Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm
Mohammed A.F. Al-Husainy
2006-01-01
The security of digital images attracts much attention recently, especially when these digital images are stored in some types of memory or send through the communication networks. Many different image encryption methods have been proposed to keep the security of these images. Image encryption techniques tries to convert an image to another image that is hard to understand. In this proposed method, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to produce a new encryption method by exploitation the powerful ...
Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm
Catur Iswahyudi; Emy Setyaningsih
2012-01-01
This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. The...
A new chaotic algorithm for image encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper presents a new nonlinear chaotic algorithm (NCA) which uses power function and tangent function instead of linear function. Its structural parameters are obtained by experimental analysis. And an image encryption algorithm in a one-time-one-password system is designed. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption algorithm based on NCA shows advantages of large key space and high-level security, while maintaining acceptable efficiency. Compared with some general encryption algorithms such as DES, the encryption algorithm is more secure
Genetic Algorithm: Tool to Encrypt Image
Dr. Mohammed Abbas Fadhil Al-Husainy
2012-01-01
Security is an important issue when digital images are transmitted through the internet and cellular phones, as well as being important in encryption of the satellite images, and image encryption is the most useful technique employed for this purpose. Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be regarded as a randomized search procedure that is commonly used to solve the optimization problems. The genetic algorithm uses two reproduction operators - crossover and mutation. Crossover assembles existing genes ...
Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Universal Modular Transformation
Jiaying Jia; Qifeng Zou; Xiaoyang Yu; Xue Yang
2010-01-01
Image encryption is essential to assure information security. Universal modular transformation is a widely applied encryption method, but it has some disadvantages such as a relatively small quantity of keys and insecurity. A uniform block encryption method is proposed in this study to improve the image entropy of encryption and an image is encrypted with the universal modular transform combined with a chaotic mapping. Experimental results show that this algorithm can provide good encryption ...
Parallel image encryption algorithm based on discretized chaotic map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, a variety of chaos-based algorithms were proposed for image encryption. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for parallel image encryption. Based on this framework, a new algorithm is designed using the discretized Kolmogorov flow map. It fulfills all the requirements for a parallel image encryption algorithm. Moreover, it is secure and fast. These properties make it a good choice for image encryption on parallel computing platforms
A new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This Letter presents a new image encryption scheme, which employs an image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses a hyper-chaotic system to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted y image has a random-like behavior
An Image Encryption Algorithm based on 3D Lorenz map
Mrs. A.Anto Steffi; Dipesh Sharma,
2013-01-01
In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this paper a new approach for image encryption is based on chaotic baker map and chaotic Lorenz map in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external secret key of 128 bit and two chaotic maps are employed. The initial conditions for both maps are derived using the external secr...
Chaos-based image encryption algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Letter, a new image encryption scheme is presented, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Firstly, the Arnold cat map is used to shuffle the positions of the image pixels in the spatial-domain. Then the discrete output signal of the Chen's chaotic system is preprocessed to be suitable for the grayscale image encryption, and the shuffled image is encrypted by the preprocessed signal pixel by pixel. The experimental results demonstrate that the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior
Color Image Encryption Algorithm Combining Compressive Sensing with Arnold Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aidi Zhang
2013-11-01
Full Text Available A new color image encryption algorithm combining compressive sensing with Arnold transform is proposed, which can encrypt the color image into a gray image. Considering the dimensional reduction and random projection of compressive sensing, we utilize compressive sensing to encrypt and compress the three color components of color image simultaneously. The three encrypted and compressed color components’ dimensions are smaller than the original image, thus they can be grouped into a gray image, and then the gray image is scrambled by Arnold transform to enhance the security. The proposed algorithm can also be applied in the multiple-image encryption. The experimental results show the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm.
Image encryption based on a new total shuffling algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents image encryption scheme, which employs a new image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses the states combination of two chaotic systems to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the new image total shuffling algorithm has a low time complexity and the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior
Meteosat Images Encryption based on AES and RSA Algorithms
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Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Satellite image Security is playing a vital role in the field of communication system and Internet. This work is interested in securing transmission of Meteosat images on the Internet, in public or local networks. To enhance the security of Meteosat transmission in network communication, a hybrid encryption algorithm based on Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA algorithms is proposed. AES algorithm is used for data transmission because of its higher efficiency in block encryption and RSA algorithm is used for the encryption of the key of the AES because of its management advantages in key cipher. Our encryption system generates a unique password every new session of encryption. Cryptanalysis and various experiments have been carried out and the results were reported in this paper, which demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed scheme.
Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Decomposition
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Xiuli Song
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The proposed chaos-based image encryption algorithm consists of four stages: decomposition, shuffle, diffusion and combination. Decomposition is that an original image is decomposed to components according to some rule. The purpose of the shuffle is to mask original organization of the pixels of the image, and the diffusion is to change their values. Combination is not necessary in the sender. To improve the efficiency, the parallel architecture is taken to process the shuffle and diffusion. To enhance the security of the algorithm, firstly, a permutation of the labels is designed. Secondly, two Logistic maps are used in diffusion stage to encrypt the components. One map encrypts the odd rows of the component and another map encrypts the even rows. Experiment results and security analysis demonstrate that the encryption algorithm not only is robust and flexible, but also can withstand common attacks such as statistical attacks and differential attacks.
Image Encryption Algorithm Based on a Chaotic Iterative Process
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Michael François
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The paper describes a symmetric encryption algorithm based on bit permutations and using an iterative process combined with a chaotic function. The main advantages of such a cryptosystem is its ability to encrypt securely bit sequences and assuring confusion, diffusion and indistinguishability properties in the cipher. The algorithm is applied on the image encryption where the plain-image is viewed as binary sequence. The results of statistical analysis about randomness, sensitivity and correlation on the cipher-images show the relevance of the proposed cryptosystem.
Improving a New Logistic Map as a New Chaotic Algorithm for Image Encryption
Saraereh, Omar A.; Qais Alsafasfeh; Aodeh Arfoa
2013-01-01
Image encryption is not a new field, but the techniques used to encrypt images are constantly being re-evaluated. As computer processing power grows, the need for better encryption algorithms grows with it. In this paper, the attention was focused on the encryption of still images. In particular, a precise look at encryption using chaotic techniques was subjected. In this paper we present improving existing chaotic algorithm (NCA) for image encryption proposed in 2005. The analysis of the fou...
RC4 Enrichment Algorithm Approach for Selective Image Encryption
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Pramod Kumar
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper is introduces RC4 Enrichment Algorithm Approach for selective image encryption. This approach is derived from the standard RC4 algorithm. RC4 algorithm is already used for image encryption and also for the selective image encryption. Currently RC4 is vulnerable. Lots of cryptanalytic found the lots of weakness, vulnerable point and attacks inside the RC4 algorithm. So in this concern, this paper has worked. This paper has designed the RC4 based new enrichment approach to making strong the RC4 algorithm, “PC1-RC4”. This approach is based on new KSA and PRGA algorithm process, which are the two stages inside the RC4 algorithm.
Design and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithm Using Chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandhya Rani M.H.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Images are widely used in diverse areas such as medical, military, science, engineering, art, advertising, entertainment, education as well as training, increasing the use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing images. So maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of images has become a major concern. This makes encryption necessary. The pixel values of neighbouring pixels in a plain image are strongly correlated. The proposed algorithm breaks this correlation increasing the entropy. Correlation is reduced by changing the pixel position this which is called confusion. Histogram is equalized by changing the pixel value this which is called diffusion. The proposed method of encryption algorithm is based on chaos theory. The plain-image is divided into blocks and then performs three levels of shuffling using different chaotic maps. In the first level the pixels within the block are shuffled. In the second level the blocks are shuffled and in the third level all the pixels in an image are shuffled. Finally the shuffled image is diffused using a chaotic sequence generated using symmetric keys, to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed algorithm can be used successfully to encrypt/decrypt the images with the secret keys. The analysis of the algorithm also shows that the algorithm gives larger key space and a high key sensitivity. The encrypted image has good encryption effect, information entropy and low correlation coefficient.
An image encryption algorithm utilizing julia sets and hilbert curves.
Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing
2014-01-01
Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets' parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few parameters for the key generation, which greatly reduces the storage space. Moreover, because of the Julia sets' properties, such as infiniteness and chaotic characteristics, the keys have high sensitivity even to a tiny perturbation. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has large key space, good statistical property, high sensitivity for the keys, and effective resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack. PMID:24404181
Breaking a novel colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos
Li, Chengqing; Ou, Rong; Wong, Kwok-Wo
2012-01-01
Recently, a colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos was proposed by cascading two position permutation operations and one substitution operation, which are all determined by some pseudo-random number sequences generated by iterating the Logistic map. This paper evaluates the security level of the encryption algorithm and finds that the position permutation-only part and the substitution part can be separately broken with only $\\lceil (\\log_2(3MN))/8 \\rceil$ and 2 chosen plain-images, respectively, where $MN$ is the size of the plain-image. Concise theoretical analyses are provided to support the chosen-plaintext attack, which are verified by experimental results also.
Analyzing the Efficiency of Text-to-Image Encryption Algorithm
Ahmad Abusukhon; Mohammad Talib; Nabulsi, Maher A.
2012-01-01
Today many of the activities are performed online through the Internet. One of the methods used to protect the data while sending it through the Internet is cryptography. In a previous work we proposed the Text-to-Image Encryption algorithm (TTIE) as a novel algorithm for network security. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of (TTIE) for large scale collection.
Breaking a chaotic image encryption algorithm based on perceptron model
Zhang, Yu; Li, Chengqing; Li, Qin; Zhang, Dan; Shu, Shi
2011-01-01
Recently, a chaotic image encryption algorithm based on perceptron model was proposed. The present paper analyzes security of the algorithm and finds that the equivalent secret key can be reconstructed with only one pair of known-plaintext/ciphertext, which is supported by both mathematical proof and experiment results. In addition, some other security defects are also reported.
Cryptanalyzing a RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaos map
Liu, Yuansheng
2013-01-01
Recently, a RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaos map has been proposed. It was reported that the encryption algorithm can be broken with four pairs of chosen plain-images and the corresponding cipher-images. This paper re-evaluates the security of the encryption algorithm, and finds that the encryption algorithm can be broken efficiently with only one known plain-image. The effectiveness of the proposed known-plaintext attack is supported by both ri...
Using Genetic Algorithm for Symmetric key Generation in Image Encryption
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Aarti Soni, Suyash Agrawal
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protectinginformation as the importance of security is increasing dayby day with the advent of online transaction processing ande commerce. In now a day the security of digital imagesattracts much attention, especially when these digitalimages are stored in memory or send through thecommunication networks. Genetic algorithms are a class ofoptimization algorithms. Many problems can be solvedusing genetic algorithms through modelling a simplifiedversion of genetic processes. In this paper, I proposed amethod based on Genetic Algorithm which is used togenerate key by the help of pseudo random numbergenerator. Random number will be generated on the basisof current time of the system. Using Genetic Algorithm wecan keep the strength of the key to be good, still make thewhole algorithm good enough. Symmetric key algorithmAES has been proposed for encrypting the image as it isvery secure method for symmetric key encryption.
Cryptanalysis of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A chaos-based image encryption algorithm was proposed in [Z.-H. Guan, F. Huang, W. Guan, Phys. Lett. A 346 (2005) 153]. In this Letter, we analyze the security weaknesses of the proposal. By applying chosen-plaintext and known-plaintext attacks, we show that all the secret parameters can be revealed
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
X. W., Li; D. H., Kim; S. J., Cho; S. T., Kim.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum-length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process [...] , the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.
Analysis and Improvement of Encryption Algorithm Based on Blocked and Chaotic Image Scrambling
Yunpeng Zhang; Peng Sun; Liang Yi; Yongqiang Ma; Ziyi Guo
2012-01-01
Based on blocked image scrambling encryption, this study presents a new image encryption algorithm by introducing chaos theory. This algorithm firstly makes spatial scrambling based on image blocking in order to interrupt pixel position, then furthering this interruption through Arnold Mapping in the chaos and transforms pixel RGB color space through optimized Arnold Mapping. After this process, we get the final encrypted image through a series of iteration. This algorithm has a lot of advant...
Hiral Rathod; Mahendra Singh Sisodia, Sanjay Kumar Sharma
2011-01-01
The primary goal of this paper is securitymanagement. This will provide authentication of users, andintegrity, accuracy and safety of images which is traveling overinternet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effortduring encryption and decryption. The Proposed Architecturefor encryption and decryption of an image using suitable userdefinedkey is developed with the same objective. In this paper,we introduce a new permutation technique based on thecombination of image permutation and ...
Shao, Zhuhong; Shu, Huazhong; Wu, Jiasong; Dong, Zhifang; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Coatrieux, Jean Louis
2014-03-10
This paper describes a novel algorithm to encrypt double color images into a single undistinguishable image in quaternion gyrator domain. By using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, the phase masks used for encryption are obtained. Subsequently, the encrypted image is generated via cascaded quaternion gyrator transforms with different rotation angles. The parameters in quaternion gyrator transforms and phases serve as encryption keys. By knowing these keys, the original color images can be fully restituted. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the validity of the proposed encryption system as well as its robustness against loss of data and additive Gaussian noise. PMID:24663832
A New Algorithm of Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Chaotic Mapping
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Musheer Ahmad
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The combination of chaotic theory and cryptography forms an important field of information security. In the past decade, chaos based image encryption is given much attention in the research of information security and a lot of image encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps have been proposed. Due to some inherent features of images like bulk data capacity and high data redundancy, the encryption of images is different from that of texts; therefore it is difficult to handle them by traditional encryption methods. In this communication, a new image encryption algorithm based on three different chaotic maps is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the plain-image is first decomposed into 8x8 size blocks and then the block based shuffling of image is carried out using 2D Cat map. Further, the control parameters of shuffling are randomly generated by employing 2D coupled Logistic map. After that the shuffled image is encrypted using chaotic sequence generated by one-dimensional Logistic map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully encrypt/decrypt the images with same secret keys, and the algorithm has good encryption effect, large key space and high sensitivity to a small change in secret keys. Moreover, the simulation analysis also demonstrates that the encrypted images have good information entropy, very low correlation coefficients and the distribution of gray values of an encrypted image has random-like behavior.
Hiral Rathod,; Mahendra Singh Sisodia, Sanjay Kumar Sharma
2011-01-01
The primary goal of this paper is to provide knowledge of safety of images which is traveling over internet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effort during encryption and decryption. In this paper I present some advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithm for encryption and decryption of an image with the same objective. Moreover we are also doing analysis of entropy and correlation between pixels value of various image encryption algorithm. From the analysis we are observin...
An improved image encryption algorithm based on chaotic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, two chaotic image encryption schemes have been proposed, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined. This paper provides the chosen plaintext attack to recover the corresponding plaintext of a given ciphertext. Furthermore, it points out that the two schemes are not sufficiently sensitive to small changes of the plaintext. Based on the given analysis, it proposes an improved algorithm which includes two rounds of substitution and one round of permutation to strengthen the overall performance. (general)
A New Algorithm of Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Chaotic Mapping
Musheer Ahmad; M Shamsher Alam
2010-01-01
The combination of chaotic theory and cryptography forms an important field of information security. In the past decade, chaos based image encryption is given much attention in the research of information security and a lot of image encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps have been proposed. Due to some inherent features of images like bulk data capacity and high data redundancy, the encryption of images is different from that of texts; therefore it is difficult to handle them by traditio...
A self-adapting image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To ensure the security of a digital image, a new self-adapting encryption algorithm based on the spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix is proposed in this paper. First, the plain-image is divided into different blocks of the same size, and each block is sorted in ascending order to obtain the corresponding standard ergodic matrix. Then each block is encrypted by the spatiotemporal chaotic system and shuffled according to the standard ergodic matrix. Finally, all modules are rearranged to acquire the final encrypted image. In particular, the plain-image information is used in the initial conditions of the spatiotemporal chaos and the ergodic matrices, so different plain-images will be encrypted to obtain different cipher-images. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the performance and security of the proposed encryption scheme can encrypt the image effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)
The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata
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Shuiping Zhang
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.
A chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, a number of image encryption algorithms based on the permutation-diffusion structure have been proposed. However, the control parameters used in the permutation stage are usually fixed in the whole encryption process, which favors attacks. In this paper, a chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters is proposed. The control parameters used in the permutation stage and the keystream employed in the diffusion stage are generated from two chaotic maps related to the plain-image. As a result, the algorithm can effectively resist all known attacks against permutation-diffusion architectures. Theoretical analyses and computer simulations both confirm that the new algorithm possesses high security and fast encryption speed for practical image encryption.
Image Encryption Algorithm based on Chaos Mapping and the Sequence Transformation
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Honge Ren
2013-05-01
Full Text Available According to the existing problems like that the algorithm is very complex, the quantity of operation is large and safety is not advanced in the present digital image encryption, this study has put forward a new chaotic system based on Logistic generation and transformation to realize the sequence image encryption, the algorithm gave the traditional chaotic series a new purpose. It used two kinds of ways on the comprehensive encryption for the same image that is respectively from the alternative operating on image pixel grayscale value and the confusion of the pixel position in the specific operation method. The experiment results show that the algorithm has good encryption effect and can withstand statistical analysis and attack operation, the amount of the key is large with high safety, in line with the requirements of modern technology to image encryption.
Analysis and Improvement of Encryption Algorithm Based on Blocked and Chaotic Image Scrambling
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Yunpeng Zhang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Based on blocked image scrambling encryption, this study presents a new image encryption algorithm by introducing chaos theory. This algorithm firstly makes spatial scrambling based on image blocking in order to interrupt pixel position, then furthering this interruption through Arnold Mapping in the chaos and transforms pixel RGB color space through optimized Arnold Mapping. After this process, we get the final encrypted image through a series of iteration. This algorithm has a lot of advantages such as a large key space, high effectiveness and resisting common attack successfully, but it needs improvements on some aspects, such as the key sensitivity.
An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
A new image encryption algorithm based on the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a new image encryption algorithm on the basis of the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system. While in the process of generating a key stream, the system parameters and the derivative order are embedded in the proposed algorithm to enhance the security. Such an algorithm is detailed in terms of security analyses, including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme has the advantages of large key space and high security for practical image encryption. (general)
Analysis and improvement of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The security of digital image attracts much attention recently. In Guan et al. [Guan Z, Huang F, Guan W. Chaos-based image encryption algorithm. Phys Lett A 2005; 346: 153-7.], a chaos-based image encryption algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, the cause of potential flaws in the original algorithm is analyzed in detail, and then the corresponding enhancement measures are proposed. Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome these flaws and maintain all the merits of the original one.
Novel image encryption algorithm based on cycle shift and chaotic system
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Gu, Sheng-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Qian
2015-05-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm is proposed. The cycle shift in bits of pixels and the chaotic system are employed for the encryption of the proposed scheme. For cycle shift operations, random integers with the same size of the original image are produced to scramble the plaintext image. Moreover, the scrambled image effects the initial values of the chaotic system for the further encryption process, which increases the sensitivity of plaintext images of the scheme. The scrambled image is encrypted into the ciphered image by the keys which are produced by the chaotic system. The simulation experiments and theoretical analyses indicate that the proposed scheme is superior and able to resist exhaustive attack and statistical attack.
An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps
Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez
2015-05-01
A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing
2015-09-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.
A novel image encryption algorithm based on chaotic system and improved Gravity Model
Wang, Xing-yuan; Wei, Na; Zhang, Dou-dou
2015-03-01
In this paper, an image encryption based on chaotic system and improved Gravity Model is presented. Firstly, the original image is shuffled according to two chaotic sequences generating by logistic map. Secondly, the shuffled image is diffused using the improved Gravity Model. Thirdly, in order to improve the influences of the encrypted image by changing one-pixel on the plain image, the logistic chaotic system is used to further diffusion once again. Many experiments are done and security analyses are discussed, which show that the novel algorithm has good effect and it can resist common attacks.
Texture Analysis of Chaotic Coupled Map Lattices Based Image Encryption Algorithm
Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq; Batool, Syeda Iram
2014-09-01
As of late, data security is key in different enclosures like web correspondence, media frameworks, therapeutic imaging, telemedicine and military correspondence. In any case, a large portion of them confronted with a few issues, for example, the absence of heartiness and security. In this letter, in the wake of exploring the fundamental purposes of the chaotic trigonometric maps and the coupled map lattices, we have presented the algorithm of chaos-based image encryption based on coupled map lattices. The proposed mechanism diminishes intermittent impact of the ergodic dynamical systems in the chaos-based image encryption. To assess the security of the encoded image of this scheme, the association of two nearby pixels and composition peculiarities were performed. This algorithm tries to minimize the problems arises in image encryption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiral Rathod
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to provide knowledge of safety of images which is traveling over internet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effort during encryption and decryption. In this paper I present some advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithm for encryption and decryption of an image with the same objective. Moreover we are also doing analysis of entropy and correlation between pixels value of various image encryption algorithm. From the analysis we are observing that which one is the best approach to calculate these things. Finally, it sums up with thoughts and suggestions about information security, along with a chosen example of the current proposals in security.
A Brief Study of Video Encryption Algorithms
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Pranali Pasalkar,
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Video is a set of images .Video encryption is encrypting those set of images .Thus video encryption is simply hiding your video from prying eyes .Video monitoring has always been in concerned .Multimedia security is very important for multimedia commerce on Internet such as video on demand and Real time video multicast. There are various video encryption algorithm. All have some kind of weakness .In this paper classification of various existing algorithm, its advantages and disadvantages is discussed.
A fast image encryption algorithm based on only blocks in cipher text
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Qian
2014-03-01
In this paper, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed, in which the shuffling and diffusion is performed simultaneously. The cipher-text image is divided into blocks and each block has k ×k pixels, while the pixels of the plain-text are scanned one by one. Four logistic maps are used to generate the encryption key stream and the new place in the cipher image of plain image pixels, including the row and column of the block which the pixel belongs to and the place where the pixel would be placed in the block. After encrypting each pixel, the initial conditions of logistic maps would be changed according to the encrypted pixel's value; after encrypting each row of plain image, the initial condition would also be changed by the skew tent map. At last, it is illustrated that this algorithm has a faster speed, big key space, and better properties in withstanding differential attacks, statistical analysis, known plaintext, and chosen plaintext attacks.
Image encryption based on phase encoding by means of a fringe pattern and computational algorithms
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J. A., Muñoz Rodriguez; R., Rodríguez-Vera.
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Se presenta una tecnica computacional para encriptación y desencriptación de imágenes. Esta técnica esta basada en la reflexión de la luz, superposicion de intensidad y algoritmos computacionales. La imagen a ser encriptada es un mapa de reflectancia obtenida por medio de la luz reflejada por una es [...] cena. Para efectuar el procedimiento de encriptacion, la imagen es codificada en un patrón de franjas generado por computadora. El modelo del patron de franjas es una función coseno, la cual agrega en su argumento la imagen a ser encriptada como una fase. Esto genera un patron de franjas deformado de acuerdo a la imagen. Para completar la encriptación, se sobrepone una máscara aleatoria sobre el patron de franjas. El procedimiento de desencriptación es efectuado substrayendo la máscara aleatoria de la imagen encriptada y aplicando un metodo de recuperación de fase. Para extraer la fase del patrón de franjas, se usa el método de demodulación heterodino. Para describir la precision de los resultados de imágenes desencriptadas y la robustés de la encriptación, se calcula la raíz del error cuadratico medio. Todos los pasos de la encriptacion y desencriptación se efectúan en forma computacional. De esta manera, los resultados de encriptación y desencriptacion son mejorados. Esto representa una contribución en el campo de la encriptación y desencriptación. Esta técnica es probada con imagenes simuladas y con imágenes reales, y sus resultados son presentados. Abstract in english A computational technique for image encryption and decryption is presented. The technique is based on light reflection, intensity superposition and computational algorithms. The image to be encrypted is a reflectance map obtained by means of the light reflected by a scene. To perform the encryption [...] procedure, the image is encoded in a computer-generated fringe pattern. The model of the fringe pattern is a cosine function, which adds to its argument the image to be encrypted as a phase. It generates a fringe pattern deformed according to the image. To complete the encryption, a random mask is superimposed on the fringe pattern. The decryption procedure is performed by subtracting the random mask from the encrypted image and applying a phase recovery method. To retrieve the phase from the fringe pattern, the heterodyne demodulation method is used. To describe the accuracy of results of the decrypted images and the robustness of the encryption, a root mean square of error is calculated. All steps of the encryption and decryption are performed in computational form. The results of encryption and decryption are thus improved. It represents a contribution to the field of encryption and decryption. This technique is tested with simulated images and real images, and its results are presented.
Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K
2014-01-20
We propose a novel nonlinear image-encryption scheme based on a Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) phase-retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel transform domain. The decryption process can be performed using conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) architecture. The encryption is realized by applying G-S phase-retrieval algorithm twice, which generates two asymmetric keys from intermediate phases. The asymmetric keys are generated in such a way that decryption is possible optically with a conventional DRPE method. Due to the asymmetric nature of the keys, the proposed encryption process is nonlinear and offers enhanced security. The cryptanalysis has been carried out, which proves the robustness of proposed scheme against known-plaintext, chosen-plaintext, and special attacks. A simple optical setup for decryption has also been suggested. Results of computer simulation support the idea of the proposed cryptosystem. PMID:24514127
A novel image encryption algorithm based on chaos maps with Markov properties
Liu, Quan; Li, Pei-yue; Zhang, Ming-chao; Sui, Yong-xin; Yang, Huai-jiang
2015-02-01
In order to construct high complexity, secure and low cost image encryption algorithm, a class of chaos with Markov properties was researched and such algorithm was also proposed. The kind of chaos has higher complexity than the Logistic map and Tent map, which keeps the uniformity and low autocorrelation. An improved couple map lattice based on the chaos with Markov properties is also employed to cover the phase space of the chaos and enlarge the key space, which has better performance than the original one. A novel image encryption algorithm is constructed on the new couple map lattice, which is used as a key stream generator. A true random number is used to disturb the key which can dynamically change the permutation matrix and the key stream. From the experiments, it is known that the key stream can pass SP800-22 test. The novel image encryption can resist CPA and CCA attack and differential attack. The algorithm is sensitive to the initial key and can change the distribution the pixel values of the image. The correlation of the adjacent pixels can also be eliminated. When compared with the algorithm based on Logistic map, it has higher complexity and better uniformity, which is nearer to the true random number. It is also efficient to realize which showed its value in common use.
Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique
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Mr. Balika J. Chelliah
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.
Cryptanalyzing an image encryption algorithm based on scrambling and Veginere cipher
ZENG, LI; Liu, Renren; Zhang, Leo Yu; Liu, Yuansheng; Wong, Kwok-Wo
2014-01-01
Recently, an image encryption algorithm based on scrambling and Vegin`ere cipher has been proposed. However, it was soon cryptanalyzed by Zhang et al. using a combination of chosen-plaintext attack and differential attack. This paper briefly reviews the two attack methods proposed by Zhang et al. and outlines the mathematical interpretations of them. Based on their work, we present an improved chosen-plaintext attack to further reduce the number of chosen-plaintexts required...
A novel algorithm for image encryption based on mixture of chaotic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaos-based encryption appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on the mixture of chaotic systems is reported. The chaotic cryptography technique used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography. In this algorithm, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, along with its security analysis and implementation. The experimental results based on mixture of chaotic maps approves the effectiveness of the proposed method and the implementation of the algorithm. This mixture application of chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet
Image Encryption Based on Improved Chaotic Sequences
Yu, Ming-yang
2013-01-01
Image encryption is an active and challenging research area. This article proposes a transposing and scrambling image encryption algorithm based on improved hyper-chaotic sequence to provide enhanced security for encrypted image transmission. The algorithm processes the hyper-chaotic sequence according to the pixel information, which makes the keys be sensitive to original image. Then we apply scrambling and transposing operation to the pixels in image, according to separate scrambling keys a...
A Novel Text to Image Encryption Technique by AES Rijndael Algorithm with Color Code Conversion
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Shanthi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Transmission of secure data through the communication spectrum is major issue in current scenario. To ensure the security of the data, many techniques and algorithms were evolved in which the cryptographic techniques are most powerful. Through cryptographic algorithms, the conversion of plain text into unintelligible form made it more secure and protect data from unauthorized users. The proposed scheme focus on the block cipher substitution method that encrypts the given text into blocks. In this paper, our proposed method extends such that, the user given plain text is divided into blocks that are fed to the AES Rijndael encryption process, converted to unreadable format. Each character of the block is then shifted into ASCII value which is, in turn formulated into equivalent color code. Thus, the final encrypted text is in image format which make available for more enrichment to the data. The AES algorithm is chosen for its quick and legible conversion of data. Our proposed method is very flexible technology for 256 ASCII values that is converted into 256 color code.
Using Genetic Algorithm for Symmetric key Generation in Image Encryption
Aarti Soni, Suyash Agrawal
2012-01-01
Cryptography is essential for protectinginformation as the importance of security is increasing dayby day with the advent of online transaction processing ande commerce. In now a day the security of digital imagesattracts much attention, especially when these digitalimages are stored in memory or send through thecommunication networks. Genetic algorithms are a class ofoptimization algorithms. Many problems can be solvedusing genetic algorithms through modelling a simplifiedversion of genetic ...
Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm
Arroyo, D.; Li, Cq; Li, Sj; Alvarez, G.; Halang, Wa
2007-01-01
Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.
Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.
Encryption and Decryption of Digital Image Using Color Signal
Qaid, Gamil R. S.; Talbar, S. N.
2012-01-01
This paper aims at improving the level of security and secrecy provided by the digital color signal-based image encryption. The image encryption and decryption algorithm is designed and implemented to provide confidentiality and security in transmission of the image based data as well as in storage. This new proposed encryption algorithm can ensure the lossless of transmissions of images. The proposed encryption algorithm in this study has been tested on some images and showed good results.
Compressive optical image encryption.
Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong
2015-01-01
An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume. PMID:25992946
Novel Image Encryption based on Quantum Walks
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889
Novel image encryption based on quantum walks.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889
Cryptanalysis on an image block encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An image block encryption scheme based on spatiotemporal chaos has been proposed recently. In this paper, we analyse the security weakness of the proposal. The main problem of the original scheme is that the generated keystream remains unchanged for encrypting every image. Based on the flaws, we demonstrate a chosen plaintext attack for revealing the equivalent keys with only 6 pairs of plaintext/ciphertext used. Finally, experimental results show the validity of our attack. (general)
Chaotic Image Encryption Based On Discrete Wavelet
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Amirhoushang Arab Avval
Full Text Available In this paper, a digital image encryption algorithm based on discrete wavelet transform and chaos theory is referred. The value of the discrete wavelet transformation coefficient matrix was encrypted and the scrambled by adjusting chaos sequence. The prop ...
METRICS OF A NEW SYMMETRICAL ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
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Dr. R. UMARANI
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,CAST, UMARAM and RC6 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. The authentication protocols have been used for authentication and key-exchange processes. A new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper to prevent the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data-exchange in Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN. The new symmetrical algorithm avoids the key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption, decryption, and authentication processes. It operates at a data rate higher than DES, 3DES, AES, UMARAM and RC6 algorithms. It is applied on a text file and an image as an application. The encryption becomes more secure and high data rate than DES,3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for the encryption algorithms like DES, 3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6 at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
A Dual Encryption Scheme of Images Using Polarized Light
Alfalou, Ayman; Brosseau, C.
2010-01-01
Motivated by recent interest in polarization encoding, we propose and analyze a dual encryption/decryption scheme. Compared to standard optical encryption methods which are based on phase and amplitude manipulation, this encryption procedure relying on Mueller- Stokes formalism provides a large flexibility in the key encryption design. The effectiveness of our algorithm is discussed thanks to a numerical simulation of the polarization encryption/decryption procedure of a 256 gray-level image....
Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.
Efficient Image Encryption Using a Chaos-based PWL Memristor
Lin Zhaohui; Wang Hongxia
2010-01-01
An image encryption algorithm based on the chaotic system has been increasingly used, but the disadvantages of small key space, weak security in low dimensional chaotic cryptosystems, simple chaotic system, and inconvenient for hardware implementation, are obvious. This paper presents a new image encryption algorithm based on chaos with the PWL memristor in Chua?s circuit. This encryption algorithm includes two main operations of image scrambling and pixel replacement. Simulations show...
Cryptanalysis of a new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This Letter proposes two different attacks on a recently proposed image based on hyper-chaos. The cryptosystem under study proceed first by shuffling the image rows and columns to disturb the high correlation among pixels by iterating the logistic map. Second, a keystream is generated to mix it with the pixels of the shuffled image using hyper-chaos. These two processes in the encryption stage present weakness, and a chosen plaintext attack and a chosen ciphertext attack can be done to recover the ciphered-image without any knowledge of the key value. It just demands three couples of plaintext/ciphertext to break totally the cryptosystem
A Literature Review on Image Encryption Techniques
Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq
2014-12-01
Image encryption plays a paramount part to guarantee classified transmission and capacity of image over web. Then again, a real-time image encryption confronts a more noteworthy test because of vast measure of information included. This paper exhibits an audit on image encryption in spatial, frequency and hybrid domains with both full encryption and selective encryption strategy.
Hybrid Encryption Algorithms in Cloud Computing
Ping Guo; Liping Su; Lijiang Ning; Guangxiang Dan
2013-01-01
The security issues of user privacy and data have become one of the most important factors in cloud computing. In this paper we focus on data encryption and study how to improve the security of data in the cloud through data encryption. Combining the feature of traditional encryption algorithms and the character of cloud platform, we design three hybrid encryption algorithms 3DES-AES, TDAES and TDAESalt. Experiment results show that the designed algorithms ...
Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message
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Joyshree Nath
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2. In MSA(1 method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. We have also introduced a new algorithm for encrypting the plain text multiple times. Our method is totally dependent on the random text_key which is to be supplied by the user. The maximum length of the text_key can be of 16 characters long and it may contain any character(ASCII code 0 to 255. We have developed an algorithm to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and hence if someone applies the brute force method then he/she has to give trail for 256! times which is quite absurd. Moreover the multiple encryption method makes the system further secured. For hiding secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 8 consecutive bytes of the cover file. We have introduced password for hiding data in the cover file. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any standard cover file such as image, audio, video files. Because the hidden message is encrypted hence it will be almost impossible for the intruder to unhide the actual secret message from the embedded cover file. This method may be the most secured method in digital water marking.
An Image Encryption Approach Using a Shuffling Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new image encryption approach is proposed. First, a sort transformation based on nonlinear chaotic algorithm is used to shuffle the positions of image pixels. Then the states of hyper-chaos are used to change the grey values of the shuffled image according to the changed chaotic values of the same position between the above nonlinear chaotic sequence and the sorted chaotic sequence. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption scheme based on a shuffling map shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. Compared with some encryption algorithms, the suggested encryption scheme is more secure. (general)
A Summarization on Image Encryption
Zhou Shihua; Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Zhou Changjun
2010-01-01
With the fast development of the computer technology and information processing technology, the problem of information security is becoming more and more important. Information hiding is usually used to protect the important information from disclosing when it is transmitting over an insecure channel. Digital image encryption is one of the most important methods of image information hiding and camouflage. The image encryption techniques mainly include compression methodology, modern cryptogra...
Liu, Zhengjun; Li, She; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yanhua; Liu, Shutian
2013-01-01
To enhance the security of double random phase encoding, a kind of amplitude scrambling operation is designed and introduced into an image encryption process. The random data of the second phase mask in double random phase encoding is also employed for scrambling amplitude distribution in order to save the space of storage and transmission of the key information. The scrambling operator is changeable for generating the key. Some numerical simulations have been provided for testing the validity of the image encryption scheme.
Analyzing the Superlative Symmetric Cryptographic Encryption Algorithm
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panchamukesh chandaka
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Cryptology is a science that deals with codes and passwords. Cryptology is alienated into cryptography and cryptanalysis. The Cryptography produces methods to protect the data, and cryptanalysis hack the protected data . Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas - confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange finally which leads to the security of information .Encryption algorithms play a key role in information security systems. This paper provides critical analysis of six most common encryption algorithms namely: DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, AES (Rijndael, and RC6. A comparative study has been carried out for the above six encryption algorithms in terms of encryption key size ,block size, Number of Rounds ,Encryption/decryption time ,CPU process time, CPU clock cycles (in the form of throughput, Power consumption. And these comparisons are used to conclude the best Symmetric Cryptography Encryption algorithm.
Mosso, F.; Bolognini, N.; Pérez, D. G.
2015-06-01
We propose, and experimentally demonstrate, a single-lens imaging system as a compact encoding architecture by using a hybrid protocol for data processing. The encryption process consists of coherent light illuminating a random phase mask attached to an input image (the data), then the outgoing complex field propagates until reaching a second random phase mask next to a lens: encrypted data is obtained at some output plane after the lens. We demonstrate the feasibility of this proposal, and highlight the advantages of using tridimensional speckle as a secure random carrier instead of a standard ciphertext recording—holographic-based encryption techniques. Moreover, we expose the compact system benefits compared to conventional encrypting architectures in terms of energy loss and tolerance against classical attacks applicable to any linear cryptosystem. Experimental results validate our approach.
A reversible data hiding method for encrypted images
Puech, W.; Chaumont, M.; Strauss, O.
2008-02-01
Since several years, the protection of multimedia data is becoming very important. The protection of this multimedia data can be done with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To decrease the transmission time, the data compression is necessary. Since few years, a new problem is trying to combine in a single step, compression, encryption and data hiding. So far, few solutions have been proposed to combine image encryption and compression for example. Nowadays, a new challenge consists to embed data in encrypted images. Since the entropy of encrypted image is maximal, the embedding step, considered like noise, is not possible by using standard data hiding algorithms. A new idea is to apply reversible data hiding algorithms on encrypted images by wishing to remove the embedded data before the image decryption. Recent reversible data hiding methods have been proposed with high capacity, but these methods are not applicable on encrypted images. In this paper we propose an analysis of the local standard deviation of the marked encrypted images in order to remove the embedded data during the decryption step. We have applied our method on various images, and we show and analyze the obtained results.
Image Encryption Using Chaos and Block Cipher
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Alireza Jolfaei
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on combination of pixel shuffling and new modified version of simplified AES. Chaotic baker’s map is used for shuffling and improving S-AES efficiency through S-box design. Chaos is used to expand diffusion and confusion in the image. Due to sensitivity to initial conditions, chaotic baker’s map has a good potential for designing dynamic permutation map and S-box. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests included visual test and histogram analysis, randomness test, information entropy, encryption quality, correlation analysis, differential analysis and sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the new cipher has satisfactory security and is more efficient than AES which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of multimedia data.
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang
2014-06-01
We present a novel method for multiple-image encryption by combining modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) with phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In this proposal, the primitive images are firstly encoded into a single synthetic complex image by phase mutual encoding and MGSA based on GT. Then the complex encoded image is further converted into two computer-generated POMs by carrying out MGSA again in GT domains. The proposed scheme has not any capability limitation that is caused by crosstalk effect between multiplexing images. An optical cascaded GT architecture, in which two POM ciphertexts and decryption phase keys are displayed in the input planes of GTs, respectively, can be employed for decryption. Combined with the POMs as main keys, the transform angles and wavelength of GTs can further increase the security of this system by offering very sensitive additional keys. Moreover, one can adjust the transform angles of GT flexibly without using any axis movement. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.
Wadi, Salim M.; NASHARUDDIN ZAINAL
2013-01-01
The high security communication systems became an urgent need in recent years for both governments and peoples desiring protection from signal interception. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a famous block encryption algorithm which has several advantages in data encryption. However, AES suffer from some drawbacks such as high computations, pattern appearance if apply for image encryption, and more hardware requirements. These problems are more complicated when the AES algorithm is used f...
Study on Digital Image Scrambling Algorithm
Wu Xue
2013-01-01
Encryption algorithm of traditional cryptology has strong safety, but the effect of encrypting images is not good. Digital image scrambling means that a digital image is transformed into a chaotic image which has no evident significance, but the operator can reconstruct the chaotic image into the original image by using the specific algorithm. Image scrambling encryption technology based on chaos theory makes use of chaotic signal to encrypt image data flow, which has the advantages of high s...
Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes
Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena
2011-01-01
Image applications have been increasing in recent years. Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness, format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.
A novel image encryption scheme based on spatial chaos map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, the chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. In this paper, spatial chaos system are used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail. The basic idea is to encrypt the image in space with spatial chaos map pixel by pixel, and then the pixels are confused in multiple directions of space. Using this method one cycle, the image becomes indistinguishable in space due to inherent properties of spatial chaotic systems. Several experimental results, key sensitivity tests, key space analysis, and statistical analysis show that the approach for image cryptosystems provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission from the cryptographic viewpoint
Digital image encryption with chaotic map lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a secure approach for encryption and decryption of digital images with chaotic map lattices. In the proposed encryption process, eight different types of operations are used to encrypt the pixels of an image and one of them will be used for particular pixels decided by the outcome of the chaotic map lattices. To make the cipher more robust against any attacks, the secret key is modified after encrypting each block of sixteen pixels of the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme achieves high security and efficiency. (general)
Optically-induced-potential-based image encryption.
Chen, Bing-Chu; Wang, He-Zhou
2011-11-01
We present a technique of nonlinear image encryption by use of virtual optics. The image to be encrypted is superposed on a random intensity image. And this superposed image propagates through a nonlinear medium and a 4-f system with single phase key. The image is encrypted to a stationary white noise. The decryption process is sensitive to the parameters of the encryption system and the phase key in 4-f system. This sensitivity makes attackers hard to access the phase key. In nonlinear medium, optically-induced potentials, which depend on intensity of optical wave, make the superposition principle frustrated. This nonlinearity based on optically induced potentials highly improves the secrecy level of image encryption. Resistance against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique proves that it has the high secrecy level. This nonlinear image encryption based on optically induced potentials is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. PMID:22109142
Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. Ttance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.
Image Encryption based on the RGB PIXEL Transposition and Shuffling
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Quist Aphetsi Kester
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Privacy is one of the key issues information Security addresses. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.
How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?
El-zoghdy, Said F.; Nada, Yasser A.; Abdo, A. A.
2011-01-01
Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, da...
Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message
Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath,
2011-01-01
In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1). For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2). In MSA(1) method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key ma...
Enhanced Tiny Encryption Algorithm with Embedding (ETEA)
Dr. Deepali Virmani; Nidhi Beniwal,; Gargi Mandal; Saloni Talwar
2013-01-01
As computer systems become more pervasive and complex, security is increasingly important. Secure Transmission refers to the transfer of data such as confidential or proprietary information over a secure channel. Many secure transmission methods require a type of encryption. Secure transmissions are put in place to prevent attacks such as ARP spoofing and general data loss. Hence, in order to provide a better security mechanism, in this paper we propose Enhanced Tiny Encryption Algorithm ...
Image Encryption Based on Diffusion and Multiple Chaotic Maps
Sathishkumar, G A; Sriraam, Dr N; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3214
2011-01-01
In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative way to ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one of them has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the image encryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption technique using multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by using chaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformation leads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on the initial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps. Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key for the encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryption algorit...
Image Encryption: An Information Security Perceptive
Narasimhan Aarthie; Rengarajan Amirtharajan
2014-01-01
Information security purported, yet another retrospected technique for secret sharing, highlighted by image encryption. Encryption of images is proven a successful method to communicate confidential information for which countless procedures are unearthed. Still, it continues attracting researchers as usage of images in every means of digital communication has phenomenally increased. Cryptography embraces various encryption methods and offers four chief modes where each one has found its plac...
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Boriša Ž. Jovanovi?
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Digitalni multimedijalni sadržaj postaje zastupljeniji i sve više se razmenjuje putem ra?unarskih mreža i javnih kanala (satelitske komunikacije, beži?ne mreže, internet, itd. koji predstavljaju nebezbedne medijume za prenos informacija osetljive sadržine. Sve više na zna?aju dobijaju mehanizmi kriptološke zaštite slika i video sadržaja. Tradicionalni sistemi kriptografske obrade u sistemima za prenos ovih vrsta informacija garantuju visok stepen sigurnosti, ali i imaju svoje nedostatke - visoku cenu implementacije i znatno kašnjenje u prenosu podataka. Pomenuti nedostaci se prevazilaze primenom algoritama selektivnog šifrovanja. / Digital multimedia content is becoming widely used and increasingly exchanged over computer network and public channels (satelite, wireless networks, Internet, etc. which is unsecured transmission media for ex changing that kind of information. Mechanisms made to encrypt image and video data are becoming more and more significant. Traditional cryptographic techniques can guarantee a high level of security but at the cost of expensive implementation and important transmission delays. These shortcomings can be exceeded using selective encryption algorithms. Introduction In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES - Data Encryption Algorithm, IDEA - International Data Encryption Algorithm, AES - Advanced Encryption Algorithm etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data, high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth, make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of traditional systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities on the delivery site coder and decoder on the receiving site. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. As its name says, it consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. Theoretical foundation of selective encryption The first theoretical foundation of selective encryption was given indirectly by Claude Elwood Shannon in his work about communication theory of secrecy systems. It is well known that statistics for image and video data differ much from classical text data. Indeed, image and video data are strongly correlated and have strong spatial/temporal redundancy. Evaluation criteria for selective encryption algorithm performance evaluation We need to define a set of evaluation criteria that will help evaluating and comparing selective encryption algorithms. - Tunability - Visual degradation - Cryptographic security - Encryption ratio - Compression friendliness - Format compliance - Error tolerance Classification of selective encryption algorithms One possible classification of selective encryption algorithms is relative to when encryption is performed with respect to compression. This classification is adequate since it has intrinsic consequences on selective encryption algorithms behavior. We consider three classes of algorithms as follows: - Precompression - Incompression - Postcompression Overview of selective encryption algorithms In accordance with their precedently defined classification, selective encryption algorithms were compared, briefly described with advantages and disadvantages and their quality was assessed. Applications Selective encryption mechanisms became more and more important and can be applied in many different areas. Some potential application areas of this mechanism are: - Monitoring encrypted content - PDAs (PDA - Personal Digital Assistant, mobile phones, and other mobile terminals - Multiple encryptions - Transcodability/scalability of encrypted content Conclusion As we can see through foregoing analysis, we can notice that tunability, cryptographic security and error tolerance are the main unsatisfied criteria. Sel
Akanksha Mathur
2012-01-01
Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext into the ciphertext where plaintext is the input to the encryption process and ciphertext is the output of the encryption process. Decryption isthe process of transforming ciphertext into the plaintext where ciphertext is the input to the decryption process and plaintext is the output of the decryption process. There are various encryption algorithms exist classified as symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms. Here, I present an algor...
Cryptanalysis of an ergodic chaotic encryption algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present the results for the security and the possible attacks on a new symmetric key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity property of a logistic map. After analysis, we use mathematical induction to prove that the algorithm can be attacked by a chosen plaintext attack successfully and give an example to show how to attack it. According to the cryptanalysis of the original algorithm, we improve the original algorithm, and make a brief cryptanalysis. Compared with the original algorithm, the improved algorithm is able to resist a chosen plaintext attack and retain a considerable number of advantages of the original algorithm such as encryption speed, sensitive dependence on the key, strong anti-attack capability, and so on. (general)
International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) – A Typical Illustration
Sandipan Basu
2011-01-01
There are several symmetric and asymmetric data encryption algorithms. IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is one of the strongest secret-key block ciphers. In this article, I try to represent the existing IDEA algorithm in a different way. In the following illustration, we would see how the encryption can be expressed in a simpler way.
A New Color Image Encryption Scheme Using CML and a Fractional-Order Chaotic System.
Wu, Xiangjun; Li, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
The chaos-based image cryptosystems have been widely investigated in recent years to provide real-time encryption and transmission. In this paper, a novel color image encryption algorithm by using coupled-map lattices (CML) and a fractional-order chaotic system is proposed to enhance the security and robustness of the encryption algorithms with a permutation-diffusion structure. To make the encryption procedure more confusing and complex, an image division-shuffling process is put forward, where the plain-image is first divided into four sub-images, and then the position of the pixels in the whole image is shuffled. In order to generate initial conditions and parameters of two chaotic systems, a 280-bit long external secret key is employed. The key space analysis, various statistical analysis, information entropy analysis, differential analysis and key sensitivity analysis are introduced to test the security of the new image encryption algorithm. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well. Experimental results confirm that, in comparison to other image encryption schemes, the new algorithm has higher security and is fast for practical image encryption. Moreover, an extensive tolerance analysis of some common image processing operations such as noise adding, cropping, JPEG compression, rotation, brightening and darkening, has been performed on the proposed image encryption technique. Corresponding results reveal that the proposed image encryption method has good robustness against some image processing operations and geometric attacks. PMID:25826602
Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2012-06-01
This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations in the dynamics of the system. Such defects are illuminated through a new technique of generalized post proceeding with very low hardware cost. The thesis further discusses two encryption algorithms designed and implemented as a block cipher and a stream cipher. The security of both systems is thoroughly analyzed and the performance is compared with other reported systems showing a superior results. Both systems are realized on Xilinx Vetrix-4 FPGA with a hardware and throughput performance surpassing known encryption systems.
REVIEW OF IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE BASED ON AES
Rufina Tresa Mendez; Jayanthi, Dr V. S.; Geetha, P.
2014-01-01
Encryption of images has become a necessity in today’s world to protect a confidential image from unauthorized access. Various methods have been proposed and developed in spatial, frequency and hybrid domains to encrypt the image securely. Encryption could either be a full encryption or partial encryption based on the security requirements. In this paper we present an overview of various image encryption techniques based on AES.
Enhanced Tiny Encryption Algorithm with Embedding (ETEA
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Dr. Deepali Virmani
2013-05-01
Full Text Available As computer systems become more pervasive and complex, security is increasingly important. Secure Transmission refers to the transfer of data such as confidential or proprietary information over a secure channel. Many secure transmission methods require a type of encryption. Secure transmissions are put in place to prevent attacks such as ARP spoofing and general data loss. Hence, in order to provide a better security mechanism, in this paper we propose Enhanced Tiny Encryption Algorithm with Embedding (ETEA, a data hiding technique called steganography along with the technique of encryption (Cryptography. The advantage of ETEA is that it incorporates cryptography and steganography. The advantage proposed algorithm is that it hides the messages.
Double-image encryption based on the affine transform and the gyrator transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a kind of double-image-encryption algorithm by using the affine transform in the gyrator transform domain. Two original images are converted into the real part and the imaginary part of a complex function by employing the affine transform. And then the complex function is encoded and transformed into the gyrator domain. The affine transform, the encoding and the gyrator transform are performed twice in this encryption method. The parameters in the affine transform and the gyrator transform are regarded as the key for the encryption algorithm. Some numerical simulations have validated the feasibility of the proposed image encryption scheme
Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method
Study on Digital Image Scrambling Algorithm
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Wu Xue
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Encryption algorithm of traditional cryptology has strong safety, but the effect of encrypting images is not good. Digital image scrambling means that a digital image is transformed into a chaotic image which has no evident significance, but the operator can reconstruct the chaotic image into the original image by using the specific algorithm. Image scrambling encryption technology based on chaos theory makes use of chaotic signal to encrypt image data flow, which has the advantages of high safety, rapid encryption speed, large key space and good scrambling effect. The paper studies invalid-key and quasi invalid-key existed in chaotic sequence which is generated by Logistic map, and proposes image scrambling encryption algorithm based on mixed and chaotic sequence. The algorithm has a good robustness for the JPEG compression with the fixed coefficient, and a good fragileness for the illegal manipulation.
New Approach for Fast Color Image Encryption Using Chaotic Map
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Kamlesh Gupta
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Image encryption using chaotic maps has been established a great way. The study shows that a number of functional architecture has already been proposed that utilize the process of diffusion and confusion. However, permutation and diffusion are considered as two separate stages, both requiring image-scanning to obtain pixel values. If these two stages are mutual, the duplicate scanning effort can be minimized and the encryption can be accelerated. This paper presents a technique which replaces the traditional preprocessing complex system and utilizes the basic operations like confusion, diffusion which provide same or better encryption using cascading of 3D standard and 3D cat map. We generate diffusion template using 3D standard map and rotate image by using vertically and horizontally red and green plane of the input image. We then shuffle the red, green, and blue plane by using 3D Cat map and standard map. Finally the Image is encrypted by performing XOR operation on the shuffled image and diffusion template. Theoretical analyses and computer simulations on the basis of Key space Analysis, statistical analysis, histogram analysis, Information entropy analysis, Correlation Analysis and Differential Analysis confirm that the new algorithm that minimizes the possibility of brute force attack for decryption and very fast for practical image encryption
A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM AND RC4
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Deepu Sleeba Philip
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time is reduced by encrypting only the part of the image and maintains a high level of security by shuffling the rest of the image using the shuffling algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.
Image Encryption Based On Diffusion And Multiple Chaotic Maps
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G.A.Sathishkumar
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative wayto ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one ofthem has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the imageencryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption techniqueusing multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by usingchaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformationleads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on theinitial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps.Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key forthe encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryptionalgorithm. The input image of 2-D is transformed into a 1- D array by using two different scanningpattern (raster and Zigzag and then divided into various sub blocks. Then the position permutation andvalue permutation is applied to each binary matrix based on multiple chaos maps. Finally the receiveruses the same sub keys to decrypt the encrypted images. The salient features of the proposed imageencryption method are loss-less, good peak signal –to noise ratio (PSNR, Symmetric key encryption, lesscross correlation, very large number of secret keys, and key-dependent pixel value replacement.
OCML-based colour image encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new ways to develop efficient image-encryption schemes. While most of these schemes are based on low-dimensional chaotic maps, it has been proposed recently to use high-dimensional chaos namely spatiotemporal chaos, which is modelled by one-way coupled-map lattices (OCML). Owing to their hyperchaotic behaviour, such systems are assumed to enhance the cryptosystem security. In this paper, we propose an OCML-based colour image encryption scheme with a stream cipher structure. We use a 192-bit-long external key to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of the OCML. We have made several tests to check the security of the proposed cryptosystem namely, statistical tests including histogram analysis, calculus of the correlation coefficients of adjacent pixels, security test against differential attack including calculus of the number of pixel change rate (NPCR) and unified average changing intensity (UACI), and entropy calculus. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well.
Joint reversible data hiding and image encryption
Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph; Niu, Xiamu
2010-01-01
Image encryption process is jointed with reversible data hiding in this paper, where the data to be hided are modulated by different secret keys selected for encryption. To extract the hided data from the cipher-text, the different tentative decrypted results are tested against typical random distribution in both spatial and frequency domain and the goodnessof- fit degrees are compared to extract one hided bit. The encryption based data hiding process is inherently reversible. Experiments demonstrate the proposed scheme's effectiveness on natural and textural images, both in gray-level and binary forms.
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SALIM M. WADI
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The high security communication systems became an urgent need in recent years for both governments and peoples desiring protection from signal interception. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES is a famous block encryption algorithm which has several advantages in data encryption. However, AES suffer from some drawbacks such as high computations, pattern appearance if apply for image encryption, and more hardware requirements. These problems are more complicated when the AES algorithm is used for multimedia encryption. New modification to AES-128 algorithm which reduce the computations and hardware requirements are proposed by enforcement Mixcolumn transformation in five rounds instead of nine rounds as in original AES-128. Second proposed is suggest new simple S-box used for encryption and decryption. The implementation of advanced encryption standard algorithm is important requirement where many researches proposed different items to this purpose. A simply item proposed in this paper to speedy, low cost implementation of Modified Advanced Encryption Standard (MAES cryptographic algorithm is 8085A microprocessor. The results prove that the modifications of AES make implementation it by 8085A microprocessor more effective.
Krishnamurthy G N; Ramaswamy, Dr V.
2010-01-01
this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.
Qin, Yi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Qiong
2014-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel method for image encryption by employing the diffraction imaging technique. This method is in principle suitable for most diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, and a typical diffractive imaging architecture using three random phase masks in the Fresnel domain is taken for an example to illustrate it. The encryption process is rather simple because only a single diffraction intensity pattern is needed to be recorded, and the decryption procedure is also correspondingly simplified. To achieve this goal, redundant data are digitally appended to the primary image before a standard encrypting procedure. The redundant data serve as a partial input plane support constraint in a phase retrieval algorithm, which is employed for completely retrieving the plaintext. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:25089966
PDES, Fips Standard Data Encryption Algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Description of program or function: PDES performs the National Bureau of Standards FIPS Pub. 46 data encryption/decryption algorithm used for the cryptographic protection of computer data. The DES algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher blocks of data consisting of 64 bits under control of a 64-bit key. The key is generated in such a way that each of the 56 bits used directly by the algorithm are random and the remaining 8 error-detecting bits are set to make the parity of each 8-bit byte of the key odd, i. e. there is an odd number of '1' bits in each 8-bit byte. Each member of a group of authorized users of encrypted computer data must have the key that was used to encipher the data in order to use it. Data can be recovered from cipher only by using exactly the same key used to encipher it, but with the schedule of addressing the key bits altered so that the deciphering process is the reverse of the enciphering process. A block of data to be enciphered is subjected to an initial permutation, then to a complex key-dependent computation, and finally to a permutation which is the inverse of the initial permutation. Two PDES routines are included; both perform the same calculation. One, identified as FDES.MAR, is designed to achieve speed in execution, while the other identified as PDES.MAR, presents a clearer view of how the algorithm is executed
Implementation of Detachable Reversible Data Hiding in Image Encryption
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Musham Pradeep
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a scheme for detachable reversible data hiding in image encryption. In which the sender encrypts an image using encryption key. Then, the data is appended to the encrypted image using a data-hiding key. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data-hiding key, he can extract the additional data though he does not know the content of the image. If the receiver has the encryption key, he can decrypt the encrypted image and get an image similar to the original one, but he cannot extract the additional data. If the receiver has both the data-hiding key and the encryption key, he can extract the additional data and recover the original image without any error.
Ravindra Gupta,; Akanksha Jain
2012-01-01
The proposed system highlights a novel approach for creating a secure steganographic method using genetic algorithm and visual cryptography for robust encryption in computer forensics. Although there has been an extensive research work in the past, but majority of the research work has no much optimal consideration for robust security towards the encrypted image. The proposed method encodes the secret message in least significant bits of the original image, where the pixels values of the en...
ROI Based Double Encryption Approach for Secure Transaction of Medical Images
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VRATESH KUMAR KUSHWAHA
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The main focus is on enabling, supporting process in the health care industry for implementing a secure, robust and privacy complaint system for the safe distribution and use of medical image. In this paper, a new method that combines image encryption and watermarking technique for safe transaction of medical image is proposed. This method is based on selecting the ROI in the image as the watermark. This portion is encrypted by linear feedback shift register based stream ciphering which is again encrypted by the key generated by Diffie Hellman Algorithm. The encrypted ROI is embedded into the medical image by Spread spectrum technique. The proposed approach proves to be highly secure as two keys are used for encryption and the secret message is spreaded throughout the Medical image.
Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods. (paper)
Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images
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NaveenKumar S K
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Information security plays a very important role in fast growing information and communication technology. Few applications like medical image security and satellite image security needs to secure only selected portion of the image. This paper describes a concept of selective image encryption in two ways. First method divides the image in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are applied to encryption process. Second method automatically detects the positions of objects, and then selected objects are applied to encryption process. Morphological techniques are used to detect the positions of the objects in given images. These two approaches are specifically developed to encrypt the portion of an image in medical images and satellite image.
Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong; Wang, Zhipeng
2014-09-01
In previous diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, it is impossible to totally retrieve the plaintext from a single diffraction pattern. In this paper, we proposed a new method to achieve this goal. The encryption procedure can be completed by proceeding only one exposure, and the single diffraction pattern is recorded as ciphertext. For recovering the plaintext, a novel median-filtering-based phase retrieval algorithm, including two iterative cycles, has been developed. This proposal not only extremely simplifies the encryption and decryption processes, but also facilitates the storage and transmission of the ciphertext, and its effectiveness and feasibility have been demonstrated by numerical simulations. PMID:25321554
Comparative Study of Speech Encryption Algorithms Using Mobile Applications
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Jaspreet kaur#1 , Er. Kanwal preet Singh
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Speech communication is most popular now days. Everyone wants secure communication that’s way use encrypts and decrypt data scheme. It is basically used for military and business purpose. People want high security level during their communication..The numbers of algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption. However in this paper the work is done on three different kinds of algorithms i.e. NTRU, RSA and RINJDAEL these three popular algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption approach. Basically NTRU and RSA algorithms are asymmetric in nature and RINJDAEL algorithm is symmetric in nature. In speech encryption, first the speech is converted into text then further the text is converted into cipher text. The cipher text is sent to be particular receiver in which transmitter want to communicate. At the receiver end, receiver receives the original data through decryption process. At the end the performance is analyzed of these three approaches respectively. The parameters calculated are Encryption, Decryption and Delay time, complexity, and packet lost, Security level. In this three approaches, Encryption, decryption and delay time, are varying according to the number of bits per seconds. On the Other hand, complexity and packet lost are approximately same. There is no packet lost during transmitting and receiving the data. After the analysis of these three algorithms, The NTRU algorithm is faster in encryption and decryption time than others algorithms. The security level are very high than other algorithms. The android platform are used for these three algorithm to find the results in which algorithm took less time for encrypt or decrypt the data and help to evaluate the performance in speech encryption algorithms.
Digital Video Encryption Algorithms Based on Correlation-Preserving Permutations
Spyros Magliveras; Dubravko ?ulibrk; Oge Marques; Hari Kalva; Borko Furht; Daniel Socek
2007-01-01
A novel encryption model for digital videos is presented. The model relies on the encryption-compression duality of certain types of permutations acting on video frames. In essence, the proposed encryption process preserves the spatial correlation and, as such, can be applied prior to the compression stage of a spatial-only video encoder. Several algorithmic modes of the proposed model targeted for different application requirements are presented and analyzed in terms of security and perform...
Zhou, Nanrun; Li, Haolin; Wang, Di; Pan, Shumin; Zhou, Zhihong
2015-05-01
Most of the existing image encryption techniques bear security risks for taking linear transform or suffer encryption data expansion for adopting nonlinear transformation directly. To overcome these difficulties, a novel image compression-encryption scheme is proposed by combining 2D compressive sensing with nonlinear fractional Mellin transform. In this scheme, the original image is measured by measurement matrices in two directions to achieve compression and encryption simultaneously, and then the resulting image is re-encrypted by the nonlinear fractional Mellin transform. The measurement matrices are controlled by chaos map. The Newton Smoothed l0 Norm (NSL0) algorithm is adopted to obtain the decryption image. Simulation results verify the validity and the reliability of this scheme.
Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image
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Mamun B.I. Reaz
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hardware implementation. The compression algorithm decomposes images into several different parts. We have used a secured encryption algorithm to encrypt only the crucial parts, which are considerably smaller than the original image, which result in significant reduction in processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. The breadth-first traversal linear lossless quadtree decomposition method is used for the partial compression and RSA is used for the encryption. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system on four different images. We have validated the advantage of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2928 units of LC with a system frequency of 13.42MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA prototyping of a partial encryption of compressed images using lossless quadtree compression and RSA encryption has been successfully implemented with minimum logic cells. It is found that the compression process is faster than the decompression process in linear quadtree approach. Moreover, the RSA simulations show that the encryption process is faster than the decryption process for all four images tested.
Zhao, Jianlin; Lu, Hongqiang; Song, Xiaoshan; Li, Jifeng; Ma, Yanghua
2005-05-01
A novel encryption for optical image based on multistage fractional Fourier transforms (FRTs) and pixel scrambling technique is presented in this paper. The principle of pixel scrambling is described and an optical approach to realize the pixel scrambling and decoding is also proposed. Numerical simulation results are given to verify the algorithm, and relative error (RE) between the decoded images and the original image versus the deviation of fractional orders is discussed. Comparing with single FRT encryption, the security using this method for optical image encryption is greatly improved due to the introduction of the pixel scrambling technique.
Optical image encryption based on interference under convergent random illumination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an optical image encryption system based on the interference principle, two pure phase masks are designed analytically to hide an image. These two masks are illuminated with a plane wavefront to retrieve the original image in the form of an interference pattern at the decryption plane. Replacement of the plane wavefront with convergent random illumination in the proposed scheme leads to an improvement in the security of interference based encryption. The proposed encryption scheme retains the simplicity of an interference based method, as the two pure masks are generated with an analytical method without any iterative algorithm. In addition to the free-space propagation distance and the two pure phase masks, the convergence distance and the randomized lens phase function are two new encryption parameters to enhance the system security. The robustness of this scheme against occlusion of the random phase mask of the randomized lens phase function is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with numerical simulation results
Developing and Evaluation of New Hybrid Encryption Algorithms
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DiaaSalama AbdElminaam
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks consist of hundreds or thousands of low cost, low power and self-organizing nodes which are highly distributed. As wireless sensor networks continue to grow, so does the need for effective security mechanisms because sensor networks may interact with sensitive data. Encryption algorithms play good roles in information security systems (ISS. Those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as battery power. Wireless Sensor networks are powered by a battery which is a very limited resource. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on networks, but there are also has some drawbacks. The present asymmetric encryption methods and symmetric encryption methods can offer the security levels but with many limitations. For instance key maintenance is a great problem faced in symmetric encryption methods and less security level is the problem of asymmetric encryption methods even though key maintenance is easy. To improve the strength of these algorithms, we propose a new hybrid cryptographic algorithm in this paper. The algorithm is designed using combination of two symmetric cryptographic techniques and two Asymmetric cryptographic techniques. This protocol provides three cryptographic primitives, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. It is a hybrid encryption method where elliptical curve cryptography (ECC and advanced encryption (AES are combined to provide node encryption. RSA algorithm and Blowfish are combined to provide authentication and (MD5 for integrity. The results show that the proposed hybrid cryptographic algorithm gives better performance in terms of computation time and the size of cipher text.This paper tries to present a fair comparison between the new protocols with four existing different hybrid protocols according to power consumption. A comparison has been conducted for those protocols at different settings for each protocol such as different sizes of data blocks, and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
Polynomial Based Secret Sharing Scheme for Image Encryption Based on Mathematical Theorem
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A. Kalai Selvi
2011-02-01
Full Text Available With a ever increasing growth of multimedia applications, security is an important issue in communication and storage of images, and encryption is one of the way to ensure security. Image encryption has applications in internet communication, multimedia systems, medical imaging, telemedicine and military communications. This paper proposes image encryption using secret sharing scheme. According to this process there are two levels of encryption. The first level, generates the random polynomial of degree (t-1 , where t is a threshold value. The constant term is taken as the secret. In the second level construct the transformation matrix using secret and primitive root theorem. This matrix is used for encryption purpose. Experimental results and security analysis shows that the proposed algorithm offers good resistance against brute force attack and statistical crypt analysis.
A New Encryption Method for Secure Transmission of Images
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B.V.Rama Devi,
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach is designed for transmitting images securely using a technique called Gödelization followed by the public key encryption. The image which is to be transmitted is transformed into a sequence called Gödel Number Sequence (GNS using a new technique called Gödelization. This is compressed using Alphabetic coding AC and encrypted by an encryption method. This encryption string is transmitted and reconstructed at the decoding end by using thereverse process.
Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives
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Massoudi A
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. It consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. This computation saving is very desirable especially in constrained communications (real-time networking, high-definition delivery, and mobile communications with limited computational power devices. In addition, selective encryption allows preserving some codec functionalities such as scalability. This tutorial is intended to give an overview on selective encryption algorithms. The theoretical background of selective encryption, potential applications, challenges, and perspectives is presented.
A cryptographic Image Encryption technique based on the RGB PIXEL shuffling
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Quist-Aphetsi Kester, MIEEE
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Confidentiality is one of the ultimate goals in information security. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. Rigorous use of advanced mathematical algorithms has played a major role in the success of modern day cryptography. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a new cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.
Securing Image Transmission Using in- Compression Encryption Technique
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Shaimaa A. El-said
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Multimedia is one of the most popular data shared in the Web, and the protection of it via encryption techniques is of vast interest. In this paper, a secure and computationally feasible Algorithm called Optimized Multiple Huffman Tables (OMHT technique is proposed. OMHT depends on using statisticalmodelbased compression method to generate different tables from the same data type of images or videos to be encrypted leading to increase compression efficiency and security of the used tables. A systematic study on how to strategically integrate different atomic operations to build a multimedia encryption system is presented. The resulting system can provide superior performance over other techniques by both its generic encryption and its simple adaptation to multimedia in terms of a joint consideration of security, and bitrate overhead. The effectiveness and robustness of this scheme is verified by measuring its security strength and comparing its computational cost against other techniques. The proposed technique guarantees security, and fastness without noticeable increase in encoded image size
Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin
2013-02-01
This study presents a steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding (DRPE) techniques. Conventional optical image encryption systems can securely transmit valuable images using an encryption method for possible application in optical transmission systems. The steganographic optical image encryption system based on the DRPE technique has been investigated to hide secret data in encrypted images. However, the DRPE techniques vulnerable to attacks and many of the data hiding methods in the DRPE system can distort the decrypted images. The proposed system, based on reversible data hiding, uses a JBIG2 compression scheme to achieve lossless decrypted image quality and perform a prior encryption process. Thus, the DRPE technique enables a more secured optical encryption process. The proposed method extracts and compresses the bit planes of the original image using the lossless JBIG2 technique. The secret data are embedded in the remaining storage space. The RSA algorithm can cipher the compressed binary bits and secret data for advanced security. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves a high data embedding capacity and lossless reconstruction of the original images.
Radial Hilbert Transform in terms of the Fourier Transform applied to Image Encryption
Morales, Y.; Díaz, L.; Torres, C.
2015-01-01
In the present investigation, a mathematical algorithm under Matlab platform using Radial Hilbert Transform and Random Phase Mask for encrypting digital images is implemented. The algorithm is based on the use of the conventional Fourier transform and two random phase masks, which provide security and robustness to the system implemented. Random phase masks used during encryption and decryption are the keys to improve security and make the system immune to attacks by program generation phase masks.
Multiple Lookup Table-Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation
Gong, Jin; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin
Anew AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm implementation was proposed in this paper. It is based on five lookup tables, which are generated from S-box(the substitution table in AES). The obvious advantages are reducing the code-size, improving the implementation efficiency, and helping new learners to understand the AES encryption algorithm and GF(28) multiplication which are necessary to correctly implement AES[1]. This method can be applied on processors with word length 32 or above, FPGA and others. And correspondingly we can implement it by VHDL, Verilog, VB and other languages.
An Improved Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on NiosII
Wang Liejun; Tang Jun
2013-01-01
Through the data storage of Rijndael encryption algorithm and the analysis of the characteristics of column mixing and wheel transformation, the author put forward some suggestions for the optimization of Rijndael. Meanwhile, the author design and realize the optimized Rijndael encryption through the SOPC (System on Program Chip). Based on the SOPC of Altera FPGA (Field Programmable Gata Array), the algorithm design is put forward and the center is the embedded soft core NiosII. It is also re...
Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image and Separating the Image and Data
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Naresh Achari B., Sri. Swami Naik J
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Since many years, the protection of multimedia system knowledge is changing into vital. The protection of this multimedia system knowledge is often finished coding or knowledge concealment algorithms. To decrease the UTC, the information compression is critical. Since few years, a replacement drawback is making an attempt to mix in a very single step, compression, and coding and knowledge concealment. So far, few solutions are planned to mix image coding and compression for instance. Nowadays, a replacement challenge consists to plant knowledge in encrypted pictures. Since the entropy of encrypted image is supreme, the embedding step, thought of like noise, isn't doable by victimization customary knowledge concealment algorithms. A replacement plan is to use reversible knowledge hiding algorithms on encrypted pictures by wish to get rid of the embedded knowledge before the image decoding. Recent reversible knowledge concealment ways are planned with high capability, however these ways aren't applicable on encrypted pictures. During this paper we tend to propose associate analysis of the native variance of the marked encrypted pictures so as to get rid of the embedded knowledge throughout the decoding step. We’ve got applied our methodology on varied pictures, and that we show and analyze the obtained results.
Performance Analysis of AES and MARS Encryption Algorithms
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H S Mohan
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Block ciphers are very important in communication systems as they provide confidentiality through encryption. The popular block ciphers are Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and MARS algorithms. Each cipher uses several rounds of fixed operations to achieve desired security level. The security level is measured in terms of diffusion and confusion. The diffusion level should be at least equal to strict avalanche criterion (SAC value. Therefore, the number of rounds are chosen such that the algorithm provides the SAC value. This paper presents measured diffusion value of AES and MARS algorithms. Diffusion values are compared for both the algorithms: AES and MARS. Similarly, speed of each algorithm is compared.
Image encryption based on random scrambling of the amplitude and phase in the frequency domain
Liu, Zhengjun; Li, Qiuming; Dai, Jingmin; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Sun, Xiaogang; Liu, Shutian; Ahmad, Muhammad Ashfaq
2009-08-01
We propose an image encryption algorithm by using random position scrambling of the amplitude and phase functions in the frequency domain of optical transform. The positions of amplitude and phase data are scrambled randomly in the horizontal or vertical direction. The random position orders can be regarded as the key of the algorithm. Moreover, random phase encoding is not used in the proposed algorithm. A feasible optical implementation of the encryption algorithm is given. Some numerical simulations have demonstrated the capability of the algorithm.
Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain
Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...
USING DYNAMIC DUAL KEYS ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM AS PARTIAL ENCRYPTION FOR A REAL-TIME DIGITAL VIDEO
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Basima Z.Yacob
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Advances in digital video transmission have increased in the past few years. Security and privacy issues of the transmitted data have become an important concern in multimedia technology. Digital video stream is quite different from traditional textual data because interframe dependencies exist in digital video. Special digital video encryption algorithms are required because of their special characteristics, such as coding structure, large amount of data and real-time constraints. This paper presents a real-time partial encryption to digital video technique depends on Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields which is fast enough to meet the real-time requirements with high level of security. In this technique the I-frame (Intra-frame of the digital video scene is extracted and decomposed the color picture into its three color channels: luma channel (Y and two chrominance channels Cb and Cr, with note that the frames of digital video is in YCbCr color system, the Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields is applied to the Y channel. The encryption technique achieves best timing results, and it provides high level of security by its great resistant against brute force attacks.
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Dr. Atul M. Gonsai
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Encryption algorithms play a vital role in information security systems. The study discovers the progress of Encryption algorithms in terms of their diversity of applications. Some of the Encryption algorithms have been developed to make transmission and storage of data more secured and confidential. Different levels of securities are offered by different algorithms depending on how difficult is to break them. If it is difficult to recover the plain text in spite of having substantial amount of cipher text then an algorithm is unconditionally secured. This study provides evaluation of eight of the most common encryption algorithms namely: DES, 3DES, AES (Rijndael, Blowfish, RSA, RC2, RC4, and RC6. From our analysis we came to conclusion that the best algorithm is the one which fulfills our need of security and speed. We come with new design of encryption algorithm based on AES or RSA or RC4, various scripts on NS2 or MATLAB or SCILAB, simulation environment of encrypted wireless network based on NS2 or MATLAB or SCILAB. We will implement newly proposed encryption algorithm on simulated environment and also test performance of proposed algorithm on wireless simulated network. We come with design and implement technique to store encrypted data on secondary storage device.
Quantum image encryption based on generalized Arnold transform and double random-phase encoding
Zhou, Nan Run; Hua, Tian Xiang; Gong, Li Hua; Pei, Dong Ju; Liao, Qing Hong
2015-04-01
A quantum realization of the generalized Arnold transform is designed. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm based on generalized Arnold transform and double random-phase encoding is proposed. The pixels are scrambled by the generalized Arnold transform, and the gray-level information of images is encoded by the double random-phase operations. The keys of the encryption algorithm include the independent parameters of coefficients matrix, iterative times and classical binary sequences, and thus, the key space is extremely large. Numerical simulations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that the proposed algorithm with good feasibility and effectiveness has lower computational complexity than its classical counterpart.
Bondareva, Alyona P.; Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.
2014-10-01
At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent monochromatic illumination. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent monochromatic illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. Encryption is accomplished by means of optical convolution of image of scene to be encrypted and encryption diffractive optical element (DOE) point spread function (PSF) which serves as encryption key. Encryption process is described as follows. Scene is illuminated with spatially-incoherent monochromatic light. In the absence of encryption DOE lens forms image of scene in photosensor plane. DOE serves as encryption element, its PSF - encryption key. Light passing through DOE forms convolution of object image and DOE PSF. Registered by photosensor convolution is encrypted image. Decryption was conducted numerically on computer by means of inverse filtration with regularization. Kinoforms were used as encryption DOE because they have single diffraction order. Two liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) were used to implement dynamic digital information input and dynamic encryption key change. As input scene amplitude LC SLM HoloEye LC2002 with 800×600 pixels 32×32 ?m2 and 256 gray levels was used. To image synthesized encryption kinoforms phase LC SLM HoloEye PLUTO VIS with 1920×1080 pixels 8×8 ?m2 and 256 phase levels was used. Set of test images was successfully optically encrypted and then numerically decrypted. Encrypted images contents are hidden. Decrypted images despite quite high noise levels are positively recognizable. Results of optical encryption and numerical decryption are presented.
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Er. Maninder Kaur*
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Images can be encrypted in many ways; several techniques have used different encryption methods. In this research, we apply a new modified International Data Encryption Algorithm to encrypt the full image in an efficient secure manner, after encryption the original file will be compressed and we get compressed image. This paper introduced a highly efficient image encryption-then compression (ETC system using wavelet. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction error domain is able to provide a reasonably high level of security. More notably, the proposed compression approach applied to encrypted images is only slightly worse, unencrypted images as inputs. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction error domain is shown to be able to provide a reasonably high level of security. We also demonstrate that an arithmetic coding-based approach can be exploited to efficiently compress the encrypted images. More notably, the proposed compression approach applied to encrypted images is only slightly worse, in terms of compression efficiency, than the state-of-the-art lossless/lossy image coders, which take original, unencrypted images as inputs. In contrast, most of the existing ETC solutions induce significant penalty on the compression efficiency. For the implementation of this proposed work we use the Image Processing Toolbox under Matlab software.
Implementation Of Encryption Algorithm For Communication By Microcontrollers
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Udayan Patankar
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract- This paper presents novel architecture for the Advanced Encryption algorithm to use it on low end microcontrollers with less number of bits. Now a day’s communication with high data rate transmission and less power consuming system is required which will deliver less error. Though the data rate is enhanced we try to keep things less complicated with respect to its manufacturing and packaging. Thus rather than going for more bits microcontroller we try to implement it with low bit size microcontrollers, which is also a cost effective. As we have heard that from ancient times it was the trend to use coded language for highly secured data as well as for fast communication on the same basis The algorithm used here encrypts frame information using an encrypted key. The key undergoes 4 stages of encryption. Then the frame information is passed through 15 stages of encryption using the encrypted key to create a cipher text. So that system will deliver less error and guaranteed communication is possible.
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K.Latha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, progressive interest is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it preserves the original cover can be recovered without any loss after embedded data is extracted to protect the con?dentiality of image content’s.Earlier method used“vacate room after Encryption” in which data can be embedded by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images. This might cause errors while data extraction or image restoration. However this provides less PSNR value when embedding messages in Images. To address this problem, a proposed method uses Extended Dynamic Histogram Shifting Modulation (EDHS can be done on the image content by the content owner. This method shifts the pixels of histogram based on prediction errors and its neighborhood pixels. The data can be embedded based on the space provided by the proposed histogram shifting method. After reserving space for data hiding by self reversible embedding using EDHS, Image can be encrypted by using proposed novel encryption method. Finally the receiver can restore the image and extract data by using encryption key and data hiding key. Experimental result provides greater PSNR value when compare with the existing work.
Secrecy and Performance Analysis of Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithms
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Tharindu Darshana Bandara Weerasinghe
2012-06-01
Full Text Available There can be two vital criteria of selecting an algorithm to fulfil one’s encryption requirement. The security level of the cipher (secrecy and the encryption time (performance. There is less focus on secrecy of ciphers as a security measurement, thus in this research, Shannon’s theories on secrecy of ciphers are used in-order to calculate the average secrecy of each cipher. Depending on the secrecy level and performance of the algorithm, suitable algorithm for encryption can be selected. This paper presents an analysis of some of the widely used symmetric key algorithms which fall under the categories of block and stream ciphers together with the two combined algorithms. [DES, TripleDES, AES, RC2, RC4, Hybrid1 (TripleDES+RC4 and Hybrid2 (AES+RC4 are used]. Analysis is done based on two measurement criteria under two circumstances which is described later in this paper. All the algorithms are implemented in Java using classes available in JAVA package javax.crypto. Separate classes are written to calculate the secrecy of ciphers and the encryption time. Performances of all stream ciphers are higher than that of block ciphers and the combined algorithms have similar performance level to block ciphers. Secrecy level of block ciphers are comparatively higher than that of stream ciphers but there are drastic changes as the data size increases. Hybrid ones have more stable secrecy level.
Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains
Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for optical information hiding (encryption) of two-dimensional images by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains. The image is initially randomly shifted using the jigsaw transform algorithm, and then a pixel scrambling technique based on the Arnold transform (ART) is applied. The scrambled image is then encrypted in a randomly chosen fractional Fourier domain. These processes can then be iteratively repeated. The parameters of the architecture, including the jigsaw permutation indices, Arnold frequencies, and fractional Fourier orders, form a very large key space enhancing the security level of the proposed encryption system. Optical implementations are discussed as numerical implementation algorithms. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the system's flexibility and robustness.
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Pavithra. C#1 , Vinod. B. Durdi
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Cryptography has been widely accepted as a traditional platform of data protection for decades.The most significant and efficient cryptosystems these days are the Symmetric key algorithms for cryptography. Hence, they have a very wide range of applications in many realms. Ad-hoc networks are the most commonly used type in the present scenario because of their non-fixed infrastructure. Providing security to such kinds of network is the main objective of the work here. In this project, we present a systematic approach for selective encryption of data. In the present day scenario where all the wireless ad-hoc network nodes run or work on battery, Full encryption of all the data may lead to a high overhead and also waste the computational power or the resources. Hence, two selective encryption algorithms are introduced and a secure method for communication between the user and the entrusted is also being carried out. Eventually, we carry out an extensive set of experiments using Core Java and Java cryptosystems. A very attractive GUI is being designed to make it more user friendly. This can be used whenever people work remotely and connect to their host server through VPN. We first create an ad-hoc network and communicate between the nodes of the network using basic server client methodology. Two selective encryption algorithms were developed and more than 50 percent encryption of the data was maintained in both the algorithms. However, the security aspect can be changed depending on the kind of the data which is being communicated.
Double-image encryption by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform
Li, Huijuan; Wang, Yurong; Yan, Haitao; Li, Liben; Li, Qiuze; Zhao, Xiaoyan
2013-12-01
A novel double-image encryption algorithm is proposed by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform. Two original images are first regarded as the amplitude and phase of a complex function. Arnold transform is used to scramble pixels at a local area of the complex function, where the position of the scrambled area and the Arnold transform frequency are generated by the standard map and logistic map respectively. Then the changed complex function is converted by gyrator transform. The two operations mentioned will be implemented iteratively. The system parameters in local pixel scrambling and gyrator transform serve as the keys of this encryption algorithm. Numerical simulation has been performed to test the validity and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm.
Optical image encryption in phase space
Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Situ, Guohai; Wu, Quanying
2014-11-01
In the field of optical information security, the research of double random phase encoding is becoming deeper with each passing day, however the encryption system is linear, and the dependencies between plaintext and ciphertext is not complicated, with leaving a great hidden danger to the security of the encryption system. In this paper, we encrypted the higher dimensional Wigner distribution function of low dimensional plaintext by using the bilinear property of Wigner distribution function. Computer simulation results show that this method can not only enlarge the key space, but also break through the linear characteristic of the traditional optical encryption technology. So it can significantly improve the safety of the encryption system.
Color image encryption based on paired interpermuting planes
Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Zhi-liang
2015-03-01
A number of chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been proposed in recent years, and most of them employ confusion-diffusion architecture. This paper presents a new confusion scheme based on paired interpermuting planes. In the proposed new confusion operation, an 'exchange and random access strategy' is employed to replace the traditional confusion operations. The efficiency of the proposed scheme was analyzed by evaluating its histogram distribution, its correlation coefficients, its ability to resist differential attacks, its ability to retain information (entropy analysis), its computational speed, and its ability to guarantee the security of its key scheme. Simulations have been carried out and the results confirmed the superior security and computing speed of our scheme compared to other comparable algorithms.
Dharmendra Kumar Gupta
2012-01-01
Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the needs to protect such applications are increased. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information security systems. This work gives an insight into the new concept called hybrid approach of conventional encryption, which gives the concept of strong encryption of the data. The symmetric encryption also called conventional encryption or single key encryption was the only type of encryption is use prior to the development of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)
Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae
2014-04-01
In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.
MESSAGE ENCRYPTION USING NTRU ALGORITHM ON ANDROID
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Amanpreet Kaur
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS is getting more popular now-a-days. SMS was first used in December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry Christmas" via the Vodafone GSM network to the phone of Richard Jarvis in the UK. It will play a very important role in the future business areas of mobile commerce (M-Commerce. Presently many business organizations use SMS for their business purposes. SMS’s security has become a major concern for business organizations and customers. There is a need for an end to end SMS Encryption in order to provide a secure medium for communication. Security is main concern for any business company such as banks who will provide these mobile banking services. Till now there is no such scheme that provides complete SMSs security. The transmission of an SMS in GSM network is not secure at all. Therefore it is desirable to secure SMS for business purposes by additional encryption. In this thesis, we have analyzed different cryptosystems for implementing to the existing Secure Extensible and Efficient SMS (SEESMS. We planned to implement NTRU cryptosystem into existing SEESMS frame. The NTRU public key cryptosystem was developed in 1996 at Brown University by three mathematicians J. Hoffstein, J.Pipher and J.H. Silverman. It is not that much popular cryptosystems like RSA, ECC and other traditional. The major advantages of NTRU cryptosystem is much faster generating key, encryption time and decryption time as compared to others. It is easily compatible with mobile devices and other portable devices. We have compared theoretically and analysis of NTRU with RSA and ECC cryptosystems at end of my papers. It is theoretically proposed here. We are expecting our novel scheme may show better result than others. So it will provide improve the current security level and fastest speed with respect to key generation, encryption decryption with small key size. This proposal will suitable to any kind of mobile device for SMS communication with suitable data security.
Reducing Computational Time of Basic Encryption and Authentication Algorithms
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Sandeep Kumar,
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Today most of data are sending via the internet for sharing, so the trust of data files is decreased. For the trust more security and authentication is needed, less security increase the liability ofattacks on data. Digital signature of the data is a solution to this security problem which provides the reliability, authenticity and accuracy. Most basic algorithm for security and authentication is RSA, DSA, algorithms which uses the different key of different sizes. This work presents ECDSA algorithm to encrypt the data, use parameterized hash algorithm to authenticate the data and also compare both RSA and ECDSA methods in respect of time parameters.
Application of Cosine Zone Plates to Image Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse the diffraction result of optical field after Cosine zone plate, and theoretically deduce its transform matrix. Under some conditions, its diffraction distribution is a mixture of fractional Fourier spectra. Then we use Cosine zone plate and its diffraction result to image encryption. Possible optical image encryption and decryption implementations are proposed, and some numerical simulation results are also provided. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
A one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a new one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of a skew tent chaotic map. We divide the chaotic trajectory into sub-intervals and map them to integers, and use this scheme to encrypt plaintext and obtain ciphertext. In this algorithm, the plaintext information in the key is used, so different plaintexts or different total numbers of plaintext letters will encrypt different ciphertexts. Simulation results show that the performance and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm can encrypt plaintext effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)
A Digital Watermarking for Lifting Based Compression And Encryption of JPEG 2000 Images
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Ansu Anna Ponnachen1 , Lidiya Xavier
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In the digital world the digital media is currently evolving at such rapidly;copyright protection is become increasingly important.Now a days these media is available with various image formats,due to which they are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality.A wide range of digital media is often distributed by multiple levels of distributors in a compressed and encrypted format.It is sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encrypted media items in the compressed encrypted domain itself for tamper detection or ownership declaration or copyright management purposes.The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data inorder to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.This paper deals with the watermarking of compressed and encrypted JPEG 2000 images.The compression is achieved on JPEG 2000 images by lifting based architecture.The encryption algorithm used is stream cipher.The identification of watermark can be done in the decrypted domain.The watermarking technique used is spread spectrum.This can be implemented through matlab.
The Collins Formula Applied in Optical Image Encryption
Chen, Lin-Fei; Zhao, Dao-Mu; Mao, Hai-Dan; Ge, Fan; Guan, Rui-Xia
2013-04-01
We propose a novel method for image encryption, which is realized by the Collins formula with the random shifting method. The Collins formula can denote different optical transforms by one expression with different ABCD elements. For a generalized optical system, the ABCD elements can be randomly chosen, so the keys are increased and the security of the system is strengthened. Finally, some computer simulations are given for different encryption systems to prove the possibilities. The encryption effect is good, and people without the correct keys can not obtain the information easily.
Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA
Donggeon Lee; Dong-Chan Kim; Daesung Kwon; Howon Kim
2014-01-01
Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA ...
An Assessment on Irrevocable Compression of Encrypted Grayscale Image
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S. Manimurugan,
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper may deals with the miscellaneous troubles that may be occurs during the irrevocable compression applied on an encrypted grayscale image. This work is a comparative learn with diverse methods of irrevocable compression such as Compressive sensing technique and Iterative reconstruction technique on encrypted grayscale image. But they practiced a multiplicity of limitations. The major obscurity is to achieve higher compression ratio as well as the better quality of the reconstructed image. The higher compression ratio and the smoother the original image may furnish the better quality of the reconstructed image.
Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES
Yu, X. Y.; Zhang, J.; Ren, H. E.; Xu, G. S.; Luo, X. Y.
2006-10-01
With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 1017 and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value.
Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, J [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Ren, H E [Information and Computer Engineering College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150000 (China); Xu, G S [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Luo, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China)
2006-10-15
With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 10{sup 17} and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value.
Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 1017 and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value
A Chaotic Encryption Algorithm Based on Skew Tent Map
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Chen Shou-gang
2009-04-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development and extensive applications of computer technology, network technology, communication technology, and Internet in particular, the security of network information is becoming increasingly key problems that must be solved urgently. The applying chaos theory to secure communication and information encryption has already become one of the hot research projects on the combination of nonlinear science and information science, and it is a novel branch of high-tech research fields. In this paper, a chaotic encryption algorithm based on skew tent map is proposed. In the process of encryption, its update look-up table depends on plaintext and external key, the 8-bit subkey is dynamically generated with skew tent map and depends on updating look-up table, the key is initial condition X0 of skew tent map, control parameter p and a external key K. Theoretical analysis and simulated experiments show that the algorithm can resist the statistic and differential attacks, and the algorithm has high security.
Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibility of proposed method.
Zhao, Liang; Adhikari, Avishek; Xiao, Di; Sakurai, Kouichi
2012-08-01
An image scrambling encryption scheme for pixel bits was presented by Ye [Ye GD. Image scrambling encryption algorithm of pixel bit based on chaos map. Pattern Recognit Lett 2010;31:347-54], which can be seen as one kind of typical binary image scrambling encryption considering from the bit-plain of size M × (8N). However, recently, some defects existing in the original image encryption scheme, i.e., Ye's scheme, have been observed by Li and Lo [Li CQ, Lo KT. Optimal quantitative cryptanalysis of permutation-only multimedia ciphers against plaintext attacks. Signal Process 2011;91:949-54]. In the attack proposed by Li and Lo at least 3 + ?log2(MN)? plain images of size M × N are used to reveal the permutation matrix W = [w(i, k)] (i ? {1, 2, … , M}; k ? {1, 2, … , 8N}) which can be applied to recover the exact plain image. In the current paper, at first, one type of special plain image/cipher image is used to analyze the security weakness of the original image scrambling scheme under study. The final encryption vectors TM and TN or the decryption vectors TM' and TN' are revealed completely according to our attack. To demonstrate the performance of our attack, a quantified comparison is drawn between our attack and the attack proposed by Li and Lo. Compared with Li and Lo's attack, our attack is more efficient in the general conditions. In particular, when the sizes of images satisfy the condition M = N or M ? 8N, the number of the used plain images/cipher images is at most 9, which is sharply less than 3 + ?log2(MN)? when M and N are of large size. To overcome the weaknesses of the original scheme, in this paper, an improved image scrambling encryption scheme is proposed. In the improved scheme, the idea of the "self-correlation" method is used to resist the chosen-plaintext attack/known-plaintext attack. The corresponding simulations and analyses illustrate that the improved encryption method has good cryptographic properties, and can overcome the weakness of the original image encryption scheme. Finally, farther improvement is briefly presented for the future work.
Optical encryption using photon-counting polarimetric imaging.
Maluenda, David; Carnicer, Artur; Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Juvells, Ignasi; Javidi, Bahram
2015-01-26
We present a polarimetric-based optical encoder for image encryption and verification. A system for generating random polarized vector keys based on a Mach-Zehnder configuration combined with translucent liquid crystal displays in each path of the interferometer is developed. Polarization information of the encrypted signal is retrieved by taking advantage of the information provided by the Stokes parameters. Moreover, photon-counting model is used in the encryption process which provides data sparseness and nonlinear transformation to enhance security. An authorized user with access to the polarization keys and the optical design variables can retrieve and validate the photon-counting plain-text. Optical experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the encryption method. PMID:25835825
A Fast Image Encryption Scheme based on Chaotic Standard Map
Wong, K W; Law, W S; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Kwok, Bernie Sin-Hung; Law, Wing-Shing
2006-01-01
In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image encryption schemes have been proposed. The typical structure of these schemes has the permutation and the diffusion stages performed alternatively. The confusion and diffusion effect is solely contributed by the permutation and the diffusion stage, respectively. As a result, more overall rounds than necessary are required to achieve a certain level of security. In this paper, we suggest to introduce certain diffusion effect in the confusion stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. The purpose is to reduce the workload of the time-consuming diffusion part so that fewer overall rounds and hence a shorter encryption time is needed. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of the encryption speed is thus achieved.
Cryptanalysis on an Image Scrambling Encryption Scheme Based on Pixel Bit
Zhao, Liang; Adhikari, Avishek; Xiao, Di; Sakurai, Kouichi
Recently, an image scrambling encryption algorithm which makes use of one-dimensional chaos system for shuffling the pixel bits was proposed in [G.-D. Ye, Pattern Recognition Lett. 31(2010) 347-354]. Through the scrambling algorithm, the pixel locations and values can be encrypted at the same time. This scheme can be thought of as a typical binary image scrambling encryption considering the bit-plain of size emph{M}×8emph{N}. In [Li C.Q., Lo K. T., http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0912/0912.1918v2.pdf], Li et al. proposed an attack using more than ?log 2(emph{8M} emph{N}-1)? many known-plaintext images to recover the original plain image with the noise of size M ×N. The same principle is also suitable for the chosen-plaintext attack which can obtain the exact plain image. In the current paper, a simple attack on the original scheme is presented by applying chosen-plaintext images. Using our attack, the encryption vectors emph{TM} and emph{TN} and the decryption vectors TM' and TN' can be recovered completely. The experimental simulations on two standard images of size 128 ×128 and 256 ×256 justify our analysis. It is shown that the recovered images are identical with the corresponding original images. For both the original images, the number of chosen-plaintext images required in our scheme is 9, where as to do the same using the scheme proposed in Li et al.' attack, at least 17 and 19 chosen-plaintext images there will be required respectively. Moreover, the some method can be also used for chosen-ciphertext attack which reveals the decryption vectors TM' and TN' directly. Note that our attacks are also successful under iteration system which is remarked in the conclusions.
Secure Image Encryption without Size Limitation Using Arnold Transform and Random Strategies
Zhenjun Tang; Xianquan Zhang
2011-01-01
Encryption is an efficient way to protect the contents of digital media. Arnold transform is a significant technique of image encryption, but has weaknesses in security and applications to images of any size. To solve these problems, we propose an image encryption scheme using Arnold transform and random strategies. It is achieved by dividing the image into random overlapping square blocks, generating random iterative numbers and random encryption order, and scrambling pixels of each block us...
Separable and Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image with High Payload
Zhaoxia Yin; Bin Luo; Wien Hong
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a separable reversible data-hiding scheme in encrypted image which offers high payload and error-free data extraction. The cover image is partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks and multigranularity encryption is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The data hider preprocesses the encrypted image and randomly selects two basic pixels in each block to estimate the block smoothness and indicate peak points. Additional data are embedded into blocks in the sorted order of blo...
Polynomial Based Secret Sharing Scheme for Image Encryption Based on Mathematical Theorem
A. Kalai Selvi; M.Mohamed Sathik
2011-01-01
With a ever increasing growth of multimedia applications, security is an important issue in communication and storage of images, and encryption is one of the way to ensure security. Image encryption has applications in internet communication, multimedia systems, medical imaging, telemedicine and military communications. This paper proposes image encryption using secret sharing scheme. According to this process there are two levels of encryption. The first level, generates the random polynomia...
Muniraj, Inbarasan; Kim, Byoungho; Lee, Byung-Guen
2014-09-20
This paper presents a new method for three-dimensional (3D) scene acquisition via reconstruction with multispectral information and its Fourier-based encryption using computational integral imaging, by which the field of view, resolution, and information security are increased, respectively. The color imaging sensors covered with a Bayer color filter array captures elemental images (EI) at different spectral bands (400 and 700 nm intervals in the visible spectrum). Subsequently, double random phase encryption (DRPE) in the Fourier domain is employed on Bayer formatted EI to encrypt the captured 3D scene. Proper 3D object reconstruction only can be achieved by applying inverse decryption and a geometric ray backpropagation algorithm on the encrypted EI. Further, the high-resolution multispectral 3D scene can be visualized by using various adaptive interpolation algorithms. To objectively evaluate our proposed method, we carried out computational experiments for 3D object sensing, reconstruction, and digital simulations for DRPE. Experiment results validate the feasibility and robustness of our proposed approach, even under severe degradation. PMID:25322135
Teytaud, Fabien; Fonlupt, Cyril
2014-01-01
In this paper we analyze the cryptanalysis of the simplified data encryption standard algorithm using meta-heuristics and in particular genetic algorithms. The classic fitness function when using such an algorithm is to compare n-gram statistics of a the decrypted message with those of the target message. We show that using such a function is irrelevant in case of Genetic Algorithm, simply because there is no correlation between the distance to the real key (the optimum) and...
Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu; Chen, Yixiang
2014-08-10
We present a study about information disclosure in phase-truncation-based cryptosystems. The main information of the original image to be encoded can be obtained by using a decryption key in the worst case. The problem cannot be thoroughly solved by imaginary part truncating, keeping the encryption keys as private keys, or applying different phase keys for different plaintexts during each encryption process as well as the phase modulation in the frequency domain. In order to eliminate the risk of unintended information disclosure, we further propose a nonlinear spatial and spectral encoding technique using a random amplitude mask (RAM). The encryption process involving two security layers can be fully controlled by a RAM. The spatial encoding of the plaintext images and the simultaneous encryption of the plaintext images and the encryption key greatly enhance the security of system, avoiding several attacks that have cracked the phase-truncation-based cryptosystems. Besides, the hybrid encryption system retains the advantage of a trap door one-way function of phase truncation. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed encryption algorithm. PMID:25320917
Optical Image Encryption with Simplified Fractional Hartley Transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new method for image encryption on the basis of simplified fractional Hartley transform (SFRHT). SFRHT is a real transform as Hartley transform (HT) and furthermore, superior to HT in virtue of the advantage that it can also append fractional orders as additional keys for the purpose of improving the system security to some extent. With this method, one can encrypt an image with an intensity-only medium such as a photographic film or a CCD camera by spatially incoherent or coherent illumination. The optical realization is then proposed and computer simulations are also performed to verify the feasibility of this method. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Optical image encryption based on a radial shearing interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a novel method for optical image encryption based on a modified radial shearing interferometer (MRSI), which is generally used for wavefront reconstruction. In this method, a plaintext image is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM) and then modulated by a random phase mask (RPM), the result is regarded as the input of the radial shearing interferometer and is divided into two coherent lights, which interfere with each other, leading to an interferogram (ciphertext). The aforementioned encryption process can be achieved digitally or optically while the decryption process can only be analytically accomplished. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the validity of this method. (paper)
Efficient image or video encryption based on spatiotemporal chaos system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, an efficient image/video encryption scheme is constructed based on spatiotemporal chaos system. The chaotic lattices are used to generate pseudorandom sequences and then encrypt image blocks one by one. By iterating chaotic maps for certain times, the generated pseudorandom sequences obtain high initial-value sensitivity and good randomness. The pseudorandom-bits in each lattice are used to encrypt the Direct Current coefficient (DC) and the signs of the Alternating Current coefficients (ACs). Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme has good cryptographic security and perceptual security, and it does not affect the compression efficiency apparently. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.
A symmetrical image encryption scheme in wavelet and time domain
Luo, Yuling; Du, Minghui; Liu, Junxiu
2015-02-01
There has been an increasing concern for effective storages and secure transactions of multimedia information over the Internet. Then a great variety of encryption schemes have been proposed to ensure the information security while transmitting, but most of current approaches are designed to diffuse the data only in spatial domain which result in reducing storage efficiency. A lightweight image encryption strategy based on chaos is proposed in this paper. The encryption process is designed in transform domain. The original image is decomposed into approximation and detail components using integer wavelet transform (IWT); then as the more important component of the image, the approximation coefficients are diffused by secret keys generated from a spatiotemporal chaotic system followed by inverse IWT to construct the diffused image; finally a plain permutation is performed for diffusion image by the Logistic mapping in order to reduce the correlation between adjacent pixels further. Experimental results and performance analysis demonstrate the proposed scheme is an efficient, secure and robust encryption mechanism and it realizes effective coding compression to satisfy desirable storage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhua Wu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available A novel single-channel color image encryption algorithm is proposed, which utilizes the reality-preserving fractional discrete cosine transform in YCbCr space. The color image to be encrypted is decomposed into Y, Cb, and Cr components, which are then separately transformed by Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. The resulting three spectra sequences, obtained by zig-zag scanning the spectra matrices, are truncated and the lower frequency coefficients of the three components are scrambled up into a single matrix of the same size with the original color image. Then the obtained single matrix is encrypted by the fractional discrete cosine transform, which is a kind of encryption with secrecy of pixel value and pixel position simultaneously. The encrypted image is convenient for display, transmission and storage, thanks to the reality-preserving property of the fractional discrete cosine transform. Additionally, the proposed algorithm enlarges the key space by employing the generating sequence as an extra key in addition to the fractional orders. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate the proposed algorithm is feasible, effective and secure. The robustness to noise attack is also guaranteed to some extent.
Samir El Adib; Naoufal Raissouni,
2012-01-01
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES), as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high...
A Review On Data Hiding Techniques In Encrypted Images
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Ms. Anagha Markandey
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking into the networking era. There are number of techniques available in the industry to overcome this problem. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is one of the solution, but the problem is the original cover cannot be losslessly recovered by this technique. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent property that the original cover can be recovered without any los after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. This paper enlists the various methods of data hiding in the image like differential expansion, histogram shift or the combination of both the techniques. This is useful in the way that these methods recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.
Biomedical Image Transmission Based on Modified Feistal Algorithm
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Jinu Elizabeth John
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paperpresents a reconfigurable, high performance hardware implementation of highly securebiomedical image transmission system which can be used for sending medical reports in military and highsecurity environments. The algorithm for encryption is based on DESalgorithm with a novel skew core keyscheduling. The encrypted image is not intelligible to an intruder, but the recovered image has high level ofclarity. This type of encryption can be used in applications where we need to discourage eavesdroppingfromco-channel users or RF scanners. The biomedical image encryption technique is implemented onVirtex 5 XC5VLX110T Field Programming Gate Arrays (FPGA technology and NET FPGA. Final 16-stage pipelined design is achieved with encryption rate of 35.5 Gbit/sand 2140 number of Configurablelogic blocks (CLBs.
A novel double-image encryption scheme based on cross-image pixel scrambling in gyrator domains.
Chen, Jun-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Liu, Zhengjun; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-Bo; Yu, Hai
2014-03-24
Recently, a number of double-image cryptosystems have been developed. However, there are notable security performance differences between the two encryption channels in these algorithms. This weakness downgrades the security level and practicability of these cryptosystems, as the cryptosystems cannot guarantee all the input images be transmitted in the channel with higher security level. In this paper, we propose a novel double-image encryption scheme based on cross-image pixel scrambling in gyrator domains. The two input images are firstly shuffled by the proposed cross-image pixel scrambling approach, which can well balance the pixel distribution across the input images. The two scrambled images will be encoded into the real and imaginary parts of a complex function, and then converted into gyrator domains. An iterative architecture is designed to enhance the security level of the cryptosystem, and the cross-image pixel scrambling operation is performed to the real and imaginary parts of the generated complex encrypted data in each round. Numerical simulation results prove that a satisfactory and balanced security performance can be achieved in both channels. PMID:24664082
Improving Security of Parallel Algorithm Using Key Encryption Technique
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R. Swarna Raja
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the recent cloud era, computing moves to a new plane of running large scale scientific applications. Many parallel algorithms have been created to support a large dataset. MapReduce is one such parallel data processing framework adopted widely for scientific research, machine learning and high end computing. The most prevalent implementation of MapReduce is the open source project Hadoop. To protect the integrity and confidentiality of data uploaded, MapReduce introduced a Kerberos-based model with tokens for datablocks and processing nodes. The tokens are symmetrically encrypted and distributed across the nodes. Such a technique is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks like data loss, data modification and stealing of keys. In this study, a novel technique is proposed based on public key encryption on top of the Kerberos model to enhance Security. The various attack scenarios on the current Hadoop implementation model has been analyzed and a secure environment has been proposed. The study shows that the proposed framework provides an improved level of security when using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman with 65,537 keysize consumed 23 milli seconds, while using 257 bits keysize which consumed 21 milli seconds.
Samir El Adib; Naoufal Raissouni,
2012-01-01
In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES). Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is th...
The New Image Encryption and Decryption Using Quasi Group
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Ankit Agarwal
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Multimedia Communication is the new age of communication. Image Communication is one of the most popular types of multimedia communication. This type of communication always faces security challenges. Security breach is rising at a rapid rate. Image privacy is facing an even bigger threat. There are several image cryptography techniques having both positive and negative consequences. Via this paper, we are presenting a new approach for image encryption and decryption by using pixel shifting and using Quasigroup (Latin Square without performing translation. It requires low computation as a key. Image pixel reshuffling is done randomly and in a non-repeated manner.
Garg, Poonam
2010-01-01
Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplified data encryption standard can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. In this paper, a comparison between memetic algorithm and genetic algorithm were made in order to investigate the performance for the cryptanalysis on simplified data encryption standard problems(SDES). The methods were tested and various experimental results show that memetic algorithm performs better than the genetic algorithms for such type of NP-Hard combinatorial problem. This paper represents our first effort toward efficient memetic algo...
Chaos Encryption Algorithm to Deal with Security Threat to Internet of Things RFID
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Tian Xiaoyong
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Internet of Things RFID system is mainly studied problem in current communication area, where the safety of code message become rather important. Chaos encryption algorithm can disperse not only the time area but the scale, which is suitable for computer to deal with and overcome the limitation of block encryption in DES and AES. Using Sequence of the digital to deal with initial value and combining the one dimensional Logistic chaos and three dimensional Lorenz algorithm realize common encryption algorithm of these two chaos methods to calculate the long-term random sequence under the limitation of precision and improve the security.
An efficient diffusion approach for chaos-based image encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the existing chaos-based image cryptosystems is composed of alternative substitution and diffusion stages. A multi-dimensional chaotic map is usually employed in the substitution stage for image pixel permutation while a one-dimensional (1D) chaotic map is used for diffusion purpose. As the latter usually involves real number arithmetic operations, the overall encryption speed is limited by the diffusion stage. In this paper, we propose a more efficient diffusion mechanism using simple table lookup and swapping techniques as a light-weight replacement of the 1D chaotic map iteration. Simulation results show that at a similar security level, the proposed cryptosystem needs about one-third the encryption time of a similar cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved.
DATA SECURITY IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK BASED ON FAST ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
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G. Ramesh
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Hacking is one of the greatest problems in the wireless local area networks. Many algorithms have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user safely and correctly. In this paper, a new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed that prevents the outside attacks. The new algorithm avoids key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption and decryption. It operates at high data rate in comparison with The Data Encryption Standard (DES, Triple DES (TDES, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-256, and RC6 algorithms. The new algorithm is applied successfully on both text file and voice message.
Study on Cryptanalysis of the Tiny Encryption Algorithm
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Rajashekarappa
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the Study on a Tiny Encryption Algorithm. There is a requirement to specify cryptographic strength in an objective manner rather than describing it using subjective descriptors such as weak, strong, acceptable etc. Such metrics are essential for describing the characteristics of cryptographic products and technologies. Towards this objective, we use two metrics called the Strict Plaintext Avalanche Criterion (SPAC and the Strict Key Avalanche Criterion (SKAC mentioned in our study that the strength of popular ciphers such as DES and TEA. A related issue of significance in the context of cryptographic applications is the quality of random number generators which need to pass certain tests. In this Paper, we expose DES and TEA to some of the standard random number generator tests.
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K Kamalam
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and anticipated reciver, imagine the existence of the information, a form of security through obscurity. It is an emerging area which is used for secured data broadcast over any public media. In this study a novel advance of image steganography based on LSB (Least Significant Bit insertion, RSA encryption and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm technique for the lossless jpeg images has been proposed. In this paper, we present a strategy of attaining maximum embedding ability in an image in a way that maximum possible neighboring pixels are analyzed for their frequencies, to determine the amount of content to be added in each pixel. The techniques provide a seamless insertion of data into the carrier image and reduce the error consideration and artifacts insertion required to a minimal. We validate our approach with the help of an experimental evaluation on a prototypic implementation of the proposed model.
Vector Quantization Techniques For Partial Encryption of Wavelet-based Compressed Digital Images
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H. A. Younis
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The use of image communication has increased in recent years. In this paper, newpartial encryption schemes are used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Only6.25-25% of the original data is encrypted for four different images, resulting in asignificant reduction in encryption and decryption time. In the compression step, anadvanced clustering analysis technique (Fuzzy C-means (FCM is used. In the encryptionstep, the permutation cipher is used. The effect of number of different clusters is studied.The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast and secure, and do not reduce thecompression performance of the underlying selected compression methods as shown inexperimental results and conclusion.
Robust image encryption by combined use of integral imaging and pixel scrambling techniques
Piao, Yong-Ri; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo
2009-11-01
A robust image encryption method by using the integral imaging and pixel scrambling (PS) techniques is proposed. In this method, pixels of the cover image are scrambled with the PS technique and elemental images for this scrambled image are picked up through a lenslet array. Subsequently, an encrypted image is obtained by scrambling these picked-up elemental images. Since this encrypted image has the hologram-like property of data redundancy resulted from the integral imaging scheme, while it can as well be decoded by multiple keys such as the orders of pixel scrambling and the pickup conditions of the elemental images, its security against the various attacks could be dramatically improved. Good experimental results also confirm that the proposed method could provide more enhanced robustness against data loss and Gaussian noises compared to the conventional methods.
Optical image encryption and hiding based on a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
Li, Jun; Li, Jiaosheng; Shen, Lina; Pan, Yangyang; Li, Rong
2014-02-24
A method for optical image hiding and for optical image encryption and hiding in the Fresnel domain via completely optical means is proposed, which encodes original object image into the encrypted image and then embeds it into host image in our modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture. The modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer not only provides phase shifts to record complex amplitude of final encrypted object image on CCD plane but also introduces host image into reference path of the interferometer to hide it. The final encrypted object image is registered as interference patterns, which resemble a Fresnel diffraction pattern of the host image, and thus the secure information is imperceptible to unauthorized receivers. The method can simultaneously realize image encryption and image hiding at a high speed in pure optical system. The validity of the method and its robustness against some common attacks are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. PMID:24663801
Quasi-Linear Time Fully Homomorphic Public Key Encryption Algorithm (ZK111
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Zaryab Khan
2012-11-01
Full Text Available ZK111 is a quasi-linear O(n · log n fully Homomorphic encryption (FHE algorithm. It works on a novel idea of “perfectly colorblind function” which is nothing but a very unique way of creating p-adic ring homomorphism from p-adic ring X to p-adic ring Y. Unlike its other FHE counterparts, there is NO “noise” in the cipher text. ZK111 preserves full algebraic homomorphism without compromising its quasi-linear efficiency. It is not only FHE, but also the fastest public-key encryption (PKE algorithm known as of today.. Both encryption and decryption are O(n · log n and algorithm still retains it FHE property. Hence it solves the most intriguing and outstanding problem of cryptography. ZK111 is a probabilistic encryption algorithm by nature, and despite being FHE; it is absolutely immune to chosen and adoptive plaintext attack by design.
A fast image encryption scheme based on chaotic standard map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image cryptosystems have been proposed. One of the architectures of this kind of cryptosystems is composed of multiple rounds of substitution and diffusion. As the confusion and diffusion effects are solely contributed by the substitution and the diffusion stages, respectively, the required overall rounds of operations in achieving a certain level of security is found more than necessary. In this Letter, we suggest to introduce a certain diffusion effect in the substitution stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. Although this leads to a longer processing time in a single round, the overall encryption time is reduced as fewer rounds are required. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing fast cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved
Wang, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Hong-zhao; Qin, Yi
2014-12-01
Based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code, a new optical encryption technology that only needs to record one intensity distribution is proposed. In this encryption process, firstly, the QR code is generated from the information to be encrypted; and then the generated QR code is placed in the input plane of 4-f system to have a double random phase encryption. For only one intensity distribution in the output plane is recorded as the ciphertext, the encryption process is greatly simplified. In the decryption process, the corresponding QR code is retrieved using phase retrieval algorithm. A priori information about QR code is used as support constraint in the input plane, which helps solve the stagnation problem. The original information can be recovered without distortion by scanning the QR code. The encryption process can be implemented either optically or digitally, and the decryption process uses digital method. In addition, the security of the proposed optical encryption technology is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations show that this optical encryption system is invulnerable to various attacks, and suitable for harsh transmission conditions.
Chaos Encryption Algorithm to Deal with Security Threat to Internet of Things RFID
Tian Xiaoyong
2013-01-01
Internet of Things RFID system is mainly studied problem in current communication area, where the safety of code message become rather important. Chaos encryption algorithm can disperse not only the time area but the scale, which is suitable for computer to deal with and overcome the limitation of block encryption in DES and AES. Using Sequence of the digital to deal with initial value and combining the one dimensional Logistic chaos and three dimensional Lorenz algorithm realize common encry...
Breaking a novel image encryption scheme based on improved hyperchaotic sequences
Li, Chengqing; Liu, Yuansheng; Xie, Tao
2012-01-01
Recently, a novel image encryption scheme based on improved hyperchaotic sequences was proposed. A pseudo-random number sequence, generated by a hyper-chaos system, is used to determine two involved encryption functions, bitwise exclusive or (XOR) operation and modulo addition. It was reported that the scheme can be broken with some pairs of chosen plain-images and the corresponding cipher-images. This paper re-evaluates security of the encryption scheme and finds that the e...
Efficient hardware implementation of the lightweight block encryption algorithm LEA.
Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon
2014-01-01
Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859
Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donggeon Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware.
Unified compression and encryption algorithm for fast and secure network communications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compression and encryption of data are two vital requirements for the fast and secure transmission of data in the network based communications. In this paper an algorithm is presented based on adaptive Huffman encoding for unified compression and encryption of Unicode encoded textual data. The Huffman encoding weakness that same tree is needed for decoding is utilized in the algorithm presented as an extra layer of security, which is updated whenever the frequency change is above the specified threshold level. The results show that we get compression comparable to popular zip format and in addition to that data has got an additional layer of encryption that makes it more secure. Thus unified algorithm presented here can be used for network communications between different branches of banks, e- Government programs and national database and registration centers where data transmission requires both compression and encryption. (author)
RSA Algorithm Implementation for Ciphering Medical Imaging
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Samoud Ali
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we will present a software designed for remote visualization of medical images with data security transfer. This interface is implemented under MATLAB environment. The implementation of the image cryptography system uses the RSA algorithm with 64 bits private key length. The transfer of images in a secure way for medical diagnosis is insured by generating a watermarked key to encrypt the original image. More, we introduced a comparison study between the obtained performances and those computed with other algorithms such as DES and IDEA.
Chaos-based color pathological image encryption scheme using one-time keys.
Liu, Guoyan; Li, Jie; Liu, Hongjun
2014-02-01
This paper proposes an improved chaos-based color pathological image encryption algorithm, using SHA-2 to generate one-time keys. In order to send different ciphered images to different recipients, the hash value of the plain image and a random number are applied to generate one-time initial conditions for Chebyshev maps, to make the key stream change in every confusion process without changing the common initial values. The permuted image is divided into 256-bit long blocks, the avalanche effect is applied to diffuse the blocks, i.e., each block is XORed with the hash value of the prior block. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust against common attacks. PMID:24480170
Optical encryption for large-sized images using random phase-free method
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2015-01-01
We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.
Chaos-based encryption for fractal image coding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A chaos-based cryptosystem for fractal image coding is proposed. The Rényi chaotic map is employed to determine the order of processing the range blocks and to generate the keystream for masking the encoded sequence. Compared with the standard approach of fractal image coding followed by the Advanced Encryption Standard, our scheme offers a higher sensitivity to both plaintext and ciphertext at a comparable operating efficiency. The keystream generated by the Rényi chaotic map passes the randomness tests set by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, and so the proposed scheme is sensitive to the key. (general)
An image encryption approach based on chaotic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well-known that images are different from texts in many aspects, such as highly redundancy and correlation, the local structure and the characteristics of amplitude-frequency. As a result, the methods of conventional encryption cannot be applicable to images. In this paper, we improve the properties of confusion and diffusion in terms of discrete exponential chaotic maps, and design a key scheme for the resistance to statistic attack, differential attack and grey code attack. Experimental and theoretical results also show that our scheme is efficient and very secure
An efficient and robust image encryption scheme for medical applications
Kanso, A.; Ghebleh, M.
2015-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel full and selective chaos-based image encryption scheme suitable for medical image encryption applications. The proposed approach consists of several rounds, where each round is made up of two phases, a shuffling phase and a masking phase. Both phases are block-based and use chaotic cat maps to shuffle and mask an input image. To improve the speed of the proposed scheme while maintaining a high level of security, the scheme employs a pseudorandom matrix, of the same size as the input image, in the masking phase of each round. Blocks of this pseudorandom matrix are permuted in each round of the shuffling phase according to the outputs of some chaotic maps. The proposed scheme applies mixing between blocks of the image in order to prevent cryptanalytic attacks such as differential attacks. Simulation results demonstrate high performance of the proposed scheme and show its robustness against cryptanalytic attacks, thus confirming its suitability for real-time secure image communication.
Aldossari, M; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C
2014-09-22
This study presents and validates an optimized method of simultaneous compression and encryption designed to process images with close spectra. This approach is well adapted to the compression and encryption of images of a time-varying scene but also to static polarimetric images. We use the recently developed spectral fusion method [Opt. Lett.35, 1914-1916 (2010)] to deal with the close resemblance of the images. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. We use a root-mean-square (RMS) optimization criterion to treat compression. Image encryption is realized at different security levels. Firstly, we add a specific encryption level which is related to the different areas of the spectral plane, and then, we make use of several random phase keys. An in-depth analysis at the spectral fusion methodology is done in order to find a good trade-off between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images. Our new proposal spectral shift allows us to minimize the image overlap. We further analyze the influence of the spectral shift on the reconstructed image quality and compression rate. The performance of the multiple-image optical compression and encryption method is verified by analyzing several video sequences and polarimetric images. PMID:25321707
A Light-weight Symmetric Encryption Algorithm Based on Feistel Cryptosystem Structure
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Jingli Zheng
2014-12-01
Full Text Available WSNs is usually deployed in opening wireless environment, its data is easy to be intercepted by attackers. It is necessary to adopt some encryption measurements to protect data of WSNs. But the battery capacity, CPU performance and RAM capacity of WSNs sensors are all limited, the complex encryption algorithm is not fitted for them. The paper proposed a light-level symmetrical encryption algorithm: LWSEA, which adopt minor encryption rounds, shorter data packet and simplified scrambling function. So the calculation cost of LWSEA is very low. We also adopt longer-bit Key and circular interpolation method to produce Child-Key, which raised the security of LWSEA. The experiments demonstrate that the LWSEA possess better "avalanche effect" and data confusion degree, furthermore, its calculation speed is far faster than DES, but its resource cost is very low. Those excellent performances make LWSEA is much suited for resource-restrained WSNs.
Lang, Jun
2015-03-01
In this paper, we propose a novel color image encryption method by using Color Blend (CB) and Chaos Permutation (CP) operations in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (RPMPFRFT) domain. The original color image is first exchanged and mixed randomly from the standard red-green-blue (RGB) color space to R?G?B? color space by rotating the color cube with a random angle matrix. Then RPMPFRFT is employed for changing the pixel values of color image, three components of the scrambled RGB color space are converted by RPMPFRFT with three different transform pairs, respectively. Comparing to the complex output transform, the RPMPFRFT transform ensures that the output is real which can save storage space of image and convenient for transmission in practical applications. To further enhance the security of the encryption system, the output of the former steps is scrambled by juxtaposition of sections of the image in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier domains and the alignment of sections is determined by two coupled chaotic logistic maps. The parameters in the Color Blend, Chaos Permutation and the RPMPFRFT transform are regarded as the key in the encryption algorithm. The proposed color image encryption can also be applied to encrypt three gray images by transforming the gray images into three RGB color components of a specially constructed color image. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible, secure, sensitive to keys and robust to noise attack and data loss.
MINIMIZATION OF DELAY TIME IN DYNAMIC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS (DEA-RTA)?
Kuti Toyin Sadiq; Madhavi Kumari?
2014-01-01
Real-Time Applications (RTA) such as Voice-over IP (VoIP), Instant messages (IM), and video conferencing are sensitive to delay as they are packets base network services. Providing these services over the internet require high level of security to protect user, data and infrastructures. Encryption process is used to provide the security needed for RTA. The encryption and decryption has to take minimal time to achieve acceptable end-to-end delays. The research algorithm proposes a new symmetri...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tzu-Hsiang Hung
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde Technical University of Denmark,
Disclosed is a method of transmitting a data set using encryption, wherein the method comprises the steps of: selecting a first encryption technique, wherein said first encryption technique comprises a first encryption algorithm for encrypting plain data into cipher data, and a first decryption algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the first encryption algorithm of said first encryption technique, creating a first encrypted data package comprising cipher data; obtaining a first decryption program; and transmitting said first decryption program and said first encrypted data package to a receiver, wherein the first decryption, upon provision of the specific key and the first encrypted data package, will decrypt the cipher data in the first encrypted data package and reproduce the plain data of the first data package.
Color image encryption based on fractional Fourier transforms and pixel scrambling technique
Zhao, Jianlin; Lu, Hongqiang; Fan, Qi
2007-01-01
Color image encryption based on fractional Fourier transform (FRT) and pixel scrambling technique is presented in this paper. In general, color (RGB) image cannot be directly encrypted using a traditional setup for optical information processing, because which is only adapted to process two-dimensional gray image. In the proposed method, a three-dimensional RGB image is decomposed to three two-dimensional gray images (R, G and B values of the color image), and the encryption operation will be done on each two-dimensional gray image, then the encoded color image is available by composing the three two-dimensional encrypted images. The decryption process is an inverse of the encryption. The optical encrypting systems based on the presented method is proposed and simulated. Some results of computer simulation are presented to verify the flexibility and the reliability of this method. The quality of decrypted images would be debased with the difference of the fractional order. The frustrated decryption of monochromic image will affect the color of decrypted image. At the end of this paper, an all-optical and photoelectric encryption/decryption systems solution are presented, and the principle of selecting optical devices are also given.
Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT
Shengbing Che; Zuguo Che; Xu Shu
2010-01-01
Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accura...
Encrypted imaging based on algebraic implementation of double random phase encoding.
Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro
2014-05-10
The security of important information captured by sensors and cameras is currently a growing concern as information theft via techniques such as side-channel attacks become increasingly more prevalent. Double random phase encoding (DRPE) is an optical encryption method based on optical Fourier transform that is currently being used to implement secure coherent optical systems. In this paper, we propose a new DRPE implementation for incoherent optical systems based on integral photography that can be applied to "encrypted imaging (EI)" to optically encrypt an image before it is captured by an image sensor. Because the proposed incoherent DRPE is constituted from conventional DRPE by rewriting the optical encryption via discretization and Euler's formula, its security level is the same as that of conventional DRPE. The results of an experiment in which we encrypted a plaintext image optically and then decrypted it numerically demonstrate that our proposed incoherent optical security system is feasible. PMID:24922013
Security enhancement of double-random phase encryption by iterative algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose an approach to enhance the security of optical encryption based on double-random phase encryption in a 4f system. The phase key in the input plane of the 4f system is generated by the Yang–Gu algorithm to control the phase of the encrypted information in the output plane of the 4f system, until the phase in the output plane converges to a predesigned distribution. Only the amplitude of the encrypted information must be recorded as a ciphertext. The information, which needs to be transmitted, is greatly reduced. We can decrypt the ciphertext with the aid of the predesigned phase distribution and the phase key in the Fourier plane. Our approach can resist various attacks. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruisong Ye
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A secure image encryption scheme based on 2D skew tent map is proposed for the encryption of color images. The proposed encryption scheme is composed of one permutation process and one substitution process. The 3D color plain-image matrix is converted to 2D image matrix first, then 2D skew tent map is utilized to generate chaotic sequences, which are used for both permutation process and substitution process. The chaotic sequence for permutation process is dependent on plain-image and cipher keys, resulting in good key sensitivity and plaintext sensitivity. The substitution process is first initiated with the initial vectors generated by the cipher keys and 2D skew tent map, then the gray values of row and column pixels of 2D image matrix are mixed with the pseudorandom number sequences via bitxoring operation. Both permutation process and substitution process are executed row-by-row and column-by-column instead of pixel-by-pixel to improve the speed of encryption. The security and performance of the proposed image encryption have been analyzed, including histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, differential analysis, encryption/decryption rate analysis etc. All the experimental results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is robust and secure and can be used for secure image and video communication applications.
Performance Analysis of Most Common Encryption Algorithms on Different Web Browsers
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R. Umarani
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,UMARAM, RC6 and UR5 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. We have proposed a Web programming language to be analyzed with five Web browsers in term of their performances to process the encryption of the programming language’s script with the Web browsers. This is followed by conducting tests simulation in order to obtain the best encryption algorithm versus Web browser. The results of the experimental analysis are presented in the form of graphs. We finally conclude on the findings that different algorithms perform differently to different Web browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Netscape Navigator. Hence, we now determine which algorithm works best and most compatible with which Web browser.A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as encryption/decryption speed in the different web Browsers. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging
Mehra, Isha; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, Amit K.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Nishchal, Naveen K.
2015-03-01
In this paper, we demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) object encryption using diffractive imaging and digital holography. For this purpose, a microlens array has been fabricated using the thermal reflow method, and then its digital hologram is recorded. The hologram of the microlens is encoded based on multiple intensity samplings of the complex-amplitude wave front with axial translation of the image sensor in the fractional Fourier transform domain. Then, the function is Fresnel propagated for three different positions of the camera, and the corresponding diffraction patterns are recorded as cipher-texts. For decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to extract the hologram from corresponding encrypted images. The corresponding phase profile of the microlens array is then obtained. The simulation results demonstrate that the hologram is decrypted without any stagnation problem and with a rapid convergence rate. High security of the hologram has been achieved in the proposed digital holography-based diffractive imaging scheme. The correlation coefficient, a performance measurement parameter, has been calculated to check the effectiveness of the scheme. The proposed work has been validated through both experimental and simulation results.
Wang, Yong-Ying; Wang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Yong; Li, Hui-Juan; Sun, Wen-Jia
2007-07-01
A new method of optical image encryption with binary Fourier transform computer-generated hologram (CGH) and pixel-scrambling technology is presented. In this method, the orders of the pixel scrambling, as well as the encrypted image, are used as the keys to decrypt the original image. Therefore, higher security is achieved. Furthermore, the encrypted image is binary, so it is easy to be fabricated and robust against noise and distortion. Computer simulation results are given to verify the feasibility of this method and its robustness against occlusion and additional noise.
An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Bit Circular Shift and Bi-directional Diffusion
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Ruisong Ye
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A novel image encryption scheme based on chaotic system is proposed. The proposed encryption scheme utilizes one tent map to generate a pseudo-random sequence and then shift the bits of the expanding 0-1 image circularly so as to shuffle the image gray values. To make the encryption scheme resist differential attack efficiently, generalized Arnold maps and Bernoulli shift maps are applied to produce two pseudo-random gray value sequences and then diffuse the gray values bi-directionally. The bit circular shift process and diffusion processes greatly confuse the statistical nature between plain-images and cipher-images. Security analyses including key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, statistical analysis, differential attack analysis and information entropy analysis are performed. All the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to frustrate brute-force attack efficiently and can resist statistical attack, differential attack, etc.
Separable and Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image with High Payload
Yin, Zhaoxia; Luo, Bin; Hong, Wien
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a separable reversible data-hiding scheme in encrypted image which offers high payload and error-free data extraction. The cover image is partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks and multigranularity encryption is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The data hider preprocesses the encrypted image and randomly selects two basic pixels in each block to estimate the block smoothness and indicate peak points. Additional data are embedded into blocks in the sorted order of block smoothness by using local histogram shifting under the guidance of the peak points. At the receiver side, image decryption and data extraction are separable and can be free to choose. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed method is simpler in calculation while offering better performance: larger payload, better embedding quality, and error-free data extraction, as well as image recovery. PMID:24977214
Farouk, Hala A
2011-01-01
The hybrid hiding encryption algorithm, as its name implies, embraces concepts from both steganography and cryptography. In this exertion, an improved micro-architecture Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of this algorithm is presented. This design overcomes the observed limitations of a previously-designed micro-architecture. These observed limitations are: no exploitation of the possibility of parallel bit replacement, and the fact that the input plaintext was encrypted serially, which caused a dependency between the throughput and the nature of the used secret key. This dependency can be viewed by some as vulnerability in the security of the implemented micro-architecture. The proposed modified micro-architecture is constructed using five basic modules. These modules are; the message cache, the message alignment module, the key cache, the comparator, and at last the encryption module. In this work, we provide comprehensive simulation and implementation results. These are: the timing diagra...
Ensemble Of Blowfish With Chaos Based S Box Design For Text And Image Encryption
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Jeyamala Chandrasekaran
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The rapid and extensive usage of Internet in the present decade has put forth information security as an utmost concern. Most of the commercial transactions taking place over the Internet involves a wide variety of data including text, images, audio and video. With the increasing use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing Multimedia data, the fundamental issue of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the information poses a major challenge for security professionals and hassled to the major developments in Cryptography . In cryptography, an S-Box (Substitution-box is a basic componentof symmetric key algorithms, which performs substitution and is typically used to make the relationship between the key and the cipher text non linear and most of the symmetric key algorithms like DES, Blowfish makes use of S boxes. This paper proposes a new method for design of S boxes based on chaos theory. Chaotic equations are popularly known for its randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and ergodicity. The modified design has been tested with blowfish algorithm which has no effective crypt analysis reported against its design till date because of its salient design features including the key dependant s boxes and complex key generation process. However every new key requires pre-processing equivalent to encrypting about 4 kilobytes of text, which is very slow compared to other block ciphers and it prevents its usage in memory limited applications and embedded systems. The modified design of S boxesmaintains the non linearity [3] [5] and key dependency factors of S boxes with a major reduction in time complexity of generation of S boxes and P arrays. The algorithm has been implemented and the proposed design has been analyzed for size of key space, key sensitivity and Avalanche effect. Experimental results on text and Image Encryption show that the modified design of key generation continues to offer the same level of security as the original Blowfish cipher with a less computational overhead in key generation
Quasi-Linear Time Fully Homomorphic Public Key Encryption Algorithm (ZK111)
Zaryab Khan
2012-01-01
ZK111 is a quasi-linear O(n · log n) fully Homomorphic encryption (FHE) algorithm. It works on a novel idea of “perfectly colorblind function” which is nothing but a very unique way of creating p-adic ring homomorphism from p-adic ring X to p-adic ring Y. Unlike its other FHE counterparts, there is NO “noise” in the cipher text. ZK111 preserves full algebraic homomorphism without compromising its quasi-linear efficiency. It is not only FHE, but also the fastest public-key encryption...
Applying Encryption Algorithm for Data Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing
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Mohit Marwaha
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Cloud computing is the next big thing after internet in the field of information technology; some say its a metaphor for internet. It is an Internet-based computing technology, in which software, shared recourses and information, are provided to consumers and devices on-demand, and as per users requirement on a pay per use model. Even though the cloud continues to grow in popularity, Usability and respectability, Problems with data protection and data privacy and other Security issues play a major setback in the field of Cloud Computing. Privacy and security are the key issue for cloud storage. Encryption is a well known technology for protecting sensitive data. Use of the combination of Public and Private key encryption to hide the sensitive data of users, and cipher text retrieval. The paper analyzes the feasibility of the applying encryption algorithm for data security and privacy in cloud Storage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samir El Adib
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES, as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high security in their systems may look for a key size bigger than 128-bit AES. In this paper, 128, 192 and 256-bit AES hardware are implemented and compared in terms of throughput and area. The target hardware used in this paper is Virtex XC5VLX50 FPGA from Xilinx. Total area and Throughput results are presented and graphically compared.
An RGB Image Encryption Supported by Wavelet-based Lossless Compression
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Ch. Samson
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a method for an RGB image encryption supported by lifting scheme based lossless compression. Firstly we have compressed the input color image using a 2-D integer wavelet transform. Then we have applied lossless predictive coding to achieve additional compression. The compressed image is encrypted by using Secure Advanced Hill Cipher (SAHC involving a pair of involutory matrices, a function called Mix( and an operation called XOR. Decryption followed by reconstruction shows that there is no difference between the output image and the input image. The proposed method can be used for efficient and secure transmission of image data.
A cryptographic Image Encryption technique based on the RGB PIXEL shuffling
Quist-aphetsi Kester, Mieee
2013-01-01
Confidentiality is one of the ultimate goals in information security. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. Rigorous use of advanced mathematical algorithms has played a major role in the succes...
An Application to prevent SQL Injection Attacks using Randomized Encryption Algorithm
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Pravallika Thatavarthi #1 , Betam Suresh
2013-08-01
Full Text Available By the advanced usage of web, numbers of data we are fetched from anywhere within a minute. So by that way it is very beneficial to us but with the beneficial some issues are there so now we are discussed about that issues. The issues are security of data from the hackers or unauthorized users who change, corrupt, delete or access the data from the web, for handle these issues the developers who develop the website, they used some algorithm by which the data change in encrypted form either from the safety of the hackers we also use the some algorithm at the time of inserting username and password due to that the username and password become encrypted and then they send through url, so the data will be safe. In this paper we discussed about the security of data from the hackers so for that we used the Random Encryption for encrypting the data or username and password and also we use this concept for the RTA process. In which the users request for the number plate number for the vehicle with his/her favorite digits.
A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed. In the proposed method, the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly, then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out. The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image, which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The computer simulation results of statistical analysis, information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.
Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication
Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto
2012-07-01
A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.
A New Loss-Tolerant Image Encryption Scheme Based on Secret Sharing and Two Chaotic Systems
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Li Li
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, we propose an efficient loss-tolerant image encryption scheme that protects both confidentiality and loss-tolerance simultaneously in shadow images. In this scheme, we generate the key sequence based on two chaotic maps and then encrypt the image during the sharing phase based on Shamir’s method. Experimental results show a better performance of the proposed scheme for different images than other methods from human vision. Security analysis confirms a high probability to resist both brute-force and collusion attacks.
Optical binary image encryption using aperture-key and dual wavelengths.
Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2014-11-17
We described a method where the secret binary image that has been encoded into a single amplitude pattern in Fresnel domain can be recovered based on phase retrieval with an aperture-key and wavelength keys, and no holographic recording is needed in the encryption. The predesigned aperture-key not only realizes the intensity modulation of the encrypted image, but also helps to retrieve the secret image with high quality. All the necessary decryption keys can be kept in digital form that facilitates data transmission and loading in image retrieval process. Numerical simulation results are given for testing the validity and security of the proposed approach. PMID:25402048
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.Devi, M.Pramod Kumar
2012-08-01
Full Text Available A LMS (Learning Management System service is described in this project using Blowfish algorithm. It promotes more accessibility to LMS service providers to send their training modules and syllabus via Internet at any point of the hour much more efficiently. This gives rise to reduced cost of hardware and software tools, which in return would scale-up the e-learning environment. In the existing system RSA algorithm used. It requires more computation time for large volumes of data. To reduce this computation time we are using Blowfish algorithm. The LMS Service utilizes three cloud systems, including an encryption and decryption system, a storagesystem, and LMS application system.
High Security Nested PWLCM Chaotic Map Bit-Level Permutation Based Image Encryption
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Qassim Nasir
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Chaotic systems produce pseudo-random sequences with good randomness; therefore, these systems are suitable to efficient image encryption. In this paper, a low complexity image encryption based on Nested Piece Wise Linear Chaotic Map (NPWLCM is proposed. Bit planes of the grey or color levels are shuffled to increase the encryption complexity. A security analysis of the proposed system is performed and presented. The proposed method combine pixel shuffling, bit shuffling, and diffusion, which is highly disorder the original image. The initial values and the chaos control parameters of NPWLCM maps are derived from external secret key. The cipher image generated by this method is the same size as the original image and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet. The experimental results of the proposed method show advantages of low complexity, and high-level security.
Amnesh Goel; Nidhi Chandra
2012-01-01
Encryption is used to prevent data from unauthorized access and with the appalling headway in network technology seen in the past decade; it has become the need of time to encrypt the images before sending over open network. Though researchers has proposed contrastive methods to encrypt images but correlation between pixels RGB value play a imperative part to guess for original image. So, here we introduce a new image encryption method which first rearranges the pixels within image on basis o...
Image Encryption based on the RGB PIXEL Transposition and Shuffling
Quist Aphetsi Kester
2013-01-01
Privacy is one of the key issues information Security addresses. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptogra...
Grayscale image encryption using a hyperchaotic unstable dissipative system.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ontanon-García, L.J.; García-Martínez, M.; Campos-Cantón, E.; ?elikovský, Sergej
London : IEEE, 2013, s. 508-512. ISBN 978-1-908320-16-2. [The 8th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST-2013). Londýn (GB), 09.12.2013-12.12.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP103/12/1794 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Hyperchaos * piecewise linear systems * multi-scrolls * chaotic encryption * stream cypher encryption Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory
A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Multi-orbit Hybrid of Discrete Dynamical System
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Ruisong Ye
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A multi-orbit hybrid image encryption scheme based on discrete chaotic dynamical systems is proposed. One generalized Arnold map is adopted to generate three orbits for three initial conditions. Another chaotic dynamical system, tent map, is applied to generate one pseudo-random sequence to determine the hybrid orbit points from which one of the three orbits of generalized Arnold map. The hybrid orbit sequence is then utilized to shuffle the pixels' positions of plain-image so as to get one permuted image. To enhance the encryption security, two rounds of pixel gray values' diffusion is employed as well. The proposed encryption scheme is simple and easy to manipulate. The security and performance of the proposed image encryption have been analyzed, including histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, differential analysis, etc. All the experimental results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is robust and secure and can be used for secure image and video communication applications.
A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Encryption of images is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of images such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. Due to the exceptionally desirable properties of mixing and sensitivity to initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps, chaos-based encryption has suggested a new and efficient way to deal with the intractable problem of fast and highly secure image encryption. In this paper, the two-dimensional chaotic cat map is generalized to 3D for designing a real-time secure symmetric encryption scheme. This new scheme employs the 3D cat map to shuffle the positions (and, if desired, grey values as well) of image pixels and uses another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to statistical and differential attacks. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security and fast encryption speed of the new scheme
On the security of 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption algorithm, which significantly increases the resistance against statistical and differential attacks, has been proposed recently. It employs a 3D Cat map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and uses the Logistic map to diffuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Based on the factor that it is sufficient to break this cryptosystem only with the equivalent control parameters, some fundamental weaknesses of the cryptosystem are pointed out. With the knowledge of symbolic dynamics and some specially designed plain-images, we can calculate the equivalent initial condition of diffusion process and rebuild a valid equivalent 3D Cat matrix. In this Letter, we will propose a successful chosen-plain-text cryptanalytic attack, which is composed of two mutually independent procedures: the cryptanalysis of the diffusion process and the cryptanalysis of the spatial permutation process. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the lack of security discourages the use of these cryptosystems for practical applications
A Single Chip Design And Implementation Of AES -128/192/256 Encryption Algorithms
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L.Thulasimani,
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper an efficient hardware architecture design and implementation of all candidates of AES encryption standards AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256 on the same hardware is proposed. AES algorithm proposed by NIST has been widely accepted as best cryptosystem for wireless communication security. The hardware implementation is useful in wireless security like military and mobile phones. This contribution investigates implementation of AES Encryption with regards to FPGA and VHDL.Optimized and synthesized VHDL code for AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256 for encryption of 128-bit data is implemented. Xilinx ISE 9.2i software is used for simulation. Eachalgorithm is tested with sample vectors provided by NIST output results are perfect with minimal delay. The proposed design consumes less power and area which is suitable battery driven mobile phones. Throughput reaches the value of 666.67 Mbps for encryption of 128- bit data with AES-128 key with FPGA device XC2V6000BF957-6.
A Space-bit-plane Scrambling Algorithm for Image Based on Chaos
Rui Liu; Xiao-ping Tian
2011-01-01
Image scrambling is an important technique in digital image encryption and digital image watermarking. This paper's main purpose is to research how to scramble image by space-bit-plane operation (SBPO). Based on analyzing traditional bit operation of individual pixels image scrambling method, this paper proposed a new scrambling algorithm. The new scrambling algorithm combined with SBPO and chaotic sequence. First, every eight pixels from different areas of image were selected according to ch...
An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme Based on Chaotic Quantum Encryption Algorithm
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Ying Guo
2013-05-01
Full Text Available An arbitrated quantum signature (AQS scheme is demonstrated via the improved quantum chaotic encryption algorithm with the quantum one-time pad based on chaotic operation string. In this scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the aid of the arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. Analysis shows that the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attacker.
VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm
Fazal Noorbasha,; Harikishore Kakarla
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some functi...
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun
2013-04-01
We present a hybrid configuration of joint transform correlator (JTC) and joint fractional transform correlator (JFTC) for encryption purpose. The original input is encoded in the joint fractional power spectrum distribution of JFTC. In our experimental arrangement, an additional random phase mask (master key) is holographically generated beforehand by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a JTC as the object arm. The fractional order of JFTC, together with the master key, can remarkably strengthen the safety level of encryption. Different from many previous digital-holography-based encryption schemes, the stability and alignment requirement for our system is not high, since the interferometric operation is only performed in the generation procedure of the master key. The advantages and feasibility of the proposed scheme have been verified by the experimental results. By combining with a multiplex technique, an application for multiple images encryption using the system is also given a detailed description.
Pavithra C, Vinod B. Durdi
2013-01-01
Cryptography has been widely accepted as a traditional platform of data protection for decades.The most significant and efficient cryptosystems these days are the Symmetric key algorithms for cryptography. Hence, they have a very wide range of applications in many realms. Ad-hoc networks are the most commonly used type in the present scenario because of their non-fixed infrastructure. Providing security to such kinds of network is the main objective of the work here. In this project, we prese...
Double image encryption using double pixel scrambling and random phase encoding
Zhong, Zhi; Chang, Jie; Shan, Mingguang; Hao, Bengong
2012-03-01
A novel double image encryption method is proposed by utilizing double pixel scrambling technique and random fractional Fourier domain encoding. One of the two original images is encoded into the phase of a complex signal after being scrambled by one matrix, and the other original image encoded into its amplitude after being scrambled by another matrix. The complex signal is then encrypted into stationary white noise by utilizing double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. By applying the correct keys with fractional orders, the random phase masks and the pixel scrambling operation, the two original images can be retrieved without cross-talk. Numerical simulations have been done to prove the validity and the security of the proposed encryption method.
Fractional Fourier-domain random encoding and pixel scrambling technique for double image encryption
Zhong, Zhi; Chang, Jie; Shan, Mingguang; Hao, Bengong
2012-01-01
A double image encryption method is proposed using fractional Fourier-domain random encoding and pixel scrambling technique. One of the two original images is encoded into the phase function of a synthesized input signal after being scrambled, and the other original image encoded into its amplitude. The phase function serves as phase mask in the input domain, and the synthesized input signal is then encrypted into stationary white noise by utilizing random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. The two original images can be retrieved without cross-talk by using the correct keys with fractional orders, the random phase mask and the pixel scrambling operator. Numerical simulations and security analysis have been done to prove the validity and the security of the proposed encryption method.
An Efficient Stream Cipher Algorithm for Data Encryption
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Majid Bakhtiari
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Nowadays the data telecommunication security has been provided by most of well-known stream cipher algorithms which are already implemented in different secure protocols such as GSM, SSL, TLS, WEP, Bluetooth etc. These algorithms are A5/1, A5/2, E0 and RC4. On the other hand, these public algorithms already faced to serious security weakness such that they do not provide enough security of proportional plain data in front of cryptanalysis attacks. In this paper we proposed an efficient stream cipher algorithm which generates 23 random bits in each round of processing by parallel random number generator and 115 bits of Initial Vector. This algorithm can implement in high speed communication link more than 100Mb/s and it has passed all of standard cryptographic tests successfully, also it can resist in front of well-known attacks such as algebraic and correlation.
Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm upto 4 Round on Spartan 3
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Nimmi Gupta
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized upto 4 round using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3 Modelsim. The paper deals with various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc. used in order to provide optimized results.
Fully phase image encryption using double random-structured phase masks in gyrator domain.
Singh, Hukum; Yadav, A K; Vashisth, Sunanda; Singh, Kehar
2014-10-01
We propose a method for fully phase image encryption based on double random-structured phase mask encoding in the gyrator transform (GT) domain. The security of the system is strengthened by parameters used in the construction of a structured phase mask (SPM) based on a devil's vortex Fresnel lens (DVFL). The input image is recovered using the correct parameters of the SPMs, transform orders of the GT, and conjugate of the random phase masks. The use of a DVFL-based SPM enhances security by increasing the key space for encryption, and also overcomes the problem of axis alignment associated with an optical setup. The proposed scheme can also be implemented optically. The computed values of mean squared error between the retrieved and the original image show the efficacy of the proposed scheme. We have also investigated the scheme's sensitivity to the encryption parameters, and robustness against occlusion and multiplicative Gaussian noise attacks. PMID:25322235
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Mahamud Hossein
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Storing, transmitting and security of DNA sequences are well known research challenge. The problem has got magnified with increasing discovery and availability of DNA sequences. We have represent DNA sequence compression algorithm based on Dynamic Look Up Table (DLUT and modified Huffman technique. DLUT consists of 43(64 bases that are 64 sub-stings, each sub-string is of 3 bases long. Each sub-string are individually coded by single ASCII code from 33(! to 96(` and vice versa. Encode depends on encryption key choose by user from four base pair {a,t.g and c}and decode also require decryption key provide by the encoded user. Decoding must require authenticate input for encode the data. The sub-strings are combined into a Dynamic Look up Table based pre-coding routine. This algorithm is tested on reverse; complement & reverse complement the DNA sequences and also test on artificial DNA sequences of equivalent length. Speed of encryption and security levels are two important measurements for evaluating any encryption system. Due to proliferate of ubiquitous computing system, where digital contents are accessible through resource constraint biological database security concern is very important issue. A lot of research has been made to find an encryption system which can be run effectively in those biological databases. Information security is the most challenging question to protect the data from unauthorized user. The proposed method may protect the data from hackers. It can provide the three tier security, in tier one is ASCII code, in tier two is nucleotide (a,t,g and c choice by user and tier three is change of label or change of node position in Huffman Tree. Compression of the genome sequences will help to increase the efficiency of their use. The greatest advantage of this algorithm is fast execution, small memory occupation and easy implementation. Since the program to implement the technique have been written originally in the C language, (Windows XP platform, and TC compiler it is possible to run in other microcomputers with small changes (depending on platform and Compiler used. The execution is quite fast, all the operations are carried out in fraction of seconds, depending on the required task and on the sequence length. The technique can approach an effective compression ratio of 1.98 bits/base and even lower. When a user searches for any sequence for an organism, an encrypted compressed sequence file can be sent from the data source to the user. The encrypted compressed file then can be decrypted & decompressed at the client end resulting in reduced transmission time over the Internet. An encrypt compression algorithm that provides a moderately high compression with encryption rate with minimal decryption with decompression time.
Reducing Computational Time of Basic Encryption and Authentication Algorithms
Sandeep Kumar; Gautam Kumar; Navjot Singh
2011-01-01
Today most of data are sending via the internet for sharing, so the trust of data files is decreased. For the trust more security and authentication is needed, less security increase the liability ofattacks on data. Digital signature of the data is a solution to this security problem which provides the reliability, authenticity and accuracy. Most basic algorithm for security and authentication is RSA, DSA, algorithms which uses the different key of different sizes. This work presents ECDSA al...
Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli; Hei, Xinhong
2014-05-01
A double-image encryption is proposed based on the discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps. First, an enlarged image is composited from two original images and scrambled in the confusion process which consists of a number of rounds. In each round, the pixel positions of the enlarged image are relocated by using cat maps which are generated based on two logistic maps. Then the scrambled enlarged image is decomposed into two components. Second, one of two components is directly separated into two phase masks and the other component is used to derive the ciphertext image with stationary white noise distribution by using the cascaded discrete fractional random transforms generated based on the logistic map. The cryptosystem is asymmetric and has high resistance against to the potential attacks such as chosen plaintext attack, in which the initial values of logistic maps and the fractional orders are considered as the encryption keys while two decryption keys are produced in the encryption process and directly related to the original images. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed encryption scheme. PMID:24921762
Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi
2015-08-01
Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.
Optical encryption of unlimited-size images based on ptychographic scanning digital holography.
Gao, Qiankun; Wang, Yali; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi
2014-07-20
The ptychographic scanning operation is introduced into digital holography to expand the field-of-view (FOV). An optical image encryption method based on this technique is further proposed and analyzed. The plaintext is moved sequentially in the way of ptychographic scanning and corresponding pairs of phase-shifted interferograms are recorded as ciphertexts. Then the holographic processing and the ptychographic iterative reconstruction are both employed to retrieve the plaintext. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed system possesses high security level and wide FOV. The proposed method might also be used for other potential applications, such as three-dimensional information encryption and image hiding. PMID:25090206
Cryptanalysis and improvement of a digital image encryption method with chaotic map lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A digital image encryption scheme using chaotic map lattices has been proposed recently. In this paper, two fatal flaws of the cryptosystem are pointed out. According to these two drawbacks, cryptanalysts could recover the plaintext by applying the chosen plaintext attack. Therefore, the proposed cryptosystem is not secure enough to be used in the image transmission system. Experimental results show the feasibility of the attack. As a result, we make some improvements to the encryption scheme, which can completely resist our chosen plaintext attack. (general)
Wen, Shiping; Zeng, Zhigang; Huang, Tingwen; Meng, Qinggang; Yao, Wei
2015-07-01
This paper investigates the problem of global exponential lag synchronization of a class of switched neural networks with time-varying delays via neural activation function and applications in image encryption. The controller is dependent on the output of the system in the case of packed circuits, since it is hard to measure the inner state of the circuits. Thus, it is critical to design the controller based on the neuron activation function. Comparing the results, in this paper, with the existing ones shows that we improve and generalize the results derived in the previous literature. Several examples are also given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential applications in image encryption. PMID:25594985
Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security. (general)
A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes
Chain of Shuffling and Chaos: A Tied Encryptic Approach
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Padmapriya Praveenkumar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The intellectual growth of computer communication lead to drastic improvement in wireless technology and shrunken the world into palms of the user which paved the path for the security attack issues. The development of the security system became the ultimate. Popular technique widely used in present scenario that provides a better security to secret information is image encryption. Multiple encryption technique has been adopted in this study. The secret image is block shuffled and then chaotic maps such as baker map, skew tent map and Arnold cat map are used to encrypt the image. Further the image is encrypted using Cipher Block Chaining (CBC to contribute the final encrypted image. Metrics such as horizontal, vertical, diagonal correlation, Number of Changing Pixel Rate (NPCR and entropy were calculated for various Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM test images and the performance of the algorithm was analyzed.
Performance Analysis of Most Common Encryption Algorithms on Different Web Browsers
Umarani, R.; Ramesh, G.
2012-01-01
The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN). Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,UMARAM, RC6 and UR5 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. We have proposed a Web programming language to be analyzed with five Web browsers in term of their performances to process the encryption of the programming language’s script with the Web browsers. This is followed by conducting tests s...
Multidimensional Z-Matrix with Control Parameters and Its Applications in Image Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An n-dimensional Z-matrix with control parameters is presented, and its periodicity and chaos are testified. Experimental results show that the proposed Z-matrix has a long period and changeable periodicity with different dimensions. Some examples of image encryption with a Z-matrix of different dimensions are listed for demonstrating its applications. (general)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samir El Adib
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES. Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is the application. High-speed designs are not always desired solutions. In some applications, such as mobile computing and wireless communications, smaller throughput is demanded. Architecture presented uses memory modules (i.e., Dual-Port RAMs of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs for storing all the results of the fixed operations (i.e., Look-Up Table, and Digital Clock Manager (DCM that we used effectively to optimize the execution time, reduce design area and facilitates implementation in FPGA. The architecture consumes only 326 slices plus 3 Block Random Access Memory (BRAMs. The throughput obtained was of 270 Mbits/s. The target hardware used in this paper is Spartan XC3S500E FPGA from Xilinx. Results are presented and compared with other reference implementations, as known from the technical literature. The presented architecture can be used in a wide range of embedded applications.
Joint Watermarking and Encryption of Color Images in the Fibonacci-Haar Domain
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Federica Battisti
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A novel method for watermarking and ciphering color images, based on the joint use of a key-dependent wavelet transform with a secure cryptographic scheme, is presented. The system allows to watermark encrypted data without requiring the knowledge of the original data and also to cipher watermarked data without damaging the embedded signal. Since different areas of the proposed transform domain are used for encryption and watermarking, the extraction of the hidden information can be performed without deciphering the cover data and it is also possible to decipher watermarked data without removing the watermark. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
An Implementation of BLOWFISH Encryption Algorithm using KERBEROS Authentication Mechanism
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Ch Panchamukesh
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The sensitive information stored on computers and transmitted over the Internet need to ensure information security and safety measures. Without our knowledge, the Intruders sneak into the systems, misuse it and even create back doors to our computer systems. Thus, there must not be any compromise in securing our resources. Hence, Cryptography is mainly used to ensure secrecy. Access Control Policy is used for securing the resources as initial state, which determines the potential threats, the solutions and the ways of implementation of the security. Various security solutions to block the unauthenticated users starts from a series mechanism from Firewalls to Kerberos, most of them need a strong cryptographic base. Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange ultimately which tend to the security of information. Among which Kerberos authentication promises most secured and unbreakable. It works on the basis of granting tickets for each session and resource access. This paper includes a mechanism that implements the Blowfish algorithm with a 64 bit length key with an improved security assurance.
Color image encryption using iterative phase retrieve process in quaternion Fourier transform domain
Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai
2015-02-01
A single-channel color image encryption method is proposed based on iterative phase iterative process in quaternion Fourier transform domain. First, three components of the plain color image is confused respectively by using cat map. Second, the confused components are combined into a pure quaternion image, which is encode to the phase only function by using an iterative phase retrieval process. Finally, the phase only function is encrypted into the gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution based on the chaotic diffusion, which has camouflage property to some extent. The corresponding plain color image can be recovered from the ciphertext only with correct keys in the decryption process. Simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq
2014-10-10
A new optical interference-based multiple-image encryption using spherical wave illumination and gyrator transform is proposed. In this proposal, each secret color image is divided into normalized red, green, and blue component images and independently encoded into corresponding phase-only component images. Then each phase-only component image of all the images are combined together to produce a single-phase-only component image as an input component image, which is bounded with a random phase mask to form a complex image. The two phase-only masks are analytically obtained from the inverse Fourier transformation of the complex image. The host image is chosen as the first phase-only mask, and the complex image hidden in the host image is regarded as the second phase-only mask. The spherical wave is generated to simultaneously illuminate phase-only masks. Then two modulated masks are gyrator transformed. The corresponding transformed images are phase truncated to obtain encrypted images and amplitude truncated to construct decryption keys. The decryption keys, angles of gyrator transform, wavelength and radius of the spherical wave, and individual decryption keys for authorized users are sensitive keys, which enhance the security layers of the system. The proposed system can be implemented by using optoelectronic architecture. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the flexibility of the system. PMID:25322374
2001-01-01
The Secretary of Commerce Don Evans this week announced a new encryption standard for the federal government, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). AES is expected to be used by businesses and organizations outside of government as well. AES, which replaces the Data Encryption Standard (DES) that the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) adopted in 1977, has been in production for four years. NIST began a contest in 1997 to determine the best encryption algorithm. The algorithm finally selected in 2000 incorporates the Rijndael encryption formula. From this page, users can read the press release, join an AES discussion forum, access test values and code, and learn more about AES and Rijndael.
Multiple-image encryption with spatial information prechoosing and cascaded blocks scrambling
Yang, Yuhua; Wang, Yali; Shi, Yishi; Zhang, Jingjuan; Hao, Wei
2010-11-01
Multiple-image encryption by spatial information prechoosing and cascaded blocks scrambling is proposed. The spatial information of secret multiple-image is pre-chosen in advance to effectively reduce the capacity burden of following encryption system. It is conveniently achieved by selecting or compressing the spatial information of multiple images to meet practical demands. Spatially pre-chosen multiple images are reformed to a new image. Cascaded double random phase encoding system is used to encrypt the new image, and the blocks scrambling is operated at the input of each sub-encoding system. Two main advantages are obtained: 1. Since the spatial information prechoosing enables the whole system to afford much larger information capacity, the effective multiplexing capacity is improved greatly; 2. The combination of blocks scrambling and cascaded random phase encoding not only ensure the much higher system security, but also save the key space and easy the key to save and release compared with the methods by each pixel scrambling. Computer simulations have shown the effectiveness of this method.
Enhancing RSA algorithm using Mersenne Primes with reduced size of encrypted file
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Shilpa Madhaorao Pund
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Message passing from source to destination is one of the important aspects of communication. However, it is requiredmany times that this message gets transmitted secretly, so that no unauthorized person gets knowledge of the contents ofthat message. To retain the confidentiality of the message transmitted is a challenging task as it needs to be guaranteedthat the message arrive in the right hands exactly as it was transmitted. Another challenge is of transmitting the messageover a public, insecure channel. In this paper, RSA algorithm is implemented using Mersenne Primes which guaranteesthe primality. This is an enhanced algorithm which increases the strength of RSA by generating large prime numbers andalso reduces the size of encrypted file.
On Perceptual Encryption: Variants of DCT Block Scrambling Scheme for JPEG Compressed Images
Khan, Muhammad Imran; Jeoti, Varun; Malik, Aamir Saeed
In this paper, a perceptual encryption scheme based on scrambling of DCT blocks in JPEG compressed images and its variants are proposed. These schemes are suitable for the environment where perceptual degradation of the multimedia content is required. The security of these techniques is shown to be sufficient against casual attacks. These discussed schemes are kept as light as possible in order to keep the encryption overhead and cost low. Also, an investigation in the progressive degradation of image by increasing the number of the DCT blocks to be scrambled has been carried out. The quality of the degraded multimedia content is measured with objective image quality assessment (IQA) metrics such as SSIM, MS-SSIM, VIF, VIFP and UQI. These IQA metrics provide choice for the selection of control factor.
Synchronization of spatiotemporal semiconductor lasers and its application in color image encryption
Banerjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Misra, A P; 10.1016/j.optcom.2010.12.077
2011-01-01
Optical chaos is a topic of current research characterized by high-dimensional nonlinearity which is attributed to the delay-induced dynamics, high bandwidth and easy modular implementation of optical feedback. In light of these facts, which adds enough confusion and diffusion properties for secure communications, we explore the synchronization phenomena in spatiotemporal semiconductor laser systems. The novel system is used in a two-phase colored image encryption process. The high-dimensional chaotic attractor generated by the system produces a completely randomized chaotic time series, which is ideal in the secure encoding of messages. The scheme thus illustrated is a two-phase encryption method, which provides sufficiently high confusion and diffusion properties of chaotic cryptosystem employed with unique data sets of processed chaotic sequences. In this novel method of cryptography, the chaotic phase masks are represented as images using the chaotic sequences as the elements of the image. The scheme dras...
An RSA Encryption Hardware Algorithm using a Single DSP Block and a Single Block RAM on the FPGA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koji Nakano
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is to present an efficient hardware algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption based on Montgomery multiplication. Modern FPGAs have a number of embedded DSP blocks (DSP48E1 and embedded memory blocks (BRAM. Our hardware algorithm supporting 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption is designed to be implemented using one DSP48E1, one BRAM and few logic blocks (slices in the Xilinx Virtex-6 family FPGA. The implementation results showed that our RSA module for 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption runs in 277.26ms. Quite surprisingly, the multiplier in DSP48E1 used to compute Montgomery multiplication works in more than 97% clock cycles over all clock cycles. Hence, our implementation is close to optimal in the sense that it has only less than 3% overhead in multiplication and no further improvement is possible as long as Montgomery multiplication based algorithm is used. Also, since our circuit uses only one DSP48E1 block and one Block RAM, we can implement a number of RSA modules in an FPGA that can work in parallel to attain high throughput RSA encryption/decryption.
A SURVEY ON SECURED WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES FOR JPEG IMAGES ON COMPRESSED-ENCRYPTED DOMAIN
Aparna Soni, Deepty Dubey
2013-01-01
In the digital world, the digital media is currentlyevolving at such a rapid pace, intellectual copyright protectionis becoming increasingly important. Now a day, the digitalmedia is available with various image formats, due to whichthey are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality. Awide range of digital media is often distributed by multiplelevels of distributers in a compressed and encrypted format. Itis sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encryptedmedia items in t...
A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques
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John Justin M
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.
A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques
John Justin M; Manimurugan S
2012-01-01
This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...
Modified Prime Number Factorization Algorithm (MPFA For RSA Public Key Encryption
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Kuldeep Singh
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The Public key encryption security such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm based on positive integer N, which is the product of two prime numbers, the factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a factorization method is proposed, which is used to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The present work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers as per Fermat method and requires fewer steps for factorization process of RSA modulus N. By experimental results it has been shown that factorization speed becomes increasing as compare to traditional Trial Division method, Fermat Factorization method, Brent’s Factorization method and Pollard Rho Factorization method.
ITERATIVE CELLULAR IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHM
OSMAN, Onur; UÇAN, Osman N.; ALBORA, A. Muhittin
2012-01-01
In this paper, a new iterative image processing algorithm is introduced and denoted as “iterative cellular image processing algorithm” (ICIPA). The new unsupervised iterative algorithm uses the advantage of stochastic properties and neighborhood relations between the cells of the input image. In ICIPA scheme; first regarding to the stochastic properties of the data, all possible quantization levels are determined and then 2D input image is processed using a function, based on averagin...
Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT
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Shengbing Che
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accurately. It could recover tampered block with good image quality when tamper occured within the limits of the anti-tamper radius. It could effectively resist vector quantization and synchronous counterfeiting attacks on self-embedding watermarking schemes.
Image encryption and authentication. A fully digital approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Optical surveillance is one of the basic safeguards measures implemented by the IAEA. If it were possible to have the data carriers replaced and mailed to the IAEA by staff of the State System for Accounting and Control (SSAC) or by the facility operator or, ultimately have the data remotely transmitted to IAEA Headquarters, this would enable the frequency of on-site inspections to be reduced, since the surveillance information would still be available in a timely manner for evaluation at HQ. The IAEA needs to verify the authenticity of the data, whereas the facility operator will insist on the confidentiality of the data; i.e. a third party must not be able to make any use of the data transferred. The present development effort is concentrated on the appropriate camera electronics ensuring uninterrupted electronic authentication and encryption of the video signals from the camera up to the review station. The design concept is described, some crucial aspects are discussed, and the status and perspectives of the project reported. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs
Enhancement of Image Security Using Random Permutation
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S.Vasu Deva Simha
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In recent days transmitting digital media having large size data through the internet became simple task but providing security and security became big issue these days. Using pseudorandom permutation, image encryption is obtained. Confidentiality and access control is done by encryption. Image encryption has to be conducted prior to image compression. In this paper how to design a pair of image encryption and compression algorithms such that compressing encrypted images can still be efficiently performed .This paper introduced a highly efficient image encryption-then compression (ETC system. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction error domain is able to provide a reasonably high level of security. More notably, the proposed compression approach applied to encrypted images is only slightly worse, unencrypted images as inputs.
An Integrated Encryption Scheme Used in Bluetooth Communication Mechanism
Bhoopendra Singh Rajput,; Prashanna Gupta, Shweta Yadav
2011-01-01
To improve the security level of data Transmission in Bluetooth communication, An Integrated Encryption Scheme algorithm based on IDEA, RSA and MD5 is proposed. The currently hybrid encryption algorithm uses DES and RSA Algorithm, DES use for Encryption of Data and RSA use for Encryption of Key. Hybrid encryption algorithm employed by the Bluetooth to protect the confidentiality of data during transport between two or more devices [2]. In proposed Integrated Encryption Scheme algorithm mechan...
Two Fibonacci P-code based image scrambling algorithms
Zhou, Yicong; Agaian, Sos; Joyner, Valencia M.; Panetta, Karen
2008-02-01
Image scrambling is used to make images visually unrecognizable such that unauthorized users have difficulty decoding the scrambled image to access the original image. This article presents two new image scrambling algorithms based on Fibonacci p-code, a parametric sequence. The first algorithm works in spatial domain and the second in frequency domain (including JPEG domain). A parameter, p, is used as a security-key and has many possible choices to guarantee the high security of the scrambled images. The presented algorithms can be implemented for encoding/decoding both in full and partial image scrambling, and can be used in real-time applications, such as image data hiding and encryption. Examples of image scrambling are provided. Computer simulations are shown to demonstrate that the presented methods also have good performance in common image attacks such as cutting (data loss), compression and noise. The new scrambling methods can be implemented on grey level images and 3-color components in color images. A new Lucas p-code is also introduced. The scrambling images based on Fibonacci p-code are also compared to the scrambling results of classic Fibonacci number and Lucas p-code. This will demonstrate that the classical Fibonacci number is a special sequence of Fibonacci p-code and show the different scrambling results of Fibonacci p-code and Lucas p-code.
An enhanced smoothness evaluation for reversible data hiding in encrypted images
Hong, Wien; Chen, Tung-Shou; Wu, Han-Yan; Chang, Hsun-Li
2012-04-01
Recently, Zhang proposed a reversible data hiding scheme for encrypted image with a low computational complexity which is made up of image encryption, data embedding and data-extraction/image-recovery phases. During the last phase, the embedded data are extracted according to a determined smoothness measuring function on each nonoverlapping block. However, not all pixels in a block are considered in his approach. This may cause higher error rate when extracting embedded data. In this paper, we propose a novel smoothness evaluating scheme to overcome the problem. Based on the Zhang's approach, we divide the pixels in each block into three different portions: four corners, four edges, and the rest of pixels. The smoothness of a whole block is determined by summing the smoothness of three portions and is utilized to extract embedded data and recovery image. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the error rate of data-extraction/image-recovery effectively. For a given normal testing image, such as Lena, supposing that the size of each block is 8 by 8, the error rate of our approach is less than 0.6% and Zhang's method is higher than 12%. Moreover, the error rate will be zero when the size of each block is defined as 12 by 12.
Bouganim, Luc; Guo, Yanli
2009-01-01
Database encryption refers to the use of encryption techniques to transform a plain text database into a (partially) encrypted database, thus making it unreadable to anyone except those who possess the knowledge of the encryption key(s).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meghana Hasamnis
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Embedded system design is becoming complex day by day, combined with reduced time-to-market deadlines. Due to the constraints and complexity in the design of embedded systems, it incorporates hardware / software co-design methodology. An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software parts integrated together on a common platform. A soft-core processor which is a hardware description language (HDL model of a specific processor (CPU can be customized for any application and can be synthesized for FPGA target. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the development environment for embedded systems using LEON 3 and NIOS II Processor, both soft core processors. LEON3 is an open source processor and NIOS II is a commercial processor. Case study under consideration is Rijindael’s Encryption Algorithm (AES. It is a standard encryption algorithm used to encrypt huge bulk of data and for security. Using the co-design methodology the algorithm is implemented on two different platforms. One using the open source and other using the commercial processor and the comparative results of the two different platforms is stated in terms of its performance parameters. The algorithm is partitioned in hardware and software parts and integrated on a common platform.
Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-11-15
I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.
Encrypting Digital Camera with Automatic Encryption Key Deletion
Oakley, Ernest C. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A digital video camera includes an image sensor capable of producing a frame of video data representing an image viewed by the sensor, an image memory for storing video data such as previously recorded frame data in a video frame location of the image memory, a read circuit for fetching the previously recorded frame data, an encryption circuit having an encryption key input connected to receive the previously recorded frame data from the read circuit as an encryption key, an un-encrypted data input connected to receive the frame of video data from the image sensor and an encrypted data output port, and a write circuit for writing a frame of encrypted video data received from the encrypted data output port of the encryption circuit to the memory and overwriting the video frame location storing the previously recorded frame data.
Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.
Triple Layered Encryption Algorithm for IEEE 802.11 WLANs in E-Government Services
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M A Kabir
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Wireless local area network (WLAN can provide e-government services at all levels, from local to national as the WLAN enabled devices have the flexibility to move from one place to another within offices while maintaining connectivity with the network. However, government organizations are subject to strict security policies and other compliance requirements. Therefore, WLAN must ensure the safeguard the privacy of individual data with the strictest levels of security. The 802.11 MAC specifications describe an encryption protocol called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP which is used to protect wireless communications from eavesdropping. It is also capable of preventing unauthorized access. However, the WEP protocol often fails to accomplish its security goal due to the weakness in RC4 and the way it is applied in WEP protocol. This paper focuses the improvement of existing WEP protocol using the varying secret key for each transmission. This will remove the insecurities that currently make the RC4 unattractive for secured networking and this will add further cryptographic strength if applied to Rijndael algorithm. Our result shows that the proposed algorithm is more suitable for small and medium packets and AES for large packets.
A Security Enhanced Approach For Digital Image Steganography Using DWT And RC4 Encryption
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Amritha.G#1, Meethu Varkey
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the existence of data in another transmission medium to achieve secret communication . Steganography method used in this paper is based on biometrics, ie biometric steganography. And the biometric feature used to implement steganography is skin tone region of images. Here secret data is embedded within skin region of image that will provide an excellent secure location for data hiding. Before embedding secret data is needed to be encrypted using stream cipher encryption scheme RC4.Skin color tone detection is performed by using HSV color space.DWT is the frequency domain in which this biometric steganography is implemented.Secret data is embedded in one of the high frequency subband by tracing the number of skin pixels in that band. . Different embedding steps are applied on the cropped region of the image.ie value of this cropped region will act as a key at the decoder side. This study shows that by adopting an object oriented steganography mechanism, in the sense that, we track skin tone objects in image, we get a higher security and satisfactory PSNR obtained
A simple public-key attack on phase-truncation-based double-images encryption system
Ding, Xiangling; Yang, Gaobo; He, Dajiang
2015-07-01
Phase-truncation based double-images cryptosystem can avoid the iterative Fourier transforms and realize double-images encryption. In this paper, a simple public-key attack is proposed to break this cryptosystem by using arbitrary position parameters and three public keys. The attack process is composed of two steps. Firstly, the decryption keys are simply generated with the help of arbitrary position parameters and the three public keys. Secondly, the two approximate values of the original images are obtained by using the generated decryption keys. Moreover, the proposed public-key attack is different from the existing attacks. It is not sensitive to position parameters of the double-images and the computing efficiency is also much better. Computer simulation results further prove its vulnerability.
Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2015-01-01
Ghost imaging has attracted more and more current attention due to its marked physical characteristics, and many physical applications, such as sensing and optical security, have been explored. In this letter, we propose ghost imaging using labyrinth-like phase modulation patterns for optical encryption. Since only one phase-only mask should be pre-set and the labyrinth patterns occupy only few spaces, high-efficiency storage or transmission of system keys can be implemented. In addition, each labyrinth pattern (i.e., phase modulation pattern) possesses high randomness and flexibility, hence high security can be guaranteed for the proposed optical encryption.
Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.
2012-01-01
Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes.
Deepan, B; Quan, C; Wang, Y; Tay, C J
2014-07-10
In this paper, a new multiple-image encryption and decryption technique that utilizes the compressive sensing (CS) concept along with a double-random phase encryption (DRPE) has been proposed. The space multiplexing method is employed for integrating multiple-image data. The method, which results in a nonlinear encryption system, is able to overcome the vulnerability of classical DRPE. The CS technique and space multiplexing are able to provide additional key space in the proposed method. A numerical experiment of the proposed method is implemented and the results show that the proposed method has good accuracy and is more robust than classical DRPE. The proposed system is also employed against chosen-plaintext attacks and it is found that the inclusion of compressive sensing enhances robustness against the attacks. PMID:25090076
New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithms
Bilal Bahaa Zaidan; Aws Alaa Zaidan; Harith Mwafak
2009-01-01
Protecting data is a very old art and wide use since the Egyptian when they identify the 1st encryption method in this world, the spiciest people categorize protecting data under computer forensic and others locate it under network security, cryptography methods are the backbone of this art, nowadays many of new techniques for the attacker's beings develops, a lot of methods for information protecting start dropping down such as RSA and stander encryption methods, in the same time a new metho...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Narasimha Rao
2008-10-01
Full Text Available This paper adopts a novel approach for ensuring security of data with error detection capability. RAS Transform is a nonlinear recursive Transform. This simple but very effective RAS transform is Permutation Invariant and used to code the digital data at two levels, so that the data is encrypted and also there is multilevel error detection mechanism based on the properties of the RAS Transform. The first type is data independent and the later is data dependent. In data dependant encryption, the partially encrypted data is subjected to RAS Transformation at two levels namely, byte level and block level before transmission. The outcome is 128 bits of encrypted data together with Encryption Key. A code book of only 20 valid code words is generated to represent 256 possible octets of 8-bit data words. From each of the code words, the data word can be uniquely recovered using the data dependent symmetric encryption key. The result of this coding on a sample text data of about 189 characters size is presented.
A Space-bit-plane Scrambling Algorithm for Image Based on Chaos
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Rui Liu
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Image scrambling is an important technique in digital image encryption and digital image watermarking. This paper's main purpose is to research how to scramble image by space-bit-plane operation (SBPO. Based on analyzing traditional bit operation of individual pixels image scrambling method, this paper proposed a new scrambling algorithm. The new scrambling algorithm combined with SBPO and chaotic sequence. First, every eight pixels from different areas of image were selected according to chaotic sequence, and grouped together to form a collection. Second, the SBPO was performed in every collection and built eight pixels of the image with new values. The scrambling image was generated when all pixels were processed. In this way, the proposed algorithm transforms drastically the statistical characteristic of original image information, so, it increases the difficulty of an unauthorized individual to break the encryption. The simulation results and the performance analysis show that the algorithm has large secret-key space, high security, fast scrambling speed and strong robustness, and is suitable for practical use to protect the security of digital image information over the Internet.
Poonam Garg
2010-01-01
Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptana...
New Way for Encryption Data Using Hourglas
Hamid Mehdi
2013-01-01
Nowadays, there are many encryption algorithms to protect information. Data confidentiality is one of themost important functions of encryption algorithms, it means when the transferring data between differentsystems is vague for unauthorized systems or people. Moreover Encryption algorithms must maintain dataintegrity and provide availability for information. New encryption methods cause the attackers cannot simplyaccess to the information and do not allow discovering the relationship betwee...
Quantum probabilistic encryption scheme based on conjugate coding
Yang, Li; Xiang, Chong; Li, Bao
2012-01-01
We present a quantum probabilistic encryption algorithm for a private-key encryption scheme based on conjugate coding of the qubit string. A probabilistic encryption algorithm is generally adopted in public-key encryption protocols. Here we consider the way it increases the unicity distance of both classical and quantum private-key encryption schemes. The security of quantum probabilistic private-key encryption schemes against two kinds of attacks is analyzed. By using the n...
STEGANOGRAPHY FOR TWO AND THREE LSBs USING EXTENDED SUBSTITUTION ALGORITHM
R.S. Gutte; Y.D. Chincholkar; P.U. Lahane
2013-01-01
The Security of data on internet has become a prior thing. Though any message is encrypted using a stronger cryptography algorithm, it cannot avoid the suspicion of intruder. This paper proposes an approach in such way that, data is encrypted using Extended Substitution Algorithm and then this cipher text is concealed at two or three LSB positions of the carrier image. This algorithm covers almost all type of symbols and alphabets. The encrypted text is concealed variably into the LSBs. There...
Image hiding algorithm based on block random scrambling and grayscale transformation
Chen, Yuefen; Lin, Junhuan; Zhang, Shiqing; Chen, Caiming
2010-07-01
A new image scrambling algorithm is proposed in this paper. The secret image is encrypted by both random scrambling based on blocks and grayscale transformation based on a pseudo-random sequence, using two keys respectively. The information embedding is implemented in the space domain through replacing the low four bits of the host image pixels with the high four bits of the secret image pixels. A simple system of image hiding and extraction using the proposed algorithm based on Matlab is realized, and its resistance to noising and cropping is analyzed Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can extract the hided image without knowing the host image information, and has the advantages of simple implementation, large hiding capacity and good safety performance.
Mamtha Shetty; Joshi, Shreedhar A.
2014-01-01
In this era of digital world, with the evolution of technology, there is an essential need for optimization of online digital data and information. Nowadays, Security and Authenticity of digital data has become a big challenge. This paper proposes an innovative method to authenticate the digital documents. A new method is introduced here, which allows multiple encryption and decryption of digital data.
Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-bo; Yu, Hai
2015-03-01
Recently, a double-image encryption scheme using local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform has been proposed [Opt Lasers Eng 2013; 51: 1327-31]. Through our simulations, there is serious cross-talk disturbance in the phase-based image when the encrypted data undergoes noise perturbation or occlusion attack. The disturbance will cause serious deterioration in the retrieved phase-based image and bring about visibility ambiguities to the receiver, and hence downgrades the practicability of the cryptosystem. In this paper, detailed analysis of the cross-talk disturbance in the original scheme will be firstly given out, and then the corresponding improvement is subsequently proposed. Numerical simulations results indicate that the improved scheme well address the cross-talk disturbance and further enhance the security of the original cryptosystem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suresh Jaganathan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In healthcare industry, the patient's medical data plays a vital role because diagnosis of anyailments is done by using those data. The high volume of medical data leads to scalability andmaintenance issues when using health-care provider's on-site picture archiving andcommunication system (PACS and network oriented storage system. Therefore a standard isneeded for maintaining the medical data and for better diagnosis. Since the medical data reflectsin a similar way to individuals’ personal information, secrecy should be maintained. Maintainingsecrecy can be done by encrypting the data, but as medical data involves images and videos,traditional text based encryption/decryption schemes are not adequate for providingconfidentiality. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for securing the DICOM format medicalarchives by providing better confidentiality and maintaining their integrity. Our contribution in thisalgorithm is of twofold: (1 Development of Improved Chaotic based Arnold Cat Map forencryption/decryption of DICOM files and (2 Applying a new hash algorithm based on chaotictheory for those encrypted files for maintaining integrity. By applying this algorithm, the secrecy ofmedical data is maintained. The proposed algorithm is tested with various DICOM format imagearchives by studying the following parameters i PSNR - for quality of images and ii Key - forsecurity.
Image Fusion using Evolutionary Algorithm (GA)
V. Jyothi; B. Rajesh Kumar; P Krishna Rao; D V Rama Koti Reddy
2011-01-01
Image fusion is the process of combining images taken from different sources to obtain better situational awareness. In fusing source images the objective is to combine the most relevant information from source images into composite image. Genetic algorithm is used for solving optimization problems. Genetic algorithm can be employed to image fusion where some kind of parameter optimization is required.In this paper we proposed genetic algorithm based schemes for image fusion and proved that t...
A Novel Steganographic Scheme Based on Hash Function Coupled With AES Encryption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rinu Tresa M J
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In the present scenario the use of images increased extremely in the cyber world so that we can easily transfer data with the help of these images in a secured way. Image steganography becomes important in this manner. Steganography and cryptography are the two techniques that are often confused with each other. The input and output of steganogra phy looks alike, but for cryptography the output will be in an encrypted form which always draws attraction to the attacker. This paper combines both steganography and cryptography so that attacker doesn’t know about the existence of message and the message itself is encrypted to ensure more security. The textual data entered by the user is encrypted using AES algorithm. After encryption, the encrypted data is stored in the colour image by using a hash based algorithm. Most of the steganographic algorithms available today is suitable for a specific image format and these algorithms suffers from poor quality of the embedded image. The proposed work does not corrupt the images quality in any form. The striking feature is that this algorithm is suitable for almost all image formats e.g.: jpeg/jpg, Bitmap, TIFF and GIF
[Wavelet threshold denoising algorithm for CR images].
Li, Yong-hui; Zhou, He-qin
2006-01-01
A wavelet threshold denoising algorithm for CR images is put forward here . A noised CR image is decomposed into wavelet coefficients, which are processed by the algorithm, and the denoised CR image is reconstructed based on the processed coefficients. Examples are too presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm on denoising and, maintaining the detail of the CR images. PMID:16646417
Spread spectrum image data hiding in the encrypted discrete cosine transform coefficients
Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Z. Jane
2013-10-01
Digital watermarking and data hiding are important tools for digital rights protection of media data. Spread spectrum (SS)-based watermarking and data-hiding approaches are popular due to their outstanding robustness, but their security might not be sufficient. To improve the security of SS, a SS-based image data-hiding approach is proposed by encrypting the discrete cosine transform coefficients of the host image with the piecewise linear chaotic map, before the operation of watermark embedding. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations and analyses of its robustness and security are carried out. The average bit-error-rate values on 100 real images from the Berkeley segmentation dataset under the JPEG compression, additive Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, and cropping attacks are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can maintain the high robustness of traditional SS schemes and, meanwhile, also improve the security. The proposed approach can extend the key space of traditional SS schemes from 10 to 10 and thus can resist brute-force attack and unauthorized detection watermark attack.
Testing a Variety of Encryption Technologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henson, T J
2001-04-09
Review and test speeds of various encryption technologies using Entrust Software. Multiple encryption algorithms are included in the product. Algorithms tested were IDEA, CAST, DES, and RC2. Test consisted of taking a 7.7 MB Word document file which included complex graphics and timing encryption, decryption and signing. Encryption is discussed in the GIAC Kickstart section: Information Security: The Big Picture--Part VI.
Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli
2015-05-01
A new discrete fractional transform defined by the fractional order, periodicity and vector parameters is presented, which is named as the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform. Based on this transform and two-coupled logistic map, a double-image encryption scheme is proposed. First, an enlarged image is obtained by connecting two plaintext images sequentially and scrambled by using a chaotic permutation process, in which the sequences of chaotic pairs generated by using the two-coupled logistic map. Then, the scrambled enlarged image is decomposed into two new components. Second, a chaotic random phase mask is generated based on the logistic map, with which one of two components is converted to the modulation phase mask. Another component is encoded into an interim matrix with the help of the modulation phase mask. Finally, the two-dimensional discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform is performed on the interim matrix to obtain the ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution. The proposed encryption scheme has an obvious advantage that no phase keys are used in the encryption and decryption process, which is convenient to key management. Moreover, the security of the cryptosystem can be enhanced by using extra parameters such as initial values of chaos functions, fractional orders and vector parameters of transform. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mamtha Shetty
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this era of digital world, with the evolution of technology, there is an essential need for optimization of online digital data and information. Nowadays, Security and Authenticity of digital data has become a big challenge. This paper proposes an innovative method to authenticate the digital documents. A new method is introduced here, which allows multiple encryption and decryption of digital data.
Novel Fast Encryption Algorithms for Multimedia Transmission over Mobile WiMax Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Mohamed
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Security support is mandatory for any communication networks. For wireless systems, security support is even more important to protect the users as well as the network. Since wireless medium is available to all, the attackers can easily access the network and the network becomes more vulnerable for the user and the network service provider. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax is going to be an emerging wireless technology nowadays. With the increasing popularity of Broadband internet, wireless networking market is thriving. In the IEEE 802.16e, security has been considered as the main issue during the design of the protocol. However, security mechanism of WiMax still remains an open research field. WiMax is relatively a new technology not deployed widely to justify the evidence of threats, risk and vulnerability in real situations. In this paper, a research is described three proposed chaos encryption techniques for multimedia transmission over Mobile WiMax physical and MAC layers. At first a global overview of the technology WiMax is given followed by an explanation of traditional encryption techniques used in WiMax. Then the proposed encryption techniques are presented with its chaos systems. Next, these techniques will be applied to different multimedia contents to compare between them and traditional techniques such as AES, IDEA, Blowfish and DES.
New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bilal Bahaa Zaidan
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Protecting data is a very old art and wide use since the Egyptian when they identify the 1st encryption method in this world, the spiciest people categorize protecting data under computer forensic and others locate it under network security, cryptography methods are the backbone of this art, nowadays many of new techniques for the attacker's beings develops, a lot of methods for information protecting start dropping down such as RSA and stander encryption methods, in the same time a new methods has been appeared such as Quantum cryptography, the new methods has faced problems in the key distribution or key management and some time such as RSA there is a function may estimate the keys, In this paper we will make a comparative study between the key management distribution methods, in fact we will talk about QKD Encryption in the fiber optic area vice verse the KDM in the normal networks, for instant there are two known methods, KDM "Diffi- Hellman" and XKMS.
A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding
Sadra, Yaser; Fard, Zahra Arasteh
2012-01-01
Cryptography is always very important in data origin authentications, entity authentication, data integrity and confidentiality. In recent years, a variety of chaotic cryptographic schemes have been proposed. These schemes has typical structure which performed the permutation and the diffusion stages, alternatively. The random number generators are intransitive in cryptographic schemes and be used in the diffusion functions of the image encryption for diffused pixels of plain image. In this paper, we propose a chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by a novel logistic pseudorandom image algorithm. To evaluate the security of the cipher image of this scheme, the key space analysis, the correlation of two adjacent pixels and differential attack were performed. This scheme tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space and level of security.
Investigating Encrypted Material
McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe
When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.
Image Compression Using Harmony Search Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryan Rey M. Daga
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Image compression techniques are important and useful in data storage and image transmission through the Internet. These techniques eliminate redundant information in an image which minimizes the physical space requirement of the image. Numerous types of image compression algorithms have been developed but the resulting image is still less than the optimal. The Harmony search algorithm (HSA, a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the music improvisation process of musicians, was applied as the underlying algorithm for image compression. Experiment results show that it is feasible to use the harmony search algorithm as an algorithm for image compression. The HSA-based image compression technique was able to compress colored and grayscale images with minimal visual information loss.
Space-variant polarization scrambling for image encryption obtained with subwavelength gratings
Biener, Gabriel; Niv, Avi; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez
2006-05-01
We present an optical encryption method based on geometrical phase, which is originated from polarization manipulation. The decrypted picture is retrieved by measuring the polarization of the beam emerging from the encrypted element. The encrypted element is achieved by using a computer-generated space-variant subwavelength dielectric grating. Theoretical analyses of the optical concept by use of Jones and Mueller formalisms, as well as experimental results including full optical decryption process are introduced. Digital implementation and the possibility of using watermarking are also discussed.
Image reconstruction algorithms from projections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many physical or bio-physical phenomena can be analysed as 'images' that is to say a bi-dimensionnal representation of a characteristic parameter of the material (density, concentration of a given element, resistivity, etc...). The various algorithms reviewed in the paper lead to a numerical reconstitution of such an image from a finite set of measurements considered as 'projections' of the initial object. We first give a physical insight then the mathematical formulation of the various concepts necessary for the presentation of the problem; after that we show why and how many reconstruction algorithms are possible. These different strategies are quickly compared chiefly according to realization facilities, structure, volume and performances (speed, accuracy) of the processing system required
A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too
Image Fusion using Evolutionary Algorithm (GA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V Jyothi
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Image fusion is the process of combining images taken from different sources to obtain better situational awareness. In fusing source images the objective is to combine the most relevant information from source images into composite image. Genetic algorithm is used for solving optimization problems. Genetic algorithm can be employed to image fusion where some kind of parameter optimization is required.In this paper we proposed genetic algorithm based schemes for image fusion and proved that these schemes perform better than the conventional methods through comparison of parameters namely image quality index, mutual information, root mean square error and peak signal to noise ratio.
Khan, Zaryab
2012-01-01
ZK111 is a fully homomorphic public key encryption algorithm which runs in quadratic time. It's security solely relies upon a very unique 'color-blind' function which is used to create p-adic ring homomorphism.
Simple Encryption/Decryption Application
Majdi Al-qdah; Lin Yi Hui
2007-01-01
This paper presents an Encryption/Decryption application that is able to work with any type of file; for example: image files, data files, documentation filesÃ¢â‚¬Â¦etc. The method of encryption is simple enough yet powerful enough to fit the needs of students and staff in a small institution. The application uses simple key generation method of random number generation and combination. The final encryption is a binary one performed through rotation of bits and XOR operation applied o...
Optimization Based Image Segmentation by Genetic Algorithms
Rosenberger C; Emile B; Laurent H; Chabrier S
2008-01-01
Abstract Many works in the literature focus on the definition of evaluation metrics and criteria that enable to quantify the performance of an image processing algorithm. These evaluation criteria can be used to define new image processing algorithms by optimizing them. In this paper, we propose a general scheme to segment images by a genetic algorithm. The developed method uses an evaluation criterion which quantifies the quality of an image segmentation result. The proposed segmentation met...
Somdip Dey
2012-01-01
In this paper, the author presents an advanced version of image encryption technique, which is itself an upgraded version of SD-EI image encryption method. In this new method, SD-EI Ver-2, there are more bit wise manipulations compared to original SD-EI method. The proposed method consist of three stages: 1) First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are ...
SRI RAMSHALAKA: A VEDIC METHOD OF TEXT ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION
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Rajkishore Prasad
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates usability of SriRamshalakha, a vedic tool used in Indian Astrology, in the encryption and decryption of plain English text. Sri Ram Shalaka appears in Sri RamChartmanas, one of the very popular sacred epic of Hindu religion, written by great Saint Tulsidasji. SriRamshalakha is used to fetch/infer the approximate answer of questions/decisions by the believers. Basically, the said shalaka embed nine philosophical verses from Sri RamCharitmanas in a matrix form based on which answers to queries are inferred and ingrained. However, none of the verses are visible and directly readable. Thus here we take SriRamshalakha as the ancient Indian method of text encryption and decryption and based on the same algorithms for the encryption and decryption of plain English text areproposed. The developed algorithms are presented with examples and possibility of its use in steganography and text to image transformation are also discussed.
Improved decryption quality and security of a joint transform correlator-based encryption system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some image encryption systems based on modified double random phase encoding and joint transform correlator architecture produce low quality decrypted images and are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. In this work, we analyse the algorithm of some reported methods that optically implement the double random phase encryption in a joint transform correlator. We show that it is possible to significantly improve the quality of the decrypted image by introducing a simple nonlinear operation in the encrypted function that contains the joint power spectrum. This nonlinearity also makes the system more resistant to chosen-plaintext attacks. We additionally explore the system resistance against this type of attack when a variety of probability density functions are used to generate the two random phase masks of the encryption–decryption process. Numerical results are presented and discussed. (paper)
Design and Implementation proposed encryption and Hiding Secure Image In an Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asst. Prof. Dr. Baheja k.Shukur,
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Steganography and cryptography are two general methods of transfer vital information in a top-secret method. When we hide the secure image the malicious want to distort this secure image itself. Therefore, the cryptography techniques used must be one of the most powerful techniques. Also cryptography and Steganography are the two major techniques for secret communication. The contents of secret message are scrambled in cryptography, where as in steganography the secret message is embedded into the cover medium. This paper presents hybrid method of cryptography which combined two nonlinear feedbacks register in one non-linear function to produce a strong cryptography technique. The cryptography method is working on the image resulted from the DWT which, used the orthogonal filter. In steganography part we have used most significant method to hide the secret true image into true image. To evaluate our system number of measurements used such as Mean Square Error, Normalized Cross Correlation, Average Difference, Structural Content, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR have been computed between the cover and stego image. Finally histogram plot of cover image, stego image, secret ciphered images have been plotted.
Classification of Encrypted Text and Encrypted Speech (Short Communication
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Rajesh Asthana
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The information to be exchanged between two parties can be text data or speech data. This data is encrypted for its security and communicated (to the other end. When an adversary intercepts these encrypted data then in order to recover the actual information, his first step is to identify whether intercepted data is encrypted text or encrypted speech are used. The next step is to get the actual information from encrypted text or encrypted speech. In this paper, pattern recognition techniques are applied for identification of encrypted text and encrypted speech. Some new and modified feature extraction techniques have been used to convert the text and speech data into three-dimensional, four-dimensional, and five-dimensional measurement vectors. These multi-dimensional measurement vectors are converted into two-dimensional vectors using projection pursuit technique based on Sammon.s algorithm and Chien.s algorithm. The quantified classification performances using minimum distance classifier and maximum likelihood classifier have also been given.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(4, pp.420-422, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.497
STEGANOGRAPHY FOR TWO AND THREE LSBs USING EXTENDED SUBSTITUTION ALGORITHM
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R.S. Gutte
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The Security of data on internet has become a prior thing. Though any message is encrypted using a stronger cryptography algorithm, it cannot avoid the suspicion of intruder. This paper proposes an approach in such way that, data is encrypted using Extended Substitution Algorithm and then this cipher text is concealed at two or three LSB positions of the carrier image. This algorithm covers almost all type of symbols and alphabets. The encrypted text is concealed variably into the LSBs. Therefore, it is a stronger approach. The visible characteristics of the carrier image before and after concealment remained almost the same. The algorithm has been implemented using Matlab.
Genetic algorithm applied to fractal image compression
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Y. Chakrapani
2009-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper the technique of Genetic Algorithm (GA is applied for Fractal Image Compression (FIC. With the help of this evolutionary algorithm effort is made to reduce the search complexity of matching between range block and domain block. One of the image compression techniques in the spatial domain is Fractal Image Compression but the main drawback of FIC is that it involves more computational time due to global search. In order to improve the computational time and also the acceptable quality of the decoded image, Genetic algorithm is proposed. Experimental results show that the Genetic Algorithm is a better method than the traditional exhaustive search method.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Xiao-Wei, Li; Sung-Jin, Cho; In-Kwon, Lee; Seok-Tae, Kim.
Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) image security system combines the use of the smart pixel mapping (SPM) algorithm and the Fibonacci transformation technique is proposed. In order to reconstruct orthoscopic 3D images with improved image quality, a smart pixel mapping process is adopted. Based [...] on the SPM-based computational integral imaging (CII) system, the depth-converted elemental image array (EIA) is obtained for increasing the quality of the reconstructed image. In the encryption process, the depth-converted EIA is scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm. Meanwhile, the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique is used to reconstruct the 3D image in the image reconstruction process. Compared with conventional CII-based 3D image encryption methods, the proposed method enable us to reconstruct high-resolution orthoscopic 3D images at long distance. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, some numerical experiments are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed 3D image security system.
Image Classification through integrated K- Means Algorithm
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Balasubramanian Subbiah
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Image Classification has a significant role in the field of medical diagnosis as well as mining analysis and is even used for cancer diagnosis in the recent years. Clustering analysis is a valuable and useful tool for image classification and object diagnosis. A variety of clustering algorithms are available and still this is a topic of interest in the image processing field. However, these clustering algorithms are confronted with difficulties in meeting the optimum quality requirements, automation and robustness requirements. In this paper, we propose two clustering algorithm combinations with integration of K-Means algorithm that can tackle some of these problems. Comparison study is made between these two novel combination algorithms. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms are very effective in producing desired clusters of the given data sets as well as diagnosis. These algorithms are very much useful for image classification as well as extraction of objects.
Image Classification Algorithm Based on Sparse Coding
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Liping Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the sparse coding and local features of images are combined to propose a new image classification algorithm. Firstly, online dictionary learning algorithm is employed to train the visual vocabulary based on SIFT features. Secondly, SIFT features are extracted from images and these features are encoded into sparse vector through visual vocabulary. Thirdly, the images are evenly divided into I*I areas and the sparse vectors in each area are pooled, getting a fixed dimension feature vector which represents the whole image. Lastly, to achieve the purpose of image classification, we use support vector machine classifier for learning and recognition. Results from the Caltech-101 and Scene-15 data sets show that, compared with the existing algorithm, the proposed algorithm has a better performance, which can effectively represent the feature of images and improve the accuracy of image classification greatly
A Comparative Analysis of Image Scaling Algorithms
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Chetan Suresh
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Image scaling, fundamental task of numerous image processing and computer vision applications, is the process of resizing an image by pixel interpolation. Image scaling leads to a number of undesirable image artifacts such as aliasing, blurring and moiré. However, with an increase in the number of pixels considered for interpolation, the image quality improves. This poses a quality-time trade off in which high quality output must often be compromised in the interest of computation complexity. This paper presents a comprehensive study and comparison of different image scaling algorithms. The performance of the scaling algorithms has been reviewed on the basis of number of computations involved and image quality. The search table modification to the bicubic image scaling algorithm greatly reduces the computational load by avoiding massive cubic and floating point operations without significantly losing image quality.
An optical encryption and authentication scheme using asymmetric keys.
Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K
2014-06-01
We propose a novel optical information encryption and authentication scheme that uses asymmetric keys generated by the phase-truncation approach and the phase-retrieval algorithm. Multiple images bonded with random phase masks are Fourier transformed, and obtained spectra are amplitude- and phase-truncated. The phase-truncated spectra are encoded into a single random intensity image using the phase-retrieval algorithm. Unlike most of the authentication schemes, in this study, only one encrypted reference image is required for verification of multiple secured images. The conventional double random phase encoding and correlation techniques are employed for authentication verification. Computer simulation results and theoretical explanation prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:24977361
Proximal algorithms for multicomponent image recovery problems
Briceno-arias, Luis M.; Combettes, Patrick; Pesquet, Jean-christophe; Pustelnik, Nelly
2011-01-01
In recent years, proximal splitting algorithms have been applied to various monocomponent signal and image recovery problems. In this paper, we address the case of multicomponent problems. We first provide closed form expressions for several important multicomponent proximity operators and then derive extensions of existing proximal algorithms to the multicomponent setting. These results are applied to stereoscopic image recovery, multispectral image denoising, and image decomposition into te...
Security encryption for video-on-radio devices
Perrone, Antonio L.; Basti, Gianfranco
2002-03-01
In this paper we present an encryption module included in the Subsidiary Communication Channel (SCC) System we are developing for video-on-FM radio broadcasting. This module is aimed to encrypt by symmetric key the video image archive and real-time database of the broadcaster, and by asymmetric key the video broadcasting to final users. The module includes our proprietary Techniteia Encryption Library (TEL), that is already successfully running and securing several e-commerce portals in Europe. TEL is written in C-ANSI language for its easy exportation onto all main platforms and it is optimized for real-time applications. It is based on the blowfish encryption algorithm and it is characterized by a physically separated sub-module for the automatic generation/recovering of the variable sub-keys of the blowfish algorithm. In this way, different parts of the database are encrypted by different keys, both in space and in time, for granting an optimal security.
Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)
Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palacios, R.
2007-07-01
The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)
Review on Reserving Room Before Encryption for Reversible Data Hiding
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Akshata Malwad
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking. There are number of techniques available in the industry to maintain security of data. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is comes into the picture, but the problem is the occurrence of distortion in original cover at the time of data extraction. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent way so that the original cover can be recovered without any loss after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. In This paper we propose a novel method by reserving room before encryption (RRBE with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. Using RRBE we can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error and also we can increase the rate of data to be hidden. This is useful in the way that these method recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.
Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing
Aarti .; Gaurav Pushkarna
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse) noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurrednes...
Segmentation of color images using genetic algorithm with image histogram
Sneha Latha, P.; Kumar, Pawan; Kahu, Samruddhi; Bhurchandi, Kishor M.
2015-02-01
This paper proposes a family of color image segmentation algorithms using genetic approach and color similarity threshold in terns of Just noticeable difference. Instead of segmenting and then optimizing, the proposed technique directly uses GA for optimized segmentation of color images. Application of GA on larger size color images is computationally heavy so they are applied on 4D-color image histogram table. The performance of the proposed algorithms is benchmarked on BSD dataset with color histogram based segmentation and Fuzzy C-means Algorithm using Probabilistic Rand Index (PRI). The proposed algorithms yield better analytical and visual results.
Algorithms for boundary detection in radiographic images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edge detecting techniques applied to radiographic digital images are discussed. Some algorithms have been implemented and the results are displayed to enhance boundary or hide details. An algorithm applied in a pre processed image with contrast enhanced is proposed and the results are discussed
Private predictive analysis on encrypted medical data.
Bos, Joppe W; Lauter, Kristin; Naehrig, Michael
2014-08-01
Increasingly, confidential medical records are being stored in data centers hosted by hospitals or large companies. As sophisticated algorithms for predictive analysis on medical data continue to be developed, it is likely that, in the future, more and more computation will be done on private patient data. While encryption provides a tool for assuring the privacy of medical information, it limits the functionality for operating on such data. Conventional encryption methods used today provide only very restricted possibilities or none at all to operate on encrypted data without decrypting it first. Homomorphic encryption provides a tool for handling such computations on encrypted data, without decrypting the data, and without even needing the decryption key. In this paper, we discuss possible application scenarios for homomorphic encryption in order to ensure privacy of sensitive medical data. We describe how to privately conduct predictive analysis tasks on encrypted data using homomorphic encryption. As a proof of concept, we present a working implementation of a prediction service running in the cloud (hosted on Microsoft's Windows Azure), which takes as input private encrypted health data, and returns the probability for suffering cardiovascular disease in encrypted form. Since the cloud service uses homomorphic encryption, it makes this prediction while handling only encrypted data, learning nothing about the submitted confidential medical data. PMID:24835616
IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT WITH CRYPTOGRAPHY
Vikas Tyagi
2012-01-01
To increase the security of messages sent over the internet steganography is used. This paper discussed a technique based on the LSB(least significant bit) and a new encryption algorithm. By matching data to an image, there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover data. Before hiding the data in an image the application first encrypts it. Keywords- Steganography, LSB(least significant bit), Encryption, Decryption.
Image Classification through integrated K- Means Algorithm
Balasubramanian Subbiah; Seldev Christopher. C
2012-01-01
Image Classification has a significant role in the field of medical diagnosis as well as mining analysis and is even used for cancer diagnosis in the recent years. Clustering analysis is a valuable and useful tool for image classification and object diagnosis. A variety of clustering algorithms are available and still this is a topic of interest in the image processing field. However, these clustering algorithms are confronted with difficulties in meeting the optimum quality requirements, aut...
Genetic algorithm applied to fractal image compression
Chakrapani, Y.; K. Soundera Rajan
2009-01-01
In this paper the technique of Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied for Fractal Image Compression (FIC). With the help of this evolutionary algorithm effort is made to reduce the search complexity of matching between range block and domain block. One of the image compression techniques in the spatial domain is Fractal Image Compression but the main drawback of FIC is that it involves more computational time due to global search. In order to improve the computational time and also the acceptable ...
Hardware Implementation of Multimedia Encryption Techniques Using FPGA
Mohamed, M. A.; Abou-elsoud, M. E.; Kamal El-din, W. M.
2012-01-01
Multimedia encryption algorithm has gain importance nowadays for copyright protection. Many multimedia encryption Techniques had been designed and tested software base. We will implement a library of hardware realization using FPGA of seven multimedia encryption algorithms. Simulation results had shown that blowfish provided the best result. In addition we proposed new encryption method based on cascaded techniques. This cascaded method provides a great improvement .The discussed techniques w...
A Review on Otsu Image Segmentation Algorithm
Miss Hetal J Vala, Prof Astha Baxi
2013-01-01
Image segmentation is the fundamental approach of digital image processing. Among all the segmentation methods, Otsu method is one of the most successful methods for image thresholding because of its simple calculation. Otsu is an automatic threshold selection region based segmentation method. This paper studies various Otsu algorithms.
Public Key Encryption Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks In tinyOS
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Chandni Vaghasia,
2013-03-01
Full Text Available generally, when people consider wireless devices they think of items such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, or laptops. These items are costly, target specialized applications, and rely on the pre-deployment of extensive infrastructure support. In contrast, wireless sensor networks use small, low-cost embedded devices for a wide range of applications and do not rely on any pre-existing infrastructure. The emerging field of wireless sensor networks (WSN combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device called sensor nodes or motes. Through advanced mesh networking protocols, these devices form a sea of connectivity that extends the reach of cyberspace out into the physical world. here some algorithms are implemented and result is analyzed on different platforms like PC MICA,Mica 2, Mica2dot and analyze which algorithm is best for which platform.
Medical Image Segmentation by Using the Pillar K Means Algorithm
S.Vaseem Akram1 , K.Sravya
2013-01-01
This paper presents the new algorithms for medical image segmentation .this paperpresents the to extract malignant part from the t1 weighted MR brain Image and analyze the performance of it with various algorithm .in different algorithms we use k means algorithm,cmeans algorithm ,pillar k means algorithm .k means and c means algorithm are already existent algorithms the new proposed algorithm is pillar k means algorithm. This segmentation process includes a new mechanism for clustering the el...
An Improved Algorithm For Image Compression Using Geometric Image Approximation
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V. J. Rehna
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract- Our dependence on digital media continues to grow and therefore finding competent ways of storing and conveying these large amounts of data has become a major concern. The technique of image compression has then become very essential and highly applicable. In this paper, the performance of an efficient image coding method based on Geometric Wavelets that divides the desired image using a recursive procedure for image coding is explored. The objective of the work is to optimize the performance of geometric wavelet based image coding scheme and to suggest a method to reduce the time complexity of the algorithm. We have used the polar coordinate form of the straight line in the BSP scheme for partitioning the image domain. A novel pruning algorithm is tried to optimize the rate distortion curve and achieve the desired bit rate. The algorithm is also implemented with the concept of no tiling and its effect in PSNR and computation time is explored. The enhanced results show a gain of 2.24 dB over the EZW algorithm and 1.4 dB over the SPIHT algorithm at the bit-rate 0.0625 bpp for the Lena test image. Image tiling is found to reduce considerably the computational complexity and in turn the time complexity of the algorithm without affecting its coding efficiency. The algorithm offers remarkable results in terms of PSNR compared to existing techniques.
Encryption dynamics and avalanche parameter for "delayed dynamics"-based cryptosystems
Melchert, O.
2012-01-01
The presented article attempts to characterize the encryption dynamics of delayed dynamics based block ciphers, designed for the encryption of binary data. For such encryption algorithms, the encryption process relies on a coupling dynamics with time delay between different bits in the plaintext (i.e.\\ the "initial" message to be encrypted). Here, the principal dynamics of the encryption process is examined and the Hammingdistance is used to quantify the change in ciphertext...
Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Electrical Capacitance Tomography
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Zhiqiang Man
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In view of the low precision of the reconstruction image of Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT at present. A new method of image reconstruction algorithm based on Chebyshev neural net works for Electrical Capacitance Tomography is proposed. This neural network not only expand the identification ability and learning adaptation of the neural network but also has a simple algorithm, a high speed convergence of learning process and excellent characteristics in the linear and nonlinear accurate approximation. The ECT image reconstruction experimental results show that the method can improve the reconstruction image quality and testify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Stego-audio Using Genetic Algorithm Approach
V. Santhi; Logeswari Govindaraju
2014-01-01
With the rapid development of digital multimedia applications, the secure data transmission becomes the main issue in data communication system. So the multimedia data hiding techniques have been developed to ensure the secured data transfer. Steganography is an art of hiding a secret message within an image/audio/video file in such a way that the secret message cannot be perceived by hacker/intruder. In this study, we use RSA encryption algorithm to encrypt the message and Genetic Algorithm ...
Algorithms for reconstructing images for industrial applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several algorithms for reconstructing objects from their projections are being studied in our Laboratory, for industrial applications. Such algorithms are useful locating the position and shape of different composition of materials in the object. A Comparative study of two algorithms is made. The two investigated algorithsm are: The MART (Multiplicative - Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) and the Convolution Method. The comparison are carried out from the point view of the quality of the image reconstructed, number of views and cost. (Author)
A fast chaotic encryption scheme based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, a growing number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this Letter, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on one-dimensional piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps. The system is a measurable dynamical system with an interesting property of being either ergodic or having stable period-one fixed point. They bifurcate from a stable single periodic state to chaotic one and vice versa without having usual period-doubling or period-n-tippling scenario. Also, we present the KS-entropy of this maps with respect to control parameter. This algorithm tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space, encryption speed and level of security
A new algorithm of image segmentation for overlapping grain image
Zhang, Xun; Jin, Guang; Sun, Xiaowei
2006-01-01
Image segmentation is primary issue in image processing, at the same time it is principal problem in low level vision in computer vision field. It is the key technology to process image analysis, image comprehend and image depict successfully. Aim at measurement of granularity size of nonmetal grain, a new algorithm of image segmentation and parameters calculation for overlapping grain image is studied. The hypostasis of this algorithm is present some new attributes of graph sequence from discrete attribute of graph, consequently achieve that pick up the geometrical characteristics from input graph, and new graph sequence which in favor of image segmentation is recombined. The conception that image edge denoted with "twin-point" is put forward, base on geometrical characters of point, image edge is transformed into serial edge, and on recombined serial image edge, based on direction vector definition of line and some additional restricted conditions, the segmentation twin-points are searched with, thus image segmentation is accomplished. Serial image edge is transformed into twin-point pattern, to realize calculation of area and granularity size of nonmetal grain. The inkling and uncertainty on selection of structure element which base on mathematical morphology are avoided in this algorithm, and image segmentation and parameters calculation are realized without changing grain's self statistical characters.
CHAOS-BASED ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD
Abdulwahed, Naif B.
2013-05-01
This thesis introduces a new chaos-based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES is a well-known encryption algorithm that was standardized by U.S National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) in 2001. The thesis investigates and explores the behavior of the AES algorithm by replacing two of its original modules, namely the S-Box and the Key Schedule, with two other chaos- based modules. Three chaos systems are considered in designing the new modules which are Lorenz system with multiplication nonlinearity, Chen system with sign modules nonlinearity, and 1D multiscroll system with stair case nonlinearity. The three systems are evaluated on their sensitivity to initial conditions and as Pseudo Random Number Generators (PRNG) after applying a post-processing technique to their output then performing NIST SP. 800-22 statistical tests. The thesis presents a hardware implementation of dynamic S-Boxes for AES that are populated using the three chaos systems. Moreover, a full MATLAB package to analyze the chaos generated S-Boxes based on graphical analysis, Walsh-Hadamard spectrum analysis, and image encryption analysis is developed. Although these S-Boxes are dynamic, meaning they are regenerated whenever the encryption key is changed, the analysis results show that such S-Boxes exhibit good properties like the Strict Avalanche Criterion (SAC) and the nonlinearity and in the application of image encryption. Furthermore, the thesis presents a new Lorenz-chaos-based key expansion for the AES. Many researchers have pointed out that there are some defects in the original key expansion of AES and thus have motivated such chaos-based key expansion proposal. The new proposed key schedule is analyzed and assessed in terms of confusion and diffusion by performing the frequency and SAC test respectively. The obtained results show that the new proposed design is more secure than the original AES key schedule and other proposed designs in the literature. The proposed design is then enhanced to increase the operating speed using the divide- and-conquer concept. Such enhancement, did not only make the AES algorithm more secure, but also enabled the AES to be faster, as it can now operate on higher frequencies, and more area-efficient.
A Comparative Study of Image Restoration Algorithms using Images from different areas of imaging
Sruti Sruba Bharali; Daisy Das
2013-01-01
In this paper we consider a comparative study of different image restoration algorithms. The images are blurred by using both known and unknown degradation functions. The study emphases on restoration of blurred images by using both blind and non-blind restoration techniques like Lucy Richardson Algorithm (LRA), Weiner Filter Deconvolution (WFD), Regularized Filter Deconvolution (RFD) and Blind Image Deconvolution Algorithm (BIDA). Apart from regular images, images from different areas of ima...
Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2014-09-22
We present a novel image hiding method based on phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of nonlinear double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. Two phase-only masks (POMs) are efficiently determined by using the phase retrieval algorithm, in which two cascaded phase-truncated fractional Fourier transforms (FrFTs) are involved. No undesired information disclosure, post-processing of the POMs or digital inverse computation appears in our proposed method. In order to achieve the reduction in key transmission, a modified image hiding method based on the modified phase retrieval algorithm and logistic map is further proposed in this paper, in which the fractional orders and the parameters with respect to the logistic map are regarded as encryption keys. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:25321769
Algorithms for image processing and computer vision
Parker, J R
2010-01-01
A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It's an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists wh
Dermoscopic Image Segmentation using Machine Learning Algorithm
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L. P. Suresh
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Malignant melanoma is the most frequent type of skin cancer. Its incidence has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Medical image segmentation is the most essential and crucial process in order to facilitate the characterization and visualization of the structure of interest in medical images. Approach: This study explains the task of segmenting skin lesions in Dermoscopy images based on intelligent systems such as Fuzzy and Neural Networks clustering techniques for the early diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma. The various intelligent system based clustering techniques used are Fuzzy C Means Algorithm (FCM, Possibilistic C Means Algorithm (PCM, Hierarchical C Means Algorithm (HCM; C-mean based Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Network, Adaline Neural Network and Regression Neural Network. Results: The segmented images are compared with the ground truth image using various parameters such as False Positive Error (FPE, False Negative Error (FNE Coefficient of similarity, spatial overlap and their performance is evaluated. Conclusion: The experimental results show that the Hierarchical C Means algorithm( Fuzzy provides better segmentation than other (Fuzzy C Means, Possibilistic C Means, Adaline Neural Network, FHNN and GRNN clustering algorithms. Thus Hierarchical C Means approach can handle uncertainties that exist in the data efficiently and useful for the lesion segmentation in a computer aided diagnosis system to assist the clinical diagnosis of dermatologists.
Digital Image Mosaic Technology Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm
Li Yan
2014-01-01
Image mosaic technology is an important technology in the field of image processing. Based on the general adaptability and clustering of genetic algorithm, we improve it, and apply it to the mosaic algorithm in image processing. In this paper, we test the validity and reliability of the designed algorithm in the process of image mosaic algorithm. Based on the image illumination mosaic and painting texture mosaic image we achieve certain artistic effect. From the convergence results of general...
KAIRUAIN-algorithm applied on electromagnetic imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For time-harmonic Maxwell equations, we consider an inverse scattering problem for the 3D imaging of the constitutive material of an unknown object from the boundary measurements of the electric field. This problem is ill-posed and nonlinear. We introduce the KAIRUAIN-algorithm which is an iterative method of Newton–Kaczmarz type, where we use the approximate inverse for regularizing the solution of the linearized equation at each Newton iteration. We study the convergence of the algorithm and develop a strategy for the choice of the regularizing parameter in a quite general setting. We apply the KAIRUAIN-algorithm to derive an efficient and stable reconstruction method for electromagnetic imaging. We use experimental data provided by the Institut Fresnel, France, to validate the capability of the reconstruction algorithm to retrieve blindly, without any a priori information, the geometry and the dielectric permittivity of the scattering object. (paper)
KAIRUAIN-algorithm applied on electromagnetic imaging
Lakhal, A.
2013-09-01
For time-harmonic Maxwell equations, we consider an inverse scattering problem for the 3D imaging of the constitutive material of an unknown object from the boundary measurements of the electric field. This problem is ill-posed and nonlinear. We introduce the KAIRUAIN-algorithm which is an iterative method of Newton-Kaczmarz type, where we use the approximate inverse for regularizing the solution of the linearized equation at each Newton iteration. We study the convergence of the algorithm and develop a strategy for the choice of the regularizing parameter in a quite general setting. We apply the KAIRUAIN-algorithm to derive an efficient and stable reconstruction method for electromagnetic imaging. We use experimental data provided by the Institut Fresnel, France, to validate the capability of the reconstruction algorithm to retrieve blindly, without any a priori information, the geometry and the dielectric permittivity of the scattering object.
Implementation of LBG Algorithm for Image Compression
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Ms. Asmita A.Bardekar#1, Mr. P.A.Tijare
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of LBG algorithm for image compression which makes it possible for creating file sizes of manageable, storable and transmittable dimensions. Image Compression techniques fall under two categories, namely, Lossless and Lossy. The Linde, Buzo, and Gray (LBG algorithm is an iterative algorithm which alternatively solves the two optimality criteria i.e. Nearest neighbor condition and centroid condition. The algorithm requires an initial codebook to start with. Codebook is generated using a training set of images. There are different methods like Random Codes and Splitting in which the initial code book can be obtained. This initial codebook is obtained by the splitting method in LBG algorithm. In this method an initial code vector is set as the average of the entire training sequence. This code vector is then split into two. The iterative algorithm is run with these two vectors as the initial codebook. The final two code vectors are splitted into four and the process is repeated until the desired number of code vector is obtained. The LBGalgorithm is measured by calculating performances such as Compression Ratio (CR, Mean square error (MSE, PeakSignal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR
Algorithm for Fast Registration of Radar Images
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Subrata Rakshit
2002-07-01
Full Text Available Radar imagery provides an all-weather and 24 h coverage, making it ideal for critical defence applications. In some applications, multiple images acquired of an area need to be registered for further processing. Such situations arise for battlefield surveillance based on satellite imagery. The registration has to be done between an earlier (reference image and a new (live image. For automated surveillance, registration is a prerequisite for change detection. Speed is essential due to large volumes of data involved and the need for quick responses. The registration transformation is quite simple, being mainly a global translation. (Scale and rotation corrections can be applied based on known camera parameters. The challenge lies in the fact that the radar images are not as feature-rich as optical images and the image content variation can be as high as 90 per cent. Even though the change on the ground may not be drastic, seasonal variations can significantly alter the radar signatures of ground, vegetation, and water bodies. This necessitates a novel approach different from the techniques developed for optical images. An algorithm has been developed that leads to fast registration of radar images, even in the presence of specular noise and significant scene content variation. The key features of this approach are adaptability to sensor/terrain types, ability to handle large content variations and false positive rejection. The present work shows that this algorithm allows for various cost-performance trade-offs, making it suitable for a wide variety of applications. The algorithm, in various cost-performance configurations, is tested on a set of ERS images. Results of such tests have been reported, indicating the performance of the algorithm for various cost-performance trade-offs.
Digital image processing an algorithmic approach with Matlab
Qidwai, Uvais
2009-01-01
Introduction to Image Processing and the MATLAB EnvironmentIntroduction Digital Image Definitions: Theoretical Account Image Properties MATLAB Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage Acquisition, Types, and File I/OImage Acquisition Image Types and File I/O Basics of Color Images Other Color Spaces Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage ArithmeticIntroduction Operator Basics Theoretical TreatmentAlgorithmic Treatment Coding ExamplesAffine and Logical Operations, Distortions, and Noise in ImagesIntroduction Affine Operations Logical Operators Noise in Images Distortions in ImagesAlgorithmic Account
Fully Blind Image Quality Assessment Algorithm
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Saifeldeen Abdalmajeed
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Most general purpose no-reference image quality assessment algorithms need prior knowledge about expected distortions and their corresponding human opinion scores. All distortion types may not be available when creating the model. In this study, a blind/no-reference opinion unaware distortion unaware image quality assessment algorithm based on log-derivative statistics of natural scenes is developed. The proposed approach extracts features of both natural images and distorted image at two scales in spatial domain. Locally normalized luminance values are modeled in two forms: Point-wise based statistics for single pixels and pair wise based log-derivative statistics for the relation of adjacent pixels. Then a general Gaussian distribution model is applied whose parameters represent the features of the proposed approach. Results show that the proposed algorithm correlates well with subjective opinion scores. They also show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the full-reference Peak Signal-to-noise Ratio (PSNR and Structural Similarity (SSIM methods. Not only do the results compete well with the recently developed Natural Image Quality Evaluator (NIQE model but also outperform it.
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P. T. Anitha
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the security measures implemented. Steganography is a method which is used to give high level security. Approach: Today, email management and email authenticity must be unquestionable with strong chains of custody, constant availability and tamper-proof security. A secure communication can be achieved through neural based steganography. Email is insecure. Results: This research developed an application which can check the Email content of corporate mails by S-DES algorithm along with the neural networks back propagation approach. A new filtering algorithm is also developed which can used to extract only the JPG images from the corporate emails. Experimental research shows that this algorithm is more accurate and reliable than the conventional methods. Conclusion: We anticipate that this study can also give a clear picture of the current trends in Steganography and the experimental results indicate this method is valid in steganalysis. This method can be used for internet/network security.
Proximity algorithms for image models: denoising
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper introduces a novel framework for the study of the total-variation model for image denoising. In the model, the denoised image is the proximity operator of the total-variation evaluated at a given noisy image. The total-variation can be viewed as the composition of a convex function (the l1 norm for the anisotropic total-variation or the l2 norm for the isotropic total-variation) with a linear transformation (the first-order difference operator). These two facts lead us to investigate the proximity operator of the composition of a convex function with a linear transformation. Under the assumption that the proximity operator of a given convex function (e.g., the l1 norm or the l2 norm) can be readily obtained, we propose a fixed-point algorithm for computing the proximity operator of the composition of the convex function with a linear transformation. We then specialize this fixed-point methodology to the total-variation denoising models. The resulting algorithms are compared with the Goldstein–Osher split-Bregman denoising algorithm. An important advantage of the fixed-point framework leads us to a convenient analysis for convergence of the proposed algorithms as well as a platform for us to develop efficient numerical algorithms via various fixed-point iterations. Our numerical experience indicates that the methods proposed here perform favorably
Experimental Study of Fractal Image Compression Algorithm
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Chetan R. Dudhagara
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Image compression applications have been increasing in recent years. Fractal compression is a lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals. The method is best suited for textures and natural images, relying on the fact that parts of an image often resemble other parts of the same image. In this paper, a study on fractal-based image compression and fixed-size partitioning will be made, analyzed for performance and compared with a standard frequency domain based image compression standard, JPEG. Sample images will be used to perform compression and decompression. Performance metrics such as compression ratio, compression time and decompression time will be measured in JPEG cases. Also the phenomenon of resolution/scale independence will be studied and described with examples. Fractal algorithms convert these parts into mathematical data called "fractal codes" which are used to recreate the encoded image. Fractal encoding is a mathematical process used to encode bitmaps containing a real-world image as a set of mathematical data that describes the fractal properties of the image. Fractal encoding relies on the fact that all natural, and most artificial, objects contain redundant information in the form of similar, repeating patterns called fractals.
Tuning Range Image Segmentation by Genetic Algorithm
Gianluca Pignalberi; Luigi Cinque; Rita Cucchiara; Stefano Levialdi
2003-01-01
Several range image segmentation algorithms have been proposed, each one to be tuned by a number of parameters in order to provide accurate results on a given class of images. Segmentation parameters are generally affected by the type of surfaces (e.g., planar versus curved) and the nature of the acquisition system (e.g., laser range finders or structured light scanners). It is impossible to answer the question, which is the best set of parameters given a range image within a class and a ran...
New 2D CA based Image Encryption Scheme and a novel Non-Parametric Test for Pixel Randomness
J, Balasuyambu; R, Radha; R, Rama
2015-01-01
In this paper we have proposed a new test for pixel randomness using non-parametric method in statistics. In order to validate this new non-parametric test we have designed an encryption scheme based on 2D cellular automata. The strength of the designed encryption scheme is first assessed by standard methods for security analysis and the pixel randomness is then determined by the newly proposed non-parametric method.
A CNN Computing Algorithm for Image Correlation
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?EPELEA Laviniu
2010-10-01
Full Text Available To computing the correlationcoefficients between two images, this paper proposesan algorithm based on the use of cellular neuralnetworks (CNNs, in which most operations(calculations are achieved by parallel processing.Thus, on the one hand, we can reduce computing time;on the other hand, the computing time will notincrease proportionally with increasing the size of thetemplate images. By integrating the CNN algorithm ona emulated digital CNN-Universal Machineimplemented on FPGA (Field Programmable GateArray there will be possible to perform some task inreal time in the case of a system developed to assistpeople with visual impairments or in a medicaldiagnosis assistance system, for processing andanalysis of computer tomography images.
LSB Based Quantum Image Steganography Algorithm
Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Na; Wang, Luo
2015-04-01
Quantum steganography is the technique which hides a secret message into quantum covers such as quantum images. In this paper, two blind LSB steganography algorithms in the form of quantum circuits are proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR) for quantum images. One algorithm is plain LSB which uses the message bits to substitute for the pixels' LSB directly. The other is block LSB which embeds a message bit into a number of pixels that belong to one image block. The extracting circuits can regain the secret message only according to the stego cover. Analysis and simulation-based experimental results demonstrate that the invisibility is good, and the balance between the capacity and the robustness can be adjusted according to the needs of applications.
A NOVEL DECONVOLUTION ALGORITHM FOR IMAGE RESTORATION
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Phu Ninh Tran
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A novel deconvolution algorithm for restoring blurred image is introduced. The proposed algorithm can behave two multi-scale frameworks to restore the fuzzy blurred image. One multi-scale framework is used to optimize whole process containing kernel estimation and deconvolution by incorporating an average difference criterion for evaluating the restored image quality, another is applied to optimize kernel estimation process, which are generated kernels in different sizes. Furthermore, the Expectation Maximization (EM method is applied to handle outliers in deconvolution process for suppressing ringing effects. The experimental result shows that the proposed method offers an efficient way to estimate and optimize the blur kernel and obtain good results for deconvolution process.
MR Brain Image Segmentation using Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm
E. Ben George; M.Karnan
2012-01-01
The most important task in digital image processing is image segmentation. This paper put forward an unique image segmentation algorithm that make use of a Markov Random Field (MRF) hybrid with biologically inspired technique Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) for Brain Magnetic Resonance Images The proposed new algorithm works on the image pixel data and a region/neighborhood map to form a context in which they can merge. Hence, the MR brain image is segmented using MRF-BFOA and...
Knapsack Based ECC Encryption and Decryption
R. Rajaram Ramasamy; M. Amutha Prabakar; M. Indra Devi; M. Suguna
2009-01-01
Elliptic Curve Cryptography provides a secure means of exchanging keys among communicating hosts using the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange algorithm. Encryption and Decryption of texts and messages have also been attempted. This paper presents the implementation of ECC by first transforming the message into an affine point on the EC, and then applying the knapsack algorithm on ECC encrypted message over the finite field GF(p). In ECC we normally start with an affine point called $P_{m}$(x,y). Thi...
A Self-synchronizing Stream Encryption Scheme Based on One-Dimensional Coupled Map Lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a self-synchronizing stream encryption scheme based on one-dimensional coupled map lattices which is introduced as a model with the essential features of spatiotemporal chaos, and of great complexity and diffusion capability of the little disturbance in the initial condition. To evaluate the scheme, a series of statistical tests are employed, and the results show good random-look nature of the ciphertext. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to encrypt a grey-scale image to show the key sensitivity.
Image segmentation using an improved differential algorithm
Gao, Hao; Shi, Yujiao; Wu, Dongmei
2014-10-01
Among all the existing segmentation techniques, the thresholding technique is one of the most popular due to its simplicity, robustness, and accuracy (e.g. the maximum entropy method, Otsu's method, and K-means clustering). However, the computation time of these algorithms grows exponentially with the number of thresholds due to their exhaustive searching strategy. As a population-based optimization algorithm, differential algorithm (DE) uses a population of potential solutions and decision-making processes. It has shown considerable success in solving complex optimization problems within a reasonable time limit. Thus, applying this method into segmentation algorithm should be a good choice during to its fast computational ability. In this paper, we first propose a new differential algorithm with a balance strategy, which seeks a balance between the exploration of new regions and the exploitation of the already sampled regions. Then, we apply the new DE into the traditional Otsu's method to shorten the computation time. Experimental results of the new algorithm on a variety of images show that, compared with the EA-based thresholding methods, the proposed DE algorithm gets more effective and efficient results. It also shortens the computation time of the traditional Otsu method.
Data Based Text Encrypting in Audio
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Bommala Suneel Kumar
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Nowadays data authentication plays a major for the secrete transmission of the data respectively. Here in this data oriented authentication involves encryption followed by the respective decryption. Where in the encryption process takes place in the transmitter end while decryption takes place or handled at the receiver end respectively. Here an algorithm is designed based on the above strategy where complete privacy is maintained by the system. This one of the data hiding technique. Some of the data hiding techniques include cryptography, Stenography and watermarking. Therefore there is a slight variation between all these techniques in their implementation. Here the protection is also follows where we can hide text in text, Speech in the song which is related to the audio based scenario, Text in the song, Image in the image and text in the image respectively. Here the main aim of the projects is to hide the data in the form of text I the signal respectively. Here in this present methodology we are going to implement the method by the name of RSA respectively. Where the experimental analysis show that this particular method is used for the accurate hiding of the data takes place that is in the form of security based scenario.
AN INTENSITY-BASED MEDICAL IMAGE REGISTRATION USING GENETIC ALGORITHM
Shanmugapriya.S; Dr.S.Poonguzhali; Umamaheshwari
2014-01-01
Medical imaging plays a vital role to create images of human body for clinical purposes. Biomedical imaging has taken a leap by entering into the field of image registration. Image registration integrates the large amount of medical information embedded in the images taken at different time intervals and images at different orientations. In this paper, an intensity-based real-coded genetic algorithm is used for registering two MRI images. To demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm dev...
Color Image Quantization Algorithm Based on Differential Evolution
Qinghua Su; Sidian Guo; Zhangcan Huang; Zhongbo Hu
2013-01-01
Some stochastic optimization methods, such as Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms (PSO) and Genetic Algorithms (GA), have been used to solve the color image quantization. Differential Evolution Algorithm (DE) is one of the novel stochastic optimization methods. Few researches have been done for using DE to solve the color image quantization. This paper proposes a DE-based color image quantization algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, a better colormap is designed by using DE to update some...
ALGORITHMIC IMAGING APPROACH TO IMPOTENCE
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Mahyar Ghafoori
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Impotence is a common problem that has great impact on the quality of life. Clinical evaluation usually can exclude endocrinologic imbalance, neurogenic dysfunction, and psychological problems as the etiology. A patient who fails to get an erection after vasoactive medications which are injected probably, has hemodynamic impotence. Dynamic studies that include imaging techniques are now available to discriminate between arterial and venous pathology.Doppler ultrasound with color flow and spectral analysis,dynamic infusion corpus cavernosometry and cavernosography, and selective internal pudendal arteriography are outpatient diagnostic procedures that will differentiate, image and quantify the abnormalities in patients with hemodynamic impotence. Not all tests are needed in every patient. Each of these examinations is preceded with the intracavernosal injection of vasoactive medication. Papaverine hydrochloride, phentolamine mesylate, or prostaglandin El will overcome normal sympathetic tone and produce an erection by smooth muscle relaxation and arterial dilatation in a normal patient. Color-flow Doppler and spectral analysis will showthe cavernosal arteries and can identify the hemodynamic effects of stricture or occlusion. Peak systolic velocity is measured. Normal ranges are well established. Spectral analysis also is used to predict the presence of venous disease. Sizable venous leaks in the dorsal penile vein are readily imaged.While the technique may not adequately identify low-grade venous pathology, it will identify the size and location of fibrous plaque formation associated with Peyronie's disease. Cavernosography or cavernosometry is a separate procedure that will quantitate the severity of venousincompetence as well as specifically identify the various avenues of systemic venous return that must be localized if venous occlusive therapy is chosen. In this study, the peak arterial systolic occlusion pressure is quantified during erection,and the presence of arterial pathology can be confirmed.The arterial data are not as reliable as the ultrasound-obtained data because they rely on audible Doppler, which can be obscured in the underlying "noise" heard with erection. The arterial data obtained with both of these examinations are quantitative and replace the qualitative audible Doppler used previously. Specialized equipment allows dynamic data acquisition, ensuring that the needed information is obtained at peak stimulation.Arteriography is done only if reconstructive surgery is contemplated. The examination includes subselective catheterization of the internal pudendal arteries, magnification technique, and evaluation of the recurrent epigastric arteries, which will be harvested for revascularization. An arterial operation is usually successful in younger patients with perineal trauma with a single point of stenosis or occlusion but has been least successful in those patients with atherosclerosis because of the multifocal nature of this disease. Diagnostic information available today is more specific and reliable than at any time in the past and can realistically estimate the severity of the hemodynamic disorder and allow individual treatment options. Ongoing studies will show whether the data these studies provide make an important difference in the treatment of vascular impotence.
Steganography Algorithm to Hide Secret Message inside an Image
Ibrahim, Rosziati; Kuan, Teoh Suk
2011-01-01
In this paper, the authors propose a new algorithm to hide data inside image using steganography technique. The proposed algorithm uses binary codes and pixels inside an image. The zipped file is used before it is converted to binary codes to maximize the storage of data inside the image. By applying the proposed algorithm, a system called Steganography Imaging System (SIS) is developed. The system is then tested to see the viability of the proposed algorithm. Various sizes ...
A Review of Encryption Storage
Chaowen Chang; Min Liang; Hongzhao Kou; Zhigang Si
2010-01-01
Information leakage leads to very serious consequences. Encryption storage is an effective means of ensuring information security. We summarize several typical encryption storage methods: application layer encryption, filter driver encryption, virtual disk encryption and full disk encryption. At last this paper compares these methods in some respects and provides the references for design and research of encryption storage systems.
A Review of Encryption Storage
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Chaowen Chang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Information leakage leads to very serious consequences. Encryption storage is an effective means of ensuring information security. We summarize several typical encryption storage methods: application layer encryption, filter driver encryption, virtual disk encryption and full disk encryption. At last this paper compares these methods in some respects and provides the references for design and research of encryption storage systems.
The Classification of Quantum Symmetric-Key Encryption Protocols
Xiang, Chong; Yang, Li; Peng, Yong; Chen, Dongqing
2015-01-01
The classification of quantum symmetric-key encryption protocol is presented. According to five elements of a quantum symmetric-key encryption protocol: plaintext, ciphertext, key, encryption algorithm and decryption algorithm, there are 32 different kinds of them. Among them, 5 kinds of protocols have already been constructed and studied, and 21 kinds of them are proved to be impossible to construct, the last 6 kinds of them are not yet presented effectively. That means the...
A Survey on Diverse Techniques of Encryption in Practice
Ashish Pareek,; Prof. John Singh
2014-01-01
This converse will attend a perception on the contemporary state of play in the fallow of encryption algorithms in meticulous way (on private key block ciphers) what’re comprehensively used for majority of data and link encryption. Primarily, survey of the more prevalent and thought-provoking algorithms at present in use was carried out. This endeavor stress essentially on a number of encryption techniques that are manageable & comparative study of all techniques unruffled a...
An Improved Image Restoration Algorithm for Overcast Based on MSR
Zhen Chen; Jihong Shen
2013-01-01
According to degradation model of cloudy images, the paper uses MSR (multi-scale retinex) algorithm for restoration. But MSR algorithm can’t effectively restore the details and color of images in processing cloudy images, so the paper proposes a new MSR improvement algorithm to process cloudy images. Three scales of traditional MSR is changed into four scales, which means that a Gaussian function with middle scale keeping the details and color of images is added to. And information fusi...
Segmentation of Medical Image using Clustering and Watershed Algorithms
Christ, M. C. J.; Parvathi, R. M. S.
2011-01-01
Problem statement: Segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging. Segmentation of an image is the division or separation of the image into dissimilar regions of similar attribute. In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates clustering algorithm and marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm for medical image segmentation. The use of the conservative watershed algorithm for medical image analysis is pervasive because of its advantages, such as always being able to...
Endmember extraction algorithms from hyperspectral images
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M. C. Cantero
2006-06-01
Full Text Available During the last years, several high-resolution sensors have been developed for hyperspectral remote sensing applications. Some of these sensors are already available on space-borne devices. Space-borne sensors are currently acquiring a continual stream of hyperspectral data, and new efficient unsupervised algorithms are required to analyze the great amount of data produced by these instruments. The identification of image endmembers is a crucial task in hyperspectral data exploitation. Once the individual endmembers have been identified, several methods can be used to map their spatial distribution, associations and abundances. This paper reviews the Pixel Purity Index (PPI, N-FINDR and Automatic Morphological Endmember Extraction (AMEE algorithms developed to accomplish the task of finding appropriate image endmembers by applying them to real hyperspectral data. In order to compare the performance of these methods a metric based on the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE between the estimated and reference abundance maps is used.
Endmember extraction algorithms from hyperspectral images
M. C. Cantero; P. L. Aguilar; Plaza, A; Pérez, R M; P. J. Martínez; J. Plaza
2006-01-01
During the last years, several high-resolution sensors have been developed for hyperspectral remote sensing applications. Some of these sensors are already available on space-borne devices. Space-borne sensors are currently acquiring a continual stream of hyperspectral data, and new efficient unsupervised algorithms are required to analyze the great amount of data produced by these instruments. The identification of image endmembers is a crucial task in hyperspectral data exploitation. Once t...
Image Colour Segmentation by Genetic Algorithms
Ramos, V; Ramos, Vitorino; Muge, Fernando
2004-01-01
Segmentation of a colour image composed of different kinds of texture regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields and a decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or unstationary texture fields. In this work, a method is described for evolving adaptive procedures for these problems. In many real world applications data clustering constitutes a fundamental issue whenever behavioural or feature domains can be mapped into topological domains. We formulate the segmentation problem upon such images as an optimisation problem and adopt evolutionary strategy of Genetic Algorithms for the clustering of small regions in colour feature space. The present approach uses k-Means unsupervised clustering methods into Genetic Algorithms, namely for guiding this last Evolutionary Algorithm in his search for finding the optimal or sub-optimal data partition, task that as we know, requires a non-trivial search because of its intrinsic NP-complet...
Tzu-Hsiang Hung; Her-Terng Yau; Chia-Chun Hsieh
2012-01-01
This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed ...
Digital Image Watermarking in Frequency Domain Using ECC and Dual Encryption Technique
Kalra, G S; Talwar, R.; H. Sadawarti
2013-01-01
This study presented an algorithm to protect the copyright watermark by providing Hamming codes as error correcting technique. Watermark was embedded in frequency domain using discrete cosine transformation and discrete wavelet transformation, to enhance the susceptibility. Combinations of two techniques are used to target medium frequencies only. Randomness of the watermark is also created before embedding. Instead of embedding in the same place in every block, it is embedded adaptively whic...
Digital Image Mosaic Technology Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm
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Li Yan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Image mosaic technology is an important technology in the field of image processing. Based on the general adaptability and clustering of genetic algorithm, we improve it, and apply it to the mosaic algorithm in image processing. In this paper, we test the validity and reliability of the designed algorithm in the process of image mosaic algorithm. Based on the image illumination mosaic and painting texture mosaic image we achieve certain artistic effect. From the convergence results of general algorithm, the results of numerical show substantially concussion, oscillation amplitude reaches a maximum of . The calculation results of the genetic algorithm still have certain degree of concussion, oscillation amplitude reaches a maximum of , convergence results are slightly better than the general algorithm. The improved genetic algorithm results have no concussion, the stability is very good, and the results have better astringency.
An adaptive algorithm for low contrast infrared image enhancement
Liu, Sheng-dong; Peng, Cheng-yuan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Jia-qi
2013-08-01
An adaptive infrared image enhancement algorithm for low contrast is proposed in this paper, to deal with the problem that conventional image enhancement algorithm is not able to effective identify the interesting region when dynamic range is large in image. This algorithm begin with the human visual perception characteristics, take account of the global adaptive image enhancement and local feature boost, not only the contrast of image is raised, but also the texture of picture is more distinct. Firstly, the global image dynamic range is adjusted from the overall, the dynamic range of original image and display grayscale form corresponding relationship, the gray scale of bright object is raised and the the gray scale of dark target is reduced at the same time, to improve the overall image contrast. Secondly, the corresponding filtering algorithm is used on the current point and its neighborhood pixels to extract image texture information, to adjust the brightness of the current point in order to enhance the local contrast of the image. The algorithm overcomes the default that the outline is easy to vague in traditional edge detection algorithm, and ensure the distinctness of texture detail in image enhancement. Lastly, we normalize the global luminance adjustment image and the local brightness adjustment image, to ensure a smooth transition of image details. A lot of experiments is made to compare the algorithm proposed in this paper with other convention image enhancement algorithm, and two groups of vague IR image are taken in experiment. Experiments show that: the contrast ratio of the picture is boosted after handled by histogram equalization algorithm, but the detail of the picture is not clear, the detail of the picture can be distinguished after handled by the Retinex algorithm. The image after deal with by self-adaptive enhancement algorithm proposed in this paper becomes clear in details, and the image contrast is markedly improved in compared with Retinex algorithm.
A Fast SIFT Image Mosaic Algorithm Based on Wavelet Transformation
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ZUO Yi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Recently, SIFT feature matching algorithm is becoming the focus of the image mosaic. In traditional SIFT algorithm, the mosaic procedure is computationally intensive and time-comsuming. For solving this problem, an improved SIFT algorithm is presented in this paper. The proposed algorithm combing wavelet transform into SIFT to simplify the scale-invariant feature extraction process, and speed up the image mosaic. The tests of two images mosaicing with the classical SIFT algorithm and the algorithm proposed in this paper have done respectively. With the control parameter ?=0.5, the classical SIFT algorithm took 1.192 891 seconds to extract the feature points, while the improved algorithm took 0.856 712 seconds. The contrast simulation tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, and show that the speed and accuracy of the proposed algorithm is improved, at the same time the effect of the image mosaic is maintained.
Research of Image Matching Based on Improved SURF Algorithm
Feng Qi; Xu Weihong; Zhang Xuping; Li Qiang
2013-01-01
In the study, it presents an efficient algorithm based on SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features). The method applies the SURF algorithm in the detection and description for image features, first it applies the SURF feature detector in extracting reference images and matching feature points in the image, respectively, then it uses DAISY algorithm instead of the SURF algorithm to calculate the character description of each feature point vector. In the process of feature points matching, the false ma...
Interferogram image analysis with genetic algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the safety analysis of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, it is important to investigate the density stratified flow field caused by air ingress into top cover filled with helium after primary tube rupture. Three-dimensional density distribution can be reconstructed using tomography technique from interferogram images. Conventional tomography techniques have low accuracy with a few interferogram images. To improve the accuracy of the reconstruction, a new tomography technique is proposed. In the present method, density distribution is assumed to be mainly effected by diffusion processes, and to be expressed as the summation of elementary density distributions. The tomography is carried out as the optimization of the arrangement of elementary density distributions. As optimization technique, genetic algorithm is introduced. With the present method, high accurate density distribution is calculated with a few interferogram images. (author)
Modified Curvelet Thresholding Algorithm for Image Denoising
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Al D. Ali
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study introduced an adaptive thresholding method for removing additive white Gaussian noise from digital images. Approach: Curvelet transform employed in the proposed scheme provides sparse decomposition as compared to the wavelet transform methods which being nongeometrical lack sparsity and fail to show optimal rate of convergence. Results: Different behaviors of curvelet transform maxima of image and noise across different scales allow us to design the threshold operator adaptively. Multiple thresholds depending on the scale and noise variance are calculated to locally suppress the curvelet transform coefficients so that the level of threshold is different at every scale. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed algorithm succeeded in providing improved denoising performance to recover the shape of edges and important detailed components. Simulation results proved that the proposed method can obtain a better image estimate than the wavelet based restoration methods.
Performance analysis of Non Linear Filtering Algorithms for underwater images
Suresh Kumar Thakur; Subashini, Dr P.; Muthu Kumar, M.; Padmavathi, Dr G.
2009-01-01
Image filtering algorithms are applied on images to remove the different types of noise that are either present in the image during capturing or injected in to the image during transmission. Underwater images when captured usually have Gaussian noise, speckle noise and salt and pepper noise. In this work, five different image filtering algorithms are compared for the three different noise types. The performances of the filters are compared using the Peak Signal to Noise Rati...
Color Secret Image Encryption and Share Generation for Multiple-Secret Threshold Visual Cryptography
P. Kavipriya M.E; Sangeetha, Dr M.
2014-01-01
Visual Cryptography Scheme (VCS) is a type of secret sharing scheme which allows the encoding of a secret image into n shares that distributed to n participants. Each share constitutes some information and when k shares out of n stack together the secret will reveal. However; less than k shares are not work. The advantage of the visual secret sharing scheme is its decryption process i.e. to decrypt the secret using Human Visual System without any computation. Traditional Visua...
Encryption And Portable Data Storage
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Cynthia L. Knott
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The protection of data is key issue in today’s world. The wide of availability and use of portable technologies such as USB flash has increased concern about securing the data resides on these devices. Because USB flash drives are small, relatively inexpensive, and easy to use, the security of the information stored on these thumb drives is on-going concern. A number of approaches to safeguarding the information stored on these drives are available. This paper examines one approach to this goal through the use of encryption. This method encrypts all the data on the drive. In addition the fact the data on the drive is encrypted is not visually obvious when viewing the contents of the disk. The proposed approach uses publically available and free encryption algorithms. A user password is needed to view and access the data that has been encrypted. The proposed methodology is quick and easy to use. Individuals who routinely carry around their USB drives need to be able to decrypt and encrypt the device quickly and conveniently. Furthermore, if the device is lost, it is still possible with the method advocated in this paper to include information about how to return the device to the owner without compromising the secured data on the drive. Without encrypting the data on portable drives, the user risks the disclosure of information. This paper argues that portable storage should be secured and suggests a way to secure the data through password and encryption that further enhances the usability and flexibility of the USB flash drive. The paper includes the results and analysis of an undergraduate student survey that determined what habits and practices they followed with respect to securing their personal data and files. Some of the questions included in the analysis are the following: Do you encrypt your USB flash drive?Do you use any type of security for your USB flash drive?How important do you think security is for a flash drive? (A Likert scaleDo you use passwords to protect your USB flash drive?Do you backup your work?Do you think it is important to use security when using a USB flash drive? The findings of the survey help to understand the perspective of today’s students and how to address the critical need to secure their information and data files with them.
Medical Image Segmentation Based on Genetic Clustering Algorithm
Peng Taile; Zhang Wenjun
2013-01-01
In view of medical image segmentation greatly influenced by noise and low segmentation accuracy, a image segmentation algorithm based on genetic clustering is put forward. Firstly, according to sliding window we divide image into several sub-domains and using genetic algorithm searches the optimal population in each sub-domain. The following thing is the most optimal population is treated as clustering initial value of fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm for image segmentation. Finally, we obt...
Inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging principles, algorithms and applications
Chen , Victor C
2014-01-01
Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications is based on the latest research on ISAR imaging of moving targets and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR). With a focus on the advances and applications, this book will provide readers with a working knowledge on various algorithms of ISAR imaging of targets and implementation with MATLAB. These MATLAB algorithms will prove useful in order to visualize and manipulate some simulated ISAR images.
A sparse reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic images in nondestructive testing.
Guarneri, Giovanni Alfredo; Pipa, Daniel Rodrigues; Junior, Flávio Neves; de Arruda, Lúcia Valéria Ramos; Zibetti, Marcelo Victor Wüst
2015-01-01
Ultrasound imaging systems (UIS) are essential tools in nondestructive testing (NDT). In general, the quality of images depends on two factors: system hardware features and image reconstruction algorithms. This paper presents a new image reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic NDT. The algorithm reconstructs images from A-scan signals acquired by an ultrasonic imaging system with a monostatic transducer in pulse-echo configuration. It is based on regularized least squares using a l1 regularization norm. The method is tested to reconstruct an image of a point-like reflector, using both simulated and real data. The resolution of reconstructed image is compared with four traditional ultrasonic imaging reconstruction algorithms: B-scan, SAFT, !-k SAFT and regularized least squares (RLS). The method demonstrates significant resolution improvement when compared with B-scan-about 91% using real data. The proposed scheme also outperforms traditional algorithms in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:25905700
A Sparse Reconstruction Algorithm for Ultrasonic Images in Nondestructive Testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Alfredo Guarneri
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging systems (UIS are essential tools in nondestructive testing (NDT. In general, the quality of images depends on two factors: system hardware features and image reconstruction algorithms. This paper presents a new image reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic NDT. The algorithm reconstructs images from A-scan signals acquired by an ultrasonic imaging system with a monostatic transducer in pulse-echo configuration. It is based on regularized least squares using a l1 regularization norm. The method is tested to reconstruct an image of a point-like reflector, using both simulated and real data. The resolution of reconstructed image is compared with four traditional ultrasonic imaging reconstruction algorithms: B-scan, SAFT, !-k SAFT and regularized least squares (RLS. The method demonstrates significant resolution improvement when compared with B-scan—about 91% using real data. The proposed scheme also outperforms traditional algorithms in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR.
Steganography Algorithm to Hide Secret Message inside an Image
Ibrahim, Rosziati
2011-01-01
In this paper, the authors propose a new algorithm to hide data inside image using steganography technique. The proposed algorithm uses binary codes and pixels inside an image. The zipped file is used before it is converted to binary codes to maximize the storage of data inside the image. By applying the proposed algorithm, a system called Steganography Imaging System (SIS) is developed. The system is then tested to see the viability of the proposed algorithm. Various sizes of data are stored inside the images and the PSNR (Peak signal-to-noise ratio) is also captured for each of the images tested. Based on the PSNR value of each images, the stego image has a higher PSNR value. Hence this new steganography algorithm is very efficient to hide the data inside the image.
Research of Image Matching Based on Improved SURF Algorithm
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Feng Qi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In the study, it presents an efficient algorithm based on SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features. The method applies the SURF algorithm in the detection and description for image features, first it applies the SURF feature detector in extracting reference images and matching feature points in the image, respectively, then it uses DAISY algorithm instead of the SURF algorithm to calculate the character description of each feature point vector. In the process of feature points matching, the false matching points are eliminated through RANSAC algorithm. Finally, according to the rest of the match point, it can estimate the space geometric transformation parameters between two images and thus matching process is completed.
Algorithms evaluation for fundus images enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Color images of the retina inherently involve noise and illumination artifacts. In order to improve the diagnostic quality of the images, it is desirable to homogenize the non-uniform illumination and increase contrast while preserving color characteristics. The visual result of different pre-processing techniques can be very dissimilar and it is necessary to make an objective assessment of the techniques in order to select the most suitable. In this article the performance of eight algorithms to correct the non-uniform illumination, contrast modification and color preservation was evaluated. In order to choose the most suitable a general score was proposed. The results got good impression from experts, although some differences suggest that not necessarily the best statistical quality of image is the one of best diagnostic quality to the trained doctor eye. This means that the best pre-processing algorithm for an automatic classification may be different to the most suitable one for visual diagnosis. However, both should result in the same final diagnosis.
Pavement Image Segmentation Based on FCM Algorithm Using Neighborhood Information
Guofeng Qin; Xinsong Wang
2012-01-01
Standard FCM algorithm takes the pixel gray-scale information into account only, while ignoring the spatial location of pixels, so the standard FCM algorithm is sensitive to noise. This paper present a pavement image segmentation algorithm based on FCM algorithm using neighborhood information. The presented algorithm introduces neighborhood information into membership function to improve the standard FCM algorithm. It can eliminate noise effectively and retain the boundary information. The ex...
Indhumadhi, N.; Padmavathi, G.
2011-01-01
The aim of image fusion is to combine relevant information from two or more source images into one single image such that the single image contains most of the information from all the source images. The successful fusion of images acquired from different modalities or instruments is of great importance in many applications, such as medical imaging, microscopic imaging, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics. The algorithm begins by applying 2D-DWT to decompose the input images. The low...
Color encryption scheme based on adapted quantum logistic map
Zaghloul, Alaa; Zhang, Tiejun; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.
2014-04-01
This paper presents a new color image encryption scheme based on quantum chaotic system. In this scheme, a new encryption scheme is accomplished by generating an intermediate chaotic key stream with the help of quantum chaotic logistic map. Then, each pixel is encrypted by the cipher value of the previous pixel and the adapted quantum logistic map. The results show that the proposed scheme has adequate security for the confidentiality of color images.
Encrypted With Fuzzy Compliment-Max-Product Matrix in Watermarking
Sharbani Bhattacharya
2014-01-01
Watermark is used to protect copyright and to authenticate images. In digital media, today’s world images are in electronic form available in the internet. For its protection and authentication invisible watermarking in encrypted form are used. In this paper encryption is done using fuzzy Compliment-Max-Product matrix and then encrypted watermark is embedded in the digital media at desired places using fuzzy rule. The Region of Interest (ROI) is decided with fuzzification. Then, watermark i...
Application of Genetic Algorithm for Image Enhancement and Segmentation.
Miss. Komal R. Hole, Prof. Vijay S. Gulhane, Prof. Nitin D. Shellokar
2013-01-01
Genetic algorithm is the type of Soft Computing method. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a model of machine learning which derives its behavior from a metaphor of the processes of evolution in nature. The aim is to enhance the quality of the image and to convert the image into segments to get more meaningful image and it will be easy to analyze the image using genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithm is the unbiased optimization technique. It is useful in image enhancement and segmentation. GA was p...
Application of Genetic Algorithm for Image Enhancement and Segmentation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miss. Komal R. Hole, Prof. Vijay S. Gulhane, Prof. Nitin D. Shellokar
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithm is the type of Soft Computing method. The Genetic Algorithm (GA is a model of machine learning which derives its behavior from a metaphor of the processes of evolution in nature. The aim is to enhance the quality of the image and to convert the image into segments to get more meaningful image and it will be easy to analyze the image using genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithm is the unbiased optimization technique. It is useful in image enhancement and segmentation. GA was proven to be the most powerful optimization technique in a large solution space. This explains the increasing popularity of GAs applications in image processing and other fields. Genetic Algorithms (GAs are increasingly being explored in many areas of image analysis to solve complex optimization problems. This paper gives a brief overview of the canonical genetic algorithm and it also reviews the tasks of image pre-processing. The main task of machine vision is to enhance image quality with respect to get a required image per-ception. The GAs were adopted to achieve better results, faster processing times and more specialized applications. This paper introduces various approaches based on genetic algorithm to get image with good and natural contrast. The image enhancement is the most fundamental image processing tasks. And Image Segmentation is very difficult task. This paper includes the definition of image enhancement and image segmentation and also the need of Image Enhancement and the image can be enhanced using the Genetic Algorithm and the Image Segmentation using Genetic Algorithm.
Study on Airspace Covert Communication Algorithm of Covert Communication System
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Yinpu Zhang
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Based on the security of information transmission through network in the information society, the paper puts forward covert communication technology which is more reliable than the prior encryption algorithm, analyzes channel covertness and information hiding of covert communication technology based on spread-spectrum communication technology, and establishes a covert communication system including image steganalysis, Arnold transformation and scrambling of carrier image, embedding of secret information, generation of encrypted image and recovering of carrier image by image-based covert communication technology. The simulation result shows: in order to ensure there is no serious degrading problem after embedding the secret information, the carrier image must have a large capacity; the larger the scrambling times is, the better the scrambling and encrypting effect is. Therefore, the airspace covert communication algorithm based on spread-spectrum communication technology well achieves safe transmission of information and has good application prospect.
PARAMETRIC EVALUATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS IMAGE COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS
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V. Sutha Jebakumari
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Wavelet analysis plays a vital role in the signal processing especially in image compression. In this paper, various compression algorithms like block truncation coding, EZW and SPIHT are studied and ana- lyzed; its algorithm idea and steps are given. The parameters for all these algorithms are analyzed and the best parameter for each of these compression algorithms is found out.
PARAMETRIC EVALUATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS IMAGE COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS
V. Sutha Jebakumari; P. Arockia Jansi Rani
2011-01-01
Wavelet analysis plays a vital role in the signal processing especially in image compression. In this paper, various compression algorithms like block truncation coding, EZW and SPIHT are studied and ana- lyzed; its algorithm idea and steps are given. The parameters for all these algorithms are analyzed and the best parameter for each of these compression algorithms is found out.
Comparative analysis of evolutionary algorithms for image enhancement
Gogna, Anupriya; Tayal, Akash
2013-01-01
Evolutionary algorithms are metaheuristic techniques that derive inspiration from the natural process of evolution. They can efficiently solve (generate acceptable quality of solution in reasonable time) complex optimization (NP-Hard) problems. In this paper, automatic image enhancement is considered as an optimization problem and three evolutionary algorithms (Genetic Algorithm, Differential Evolution and Self Organizing Migration Algorithm) are employed to search for an op...
Image Processing Algorithms – A Comprehensive Study
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Mahesh Prasanna K
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Digital image processing is an ever expanding and dynamic area with applications reaching out into our everyday life such as medicine, space exploration, surveillance, authentication, automated industry inspection and many more areas. These applications involve different processes like image enhancement and object detection [1]. Implementing such applications on a general purpose computer can be easier, but not very time efficient due to additional constraints on memory and other peripheral devices. Application specific hardware implementation offers much greater speed than a software implementation. With advances in the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated technology hardware implementation has become an attractive alternative. Implementing complex computation tasks on hardware and by exploiting parallelism and pipelining in algorithms yield significant reduction in execution times [2].
An Algorithm for Transforming Color Images into Tactile Graphics
Rataj, A
2004-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm that transforms color visual images, like photographs or paintings, into tactile graphics. In the algorithm, the edges of objects are detected and colors of the objects are estimated. Then, the edges and the colors are encoded into lines and textures in the output tactile image. Design of the method is substantiated by various qualities of haptic recognizing of images. Also, means of presentation of the tactile images in printouts are discussed. Example translated images are shown.
Autofocus algorithm for curvilinear SAR imaging
Bleszynski, E.; Bleszynski, M.; Jaroszewicz, T.
2012-05-01
We describe an approach to autofocusing for large apertures on curved SAR trajectories. It is a phase-gradient type method in which phase corrections compensating trajectory perturbations are estimated not directly from the image itself, but rather on the basis of partial" SAR data { functions of the slow and fast times { recon- structed (by an appropriate forward-projection procedure) from windowed scene patches, of sizes comparable to distances between distinct targets or localized features of the scene. The resulting partial data" can be shown to contain the same information on the phase perturbations as that in the original data, provided the frequencies of the perturbations do not exceed a quantity proportional to the patch size. The algorithm uses as input a sequence of conventional scene images based on moderate-size subapertures constituting the full aperture for which the phase corrections are to be determined. The subaperture images are formed with pixel sizes comparable to the range resolution which, for the optimal subaperture size, should be also approximately equal the cross-range resolution. The method does not restrict the size or shape of the synthetic aperture and can be incorporated in the data collection process in persistent sensing scenarios. The algorithm has been tested on the publicly available set of GOTCHA data, intentionally corrupted by random-walk-type trajectory uctuations (a possible model of errors caused by imprecise inertial navigation system readings) of maximum frequencies compatible with the selected patch size. It was able to eciently remove image corruption for apertures of sizes up to 360 degrees.
Color Image Quantization Algorithm Based on Differential Evolution
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Qinghua Su
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Some stochastic optimization methods, such as Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms (PSO and Genetic Algorithms (GA, have been used to solve the color image quantization. Differential Evolution Algorithm (DE is one of the novel stochastic optimization methods. Few researches have been done for using DE to solve the color image quantization. This paper proposes a DE-based color image quantization algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, a better colormap is designed by using DE to update some randomly initialized candidate colormaps. Some numerical experiments are conducted on a set of commonly used test images. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is practicable, and it has better performance than the color image quantization algorithm using PSO.
Edge Detection of Medical Images Using Morpholgical Algorithms
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Anurag Sharma
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Medical images edge detection is an important work for object recognition of the human organs and it is an important pre-processing step in medical image segmentation and 3D reconstruction. Conventionally, edge is detected according to some early brought forward algorithms such as gradient-based algorithm and template-based algorithm, but they are not so good for noise medical image edge detection. In this paper, basic mathematical morphological theory and operations are introduced at first, and then a novel mathematical morphological edge detection algorithm is proposed to detect the edge of lungs CT image with salt-and-pepper noise. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient for medical image denoising and edge detection than the usually used template-based edge detection algorithms and general morphological edge detection algorithms.
Improving night sky star image processing algorithm for star sensors.
Arbabmir, Mohammad Vali; Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohammad; Salahshour, Sadegh; Somayehee, Farshad
2014-04-01
In this paper, the night sky star image processing algorithm, consisting of image preprocessing, star pattern recognition, and centroiding steps, is improved. It is shown that the proposed noise reduction approach can preserve more necessary information than other frequently used approaches. It is also shown that the proposed thresholding method unlike commonly used techniques can properly perform image binarization, especially in images with uneven illumination. Moreover, the higher performance rate and lower average centroiding estimation error of near 0.045 for 400 simulated images compared to other algorithms show the high capability of the proposed night sky star image processing algorithm. PMID:24695142
AN INTENSITY-BASED MEDICAL IMAGE REGISTRATION USING GENETIC ALGORITHM
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Shanmugapriya.S
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Medical imaging plays a vital role to create images of human body for clinical purposes. Biomedical imaging has taken a leap by entering into the field of image registration. Image registration integrates the large amount of medical information embedded in the images taken at different time intervals and images at different orientations. In this paper, an intensity-based real-coded genetic algorithm is used for registering two MRI images. To demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm developed, the alignment of the image is altered and algorithm is tested for better performance. Also the work involves the comparison of two similarity metrics, and based on the outcome the best metric suited for genetic algorithm is studied.
Multi-agent Remote Sensing Image Segmentation Algorithm
Jing Chen; Haifeng Wang
2014-01-01
Due to fractal network evolution algorithm (FNEA) in the treatment of the high spatial resolution remote sensing image (HSRI) using a parallel global control strategies which limited when the objects in each cycle by traversal of and not good use the continuity of homogenous area on the space and lead to problems such as bad image segmentation, therefore puts forward the remote sensing image segmentation algorithm based on multi-agent. The algorithm in the merger guidelines, combining the ima...
Edge Detection of Medical Images Using Morpholgical Algorithms
Anurag Sharma; Pankaj Sharma3; Rashmi; Hardeep Kumar
2012-01-01
Medical images edge detection is an important work for object recognition of the human organs and it is an important pre-processing step in medical image segmentation and 3D reconstruction. Conventionally, edge is detected according to some early brought forward algorithms such as gradient-based algorithm and template-based algorithm, but they are not so good for noise medical image edge detection. In this paper, basic mathematical morphological theory and operations are introduced at first, ...
ASC-1 : An Authenticated Encryption Stream Cipher
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakimoski, Goce; Khajuria, Samant
2011-01-01
The goal of the modes of operation for authenticated encryption is to achieve faster encryption and message authentication by performing both the encryption and the message authentication in a single pass as opposed to the traditional encrypt-then-mac approach, which requires two passes. Unfortunately, the use of a block cipher as a building block limits the performance of the authenticated encryption schemes to at most one message block per block cipher evaluation. In this paper, we propose the authenticated encryption scheme ASC-1 (Authenticating Stream Cipher One). Similarly to LEX, ASC-1 uses leak extraction from diÆerent AES rounds to compute the key material that is XOR-ed with the message to compute the ciphertext. Unlike LEX, the ASC-1 operates in a CFB fashion to compute an authentication tag over the encrypted message. We argue that ASC-1 is secure by reducingits (IND-CCA , INT-CTXT) security to the problem of distinguishing the case when the round keys are uniformly random from the case when the round keys are generated by a key scheduling algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Most. Farjana Sharmin
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we made a comprehensive BER simulation study of a quasi- orthogonal space time block encoded (QO-STBC multiple-input single output(MISO system. The communication system under investigation has incorporated four digital modulations (QPSK, QAM, 16PSK and 16QAM over an Additative White Gaussian Noise (AWGN and Raleigh fading channels for three transmit and one receive antennas. In its FEC channel coding section, three schemes such as Cyclic, Reed-Solomon and ½-rated convolutionally encoding have been used. Under implementation of merely low complexity ML decoding based channel estimation and RSA cryptographic encoding /decoding algorithms, it is observable from conducted simulation test on encrypted text message transmission that the communication system with QAM digital modulation and ½-rated convolutionally encoding techniques is highly effective to combat inherent interferences under Raleigh fading and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channels. It is also noticeable from the study that the retrieving performance of the communication system degrades with the lowering of the signal to noise ratio (SNR and increasing in order of modulation.
Three-dimensional information encryption and anticounterfeiting using digital holography.
Shiu, Min-Tzung; Chew, Yang-Kun; Chan, Huang-Tian; Wong, Xin-Yu; Chang, Chi-Ching
2015-01-01
In this work, arbitrary micro phase-step digital holography with optical interferometry and digital image processing is utilized to obtain information about an image of a three-dimensional object and encrypting keys. Then, a computer-generated hologram is used for the purpose of holographic encryption. All information about the keys is required to perform the decryption, comprising the amplitude and phase distribution of the encrypting key, the distance of image reconstruction, zero-order term elimination, and twin-image term suppression. In addition to using identifiable information on different image planes and linear superposition processing hidden within the encrypted information, not only can we convey an important message, but we can also achieve anticounterfeiting. This approach retains the strictness of traditional holographic encryption and the convenience of digital holographic processing without image distortion. Therefore, this method provides better solutions to earlier methods for the security of the transmission of holographic information. PMID:25967026
Convergence of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sidky, Emil; JØrgensen, Jakob Heide
2012-01-01
Most iterative image reconstruction algorithms are based on some form of optimization, such as minimization of a data-fidelity term plus an image regularizing penalty term. While achieving the solution of these optimization problems may not directly be clinically relevant, accurate optimization solutions can aid in iterative image reconstruction algorithm design. This issue is particularly acute for iterative image reconstruction in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT), where the corresponding data model IS particularly poorly conditioned. The impact of this poor conditioning is that iterative algorithms applied to this system can be slow to converge. Recent developments in first-order algorithms are now beginning to allow for accurate solutions to optimization problems of interest to tomographic imaging in general. In particular, we investigate an algorithm developed by Chambolle and Pock (2011 J. Math. Imag. Vol. 40, pgs 120-145) and apply it to iterative image reconstruction in DBT.
Evolutionary Image Enhancement Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm
Dhirendra Pal Singh; Ashish Khare
2013-01-01
Image Processing is the art of examining, identifying and judging the significances of the Images. Image enhancement refers to attenuation, or sharpening, of image features such as edgels, boundaries, or contrast to make the processed image more useful for analysis. Image enhancement procedures utilize the computers to provide good and improved images for study by the human interpreters. In this paper we proposed a novel method that uses the Genetic Algorithm with Multi-objective criteria to ...
Siddhartha Mukherjee
2014-01-01
This paper gives a detailed study on the performance of image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model. There are various popular image filters, which consumes large amount of computing resources for processing. Oil paint image filter is one of the very interesting filters, which is very performance hungry. Current research tries to find improvement in oil paint image filter algorithm by using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-si...
Content-oriented Multi-level Security Authorization of Remote Sensing Images
Yuan Ye; Tu Chunxia; Liu Xiaojun
2013-01-01
In this study, on the basis of the characteristics of Large Quantity of Remote Sensing Data and application requirements on security, a scheme of authorizing the use of remote sensing images based on multi-level secrurity is put forward. We propose multi-region and multi-level confidential information of remote sensing images encryption algorithm based on content. The same remote sensing images after encryption are distrtbuted to different level users, such as authorized user, partly authoriz...
Triple Encrypted Holographic Storage and Digital Holographic System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a triple encrypted holographic memory containing a digital holographic system. The original image is encrypted using double random phase encryption and stored in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal with shift-multiplexing. Both the reference beams of the memory and the digital holographic system are random phase encoded. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the encryption and decryption of multiple images and the results show high quality and good fault tolerance. The total key length of this system is larger than 4.7 × 1033. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Multi-agent Remote Sensing Image Segmentation Algorithm
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Jing Chen
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Due to fractal network evolution algorithm (FNEA in the treatment of the high spatial resolution remote sensing image (HSRI using a parallel global control strategies which limited when the objects in each cycle by traversal of and not good use the continuity of homogenous area on the space and lead to problems such as bad image segmentation, therefore puts forward the remote sensing image segmentation algorithm based on multi-agent. The algorithm in the merger guidelines, combining the image spectral and shape information, and by using region merging process of multi-agent parallel control integral, its global merger control strategy can ensure algorithm has the advantages of parallel computing and fully considering the regional homogeneity, and continuity. Finally simulation experiment was performed with FNEA algorithms, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is better than FNEA algorithm in dividing the overall effect, has a good stability
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Maricela, Jiménez-Rodríguez; Octavio, Flores-Siordia; María Guadalupe, González-Novoa.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se propone un algoritmo de cifrado simétrico que toma como entrada la información original de longitud L y al codificarla genera el texto cifrado de longitud mayor LM. Se implementa el sistema discreto caótico mapa logístico para generar 3 órbitas diferentes: la primera se utiliza p [...] ara aplicar una técnica de difusión con la finalidad de mezclar la información original, la segunda órbita se combina con la información mezclada y se incrementa la longitud de L hasta LM y con la tercer órbita se implementa la técnica de confusión. El algoritmo de cifrado se aplicó para codificar una imagen que después se recupera totalmente mediante las llaves que se utilizaron para cifrar y su respectivo algoritmo para descifrar. El algoritmo puede codificar cualquier información con solo dividirla en bloques de 8 bits, puede cumplir con los requerimientos de alto nivel de seguridad, utiliza 7 claves para cifrar y además proporciona buena velocidad de cifrado. Abstract in english This article proposes a symmetric encryption algorithm that takes, as input value, the original information of length L, that when encoded, generates the ciphertext of greater length LM. A chaotic discrete system (logistic map) is implemented to generate 3 different orbits: the first is used for app [...] lying a diffusion technique in order to mix the original data, the second orbit is combined with the mixed information and increases the length of L to LM, and with the third orbit, the confusion technique is implemented. The encryption algorithm was applied to encode an image which is then totally recovered by the keys used to encrypt and his respective, decrypt algorithm. The algorithm can encode any information, just dividing into 8 bits, it can cover the requirements for high level security, it uses 7 keys to encrypt and provides good encryption speed.
Performance analysis of Non Linear Filtering Algorithms for underwater images
Padmavathi, Dr G; Kumar, Mr M Muthu; Thakur, Suresh Kumar
2009-01-01
Image filtering algorithms are applied on images to remove the different types of noise that are either present in the image during capturing or injected in to the image during transmission. Underwater images when captured usually have Gaussian noise, speckle noise and salt and pepper noise. In this work, five different image filtering algorithms are compared for the three different noise types. The performances of the filters are compared using the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE). The modified spatial median filter gives desirable results in terms of the above two parameters for the three different noise. Forty underwater images are taken for study.
Analysis of Cuckoo Search with Genetic Algorithm for Image Compression
S. Akila Pradeep,R.Manavalan
2013-01-01
Compressing an image is different than compressing raw binary data. Of course, general purpose compression Techniques can be used to compress images, but the result is less than optimal. Statistical properties of image have been exploited by encoders specifically designed for them. This also means that lossy compression techniques can be used in this area. In this paper, cuckoo algorithm is integrated with genetic algorithm in image compression framework. Here ...
Low complexity image recognition algorithm for handheld applications
Ayyalasomayajula, Pradyumna; Grassi Pauletti, Sara; Farine, Pierre-André
2011-01-01
We propose a low complexity image recognition algorithm based on Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) suitable for handheld applications. The target application is an Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) device used in speech rehabilitation and education. The device recognizes images (pictograms and pictures) and plays a sound message associated with the recognized image. Experimental validation of the proposed algorithm using MATLAB and its DSP implementation is presented.
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N. INDHUMADHI
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of image fusion is to combine relevant information from two or more source images into one single image such that the single image contains most of the information from all the source images. The successful fusion of images acquired from different modalities or instruments is of great importance in many applications, such as medical imaging, microscopic imaging, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics. The algorithm begins by applying 2D-DWT to decompose the input images. The lower approximations are subjected to pixel-based Laplacian fusion algorithm. The SF algorithm combined with wavelet fusion algorithm is used for higher approximations. The new sets of detailed and approximate coefficients from each image are then added to get the new fused coefficients. The final step then performs inverse DWT with the new coefficients to construct the fused image. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed fusion algorithm can obtain the quality output image, both in visual effect and objective evaluation criteria. Four performance metrics, namely, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and speed of fusing images, were used during experimentation. All the experiments showed that the proposed hybrid model is an improved version to fuse images when compared with pixel-based and wavelet-based algorithms.
Image communication scheme based on dynamic visual cryptography and computer generated holography
Palevicius, Paulius; Ragulskis, Minvydas
2015-01-01
Computer generated holograms are often exploited to implement optical encryption schemes. This paper proposes the integration of dynamic visual cryptography (an optical technique based on the interplay of visual cryptography and time-averaging geometric moiré) with Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. A stochastic moiré grating is used to embed the secret into a single cover image. The secret can be visually decoded by a naked eye if only the amplitude of harmonic oscillations corresponds to an accurately preselected value. The proposed visual image encryption scheme is based on computer generated holography, optical time-averaging moiré and principles of dynamic visual cryptography. Dynamic visual cryptography is used both for the initial encryption of the secret image and for the final decryption. Phase data of the encrypted image are computed by using Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. The optical image is decrypted using the computationally reconstructed field of amplitudes.
Vercauteren, Tom; Pennec, Xavier; Perchant, Aymeric; Ayache, Nicholas
2007-01-01
We propose a non-parametric diffeomorphic image registration algorithm based on Thirion's demons algorithm. The demons algorithm can be seen as an optimization procedure on the entire space of displacement fields. The main idea of our algorithm is to adapt this procedure to a space of diffeomorphic transformations. In contrast to many diffeomorphic registration algorithms, our solution is computationally efficient since in practice it only replaces an addition of free form deformations by a f...
Attack on Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers
Gu Chunsheng
2012-01-01
This paper presents an attack on the fully homomorphic encryption over the integers by using lattice reduction algorithm. Our result shows that the FHE in [4] is not secure for some parameter settings. We also present an improvement FHE scheme to avoid this lattice attack. Keywords: Fully Homomorphic Encryption, Cryptanalysis, Lattice Reduction
Video Serial Images Registration Based on FBM Algorithm
Bing Wang; Xiaoli Wang
2013-01-01
In this study, we have a research of the video serial images registration based on fbm algorithm. In order to overcome low contrast and complex distortion and limited field of view, computer image processing technology must be used to video serial images for obtaining the image. It is hard to find and evaluate the change in the scene which appeared between the aeronautic consecutive image acquisitions to mosaic. So registration is important to successful image mosaic. A matching method based ...
Design of an Encryption-Decryption Module Oriented for Internet Information Security SOC Design
Yixin Liu; Haipeng Zhang; Tao Feng 3
2014-01-01
In order to protect the security of network data, a high speed chip module for encrypting and decrypting of network data packet is designed. The chip module is oriented for internet information security SOC (System on Chip) design. During the design process, AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and 3DES (Data Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm are adopted to protect the security of network data. The following points are focused: (1) The SOC (System on Chip) design metho...
Comparison of ultrasonic array imaging algorithms for nondestructive evaluation.
Jie Zhang; Drinkwater, B W; Wilcox, P D
2013-08-01
Ultrasonic array imaging algorithms have been widely used and developed in nondestructive evaluation in the last 10 years. In this paper, three imaging algorithms [total focusing method (TFM), phase-coherent imaging (PCI), and spatial compounding imaging (SCI)] are compared through both simulation and experimental measurements. In the simulation, array data sets were generated using a hybrid forward model containing a single defect among a multitude of randomly distributed point scatterers to represent backscatter from material microstructure. The number of point scatterers per unit area and their scattering amplitude were optimized to reduce computation cost. The SNR of the final images and their resolution were used to indicate the quality of the different imaging algorithms. The images of different types of defects (point reflectors and planar cracks) were used to investigate the robustness of the imaging algorithms. It is shown that PCI can yield higher image resolution and higher SNR for defects in material with weak backscatter than TFM, but that the images of cracks are distorted. Overall, TFM is the most robust algorithm across a range of different types of defects. It is also shown that the detection limit of all three imaging algorithms is almost equal for weakly scattering defects. PMID:25004543
A Fast and Efficient Topological Coding Algorithm for Compound Images
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Xin Li
2003-11-01
Full Text Available We present a fast and efficient coding algorithm for compound images. Unlike popular mixture raster content (MRC based approaches, we propose to attack compound image coding problem from the perspective of modeling location uncertainty of image singularities. We suggest that a computationally simple two-class segmentation strategy is sufficient for the coding of compound images. We argue that jointly exploiting topological properties of image source in classification and coding stages is beneficial to the robustness of compound image coding systems. Experiment results have justified effectiveness and robustness of the proposed topological coding algorithm.
Dual Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Block Truncation Code
Minghui Shi; Bailiang Li
2012-01-01
Dual image watermarking algorithm based on block truncation code is proposed. In the algorithm, after the origin image is performed block truncation code and quad tree segmentation, the area of HF image and LF image could be obtained. The HF and LF image are decomposed using DWT. Moreover, the dual watermarks are performed an m-sequence transformation. Select LH coefficients and use SVD method. Embed the watermark into V component of the SVD domain. The dual watermark image can be got after t...
A Multi-Stage Algorithm for Enhanced XRay Image Segmentation
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ADITYA A. TIRODKAR
2011-09-01
Full Text Available With the ever increasing usage of empirical data collected from X-Ray and other Digital Imaging techniques, it has become imperative that this data be subjected to computer algorithms for speedy and more accurate diagnosis. Segmentation is one of the key techniques that are employed during the pre-processing stages of these algorithms for separating those details from the images that are required for analysis. There are currently a number of widespread techniques for segmentation, in use. Our proposed algorithm is a quick and morequalitatively efficient technique for segmentation that is optimized for X-Ray images. It applies Otsu’s algorithm to provide thresholding values that can be used for contrasting and binarizing the images. Also, an edge detection technique has been applied to better evince observations, allowing more fruitful extraction of information and the algorithm has itself been tested on a set of 40 images.
Using Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of Mammograms Image Compression
Emad Fatemizadeh; Aynaz Besharat
2010-01-01
In this study we created an optimized Region Of Interest (ROI) based JPEG2000 image compression algorithm for mammograms compression. The first step was to perform the standard JPEG2000 algorithm. The second step was to optimize this algorithm in different aspects which are, the type of wavelet transform, the number of decomposition levels of this transform and the quantization table for mammograms compression. Also we tried not to damage the diagnostic information in the images and keep the ...
A Quick Image Registration Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation
Rui Zhang; Li Ma; Yongmei Zhang
2013-01-01
The traditional image matching algorithms adopt more complex strategies when dealing with mismatch caused by a lot of noise. In this paper, a simple, intuitive and effective noise processing algorithm is proposed based on Delaunay triangulation in computational geometry. The algorithm extracts feature points using SIFT method, respectively establishes Delaunay triangulation in multi-spectral and panchromatic images, and removes the feature points that three points are collinear and four po...
Probabilistic Encryption Based ECC Mechanism
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Addepalli V.N. Krishna
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Elliptic Curve Cryptography provides a secure means of exchanging keys among communicating hosts using the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange algorithm. Encryption and Decryption of texts and messages have also been attempted. In the paper[15], the authors presented the implementation of ECC by first transforming the message into an affine point on the EC, and then applying the knapsack algorithm on ECC encrypted message over the finite field GF(p. The kanp sack problem is not secure in the present standards and more over in the work the authors in their decryption process used elliptic curve discrete logarithm to get back the plain text. This may form a computationally infeasible problem if the values are large enough in generating the plain text. In the present work the output of ECC algorithm is provided with probabilistic features which make the algorithm free from Chosen cipher text attack. Thus by having key lengths of even less than 160 bits, the present algorithm provides sufficient strength against crypto analysis and whose performance can be compared with standard algorithms like RSA.
Radiation image contrast enhancement based on genetic algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on genetic algorithm and incomplete beta function, we introduce a self-adaptive method for image contrast enhancement and apply this method to radiograph image enhancement. Tubbs integrated the several common nonlinear functions of gray transform as a normalized incomplete beta function for realizing image enhancement, and by taking use of self -adaptive searching algorithm, optimal parameters of incomplete beta function can be determined, thereby determining the corresponding optimal transform curve. In this paper, incomplete beta function and genetic algorithm are applied in contrast enhancement of container cargo inspection image, and the advantages of this method are well illustrated by comparing the experimental results. (authors)
Fast image matching algorithm based on projection characteristics
Zhou, Lijuan; Yue, Xiaobo; Zhou, Lijun
2011-06-01
Based on analyzing the traditional template matching algorithm, this paper identified the key factors restricting the speed of matching and put forward a brand new fast matching algorithm based on projection. Projecting the grayscale image, this algorithm converts the two-dimensional information of the image into one-dimensional one, and then matches and identifies through one-dimensional correlation, meanwhile, because of normalization has been done, when the image brightness or signal amplitude increasing in proportion, it could also perform correct matching. Experimental results show that the projection characteristics based image registration method proposed in this article could greatly improve the matching speed, which ensuring the matching accuracy as well.
Image Enhancement Algorithm based on Improved Fuzzy Filter
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Shaosheng Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to dynamic range compression and contrast enhancement realized simultaneously in traditional image enhancement algorithm based on frequency domain, which cause the low contrast degree, an improved image enhancement algorithm based on fuzzy filter is proposed in this paper. According to subjective feeling of the human visual system to light luminance, the image is processed with the global brightness transform. And the image with the global low contrast degree and the poor effect of edge parts has sound reinforcing effect. Furthermore, the edge contrast is enhanced, even the brightness contrast and information can also effectively improve. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm has got good enhancement effect.
Subway tunnel crack identification algorithm research based on image processing
Bai, Biao; Zhu, Liqiang; Wang, Yaodong
2014-04-01
The detection of cracks in tunnels has profound impact on the tunnel's safety. It's common for low contrast, uneven illumination and severe noise pollution in tunnel surface images. As traditional image processing algorithms are not suitable for detecting tunnel cracks, a new image processing method for detecting cracks in surface images of subway tunnels is presented in this paper. This algorithm includes two steps. The first step is a preprocessing which uses global and local methods simultaneously. The second step is the elimination of different types of noises based on the connected components. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective for detecting tunnel surface cracks.
High performance deformable image registration algorithms for manycore processors
Shackleford, James; Sharp, Gregory
2013-01-01
High Performance Deformable Image Registration Algorithms for Manycore Processors develops highly data-parallel image registration algorithms suitable for use on modern multi-core architectures, including graphics processing units (GPUs). Focusing on deformable registration, we show how to develop data-parallel versions of the registration algorithm suitable for execution on the GPU. Image registration is the process of aligning two or more images into a common coordinate frame and is a fundamental step to be able to compare or fuse data obtained from different sensor measurements. E
Dual Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Block Truncation Code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minghui Shi
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Dual image watermarking algorithm based on block truncation code is proposed. In the algorithm, after the origin image is performed block truncation code and quad tree segmentation, the area of HF image and LF image could be obtained. The HF and LF image are decomposed using DWT. Moreover, the dual watermarks are performed an m-sequence transformation. Select LH coefficients and use SVD method. Embed the watermark into V component of the SVD domain. The dual watermark image can be got after the inverse SVD and DWT transformed. The experimental results demonstrate that the watermarking algorithm has good robustness against the attacks such as rotation, image compression, noise addition, filtering and other image processing actions.
Classification for Image Retrieval System Through EM Algorithm
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K. EswaraRao
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In these days an image retrieval system has become a challenging task. The expectation maximization (EM algorithm has been of considerable train multilayer perception (MLP. The EM algorithm to train MLP networks may be of limited value and discuss based on the text based retrieval but the need of image based retrieval system that takes an image as the input query and retrieves images based on image content is more complicated task. For ME networks, it is reported in the literature that networks trained by the EM algorithm using iteratively Content Based Image Retrieval is an approach for retrieving semantically-relevant images from an image database based on automatically-derived image features. Image reweighted least squares (IRLS algorithm in the inner loop of the M-step, often performed poorly in multiclass classification. The aim and Objective of the Paper is classifying the soils using expectation maximization algorithm, a Neural Network concepts for more efficient and effective results. Forthcoming problems or disasters are easily studied and predicted with help of EM algorithm .So that priory we can rescue the human kind and mother earth.
A Hyper Modern Cryptography Algorithm to Improved Data Security: HMCA
Vishwa Gupta; Mr. Gajendra Singh; Ravindra Gupta
2011-01-01
In this paper, we propose an improved block cipher symmetric encryption algorithm that has the same structure of encryption and decryption. So far, conventional cryptography algorithms have difference structure of encryption and decryption. We devise our algorithm by inserting a symmetric layer using random number, encryption number and XOR operations, in which the whole proposed algorithm rounds uses encryption procedure and the same for it decryption procedure. The symmetry layer is put bet...
A Tool for Compressing Images Based on Genetic Algorithm
Mohammed A.F. Al-Husainy
2007-01-01
Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been successfully applied to codebook design for Vector Quantization (VQ). This work uses the facilities of the genetic algorithm (Crossover and Mutation Operations) to enhance the use of one popular compression method, Vector Quantization (VQ) method. After studying the VQ method, a new algorithm for mixing it with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed and implemented for testing on some popular image datasets. A good enhancement was recorded for the performance of ...
Genetic Algorithms for Image Segmentation using Active Contours
Neeru Gulati; Poonam Panwar
2013-01-01
Genetic Algorithm is a search technique used in computing to find approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. As a search strategy, genetic algorithm has been applied successfully in many fields. Firstly, this paper describes the genetic algorithms evolution process .It then describes the active contours to detect the boundaries of the object whose boundaries are not defined. Then it describes the use of genetic algorithm with active contours in image segmentation.
Empirical Evaluation of Suitable Segmentation Algorithms for IR Images
Padmavathi, G.; Subashini, P.; Sumi, A.
2010-01-01
Image segmentation is the first stage of processing in many practical computer vision systems. Development of segmentation algorithms has attracted considerable research interest, relatively little work has been published on the subject of their evaluation. Hence this paper enumerates and reviews mainly the image segmentation algorithms namely Otsu, Fuzzy C means, Global Active Contour / Snake model and Watershed. These suitable segmentation methods are implemented for IR images and are evalu...
Image Enhancement Based on Selective - Retinex Fusion Algorithm
Xuebo Jin; Jia Bao; Jingjing Du
2012-01-01
The brightness adjustment method for the night-vision image enhancement is considered in this paper. The color RGB night-vision image is transformed into an uncorrelated color space--- the YUV space. According to the characteristics of the night-vision image, we develop the modified Retinex algorithm based on the S curve firstly, by which the luminance component is enhanced and the brightness of the night-vision image is effectively improved. Then the luminance component of source image is en...
An Improved FCM Medical Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on MMTD
Ningning Zhou; Tingting Yang; Shaobai Zhang
2014-01-01
Image segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) is one of the popular clustering algorithms for medical image segmentation. But FCM is highly vulnerable to noise due to not considering the spatial information in image segmentation. This paper introduces medium mathematics system which is employed to process fuzzy information for image segmentation. It establishes the medium similarity measure based on the measure of medium truth degree (MMTD) and us...
An Improved Image Restoration Algorithm for Overcast Based on MSR
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Zhen Chen
2013-10-01
Full Text Available According to degradation model of cloudy images, the paper uses MSR (multi-scale retinex algorithm for restoration. But MSR algorithm can’t effectively restore the details and color of images in processing cloudy images, so the paper proposes a new MSR improvement algorithm to process cloudy images. Three scales of traditional MSR is changed into four scales, which means that a Gaussian function with middle scale keeping the details and color of images is added to. And information fusion strategy based on wavelet transform domain is substituted for linear weighted strategy of multi-scale reflection images for MSR algorithm. The basic idea of fusion is that: Firstly, the images to be fused are for two layers of wavelet decomposition. Then high-frequency component are taken the absolute value maximum to stress the details in image. And local energy method is used for low frequency component to adjust the background and color, which realizes the effect of fidelity. Lastly, subjective observation and objective evaluation in the paper indicates that the algorithm of the paper has better effect on details restoration and color fidelity than the traditional MSR algorithm for restoring cloudy images.
A new modified fast fractal image compression algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salarian, Mehdi; Nadernejad, Ehsan
2013-01-01
In this paper, a new fractal image compression algorithm is proposed, in which the time of the encoding process is considerably reduced. The algorithm exploits a domain pool reduction approach, along with the use of innovative predefined values for contrast scaling factor, S, instead of searching it across. Only the domain blocks with entropy greater than a threshold are considered to belong to the domain pool. The algorithm has been tested for some well-known images and the results have been compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm has considerably lower encoding time than the other algorithms giving approximately the same quality for the encoded images.
Partitioning an Image Database by K_means Algorithm
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Lynda Zaoui
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Unsupervised classification has emerged as a popular technique for pattern recognition, image processing and data mining. It has a crucial contribution in the resolution of the problems arising from content-based image retrieval. In this study, we present K_means clustering algorithm that partitions an image database in cluster of images similar. We adapt K_means method to a very special structure which is quadree. The goal is to minimize the search time of images similar to an image request. We associate to each image a quad-tree which represents the characteristics of the image and store a base of images in a data structure called generic quadtree. It minimizes the memory space of set of image by the sharing of common parts between quad trees and speeds up several operations applied to images. The image similarity is based on a distance computed from the differences between the quad trees encoding images.
Design of AES Algorithm for 128/192/256 Key Length in FPGA
Kinge, Pravin V.; Honale, S. J.; Bobade, C. M.
2014-01-01
The cryptographic algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol changes. The available AES algorithm is used for data and it is also suitable for image encryption and decryption to protect the confidential image from an unauthorized access. This project proposes a method in which the image data is an input to AES algorithm, to...
Hybrid FCM with Watershed Algorithm for Image Segmentation
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Bandaru Sudhakar
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Image segmentation is rapidly applied in the field of image processing. In this paper a new method is suggested for implementing image segmentation. To overcome the problems of conventional threshold segmentation technique, an adaptive local threshold procedure is suggested. This method works well with images having non uniform intensity. The challenge of traditional Watershed Segmentation segmentation technique can be excluded by employing kernel based segmentation technique. Proposed fuzzy segmentation technique can be used for images having unequal dimension clusters. To overcome the noise sensitive of conventional Watershed Segmentation clustering algorithm, a novel extensive FCM SEGMENTATION algorithm for image segmentation is introduced in this paper. The method is developed by enhancing the objective component of the typical FCM SEGMENTATION algorithm with a cost term that considers the purpose of the neighbor pixels on the centre pixels. Research on the medical images show that proposed technique has significantly better clustering efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a new algorithm for ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (Echo PIV) for improving the flow velocity measurement accuracy and efficiency in regions with high velocity gradients. The conventional Echo PIV algorithm has been modified by incorporating a multiple iterative algorithm, sub-pixel method, filter and interpolation method, and spurious vector elimination algorithm. The new algorithms' performance is assessed by analyzing simulated images with known displacements, and ultrasonic B-mode images of in vitro laminar pipe flow, rotational flow and in vivo rat carotid arterial flow. Results of the simulated images show that the new algorithm produces much smaller bias from the known displacements. For laminar flow, the new algorithm results in 1.1% deviation from the analytically derived value, and 8.8% for the conventional algorithm. The vector quality evaluation for the rotational flow imaging shows that the new algorithm produces better velocity vectors. For in vivo rat carotid arterial flow imaging, the results from the new algorithm deviate 6.6% from the Doppler-measured peak velocities averagely compared to 15% of that from the conventional algorithm. The new Echo PIV algorithm is able to effectively improve the measurement accuracy in imaging flow fields with high velocity gradients.
A Fast Image Matching Algorithm Based on GPU Parallel Computing
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Wen Yongge
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In process of image matching, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm is one of the best performance algorithms. But the drawback of being complex and time-consuming limits its application in more fields. Aiming at this shortage of SIFT algorithm, this study proposes a fast SIFT algorithm based on Graphic Processing Unit (GPU and analyzes its parallelism. It is further optimized according to the detailed analysis on the thread and memory model of the graphic hardware. It is experimentally shown that the speed of the proposed algorithm is 25-45 times faster than the original algorithm. Processing 640×480 images, its speed can be up to 24 frames per second. The conclusion is that proposed algorithm can meet the needs of real-time applications.
Manimala, Jose Mathew
2010-01-01
The evolution of encryption algorithms have led to the development of very complicated and highly versatile algorithms that sacrifice efficiency for better and harder to decrypt results. But by the application of a genetic schema to the encryption of data, a new structure can be created. Genetic methods and procedures are lethal in the way they handle and manipulate data. The RAmM algorithm uses four genetic operations that have been developed specifically for encryption of data. The operations are Replication, Augmentation, Mutation and Multiplication. The proper application of these methods according to the rules that have been found to be the best for getting optimal and correct results produces a "fingerprint" that is unique to a pair of . This means that every single data entry can only be decrypted by using the correct set of key. The application of the RAmM algorithm is in the field of image encryption and restoration. The boundary and the pixel values are separately encrypted to produce a very genuine...
Analysis of Feature Point Distributions for Fast Image Mosaicking Algorithms
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A. Behrens
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In many algorithms the registration of image pairs is done by feature point matching. After the feature detection is performed, all extracted interest points are usually used for the registration process without further feature point distribution analysis. However, in the case of small and sparse sets of feature points of fixed size, suitable for real-time image mosaicking algorithms, a uniform spatial feature distribution across the image becomes relevant. Thus, in this paper we discuss and analyze algorithms which provide different spatial point distributions from a given set of SURF features. The evaluations show that a more uniform spatial distribution of the point matches results in lower image registration errors, and is thus more beneficial for fast image mosaicking algorithms.
Homomorphic Encryption: Theory & Applications
Sen, Jaydip
2013-01-01
The goal of this chapter is to present a survey of homomorphic encryption techniques and their applications. After a detailed discussion on the introduction and motivation of the chapter, we present some basic concepts of cryptography. The fundamental theories of homomorphic encryption are then discussed with suitable examples. The chapter then provides a survey of some of the classical homomorphic encryption schemes existing in the current literature. Various applications a...
Encryption with Delayed Dynamics
Ohira, Toru
1998-01-01
We propose here a new model of encryption of binary data taking advantage of the complexity associated with delayed dynamics. In this scheme, the encryption process is a coupling dynamics with various time delays between different bits in the original data. It is shown that decoding of the encrypted data is extremely difficult without a complete knowledge of coupling manner with associated delays for all bits of the data.
Encryption for digital content
Kiayias, Aggelos
2010-01-01
Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat
Image fusion approach with noise reduction using Genetic algorithm
Gehad Mohamed Taher; Mohamed Elsayed Wahed; Ghada El Taweal; Ahmed Fouad
2013-01-01
Image fusion is becoming a challenging field as for its importance to different applications, Multi focus image fusion is a type of image fusion that is used in medical fields, surveillances, and military issues to get the image all in focus from multi images every one is in focus in a different part, and for making the input images more accurate before making the fusing process we use Genetic Algorithm (GA) for image de-noising as a preprocessing process. In our research paper we introduce a...
Content Based Image Retrieval Genetic Algorithm for Relevance Feedback
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikita R. Hatwar , Rajendra F. Hatwar
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Image retrieval using content has become a hot topic in the field of Digital Image Processing and Computer Vision. In this proposed work, we focus on the problem of image retrieval using genetic algorithm for relevance feedback. Texture and Color are the important features in CBIR. Texture and Color is extracted using Multispectral Simultaneous Autoregressive Model (MSAR. The color is represented by ratios of sample color means. The features are extracted by segmenting the image into regions of uniform texture/color using an unsupervised histogram clustering approach that utilizes MSAR and color features. The principle of Genetic Algorithm is based on “survival of the fittest”. After extracting the features Genetic Algorithm (GA will be applied to retrieve the images from the database. The fittest image will be retrieved.