based on substitution. Comprehensive security analysis has been performed on the designed scheme using key space analysis, visual testing, histogram analysis, information entropy calculation, correlation coefficient analysis, differential analysis, key sensitivity test, and speed test. The study demonstrates that the proposed image encryption algorithm shows advantage...
Image encryption under spatially incoherent illumination
Xie, Zhenwei; Zang, Jinliang; Zhang, Yan
2013-06-01
A novel method for image encryption under spatially incoherent illumination is proposed. The LED array is used as the spatially incoherent source. Both the encryption process and decryption process are numerically simulated. Experiments are carried out to demonstrate the basic ideal of the proposed method. The incoherent light is modulated by the spatial light modulator on the input plane as the input image to be encrypted. Then a random phase only mask is used as the key to encode the image, finally a Fourier lens is adopted to image the encrypted image on the output plane. The encrypted intensity distribution is recorded by a CCD. In the numerical simulations, the random phase only mask is generated by a rand function. The incoherent image is composed of many source points, and any two points of these sources are spatially incoherent, but each point is self-spatially coherent. Under this property, the point spread function for the encryption system can be considered as the interference of two beams, one is the spherical beam and the other is the random phase beam. Once the point spread function is given, the system's optical transfer function can be calculated easily. Then the encryption system can be considered as a decryption system, and the output image is the same as the original image. The encrypted image can be calculated with the system's optical transfer function and the output image. The random phase mask, the distance between the random phase mask and the SLM, and the wavelength of the laser can be seen as the keys of the encryption systems. Only when all these parameters are correct, can one get the right decrypted image. The factors which could affect the practical experiment, such as quantization noise and displacement tolerances are also investigated. Compared with the conventional coherent encryption system, the incoherent encryption system proposed in this paper is free of the flaws of the optical elements, the dust particles on the elements, and other unstable factors of the environment. What's more, the cost of the incoherent encryption system is lower since only a phase only mask and a imaging lens are used.
Cryptanalysis of "an improvement over an image encryption method based on total shuffling"
Akhavan, A.; Samsudin, A.; Akhshani, A.
2015-09-01
In the past two decades, several image encryption algorithms based on chaotic systems had been proposed. Many of the proposed algorithms are meant to improve other chaos based and conventional cryptographic algorithms. Whereas, many of the proposed improvement methods suffer from serious security problems. In this paper, the security of the recently proposed improvement method for a chaos-based image encryption algorithm is analyzed. The results indicate the weakness of the analyzed algorithm against chosen plain-text.
Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image
Reaz, Mamun B. I.; M.S. Amin; Fazida H. Hashim; Asaduzzaman, K
2011-01-01
Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hardware implementation. The compressi...
Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference
In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method
Double-image encryption based on the affine transform and the gyrator transform
We propose a kind of double-image-encryption algorithm by using the affine transform in the gyrator transform domain. Two original images are converted into the real part and the imaginary part of a complex function by employing the affine transform. And then the complex function is encoded and transformed into the gyrator domain. The affine transform, the encoding and the gyrator transform are performed twice in this encryption method. The parameters in the affine transform and the gyrator transform are regarded as the key for the encryption algorithm. Some numerical simulations have validated the feasibility of the proposed image encryption scheme
Image Encryption Based On Diffusion And Multiple Chaotic Maps
G.A.Sathishkumar
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative wayto ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one ofthem has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the imageencryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption techniqueusing multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by usingchaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformationleads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on theinitial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps.Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key forthe encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryptionalgorithm. The input image of 2-D is transformed into a 1- D array by using two different scanningpattern (raster and Zigzag and then divided into various sub blocks. Then the position permutation andvalue permutation is applied to each binary matrix based on multiple chaos maps. Finally the receiveruses the same sub keys to decrypt the encrypted images. The salient features of the proposed imageencryption method are loss-less, good peak signal â€“to noise ratio (PSNR, Symmetric key encryption, lesscross correlation, very large number of secret keys, and key-dependent pixel value replacement.
OCML-based colour image encryption
The chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new ways to develop efficient image-encryption schemes. While most of these schemes are based on low-dimensional chaotic maps, it has been proposed recently to use high-dimensional chaos namely spatiotemporal chaos, which is modelled by one-way coupled-map lattices (OCML). Owing to their hyperchaotic behaviour, such systems are assumed to enhance the cryptosystem security. In this paper, we propose an OCML-based colour image encryption scheme with a stream cipher structure. We use a 192-bit-long external key to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of the OCML. We have made several tests to check the security of the proposed cryptosystem namely, statistical tests including histogram analysis, calculus of the correlation coefficients of adjacent pixels, security test against differential attack including calculus of the number of pixel change rate (NPCR) and unified average changing intensity (UACI), and entropy calculus. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well.
Comparative Study of Speech Encryption Algorithms Using Mobile Applications
Jaspreet kaur#1 , Er. Kanwal preet Singh
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Speech communication is most popular now days. Everyone wants secure communication that’s way use encrypts and decrypt data scheme. It is basically used for military and business purpose. People want high security level during their communication..The numbers of algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption. However in this paper the work is done on three different kinds of algorithms i.e. NTRU, RSA and RINJDAEL these three popular algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption approach. Basically NTRU and RSA algorithms are asymmetric in nature and RINJDAEL algorithm is symmetric in nature. In speech encryption, first the speech is converted into text then further the text is converted into cipher text. The cipher text is sent to be particular receiver in which transmitter want to communicate. At the receiver end, receiver receives the original data through decryption process. At the end the performance is analyzed of these three approaches respectively. The parameters calculated are Encryption, Decryption and Delay time, complexity, and packet lost, Security level. In this three approaches, Encryption, decryption and delay time, are varying according to the number of bits per seconds. On the Other hand, complexity and packet lost are approximately same. There is no packet lost during transmitting and receiving the data. After the analysis of these three algorithms, The NTRU algorithm is faster in encryption and decryption time than others algorithms. The security level are very high than other algorithms. The android platform are used for these three algorithm to find the results in which algorithm took less time for encrypt or decrypt the data and help to evaluate the performance in speech encryption algorithms.
An Improved Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on NiosII
Wang Liejun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Through the data storage of Rijndael encryption algorithm and the analysis of the characteristics of column mixing and wheel transformation, the author put forward some suggestions for the optimization of Rijndael. Meanwhile, the author design and realize the optimized Rijndael encryption through the SOPC (System on Program Chip. Based on the SOPC of Altera FPGA (Field Programmable Gata Array, the algorithm design is put forward and the center is the embedded soft core NiosII. It is also realized the encryption and decryption verification by using the ModelSim software. Compared with the traditional design, Rijndael encryption algorithm undergoes a great breakthrough. The author also evaluated the Rijndael encryption algorithm performance and logic resources occupation.
Design of FPGA Based Encryption Algorithm using KECCAK Hashing Functions
Deepthi Barbara Nickolas#1, Mr. A. Sivasankar
2013-01-01
Security makes the people to stay in the sense of vital modern technological improvements, especially focused in Cryptography process. We have to consider the high level of security, the speed of encryption and the level of hardware which decides the cost in trade basis. The work in this paper concentrates on KECCAK SHA-3 algorithm and the sponge construction encryption process with iterative permutation. Thus it leads to reduced amount of encryption time and more importantly provides the ult...
LOW POWER ENCRYPTED MIPS PROCESSOR BASED ON AES ALGORITHM
Shivani Parmar; Kirat Pal Singh
2012-01-01
The paper describes the Low power 32-bit encrypted MIPS processor based on AES algorithm and MIPS pipeline architecture. The pipeline stages of MIPS processor are arranged in such a way that pipeline can be clocked at high frequency and clock gating technique is used for reducing power consumption. Encryption blocks of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptosystem and dependency among pipeline stages are explained in detail with the help of block diagram. In order to reduce the power consum...
Priti V. Bhagat, Rohit Singhal
2013-01-01
Encryption of database is an important topic for research, as secure and efficient encryption algorithms are needed that provide the ability to query over encrypted database and allow optimized encryption and decryption of data. There is always a compromise between the degree of security provided by encryption algorithm and the efficient querying on the database, because the encryption and decryption on database greatly degrade query performance. For this, we propose a new encryption algorith...
Watermarking patient data in encrypted medical images
A Lavanya; V Natarajan
2012-12-01
In this paper, we propose a method for watermarking medical images for data integrity which consists of image encryption, data embedding and image-recovery phases. Data embedding can be completely recovered from the watermarked image after the watermark has been extracted. In the proposed method, we utilize standard stream cipher for image encryption and selecting non-region of interest tile to embed patient data. We show that the lower bound of the PSNR (peak-signal-to-noise-ratio) values for medical images is about 48 dB. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can embed a large amount of data while keeping high visual quality of test images.
Developing and Evaluation of New Hybrid Encryption Algorithms
DiaaSalama AbdElminaam
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks consist of hundreds or thousands of low cost, low power and self-organizing nodes which are highly distributed. As wireless sensor networks continue to grow, so does the need for effective security mechanisms because sensor networks may interact with sensitive data. Encryption algorithms play good roles in information security systems (ISS. Those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as battery power. Wireless Sensor networks are powered by a battery which is a very limited resource. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on networks, but there are also has some drawbacks. The present asymmetric encryption methods and symmetric encryption methods can offer the security levels but with many limitations. For instance key maintenance is a great problem faced in symmetric encryption methods and less security level is the problem of asymmetric encryption methods even though key maintenance is easy. To improve the strength of these algorithms, we propose a new hybrid cryptographic algorithm in this paper. The algorithm is designed using combination of two symmetric cryptographic techniques and two Asymmetric cryptographic techniques. This protocol provides three cryptographic primitives, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. It is a hybrid encryption method where elliptical curve cryptography (ECC and advanced encryption (AES are combined to provide node encryption. RSA algorithm and Blowfish are combined to provide authentication and (MD5 for integrity. The results show that the proposed hybrid cryptographic algorithm gives better performance in terms of computation time and the size of cipher text.This paper tries to present a fair comparison between the new protocols with four existing different hybrid protocols according to power consumption. A comparison has been conducted for those protocols at different settings for each protocol such as different sizes of data blocks, and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
Developing and Evaluation of New Hybrid Encryption Algorithms
DiaaSalama AbdElminaam
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks consist of hundreds or thousands of low cost, low power and self-organizing nodes which are highly distributed. As wireless sensor networks continue to grow, so does the need for effective security mechanisms because sensor networks may interact with sensitive data. Encryption algorithms play good roles in information security systems (ISS. Those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as battery power. Wireless Sensor networks are powered by a battery which is a very limited resource. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on networks, but there are also has some drawbacks.Â The present asymmetric encryption methods and symmetric encryption methods can offer the security levels but with many limitations. For instance key maintenance is a great problem faced in symmetric encryption methods and less security level is the problem of asymmetric encryption methods even though key maintenance is easy. To improve the strength of these algorithms, we propose a new hybrid cryptographic algorithm in this paper. The algorithm is designed using combination of two symmetric cryptographic techniques and two Asymmetric cryptographic techniques. This protocol provides three cryptographic primitives, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. It is a hybrid encryption method where elliptical curve cryptography (ECC and advanced encryption (AES are combined to provide node encryption. RSA algorithm and Blowfish are combined to provide authentication and (MD5 for integrity. The results show that the proposed hybrid cryptographic algorithm gives better performance in terms of computation time and the size of cipher text.This paper tries to present a fair comparison between the new protocols with four existing different hybrid protocols according to power consumption. A comparison has been conducted for those protocols at different settings for each protocol such as different sizes of data blocks, and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
An Improved Hash Encryption Algorithm Based on Arnold Mapping
XIANG Yu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The Hash encryption algorithm based on Arnorld mapping is realized by integration of two-dimensional chaotic system and Hash function, whose encryption keys are the initial value of the Arnorld mapping, iterations, the forming method of hash value, and the digit of hash value and so on. The irreversibility of this algorithm can deactivate the reverse attack from cryptograph to plaintext but fail to work against all the attacks such as plaintext and selective plaintext. According to this article, to improve the initial value of the Arnorld mapping and the iterations of the encryption algorithms by means of increasing the number of the initial value of the Arnorld mapping and changing the constant value of the iterations into variable value and building a more secure hash encryption algorithm can further strengthen encryption, so as to improve the resistant ability of the hash encryption algorithm against such attacks as plaintext, selective plaintext etc. And the experimental data indicates the practicability and effectiveness of the improved hash encryption algorithm based on Arnorld mapping in that an analysis of its confusion and dispersion properties shows that its changing bits and average change probability of every bit of is closer to the ideal 50% 64-bit change probability.
Compressive sensing based ptychography image encryption
Rawat, Nitin
2015-09-01
A compressive sensing (CS) based ptychography combined with an optical image encryption is proposed. The diffraction pattern is recorded through ptychography technique further compressed by non-uniform sampling via CS framework. The system requires much less encrypted data and provides high security. The diffraction pattern as well as the lesser measurements of the encrypted samples serves as a secret key which make the intruder attacks more difficult. Furthermore, CS shows that the linearly projected few random samples have adequate information for decryption with a dramatic volume reduction. Experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed technique compared with the existing techniques. The retrieved images do not reveal any information with the original information. In addition, the proposed system can be robust even with partial encryption and under brute-force attacks.
Design And Implementation Of Tiny Encryption Algorithm
Kiran Kumar.V.G
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Over the recent years, several smart applications like RFID?s, sensor networks, including industrial systems, critical infrastructures, private and public spaces as well as portable and wearable applications in which highly constrained devices are interconnected, typically communicating wirelessly with one another, working in concert to accomplish some task. Advanced safety and security mechanisms can be very important in all of these areas. Light weight cryptography enables secure and efficient communication between networked smart objects. This proposed system focuses on the FPGA implementation of light weight cryptographic algorithm Tiny Encryption Algorithm TEA to adapt with many real time constraints such as memory, data loss and low cost. The proposed scheme uses Linear Feedback Shift Register to generate the random key making it more secure for sensitive information transfer in many real-time applications. In this study,operation of this cryptosystem is analyzed by implementing the cryptographic algorithm TEA with the key generation unit in FPGA Spartan 3E. We have also compared the results with the IDEA.
IMAGE ENCRYPTION USING PERMUTATION AND ROTATIONAL XOR TECHNIQUE
Avi Dixit
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features, therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. Most of the available encryption algorithms are mainly used for textual data and may not be suitable for multimedia data such as images. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm. The binary code of the pixel values of a colour image is extracted and permuted according to the entered 8 bit key which is followed by the permutation of every 8 consecutive pixels [4]. The image is further divided into blocks which are shifted accordingly. The above mentioned technique has a few drawbacks, like the small key size. To further enforce the encryption another method is appended to it which requires a 43 digit key. The encryption takes a total of 10 rounds in which two keys are use, both of which are derived from the 43 digit entered key. The results showed that the correlation between image elements was significantly decreased by using the proposed technique.
New Encryption Standard and Particular Case of Blowfish Algorithm
Chandra Sekhar Maganty
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Encryption algorithm plays a crucial role in information security which guarantees the recent growing internet and network applications. They are used to secure the data in wireless networks against malicious attacks but securing data also consumes resources such as C.P.U time, Memory, battery power, encryption time etc. Blowfish, a new secret-key block cipher, is proposed. It is a Feistel network, iterating a simple encryption function 16 times. The block size is 64 bits, and the key can be any length up to 448 bits. Looking at the current situation, our ambition is to tighten up the security factor that minimizes the effect of Cryptanalysis being done on Blowfish algorithm. Our new paradigm is having substantial amount of effort and an improvable aspect on security over the network. Although there is a complex initialization phase required before any encryption can take place, the actual encryption of data is very efficient on large microprocessors. This paper discusses the requirements for a standard encryption algorithm. Experimental results show that Blowfish encryption algorithm may be more suitable for wireless networks with secure data transmission. With reduced bits in plain text and key our aim is to make it useful for systems having minimum configuration
An Improved Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on NiosII
Wang Liejun; Tang Jun
2013-01-01
Through the data storage of Rijndael encryption algorithm and the analysis of the characteristics of column mixing and wheel transformation, the author put forward some suggestions for the optimization of Rijndael. Meanwhile, the author design and realize the optimized Rijndael encryption through the SOPC (System on Program Chip). Based on the SOPC of Altera FPGA (Field Programmable Gata Array), the algorithm design is put forward and the center is the embedded soft core NiosII. It is also re...
Secured Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Hyper Chaos
T.M. Amarunnishad
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be subject to some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. Here a novel method is proposed by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. Moreover data to be embedded is shuffled using a hyper chaotic function which is difficult to be extracted from the stego image without original key. A digital water mark is also embedded which ensures integrity of the data. The proposed method has been validated against three other available RDH schemes and it is observed that the proposed scheme outperforms these RDH schemes both in visual quality and payload. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error.
Chaotic Image Encryption Based on Running-Key Related to Plaintext
Cao Guanghui; Hu Kai; Zhang Yizhi; Zhou Jun; Zhang Xing
2014-01-01
In the field of chaotic image encryption, the algorithm based on correlating key with plaintext has become a new developing direction. However, for this kind of algorithm, some shortcomings in resistance to reconstruction attack, efficient utilization of chaotic resource, and reducing dynamical degradation of digital chaos are found. In order to solve these problems and further enhance the security of encryption algorithm, based on disturbance and feedback mechanism, we present a new image en...
A.Narmadha
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Images occupy the most important position in multimedia data. Techniques for transmitting and storing images are increasing to a greater extent. Images that are transferred over the network are confidential and private. Therefore there is a need for protecting these image data from the unauthorized users. This is achieved using Image Encryption. There are many techniques used to protect the image data. Most of the existing Image Encryption and Decryption techniques perform image encryption by scrambling the pixels or by dividing the images into blocks and shuffling them or by permutation. Images are arrangement of pixels and the image information can be predicted from the value of the neighboring pixels. Therefore it is important to decrease the correlation among the neighboring pixels and increase the entropy. The proposed work deals with decomposing the image into block size of very smaller pixels, and the image blocks are scrambled using the proposed permutation technique, which will result in lower correlation and higher entropy. The permuted image obtained is encrypted using RSA algorithm. Preprocessing of the image is carried out, by converting the binary values of the image into Integer which makes easy to work with RSA algorithm for the encryption of the image. Permutation on the smaller blocks of the image itself has provided security to the images, further when encryption is applied on this permuted image a higher level of security has been achieved. Computational Hardness and great security has been provided by RSA algorithm.
Implementation of Detachable Reversible Data Hiding in Image Encryption
Musham Pradeep
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a scheme for detachable reversible data hiding in image encryption. In which the sender encrypts an image using encryption key. Then, the data is appended to the encrypted image using a data-hiding key. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data-hiding key, he can extract the additional data though he does not know the content of the image. If the receiver has the encryption key, he can decrypt the encrypted image and get an image similar to the original one, but he cannot extract the additional data. If the receiver has both the data-hiding key and the encryption key, he can extract the additional data and recover the original image without any error.
Performance Analysis of AES and MARS Encryption Algorithms
H S Mohan
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Block ciphers are very important in communication systems as they provide confidentiality through encryption. The popular block ciphers are Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and MARS algorithms. Each cipher uses several rounds of fixed operations to achieve desired security level. The security level is measured in terms of diffusion and confusion. The diffusion level should be at least equal to strict avalanche criterion (SAC value. Therefore, the number of rounds are chosen such that the algorithm provides the SAC value. This paper presents measured diffusion value of AES and MARS algorithms. Diffusion values are compared for both the algorithms: AES and MARS. Similarly, speed of each algorithm is compared.
Interference-based multiple-image encryption with silhouette removal by position multiplexing.
Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong
2013-06-10
An approach for multiple-image encryption based on interference and position multiplexing is proposed. In the encryption process, multiple images are analytically hidden into three phase-only masks (POMs). The encryption algorithm for this method is quite simple and does not need iterative encoding. For decryption, both the digital method and optical method could be employed. Also, we analyze the multiplexing capacity through the correlation coefficient. In addition, the silhouette problem that exists in previous interference-based encryption methods with two POMs can be eliminated during the generation procedure of POMs based on the interference principle. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:23759846
Fresnel domain double-phase encoding encryption of color image via ptychography
Qiao, Liang; Wang, Yali; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi
2015-10-01
In this paper, color image encryption combined with ptychography has been investigated. Ptychographic imaging possesses a remarkable advantage of simple optics architecture and complex amplitude of object can be reconstructed just by a series of diffraction intensity patterns via aperture movement. Traditional technique of three primary color synthesis is applied for encrypting color image. In order to reduce physical limitations, the encryption's algorithm is based on Fresnel transformation domain. It is illustrated that the proposed optical encryption scheme has well ability to recover the encrypted color plaintext and advances in security enhancement thanks to introducing ptychography, since light probe as key factor enlarges the key space. Finally, the encryption's immunity to noise and reconstruction impact from lateral offset of probe has been investigated.
Qin, Yi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Qiong
2014-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel method for image encryption by employing the diffraction imaging technique. This method is in principle suitable for most diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, and a typical diffractive imaging architecture using three random phase masks in the Fresnel domain is taken for an example to illustrate it. The encryption process is rather simple because only a single diffraction intensity pattern is needed to be recorded, and the decryption procedure is also correspondingly simplified. To achieve this goal, redundant data are digitally appended to the primary image before a standard encrypting procedure. The redundant data serve as a partial input plane support constraint in a phase retrieval algorithm, which is employed for completely retrieving the plaintext. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:25089966
Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging
Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods. (paper)
A Self-synchronized Image Encryption Scheme
Daneshgar, Amir; Khadem, Behrooz
2014-01-01
In this paper, a word based chaotic image encryption scheme for gray images is proposed, that can be used in both synchronous and self-synchronous modes. The encryption scheme operates in a finite field where we have also analyzed its performance according to numerical precision used in implementation. We show that the scheme not only passes a variety of security tests, but also it is verified that the proposed scheme operates faster than other existing schemes of the same type even when usin...
Optical image encryption with spatially incoherent illumination.
Zang, Jinliang; Xie, Zhenwei; Zhang, Yan
2013-04-15
A simple optical image encryption system with spatially incoherent illumination is proposed. Only one Fourier lens and one random phase plate are contained in this system. The original image is perturbed by a random phase-only mask located on the aperture plane. The encrypted information is the only intensity distribution that can be directly recorded by a CCD or CMOS. The decryption procedure can be performed digitally and the random phase distribution works as the decryption key. Numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. PMID:23595461
Digital Image Encryption Based On Multiple Chaotic Maps
Amir Houshang Arab Avval; Jila ayubi; Farangiz Arab
2016-01-01
A novel and robust chaos-based digital image encryption is proposed. The present paper presents a cipher block image encryption using multiple chaotic maps to lead increased security. An image block is encrypted by the block-based permutation process and cipher block encryption process. In the proposed scheme, secret key includes nineteen control and initial conditions parameter of the four chaotic maps and the calculated key space is 2883. The effectiveness and security of the proposed encry...
Dual-Layer Video Encryption using RSA Algorithm
Chadha, Aman; Mallik, Sushmit; Chadha, Ankit; Johar, Ravdeep; Roja, M. Mani
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a video encryption algorithm using RSA and Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence, aimed at applications requiring sensitive video information transfers. The system is primarily designed to work with files encoded using the Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) codec, although it can be easily ported for use with Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded files. The audio and video components of the source separately undergo two layers of encryption to ensure a reasonable level of security. ...
Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images
NaveenKumar S K; Panduranga H. T.
2013-01-01
Information security plays a very important role in fast growing information and communication technology. Few applications like medical image security and satellite image security needs to secure only selected portion of the image. This paper describes a concept of selective image encryption in two ways. First method divides the image in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are applied to encryption process. Second method automatically detects the positions of objects, and then selected objec...
Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images
NaveenKumar S K
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Information security plays a very important role in fast growing information and communication technology. Few applications like medical image security and satellite image security needs to secure only selected portion of the image. This paper describes a concept of selective image encryption in two ways. First method divides the image in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are applied to encryption process. Second method automatically detects the positions of objects, and then selected objects are applied to encryption process. Morphological techniques are used to detect the positions of the objects in given images. These two approaches are specifically developed to encrypt the portion of an image in medical images and satellite image.
Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong; Wang, Zhipeng
2014-09-01
In previous diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, it is impossible to totally retrieve the plaintext from a single diffraction pattern. In this paper, we proposed a new method to achieve this goal. The encryption procedure can be completed by proceeding only one exposure, and the single diffraction pattern is recorded as ciphertext. For recovering the plaintext, a novel median-filtering-based phase retrieval algorithm, including two iterative cycles, has been developed. This proposal not only extremely simplifies the encryption and decryption processes, but also facilitates the storage and transmission of the ciphertext, and its effectiveness and feasibility have been demonstrated by numerical simulations. PMID:25321554
Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image
Mamun B.I. Reaz
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hardware implementation. The compression algorithm decomposes images into several different parts. We have used a secured encryption algorithm to encrypt only the crucial parts, which are considerably smaller than the original image, which result in significant reduction in processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. The breadth-first traversal linear lossless quadtree decomposition method is used for the partial compression and RSA is used for the encryption. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system on four different images. We have validated the advantage of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2928 units of LC with a system frequency of 13.42MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA prototyping of a partial encryption of compressed images using lossless quadtree compression and RSA encryption has been successfully implemented with minimum logic cells. It is found that the compression process is faster than the decompression process in linear quadtree approach. Moreover, the RSA simulations show that the encryption process is faster than the decryption process for all four images tested.
Optical image encryption based on interference under convergent random illumination
In an optical image encryption system based on the interference principle, two pure phase masks are designed analytically to hide an image. These two masks are illuminated with a plane wavefront to retrieve the original image in the form of an interference pattern at the decryption plane. Replacement of the plane wavefront with convergent random illumination in the proposed scheme leads to an improvement in the security of interference based encryption. The proposed encryption scheme retains the simplicity of an interference based method, as the two pure masks are generated with an analytical method without any iterative algorithm. In addition to the free-space propagation distance and the two pure phase masks, the convergence distance and the randomized lens phase function are two new encryption parameters to enhance the system security. The robustness of this scheme against occlusion of the random phase mask of the randomized lens phase function is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with numerical simulation results
The research on image encryption method based on parasitic audio watermark
Gao, Pei-pei; Zhu, Yao-ting; Zhang, Shi-tao
2010-11-01
In order to improve image encryption strength, an image encryption method based on parasitic audio watermark was proposed in this paper, which relies on double messages such as image domain and speech domain to do image encryption protection. The method utilizes unique Chinese phonetics synthesis algorithm to complete audio synthesis with embedded text, then separate this sentence information into prosodic phrase, obtains complete element set of initial consonant and compound vowel that reflects audio feature of statement. By sampling and scrambling the initial consonant and compound vowel element, synthesizing them with image watermark, and embedding the compound into the image to be encrypted in frequency domain, the processed image contains image watermark information and parasitizes audio feature information. After watermark extraction, using the same phonetics synthesis algorithm the audio information is synthesized and compared with the original. Experiments show that any decryption method in image domain or speech domain could not break encryption protection and image gains higher encryption strength and security level by double encryption.
A New Encryption Method for Secure Transmission of Images
B.V.Rama Devi,
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach is designed for transmitting images securely using a technique called GĂ¶delization followed by the public key encryption. The image which is to be transmitted is transformed into a sequence called GĂ¶del Number Sequence (GNS using a new technique called GĂ¶delization. This is compressed using Alphabetic coding AC and encrypted by an encryption method. This encryption string is transmitted and reconstructed at the decoding end by using thereverse process.
Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives
Massoudi A
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. It consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. This computation saving is very desirable especially in constrained communications (real-time networking, high-definition delivery, and mobile communications with limited computational power devices. In addition, selective encryption allows preserving some codec functionalities such as scalability. This tutorial is intended to give an overview on selective encryption algorithms. The theoretical background of selective encryption, potential applications, challenges, and perspectives is presented.
Symmetric encryption algorithms using chaotic and non-chaotic generators: A review.
Radwan, Ahmed G; AbdElHaleem, Sherif H; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K
2016-03-01
This paper summarizes the symmetric image encryption results of 27 different algorithms, which include substitution-only, permutation-only or both phases. The cores of these algorithms are based on several discrete chaotic maps (Arnold's cat map and a combination of three generalized maps), one continuous chaotic system (Lorenz) and two non-chaotic generators (fractals and chess-based algorithms). Each algorithm has been analyzed by the correlation coefficients between pixels (horizontal, vertical and diagonal), differential attack measures, Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, sensitivity analyses and the 15 standard tests of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SP-800-22 statistical suite. The analyzed algorithms include a set of new image encryption algorithms based on non-chaotic generators, either using substitution only (using fractals) and permutation only (chess-based) or both. Moreover, two different permutation scenarios are presented where the permutation-phase has or does not have a relationship with the input image through an ON/OFF switch. Different encryption-key lengths and complexities are provided from short to long key to persist brute-force attacks. In addition, sensitivities of those different techniques to a one bit change in the input parameters of the substitution key as well as the permutation key are assessed. Finally, a comparative discussion of this work versus many recent research with respect to the used generators, type of encryption, and analyses is presented to highlight the strengths and added contribution of this paper. PMID:26966561
Multiple-image encryption based on phase mask multiplexing in fractional Fourier transform domain.
Liansheng, Sui; Meiting, Xin; Ailing, Tian
2013-06-01
A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed based on the phase retrieval process and phase mask multiplexing in the fractional Fourier transform domain. First, each original gray-scale image is encoded into a phase only function by using the proposed phase retrieval process. Second, all the obtained phase functions are modulated into an interim, which is encrypted into the final ciphertext by using the fractional Fourier transform. From a plaintext image, a group of phase masks is generated in the encryption process. The corresponding decrypted image can be recovered from the ciphertext only with the correct phase mask group in the decryption process. Simulation results show that the proposed phase retrieval process has high convergence speed, and the encryption algorithm can avoid cross-talk; in addition, its encrypted capacity is considerably enhanced. PMID:23722815
Shannon Entropy based Randomness Measurement and Test for Image Encryption
WU, YUE; Joseph P. Noonan; Agaian, Sos
2011-01-01
The quality of image encryption is commonly measured by the Shannon entropy over the ciphertext image. However, this measurement does not consider to the randomness of local image blocks and is inappropriate for scrambling based image encryption methods. In this paper, a new information entropy-based randomness measurement for image encryption is introduced which, for the first time, answers the question of whether a given ciphertext image is sufficiently random-like. It measures the randomne...
Multiple-image encryption based on computational ghost imaging
Wu, Jingjing; Xie, Zhenwei; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shutian
2016-01-01
We propose an optical multiple-image encryption scheme based on computational ghost imaging with the position multiplexing. In the encryption process, each plain image is encrypted into an intensity vector by using the computational ghost imaging with a different diffraction distance. The final ciphertext is generated by superposing all the intensity vectors together. Different from common multiple-image cryptosystems, the ciphertext in the proposed scheme is simply an intensity vector instead of a complex amplitude. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and security of the proposed multiple-image encryption method. The multiplexing capacity of the proposed method is also investigated. Optical experiment is presented to verify the validity of the proposed scheme in practical application.
Design of FPGA Based Encryption Algorithm using KECCAK Hashing Functions
Deepthi Barbara Nickolas#1, Mr. A. Sivasankar
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Security makes the people to stay in the sense of vital modern technological improvements, especially focused in Cryptography process. We have to consider the high level of security, the speed of encryption and the level of hardware which decides the cost in trade basis. The work in this paper concentrates on KECCAK SHA-3 algorithm and the sponge construction encryption process with iterative permutation. Thus it leads to reduced amount of encryption time and more importantly provides the ultimate security level among the previous techniques followed so far. The algorithm uses the hashing function which is used for secured message authentication of data, digital signatures and password protection. The main advantage of this algorithm is it exhibits high level of parallelism. The hardware implementation process on FPGA is very fast and effective
Image Encryption Using Fibonacci-Lucas Transformation
Mishra, Minati; Mishra, Priyadarsini; Adhikary, M. C.; Kumar, Sunit
2012-01-01
Secret communication techniques are of great demand since last 3000 years due to the need of information security and confidentiality at various levels of communication such as while communicating confidential personal data, medical data of patients, defence and intelligence information of countries, data related to examinations etc. With advancements in image processing research, Image encryption and Steganographic techniques have gained popularity over other forms of hidden communication te...
Image encryption based on nonlinear encryption system and public-key cryptography
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Chi, Yingying
2015-03-01
Recently, optical asymmetric cryptosystem (OACS) has became the focus of discussion and concern of researchers. Some researchers pointed out that OACS was not tenable because of misunderstanding the concept of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS). We propose an improved cryptosystem using RSA public-key algorithm based on existing OACS and the new system conforms to the basic agreement of public key cryptosystem. At the beginning of the encryption process, the system will produce an independent phase matrix and allocate the input image, which also conforms to one-time pad cryptosystem. The simulation results show that the validity of the improved cryptosystem and the high robustness against attack scheme using phase retrieval technique.
A cryptographic Image Encryption technique based on the RGB PIXEL shuffling
Quist-Aphetsi Kester, MIEEE
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Confidentiality is one of the ultimate goals in information security. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. Rigorous use of advanced mathematical algorithms has played a major role in the success of modern day cryptography. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a new cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.
An Image Encryption Scheme Using 2D Generalized Sawtooth Maps
Ruisong Ye
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new image encryption scheme based on 2D generalized sawtooth map is proposed. Utilizing the chaoticnature of 2D generalized sawtooth maps, image pixel positions are scrambled and image pixels gray values are changedto encrypt the plain-images. Experimental results have been carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that theproposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-force attack and possesses good statisticalproperties to frustrate statistical analysis attacks.
Radial Hilbert Transform in terms of the Fourier Transform applied to Image Encryption
Morales, Y.; Díaz, L.; Torres, C.
2015-01-01
In the present investigation, a mathematical algorithm under Matlab platform using Radial Hilbert Transform and Random Phase Mask for encrypting digital images is implemented. The algorithm is based on the use of the conventional Fourier transform and two random phase masks, which provide security and robustness to the system implemented. Random phase masks used during encryption and decryption are the keys to improve security and make the system immune to attacks by program generation phase masks.
Radial Hilbert Transform in terms of the Fourier Transform applied to Image Encryption
In the present investigation, a mathematical algorithm under Matlab platform using Radial Hilbert Transform and Random Phase Mask for encrypting digital images is implemented. The algorithm is based on the use of the conventional Fourier transform and two random phase masks, which provide security and robustness to the system implemented. Random phase masks used during encryption and decryption are the keys to improve security and make the system immune to attacks by program generation phase masks
SMOOTHING AND OPTIMAL COMPRESSION OF ENCRYPTED GRAY SCALE IMAGES
P.S.Kishore
2012-01-01
Compression efficiency of encrypted real-world sources such as images can be improved by exploiting source dependency. Lossless compression of encrypted images can be achieved through SlepianWolf coding. In this correspondence, we propose a resolution progressive compression scheme which compresses an encrypted image progressively in resolution, such that the decoder can observe a lowresolution version of the image, study local statistics based on it, and use the statistics to decode the next...
Image encryption with dynamic chaotic Look-Up Table
Abdmouleh, Med Karim; Khalfallah, Ali; Bouhlel, Med Salim
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel image encryption scheme. The proposed method is based on the chaos theory. Our cryptosystem uses the chaos theory to define a dynamic chaotic Look-Up Table (LUT) to compute the new value of the current pixel to cipher. Applying this process on each pixel of the plain image, we generate the encrypted image. The results of different experimental tests, such as Key space analysis, Information Entropy and Histogram analysis, show that the proposed encryption image...
Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin
2013-02-01
This study presents a steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding (DRPE) techniques. Conventional optical image encryption systems can securely transmit valuable images using an encryption method for possible application in optical transmission systems. The steganographic optical image encryption system based on the DRPE technique has been investigated to hide secret data in encrypted images. However, the DRPE techniques vulnerable to attacks and many of the data hiding methods in the DRPE system can distort the decrypted images. The proposed system, based on reversible data hiding, uses a JBIG2 compression scheme to achieve lossless decrypted image quality and perform a prior encryption process. Thus, the DRPE technique enables a more secured optical encryption process. The proposed method extracts and compresses the bit planes of the original image using the lossless JBIG2 technique. The secret data are embedded in the remaining storage space. The RSA algorithm can cipher the compressed binary bits and secret data for advanced security. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves a high data embedding capacity and lossless reconstruction of the original images.
Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image and Separating the Image and Data
Naresh Achari B., Sri. Swami Naik J
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Since many years, the protection of multimedia system knowledge is changing into vital. The protection of this multimedia system knowledge is often finished coding or knowledge concealment algorithms. To decrease the UTC, the information compression is critical. Since few years, a replacement drawback is making an attempt to mix in a very single step, compression, and coding and knowledge concealment. So far, few solutions are planned to mix image coding and compression for instance. Nowadays, a replacement challenge consists to plant knowledge in encrypted pictures. Since the entropy of encrypted image is supreme, the embedding step, thought of like noise, isn't doable by victimization customary knowledge concealment algorithms. A replacement plan is to use reversible knowledge hiding algorithms on encrypted pictures by wish to get rid of the embedded knowledge before the image decoding. Recent reversible knowledge concealment ways are planned with high capability, however these ways aren't applicable on encrypted pictures. During this paper we tend to propose associate analysis of the native variance of the marked encrypted pictures so as to get rid of the embedded knowledge throughout the decoding step. We’ve got applied our methodology on varied pictures, and that we show and analyze the obtained results.
A Novel Chaotic Image Encryption using Generalized Threshold Function
Ahadpour, Sodeif; Sadra, Yaser; ArastehFard, Zahra
2011-01-01
In this paper, after reviewing the main points of image encryption and threshold function, we introduce the methods of chaotic image encryption based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by the novel generalized threshold function (segmentation and self-similarity) methods. These methods decrease periodic effect of the ergodic dynamical systems in randomness of the chaotic image encryption. The essential idea of this paper is that given threshold functions of the ergodic dyn...
Digital Image Encryption Based On Multiple Chaotic Maps
Amir Houshang Arab Avval
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A novel and robust chaos-based digital image encryption is proposed. The present paper presents a cipher block image encryption using multiple chaotic maps to lead increased security. An image block is encrypted by the block-based permutation process and cipher block encryption process. In the proposed scheme, secret key includes nineteen control and initial conditions parameter of the four chaotic maps and the calculated key space is 2883. The effectiveness and security of the proposed encryption scheme has been performed using the histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, differential analysis, key space analysis, etc. It can be concluded that the proposed image encryption technique is a suitable choice for practical applications.
Double image encryption using gyrator wavelet transform
Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we implement a novel optical information processing tool termed as gyrator wavelet transform for the application of double image encryption using amplitude- and phase-truncation approach. This approach enhances the key space in an asymmetric cryptosystem by adding supplementary security layers, i.e., family of mother wavelet and the gyrator transform order. Double input images bonded with random phase masks are independently gyrator transformed. Amplitude truncation of obtained spectrum generates individual and universal keys while phase truncation generates two real-valued functions. Each of the retrieved amplitude function is discrete wavelet transformed, which results into four different frequency bands. We have fused the obtained wavelet spectrum of an individual image by again gyrator transforming them following amplitude- and phase truncation. The obtained real-valued functions corresponding to each image are bonded to form the encrypted image. After using the correct universal key, individual asymmetric key, type of wavelet, and correct gyrator transform order, the original images are retrieved successfully. Numerical simulation results prove that the proposed scheme is more flexible and effective than existing wavelet fusion schemes.
An Enhanced Text to Image Encryption Technique using RGB Substitution and AES
Sourabh Singh1 , Anurag Jain
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In network security applications, before transmitting data to a remote machine it is encrypted at the sender side using any standard encryption algorithm. Most of the encryption algorithms make use of secret key without which it becomes very difficult to retrieve the actual data In this paper we propose a method which at first transforms the text into an image using an RGB substitution, and then encrypts the resulting image using AES Algorithm, under this approach, the secret key is smartly sent along with the cipher text in a single transmission, thus it also solves the key exchange problem that generally arises in most of the encryption models. The encryption and decryption process make the use of a combination database for text to image transformation. This paper is divided into following four sections; in section- I, we presented basic introduction of Network Security, in section-II, a survey on related algorithms has been presented, section-III discusses the proposed model and section IV concludes the paper.
Reducing Computational Time of Basic Encryption and Authentication Algorithms
Sandeep Kumar,
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Today most of data are sending via the internet for sharing, so the trust of data files is decreased. For the trust more security and authentication is needed, less security increase the liability ofattacks on data. Digital signature of the data is a solution to this security problem which provides the reliability, authenticity and accuracy. Most basic algorithm for security and authentication is RSA, DSA, algorithms which uses the different key of different sizes. This work presents ECDSA algorithm to encrypt the data, use parameterized hash algorithm to authenticate the data and also compare both RSA and ECDSA methods in respect of time parameters.
a Selective Image Encryption Based on Couple Spatial Chaotic Systems
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Tian; Xu, Da-Hai; Chen, Feng
2014-12-01
In this paper, we present a selective image encryption system based on couple spatial chaotic systems, the cascade one-dimensional Logistic map and high-dimensional spatial chaotic system has been used to generate the adequate encryption sequence, then the selective gray-level image encryption is implemented with the sequence, which can greatly improve the encryption performance and efficiency. In addition, we also adopt an index array to control the generation of the secret key, a completely different cipher text will be obtained if a pixel's value is altered in the original image, which can resist the differential attack effectively.
Iterative phase retrieval algorithms. Part II: Attacking optical encryption systems.
Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T
2015-05-20
The modified iterative phase retrieval algorithms developed in Part I [Guo et al., Appl. Opt.54, 4698 (2015)] are applied to perform known plaintext and ciphertext attacks on amplitude encoding and phase encoding Fourier-transform-based double random phase encryption (DRPE) systems. It is shown that the new algorithms can retrieve the two random phase keys (RPKs) perfectly. The performances of the algorithms are tested by using the retrieved RPKs to decrypt a set of different ciphertexts encrypted using the same RPKs. Significantly, it is also shown that the DRPE system is, under certain conditions, vulnerable to ciphertext-only attack, i.e., in some cases an attacker can decrypt DRPE data successfully when only the ciphertext is intercepted. PMID:26192505
A Robust Chaotic and Fast Walsh Transform Encryption for Gray Scale Biomedical Image Transmission
Adelaide Nicole Kengnou Telem
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, a new scheme of image encryption based on chaos and Fast Walsh Transform (FWT has been proposed. We used two chaotic logistic maps and combined chaotic encryption methods to the two-dimensional FWT of images. The encryption process involves two steps: firstly, chaotic sequences generated by the chaotic logistic maps are used to permute and mask the intermediate results or array of FWT, the next step consist in changing the chaotic sequences or the initial conditions of chaotic logistic maps among two intermediate results of the same row or column. Changing the encryption key several times on the same row or column makes the cipher more robust against any attack. We tested our algorithms on many biomedical images. We also used images from data bases to compare our algorithm to those in literature. It comes out from statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests that our proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time encryption and transmission biomedical images.
A Secure Network Communication Protocol Based on Text to Barcode Encryption Algorithm
Abusukhon Ahmad
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, after the significant development in the Internet, communication and information exchange around the world has become easier and faster than before. One may send an e-mail or perform money transaction (using a credit card while being at home. The Internet users can also share resources (storage, memory, etc. or invoke a method on a remote machine. All these activities require securing data while the data are sent through the global network. There are various methods for securing data on the internet and ensuring its privacy; one of these methods is data encryption. This technique is used to protect the data from hackers by scrambling these data into a non-readable form. In this paper, we propose a novel method for data encryption based on the transformation of a text message into a barcode image. In this paper, the proposed Bar Code Encryption Algorithm (BCEA is tested and analyzed.
Dharmendra Kumar Gupta ,
2012-01-01
Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the needs to protect such applications are increased. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information security systems. This work gives an insight into the new concept called hybrid approach of conventional encryption, which gives the concept of strong encryption of the data. The symmetric encryption also called conventional encryption or single key encryption was the only type of encryption is use prior to the development of ...
Shailaja S; Dr Krishnamurthy G N
2014-01-01
This paper demonstrates the performance of well known block ciphers Blowfish and Cast-128, considering different aspects of security namely, Encryption quality, Key sensitivity test and Statistical analysis. Statistical analysis is conducted using images by test on the histogram of encrypted images and correlation of horizontally adjacent pixels in an encrypted image.
MINIMIZATION OF DELAY TIME IN DYNAMIC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS (DEA-RTA?
Kuti Toyin Sadiq
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Real-Time Applications (RTA such as Voice-over IP (VoIP, Instant messages (IM, and video conferencing are sensitive to delay as they are packets base network services. Providing these services over the internet require high level of security to protect user, data and infrastructures. Encryption process is used to provide the security needed for RTA. The encryption and decryption has to take minimal time to achieve acceptable end-to-end delays. The research algorithm proposes a new symmetric encryption algorithm that reduces the encryption and decryption delay time which is known as Dynamic Encryption Algorithm for the Real-Time Applications (DEA-RTA.
A one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of chaos
In this paper, we propose a new one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of a skew tent chaotic map. We divide the chaotic trajectory into sub-intervals and map them to integers, and use this scheme to encrypt plaintext and obtain ciphertext. In this algorithm, the plaintext information in the key is used, so different plaintexts or different total numbers of plaintext letters will encrypt different ciphertexts. Simulation results show that the performance and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm can encrypt plaintext effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)
Three Tier Encryption Algorithm For Secure File Transfer
Balakrishnan, Bhargav
2011-01-01
This encryption algorithm is mainly designed for having a secure file transfer in the low privilege servers and as well as in a secured environment too. This methodology will be implemented in the data center and other important data transaction sectors of the organisation where the encoding process of the software will be done by the database administrator or system administrators and his trusted clients will have decoding process of the software. This software will not be circulated to the unauthorised customers.
Message Based Random Variable Length Key Encryption Algorithm
Hamid Mirvaziri; Kasmiran J.M. Ismail; Zurina M. Hanapi
2009-01-01
Problem statement: A block ciphers provides confidentiality in cryptography but cryptanalysis of the classical block ciphers demonstrated some old weaknesses grabbing a partial key in any stage of encryption procedure leads to reconstructing the whole key. Exhaustive key search shows that key generation should be indeterminist and random for each round. Matching cipher-text attack shows that larger size of block is more secure. In order to overcome analysis mentioned above a new algorithm is ...
Bi-serial DNA Encryption Algorithm(BDEA)
Prabhu, D
2011-01-01
The vast parallelism, exceptional energy efficiency and extraordinary information inherent in DNA molecules are being explored for computing, data storage and cryptography. DNA cryptography is a emerging field of cryptography. In this paper a novel encryption algorithm is devised based on number conversion, DNA digital coding, PCR amplification, which can effectively prevent attack. Data treatment is used to transform the plain text into cipher text which provides excellent security
A Chaotic Encryption Algorithm Based on Skew Tent Map
Chen Shou-gang
2009-04-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development and extensive applications of computer technology, network technology, communication technology, and Internet in particular, the security of network information is becoming increasingly key problems that must be solved urgently. The applying chaos theory to secure communication and information encryption has already become one of the hot research projects on the combination of nonlinear science and information science, and it is a novel branch of high-tech research fields. In this paper, a chaotic encryption algorithm based on skew tent map is proposed. In the process of encryption, its update look-up table depends on plaintext and external key, the 8-bit subkey is dynamically generated with skew tent map and depends on updating look-up table, the key is initial condition X0 of skew tent map, control parameter p and a external key K. Theoretical analysis and simulated experiments show that the algorithm can resist the statistic and differential attacks, and the algorithm has high security.
Encrypting three-dimensional information system based on integral imaging and multiple chaotic maps
Xing, Yan; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Xiong, Zhao-Long; Deng, Huan
2016-02-01
An encrypting three-dimensional (3-D) information system based on integral imaging (II) and multiple chaotic maps is proposed. In the encrypting process, the elemental image array (EIA) which represents spatial and angular information of the real 3-D scene is picked up by a microlens array. Subsequently, R, G, and B color components decomposed by the EIA are encrypted using multiple chaotic maps. Finally, these three encrypted components are interwoven to obtain the cipher information. The decryption process implements the reverse operation of the encryption process for retrieving the high-quality 3-D images. Since the encrypted EIA has the data redundancy property due to II, and all parameters of the pickup part are the secret keys of the encrypting system, the system sensitivity on the changes of the plaintext and secret keys can be significantly improved. Moreover, the algorithm based on multiple chaotic maps can effectively enhance the security. A preliminary experiment is carried out, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness, robustness, and security of the proposed system.
You, Suping; Lu, Yucheng; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Bo; Peng, Runling; Zhuang, Songlin
2015-11-01
This paper proposes a 3-D image encryption scheme based on micro-lens array. The 3-D image can be reconstructed by applying the digital refocusing algorithm to the picked-up light field. To improve the security of the cryptosystem, the Arnold transform and the Gravity Model based image encryption method are employed. Experiment results demonstrate the high security in key space of the proposed encryption scheme. The results also indicate that the employment of light field imaging significant strengthens the robustness of the cipher image against some conventional image processing attacks.
Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation
Parameshachai B D,
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Measurement of image quality is important for many image processing applications. Image quality assessment is closely related to image similarity assessment in which quality is based on the differences (or similarity between a degraded image and the original, unmodified image. There are two ways to measure image quality by subjective or objective assessment. Subjective evaluations are expensive and time-consuming. It is impossible to implement them into automatic real-time systems. Objective evaluations are automatic and mathematical defined algorithm. Subjective measurements can be used to validate the usefulness of objective measurements. Therefore objective methods have attracted more attentions in recent years. Well-known objective evaluation algorithms for measuring image quality include mean squared error (MSE, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, and structural similarity (SSIM. MSE & PSNR are very simple and easy to use. In this paper Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation. Proposed Partial Encryption algorithm based on the amount of encryption needed (i.e. percentage of encryption. Various objective evaluation algorithms for measuring image quality like Mean Squared Error (MSE, Peak Signal-To-Noise Ratio (PSNR and Structural Similarity (SSIM etc. will be studied and their results will be compared.
SMOOTHING AND OPTIMAL COMPRESSION OF ENCRYPTED GRAY SCALE IMAGES
P.S.Kishore
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Compression efficiency of encrypted real-world sources such as images can be improved by exploiting source dependency. Lossless compression of encrypted images can be achieved through SlepianWolf coding. In this correspondence, we propose a resolution progressive compression scheme which compresses an encrypted image progressively in resolution, such that the decoder can observe a lowresolution version of the image, study local statistics based on it, and use the statistics to decode the next resolution level. Good performance is observed both theoretically and experimentally. We deploy smoothing for images at the receiver to mitigate noise.
Ravindra Gupta
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The proposed system highlights a novel approach for creating a secure steganographic method using genetic algorithm and visual cryptography for robust encryption in computer forensics. Although there has been an extensive research work in the past, but majority of the research work has no much optimal consideration for robust security towards the encrypted image. The proposed method encodes the secret message in least significant bits of the original image, where the pixels values of the encrypted image are modified by the genetic algorithm to retain their statistic characters, thereby making the detection of secret of message difficult. Use of Genetic algorithm has compelled the system for enhancing the security using optimal selection, mutation, and cross over. The proposed system hides data in a real image and achieve its detection after under went to visual cryptographic. The implementation is done in java platform which shows that the proposed system has better resilienc by considering the Steganalysis and bench marking with optimal visual standards.
Optical image encryption in phase space
Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Situ, Guohai; Wu, Quanying
2014-11-01
In the field of optical information security, the research of double random phase encoding is becoming deeper with each passing day, however the encryption system is linear, and the dependencies between plaintext and ciphertext is not complicated, with leaving a great hidden danger to the security of the encryption system. In this paper, we encrypted the higher dimensional Wigner distribution function of low dimensional plaintext by using the bilinear property of Wigner distribution function. Computer simulation results show that this method can not only enlarge the key space, but also break through the linear characteristic of the traditional optical encryption technology. So it can significantly improve the safety of the encryption system.
Quantum image encryption based on generalized affine transform and logistic map
Liang, Hao-Ran; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Nan-Run
2016-03-01
Quantum circuits of the generalized affine transform are devised based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm combining the generalized affine transform with logistic map is suggested. The gray-level information of the quantum image is encrypted by the XOR operation with a key generator controlled by the logistic map, while the position information of the quantum image is encoded by the generalized affine transform. The encryption keys include the independent control parameters used in the generalized affine transform and the logistic map. Thus, the key space is large enough to frustrate the possible brute-force attack. Numerical simulations and analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm is realizable, robust and has a better performance than its classical counterpart in terms of computational complexity.
Optical color-image encryption in the diffractive-imaging scheme
Qin, Yi; Wang, Zhipeng; Pan, Qunna; Gong, Qiong
2016-02-01
By introducing the theta modulation technique into the diffractive-imaging-based optical scheme, we propose a novel approach for color image encryption. For encryption, a color image is divided into three channels, i.e., red, green and blue, and thereafter these components are appended by redundant data before being sent to the encryption scheme. The carefully designed optical setup, which comprises of three 4f optical architectures and a diffractive-imaging-based optical scheme, could encode the three plaintexts into a single noise-like intensity pattern. For the decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, together with a filter operation, is applied to extract the primary color images from the diffraction intensity map. Compared with previous methods, our proposal has successfully encrypted a color rather than grayscale image into a single intensity pattern, as a result of which the capacity and practicability have been remarkably enhanced. In addition, the performance and the security of it are also investigated. The validity as well as feasibility of the proposed method is supported by numerical simulations.
Novel image encryption scheme based on Chebyshev polynomial and Duffing map.
Stoyanov, Borislav; Kordov, Krasimir
2014-01-01
We present a novel image encryption algorithm using Chebyshev polynomial based on permutation and substitution and Duffing map based on substitution. Comprehensive security analysis has been performed on the designed scheme using key space analysis, visual testing, histogram analysis, information entropy calculation, correlation coefficient analysis, differential analysis, key sensitivity test, and speed test. The study demonstrates that the proposed image encryption algorithm shows advantages of more than 10(113) key space and desirable level of security based on the good statistical results and theoretical arguments. PMID:25143970
Plaintext Related Two-level Secret Key Image Encryption Scheme
Bin Chen; Peng Cai; Yong Zhang; Jiali Xia
2012-01-01
Some chaos-based image encryption schemes using plain-images independent secret code streams have weak encryption security and are vulnerable to chosen plaintext and chosen cipher-text attacks. This paper proposed a two-level secret key image encryption scheme, where the first-level secret key is the private symmetric secret key, and the second-level secret key is derived from both the first-level secret key and the plain image by iterating piecewise linear map and Logistic map. Even though t...
An Analysis of Encryption and Decryption Application by using One Time Pad Algorithm
Zaeniah
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Security of data in a computer is needed to protect critical data and information from other parties. One way to protect data is to apply the science of cryptography to perform data encryption. There are wide variety of algorithms used for encryption of data, this study used a one-time pad algorithm for encrypting data. Algorithm One Time Pad uses the same key in the encryption process and a decryption of the data. An encrypted data will be transformed into cipher text so that the only person who has the key can open that data. Therefore, analysis will be done for an application that implements a one-time pad algorithm for encrypting data. The application that implements the one time pad algorithm can help users to store data securely.
Plaintext Related Image Encryption Scheme Using Chaotic Map
Yong Zhang
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A plaintext related image blocking encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper, which includes two kinds of operations on inner-block confusion and inter-block diffusion. Firstly, a float-point lookup table need to be generated by iterating chaotic system; Secondly, choose one of the entries in the look-up table as initial value of chaotic system, and iterate it to produce one secret code sequence for inner-block confusion; Thirdly, by using one pixel value of the former block to locate another entry in the look-up table, iterate it to yield another secret code sequence for inter-block diffusion; Finally, through two rounds of the block-by-block processes, the plain-image will be transformed into the cipher-image. The simulation results show that the proposed method has many good characters.
Message Based Random Variable Length Key Encryption Algorithm
Hamid Mirvaziri
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: A block ciphers provides confidentiality in cryptography but cryptanalysis of the classical block ciphers demonstrated some old weaknesses grabbing a partial key in any stage of encryption procedure leads to reconstructing the whole key. Exhaustive key search shows that key generation should be indeterminist and random for each round. Matching cipher-text attack shows that larger size of block is more secure. In order to overcome analysis mentioned above a new algorithm is designed that is based on random numbers and also can defeat time and memory constraints. Approach: Dynamic and message dependent key generator was created by producing a random number and it was selected as the size of first chunk. Residual value of second chunk divided by first chunk concatenating with first chunk forms the first cipher as an input for SP-boxes. These processes repeated until whole mesaage get involved into the last cipher. Encrypted messages are not equal under different run. Value of random number should be greater than 35 bits and plaintext must be at least 7 bits. A padding algorithm was used for small size messages or big random numbers. Results: Attack on the key generation process was prevented because of random key generation and its dependency to input message. Encryption and decryption times measured between 5 and 27 m sec in 2 GHz Pentium and java platform so time variant and fast enough key generation had been kept collision and timing attacks away due to small seized storage. Long and variable key length made key exhaustive search and differential attack impossible. None fixed size key caused avoidance of replaying and other attacks that can happen on fixed sized key algorithms. Conclusion: Random process employed in this block cipher increased confidentiality of the message and dynamic length substitution in proposed algorithm may lead to maximum cryptographic confusion and consequently makes it difficult for cryptanalysis.
Enabling Similarity Search over Encrypted Images in Cloud
Yi Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With the growing popularity of cloud computing, more and more users are willing to outsource their private data to the cloud. To ensure the security of data, data owners usually encrypted their private data before outsourcing them to the cloud server. Though data encryption improves the security of data, it increases the difficulty of data operating. This study focuses on the search of encrypted images in the cloud and proposes an efficient similarity retrieval scheme over encrypted images. The proposed scheme enables data owners to outsource their personal images and the content-based image retrieval service to the cloud without revealing the actual content of the image database to the cloud. The proposed scheme in this study supports the global feature based image retrieval methods under the Euclidean distance metric. Besides, rigorous security analysis and extensive experiments show that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient.
Biomedical Image Transmission Based on Modified Feistal Algorithm
Jinu Elizabeth John
2013-01-01
This paperpresents a reconfigurable, high performance hardware implementation of highly securebiomedical image transmission system which can be used for sending medical reports in military and highsecurity environments. The algorithm for encryption is based on DESalgorithm with a novel skew core keyscheduling. The encrypted image is not intelligible to an intruder, but the recovered image has high level ofclarity. This type of encryption can be used in applications where we need to discourage...
We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)
An Image Encryption Method: SD-Advanced Image Encryption Standard: SD-AIES
Somdip Dey
2015-01-01
The security of digital information in modern times is one of the most important factors to keep in mind. For this reason, in this paper, the author has proposed a new standard method of image encryption. The proposed method consists of 4 different stages: 1) First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from t...
Application of Cosine Zone Plates to Image Encryption
We analyse the diffraction result of optical field after Cosine zone plate, and theoretically deduce its transform matrix. Under some conditions, its diffraction distribution is a mixture of fractional Fourier spectra. Then we use Cosine zone plate and its diffraction result to image encryption. Possible optical image encryption and decryption implementations are proposed, and some numerical simulation results are also provided. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Liu, Yuexin; Metzner, John J.; Guo, Ruyan; Yu, Francis T. S.
2005-09-01
An efficient and secure algorithm for random phase mask generation used in optical data encryption and transmission system is proposed, based on Diffie-Hellman public key distribution. Thus-generated random mask has higher security due to the fact that it is never exposed to the vulnerable transmitting channels. The effectiveness to retrieve the original image and its robustness against blind manipulation have been demonstrated by our numerical results. In addition, this algorithm can be easily extended to multicast networking system and refresh of this shared random key is also very simple to implement.
A NEW DATA HIDING ALGORITHM WITH ENCRYPTED SECRET MESSAGE USING TTJSA SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTO SYSTEM
Sayak Guha
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In the present work we are proposing a new steganogarphy method to hide any encrypted secret message inside a cover file by substituting in the LSB. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm namely TTJSA developed by Nath et al [10]. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al [2]. The TTJSA method comprises of 3 distinct methods which are also developed by Nath et al[1,7]. The methods are MSA[Meheboob, Saima and Asoke][1], NJJSAA[Neeraj, Joel, Joyshree, Amlan, Asoke][7] and Generalised Modified Vernam Cipher method developed by Nath et al[10]. The authors have used TTJSA method for encryption purpose as it is already proved that TTJSA is very effective even if we have small pattern such as digital watermark or password etc. Moreover the cryptanalysis of TTJSA shows that the standard attack like differential attack or simple plain text attack will not be able to break the encryption method. So the main advantage of this method is that even if the hacker can extract the embedded data from a host file but they can not get back the original secret message. While embedding encrypted secret message we have used the standard LSB substitution method [2]. The present method may be used for hiding very confidential message or password or any private key from one machine to another machine or from one machine to server etc. For sending question papers normally the teachers are sending it through e-mail as normal plain text. Instead of that now they can encrypt it first using TTJSA method and hide the encrypted message in some popular image and send it to destination with full confidence like in between no one will be able to hack it. In defense or in Banking sector also the present method may be used for sending some crucial and important message. The present method may be used to hide any confidential message such as text, audio, image in any image or audio or video file. Keywords: MSA,TTJSA,NJJSAA,LSB,Vernam,Steganography
Content-based image retrieval in homomorphic encryption domain.
Bellafqira, Reda; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Bouslimi, Dalel; Quellec, Gwenole
2015-08-01
In this paper, we propose a secure implementation of a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method that makes possible diagnosis aid systems to work in externalized environment and with outsourced data as in cloud computing. This one works with homomorphic encrypted images from which it extracts wavelet based image features next used for subsequent image comparison. By doing so, our system allows a physician to retrieve the most similar images to a query image in an outsourced database while preserving data confidentiality. Our Secure CBIR is the first one that proposes to work with global image features extracted from encrypted images and does not induce extra communications in-between the client and the server. Experimental results show it achieves retrieval performance as good as if images were processed non-encrypted. PMID:26736909
Improving Image Encryption Using 3D Cat Map and Turing Machine
Nehal A. Mohamed; Mostafa A. El-Azeim; Alaa Zaghloul
2016-01-01
Security of data is of prime importance. Security is a very complex and vast topic. One of the common ways to protect this digital data from unauthorized eavesdropping is encryption. This paper introduces an improved image encryption technique based on a chaotic 3D cat map and Turing machine in the form of dynamic random growth technique. The algorithm consists of two main sections: The first does a preprocessing operation to shuffle the image using 3D chaotic map in the form of dynamic rando...
A Digital Watermarking for Lifting Based Compression And Encryption of JPEG 2000 Images
Ansu Anna Ponnachen1 , Lidiya Xavier
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In the digital world the digital media is currently evolving at such rapidly;copyright protection is become increasingly important.Now a days these media is available with various image formats,due to which they are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality.A wide range of digital media is often distributed by multiple levels of distributors in a compressed and encrypted format.It is sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encrypted media items in the compressed encrypted domain itself for tamper detection or ownership declaration or copyright management purposes.The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data inorder to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.This paper deals with the watermarking of compressed and encrypted JPEG 2000 images.The compression is achieved on JPEG 2000 images by lifting based architecture.The encryption algorithm used is stream cipher.The identification of watermark can be done in the decrypted domain.The watermarking technique used is spread spectrum.This can be implemented through matlab.
Efficient Digital Encryption Algorithm Based on Matrix Scrambling Technique
M. Kiran Kumar
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem ofinformation which is transmitted in Internet. We propose a new technique on matrix scrambling which isbased on random function, shifting and reversing techniques of circular queue. We give statisticalanalysis, sequence random analysis, and sensitivity analysis to plaintext and key on the proposed scheme.The experimental results show that the new scheme has a very fast encryption speed and the key space isexpanded and it can resist all kinds of cryptanalytic, statistical attacks, and especially, our new methodcan be also used to solve the problem that is easily exposed to chosen plaintext attack. We give ourdetailed report to this algorithm, and reveal the characteristic of this algorithm by utilizing an example.
Jianhua Wu; Fangfang Guo; Nanrun Zhou
2013-01-01
A novel single-channel color image encryption algorithm is proposed, which utilizes the reality-preserving fractional discrete cosine transform in YCbCr space. The color image to be encrypted is decomposed into Y, Cb, and Cr components, which are then separately transformed by Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). The resulting three spectra sequences, obtained by zig-zag scanning the spectra matrices, are truncated and the lower frequency coefficients of the three components are scrambled up into...
Chaotic image encryption based on running-key related to plaintext.
Guanghui, Cao; Kai, Hu; Yizhi, Zhang; Jun, Zhou; Xing, Zhang
2014-01-01
In the field of chaotic image encryption, the algorithm based on correlating key with plaintext has become a new developing direction. However, for this kind of algorithm, some shortcomings in resistance to reconstruction attack, efficient utilization of chaotic resource, and reducing dynamical degradation of digital chaos are found. In order to solve these problems and further enhance the security of encryption algorithm, based on disturbance and feedback mechanism, we present a new image encryption scheme. In the running-key generation stage, by successively disturbing chaotic stream with cipher-text, the relation of running-key to plaintext is established, reconstruction attack is avoided, effective use of chaotic resource is guaranteed, and dynamical degradation of digital chaos is minimized. In the image encryption stage, by introducing random-feedback mechanism, the difficulty of breaking this scheme is increased. Comparing with the-state-of-the-art algorithms, our scheme exhibits good properties such as large key space, long key period, and extreme sensitivity to the initial key and plaintext. Therefore, it can resist brute-force, reconstruction attack, and differential attack. PMID:24711727
Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae
2014-04-01
In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.
Improving Security of Parallel Algorithm Using Key Encryption Technique
R. Swarna Raja
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the recent cloud era, computing moves to a new plane of running large scale scientific applications. Many parallel algorithms have been created to support a large dataset. MapReduce is one such parallel data processing framework adopted widely for scientific research, machine learning and high end computing. The most prevalent implementation of MapReduce is the open source project Hadoop. To protect the integrity and confidentiality of data uploaded, MapReduce introduced a Kerberos-based model with tokens for datablocks and processing nodes. The tokens are symmetrically encrypted and distributed across the nodes. Such a technique is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks like data loss, data modification and stealing of keys. In this study, a novel technique is proposed based on public key encryption on top of the Kerberos model to enhance Security. The various attack scenarios on the current Hadoop implementation model has been analyzed and a secure environment has been proposed. The study shows that the proposed framework provides an improved level of security when using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman with 65,537 keysize consumed 23 milli seconds, while using 257 bits keysize which consumed 21 milli seconds.
Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES
With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 1017 and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value
Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption
Jimenez, C [Grupo GIFES. Universidad de La Guajira. Riohacha (Colombia); Torres, C; Mattos, L, E-mail: carlosj114@gmail.com [Grupo LOI. Universidad Popular del Cesar. Valledupar (Colombia)
2011-01-01
A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibility of proposed method.
Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption
A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibility of proposed method.
Optical encryption using photon-counting polarimetric imaging.
Maluenda, David; Carnicer, Artur; Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Juvells, Ignasi; Javidi, Bahram
2015-01-26
We present a polarimetric-based optical encoder for image encryption and verification. A system for generating random polarized vector keys based on a Mach-Zehnder configuration combined with translucent liquid crystal displays in each path of the interferometer is developed. Polarization information of the encrypted signal is retrieved by taking advantage of the information provided by the Stokes parameters. Moreover, photon-counting model is used in the encryption process which provides data sparseness and nonlinear transformation to enhance security. An authorized user with access to the polarization keys and the optical design variables can retrieve and validate the photon-counting plain-text. Optical experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the encryption method. PMID:25835825
Study on Cryptanalysis of the Tiny Encryption Algorithm
Rajashekarappa
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the Study on a Tiny Encryption Algorithm. There is a requirement to specify cryptographic strength in an objective manner rather than describing it using subjective descriptors such as weak, strong, acceptable etc. Such metrics are essential for describing the characteristics of cryptographic products and technologies. Towards this objective, we use two metrics called the Strict Plaintext Avalanche Criterion (SPAC and the Strict Key Avalanche Criterion (SKAC mentioned in our study that the strength of popular ciphers such as DES and TEA. A related issue of significance in the context of cryptographic applications is the quality of random number generators which need to pass certain tests. In this Paper, we expose DES and TEA to some of the standard random number generator tests.
Samir El Adib; Naoufal Raissouni,
2012-01-01
In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES). Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is th...
Chaos Encryption Algorithm to Deal with Security Threat to Internet of Things RFID
Tian Xiaoyong
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Internet of Things RFID system is mainly studied problem in current communication area, where the safety of code message become rather important. Chaos encryption algorithm can disperse not only the time area but the scale, which is suitable for computer to deal with and overcome the limitation of block encryption in DES and AES. Using Sequence of the digital to deal with initial value and combining the one dimensional Logistic chaos and three dimensional Lorenz algorithm realize common encryption algorithm of these two chaos methods to calculate the long-term random sequence under the limitation of precision and improve the security.
DATA SECURITY IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK BASED ON FAST ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
G. Ramesh
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Hacking is one of the greatest problems in the wireless local area networks. Many algorithms have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user safely and correctly. In this paper, a new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed that prevents the outside attacks. The new algorithm avoids key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption and decryption. It operates at high data rate in comparison with The Data Encryption Standard (DES, Triple DES (TDES, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-256, and RC6 algorithms. The new algorithm is applied successfully on both text file and voice message.
A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM AND RC4
Deepu Sleeba Philip; Sapna Sasidharan
2011-01-01
Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band) is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time i...
Polynomial Based Secret Sharing Scheme for Image Encryption Based on Mathematical Theorem
A. Kalai Selvi; M.Mohamed Sathik
2011-01-01
With a ever increasing growth of multimedia applications, security is an important issue in communication and storage of images, and encryption is one of the way to ensure security. Image encryption has applications in internet communication, multimedia systems, medical imaging, telemedicine and military communications. This paper proposes image encryption using secret sharing scheme. According to this process there are two levels of encryption. The first level, generates the random polynomia...
Secure Image Encryption without Size Limitation Using Arnold Transform and Random Strategies
Zhenjun Tang; Xianquan Zhang
2011-01-01
Encryption is an efficient way to protect the contents of digital media. Arnold transform is a significant technique of image encryption, but has weaknesses in security and applications to images of any size. To solve these problems, we propose an image encryption scheme using Arnold transform and random strategies. It is achieved by dividing the image into random overlapping square blocks, generating random iterative numbers and random encryption order, and scrambling pixels of each block us...
Multiple-image encryption using spectral cropping and spatial multiplexing
Deng, Pingke; Diao, Ming; Shan, Mingguang; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yabin
2016-01-01
A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed using spectral cropping and space multiplexing based on discrete multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (DMPFRFT). Spectrum of each original image is firstly cropped by a low-pass filter, and the image is then recovered with the same size of the filter. The recovered images are spatially shifted and multiplexed into a complex signal with the same size of original image. The complex signal is multiplied by a pixel scrambling operation and random phase mask, and then encrypted into one image by DMPFRFT. The multiplexing images can be retrieved with correct keys, and the original images can be then obtained by enlarging the demultiplexing images. Numerical simulations have been done to demonstrate the validity and the security of the proposed method.
Optical Image Encryption with Simplified Fractional Hartley Transform
We present a new method for image encryption on the basis of simplified fractional Hartley transform (SFRHT). SFRHT is a real transform as Hartley transform (HT) and furthermore, superior to HT in virtue of the advantage that it can also append fractional orders as additional keys for the purpose of improving the system security to some extent. With this method, one can encrypt an image with an intensity-only medium such as a photographic film or a CCD camera by spatially incoherent or coherent illumination. The optical realization is then proposed and computer simulations are also performed to verify the feasibility of this method. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Optical image encryption based on a radial shearing interferometer
We present a novel method for optical image encryption based on a modified radial shearing interferometer (MRSI), which is generally used for wavefront reconstruction. In this method, a plaintext image is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM) and then modulated by a random phase mask (RPM), the result is regarded as the input of the radial shearing interferometer and is divided into two coherent lights, which interfere with each other, leading to an interferogram (ciphertext). The aforementioned encryption process can be achieved digitally or optically while the decryption process can only be analytically accomplished. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the validity of this method. (paper)
Optical encryption for large-sized images using random phase-free method
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2015-01-01
We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to reco...
Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu; Chen, Yixiang
2014-08-10
We present a study about information disclosure in phase-truncation-based cryptosystems. The main information of the original image to be encoded can be obtained by using a decryption key in the worst case. The problem cannot be thoroughly solved by imaginary part truncating, keeping the encryption keys as private keys, or applying different phase keys for different plaintexts during each encryption process as well as the phase modulation in the frequency domain. In order to eliminate the risk of unintended information disclosure, we further propose a nonlinear spatial and spectral encoding technique using a random amplitude mask (RAM). The encryption process involving two security layers can be fully controlled by a RAM. The spatial encoding of the plaintext images and the simultaneous encryption of the plaintext images and the encryption key greatly enhance the security of system, avoiding several attacks that have cracked the phase-truncation-based cryptosystems. Besides, the hybrid encryption system retains the advantage of a trap door one-way function of phase truncation. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed encryption algorithm. PMID:25320917
Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA
Donggeon Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware.
Efficient image or video encryption based on spatiotemporal chaos system
In this paper, an efficient image/video encryption scheme is constructed based on spatiotemporal chaos system. The chaotic lattices are used to generate pseudorandom sequences and then encrypt image blocks one by one. By iterating chaotic maps for certain times, the generated pseudorandom sequences obtain high initial-value sensitivity and good randomness. The pseudorandom-bits in each lattice are used to encrypt the Direct Current coefficient (DC) and the signs of the Alternating Current coefficients (ACs). Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme has good cryptographic security and perceptual security, and it does not affect the compression efficiency apparently. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.
Quasi-Linear Time Fully Homomorphic Public Key Encryption Algorithm (ZK111
Zaryab Khan
2012-11-01
Full Text Available ZK111 is a quasi-linear O(n · log n fully Homomorphic encryption (FHE algorithm. It works on a novel idea of “perfectly colorblind function” which is nothing but a very unique way of creating p-adic ring homomorphism from p-adic ring X to p-adic ring Y. Unlike its other FHE counterparts, there is NO “noise” in the cipher text. ZK111 preserves full algebraic homomorphism without compromising its quasi-linear efficiency. It is not only FHE, but also the fastest public-key encryption (PKE algorithm known as of today.. Both encryption and decryption are O(n · log n and algorithm still retains it FHE property. Hence it solves the most intriguing and outstanding problem of cryptography. ZK111 is a probabilistic encryption algorithm by nature, and despite being FHE; it is absolutely immune to chosen and adoptive plaintext attack by design.
Role of Statistical tests in Estimation of the Security of a New Encryption Algorithm
Krishna, Addepalli V N
2010-01-01
Encryption study basically deals with three levels of algorithms. The first algorithm deals with encryption mechanism, second deals with decryption Mechanism and the third discusses about the generation of keys and sub keys used in the encryption study. In the given study, a new algorithm is discussed. The algorithm executes a series of steps and generates a sequence. This sequence is being used as sub key to be mapped to plain text to generate cipher text. The strength of the encryption & Decryption process depends on the strength of sequence generated against crypto analysis.. In this part of work some statistical tests like Uniformity tests, Universal tests & Repetition tests are tried on the sequence generated to test the strength of it.
Optical asymmetric image encryption using gyrator wavelet transform
Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we propose a new optical information processing tool termed as gyrator wavelet transform to secure a fully phase image, based on amplitude- and phase-truncation approach. The gyrator wavelet transform constitutes four basic parameters; gyrator transform order, type and level of mother wavelet, and position of different frequency bands. These parameters are used as encryption keys in addition to the random phase codes to the optical cryptosystem. This tool has also been applied for simultaneous compression and encryption of an image. The system's performance and its sensitivity to the encryption parameters, such as, gyrator transform order, and robustness has also been analyzed. It is expected that this tool will not only update current optical security systems, but may also shed some light on future developments. The computer simulation results demonstrate the abilities of the gyrator wavelet transform as an effective tool, which can be used in various optical information processing applications, including image encryption, and image compression. Also this tool can be applied for securing the color image, multispectral, and three-dimensional images.
Wang, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Hong-zhao; Qin, Yi
2014-12-01
Based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code, a new optical encryption technology that only needs to record one intensity distribution is proposed. In this encryption process, firstly, the QR code is generated from the information to be encrypted; and then the generated QR code is placed in the input plane of 4-f system to have a double random phase encryption. For only one intensity distribution in the output plane is recorded as the ciphertext, the encryption process is greatly simplified. In the decryption process, the corresponding QR code is retrieved using phase retrieval algorithm. A priori information about QR code is used as support constraint in the input plane, which helps solve the stagnation problem. The original information can be recovered without distortion by scanning the QR code. The encryption process can be implemented either optically or digitally, and the decryption process uses digital method. In addition, the security of the proposed optical encryption technology is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations show that this optical encryption system is invulnerable to various attacks, and suitable for harsh transmission conditions.
Breaking a novel image encryption scheme based on improved hyperchaotic sequences
Li, Chengqing; Liu, Yuansheng; Xie, Tao
2012-01-01
Recently, a novel image encryption scheme based on improved hyperchaotic sequences was proposed. A pseudo-random number sequence, generated by a hyper-chaos system, is used to determine two involved encryption functions, bitwise exclusive or (XOR) operation and modulo addition. It was reported that the scheme can be broken with some pairs of chosen plain-images and the corresponding cipher-images. This paper re-evaluates security of the encryption scheme and finds that the encryption scheme c...
Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images
T, Panduranga H
2010-01-01
We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added with original image to obtain encrypted image. The scan methodology is applied to either original image or carrier image, after the addition of original image and carrier image to obtain highly distorted encrypted image. The resulting image is found to be more distorted in hybrid technique. By applying the reverse process we get the decrypted image.
Chaos Encryption Algorithm to Deal with Security Threat to Internet of Things RFID
Tian Xiaoyong
2013-01-01
Internet of Things RFID system is mainly studied problem in current communication area, where the safety of code message become rather important. Chaos encryption algorithm can disperse not only the time area but the scale, which is suitable for computer to deal with and overcome the limitation of block encryption in DES and AES. Using Sequence of the digital to deal with initial value and combining the one dimensional Logistic chaos and three dimensional Lorenz algorithm realize common encry...
K Kamalam
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and anticipated reciver, imagine the existence of the information, a form of security through obscurity. It is an emerging area which is used for secured data broadcast over any public media. In this study a novel advance of image steganography based on LSB (Least Significant Bit insertion, RSA encryption and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm technique for the lossless jpeg images has been proposed. In this paper, we present a strategy of attaining maximum embedding ability in an image in a way that maximum possible neighboring pixels are analyzed for their frequencies, to determine the amount of content to be added in each pixel. The techniques provide a seamless insertion of data into the carrier image and reduce the error consideration and artifacts insertion required to a minimal. We validate our approach with the help of an experimental evaluation on a prototypic implementation of the proposed model.
A symmetrical image encryption scheme in wavelet and time domain
Luo, Yuling; Du, Minghui; Liu, Junxiu
2015-02-01
There has been an increasing concern for effective storages and secure transactions of multimedia information over the Internet. Then a great variety of encryption schemes have been proposed to ensure the information security while transmitting, but most of current approaches are designed to diffuse the data only in spatial domain which result in reducing storage efficiency. A lightweight image encryption strategy based on chaos is proposed in this paper. The encryption process is designed in transform domain. The original image is decomposed into approximation and detail components using integer wavelet transform (IWT); then as the more important component of the image, the approximation coefficients are diffused by secret keys generated from a spatiotemporal chaotic system followed by inverse IWT to construct the diffused image; finally a plain permutation is performed for diffusion image by the Logistic mapping in order to reduce the correlation between adjacent pixels further. Experimental results and performance analysis demonstrate the proposed scheme is an efficient, secure and robust encryption mechanism and it realizes effective coding compression to satisfy desirable storage.
A Color image encryption scheme based on Generalized Synchronization Theorem
Han shuangshuang
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Base on a generalized synchronization theorem (GCS for discrete chaotic system, this paper introduces a new 6-dimensional generalized chaos synchronization system based on 3D-Lorenz map. Numerical simulation showed that two pair variables of the synchronization system achieve generalized synchronization via a transform H.Combining with the 2-Dimension non equilateral Arnold transformation, a color image encryption scheme was designed. Analyzing the key sensitivity, key space, histogram, information entropy and correlation of adjacent pixels, it showed that the scheme have sound encryption and decryption effects. Numerical simulations reveal that the scheme is effective in commercial network communication for its strong anti-interference ability.
Secure Image Encryption without Size Limitation Using Arnold Transform and Random Strategies
Zhenjun Tang
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Encryption is an efficient way to protect the contents of digital media. Arnold transform is a significant technique of image encryption, but has weaknesses in security and applications to images of any size. To solve these problems, we propose an image encryption scheme using Arnold transform and random strategies. It is achieved by dividing the image into random overlapping square blocks, generating random iterative numbers and random encryption order, and scrambling pixels of each block using Arnold transform. Experimental results show that the proposed encryption scheme is robust and secure. It has no size limitation, indicating the application to any size images.
Image Encryption Based on the General Approach for Multiple Chaotic Systems
Qais H. Alsafasfeh; Aouda A. Arfoa
2011-01-01
In the recent years, researchers developed image encryption methods based on chaotic systems. This paper proposed new image encryption technique based on new chaotic system by adding two chaotic systems: the Lorenz chaotic system and the Rössler chaotic system. The main advantage of this technique is stronger security, as is shown in the encryption tests.
Unified compression and encryption algorithm for fast and secure network communications
Compression and encryption of data are two vital requirements for the fast and secure transmission of data in the network based communications. In this paper an algorithm is presented based on adaptive Huffman encoding for unified compression and encryption of Unicode encoded textual data. The Huffman encoding weakness that same tree is needed for decoding is utilized in the algorithm presented as an extra layer of security, which is updated whenever the frequency change is above the specified threshold level. The results show that we get compression comparable to popular zip format and in addition to that data has got an additional layer of encryption that makes it more secure. Thus unified algorithm presented here can be used for network communications between different branches of banks, e- Government programs and national database and registration centers where data transmission requires both compression and encryption. (author)
A Hierarchical Selective Encryption Technique in a Scalable Image Codec
Fonteneau, Cyril; Motsch, Jean; Babel, Marie; Déforges, Olivier
2008-01-01
Modern still image codecs furnish more than just good distortion-rate performances. They must also provide some services. Scalability in resolution and quality, er- ror resilience and embedded bitstreams were among the first one to be available. There is still room for enhance- ment, especially when it comes to security-oriented fea- tures. Image encryption is one of the aspect of image security. This paper presents the embedding of an encryptionservice in a multiresolution lossless codec. Pa...
2013-01-01
Disclosed is a method of transmitting a data set using encryption, wherein the method comprises the steps of: selecting a first encryption technique, wherein said first encryption technique comprises a first encryption algorithm for encrypting plain data into cipher data, and a first decryption...... algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the first encryption algorithm of said first encryption technique, creating a first encrypted data package...
An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Lorenz System for Low Profile Applications
Anees, Amir
2015-09-01
Advanced encryption standard being a benchmark for encryption is very ideal for digital images encryption for its security reasons but might not be effective for low profile applications due to its high computational and hardware complexity. In this paper, we presents a robust image encryption scheme for these types of applications based on chaotic sequences of Lorenz system, also ensuring the system security as well. The security strength is evident from the results of statistical and key analysis done in this paper.
Jianhua Wu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available A novel single-channel color image encryption algorithm is proposed, which utilizes the reality-preserving fractional discrete cosine transform in YCbCr space. The color image to be encrypted is decomposed into Y, Cb, and Cr components, which are then separately transformed by Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. The resulting three spectra sequences, obtained by zig-zag scanning the spectra matrices, are truncated and the lower frequency coefficients of the three components are scrambled up into a single matrix of the same size with the original color image.Â Then the obtained single matrix is encrypted by the fractional discrete cosine transform, which is a kind of encryption with secrecy of pixel value and pixel position simultaneously. The encrypted image is convenient for display, transmission and storage, thanks to the reality-preserving property of the fractional discrete cosine transform. Additionally, the proposed algorithm enlarges the key space by employing the generating sequence as an extra key in addition to the fractional orders. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate the proposed algorithm is feasible, effective and secure. The robustness to noise attack is also guaranteed to some extent.
A Review On Data Hiding Techniques In Encrypted Images
Ms. Anagha Markandey
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking into the networking era. There are number of techniques available in the industry to overcome this problem. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is one of the solution, but the problem is the original cover cannot be losslessly recovered by this technique. Thatâ€™s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent property that the original cover can be recovered without any los after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image contentâ€™s confidentiality. This paper enlists the various methods of data hiding in the image like differential expansion, histogram shift or the combination of both the techniques. This is useful in the way that these methods recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.
Biomedical Image Transmission Based on Modified Feistal Algorithm
Jinu Elizabeth John
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paperpresents a reconfigurable, high performance hardware implementation of highly securebiomedical image transmission system which can be used for sending medical reports in military and highsecurity environments. The algorithm for encryption is based on DESalgorithm with a novel skew core keyscheduling. The encrypted image is not intelligible to an intruder, but the recovered image has high level ofclarity. This type of encryption can be used in applications where we need to discourage eavesdroppingfromco-channel users or RF scanners. The biomedical image encryption technique is implemented onVirtex 5 XC5VLX110T Field Programming Gate Arrays (FPGA technology and NET FPGA. Final 16-stage pipelined design is achieved with encryption rate of 35.5 Gbit/sand 2140 number of Configurablelogic blocks (CLBs.
Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images
Panduranga H. T.; Naveen Kumar S.K
2010-01-01
We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added wit...
Vivek Shrivastava*; Archita Bhatnagar
2013-01-01
As the transmission of data over internet is increasing; the protection issues of data are increasing as well. In order to protect the data and to secure it against intruders, there is a need of such systems which provide security to data. These techniques are known as cryptography or simply cipher. One of the ciphers is International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA). This cipher is symmetric in nature i.e. uses only one key both for encryption and decryption. IDEA uses 128-bit key to encrypt...
Optical image encryption via photon-counting imaging and compressive sensing based ptychography
Rawat, Nitin; Hwang, In-Chul; Shi, Yishi; Lee, Byung-Geun
2015-06-01
In this study, we investigate the integration of compressive sensing (CS) and photon-counting imaging (PCI) techniques with a ptychography-based optical image encryption system. Primarily, the plaintext real-valued image is optically encrypted and recorded via a classical ptychography technique. Further, the sparse-based representations of the original encrypted complex data can be produced by combining CS and PCI techniques with the primary encrypted image. Such a combination takes an advantage of reduced encrypted samples (i.e., linearly projected random compressive complex samples and photon-counted complex samples) that can be exploited to realize optical decryption, which inherently serves as a secret key (i.e., independent to encryption phase keys) and makes an intruder attack futile. In addition to this, recording fewer encrypted samples provides a substantial bandwidth reduction in online transmission. We demonstrate that the fewer sparse-based complex samples have adequate information to realize decryption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating CS and PCI with conventional ptychography-based optical image encryption.
A Light-weight Symmetric Encryption Algorithm Based on Feistel Cryptosystem Structure
Jingli Zheng
2014-12-01
Full Text Available WSNs is usually deployed in opening wireless environment, its data is easy to be intercepted by attackers. It is necessary to adopt some encryption measurements to protect data of WSNs. But the battery capacity, CPU performance and RAM capacity of WSNs sensors are all limited, the complex encryption algorithm is not fitted for them. The paper proposed a light-level symmetrical encryption algorithm: LWSEA, which adopt minor encryption rounds, shorter data packet and simplified scrambling function. So the calculation cost of LWSEA is very low. We also adopt longer-bit Key and circular interpolation method to produce Child-Key, which raised the security of LWSEA. The experiments demonstrate that the LWSEA possess better "avalanche effect" and data confusion degree, furthermore, its calculation speed is far faster than DES, but its resource cost is very low. Those excellent performances make LWSEA is much suited for resource-restrained WSNs.
SECURE IMAGE DATA BY USING DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES A REVIEW
Gayathri, D.
2013-01-01
Information security is an increasingly important problem in the present era of advanced technology, because of which encryption is becoming very important to ensure security. Popular application of multimedia technology and increasing transmission ability of network gradually leads us to acquire information directly and clearly through Images. The digital images, which are transmitted over the internet, must be protected from unauthorized access during storage and transmission for communicat...
Design and Analysis of a Novel Digital Image Encryption Scheme
Narendra K Pareek,
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 144-bits is proposed. In the substitution process of the scheme, image is divided into blocks and subsequently into color components. Each color component is modified by performing bitwise operation which depends on secret key as well as a few most significant bits of its previous and next color component. Three rounds are taken to complete substitution process. To make cipher more robust, a feedback mechanism is also applied by modifying used secret key after encrypting each block. Further, resultant image is partitioned into several key based dynamic sub-images. Each sub-image passes through the scrambling process where pixels of sub-image are reshuffled within itself by using a generated magic square matrix. Five rounds are takenfor scrambling process. The propose scheme is simple, fast and sensitive to the secret key. Due to high order of substitution and permutation, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasible. The experimental results show that the proposed encryption technique is efficient and has high security features.
Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde
2013-01-01
Disclosed is a method of transmitting a data set using encryption, wherein the method comprises the steps of: selecting a first encryption technique, wherein said first encryption technique comprises a first encryption algorithm for encrypting plain data into cipher data, and a first decryption algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the...
New CA Based Image Encryption-Scaling Scheme Using Wavelet Transform
Bala Suyambu Jeyaram; Rama Raghavan
2014-01-01
The wide use of digital images leads to the necessity of securing them when they enter into an insecure channel. Image cryptography plays a vital role in the modern communication. In this paper we propose a new image encryption scaling scheme, which will do both, image scaling and encryption. Cellular automata is used for key generation and wavelet transformation is used for image scaling. Encryption has been done in two steps: one before wavelet transformation and another one after the wavel...
An efficient diffusion approach for chaos-based image encryption
One of the existing chaos-based image cryptosystems is composed of alternative substitution and diffusion stages. A multi-dimensional chaotic map is usually employed in the substitution stage for image pixel permutation while a one-dimensional (1D) chaotic map is used for diffusion purpose. As the latter usually involves real number arithmetic operations, the overall encryption speed is limited by the diffusion stage. In this paper, we propose a more efficient diffusion mechanism using simple table lookup and swapping techniques as a light-weight replacement of the 1D chaotic map iteration. Simulation results show that at a similar security level, the proposed cryptosystem needs about one-third the encryption time of a similar cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved.
The New Image Encryption and Decryption Using Quasi Group
Ankit Agarwal
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Multimedia Communication is the new age of communication. Image Communication is one of the most popular types of multimedia communication. This type of communication always faces security challenges. Security breach is rising at a rapid rate. Image privacy is facing an even bigger threat. There are several image cryptography techniques having both positive and negative consequences. Via this paper, we are presenting a new approach for image encryption and decryption by using pixel shifting and using Quasigroup (Latin Square without performing translation. It requires low computation as a key. Image pixel reshuffling is done randomly and in a non-repeated manner.
A Secure Symmetric Image Encryption Based on Bit-wise Operation
Prabir Kr. Naskar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper shows a symmetric image encryption based on bit-wise operation (XORing and Shifting. The basic idea is block ciphering (size of each block is 4 bytes technique to cipher the secret bytes, after that ciphered bytes are again shuffled among N positions (N is the size of secret file. The scheme is combination of substitution as well as transposition techniques which provides additional protection of the secret data. The substitution and transposition are done using dynamic substitution box (SBOX and transposition box (TBOX which are generated using the secret key and made to vary for each block during ciphering. The size of encrypted data is same as the size of secret data and the proposed scheme has been tested using different images. We have also presented the security analysis such as key sensitivity analysis, statistical analysis, and differential analysis to prove the strength of our algorithm against crypto analysis.
A novel double-image encryption scheme based on cross-image pixel scrambling in gyrator domains.
Chen, Jun-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Liu, Zhengjun; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-Bo; Yu, Hai
2014-03-24
Recently, a number of double-image cryptosystems have been developed. However, there are notable security performance differences between the two encryption channels in these algorithms. This weakness downgrades the security level and practicability of these cryptosystems, as the cryptosystems cannot guarantee all the input images be transmitted in the channel with higher security level. In this paper, we propose a novel double-image encryption scheme based on cross-image pixel scrambling in gyrator domains. The two input images are firstly shuffled by the proposed cross-image pixel scrambling approach, which can well balance the pixel distribution across the input images. The two scrambled images will be encoded into the real and imaginary parts of a complex function, and then converted into gyrator domains. An iterative architecture is designed to enhance the security level of the cryptosystem, and the cross-image pixel scrambling operation is performed to the real and imaginary parts of the generated complex encrypted data in each round. Numerical simulation results prove that a satisfactory and balanced security performance can be achieved in both channels. PMID:24664082
Sunanda Vashisth; Hukum Singh; A.K. Yadav; Kehar Singh
2014-01-01
A frequency plane phase mask based on Devil’s vortex structure has been used for image encryption using the fractional Mellin transform. The phase key for decryption is obtained by an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. The proposed scheme has been validated for grayscale secret target images, by numerical simulation. The efficacy of the scheme has been evaluated by computing mean-squared-error between the secret target image and the decrypted image. Sensitivity analysis of the decryption pr...
A fast image encryption scheme based on chaotic standard map
In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image cryptosystems have been proposed. One of the architectures of this kind of cryptosystems is composed of multiple rounds of substitution and diffusion. As the confusion and diffusion effects are solely contributed by the substitution and the diffusion stages, respectively, the required overall rounds of operations in achieving a certain level of security is found more than necessary. In this Letter, we suggest to introduce a certain diffusion effect in the substitution stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. Although this leads to a longer processing time in a single round, the overall encryption time is reduced as fewer rounds are required. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing fast cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved
Security enhancement of double-random phase encryption by iterative algorithm
We propose an approach to enhance the security of optical encryption based on double-random phase encryption in a 4f system. The phase key in the input plane of the 4f system is generated by the Yangâ€“Gu algorithm to control the phase of the encrypted information in the output plane of the 4f system, until the phase in the output plane converges to a predesigned distribution. Only the amplitude of the encrypted information must be recorded as a ciphertext. The information, which needs to be transmitted, is greatly reduced. We can decrypt the ciphertext with the aid of the predesigned phase distribution and the phase key in the Fourier plane. Our approach can resist various attacks. (paper)
Sparsity and `Something Else': An Approach to Encrypted Image Folding
Bowley, James; Rebollo-Neira, laura
2009-01-01
A property of sparse representations in relation to their capacity for information storage is discussed. It is shown that this feature can be used for an application that we term Encrypted Image Folding. The proposed procedure is realizable through any suitable transformation. In particular, in this paper we illustrate the approach by recourse to the Discrete Cosine Transform and a combination of redundant Cosine and Dirac dictionaries. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that bot...
Hardware realization of chaos based block cipher for image encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2011-12-01
Unlike stream ciphers, block ciphers are very essential for parallel processing applications. In this paper, the first hardware realization of chaotic-based block cipher is proposed for image encryption applications. The proposed system is tested for known cryptanalysis attacks and for different block sizes. When implemented on Virtex-IV, system performance showed high throughput and utilized small area. Passing successfully in all tests, our system proved to be secure with all block sizes. Â© 2011 IEEE.
Performance Analysis of Most Common Encryption Algorithms on Different Web Browsers
R. Umarani
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,UMARAM, RC6 and UR5 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. We have proposed a Web programming language to be analyzed with five Web browsers in term of their performances to process the encryption of the programming languageâ€™s script with the Web browsers. This is followed by conducting tests simulation in order to obtain the best encryption algorithm versus Web browser. The results of the experimental analysis are presented in the form of graphs. We finally conclude on the findings that different algorithms perform differently to different Web browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Netscape Navigator. Hence, we now determine which algorithm works best and most compatible with which Web browser.A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as encryption/decryption speed in the different web Browsers. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
Optical image encryption and hiding based on a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
Li, Jun; Li, Jiaosheng; Shen, Lina; Pan, Yangyang; Li, Rong
2014-02-24
A method for optical image hiding and for optical image encryption and hiding in the Fresnel domain via completely optical means is proposed, which encodes original object image into the encrypted image and then embeds it into host image in our modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture. The modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer not only provides phase shifts to record complex amplitude of final encrypted object image on CCD plane but also introduces host image into reference path of the interferometer to hide it. The final encrypted object image is registered as interference patterns, which resemble a Fresnel diffraction pattern of the host image, and thus the secure information is imperceptible to unauthorized receivers. The method can simultaneously realize image encryption and image hiding at a high speed in pure optical system. The validity of the method and its robustness against some common attacks are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. PMID:24663801
Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method
Kuang Tsan Lin; Sheng Lih Yeh
2014-01-01
The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matri...
Multiple-image encryption based on triple interferences for flexibly decrypting high-quality images.
Li, Wei-Na; Phan, Anh-Hoang; Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam
2015-04-10
We propose a multiple-image encryption (MIE) scheme based on triple interferences for flexibly decrypting high-quality images. Each image is discretionarily deciphered without decrypting a series of other images earlier. Since it does not involve any cascaded encryption orders, the image can be decrypted flexibly by using the novel method. Computer simulation demonstrated that the proposed method's running time is less than approximately 1/4 that of the previous similar MIE method. Moreover, the decrypted image is perfectly correlated with the original image, and due to many phase functions serving as decryption keys, this method is more secure and robust. PMID:25967313
Farouk, Hala A
2011-01-01
The hybrid hiding encryption algorithm, as its name implies, embraces concepts from both steganography and cryptography. In this exertion, an improved micro-architecture Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of this algorithm is presented. This design overcomes the observed limitations of a previously-designed micro-architecture. These observed limitations are: no exploitation of the possibility of parallel bit replacement, and the fact that the input plaintext was encrypted serially, which caused a dependency between the throughput and the nature of the used secret key. This dependency can be viewed by some as vulnerability in the security of the implemented micro-architecture. The proposed modified micro-architecture is constructed using five basic modules. These modules are; the message cache, the message alignment module, the key cache, the comparator, and at last the encryption module. In this work, we provide comprehensive simulation and implementation results. These are: the timing diagra...
Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations
Kurapati Sundar Teja; Shanmukha Mallikarjuna Bandaru
2015-01-01
This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security...
Chaos-based encryption for fractal image coding
A chaos-based cryptosystem for fractal image coding is proposed. The Rényi chaotic map is employed to determine the order of processing the range blocks and to generate the keystream for masking the encoded sequence. Compared with the standard approach of fractal image coding followed by the Advanced Encryption Standard, our scheme offers a higher sensitivity to both plaintext and ciphertext at a comparable operating efficiency. The keystream generated by the Rényi chaotic map passes the randomness tests set by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, and so the proposed scheme is sensitive to the key. (general)
An image encryption approach based on chaotic maps
It is well-known that images are different from texts in many aspects, such as highly redundancy and correlation, the local structure and the characteristics of amplitude-frequency. As a result, the methods of conventional encryption cannot be applicable to images. In this paper, we improve the properties of confusion and diffusion in terms of discrete exponential chaotic maps, and design a key scheme for the resistance to statistic attack, differential attack and grey code attack. Experimental and theoretical results also show that our scheme is efficient and very secure
Full Restoration of Visual Encrypted Color Images
Persson, Simeon
2011-01-01
While strictly black and white images have been the basis for visual cryptography, there has been a lack of an easily implemented format for colour images. This paper establishes a simple, yet secure way of implementing visual cryptography with colour, assuming a binary data representation.
An efficient and robust image encryption scheme for medical applications
Kanso, A.; Ghebleh, M.
2015-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel full and selective chaos-based image encryption scheme suitable for medical image encryption applications. The proposed approach consists of several rounds, where each round is made up of two phases, a shuffling phase and a masking phase. Both phases are block-based and use chaotic cat maps to shuffle and mask an input image. To improve the speed of the proposed scheme while maintaining a high level of security, the scheme employs a pseudorandom matrix, of the same size as the input image, in the masking phase of each round. Blocks of this pseudorandom matrix are permuted in each round of the shuffling phase according to the outputs of some chaotic maps. The proposed scheme applies mixing between blocks of the image in order to prevent cryptanalytic attacks such as differential attacks. Simulation results demonstrate high performance of the proposed scheme and show its robustness against cryptanalytic attacks, thus confirming its suitability for real-time secure image communication.
Design and Analysis of a Novel Digital Image Encryption Scheme
Pareek, Narendra K
2012-01-01
In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 144-bits is proposed. In the substitution process of the scheme, image is divided into blocks and subsequently into color components. Each color component is modified by performing bitwise operation which depends on secret key as well as a few most significant bits of its previous and next color component. Three rounds are taken to complete substitution process. To make cipher more robust, a feedback mechanism is also applied by modifying used secret key after encrypting each block. Further, resultant image is partitioned into several key based dynamic sub-images. Each sub-image passes through the scrambling process where pixels of sub-image are reshuffled within itself by using a generated magic square matrix. Five rounds are taken for scrambling process. The propose scheme is simple, fast and sensitive to the secret key. Due to high order of substitution and permutation, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasibl...
Study of Encryption and Decryption of Wave File in Image Formats
Rahul R Upadhyay
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of encrypting wave files in popular image formats like JPEG, TIF and PNG along with retrieving them from these image files. MATLAB software is used to perform matrix manipulation to encrypt and decrypt sound files into and from image files. This method is not only a stenographic means but also a data compression technique.
Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Transparently Encrypted JPEG2000 Images
Stutz, Thomas; Pankajakshan, Vinod; Autrusseau, Florent; Uhl, Andreas; Hofbauer, Heinz
2010-01-01
Transparent encryption has two main requirements, i.e. security and perceived quality. The perceptual quality aspect has never been thoroughly investigated. In this work, three variants to transparently encrypt JPEG2000 images are compared from a perceptual quality viewpoint. The assessment is based on sub jective and ob jective quality assessment of the transparently encrypted images and if the requirements with respect to desired functionalities can be met by the respective techniques. In p...
A Novel Chaotic Map and an Improved Chaos-Based Image Encryption Scheme
Xianhan Zhang; Yang Cao
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel approach to create the new chaotic map and propose an improved image encryption scheme based on it. Compared with traditional classic one-dimensional chaotic maps like Logistic Map and Tent Map, this newly created chaotic map demonstrates many better chaotic properties for encryption, implied by a much larger maximal Lyapunov exponent. Furthermore, the new chaotic map and Arnoldâ€™s Cat Map based image encryption method is designed and proved to be of solid rob...
Optical encryption for large-sized images using random phase-free method
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2015-01-01
We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.
A.Narmadha
2015-01-01
Images occupy the most important position in multimedia data. Techniques for transmitting and storing images are increasing to a greater extent. Images that are transferred over the network are confidential and private. Therefore there is a need for protecting these image data from the unauthorized users. This is achieved using Image Encryption. There are many techniques used to protect the image data. Most of the existing Image Encryption and Decryption techniques perform image e...
Chaos-based color pathological image encryption scheme using one-time keys.
Liu, Guoyan; Li, Jie; Liu, Hongjun
2014-02-01
This paper proposes an improved chaos-based color pathological image encryption algorithm, using SHA-2 to generate one-time keys. In order to send different ciphered images to different recipients, the hash value of the plain image and a random number are applied to generate one-time initial conditions for Chebyshev maps, to make the key stream change in every confusion process without changing the common initial values. The permuted image is divided into 256-bit long blocks, the avalanche effect is applied to diffuse the blocks, i.e., each block is XORed with the hash value of the prior block. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust against common attacks. PMID:24480170
A novel chaotic image encryption scheme using DNA sequence operations
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Ying-Qian; Bao, Xue-Mei
2015-10-01
In this paper, we propose a novel image encryption scheme based on DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) sequence operations and chaotic system. Firstly, we perform bitwise exclusive OR operation on the pixels of the plain image using the pseudorandom sequences produced by the spatiotemporal chaos system, i.e., CML (coupled map lattice). Secondly, a DNA matrix is obtained by encoding the confused image using a kind of DNA encoding rule. Then we generate the new initial conditions of the CML according to this DNA matrix and the previous initial conditions, which can make the encryption result closely depend on every pixel of the plain image. Thirdly, the rows and columns of the DNA matrix are permuted. Then, the permuted DNA matrix is confused once again. At last, after decoding the confused DNA matrix using a kind of DNA decoding rule, we obtain the ciphered image. Experimental results and theoretical analysis show that the scheme is able to resist various attacks, so it has extraordinarily high security.
A NEW DATA HIDING ALGORITHM WITH ENCRYPTED SECRET MESSAGE USING TTJSA SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTO SYSTEM
Sayak Guha
2012-01-01
In the present work we are proposing a new steganogarphy method to hide any encrypted secret message inside a cover file by substituting in the LSB. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm namely TTJSA developed by Nath et al [10]. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al [2]. The TTJSA method comprises of 3 distinct methods which are also developed by Nath et al[1,7]. The methods are MSA[Meheboob, Saima and Asoke][1], NJJSAA[Neeraj, Joel, Joyshr...
Vulnerability issues on research in WLAN encryption algorithms WEP WPA/WPA2 Personal
This paper presents historic and new evidence that wireless encryption algorithms can be cracked or even bypassed which has been proved by other researchers. The paper presents a description of how WEP and WPA/WPA2 Personal encrypt data and how the passphrase is shared between the nodes of the network. Modern tools available on the internet have been evaluated, decomposed and tested to provide evidence on the reliability of passwords. A number of criteria are used to compare the tools and their efficiency
Tzu-Hsiang Hung
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption.
A NOVEL APPROACH OF HYBRID MODEL OF ENCRYPTION ALGORITHMS AND FRAGMENTATION TO ENSURE CLOUD SECURITY
Amandeep Kaur
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Cloud is a term used as a metaphor for the wide area networks (like internet or any such large networked environment. It came partly from the cloud-like symbol used to represent the complexities of the networks in the schematic diagrams. It represents all the complexities of the network which may include everything from cables, routers, servers, data centers and all such other devices. Cloud based systems saves data off multiple organizations on shared hardware systems. Data segregation is done by encrypting data of users, but encryption is not complete solution. In the proposed work, we have tried to increase the cloud security by using encryption algorithms like AES and RSA along with OTP authentication. We have also fragmented the data by using data distribution at the server end.
Samir El Adib
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES, as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high security in their systems may look for a key size bigger than 128-bit AES. In this paper, 128, 192 and 256-bit AES hardware are implemented and compared in terms of throughput and area. The target hardware used in this paper is Virtex XC5VLX50 FPGA from Xilinx. Total area and Throughput results are presented and graphically compared.
Parameshachari Bidare Divakarachari
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Today’s, the most important locomotive to provide confidentiality is image encryption. In real-time applications the classical and modern ciphers are not appropriate because of vast quantity of data. However, certain applications like Pay-TV or Payable Internet Imaging Albums do not require entire part of an encryption, but requires a part of the image to be transparent to all users. Partial encryption is an approach to encode only the most essential portion of the data in order to afford a proportional confidentiality and to trim down the computational requirements and also execution time for encryption is reduced. In this paper, partial image encryption of color images using pixel position manipulation technique based on region of interest is proposed. It offers the amenities of partial encryption and rebuilds the images partially. Here input image is divided in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are encrypted using the proposed technique. The proposed technique promises the rapid security by encrypting the selected blocks of an image.
Aldossari, M; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C
2014-09-22
This study presents and validates an optimized method of simultaneous compression and encryption designed to process images with close spectra. This approach is well adapted to the compression and encryption of images of a time-varying scene but also to static polarimetric images. We use the recently developed spectral fusion method [Opt. Lett.35, 1914-1916 (2010)] to deal with the close resemblance of the images. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. We use a root-mean-square (RMS) optimization criterion to treat compression. Image encryption is realized at different security levels. Firstly, we add a specific encryption level which is related to the different areas of the spectral plane, and then, we make use of several random phase keys. An in-depth analysis at the spectral fusion methodology is done in order to find a good trade-off between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images. Our new proposal spectral shift allows us to minimize the image overlap. We further analyze the influence of the spectral shift on the reconstructed image quality and compression rate. The performance of the multiple-image optical compression and encryption method is verified by analyzing several video sequences and polarimetric images. PMID:25321707
Sparse-based multispectral image encryption via ptychography
Rawat, Nitin; Shi, Yishi; Kim, Byoungho; Lee, Byung-Geun
2015-12-01
Recently, we proposed a model of securing a ptychography-based monochromatic image encryption system via the classical Photon-counting imaging (PCI) technique. In this study, we examine a single-channel multispectral sparse-based photon-counting ptychography imaging (SMPI)-based cryptosystem. A ptychography-based cryptosystem creates a complex object wave field, which can be reconstructed by a series of diffraction intensity patterns through an aperture movement. The PCI sensor records only a few complex Bayer patterned samples that have been utilized in the decryption process. Sparse sensing and nonlinear properties of the classical PCI system, together with the scanning probes, enlarge the key space, and such a combination therefore enhances the system's security. We demonstrate that the sparse samples have adequate information for image decryption, as well as information authentication by means of optical correlation.
Novel Quantum Encryption Algorithm Based on Multiqubit Quantum Shift Register and Hill Cipher
Based on a quantum shift register, a novel quantum block cryptographic algorithm that can be used to encrypt classical messages is proposed. The message is encoded and decoded by using a code generated by the quantum shift register. The security of this algorithm is analysed in detail. It is shown that, in the quantum block cryptographic algorithm, two keys can be used. One of them is the classical key that is used in the Hill cipher algorithm where Alice and Bob use the authenticated Diffie Hellman key exchange algorithm using the concept of digital signature for the authentication of the two communicating parties and so eliminate the man-in-the-middle attack. The other key is generated by the quantum shift register and used for the coding of the encryption message, where Alice and Bob share the key by using the BB84 protocol. The novel algorithm can prevent a quantum attack strategy as well as a classical attack strategy. The problem of key management is discussed and circuits for the encryption and the decryption are suggested
Robust Watermarking Framework with DCT Based Encryption
L.Sri Lakshmi
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Since several years,, the protection of multimedia data is becoming extremely important. The protection of the multimedia data might be performed with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To address the transmission time, information compression is required. If you take benefit from the character of cryptographic schemes and digital watermarking, the copyright of multimedia contents can possibly be well protected. Our objective will be to give access to the outcomes of one's image integrity and of their origin regardless of the fact that the reputation is stored encrypted. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly for the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption might be applied independently. With the source end original image and watermarked encrypted image is processed. This encrypted watermark image is finally decoded at the receiver end. This proposed work proposes a novel encryption algorithm to encrypt image. The entropy of this very watermarked image and correlation coefficient of extracted watermark image is amazingly not far away from ideal values, proving the correctness of proposed algorithm. In the proposed system, a Watermarking Scheme based on DWT with encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. Also experimental results show resiliency of a given scheme against large blurring attack like mean and Gaussian filtering, linear filtering Thus proving the security, effectiveness and robustness of a given proposed watermarking algorithm
Anupam Bhakta,
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Visual Cryptography is a special type of encryption technique to obscure image-based secret information which can be decrypted by Human Visual System (HVS. It is imperceptible to reveal the secret information unless a certain number of shares (k or more among n number of shares are superimposed. As the decryption process is done by human visual system, secret information can be retrieved by anyone if the person gets at least k number of shares. For this, simple visual cryptography is very in secure. In this current work we have proposed a method where we done the encryption in several level. First we use a variable length image key to encrypt the original image then bit sieve procedure is used on resultant image and lastly we perform K-N secret sharing scheme on the final encrypted image. Decryption is done in reverse level of encryption that means we do K-N secret sharing scheme, bit sieve method and image key decryption respectively. As multiple levels of encryptions are being used thus the security is being increased in great extant.
Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations
Kurapati Sundar Teja
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security some arithmetic operations are added with hamming code process. A 3-bit data will be encrypted as 14-bit and using decryption process again we will receives 3-bit original data. The implemented design was tested on Spartan3A FPGA kit.
Encrypted imaging based on algebraic implementation of double random phase encoding.
Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro
2014-05-10
The security of important information captured by sensors and cameras is currently a growing concern as information theft via techniques such as side-channel attacks become increasingly more prevalent. Double random phase encoding (DRPE) is an optical encryption method based on optical Fourier transform that is currently being used to implement secure coherent optical systems. In this paper, we propose a new DRPE implementation for incoherent optical systems based on integral photography that can be applied to "encrypted imaging (EI)" to optically encrypt an image before it is captured by an image sensor. Because the proposed incoherent DRPE is constituted from conventional DRPE by rewriting the optical encryption via discretization and Euler's formula, its security level is the same as that of conventional DRPE. The results of an experiment in which we encrypted a plaintext image optically and then decrypted it numerically demonstrate that our proposed incoherent optical security system is feasible. PMID:24922013
An Application to prevent SQL Injection Attacks using Randomized Encryption Algorithm
Pravallika Thatavarthi #1 , Betam Suresh
2013-08-01
Full Text Available By the advanced usage of web, numbers of data we are fetched from anywhere within a minute. So by that way it is very beneficial to us but with the beneficial some issues are there so now we are discussed about that issues. The issues are security of data from the hackers or unauthorized users who change, corrupt, delete or access the data from the web, for handle these issues the developers who develop the website, they used some algorithm by which the data change in encrypted form either from the safety of the hackers we also use the some algorithm at the time of inserting username and password due to that the username and password become encrypted and then they send through url, so the data will be safe. In this paper we discussed about the security of data from the hackers so for that we used the Random Encryption for encrypting the data or username and password and also we use this concept for the RTA process. In which the users request for the number plate number for the vehicle with his/her favorite digits.
Ruisong Ye; Shaojun Zeng; Junming Ma; Chuting Lai
2014-01-01
A secure image encryption scheme based on 2D skew tent map is proposed for the encryption of color images. The proposed encryption scheme is composed of one permutation process and one substitution process. The 3D color plain-image matrix is converted to 2D image matrix first, then 2D skew tent map is utilized to generate chaotic sequences, which are used for both permutation process and substitution process. The chaotic sequence for permutation process is dependent on plain-image and cipher ...
EFFICIENT ALGORITHM FOR RSA TEXT ENCRYPTION USING CUDA-C
Sonam Mahajan
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Modern-day computer security relies heavily on cryptography as a means to protect the data that we have become increasingly reliant on. The main research in computer security domain is how to enhance the speed of RSA algorithm. The computing capability of Graphic Processing Unit as a co-processor of the CPU can leverage massive-parallelism. This paper presents a novel algorithm for calculating modulo value that can process large power of numbers which otherwise are not supported by built-in data types. First the traditional algorithm is studied. Secondly, the parallelized RSA algorithm is designed using CUDA framework. Thirdly, the designed algorithm is realized for small prime numbers and large prime number . As a result the main fundamental problem of RSA algorithm such as speed and use of poor or small prime numbers that has led to significant security holes, despite the RSA algorithm's mathematical soundness can be alleviated by this algorithm.
Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K
2013-06-20
In this paper, an image encryption scheme based on polarized light encoding and a phase-truncation approach in the Fresnel transform domain is proposed. The phase-truncated data obtained by an asymmetric cryptosystem is encrypted and decrypted by using the concept of the Stokes-Mueller formalism. Image encryption based on polarization of light using Stokes-Mueller formalism has the main advantage over Jones vector formalism that it manipulates only intensity information, which is measurable. Thus any intensity information can be encrypted and decrypted using this scheme. The proposed method offers several advantages: (1) a lens-free setup, (2) flexibility in the encryption key design, (3) use of asymmetric keys, and (4) immunity against special attack. We present numerical simulation results for gray-scale and color images in support of the proposed security scheme. The performance measurement parameters relative error and correlation coefficient have been calculated to check the effectiveness of the scheme. PMID:23842178
Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging
Mehra, Isha; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, Amit K.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Nishchal, Naveen K.
2015-03-01
In this paper, we demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) object encryption using diffractive imaging and digital holography. For this purpose, a microlens array has been fabricated using the thermal reflow method, and then its digital hologram is recorded. The hologram of the microlens is encoded based on multiple intensity samplings of the complex-amplitude wave front with axial translation of the image sensor in the fractional Fourier transform domain. Then, the function is Fresnel propagated for three different positions of the camera, and the corresponding diffraction patterns are recorded as cipher-texts. For decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to extract the hologram from corresponding encrypted images. The corresponding phase profile of the microlens array is then obtained. The simulation results demonstrate that the hologram is decrypted without any stagnation problem and with a rapid convergence rate. High security of the hologram has been achieved in the proposed digital holography-based diffractive imaging scheme. The correlation coefficient, a performance measurement parameter, has been calculated to check the effectiveness of the scheme. The proposed work has been validated through both experimental and simulation results.
Zhou, Nanrun; Yang, Jianping; Tan, Changfa; Pan, Shumin; Zhou, Zhihong
2015-11-01
A new discrete fractional random transform based on two circular matrices is designed and a novel double-image encryption-compression scheme is proposed by combining compressive sensing with discrete fractional random transform. The two random circular matrices and the measurement matrix utilized in compressive sensing are constructed by using a two-dimensional sine Logistic modulation map. Two original images can be compressed, encrypted with compressive sensing and connected into one image. The resulting image is re-encrypted by Arnold transform and the discrete fractional random transform. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate the validity and security of the scheme.
A Novel Image Encryption Supported by Compression Using Multilevel Wavelet Transform
Ch. Samson; V. U.K. Sastry
2012-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel approach for image encryption supported by lossy compression using multilevel wavelet transform. We first decompose the input image using multilevel 2-D wavelet transform, and thresholding is applied on the decomposed structure to get compressed image. Then we carry out encryption by decomposing the compressed image by multi-level 2-D Haar Wavelet Transform at the maximum allowed decomposition level. These results in the decomposition vector C and the correspo...
G.Devi, M.Pramod Kumar
2012-08-01
Full Text Available A LMS (Learning Management System service is described in this project using Blowfish algorithm. It promotes more accessibility to LMS service providers to send their training modules and syllabus via Internet at any point of the hour much more efficiently. This gives rise to reduced cost of hardware and software tools, which in return would scale-up the e-learning environment. In the existing system RSA algorithm used. It requires more computation time for large volumes of data. To reduce this computation time we are using Blowfish algorithm. The LMS Service utilizes three cloud systems, including an encryption and decryption system, a storagesystem, and LMS application system.
Color image encryption by using Arnold and discrete fractional random transforms in IHS space
Guo, Qing; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian
2010-12-01
In this paper, we propose a novel color image encryption method using discrete fractional random transform (DFRNT) and Arnold transform (AT) in the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) color space. A color image is converted into IHS space from the standard red-green-blue (RGB) space. The intensity component is encrypted by DFRNT, which is a kind of encryption with the secrecy of pixel value and pixel position simultaneously. The hue and saturation components are encrypted using Arnold transform, which is a kind of position scrambling. Comparing to the classical double-random-phase encoding, DFRNT encryption method can save storage space of the encryption keys required to be stored for decryption, meanwhile with the similar security. The fractional order of DFRNT, the random matrix of DFRNT and the iteration numbers of Arnold transform are the encryption keys to enhance the security of the proposed scheme. The performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed against the variation in fractional order, the change of Arnold transform iteration number, known-plaintext attack, noise addition and occlusion of the encrypted image, respectively. Numerical simulation results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm
Fazal Noorbasha; Harikishore .Kakarla
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some functi...
Separable and error-free reversible data hiding in encrypted image with high payload.
Yin, Zhaoxia; Luo, Bin; Hong, Wien
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a separable reversible data-hiding scheme in encrypted image which offers high payload and error-free data extraction. The cover image is partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks and multigranularity encryption is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The data hider preprocesses the encrypted image and randomly selects two basic pixels in each block to estimate the block smoothness and indicate peak points. Additional data are embedded into blocks in the sorted order of block smoothness by using local histogram shifting under the guidance of the peak points. At the receiver side, image decryption and data extraction are separable and can be free to choose. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed method is simpler in calculation while offering better performance: larger payload, better embedding quality, and error-free data extraction, as well as image recovery. PMID:24977214
An asymmetric single-channel color image encryption based on Hartley transform and gyrator transform
Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq
2015-06-01
A novel asymmetric single-channel color image encryption using Hartley transform and gyrator transform is proposed. A color image is segregated into R, G, and B channels and then each channel is independently Hartley transformed. The three transformed channels are multiplied and then phase- and amplitude truncated to obtain first encrypted image and first decryption key. The encoded image is modulated with a conjugate of random phase mask. The modulated image is gyrator transformed and then phase- and amplitude truncated to get second encrypted image and second decryption key. The asymmetric (decryption) keys, random phase mask, and transformation angle of gyrator transform serve as main keys. The optoelectronic encryption and decryption systems are suggested. Numerical simulation results have been demonstrated to verify the performance and security of the proposed security system.
Parameshachari Bidare Divakarachari
2014-01-01
Today’s, the most important locomotive to provide confidentiality is image encryption. In real-time applications the classical and modern ciphers are not appropriate because of vast quantity of data. However, certain applications like Pay-TV or Payable Internet Imaging Albums do not require entire part of an encryption, but requires a part of the image to be transparent to all users. Partial encryption is an approach to encode only the most essential portion of the data in order to afford a p...
Optical Image Encryption Using Devilâ€™s Vortex Toroidal Lens in the Fresnel Transform Domain
Hukum Singh; Yadav, A K; Sunanda Vashisth; Kehar Singh
2015-01-01
We have carried out a study of optical image encryption in the Fresnel transform (FrT) domain, using a random phase mask (RPM) in the input plane and a phase mask based on devilâ€™s vortex toroidal lens (DVTL) in the frequency plane. The original images are recovered from their corresponding encrypted images by using the correct parameters of the FrT and the parameters of DVTL. The use of a DVTL-based structured mask enhances security by increasing the key space for encryption and also aids in ...
Compressive optical image encryption with two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography
Li, Jun; Li, Hongbing; Li, Jiaosheng; Pan, Yangyang; Li, Rong
2015-06-01
An image encryption method which combines two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography with compressive sensing (CS) has been proposed in the fully optical domain. An object image is firstly encrypted to two on-axis quadrature-phase holograms using the two random phase masks in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the two encrypted images are highly compressed to a one-dimensional signal using the single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the two compressive encrypted holograms are exactly reconstructed from much less than the Nyquist sampling number of observations by solving an optimization problem, and the original image can be decrypted with only two reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. This method largely decreases holograms data volume for the current optical image encryption system, and it is also suitable for some special optical imaging cases such as different wavelengths imaging and weak light imaging. Numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this novel image encryption method.
An RGB Image Encryption Supported by Wavelet-based Lossless Compression
Ch. Samson; V. U.K. Sastry
2012-01-01
In this paper we have proposed a method for an RGB image encryption supported by lifting scheme based lossless compression. Firstly we have compressed the input color image using a 2-D integer wavelet transform. Then we have applied lossless predictive coding to achieve additional compression. The compressed image is encrypted by using Secure Advanced Hill Cipher (SAHC) involving a pair of involutory matrices, a function called Mix() and an operation called XOR. Decryption followed by reconst...
A Novel Encryption Frame for Medical Image with Watermark Based on Hyperchaotic System
Shun Zhang; Tiegang Gao; Lin Gao
2014-01-01
An encryption frame of medical image with watermark based on hyperchaotic system is proposed in this paper. Medical information, such as the patients’ private information, data needed for diagnosis, and information for authentication or protection of medical files, is embedded into the regions of interest (ROI) in medical images with a high capacity difference-histogram-based reversible data-hiding scheme. After that, the watermarked medical images are encrypted with hyperchaotic systems. In ...
A new image encryption based on chaotic systems and singular value decomposition
Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Li, Li; Wang, Ning; Li, Qiong; Niu, Xiamu
2012-04-01
This paper presents an efficient image encryption scheme based on chaotic systems and singular value decomposition. In this scheme, the image pixel's positions are scrambled using chaotic systems with variable control parameters. To further enforce the security, the pixel gray values are modified using a combination between singular value decomposition (SVD) and chaotic polynomial map. Simulation results justify the feasibility of the proposed scheme in image encryption purpose.
algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the first encryption algorithm of said first encryption technique, creating a first encrypted data package...... comprising cipher data; obtaining a first decryption program; and transmitting said first decryption program and said first encrypted data package to a receiver, wherein the first decryption, upon provision of the specific key and the first encrypted data package, will decrypt the cipher data in the first...
Ensemble Of Blowfish With Chaos Based S Box Design For Text And Image Encryption
Jeyamala Chandrasekaran
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The rapid and extensive usage of Internet in the present decade has put forth information security as an utmost concern. Most of the commercial transactions taking place over the Internet involves a wide variety of data including text, images, audio and video. With the increasing use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing Multimedia data, the fundamental issue of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the information poses a major challenge for security professionals and hassled to the major developments in Cryptography . In cryptography, an S-Box (Substitution-box is a basic componentof symmetric key algorithms, which performs substitution and is typically used to make the relationship between the key and the cipher text non linear and most of the symmetric key algorithms like DES, Blowfish makes use of S boxes. This paper proposes a new method for design of S boxes based on chaos theory. Chaotic equations are popularly known for its randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and ergodicity. The modified design has been tested with blowfish algorithm which has no effective crypt analysis reported against its design till date because of its salient design features including the key dependant s boxes and complex key generation process. However every new key requires pre-processing equivalent to encrypting about 4 kilobytes of text, which is very slow compared to other block ciphers and it prevents its usage in memory limited applications and embedded systems. The modified design of S boxesmaintains the non linearity [3] [5] and key dependency factors of S boxes with a major reduction in time complexity of generation of S boxes and P arrays. The algorithm has been implemented and the proposed design has been analyzed for size of key space, key sensitivity and Avalanche effect. Experimental results on text and Image Encryption show that the modified design of key generation continues to offer the same level of security as the original Blowfish cipher with a less computational overhead in key generation
Asymmetric multiple-image encryption based on the cascaded fractional Fourier transform
Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yuanchao; Tao, Ran
2015-09-01
A multiple-image cryptosystem is proposed based on the cascaded fractional Fourier transform. During an encryption procedure, each of the original images is directly separated into two phase masks. A portion of the masks is subsequently modulated into an interim mask, which is encrypted into the ciphertext image; the others are used as the encryption keys. Using phase truncation in the fractional Fourier domain, one can use an asymmetric cryptosystem to produce a real-valued noise-like ciphertext, while a legal user can reconstruct all of the original images using a different group of phase masks. The encryption key is an indivisible part of the corresponding original image and is still useful during decryption. The proposed system has high resistance to various potential attacks, including the chosen-plaintext attack. Numerical simulations also demonstrate the security and feasibility of the proposed scheme.
On encryption-compression tradeoff of pre/post-filtered images
Gurijala, Aparna; Khayam, Syed A.; Radha, Hayder; Deller, J. R., Jr.
2005-09-01
Advances in network communications have necessitated secure local-storage and transmission of multimedia content. In particular, military networks need to securely store sensitive imagery which at a later stage may be transmitted over bandwidth-constrained wireless networks. This work investigates compression efficiency of JPEG and JPEG 2000 standards for encrypted images. An encryption technique proposed by Kuo et al. in [4] is employed. The technique scrambles the phase spectrum of an image by addition of the phase of an all-pass pre-filter. The post-filter inverts the encryption process, provided the correct pseudo-random filter coefficients are available at the receiver. Additional benefits of pre/post-filter encryption include the prevention of blocking effects and better robustness to channel noise [4]. Since both JPEG and JPEG 2000 exploit spatial and perceptual redundancies for compression, pre/post-filtered (encrypted) images are susceptible to compression inefficiencies. The PSNR difference between the unencrypted and pre/post-filtered images after decompression is determined for various compression rates. Compression efficiency decreases with an increase in compression rate. For JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression rates between 0.5 to 2.5 bpp, the difference in PSNR is negligible. Partial encryption is proposed wherein a subset of image phase coefficients are scrambled. Due to the phase sensitivity of images, even partial scrambling of the phase information results in unintelligible data. The effect of compression on partially encrypted images is observed for various bit-rates. When 25% of image phase coefficients are scrambled, the JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression performance of encrypted images is almost similar to that of unencrypted images for compression rates in the 0.5 to 3.5 bpp range.
Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm upto 4 Round on Spartan 3
Nimmi Gupta
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized upto 4 round using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3 Modelsim. The paper deals with various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc. used in order to provide optimized results.
Syed Mahamud Hossein
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Storing, transmitting and security of DNA sequences are well known research challenge. The problem has got magnified with increasing discovery and availability of DNA sequences. We have represent DNA sequence compression algorithm based on Dynamic Look Up Table (DLUT and modified Huffman technique. DLUT consists of 43(64 bases that are 64 sub-stings, each sub-string is of 3 bases long. Each sub-string are individually coded by single ASCII code from 33(! to 96(` and vice versa. Encode depends on encryption key choose by user from four base pair {a,t.g and c}and decode also require decryption key provide by the encoded user. Decoding must require authenticate input for encode the data. The sub-strings are combined into a Dynamic Look up Table based pre-coding routine. This algorithm is tested on reverse; complement & reverse complement the DNA sequences and also test on artificial DNA sequences of equivalent length. Speed of encryption and security levels are two important measurements for evaluating any encryption system. Due to proliferate of ubiquitous computing system, where digital contents are accessible through resource constraint biological database security concern is very important issue. A lot of research has been made to find an encryption system which can be run effectively in those biological databases. Information security is the most challenging question to protect the data from unauthorized user. The proposed method may protect the data from hackers. It can provide the three tier security, in tier one is ASCII code, in tier two is nucleotide (a,t,g and c choice by user and tier three is change of label or change of node position in Huffman Tree. Compression of the genome sequences will help to increase the efficiency of their use. The greatest advantage of this algorithm is fast execution, small memory occupation and easy implementation. Since the program to implement the technique have been written originally in the C language, (Windows XP platform, and TC compiler it is possible to run in other microcomputers with small changes (depending on platform and Compiler used. The execution is quite fast, all the operations are carried out in fraction of seconds, depending on the required task and on the sequence length. The technique can approach an effective compression ratio of 1.98 bits/base and even lower. When a user searches for any sequence for an organism, an encrypted compressed sequence file can be sent from the data source to the user. The encrypted compressed file then can be decrypted & decompressed at the client end resulting in reduced transmission time over the Internet. An encrypt compression algorithm that provides a moderately high compression with encryption rate with minimal decryption with decompression time.
A Modified Location-Dependent Image Encryption for Mobile Information System
Prasad Reddy.P.V.G.D
2010-05-01
Full Text Available The wide spread use of WLAN (Wireless LAN and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. In such scenario, a need for Secure Communication arises. Secure communication is possible through encryption of data. A lot of encryption techniques have evolved over time. However, most of the data encryption techniques are location-independent. Data encrypted with such techniques can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict the location of data decryption. GPS-based encryption (or geoencryption is an innovative technique that uses GPS-technology to encode location information into the encryption keys to provide location based security. In this paper a location-dependent approach is proposed for mobile information system. The mobile client transmits a target latitude/longitude coordinate and an LDEA key is obtained for data encryption to information server. The client can only decrypt the ciphertext when the coordinate acquired form GPS receiver matches with the target coordinate. For improved security, a random key (R-key is incorporated in addition to the LDEA key. The proposed method is applied for images.
A new optical image encryption method based on multi-beams interference and vector composition
Chen, Linfei; Liu, Jingyu; Wen, Jisen; Gao, Xiong; Mao, Haidan; Shi, Xiaoyan; Qu, Qingling
2015-06-01
In this paper, a new method for optical image encryption based on multi-beams interference principle and vector composition is proposed. In this encryption, the original image is encoded into n-1 phase only masks which are regarded as the keys of the encryption system and a ciphertext according to multi-beams interference principle and vector composition. In decryption process, n beams of parallel incident light illuminate at the phase only masks and the ciphertext, and we can obtain the decrypted image at output plane after Fourier transforms. The security of the proposed method is discussed, finding that no decrypted image can be obtained only when all the keys used are right. Furthermore, the keys can be stored separately resulting in improving the security of encryption system. Computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.
Multiple-image encryption scheme based on cascaded fractional Fourier transform.
Kong, Dezhao; Shen, Xueju; Xu, Qinzu; Xin, Wang; Guo, Haiqiong
2013-04-20
A multiple-image encryption scheme based on cascaded fractional Fourier transform is proposed. In the scheme, images are successively coded into the amplitude and phase of the input by cascading stages, which ends up with an encrypted image and a series of keys. The scheme takes full advantage of multikeys and the cascaded relationships of all stages, and it not only realizes image encryption but also achieves higher safety and more diverse applications. So multiuser authentication and hierarchical encryption are achieved. Numerical simulation verifies the feasibility of the method and demonstrates the security of the scheme and decryption characteristics. Finally, flexibility and variability of the scheme in application are discussed, and the simple photoelectric mixed devices to realize the scheme are proposed. PMID:23669669
Mahdi Sadeghzadeh
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm is an algorithm based on population and many optimization problems are solved with this method, successfully. With increasing demand for computer attacks, security, efficient and reliable Internet has increased. Cryptographic systems have studied the science of communication is hidden, and includes two case categories including encryption, password and analysis. In this paper, several code analyses based on genetic algorithms, tabu search and simulated annealing for a permutation of encrypted text are investigated. The study also attempts to provide and to compare the performance in terms of the amount of check and control algorithms and the results are compared.
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun
2015-07-01
In this paper, a new optical interference-based encryption method using off-axis circular harmonic component (CHC) expansion and iterative phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform (GT) domain is proposed. Off-axis CHC expansion is employed to divide the inverse GT spectrum of primitive image into two parts: the zero-order CHC and the sum of the other CHCs. The sum term of CHCs is further encrypted into a complex image whose amplitude constraint is devised to be the amplitude of zero-order CHC by the iterative retrieval GT algorithm. The amplitude part of CHC is the final ciphertext which has rotation-symmetric distribution. Three phase-only keys, the main keys of this proposal, are also calculated during the digital encryption process. To recover the primitive image correctly, two identical ciphertexts placed in the two interference branch should be illuminated by two spherical waves with required parameters (wavelength and radius). Moreover, rotational center of ciphertexts must be placed in a predefined position, which is off the optical axis. The transform angles of GTs, the propagation parameters of spherical waves and the relative position of rotational center of ciphertext are sensitive additional keys for correct retrieval. Numerical simulation tests have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Optical transformation based image encryption and data embedding techniques using MATLAB
Bhattacharya, Debalina; Ghosh, Ajay
2015-06-01
The proposed work describes optical transformations such as Fourier transformation and Fresnel transformation based encryption and decryption of images using random phase masks (RPMs). The encrypted images have been embedded in some secret cover files of other formats like text files, word files, audio files etc to increase the robustness in the security applications. So, if any one wants to send confidential documents, it will be difficult for the interloper to unhide the secret information. The whole work has been done in MATLAB®
New Visual Cryptography Algorithm For Colored Image
Abdulla, Sozan
2010-01-01
Visual Cryptography is a special encryption technique to hide information in images, which divide secret image into multiple layers. Each layer holds some information. The receiver aligns the layers and the secret information is revealed by human vision without any complex computation. The proposed algorithm is for color image, that presents a system which takes four pictures as an input and generates three images which correspond to three of the four input pictures. The decoding requires only selecting some subset of these 3 images, making transparencies of them, and stacking them on top of each other, so the forth picture is reconstructed by printing the three output images onto transparencies and stacking them together. The reconstructed image achieved in same size with original secret image.
MINIMIZATION OF DELAY TIME IN DYNAMIC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS (DEA-RTA)ď»ż
Kuti Toyin Sadiq; Madhavi Kumariď»ż
2014-01-01
Real-Time Applications (RTA) such as Voice-over IP (VoIP), Instant messages (IM), and video conferencing are sensitive to delay as they are packets base network services. Providing these services over the internet require high level of security to protect user, data and infrastructures. Encryption process is used to provide the security needed for RTA. The encryption and decryption has to take minimal time to achieve acceptable end-to-end delays. The research algorithm proposes a new symmetri...
Fast ghost imaging and ghost encryption based on the discrete cosine transform
Tanha, Mehrdad; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Kheradmand, Reza
2013-11-01
We introduce the discrete cosine transform as an advanced compression tool for images in computational ghost imaging. A novel approach to fast imaging and encryption, the discrete cosine transform, promotes the security level of ghost images and reduces the image retrieval time. To discuss the advantages of this technique we compare experimental outcomes with simulated ones.
Fast ghost imaging and ghost encryption based on the discrete cosine transform
We introduce the discrete cosine transform as an advanced compression tool for images in computational ghost imaging. A novel approach to fast imaging and encryption, the discrete cosine transform, promotes the security level of ghost images and reduces the image retrieval time. To discuss the advantages of this technique we compare experimental outcomes with simulated ones. (paper)
A joint asymmetric watermarking and image encryption scheme
Boato, G.; Conotter, V.; De Natale, F. G. B.; Fontanari, C.
2008-02-01
Here we introduce a novel watermarking paradigm designed to be both asymmetric, i.e., involving a private key for embedding and a public key for detection, and commutative with a suitable encryption scheme, allowing both to cipher watermarked data and to mark encrypted data without interphering with the detection process. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above principles, we present an explicit example where the watermarking part, based on elementary linear algebra, and the encryption part, exploiting a secret random permutation, are integrated in a commutative scheme.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.
A novel chaotic map and an improved chaos-based image encryption scheme.
Zhang, Xianhan; Cao, Yang
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel approach to create the new chaotic map and propose an improved image encryption scheme based on it. Compared with traditional classic one-dimensional chaotic maps like Logistic Map and Tent Map, this newly created chaotic map demonstrates many better chaotic properties for encryption, implied by a much larger maximal Lyapunov exponent. Furthermore, the new chaotic map and Arnold's Cat Map based image encryption method is designed and proved to be of solid robustness. The simulation results and security analysis indicate that such method not only can meet the requirement of imagine encryption, but also can result in a preferable effectiveness and security, which is usable for general applications. PMID:25143990
Grayscale image encryption using a hyperchaotic unstable dissipative system
Ontanon-GarcĂa, L.J.; GarcĂa-MartĂnez, M.; Campos-CantĂłn, E.; ÄŚelikovskĂ˝, Sergej
London : IEEE, 2013, s. 508-512. ISBN 978-1-908320-16-2. [The 8th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST-2013). LondĂ˝n (GB), 09.12.2013-12.12.2013] R&D Projects: GA ÄŚR(CZ) GAP103/12/1794 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Hyperchaos * piecewise linear systems * multi-scrolls * chaotic encryption * stream cypher encryption Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory
A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping
In this paper, a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed. In the proposed method, the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly, then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out. The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image, which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The computer simulation results of statistical analysis, information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.
Samir El Adib
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES. Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is the application. High-speed designs are not always desired solutions. In some applications, such as mobile computing and wireless communications, smaller throughput is demanded. Architecture presented uses memory modules (i.e., Dual-Port RAMs of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs for storing all the results of the fixed operations (i.e., Look-Up Table, and Digital Clock Manager (DCM that we used effectively to optimize the execution time, reduce design area and facilitates implementation in FPGA. The architecture consumes only 326 slices plus 3 Block Random Access Memory (BRAMs. The throughput obtained was of 270 Mbits/s. The target hardware used in this paper is Spartan XC3S500E FPGA from Xilinx. Results are presented and compared with other reference implementations, as known from the technical literature. The presented architecture can be used in a wide range of embedded applications.
Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication
Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto
2012-07-01
A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.
Image Encryption Scheme Based on Balanced Two-Dimensional Cellular Automata
Xiaoyan Zhang; Chao Wang; Sheng Zhong; Qian Yao
2013-01-01
Cellular automata (CA) are simple models of computation which exhibit fascinatingly complex behavior. Due to the universality of CA model, it has been widely applied in traditional cryptography and image processing. The aim of this paper is to present a new image encryption scheme based on balanced two-dimensional cellular automata. In this scheme, a random image with the same size of the plain image to be encrypted is first generated by a pseudo-random number generator with a seed. Then, the...
Optical binary image encryption using aperture-key and dual wavelengths.
Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2014-11-17
We described a method where the secret binary image that has been encoded into a single amplitude pattern in Fresnel domain can be recovered based on phase retrieval with an aperture-key and wavelength keys, and no holographic recording is needed in the encryption. The predesigned aperture-key not only realizes the intensity modulation of the encrypted image, but also helps to retrieve the secret image with high quality. All the necessary decryption keys can be kept in digital form that facilitates data transmission and loading in image retrieval process. Numerical simulation results are given for testing the validity and security of the proposed approach. PMID:25402048
A New Loss-Tolerant Image Encryption Scheme Based on Secret Sharing and Two Chaotic Systems
Li Li
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, we propose an efficient loss-tolerant image encryption scheme that protects both confidentiality and loss-tolerance simultaneously in shadow images. In this scheme, we generate the key sequence based on two chaotic maps and then encrypt the image during the sharing phase based on Shamir’s method. Experimental results show a better performance of the proposed scheme for different images than other methods from human vision. Security analysis confirms a high probability to resist both brute-force and collusion attacks.
Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes
Gschwandtner Michael
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the robustness properties of 2D chaotic map image encryption schemes. We investigate the behavior of such block ciphers under different channel error types and find the transmission error robustness to be highly dependent on on the type of error occurring and to be very different as compared to the effects when using traditional block ciphers like AES. Additionally, chaotic-mixing-based encryption schemes are shown to be robust to lossy compression as long as the security requirements are not too high. This property facilitates the application of these ciphers in scenarios where lossy compression is applied to encrypted material, which is impossible in case traditional ciphers should be employed. If high security is required chaotic mixing loses its robustness to transmission errors and compression, still the lower computational demand may be an argument in favor of chaotic mixing as compared to traditional ciphers when visual data is to be encrypted.
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun
2013-04-01
We present a hybrid configuration of joint transform correlator (JTC) and joint fractional transform correlator (JFTC) for encryption purpose. The original input is encoded in the joint fractional power spectrum distribution of JFTC. In our experimental arrangement, an additional random phase mask (master key) is holographically generated beforehand by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a JTC as the object arm. The fractional order of JFTC, together with the master key, can remarkably strengthen the safety level of encryption. Different from many previous digital-holography-based encryption schemes, the stability and alignment requirement for our system is not high, since the interferometric operation is only performed in the generation procedure of the master key. The advantages and feasibility of the proposed scheme have been verified by the experimental results. By combining with a multiplex technique, an application for multiple images encryption using the system is also given a detailed description.
A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps
Encryption of images is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of images such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. Due to the exceptionally desirable properties of mixing and sensitivity to initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps, chaos-based encryption has suggested a new and efficient way to deal with the intractable problem of fast and highly secure image encryption. In this paper, the two-dimensional chaotic cat map is generalized to 3D for designing a real-time secure symmetric encryption scheme. This new scheme employs the 3D cat map to shuffle the positions (and, if desired, grey values as well) of image pixels and uses another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to statistical and differential attacks. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security and fast encryption speed of the new scheme
A Lightweight White-Box Symmetric Encryption Algorithm against Node Capture for WSNs.
Shi, Yang; Wei, Wujing; He, Zongjian
2015-01-01
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are often deployed in hostile environments and, thus, nodes can be potentially captured by an adversary. This is a typical white-box attack context, i.e., the adversary may have total visibility of the implementation of the build-in cryptosystem and full control over its execution platform. Handling white-box attacks in a WSN scenario is a challenging task. Existing encryption algorithms for white-box attack contexts require large memory footprint and, hence, are not applicable for wireless sensor networks scenarios. As a countermeasure against the threat in this context, in this paper, we propose a class of lightweight secure implementations of the symmetric encryption algorithm SMS4. The basic idea of our approach is to merge several steps of the round function of SMS4 into table lookups, blended by randomly generated mixing bijections. Therefore, the size of the implementations are significantly reduced while keeping the same security efficiency. The security and efficiency of the proposed solutions are theoretically analyzed. Evaluation shows our solutions satisfy the requirement of sensor nodes in terms of limited memory size and low computational costs. PMID:26007737
On the security of 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption scheme
A 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption algorithm, which significantly increases the resistance against statistical and differential attacks, has been proposed recently. It employs a 3D Cat map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and uses the Logistic map to diffuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Based on the factor that it is sufficient to break this cryptosystem only with the equivalent control parameters, some fundamental weaknesses of the cryptosystem are pointed out. With the knowledge of symbolic dynamics and some specially designed plain-images, we can calculate the equivalent initial condition of diffusion process and rebuild a valid equivalent 3D Cat matrix. In this Letter, we will propose a successful chosen-plain-text cryptanalytic attack, which is composed of two mutually independent procedures: the cryptanalysis of the diffusion process and the cryptanalysis of the spatial permutation process. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the lack of security discourages the use of these cryptosystems for practical applications
Optical image encryption based on multi-beam interference and common vector decomposition
Chen, Linfei; He, Bingyu; Chen, Xudong; Gao, Xiong; Liu, Jingyu
2016-02-01
Based on multi-beam interference and common vector decomposition, we propose a new method for optical image encryption. In encryption process, the information of an original image is encoded into n amplitude masks and n phase masks which are regarded as a ciphertext and many keys. In decryption process, parallel light irradiates the amplitude masks and phase masks, then passes through lens that takes place Fourier transform, and finally we obtain the original image at the output plane after interference. The security of the encryption system is also discussed in the paper, and we find that only when all the keys are correct, can the information of the original image be recovered. Computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity and the security of the proposed method.
Enhancing RSA algorithm using Mersenne Primes with reduced size of encrypted file
Shilpa Madhaorao Pund
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Message passing from source to destination is one of the important aspects of communication. However, it is requiredmany times that this message gets transmitted secretly, so that no unauthorized person gets knowledge of the contents ofthat message. To retain the confidentiality of the message transmitted is a challenging task as it needs to be guaranteedthat the message arrive in the right hands exactly as it was transmitted. Another challenge is of transmitting the messageover a public, insecure channel. In this paper, RSA algorithm is implemented using Mersenne Primes which guaranteesthe primality. This is an enhanced algorithm which increases the strength of RSA by generating large prime numbers andalso reduces the size of encrypted file.
Fully phase image encryption using double random-structured phase masks in gyrator domain.
Singh, Hukum; Yadav, A K; Vashisth, Sunanda; Singh, Kehar
2014-10-01
We propose a method for fully phase image encryption based on double random-structured phase mask encoding in the gyrator transform (GT) domain. The security of the system is strengthened by parameters used in the construction of a structured phase mask (SPM) based on a devil's vortex Fresnel lens (DVFL). The input image is recovered using the correct parameters of the SPMs, transform orders of the GT, and conjugate of the random phase masks. The use of a DVFL-based SPM enhances security by increasing the key space for encryption, and also overcomes the problem of axis alignment associated with an optical setup. The proposed scheme can also be implemented optically. The computed values of mean squared error between the retrieved and the original image show the efficacy of the proposed scheme. We have also investigated the scheme's sensitivity to the encryption parameters, and robustness against occlusion and multiplicative Gaussian noise attacks. PMID:25322235
Rawat, Nitin; Ni, Pavel; Kumar, Rajesh
2014-01-01
A new digital image encryption method based on fast compressed sensing approach using structurally random matrices and Arnold transform is proposed. Considering the natural images to be compressed in any domain, the fast compressed sensing based approach saves computational time, increases the quality of the image and reduces the dimension of the digital image by choosing even 25 % of the measurements. First, dimension reduction is utilized to compress the digital image with scrambling effect...
Cao, Zhengjun; LIU, LIHUA
2016-01-01
Recently, Lu et al. have proposed two image search schemes based on additive homomorphic encryption [IEEE Access, 2 (2014), 125-141]. We remark that both two schemes are flawed because: (1) the first scheme does not make use of the additive homomorphic property at all; (2) the additive homomorphic encryption in the second scheme is unnecessary and can be replaced by a more efficient symmetric key encryption.
Optical encryption of unlimited-size images based on ptychographic scanning digital holography.
Gao, Qiankun; Wang, Yali; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi
2014-07-20
The ptychographic scanning operation is introduced into digital holography to expand the field-of-view (FOV). An optical image encryption method based on this technique is further proposed and analyzed. The plaintext is moved sequentially in the way of ptychographic scanning and corresponding pairs of phase-shifted interferograms are recorded as ciphertexts. Then the holographic processing and the ptychographic iterative reconstruction are both employed to retrieve the plaintext. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed system possesses high security level and wide FOV. The proposed method might also be used for other potential applications, such as three-dimensional information encryption and image hiding. PMID:25090206
Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system
Wang, Zhen; Huang, Xia; Li, Ning; Song, Xiao-Na
2012-05-01
A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security.
Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi
2015-08-01
Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.
Cryptanalysis and improvement of a digital image encryption method with chaotic map lattices
A digital image encryption scheme using chaotic map lattices has been proposed recently. In this paper, two fatal flaws of the cryptosystem are pointed out. According to these two drawbacks, cryptanalysts could recover the plaintext by applying the chosen plaintext attack. Therefore, the proposed cryptosystem is not secure enough to be used in the image transmission system. Experimental results show the feasibility of the attack. As a result, we make some improvements to the encryption scheme, which can completely resist our chosen plaintext attack. (general)
Wen, Shiping; Zeng, Zhigang; Huang, Tingwen; Meng, Qinggang; Yao, Wei
2015-07-01
This paper investigates the problem of global exponential lag synchronization of a class of switched neural networks with time-varying delays via neural activation function and applications in image encryption. The controller is dependent on the output of the system in the case of packed circuits, since it is hard to measure the inner state of the circuits. Thus, it is critical to design the controller based on the neuron activation function. Comparing the results, in this paper, with the existing ones shows that we improve and generalize the results derived in the previous literature. Several examples are also given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential applications in image encryption. PMID:25594985
Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system
A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security. (general)
Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli; Hei, Xinhong
2014-05-01
A double-image encryption is proposed based on the discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps. First, an enlarged image is composited from two original images and scrambled in the confusion process which consists of a number of rounds. In each round, the pixel positions of the enlarged image are relocated by using cat maps which are generated based on two logistic maps. Then the scrambled enlarged image is decomposed into two components. Second, one of two components is directly separated into two phase masks and the other component is used to derive the ciphertext image with stationary white noise distribution by using the cascaded discrete fractional random transforms generated based on the logistic map. The cryptosystem is asymmetric and has high resistance against to the potential attacks such as chosen plaintext attack, in which the initial values of logistic maps and the fractional orders are considered as the encryption keys while two decryption keys are produced in the encryption process and directly related to the original images. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed encryption scheme. PMID:24921762
Zhao, Shengmei; Wang, Le; Liang, Wenqiang; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan
2015-10-01
In this paper, we propose a high performance optical encryption (OE) scheme based on computational ghost imaging (GI) with QR code and compressive sensing (CS) technique, named QR-CGI-OE scheme. N random phase screens, generated by Alice, is a secret key and be shared with its authorized user, Bob. The information is first encoded by Alice with QR code, and the QR-coded image is then encrypted with the aid of computational ghost imaging optical system. Here, measurement results from the GI optical system's bucket detector are the encrypted information and be transmitted to Bob. With the key, Bob decrypts the encrypted information to obtain the QR-coded image with GI and CS techniques, and further recovers the information by QR decoding. The experimental and numerical simulated results show that the authorized users can recover completely the original image, whereas the eavesdroppers can not acquire any information about the image even the eavesdropping ratio (ER) is up to 60% at the given measurement times. For the proposed scheme, the number of bits sent from Alice to Bob are reduced considerably and the robustness is enhanced significantly. Meantime, the measurement times in GI system is reduced and the quality of the reconstructed QR-coded image is improved.
Enhancement of Image Security Using Random Permutation
S.Vasu Deva Simha; Mallikarjuna, K
2014-01-01
In recent days transmitting digital media having large size data through the internet became simple task but providing security and security became big issue these days. Using pseudorandom permutation, image encryption is obtained. Confidentiality and access control is done by encryption. Image encryption has to be conducted prior to image compression. In this paper how to design a pair of image encryption and compression algorithms such that compressing encrypted images can still be efficien...
Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption
Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka
2010-03-01
Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.
Deepak Sharma
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Encryption along with compression is the process used to secure any multimedia content processing with minimum data storage and transmission. The transforms plays vital role for optimizing any encryption-compression systems. Earlier the original information in the existing security system based on the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT is protected by only a certain order of FRFT. In this article, a novel method for encryption-compression scheme based on multiple parameters of discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFRFT with random phase matrices is proposed. The multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform (MPDFRFT possesses all the desired properties of discrete fractional Fourier transform. The MPDFRFT converts to the DFRFT when all of its order parameters are the same. We exploit the properties of multiple-parameter DFRFT and propose a novel encryption-compression scheme using the double random phase in the MPDFRFT domain for encryption and compression data. The proposed scheme with MPDFRFT significantly enhances the data security along with image quality of decompressed image compared to DFRFT and FRFT and it shows consistent performance with different images. The numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and efficiency of this scheme based on Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, Compression ratio (CR and the robustness of the schemes against bruit force attack is examined.
A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation
In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes
Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-bo; Zhang, Yushu
2015-06-01
Recently, intrinsic image features in bit-level (e.g., higher bit-planes carry more information than lower bit-planes) have been widely accepted for building bit-level image cryptosystems. Higher bit-planes are generally handled with enhanced encryption, whereas light attention is paid to lower ones. However, the existing achievements on bit-level image features are solely based on the analyses of standard test images, and they do not hold for some special images, such as medical images. When ciphering these images, such cryptosystems may leak the important information of lower bit-planes, and other inadaptability also exists. In this paper, we firstly give out the inapplicability of the existing bit-level achievements, and then a novel chaos-based image encryption scheme using nonlinear inter-pixel computing and swapping based permutation approach is presented. Simulations and extensive security analyses demonstrate the high level of security for practical secret applications.
Modified Prime Number Factorization Algorithm (MPFA For RSA Public Key Encryption
Kuldeep Singh
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The Public key encryption security such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm based on positive integer N, which is the product of two prime numbers, the factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a factorization method is proposed, which is used to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The present work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers as per Fermat method and requires fewer steps for factorization process of RSA modulus N. By experimental results it has been shown that factorization speed becomes increasing as compare to traditional Trial Division method, Fermat Factorization method, Brent’s Factorization method and Pollard Rho Factorization method.
An RSA Encryption Hardware Algorithm using a Single DSP Block and a Single Block RAM on the FPGA
Koji Nakano
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is to present an efficient hardware algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption based on Montgomery multiplication. Modern FPGAs have a number of embedded DSP blocks (DSP48E1 and embedded memory blocks (BRAM. Our hardware algorithm supporting 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption is designed to be implemented using one DSP48E1, one BRAM and few logic blocks (slices in the Xilinx Virtex-6 family FPGA. The implementation results showed that our RSA module for 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption runs in 277.26ms. Quite surprisingly, the multiplier in DSP48E1 used to compute Montgomery multiplication works in more than 97% clock cycles over all clock cycles. Hence, our implementation is close to optimal in the sense that it has only less than 3% overhead in multiplication and no further improvement is possible as long as Montgomery multiplication based algorithm is used. Also, since our circuit uses only one DSP48E1 block and one Block RAM, we can implement a number of RSA modules in an FPGA that can work in parallel to attain high throughput RSA encryption/decryption.
A NEW TECHNIQUE BASED ON CHAOTIC STEGANOGRAPHY AND ENCRYPTION TEXT IN DCT DOMAIN FOR COLOR IMAGE
MELAD J. SAEED
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Image steganography is the art of hiding information into a cover image. This paper presents a new technique based on chaotic steganography and encryption text in DCT domain for color image, where DCT is used to transform original image (cover image from spatial domain to frequency domain. This technique used chaotic function in two phases; firstly; for encryption secret message, second; for embedding in DCT cover image. With this new technique, good results are obtained through satisfying the important properties of steganography such as: imperceptibility; improved by having mean square error (MSE, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and normalized correlation (NC, to phase and capacity; improved by encoding the secret message characters with variable length codes and embedding the secret message in one level of color image only.
Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena
2011-01-01
Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, spe...
Chain of Shuffling and Chaos: A Tied Encryptic Approach
Padmapriya Praveenkumar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The intellectual growth of computer communication lead to drastic improvement in wireless technology and shrunken the world into palms of the user which paved the path for the security attack issues. The development of the security system became the ultimate. Popular technique widely used in present scenario that provides a better security to secret information is image encryption. Multiple encryption technique has been adopted in this study. The secret image is block shuffled and then chaotic maps such as baker map, skew tent map and Arnold cat map are used to encrypt the image. Further the image is encrypted using Cipher Block Chaining (CBC to contribute the final encrypted image. Metrics such as horizontal, vertical, diagonal correlation, Number of Changing Pixel Rate (NPCR and entropy were calculated for various Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM test images and the performance of the algorithm was analyzed.
An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Hyperchaotic Rabinovich and Exponential Chaos Maps
Xiaojun Tong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new four-dimensional hyperchaotic map based on the Rabinovich system to realize chaotic encryption in higher dimension and improve the security. The chaotic sequences generated by Runge-Kutta method are combined with the chaotic sequences generated by an exponential chaos map to generate key sequences. The key sequences are used for image encryption. The security test results indicate that the new hyperchaotic system has high security and complexity. The comparison between the new hyperchaotic system and the several low-dimensional chaotic systems shows that the proposed system performs more efficiently.
Qin, Yi; Jiang, Hualong; Gong, Qiong
2014-11-01
We propose a novel interference-based method for multiple-image encryption by phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing. The information of multiple images can be encrypted into two POMs (i.e. ciphertexts) without any iterative process. For correct decryption, one should hold the ciphertexts as well as the private keys, which are also POMs obtained analytically. Moreover, the bothersome silhouette problem can also be thoroughly resolved during the generation procedure of these POMs. The retrieved images by this method are totally free from the cross-talk noise that puzzles previous interference-based multiple-image encryption methods. Numerical results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.
Multidimensional Z-Matrix with Control Parameters and Its Applications in Image Encryption
An n-dimensional Z-matrix with control parameters is presented, and its periodicity and chaos are testified. Experimental results show that the proposed Z-matrix has a long period and changeable periodicity with different dimensions. Some examples of image encryption with a Z-matrix of different dimensions are listed for demonstrating its applications. (general)
A Colour Image Encryption Scheme Using Permutation-Substitution Based on Chaos
Xing-Yuan Wang; Ying-Qian Zhang; Xue-Mei Bao
2015-01-01
An encryption scheme for colour images using a spatiotemporal chaotic system is proposed. Initially, we use the R, G and B components of a colour plain-image to form a matrix. Then the matrix is permutated by using zigzag path scrambling. The resultant matrix is then passed through a substitution process. Finally, the ciphered colour image is obtained from the confused matrix. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is both secure and practical, which m...
Sun, Mengjie; Shi, Jianhong; Li, Hu; Zeng, Guihua
2013-08-12
In Periodic diffraction correlation imaging (PDCI), the images of several objects located in different spatial positions can be integrated into one image following certain rules, which is named shape merging. In this paper, we proposed and demonstrated this new technique. It can be realized without SLM or beam-splitter. And this effect can find novel application in optical encryption, enabling transmission of object information to a remote place secretly. PMID:23938855
Interference-based image encryption with silhouette removal by aid of compressive sensing
Gong, Qiong; Wang, Zhipeng; Lv, Xiaodong; Qin, Yi
2016-01-01
Compressive sensing (CS) offers the opportunity to reconstruct a signal from its sparse representation, either in the space domain or the transform domain. Exploiting this character, we propose a simple interference-based image encryption method. For encryption, a synthetic image, which contains sparse samples of the original image and the designated values, is analytically separated into two phase only masks (POMs). Consequently, only fragmentary data of the primary image can be directly collected in the traditional decryption scheme. However, the subsequent CS reconstruction will retrieve a high quality image from the fragmentary information. The proposed method has effectively suppressed the silhouette problem. Moreover, it has also some distinct advantages over the previous approaches.
Triple Layered Encryption Algorithm for IEEE 802.11 WLANs in E-Government Services
M A Kabir
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Wireless local area network (WLAN can provide e-government services at all levels, from local to national as the WLAN enabled devices have the flexibility to move from one place to another within offices while maintaining connectivity with the network. However, government organizations are subject to strict security policies and other compliance requirements. Therefore, WLAN must ensure the safeguard the privacy of individual data with the strictest levels of security. The 802.11 MAC specifications describe an encryption protocol called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP which is used to protect wireless communications from eavesdropping. It is also capable of preventing unauthorized access. However, the WEP protocol often fails to accomplish its security goal due to the weakness in RC4 and the way it is applied in WEP protocol. This paper focuses the improvement of existing WEP protocol using the varying secret key for each transmission. This will remove the insecurities that currently make the RC4 unattractive for secured networking and this will add further cryptographic strength if applied to Rijndael algorithm. Our result shows that the proposed algorithm is more suitable for small and medium packets and AES for large packets.
Color image encryption using iterative phase retrieve process in quaternion Fourier transform domain
Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai
2015-02-01
A single-channel color image encryption method is proposed based on iterative phase iterative process in quaternion Fourier transform domain. First, three components of the plain color image is confused respectively by using cat map. Second, the confused components are combined into a pure quaternion image, which is encode to the phase only function by using an iterative phase retrieval process. Finally, the phase only function is encrypted into the gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution based on the chaotic diffusion, which has camouflage property to some extent. The corresponding plain color image can be recovered from the ciphertext only with correct keys in the decryption process. Simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Using Chaotic Logistic Mapping& Hybrid Cellular Automata
Yogeshwaran S
2015-06-01
Full Text Available With the advent of internet and mass media in recent years, online storage of multimedia data in the form of images and videos has become essential. Thus the security of such data also plays a vital role. In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme based on cellular automata (CA and chaotic logistic mapping has been presented. The logistic chaotic mapping is used for shuffling the pixels which results in permutation. This permuted image is converted into a binary stream image where each rows of the image are converted into binary streams. Then a hybrid cellular automata (HCA is used to provide diffusion by local interaction of the adjacent bits by applying various CA rules in the permuted image and confusion is brought by the cellular automata rules and keys from pseudo random number generator. In this scheme both reversible and irreversible cellular automata are used where irreversible cellular automata is used as a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG and reversible CA is used for diffusion. The properties of the encrypted image such as entropy, correlation coefficients, histogram, key space and key sensitivity prove that the encryption scheme is highly robust against attacks and also reliable in transmission loss scenarios.
Triple-image encryption based on phase-truncated Fresnel transform and basic vector operation.
Pan, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangfeng; Yang, Xiulun; Wang, Yurong; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi
2015-10-01
A triple-image encryption method is proposed that is based on phase-truncated Fresnel transform (PTFT), basic vector composition, and XOR operation. In the encryption process, two random phase masks, with one each placed at the input plane and the transform plane, are generated by basic vector resolution operations over the first and the second plaintext images, and then a ciphered image in the input plane is fabricated by XOR encoding for the third plaintext image. When the cryptosystem is illuminated by an on-axis plane, assisted by PTFT, the ciphered image is finally encrypted into an amplitude-only noise-like image in the output plane. During decryption, possessing the correct private key, decryption keys, and the assistant geometrical parameter keys, and placing them at the corresponding correct positions, the original three plaintext images can be successfully decrypted by inverse PTFT, basic vector composition, and XOR decoding. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both verify the feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:26479627
Image Encryption and Decryption in A Modification of ElGamal Cryptosystem in MATLAB
Hayder Raheem Hashim; Irtifaa Abdalkadhim Neamah
2014-01-01
The need of exchanging messages and images secretly over unsecure networks promoted the creation of cryptosystems to enable receivers to interpret the exchanged information. In this paper, a particular public key cryptosystem called the ElGamal Cryptosystem is presented considered with the help MATLAB Program to be used over Images. Since the ElGamal cryptosystem over a primitive root of a large prime is used in messages encryption in the free GNU Privacy Guard software, recent versions ...
L.Thulasimani,
2010-07-01
Full Text Available In any wireless communication security is crucial during data transmission. The encryption and decryption of data is the major role in the wireless communication for security of the data. Encryption lgorithms are used to ensure the security in the transmission channels. Similarly the area and the power consumption is anothermajor thing to be viewed since most of the mobile terminals are battery operated. So a mobile terminal which has an encryption unit with less area and power consumption is appreciated. This paper deals with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES which works on a 128 bit data encrypting it with 128,192,256 bits of keys (ciphers in a single hardware unit.
Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq
2014-10-10
A new optical interference-based multiple-image encryption using spherical wave illumination and gyrator transform is proposed. In this proposal, each secret color image is divided into normalized red, green, and blue component images and independently encoded into corresponding phase-only component images. Then each phase-only component image of all the images are combined together to produce a single-phase-only component image as an input component image, which is bounded with a random phase mask to form a complex image. The two phase-only masks are analytically obtained from the inverse Fourier transformation of the complex image. The host image is chosen as the first phase-only mask, and the complex image hidden in the host image is regarded as the second phase-only mask. The spherical wave is generated to simultaneously illuminate phase-only masks. Then two modulated masks are gyrator transformed. The corresponding transformed images are phase truncated to obtain encrypted images and amplitude truncated to construct decryption keys. The decryption keys, angles of gyrator transform, wavelength and radius of the spherical wave, and individual decryption keys for authorized users are sensitive keys, which enhance the security layers of the system. The proposed system can be implemented by using optoelectronic architecture. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the flexibility of the system. PMID:25322374
Fast encryption of RGB color digital images using a tweakable cellular automaton based schema
Faraoun, Kamel Mohamed
2014-12-01
We propose a new tweakable construction of block-enciphers using second-order reversible cellular automata, and we apply it to encipher RGB-colored images. The proposed construction permits a parallel encryption of the image content by extending the standard definition of a block cipher to take into account a supplementary parameter used as a tweak (nonce) to control the behavior of the cipher from one region of the image to the other, and hence avoid the necessity to use slow sequential encryption's operating modes. The proposed construction defines a flexible pseudorandom permutation that can be used with efficacy to solve the electronic code book problem without the need to a specific sequential mode. Obtained results from various experiments show that the proposed schema achieves high security and execution performances, and enables an interesting mode of selective area decryption due to the parallel character of the approach.
Bouganim, Luc; Guo, Yanli
2009-01-01
Database encryption refers to the use of encryption techniques to transform a plain text database into a (partially) encrypted database, thus making it unreadable to anyone except those who possess the knowledge of the encryption key(s).
A New Image Encryption Scheme Based on Dynamic S-Boxes and Chaotic Maps
Rehman, Atique Ur; Khan, Jan Sher; Ahmad, Jawad; Hwang, Soeng Oun
2016-03-01
Substitution box is a unique and nonlinear core component of block ciphers. A better designing technique of substitution box can boost up the quality of ciphertexts. In this paper, a new encryption method based on dynamic substitution boxes is proposed via using two chaotic maps. To break the correlation in an original image, pixels values of the original plaintext image are permuted row- and column-wise through random sequences. The aforementioned random sequences are generated by 2-D Burgers chaotic map. For the generation of dynamic substitution boxes, Logistic chaotic map is employed. In the process of diffusion, the permuted image is divided into blocks and each block is substituted via different dynamic substitution boxes. In contrast to conventional encryption schemes, the proposed scheme does not undergo the fixed block cipher and hence the security level can be enhanced. Extensive security analysis including histogram test is applied on the proposed image encryption technique. All experimental results reveal that the proposed scheme has a high level of security and robustness for transmission of digital images on insecure communication channels.
A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques
John Justin M; Manimurugan S
2012-01-01
This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...
A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques
John Justin M
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.
Using Chaotic System in Encryption
Findik, O?uz; Kahramanli, ?irzat
In this paper chaotic systems and RSA encryption algorithm are combined in order to develop an encryption algorithm which accomplishes the modern standards. E.Lorenz's weather forecast' equations which are used to simulate non-linear systems are utilized to create chaotic map. This equation can be used to generate random numbers. In order to achieve up-to-date standards and use online and offline status, a new encryption technique that combines chaotic systems and RSA encryption algorithm has been developed. The combination of RSA algorithm and chaotic systems makes encryption system.
Image encryption and authentication. A fully digital approach
Optical surveillance is one of the basic safeguards measures implemented by the IAEA. If it were possible to have the data carriers replaced and mailed to the IAEA by staff of the State System for Accounting and Control (SSAC) or by the facility operator or, ultimately have the data remotely transmitted to IAEA Headquarters, this would enable the frequency of on-site inspections to be reduced, since the surveillance information would still be available in a timely manner for evaluation at HQ. The IAEA needs to verify the authenticity of the data, whereas the facility operator will insist on the confidentiality of the data; i.e. a third party must not be able to make any use of the data transferred. The present development effort is concentrated on the appropriate camera electronics ensuring uninterrupted electronic authentication and encryption of the video signals from the camera up to the review station. The design concept is described, some crucial aspects are discussed, and the status and perspectives of the project reported. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs
Query Processing Performance and Searching Over Encrypted Data By Using An Efficient Algorithm
Sharma, Manish; Chaudhary, Atul; Kumar, Santosh
2013-01-01
Data is the central asset of today's dynamically operating organization and their business. This data is usually stored in database. A major consideration is applied on the security of that data from the unauthorized access and intruders. Data encryption is a strong option for security of data in database and especially in those organizations where security risks are high. But there is a potential disadvantage of performance degradation. When we apply encryption on database then we should com...
Multiple-image encryption and authentication with sparse representation by space multiplexing.
Gong, Qiong; Liu, Xuyan; Li, Genquan; Qin, Yi
2013-11-01
A multiple-image encryption and authentication approach by space multiplexing has been proposed. The redundant spaces in the previous security systems employing sparse representation strategy are optimized. With the proposal the information of multiple images can be integrated into a synthesized ciphertext that is convenient for storage and transmission. Only when all the keys are correct can the information of the primary images be authenticated. Computer simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed method is feasible and effective. Moreover, the proposal is also proved to be robust against occlusion and noise attacks. PMID:24216647
Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.
2015-06-01
Many phase-truncation-based cryptosystems encounter an information disclosure problem. In this paper, a novel color image encryption using a phase-truncated Fresnel transform and random amplitude mask (RAM) without the risk of information disclosure is proposed. An image is first separated into three channels (red, green, and blue) and using an additional RAM channel the risk of information disclosure encountered in previous encryption methods is eliminated. Moreover unlike previous methods where each channel is encrypted independently, the four channels employed in the proposed method are encrypted using a cascading technique. Robustness of the proposed scheme against attacks is analyzed. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.
Poonam Garg
2010-01-01
Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplifie...
Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.
Encrypting Digital Camera with Automatic Encryption Key Deletion
Oakley, Ernest C. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A digital video camera includes an image sensor capable of producing a frame of video data representing an image viewed by the sensor, an image memory for storing video data such as previously recorded frame data in a video frame location of the image memory, a read circuit for fetching the previously recorded frame data, an encryption circuit having an encryption key input connected to receive the previously recorded frame data from the read circuit as an encryption key, an un-encrypted data input connected to receive the frame of video data from the image sensor and an encrypted data output port, and a write circuit for writing a frame of encrypted video data received from the encrypted data output port of the encryption circuit to the memory and overwriting the video frame location storing the previously recorded frame data.
Suresh Jaganathan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In healthcare industry, the patient\\'s medical data plays a vital role because diagnosis of any ailments is done by using those data. The high volume of medical data leads to scalability and maintenance issues when using health-care provider\\'s on-site picture archiving and communication system (PACS and network oriented storage system. Therefore a standard is needed for maintaining the medical data and for better diagnosis. Since the medical data reflects in a similar way to individualsâ€™ personal information, secrecy should be maintained. Maintaining secrecy can be done by encrypting the data, but as medical data involves images and videos, traditional text based encryption/decryption schemes are not adequate for providing confidentiality. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for securing the DICOM format medical archives by providing better confidentiality and maintaining their integrity. Our contribution in this algorithm is of twofold: (1 Development of Improved Chaotic based Arnold Cat Map for encryption/decryption of DICOM files and (2 Applying a new hash algorithm based on chaotic theory for those encrypted files for maintaining integrity. By applying this algorithm, the secrecy of medical data is maintained. The proposed algorithm is tested with various DICOM format image archives by studying the following parameters i PSNR - for quality of images and ii Key - for security.
A New Public-Key Encryption Scheme Based on Non-Expansion Visual Cryptography and Boolean Operation
Abdullah M. Jaafar; Azman Samsudin
2010-01-01
Currently, most of the existing public-key encryption schemes are based on complex algorithms with heavy computations. In 1994, Naor and Shamir proposed a simple cryptography method for digital images called visual cryptography. Existing visual cryptography primitives can be considered as a special kind of secret-key cryptography that does not require heavy computations for encrypting and decrypting an image. In this paper, we propose a new public-key encryption scheme for image based on non-...
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun
2013-10-01
In this article, a multiple-image encryption method based on the optical interference principle and phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing is proposed. During the encryption process, each secret image is encoded into two analytically obtained POMs and one computer-generated random POM, in which no iterative computation is required. The analytically obtained POMs taken from different secret images are then synthesized by POM multiplexing and further encoded into two complex ciphertext images. The silhouette problem that exists in the earlier interference principle-based encryption approaches is totally resolved by the proposal. Both digital and optical means can be used for decryption. The crosstalk effect between the secret images will not appear in the decrypted results by using the proposed system. Numerical simulations have been given to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposal. We also discuss briefly the influence of information compression on the quality of decrypted images. PMID:24085198
Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT
Shengbing Che
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accurately. It could recover tampered block with good image quality when tamper occured within the limits of the anti-tamper radius. It could effectively resist vector quantization and synchronous counterfeiting attacks on self-embedding watermarking schemes.
FORTRAN Algorithm for Image Processing
Roth, Don J.; Hull, David R.
1987-01-01
FORTRAN computer algorithm containing various image-processing analysis and enhancement functions developed. Algorithm developed specifically to process images of developmental heat-engine materials obtained with sophisticated nondestructive evaluation instruments. Applications of program include scientific, industrial, and biomedical imaging for studies of flaws in materials, analyses of steel and ores, and pathology.
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Jinyun
2013-12-20
We propose a multiple-image encryption scheme, based on polarized light encoding and the interference principle of phase-only masks (POMs), in the Fresnel-transform (FrT) domain. In this scheme, each secret image is converted into an intensity image by polarized light encoding, where a random key image and a pixilated polarizer with random angles are employed as keys. The intensity encrypted images produced by different secret images are convolved together and then inverse Fresnel-transformed. Phase and amplitude truncations are used to generate the asymmetric decryption keys. The phase-truncated inverse FrT spectrum is sent into an interference-based encryption (IBE) system to analytically obtain two POMs. To reduce the transmission and storage load on the keys, the chaotic mapping method is employed to generate random distributions of keys for encryption and decryption. One can recover all secret images successfully only if the corresponding decryption keys, the mechanism of FrTs, and correct chaotic conditions are known. The inherent silhouette problem can be thoroughly resolved by polarized light encoding in this proposal, without using any time-consuming iterative methods. The entire encryption and decryption process can be realized digitally, or in combination with optical means. Numerical simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed scheme. PMID:24513953
A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Multi-orbit Hybrid of Discrete Dynamical System
Ruisong Ye; Huiqing Huang; Xiangbo Tan
2014-01-01
A multi-orbit hybrid image encryption scheme based on discrete chaotic dynamical systems is proposed. One generalized Arnold map is adopted to generate three orbits for three initial conditions. Another chaotic dynamical system, tent map, is applied to generate one pseudo-random sequence to determine the hybrid orbit points from which one of the three orbits of generalized Arnold map. The hybrid orbit sequence is then utilized to shuffle the pixels' positions of plain-image so as to get one p...
A Modified Location-Dependent Image Encryption for Mobile Information System
Prasad Reddy P.V.G.D; K.R.Sudha; P Sanyasi Naidu
2010-01-01
The wide spread use of WLAN (Wireless LAN) and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. In such scenario, a need for Secure Communication arises. Secure communication is possible through encryption of data. A lot of encryption techniques have evolved over time. However, most of the data encryption techniques are location-independent. Data encrypted with such techniques can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict...
Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes
Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik
Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....
Simultaneous Color Image Compression and Encryption using Number Theory
Navaneethakrishnan Navaneethakrishnan
2012-01-01
The dependence on computing machines and utility of information has been growing tremendously in the last few decades. As a result, evolving effective techniques for storing and transmitting the ever increasing volumes of data has become a high priority issue. Image compression addresses the problem by reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the compression process is the removal of redundant data. Selection of a suitable of a suitable compre...
ITERATIVE CELLULAR IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHM
osman, onur; UĂ‡AN, Osman N.; ALBORA, A. Muhittin
2012-01-01
In this paper, a new iterative image processing algorithm is introduced and denoted as â€śiterative cellular image processing algorithmâ€ť (ICIPA).Â The new unsupervised iterative algorithm uses the advantage of stochastic properties and neighborhood relations between the cells of the input image.Â In ICIPA scheme; first regarding to the stochastic properties of the data, all possible quantization levels are determined and then 2D input image is processed using a function, based on averaging and ...
Detecting Hidden Encrypted Volumes
Hargreaves, Christopher; Chivers, Howard
2010-01-01
Hidden encrypted volumes can cause problems in digital investigations since they provide criminal suspects with a range of opportunities for deceptive anti-forensics and a countermeasure to legislation written to force suspects to reveal decryption keys. This paper describes how hidden encrypted volumes can be detected, and their size estimated. The paper shows how multiple copies of an encrypted container can be obtained from a single disk image of Windows Vista and Windows 7 systems using t...
Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging
Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-11-15
I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.
A simple public-key attack on phase-truncation-based double-images encryption system
Ding, Xiangling; Yang, Gaobo; He, Dajiang
2015-07-01
Phase-truncation based double-images cryptosystem can avoid the iterative Fourier transforms and realize double-images encryption. In this paper, a simple public-key attack is proposed to break this cryptosystem by using arbitrary position parameters and three public keys. The attack process is composed of two steps. Firstly, the decryption keys are simply generated with the help of arbitrary position parameters and the three public keys. Secondly, the two approximate values of the original images are obtained by using the generated decryption keys. Moreover, the proposed public-key attack is different from the existing attacks. It is not sensitive to position parameters of the double-images and the computing efficiency is also much better. Computer simulation results further prove its vulnerability.
Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.
2015-10-01
Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium.
Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V
2015-01-01
Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium. PMID:26503834
An Efficient Image Encryption Scheme Based on a Peter De Jong Chaotic Map and a RC4 Stream Cipher
Hanchinamani, Gururaj; Kulkarni, Linganagouda
2015-09-01
Security is a vital issue in communication and storage of the images and encryption is one of the ways to ensure the security. This paper proposes an efficient image encryption scheme based on a Peter De Jong chaotic map and a RC4 stream cipher. A Peter De Jong map is employed to determine the initial keys for the RC4 stream generator and also during permutation stage. The RC4 stream generator is utilized to generate the pseudo random numbers for the pixel value rotation and diffusion operations. Each encryption round is comprised of three stages: permutation, pixel value rotation and diffusion. The permutation is based on scrambling the rows and columns, in addition, circular rotations of the rows and columns in alternate orientations. The second stage circularly rotates each and every pixel value by utilizing M Ă— N pseudo random numbers. The last stage carries out the diffusion twice by scanning the image in two different ways. Each of the two diffusions accomplishes the diffusion in two orientations (forward and backward) with two previously diffused pixels and two pseudo random numbers. The security and performance of the proposed method is assessed thoroughly by using key space, statistical, differential, entropy and performance analysis. Moreover, two rounds of the call to the encrypt function provide the sufficient security. The experimental results show that the proposed encryption scheme is computationally fast with high security.
An Attack on Wavelet Tree Shuffling Encryption Schemes
Assegie, Samuel; Salama, Paul; King, Brian
With the ubiquity of the internet and advances in technology, especially digital consumer electronics, demand for online multimedia services is ever increasing. While it's possible to achieve a great reduction in bandwidth utilization of multimedia data such as image and video through compression, security still remains a great concern. Traditional cryptographic algorithms/systems for data security are often not fast enough to process the vast amounts of data generated by the multimedia applications to meet the realtime constraints. Selective encryption is a new scheme for multimedia content protection. It involves encrypting only a portion of the data to reduce computational complexity(the amount of data to encrypt)while preserving a sufficient level of security. To achieve this, many selective encryption schemes are presented in different literatures. One of them is Wavelet Tree Shuffling. In this paper we assess the security of a wavelet tree shuffling encryption scheme.
Azoug, Seif Eddine; Bouguezel, Saad
2016-01-01
In this paper, a novel opto-digital image encryption technique is proposed by introducing a new non-linear preprocessing and using the multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform (MPDFrFT). The non-linear preprocessing is performed digitally on the input image in the spatial domain using a piecewise linear chaotic map (PLCM) coupled with the bitwise exclusive OR (XOR). The resulting image is multiplied by a random phase mask before applying the MPDFrFT to whiten the image. Then, a chaotic permutation is performed on the output of the MPDFrFT using another PLCM different from the one used in the spatial domain. Finally, another MPDFrFT is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The parameters of the PLCMs together with the multiple fractional orders of the MPDFrFTs constitute the secret key for the proposed cryptosystem. Computer simulation results and security analysis are presented to show the robustness of the proposed opto-digital image encryption technique and the great importance of the new non-linear preprocessing introduced to enhance the security of the cryptosystem and overcome the problem of linearity encountered in the existing permutation-based opto-digital image encryption schemes.
Zhang, Leihong; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Ma, Xiuhua; Zhang, Dawei
2015-12-01
An optical encryption method based on compressive ghost imaging (CGI) with double random-phase encoding (DRPE), named DRPE-CGI, is proposed. The information is first encrypted by the sender with DRPE, the DRPE-coded image is encrypted by the system of computational ghost imaging with a secret key. The key of N random-phase vectors is generated by the sender and will be shared with the receiver who is the authorized user. The receiver decrypts the DRPE-coded image with the key, with the aid of CGI and a compressive sensing technique, and then reconstructs the original information by the technique of DRPE-decoding. The experiments suggest that cryptanalysts cannot get any useful information about the original image even if they eavesdrop 60% of the key at a given time, so the security of DRPE-CGI is higher than that of the security of conventional ghost imaging. Furthermore, this method can reduce 40% of the information quantity compared with ghost imaging while the qualities of reconstructing the information are the same. It can also improve the quality of the reconstructed plaintext information compared with DRPE-GI with the same sampling times. This technique can be immediately applied to encryption and data storage with the advantages of high security, fast transmission, and high quality of reconstructed information.
Mamtha Shetty
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this era of digital world, with the evolution of technology, there is an essential need for optimization of online digital data and information. Nowadays, Security and Authenticity of digital data has become a big challenge. This paper proposes an innovative method to authenticate the digital documents. A new method is introduced here, which allows multiple encryption and decryption of digital data.
New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithms
Bilal Bahaa Zaidan
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Protecting data is a very old art and wide use since the Egyptian when they identify the 1st encryption method in this world, the spiciest people categorize protecting data under computer forensic and others locate it under network security, cryptography methods are the backbone of this art, nowadays many of new techniques for the attacker's beings develops, a lot of methods for information protecting start dropping down such as RSA and stander encryption methods, in the same time a new methods has been appeared such as Quantum cryptography, the new methods has faced problems in the key distribution or key management and some time such as RSA there is a function may estimate the keys, In this paper we will make a comparative study between the key management distribution methods, in fact we will talk about QKD Encryption in the fiber optic area vice verse the KDM in the normal networks, for instant there are two known methods, KDM "Diffi- Hellman" and XKMS.
Deepan, B; Quan, C; Wang, Y; Tay, C J
2014-07-10
In this paper, a new multiple-image encryption and decryption technique that utilizes the compressive sensing (CS) concept along with a double-random phase encryption (DRPE) has been proposed. The space multiplexing method is employed for integrating multiple-image data. The method, which results in a nonlinear encryption system, is able to overcome the vulnerability of classical DRPE. The CS technique and space multiplexing are able to provide additional key space in the proposed method. A numerical experiment of the proposed method is implemented and the results show that the proposed method has good accuracy and is more robust than classical DRPE. The proposed system is also employed against chosen-plaintext attacks and it is found that the inclusion of compressive sensing enhances robustness against the attacks. PMID:25090076
New Way for Encryption Data Using Hourglas
Hamid Mehdi
2013-01-01
Nowadays, there are many encryption algorithms to protect information. Data confidentiality is one of themost important functions of encryption algorithms, it means when the transferring data between differentsystems is vague for unauthorized systems or people. Moreover Encryption algorithms must maintain dataintegrity and provide availability for information. New encryption methods cause the attackers cannot simplyaccess to the information and do not allow discovering the relationship betwee...
Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Abdallah, N; Jridi, M
2013-04-01
We introduce a double optimization procedure for spectrally multiplexing multiple images. This technique is adapted from a recently proposed optical setup implementing the discrete cosine transformation (DCT). The new analysis technique is a combination of spectral fusion based on the properties of DCT, specific spectral filtering, and quantization of the remaining encoded frequencies using an optimal number of bits. Spectrally multiplexing multiple images defines a first level of encryption. A second level of encryption based on a real key image is used to reinforce encryption. A set of numerical simulations and a comparison with the well known JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard have been carried out to demonstrate the improved performances of this method. The focus here will differ from the method of simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images (SFCE) [Opt. Express 19, 24023 (2011)] in the following ways. Firstly, we shall be concerned with optimizing the compression rate by adapting the size of the spectral block to each target image and decreasing the number of bits required to encode each block. This size adaptation is achieved by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) time-frequency criterion. We found that this size adaptation provides a good tradeoff between bandwidth of spectral plane and number of reconstructed output images. Secondly, the encryption rate is improved by using a real biometric key and randomly changing the rotation angle of each block before spectral fusion. By using a real-valued key image we have been able to increase the compression rate of 50% over the original SFCE method. We provide numerical examples of the effects for size, rotation, and shifting of DCT-blocks which play noteworthy roles in the optimization of the bandwidth of the spectral plane. Inspection of the results for different types of attack demonstrates the robustness of our procedure. PMID:23571893
Quantum probabilistic encryption scheme based on conjugate coding
Li YANG; Xiang, Chong; Li, Bao
2012-01-01
We present a quantum probabilistic encryption algorithm for a private-key encryption scheme based on conjugate coding of the qubit string. A probabilistic encryption algorithm is generally adopted in public-key encryption protocols. Here we consider the way it increases the unicity distance of both classical and quantum private-key encryption schemes. The security of quantum probabilistic private-key encryption schemes against two kinds of attacks is analyzed. By using the no-signalling postu...
Hardware stream cipher with controllable chaos generator for colour image encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2014-01-01
This study presents hardware realisation of chaos-based stream cipher utilised for image encryption applications. A third-order chaotic system with signum non-linearity is implemented and a new post processing technique is proposed to eliminate the bias from the original chaotic sequence. The proposed stream cipher utilises the processed chaotic output to mask and diffuse input pixels through several stages of XORing and bit permutations. The performance of the cipher is tested with several input images and compared with previously reported systems showing superior security and higher hardware efficiency. The system is experimentally verified on XilinxVirtex 4 field programmable gate array (FPGA) achieving small area utilisation and a throughput of 3.62 Gb/s. Â© The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.
Amandeep Kaur
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Cloud is a term used as a metaphor for the wide area networks (like internet or any such large networked environment. It came partly from the cloud-like symbol used to represent the complexities of the networks in the schematic diagrams. It represents all the complexities of the network which may include everything from cables, routers, servers, data centers and all such other devices. Cloud based systems saves data off multiple organizations on shared hardware systems. Data segregation is done by encrypting data of users, but encryption is not complete solution. We can do segregate data by creating virtual partitions of data for saving and allowing user to access data in his partition only. We will be implementing cloud security aspects for data mining by implementing cloud system. After implementing cloud infrastructure for data mining for cloud system we shall be evaluating security measure for data mining in cloud. We will be fixing threats in data mining to Personal/private data in cloud systems.
Meng, X. F.; Peng, X.; Cai, L. Z.; Li, A. M.; Gao, Z.; Wang, Y. R.
2009-08-01
A hybrid cryptosystem is proposed, in which one image is encrypted to two interferograms with the aid of double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and two-step phase-shifting interferometry (2-PSI), then three pairs of public-private keys are utilized to encode and decode the session keys (geometrical parameters, the second random-phase mask) and interferograms. In the stage of decryption, the ciphered image can be decrypted by wavefront reconstruction, inverse Fresnel diffraction, and real amplitude normalization. This approach can successfully solve the problem of key management and dispatch, resulting in increased security strength. The feasibility of the proposed cryptosystem and its robustness against some types of attack are verified and analyzed by computer simulations.
Schmalz, Mark S.
1994-06-01
In this second of a series of papers, we present optical architectures for the encryption of signals or imagery that are defined over discrete domains. As in Part 1, we emphasize the mapping of candidate algorithms and describe encryption transforms in terms of image algebra (IA) expressions, as well as notation specific to this study. both of which were reviewed in Part 1. The feasibility of our algorithms is verified by presenting schematic optical architectures that implement the corresponding IA expressions, together with pertinent analyses. In particular, we discuss the optical implementation of data encryption via mono- and polyalphabetic substitutions, transpositional and polygraphic ciphers, vector quantization, and DES (data encryption standard). Analyses and discussion emphasize computation cost inclusive of propagation time, as well as the information loss expected from physical devices such as spatial light modulators and beam deflectors.
Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu
2013-09-01
A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method. PMID:24085074
Towards Robust Invariant Commutative Watermarking-Encryption based on Image Histograms
Schmitz, R.; S Li; Grecos, C; Zhang, X.
2014-01-01
Invariant Commutative Watermarking-Encryption means to use a cipher that does not have any impact on a certain feature space, which can thus be used for embedding watermarks either before or after encryption. For example, histogram-based watermarking schemes are invariant to pixel permutations and can be combined with permutation-based ciphers to form a Commutative Watermarking-Encryption (CWE) scheme. However, typical histogram-based watermarking schemes based on comparison of histogram bins...
Testing a Variety of Encryption Technologies
Henson, T J
2001-04-09
Review and test speeds of various encryption technologies using Entrust Software. Multiple encryption algorithms are included in the product. Algorithms tested were IDEA, CAST, DES, and RC2. Test consisted of taking a 7.7 MB Word document file which included complex graphics and timing encryption, decryption and signing. Encryption is discussed in the GIAC Kickstart section: Information Security: The Big Picture--Part VI.
A Space-bit-plane Scrambling Algorithm for Image Based on Chaos
Rui Liu
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Image scrambling is an important technique in digital image encryption and digital image watermarking. This paper's main purpose is to research how to scramble image by space-bit-plane operation (SBPO. Based on analyzing traditional bit operation of individual pixels image scrambling method, this paper proposed a new scrambling algorithm. The new scrambling algorithm combined with SBPO and chaotic sequence. First, every eight pixels from different areas of image were selected according to chaotic sequence, and grouped together to form a collection. Second, the SBPO was performed in every collection and built eight pixels of the image with new values. The scrambling image was generated when all pixels were processed. In this way, the proposed algorithm transforms drastically the statistical characteristic of original image information, so, it increases the difficulty of an unauthorized individual to break the encryption. The simulation results and the performance analysis show that the algorithm has large secret-key space, high security, fast scrambling speed and strong robustness, and is suitable for practical use to protect the security of digital image information over the Internet.
Advanced Imaging Algorithms for Radiation Imaging Systems
Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-10-01
The intent of the proposed work, in collaboration with University of Michigan, is to develop the algorithms that will bring the analysis from qualitative images to quantitative attributes of objects containing SNM. The first step to achieving this is to develop an indepth understanding of the intrinsic errors associated with the deconvolution and MLEM algorithms. A significant new effort will be undertaken to relate the image data to a posited three-dimensional model of geometric primitives that can be adjusted to get the best fit. In this way, parameters of the model such as sizes, shapes, and masses can be extracted for both radioactive and non-radioactive materials. This model-based algorithm will need the integrated response of a hypothesized configuration of material to be calculated many times. As such, both the MLEM and the model-based algorithm require significant increases in calculation speed in order to converge to solutions in practical amounts of time.
Deo Brat Ojha
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This paper proposed an efficient and effectivearchitecture to transmit a medical image. The proposedarrangement provides the solution of protecting thetransmission of medical image. With the security of medicalimage, we also emphasis on the channel capacity. Thecombination of Encryption with Triple EHDES and Losslesscompression gives the better solution for protection andefficient use of communication channel. If any error occurredduring the transmission due to teeming, that also measured andencountered from error correction code.
A Secure Image Based Steganographic Model Using RSA Algorithm and LSB Insertion
Swati Tiwari R. P. Mahajan
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Steganography is the term used to describe the hiding of data in images to avoid detection by attackers. It is an emerging area which is used for secured data transmission over any public media. In this study a novel approach of image steganography based on LSB (Least Significant Bit insertion and RSA encryption technique for the lossless jpeg images has been proposed. This paper discusses an application which ranks images in a users library based on their suitability as cover objects for some data. The data is matched to an image; so there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover the data. The application first encrypts the data using RSA algorithm. The message bits are embedded into the image using Least Significant Bits insertion. Before embedding, the message bits are encrypted using RSA algorithm, resulting in increased robustness. This would decrease the intentional attacks which try to reveal the hidden message. At the receiver side reverse operation has been carried out to get back the original information
Optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting with the help of QR code
Deng, Xiaopeng
2015-08-01
A novel optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting is proposed with the help of quick response (QR) code. In the encryption process, the original image to be encoded is firstly transformed into the corresponding QR code, and then the corresponding QR code is encoded into two phase-only masks (POMs) by using basic vector operations. Finally, the absolute values of the real or imaginary parts of the two POMs are chosen as the ciphertexts. In decryption process, the QR code can be approximately restored by recording the intensity of the subtraction between the ciphertexts, and hence the original image can be retrieved without any quality loss by scanning the restored QR code with a smartphone. Simulation results and actual smartphone collected results show that the method is feasible and has strong tolerance to noise, phase difference and ratio between intensities of the two decryption light beams.
In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption. (paper)
Simple Encryption/Decryption Application
Majdi Al-qdah
2007-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an Encryption/Decryption application that is able to work with any type of file; for example: image files, data files, documentation filesĂ˘â‚¬Â¦etc. The method of encryption is simple enough yet powerful enough to fit the needs of students and staff in a small institution. The application uses simple key generation method of random number generation and combination. The final encryption is a binary one performed through rotation of bits and XOR operation applied on each block of data in any file using a symmetric decimal key. The key generation and Encryption are all done by the system itself after clicking the encryption button with transparency to the user. The same encryption key is also used to decrypt the encrypted binary file.
Suresh Jaganathan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In healthcare industry, the patient's medical data plays a vital role because diagnosis of anyailments is done by using those data. The high volume of medical data leads to scalability andmaintenance issues when using health-care provider's on-site picture archiving andcommunication system (PACS and network oriented storage system. Therefore a standard isneeded for maintaining the medical data and for better diagnosis. Since the medical data reflectsin a similar way to individualsâ€™ personal information, secrecy should be maintained. Maintainingsecrecy can be done by encrypting the data, but as medical data involves images and videos,traditional text based encryption/decryption schemes are not adequate for providingconfidentiality. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for securing the DICOM format medicalarchives by providing better confidentiality and maintaining their integrity. Our contribution in thisalgorithm is of twofold: (1 Development of Improved Chaotic based Arnold Cat Map forencryption/decryption of DICOM files and (2 Applying a new hash algorithm based on chaotictheory for those encrypted files for maintaining integrity. By applying this algorithm, the secrecy ofmedical data is maintained. The proposed algorithm is tested with various DICOM format imagearchives by studying the following parameters i PSNR - for quality of images and ii Key - forsecurity.
Investigating Encrypted Material
McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe
When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.
Spread spectrum image data hiding in the encrypted discrete cosine transform coefficients
Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Z. Jane
2013-10-01
Digital watermarking and data hiding are important tools for digital rights protection of media data. Spread spectrum (SS)-based watermarking and data-hiding approaches are popular due to their outstanding robustness, but their security might not be sufficient. To improve the security of SS, a SS-based image data-hiding approach is proposed by encrypting the discrete cosine transform coefficients of the host image with the piecewise linear chaotic map, before the operation of watermark embedding. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations and analyses of its robustness and security are carried out. The average bit-error-rate values on 100 real images from the Berkeley segmentation dataset under the JPEG compression, additive Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, and cropping attacks are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can maintain the high robustness of traditional SS schemes and, meanwhile, also improve the security. The proposed approach can extend the key space of traditional SS schemes from 10 to 10 and thus can resist brute-force attack and unauthorized detection watermark attack.
Optical Encryption with Jigsaw Transform using Matlab
Giraldo, Leidy Marcela
2012-01-01
This article will describe an optical encryption technical of images which it is proposed in an analogical and digital way. The development of the technical to a digital level, it is made to implementing algorithms (routines) in MATLAB. We will propose a functional diagram to the described analogical development from which designated the optical systems associated with each functional block. Level of security that the jigsaw algorithms provide applied on an image, which has been decomposed into its bit-planes, is significantly better if they are applied on an image that has not been previously decomposed.
A Novel Steganographic Scheme Based on Hash Function Coupled With AES Encryption
Rinu Tresa M J
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In the present scenario the use of images increased extremely in the cyber world so that we can easily transfer data with the help of these images in a secured way. Image steganography becomes important in this manner. Steganography and cryptography are the two techniques that are often confused with each other. The input and output of steganogra phy looks alike, but for cryptography the output will be in an encrypted form which always draws attraction to the attacker. This paper combines both steganography and cryptography so that attacker doesnâ€™t know about the existence of message and the message itself is encrypted to ensure more security. The textual data entered by the user is encrypted using AES algorithm. After encryption, the encrypted data is stored in the colour image by using a hash based algorithm. Most of the steganographic algorithms available today is suitable for a specific image format and these algorithms suffers from poor quality of the embedded image. The proposed work does not corrupt the images quality in any form. The striking feature is that this algorithm is suitable for almost all image formats e.g.: jpeg/jpg, Bitmap, TIFF and GIF
Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms
Palacios, R.
2007-07-01
The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)
Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms
The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)
A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding
Sadra, Yaser; Fard, Zahra Arasteh
2012-01-01
Cryptography is always very important in data origin authentications, entity authentication, data integrity and confidentiality. In recent years, a variety of chaotic cryptographic schemes have been proposed. These schemes has typical structure which performed the permutation and the diffusion stages, alternatively. The random number generators are intransitive in cryptographic schemes and be used in the diffusion functions of the image encryption for diffused pixels of plain image. In this paper, we propose a chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by a novel logistic pseudorandom image algorithm. To evaluate the security of the cipher image of this scheme, the key space analysis, the correlation of two adjacent pixels and differential attack were performed. This scheme tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space and level of security.
A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding
Sodeif Ahadpour
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cryptography is always very important in data origin authentications, entity authentication, data integrity and confidentiality. In recent years, a variety of chaotic cryptographic schemes have been proposed. These schemes has typical structure which performed the permutation and the diffusion stages, alternatively. The random number generators are intransitive in cryptographic schemes and be used in the diffusion functions of the image encryption for diffused pixels of plain image. In this paper, we propose a chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by a novel logistic pseudorandom image algorithm. To evaluate the security of the cipher image of this scheme, the key space analysis, the correlation of two adjacent pixels and differential attack were performed. This scheme tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space and level of security.