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1

Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The security of digital images attracts much attention recently, especially when these digital images are stored in some types of memory or send through the communication networks. Many different image encryption methods have been proposed to keep the security of these images. Image encryption techniques tries to convert an image to another image that is hard to understand. In this proposed method, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to produce a new encryption method by exploitation the powerful ...

Al-husainy, Mohammed A. F.

2006-01-01

2

Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The security of digital images attracts much attention recently, especially when these digital images are stored in some types of memory or send through the communication networks. Many different image encryption methods have been proposed to keep the security of these images. Image encryption techniques tries to convert an image to another image that is hard to understand. In this proposed method, Genetic Algorithm (GA is used to produce a new encryption method by exploitation the powerful features of the Crossover and Mutation operations of (GA. The proposed encryption method, in this study , has been tested on some known images and good results are recorded.

Mohammed A.F. Al-Husainy

2006-01-01

3

Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests were implemented with Matlab included visual test and histogram analysis, information entropy, encryption quality, correlation analysis, and also time analysis. The test results show that cipher image looks visually random.The image histogram of the plain image and cipher image also seen a significant difference between the two of them. Testing was also performed on mobile phones with Symbian and BADA operating system based on Java Micro Edition Programming. Trial results show that the algorithm was require less computational resources; with average time for image encryption is 3.76 seconds, and the average time for image decryption is 0.97 seconds. The new proposed image encryption scheme has satisfactory security which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of image data. Keywords: Image encryption, Vigenere cipher, Playfair cipher, Security test

Catur Iswahyudi

2012-08-01

4

Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests were implemented with Matlab included visual test and histogram analysis, information entropy, encryption quality, correlation analysis, and also time analysis. The test results show that cipher image looks visually random.The image histogram of the plain image and cipher image also seen a significant difference between the two of them. Testing was also performed on mobile phones with Symbian and BADA operating system based on Java Micro Edition Programming. Trial results show that the algorithm was require less computational resources; with average time for image encryption is 3.76 seconds, and the average time for image decryption is 0.97 seconds. The new proposed image encryption scheme has satisfactory security which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of image data. Keywords: Image encryption, Vigenere cipher, Playfair cipher, Security test

Catur Iswahyudi

2012-12-01

5

Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. ...

Emy Setyaningsih; Catur Iswahyudi

2012-01-01

6

A new chaotic algorithm for image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper presents a new nonlinear chaotic algorithm (NCA) which uses power function and tangent function instead of linear function. Its structural parameters are obtained by experimental analysis. And an image encryption algorithm in a one-time-one-password system is designed. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption algorithm based on NCA shows advantages of large key space and high-level security, while maintaining acceptable efficiency. Compared with some general encryption algorithms such as DES, the encryption algorithm is more secure

2006-07-01

7

A new chaotic algorithm for image encryption

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper presents a new nonlinear chaotic algorithm (NCA) which uses power function and tangent function instead of linear function. Its structural parameters are obtained by experimental analysis. And an image encryption algorithm in a one-time-one-password system is designed. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption algorithm based on NCA shows advantages of large key space and high-level security, while maintaining acceptable efficiency. Compared with some general encryption algorithms such as DES, the encryption algorithm is more secure.

Gao Haojiang [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)]. E-mail: ahustphd@yahoo.com.cn; Zhang Yisheng [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liang Shuyun [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Dequn [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2006-07-15

8

Genetic Algorithm: Tool to Encrypt Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Security is an important issue when digital images are transmitted through the internet and cellular phones, as well as being important in encryption of the satellite images, and image encryption is the most useful technique employed for this purpose. Genetic Algorithm (GA can be regarded as a randomized search procedure that is commonly used to solve the optimization problems. The genetic algorithm uses two reproduction operators - crossover and mutation. Crossover assembles existing genes into new combinations, and mutation produces new genes.In this paper, a new approach of employing the crossover and the mutation operations of the genetic algorithms (GA to encrypt images was proposed. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

Dr. Mohammed Abbas Fadhil Al-Husainy

2012-01-01

9

A Shuffle Image-Encryption Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Image encryption needs to be secure by resisting statistical attacks and other types of attacks. Approach: The new algorithm, call it the Shuffle Encryption Algorithm (SEA), applies nonlinear s-box byte substitution. Then, it performed a shuffling operation partially dependent on the input data and uses the given key. Results: SEA was implemented and tested with different data, mainly consisting of images. Results confirmed its security, shown through s...

Yahya, A. A.; Abdalla, A. M.

2008-01-01

10

Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Universal Modular Transformation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Image encryption is essential to assure information security. Universal modular transformation is a widely applied encryption method, but it has some disadvantages such as a relatively small quantity of keys and insecurity. A uniform block encryption method is proposed in this study to improve the image entropy of encryption and an image is encrypted with the universal modular transform combined with a chaotic mapping. Experimental results show that this algorithm can provide good encryption ...

Xue Yang; Xiaoyang Yu; Qifeng Zou; Jiaying Jia

2010-01-01

11

Parallel image encryption algorithm based on discretized chaotic map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, a variety of chaos-based algorithms were proposed for image encryption. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for parallel image encryption. Based on this framework, a new algorithm is designed using the discretized Kolmogorov flow map. It fulfills all the requirements for a parallel image encryption algorithm. Moreover, it is secure and fast. These properties make it a good choice for image encryption on parallel computing platforms

2008-11-01

12

Parallel image encryption algorithm based on discretized chaotic map

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, a variety of chaos-based algorithms were proposed for image encryption. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for parallel image encryption. Based on this framework, a new algorithm is designed using the discretized Kolmogorov flow map. It fulfills all the requirements for a parallel image encryption algorithm. Moreover, it is secure and fast. These properties make it a good choice for image encryption on parallel computing platforms.

Zhou Qing [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)], E-mail: tzhou@cqu.edu.cn; Wong Kwokwo [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Liao Xiaofeng; Xiang Tao; Hu Yue [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

2008-11-15

13

Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Universal Modular Transformation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is essential to assure information security. Universal modular transformation is a widely applied encryption method, but it has some disadvantages such as a relatively small quantity of keys and insecurity. A uniform block encryption method is proposed in this study to improve the image entropy of encryption and an image is encrypted with the universal modular transform combined with a chaotic mapping. Experimental results show that this algorithm can provide good encryption quality and reach high safety. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is robust to shear attack and noise attack.

Jiaying Jia

2010-01-01

14

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is securitymanagement. This will provide authentication of users, andintegrity, accuracy and safety of images which is traveling overinternet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effortduring encryption and decryption. The Proposed Architecturefor encryption and decryption of an image using suitable userdefinedkey is developed with the same objective. In this paper,we introduce a new permutation technique based on thecombination of image permutation and a new developedencryption algorithm called “Hyper Image EncryptionAlgorithm (HIEA”. From the selected image we will binaryvalue blocks, which will be rearrange into a permuted imageusing a permutation process, and then the generated image willbe encrypted using the “Hyper Image Encryption Algorithm(HIEA” algorithm.

Hiral Rathod,

2011-12-01

15

A new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Letter presents a new image encryption scheme, which employs an image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses a hyper-chaotic system to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted y image has a random-like behavior.

Gao Tiegang [College of Software, Nankai University, Tianjin 300070 (China)], E-mail: gaotiegang@nankai.edu.cn; Chen Zengqiang [Department of Automation, Nankai University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

2008-01-21

16

A new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Letter presents a new image encryption scheme, which employs an image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses a hyper-chaotic system to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted y image has a random-like behavior

2008-01-21

17

Chaos-based image encryption algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Letter, a new image encryption scheme is presented, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Firstly, the Arnold cat map is used to shuffle the positions of the image pixels in the spatial-domain. Then the discrete output signal of the Chen's chaotic system is preprocessed to be suitable for the grayscale image encryption, and the shuffled image is encrypted by the preprocessed signal pixel by pixel. The experimental results demonstrate that the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior

2005-10-10

18

Chaos-based image encryption algorithm

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this Letter, a new image encryption scheme is presented, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Firstly, the Arnold cat map is used to shuffle the positions of the image pixels in the spatial-domain. Then the discrete output signal of the Chen's chaotic system is preprocessed to be suitable for the grayscale image encryption, and the shuffled image is encrypted by the preprocessed signal pixel by pixel. The experimental results demonstrate that the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior.

Guan Zhihong [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)]. E-mail: zhguan@mail.hust.edu.cn; Huang Fangjun [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Guan Wenjie [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2005-10-10

19

A Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Hill Cipher System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a technique of image encryption based on Hill cipher system that provides better security than existing approach of Bibhudendra Acharya et al. by rendering the image content completely scrambled using multiple self-invertible keys, block shuffling and a new developed pel transformation. The Hill cipher algorithm is one of the symmetric key algorithms having several advantages in encryption. However, the inverse of the matrix used for encrypting the plain text in this algorithm may not always exist. Moreover this algorithm is susceptible to known plain text attack. Our proposed algorithm is aimed at better encryption of all types of images even ones with uniform background and makes the image encryption scheme more secure.

S.K. Muttoo

2011-12-01

20

A Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Hill Cipher System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a technique of image encryption based on Hill cipher system that provides better security than existing approach of Bibhudendra Acharya et al. by rendering the image content completely scrambled using multiple self-invertible keys, block shuffling and a new developed pel transformation. The Hill cipher algorithm is one of the symmetric key algorithms having several advantages in encryption. However, the inverse of the matrix used for encrypting the plain text in this algorithm may not always exist. Moreover this algorithm is susceptible to known plain text attack. Our proposed algorithm is aimed at better encryption of all types of images even ones with uniform background and makes the image encryption scheme more secure.

S.K. Muttoo

2012-03-01

21

Image encryption based on a new total shuffling algorithm

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents image encryption scheme, which employs a new image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses the states combination of two chaotic systems to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the new image total shuffling algorithm has a low time complexity and the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior.

Gao Tiegang [College of Software, Nankai University, Tianjin 300070 (China)], E-mail: gaotiegang@nankai.edu.cn; Chen Zengqiang [Department of Automation, Nankai University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

2008-10-15

22

Image encryption based on a new total shuffling algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents image encryption scheme, which employs a new image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses the states combination of two chaotic systems to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the new image total shuffling algorithm has a low time complexity and the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior

2008-10-01

23

Image encryption a communication perspective

Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches encryption and substitution-based approaches.Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard,

Abd El-Samie, Fathi E; Elashry, Ibrahim F; Shahieen, Mai H; Faragallah, Osama S; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M; Alshebeili, Saleh A

2013-01-01

24

Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Decomposition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed chaos-based image encryption algorithm consists of four stages: decomposition, shuffle, diffusion and combination. Decomposition is that an original image is decomposed to components according to some rule. The purpose of the shuffle is to mask original organization of the pixels of the image, and the diffusion is to change their values. Combination is not necessary in the sender. To improve the efficiency, the parallel architecture is taken to process the shuffle and diffusion. To enhance the security of the algorithm, firstly, a permutation of the labels is designed. Secondly, two Logistic maps are used in diffusion stage to encrypt the components. One map encrypts the odd rows of the component and another map encrypts the even rows. Experiment results and security analysis demonstrate that the encryption algorithm not only is robust and flexible, but also can withstand common attacks such as statistical attacks and differential attacks.

Xiuli Song

2013-07-01

25

An Image Encryption Algorithm based on 3D Lorenz map

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this paper a new approach for image encryption is based on chaotic baker map and chaotic Lorenz map in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external secret key of 128 bit and two chaotic maps are employed. The initial conditions for both maps are derived using the external secret key by providing different weight age to all its bits. The results of experiment show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission.

Mrs. A.Anto Steffi

2013-02-01

26

Image Encryption Algorithm Based on a Chaotic Iterative Process

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes a symmetric encryption algorithm based on bit permutations and using an iterative process combined with a chaotic function. The main advantages of such a cryptosystem is its ability to encrypt securely bit sequences and assuring confusion, diffusion and indistinguishability properties in the cipher. The algorithm is applied on the image encryption where the plain-image is viewed as binary sequence. The results of statistical analysis about randomness, sensitivity and correlation on the cipher-images show the relevance of the proposed cryptosystem.

Michael François

2012-12-01

27

Comparative Analysis and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithms?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of digital communication and multimedia application, security becomesan important issue of communication and storage of images. Image security has found a great need in manyapplications where the information (in the form of image is to be protected from unauthorized access.Encryption is one of the ways to ensure high security. In recent years, encryption technology has beendeveloped and many image encryption methods have been used. These methods produce randomness in theimage so that the content is not visible. Encryption and decryption consume a considerable amount of time.So there is a need for an efficient algorithm. This paper proposed three different image encryptiontechniques for color image. Simulation results are presented and a comparative analysis of the differentmethods is discussed.

Rajinder Kaur

2013-04-01

28

An image encryption algorithm utilizing julia sets and hilbert curves.

Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets' parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few parameters for the key generation, which greatly reduces the storage space. Moreover, because of the Julia sets' properties, such as infiniteness and chaotic characteristics, the keys have high sensitivity even to a tiny perturbation. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has large key space, good statistical property, high sensitivity for the keys, and effective resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack. PMID:24404181

Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing

2014-01-01

29

SECURE PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME USING SCAN BASED ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today data security is very important and high priority topic. With rapid growth in communication and computer technologies, there is a huge data transaction interment, teleconferencing and military applications. For all these applications we need a security. Encryption is the primary solution to provide security to the data, which is travelling on a communication link between any pair of nodes, but Partial encryption is a technique to save computational power, overhead, speed, time and to provide quick security by only encrypting a selected portion of a bit stream. The focus of this paper is on selecting the important part of the image that can efficiently achieve by conceptually selecting the important part of the image. This paper proposes a new approach for partial image encryption using SCAN algorithm. The main idea behind the present work is to select the part of the image is performed by SCAN based permutation of pixels and substitution rule which together form an iterated product cipher. The issue in traditional cryptosystem in many different areas such as wireless networking, mobile phone services and applications in homeland security is energy consumption for encryption of the large volume visual data. So we are dealing with partial encryption.

Sumithra Devi K A

2013-03-01

30

Improving a New Logistic Map as a New Chaotic Algorithm for Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is not a new field, but the techniques used to encrypt images are constantly being re-evaluated. As computer processing power grows, the need for better encryption algorithms grows with it. In this paper, the attention was focused on the encryption of still images. In particular, a precise look at encryption using chaotic techniques was subjected. In this paper we present improving existing chaotic algorithm (NCA for image encryption proposed in 2005. The analysis of the four existing encryption algorithms directed the work to conclude that it is possible to do this encryption much quicker, without much loss in the way of obscurity, robustness, correlation, or security. Therefore, we propose a new encryption algorithm that is essentially a modification of the NCA. The improving method created an encryption method for images that does not allow masks to be of any use in the cryptanalysis.

Omar A Saraereh

2013-11-01

31

Using Genetic Algorithm for Symmetric key Generation in Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protectinginformation as the importance of security is increasing dayby day with the advent of online transaction processing ande commerce. In now a day the security of digital imagesattracts much attention, especially when these digitalimages are stored in memory or send through thecommunication networks. Genetic algorithms are a class ofoptimization algorithms. Many problems can be solvedusing genetic algorithms through modelling a simplifiedversion of genetic processes. In this paper, I proposed amethod based on Genetic Algorithm which is used togenerate key by the help of pseudo random numbergenerator. Random number will be generated on the basisof current time of the system. Using Genetic Algorithm wecan keep the strength of the key to be good, still make thewhole algorithm good enough. Symmetric key algorithmAES has been proposed for encrypting the image as it isvery secure method for symmetric key encryption.

Aarti Soni, Suyash Agrawal

2012-12-01

32

Key Generation Using Genetic Algorithm for Image Encryption?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protecting information as the importance of security is increasingday by day with the advent of online transaction processing and e commerce. Now a day the security of digitalimages are major area of concern, especially when we deal with digital images where it may be stored orsend through the communication channel. Genetic algorithms are a class of optimization algorithms.Genetic algorithms can be used to solve different problems through modeling a simplified version of geneticprocesses. This paper proposed a method based on Genetic Algorithm which is used to generate key by thehelp of random number generator to make the key complex. Key generation will go through a number ofprocess and main criteria for key selection will be the fitness value of the population. AES which is asymmetric key encryption algorithm is used to encrypt the image.

Aarti Soni

2013-06-01

33

Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Decomposition

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The proposed chaos-based image encryption algorithm consists of four stages: decomposition, shuffle, diffusion and combination. Decomposition is that an original image is decomposed to components according to some rule. The purpose of the shuffle is to mask original organization of the pixels of the image, and the diffusion is to change their values. Combination is not necessary in the sender. To improve the efficiency, the parallel architecture is taken to process the shuffle and diffusio...

Hongyao Deng; Xiuli Song

2013-01-01

34

An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding

Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting.

Deng, Jia-Xian; Deng, Hai-Tao

2013-09-01

35

Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum-length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process [...] , the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

X. W., Li; D. H., Kim; S. J., Cho; S. T., Kim.

36

An Improved Piecewise Linear Chaotic Map Based Image Encryption Algorithm

An image encryption algorithm based on improved piecewise linear chaotic map (MPWLCM) model was proposed. The algorithm uses the MPWLCM to permute and diffuse plain image simultaneously. Due to the sensitivity to initial key values, system parameters, and ergodicity in chaotic system, two pseudorandom sequences are designed and used in the processes of permutation and diffusion. The order of processing pixels is not in accordance with the index of pixels, but it is from beginning or end alternately. The cipher feedback was introduced in diffusion process. Test results and security analysis show that not only the scheme can achieve good encryption results but also its key space is large enough to resist against brute attack.

Hu, Yuping; Wang, Zhijian

2014-01-01

37

An improved piecewise linear chaotic map based image encryption algorithm.

An image encryption algorithm based on improved piecewise linear chaotic map (MPWLCM) model was proposed. The algorithm uses the MPWLCM to permute and diffuse plain image simultaneously. Due to the sensitivity to initial key values, system parameters, and ergodicity in chaotic system, two pseudorandom sequences are designed and used in the processes of permutation and diffusion. The order of processing pixels is not in accordance with the index of pixels, but it is from beginning or end alternately. The cipher feedback was introduced in diffusion process. Test results and security analysis show that not only the scheme can achieve good encryption results but also its key space is large enough to resist against brute attack. PMID:24592159

Hu, Yuping; Zhu, Congxu; Wang, Zhijian

2014-01-01

38

An improved image encryption algorithm based on chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, two chaotic image encryption schemes have been proposed, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined. This paper provides the chosen plaintext attack to recover the corresponding plaintext of a given ciphertext. Furthermore, it points out that the two schemes are not sufficiently sensitive to small changes of the plaintext. Based on the given analysis, it proposes an improved algorithm which includes two rounds of substitution and one round of permutation to strengthen the overall performance. (general)

2008-11-01

39

In this paper, we propose a new joint watermarking/encryption algorithm for the purpose of verifying the reliability of medical images in both encrypted and spatial domains. It combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation (QIM), with a block cipher algorithm, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), in CBC mode of operation. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins even though the image is stored encrypted. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded Ultrasound images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. By making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed solution is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22256213

Bouslimi, D; Coatrieux, G; Roux, Ch

2011-01-01

40

Chaos-based image encryption using a hybrid genetic algorithm and a DNA sequence

The paper studies a recently developed evolutionary-based image encryption algorithm. A novel image encryption algorithm based on a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) masking, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a logistic map is proposed. This study uses DNA and logistic map functions to create the number of initial DNA masks and applies GA to determine the best mask for encryption. The significant advantage of this approach is improving the quality of DNA masks to obtain the best mask that is compatible with plain images. The experimental results and computer simulations both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates excellent encryption but also resists various typical attacks.

Enayatifar, Rasul; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

2014-05-01

41

The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algo...

Shuiping Zhang; Huijune Luo

2012-01-01

42

The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.

Huijune Luo

2012-02-01

43

An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

2013-09-01

44

Image Encryption Algorithm based on Chaos Mapping and the Sequence Transformation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the existing problems like that the algorithm is very complex, the quantity of operation is large and safety is not advanced in the present digital image encryption, this study has put forward a new chaotic system based on Logistic generation and transformation to realize the sequence image encryption, the algorithm gave the traditional chaotic series a new purpose. It used two kinds of ways on the comprehensive encryption for the same image that is respectively from the alternative operating on image pixel grayscale value and the confusion of the pixel position in the specific operation method. The experiment results show that the algorithm has good encryption effect and can withstand statistical analysis and attack operation, the amount of the key is large with high safety, in line with the requirements of modern technology to image encryption.

Honge Ren

2013-05-01

45

A new image encryption algorithm based on the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new image encryption algorithm on the basis of the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system. While in the process of generating a key stream, the system parameters and the derivative order are embedded in the proposed algorithm to enhance the security. Such an algorithm is detailed in terms of security analyses, including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme has the advantages of large key space and high security for practical image encryption. (general)

2013-01-01

46

A Digital Image Encryption Algorithm Based A Composition of Two Chaotic Logistic Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested several advantages over the traditional encryption algorithms such as high security, speed, reasonable computational overheads and computational power. This paper introduces an efficient chaos-based stream cipher, composing two chaotic logistic maps and a large enough external secret key for image encryption. The external secret key is used to derive the initial conditions for the chaotic maps, and is employed with the two chaotic maps to confuse the relationship between the cipher image and the plain image. In the encryption phase, the pixels are encrypted using an iterative cipher module based feedback and data-dependent inputs mechanism for mixing the current encryption parameters with previously encrypted information. To make the cipher more robust against any attack, the secret key is modified after encryption of each pixel of the plain image. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

Ismail Amr Ismail

2010-07-01

47

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RC6, MRC6, and Rijndael are three block cipher algorithms. Different types of Bitmap images are encrypted with each of the three encryption algorithms. Visual inspection is not enough on judging the quality of encrypted images. So, other measuring factors are considered based on: measuring the maximum deviation between the original and the encrypted images, measuring the correlation coefficient between the encrypted and the original images, the difference between the pixel value of the original image and its corresponding pixel value of the encrypted one, the encryption time and the throughput. These measuring factors are applied on the three encryption algorithms to evaluate images containing many high frequency components and others containing very large areas of single colors as an example of binary images. The results of the nominal electronic code book are not enthusiastic, so the Cipher Block Chaining and the output feed back modes are implemented and the results are compared.

Nawal El-Fishawy

2007-11-01

48

Design of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Compound Two-dimensional Maps

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the application of image in internet, security of image became an important issue. The paper designs an image encryption algorithm. Firstly, it analyzes a symmetric image encryption scheme based on a new chaotic map. Analysis shows it isn’t enough safe. Because there are a lot of week keys and duplicate keys in encryption. The diffusion mechanism is too simple to resist plain-text attack. The paper uses two chaotic maps at the same time to solve the problems. The maps are comple...

Feng Huang,; Xilong Qu

2011-01-01

49

Lensless multiple-image optical encryption based on improved phase retrieval algorithm.

A novel architecture of the optical multiple-image encryption based on the modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) by using cascading phase only functions (POFs) in the Fresnel transform (FrT) domain is presented. This proposed method can greatly increase the capacity of the system by avoiding the crosstalk, completely, between the encrypted target images. Each present stage encrypted target image is encoded as to a complex function by using the MGSA with constraining the encrypted target image of the previous stage. Not only the wavelength and position parameters in the FrT domain can be keys to increase system security, the created POFs are also served mutually as the encryption keys to decrypt target image from present stage into next stage in the cascaded scheme. Compared with a prior method [Appl. Opt.48, 2686-2692 (2009)], the main advantages of this proposed encryption system is that it does not need any transformative lenses and this makes it very efficient and easy to implement optically. Simulation results show that this proposed encryption system can successfully achieve the multiple-image encryption via fewer POFs, which is more advantageous in simpler implementation and efficiency than a prior method where each decryption stage requires two POFs to accomplish this task. PMID:22614416

Huang, Jian-Ji; Hwang, Hone-Ene; Chen, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Mu

2012-05-01

50

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, several encryption algorithms have been proposed to protect digital images from cryptographic attacks. These encryption algorithms typically use a relatively small key space and therefore, provide safe, especially if they are of a dimension. In this paper proposes an encryption algorithm for a new image protection scheme based on the rotation of the faces of a Magic Cube. The original image is divided into six sub-images and these sub-images are divided amongst a number of blocks and attached to the faces of a Magic Cube. The faces are then scrambled using rotation of the Magic Cube. Then the rotated image is fed to the AES algorithm which is applied to the pixels of the image to encrypt the scrambled image. Finally, experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme not only encrypts the picture to achieve perfect hiding, but the algorithm can also withstand exhaustive, statistical and differential attacks.

Ahmed Bashir Abugharsa

2012-07-01

51

Digital Image Encryption Based on the RC5 Block Cipher Algorithm

Implementation of the RC5 block cipher algorithm for digital images in different modes of operation and its detailed encryption efficiency analysis are dealt with in this paper. The encryption efficiency analysis of the RC5 block cipher algorithm for digital images is investigated using several metrics including visual testing, maximum deviation, irregular deviation, information entropy, correlation coefficients, avalanche effect, histogram uniformity and key space analysis. The evaluation consists of theoretical derivations and practical experimentation. Experimental results have proved that the RC5 block cipher algorithm can be implemented efficiently for encryption of real-time digital images and demonstrated that the RC5 block cipher algorithm is highly secure from the strong cryptographic viewpoint.

Faragallah, Osama S.

2011-12-01

52

With the fast evolution of digital data exchange and increased usage of multi media images, it is essential to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In natural images the values and position of the neighbouring pixels are strongly correlated. The method proposed in this paper, breaks this correlation increasing entropy of the position and entropy of pixel values using block shuffling and encryption by chaotic sequence respectively. The plain-image is initially row wise shuffled and first level of encryption is performed using addition modulo operation. The image is divided into blocks and then block based shuffling is performed using Arnold Cat transformation, further the blocks are uniformly scrambled across the image. Finally the shuffled image undergoes second level of encryption by bitwise XOR operation, and then the image as a whole is shuffled column wise to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully enc...

Rakesh, S; Shadakshari, B C; Annappa, B

2012-01-01

53

Design of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Compound Two-dimensional Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the application of image in internet, security of image became an important issue. The paper designs an image encryption algorithm. Firstly, it analyzes a symmetric image encryption scheme based on a new chaotic map. Analysis shows it isn’t enough safe. Because there are a lot of week keys and duplicate keys in encryption. The diffusion mechanism is too simple to resist plain-text attack. The paper uses two chaotic maps at the same time to solve the problems. The maps are completely different. It designs a method of key generation. Thus it has large key space and avoids the duplicate key. At the same time parts of the key are used as the parameters of classic logistic map. It solves the problem of weak key. Several simulation results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Xilong Qu

2011-10-01

54

A fast image encryption algorithm based on only blocks in cipher text

In this paper, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed, in which the shuffling and diffusion is performed simultaneously. The cipher-text image is divided into blocks and each block has k ×k pixels, while the pixels of the plain-text are scanned one by one. Four logistic maps are used to generate the encryption key stream and the new place in the cipher image of plain image pixels, including the row and column of the block which the pixel belongs to and the place where the pixel would be placed in the block. After encrypting each pixel, the initial conditions of logistic maps would be changed according to the encrypted pixel's value; after encrypting each row of plain image, the initial condition would also be changed by the skew tent map. At last, it is illustrated that this algorithm has a faster speed, big key space, and better properties in withstanding differential attacks, statistical analysis, known plaintext, and chosen plaintext attacks.

Wang, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Qian

2014-03-01

55

Image encryption based on phase encoding by means of a fringe pattern and computational algorithms

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se presenta una tecnica computacional para encriptación y desencriptación de imágenes. Esta técnica esta basada en la reflexión de la luz, superposicion de intensidad y algoritmos computacionales. La imagen a ser encriptada es un mapa de reflectancia obtenida por medio de la luz reflejada por una es [...] cena. Para efectuar el procedimiento de encriptacion, la imagen es codificada en un patrón de franjas generado por computadora. El modelo del patron de franjas es una función coseno, la cual agrega en su argumento la imagen a ser encriptada como una fase. Esto genera un patron de franjas deformado de acuerdo a la imagen. Para completar la encriptación, se sobrepone una máscara aleatoria sobre el patron de franjas. El procedimiento de desencriptación es efectuado substrayendo la máscara aleatoria de la imagen encriptada y aplicando un metodo de recuperación de fase. Para extraer la fase del patrón de franjas, se usa el método de demodulación heterodino. Para describir la precision de los resultados de imágenes desencriptadas y la robustés de la encriptación, se calcula la raíz del error cuadratico medio. Todos los pasos de la encriptacion y desencriptación se efectúan en forma computacional. De esta manera, los resultados de encriptación y desencriptacion son mejorados. Esto representa una contribución en el campo de la encriptación y desencriptación. Esta técnica es probada con imagenes simuladas y con imágenes reales, y sus resultados son presentados. Abstract in english A computational technique for image encryption and decryption is presented. The technique is based on light reflection, intensity superposition and computational algorithms. The image to be encrypted is a reflectance map obtained by means of the light reflected by a scene. To perform the encryption [...] procedure, the image is encoded in a computer-generated fringe pattern. The model of the fringe pattern is a cosine function, which adds to its argument the image to be encrypted as a phase. It generates a fringe pattern deformed according to the image. To complete the encryption, a random mask is superimposed on the fringe pattern. The decryption procedure is performed by subtracting the random mask from the encrypted image and applying a phase recovery method. To retrieve the phase from the fringe pattern, the heterodyne demodulation method is used. To describe the accuracy of results of the decrypted images and the robustness of the encryption, a root mean square of error is calculated. All steps of the encryption and decryption are performed in computational form. The results of encryption and decryption are thus improved. It represents a contribution to the field of encryption and decryption. This technique is tested with simulated images and real images, and its results are presented.

J. A., Muñoz Rodriguez; R., Rodríguez-Vera.

56

Single-channel color image encryption using phase retrieve algorithm in fractional Fourier domain

A single-channel color image encryption is proposed based on a phase retrieve algorithm and a two-coupled logistic map. Firstly, a gray scale image is constituted with three channels of the color image, and then permuted by a sequence of chaotic pairs generated by the two-coupled logistic map. Secondly, the permutation image is decomposed into three new components, where each component is encoded into a phase-only function in the fractional Fourier domain with a phase retrieve algorithm that is proposed based on the iterative fractional Fourier transform. Finally, an interim image is formed by the combination of these phase-only functions and encrypted into the final gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using chaotic diffusion, which has camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, chaotic permutation and diffusion makes the resultant image nonlinear and disorder both in spatial domain and frequency domain, and the proposed phase iterative algorithm has faster convergent speed. Additionally, the encryption scheme enlarges the key space of the cryptosystem. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

Sui, Liansheng; Xin, Meiting; Tian, Ailing; Jin, Haiyan

2013-12-01

57

We propose a novel nonlinear image-encryption scheme based on a Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) phase-retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel transform domain. The decryption process can be performed using conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) architecture. The encryption is realized by applying G-S phase-retrieval algorithm twice, which generates two asymmetric keys from intermediate phases. The asymmetric keys are generated in such a way that decryption is possible optically with a conventional DRPE method. Due to the asymmetric nature of the keys, the proposed encryption process is nonlinear and offers enhanced security. The cryptanalysis has been carried out, which proves the robustness of proposed scheme against known-plaintext, chosen-plaintext, and special attacks. A simple optical setup for decryption has also been suggested. Results of computer simulation support the idea of the proposed cryptosystem. PMID:24514127

Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K

2014-01-20

58

In this paper we propose a joint encryption/watermarking algorithm for the purpose of protecting medical images. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins as its attachment to one patient even if the image is stored encrypted. In this study, the given solution combines the RC4 stream cipher and two substitutive watermarking modulations: the Least Significant Bit Method and the Quantization Index Modulation. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded echographic images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. At least, a capacity rate of 1 and 0.5 bits of message per pixel of image can be embedded in the spatial and the encrypted domains respectively, with a peak signal to noise ratio greater than 49 dB. PMID:22054815

Bouslimi, Dalel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Roux, Christian

2012-04-01

59

Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.

Mr. Balika J. Chelliah

2014-03-01

60

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the security of digital images. This study focuses on binary image encryption using the weighted discrete imperialist competitive algorithm (WDICA). In the proposed method, a chaotic map is first used to create a specified number of cipher images. Then, to improve the results, WDICA is applied to the cipher images. In this study, entropy and correlation coefficient are used as WDICA's fitness functions. The goal is to maximize the entropy and minimize correlation coefficients. The advantage of this method is its ability to optimize the outcome of all iterations using WDICA. Simulation results show that WDICA not only demonstrates excellent encryption but also resists various typical attacks. The obtained correlation coefficient and entropy of the proposed WDICA are approximately 0.004 and 7.9994, respectively.

Enayatifar, Rasul; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey

2013-09-01

61

Textual encryption using Conventional Encryption algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient usage of an available conventional encryption algorithm IDEA for encrypting plain text of fixed length into plaintext of same length usually called as Cipher by using a plain text of fixed length called Main key. IDEA algorithm which is a symmetric block cipher accepts 64 bit digital data as input and encrypts the same into a cipher of same 64 bit digital data. Aside from the basic characteristics of IDEA, i.e. the input of 64 bit digital data and 128 bit key, our proposed work accepts a plain text of 80 characters as input and encrypts the same into another text of 80 characters using 16 text characters as main key.Furthermore, we demonstrated the results of implementation of IDEA structure on to a Field Programmable Gated Array with various performance parameters.

V. Rajesham Goud1 , Md. Hameed Pasha

2011-12-01

62

A novel algorithm for image encryption based on mixture of chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chaos-based encryption appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on the mixture of chaotic systems is reported. The chaotic cryptography technique used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography. In this algorithm, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, along with its security analysis and implementation. The experimental results based on mixture of chaotic maps approves the effectiveness of the proposed method and the implementation of the algorithm. This mixture application of chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet

2008-01-01

63

A Novel Gray Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Modified Transcendental Equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a modified transcendental equation is proposed, and we analyzed its chaotic characteristics and periodic. It is a simple non-linear mode, l but it has complex dynam ics.Then it was used in gray image encryption. This is a digital image encryption algorithm, dual scrambling that based on chaos of pixel position and pixel value.Compared with the traditional transcendental equation, the improved transcendental equation has only chaos characteristic, when the number of iterations is less than 5, the equation has periodicity,and when iterative times are more than 20, the equation has chaotic characteristic only, so the modified transcendental equation has larger key space.Performance test and security analysis are performed using key space analysis, the pixels distribution character, correlation coefficients, the ability to resist attack and key sensitivity test. Results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is secure and efficient, with high potential to be adopted for the secure image communication applications.

Li Tu

2013-09-01

64

A novel image encryption algorithm using chaos and reversible cellular automata

In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on reversible cellular automata (RCA) combining chaos. In this algorithm, an intertwining logistic map with complex behavior and periodic boundary reversible cellular automata are used. We split each pixel of image into units of 4 bits, then adopt pseudorandom key stream generated by the intertwining logistic map to permute these units in confusion stage. And in diffusion stage, two-dimensional reversible cellular automata which are discrete dynamical systems are applied to iterate many rounds to achieve diffusion on bit-level, in which we only consider the higher 4 bits in a pixel because the higher 4 bits carry almost the information of an image. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm achieves a high security level and processes good performance against common attacks like differential attack and statistical attack. This algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric systems.

Wang, Xingyuan; Luan, Dapeng

2013-11-01

65

Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.

2009-09-15

66

Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm

Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.

Arroyo, David; Li, Shujun; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Halang, Wolfgang A

2007-01-01

67

A hybrid attack method, which is based on an iteration process and the decisive role of phase in the propagation process of light, is proposed to break the double image encryption system based on a nonlinear algorithm. The whole attack process contains three steps. First, an approximate value of the encoded image is achieved by using the phase retrieval algorithm when the encryption key, placed in the Fourier spectrum plane, and the ciphertext are used as the two constraints. Then, an approximate value of the joint power spectrum (JPS) is obtained based on the result of the first step. Finally, two approximate values of the original images are obtained by the use of the approximate value of the JPS and other two encryption keys. The simulation results show that the hybrid attack is valid and the cryptosystem is vulnerable to this attack.

Xiaopeng, Deng

2014-04-01

68

A single-channel color image encryption is proposed based on the modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) and mutual encoding in the Fresnel domain. Similar to the double random phase encoding (DRPE), this encryption scheme also employs a pair of phase-only functions (POFs) as encryption keys. But the two POFs are generated by the use of the MGSA rather than a random function generator. In the encryption process, only one color component is needed to be encrypted when these POFs are mutually served as the second encryption keys. As a result, a more compact and simple color encryption system based on one-time-pad, enabling only one gray cipheretext to be recorded and transmitted when holographic recording is used, is obtained. Moreover, the optical setup is lensless, thus easy to be implemented and the system parameters and wavelength can be served as additional keys to further enhance the security of the system. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. PMID:22086029

Deng, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Daomu

2011-11-01

69

Encryption and Decryption of Digital Image Using Color Signal

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims at improving the level of security and secrecy provided by the digital color signal-based image encryption. The image encryption and decryption algorithm is designed and implemented to provide confidentiality and security in transmission of the image based data as well as in storage. This new proposed encryption algorithm can ensure the lossless of transmissions of images. The proposed encryption algorithm in this study has been tested on some images and showed good results.

Qaid, Gamil R. S.; Talbar, S. N.

2012-01-01

70

Cryptanalysis on an image block encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An image block encryption scheme based on spatiotemporal chaos has been proposed recently. In this paper, we analyse the security weakness of the proposal. The main problem of the original scheme is that the generated keystream remains unchanged for encrypting every image. Based on the flaws, we demonstrate a chosen plaintext attack for revealing the equivalent keys with only 6 pairs of plaintext/ciphertext used. Finally, experimental results show the validity of our attack. (general)

2012-06-01

71

Image Encryption using the Standard Hill Cipher

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent decade of cryptography the concept of image played a big role. Hiding image into another image may be a good idea for image encryption. Considerable work is done in this field. There are many ways to encrypt the image but in this paper we are presenting a new technique of image encryption by the standard hill cipher. Hill cipher algorithm is a technique for symmetric key algorithm in which we use the matrix form key for the encrypting the text data. Images are also a matrix of pixels and each pixel has its intensity value. Using this concept we generate a function which select a random key matrix and then encrypt the image using the key matrix. For the decryption we again use this key matrix to get the original image.

Gaurav Agarwal

2010-12-01

72

Comparison of TACIT Encryption Algorithm with Various Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A common goal of cryptographic research is to design protocols that provide a confidential and authenticated transmission channel for messages over an insecure network. A cryptographic algorithm is considered to be computationally secured if it cannot be broken with standard resources, either current or future and apart from the algorithm distribution of keys also more important is to make an efficient cryptosystem. TACIT Encryption Algorithm can produce best possible results if key size is the size of the packet expected to pass through the network is small. This paper gives the comparison of the various algorithms with TACIT Encryption Algorithm on the basis of parameters like key length, block size, type and features. This research work investigates HDL implementation of TACIT Encryption Algorithm.

Manmeet Kaur

2012-03-01

73

Lightweight MPEG4 video encryption algorithm suitable for network transmission

In this paper, a video encryption algorithm based on MPEG4 codec is proposed, which combines encryption process with MPEG4 compression process. This algorithm is composed of two parts: VOP (Video Object Plane) encryption and VOL (Video Object Layer) encryption. In VOP encryption, the intra-encoded VOP is encrypted by inter-block permutation, the intra-encoded code blocks are encrypted by bit-plane permutation and coefficient sign encryption, and the other code blocks are encrypted by motion vector encryption. In VOL encryption, the basic VOLs are encrypted while others left unchanged. It can obtain high speed, for only parts of VOLs are encrypted. And it supports direct bit-rate control, which means that the encrypted images can also be decrypted correctly after recompression or bit-rate conversion. What's more, it is more robust to transmission errors than traditional ciphers since the errors causing in the encrypted bit-stream cannot spread out. These properties make it suitable for secure multimedia transmission over network, such as Video-on-Demand systems, multimedia communication networks, mobile multimedia or wireless multimedia networks, and so on.

Lian, Shiguo; Cao, Yingjun; Sun, Jinsheng; Wang, Zhiquan

2004-10-01

74

3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.

Pawan N. Khade

2012-05-01

75

Efficient Image Encryption Using a Chaos-based PWL Memristor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An image encryption algorithm based on the chaotic system has been increasingly used, but the disadvantages of small key space, weak security in low dimensional chaotic cryptosystems, simple chaotic system, and inconvenient for hardware implementation, are obvious. This paper presents a new image encryption algorithm based on chaos with the PWL memristor in Chua?s circuit. This encryption algorithm includes two main operations of image scrambling and pixel replacement. Simulations show that the key space is large, and the attacker cannot decrypt an encrypted image without the correct key. The encryption algorithm has high-level security.

Lin Zhaohui

2010-01-01

76

IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is one of the most methods of information hiding. A novel secure encryption method for image encryption is presented in this study. The proposed algorithm based on using singular value decomposition SVD. In this study we start to scramble the image data according to suggested keys (two sequence scrambling process with two different keys to finally create two different matrices. The diagonal matrix from the SVD will be interchanged with the resulted matrices. Another scrambling and diagonal matrices interchange will apply to increase the complexity. The resulted two matrices combine to one matrix according to predefined procedure. The encrypted image is a meaningfull image. The suggested method tested with many images encryption and gives promised results.

Nidhal K. El Abbadi

2014-01-01

77

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data security has become most important aspect while transmission of data and storage. The transmission and exchange of image also needs a high security. Cryptography is used to maintain security. In this paper, we implemented security for image. We have considered an image, read its pixels and convert it into pixels matrix of order as height and width of the image. Replace that pixels into some fixed numbers, generate the key using random generation technique .Encrypting the image using this key ,performing random transposition on encrypted image, converting it into one dimensional encrypted array and finally applied Huffman coding on that array , due this size of the encrypted image is reduced and image is encrypted again .The decryption is reverse process of encryption. Hence the proposed method provides a high security for an image with minimum memory usage.

Dr. T. Bhaskara Reddy

2013-11-01

78

Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.

2011-01-01

79

Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2. In MSA(1 method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. We have also introduced a new algorithm for encrypting the plain text multiple times. Our method is totally dependent on the random text_key which is to be supplied by the user. The maximum length of the text_key can be of 16 characters long and it may contain any character(ASCII code 0 to 255. We have developed an algorithm to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and hence if someone applies the brute force method then he/she has to give trail for 256! times which is quite absurd. Moreover the multiple encryption method makes the system further secured. For hiding secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 8 consecutive bytes of the cover file. We have introduced password for hiding data in the cover file. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any standard cover file such as image, audio, video files. Because the hidden message is encrypted hence it will be almost impossible for the intruder to unhide the actual secret message from the embedded cover file. This method may be the most secured method in digital water marking.

Joyshree Nath

2011-03-01

80

Cryptanalysis of a new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Letter proposes two different attacks on a recently proposed image based on hyper-chaos. The cryptosystem under study proceed first by shuffling the image rows and columns to disturb the high correlation among pixels by iterating the logistic map. Second, a keystream is generated to mix it with the pixels of the shuffled image using hyper-chaos. These two processes in the encryption stage present weakness, and a chosen plaintext attack and a chosen ciphertext attack can be done to recover the ciphered-image without any knowledge of the key value. It just demands three couples of plaintext/ciphertext to break totally the cryptosystem

2008-09-15

81

Efficient Image Encryption Using a Chaos-based PWL Memristor

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An image encryption algorithm based on the chaotic system has been increasingly used, but the disadvantages of small key space, weak security in low dimensional chaotic cryptosystems, simple chaotic system, and inconvenient for hardware implementation, are obvious. This paper presents a new image encryption algorithm based on chaos with the PWL memristor in Chua?s circuit. This encryption algorithm includes two main operations of image scrambling and pixel replacement. Simulations show...

Lin Zhaohui; Wang Hongxia

2010-01-01

82

Image Encryption and Decryption using AES

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In today’s world most of the communication is done using electronic media. Data Security is widely used to ensure security in communication, data storage and transmission. We have Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which is accepted as a symmetric cryptography standard for transferring block of data securely. The available AES algorithm is used for text data and it is also suitable for image encryption and decryption to protect the confidential image data from an unauthorized access. This p...

2012-01-01

83

Simple and secure Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image Encryption is a wide area of research. Encryption basically deals with converting data or information from its original form to some other form that hides the information in it. The protection of image data from unauthorized access is important. Encryption is employed to increase the data security. The Encrypted Image is secure from any kind cryptanalysis. In the proposed work, the image to be encrypted is decomposed into 8X8 blocks, these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to frequency domain by the DCT , Then, only selected DCT coefficients i.e the DCT coefficients correlated to the higher frequencies of the image block are encrypted. For encryption the DCT coefficients are xored with pseudorandom bit, Pseudorandom bit is generated by Non-Linear Shift back Register. The bits generated by Non-Linear Shift back Register can not be predicted so cryptanalysis becomes difficult. To enhance the security further the unencrypted DCT coefficients are shuffled, since some information may also be stored in DCT coefficient correlating to lower frequency, While encrypting selected DCT coefficients alone will provide complete perceptual encryption, it would be possible for an attacker to gain information about the image from the other coefficients, especially in images that have a lot of edges.

V.V.Divya

2012-11-01

84

Testing Image Encryption by Output Feedback (OFB

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Full Text Available When it is necessary to securely transmit data in open networks, the encryption must be performed. Most of the cryptographic algorithms were mainly developed for text data. Unfortunately, algorithms those are good for textual data might not suitable for image. The OFB mode of encryption implemented to test five images of different resources, by using three combinations (schemes: a combination of an 8-bit input block with an 8-bit feedback block, a combination of an 8-bit input block with a 16-bit, or a combination of a 16-bit input block with a 16-bit feedback block. Results showed that higher degree of encryption achieved when the input block and the feedback block are of the same size. The OFB mode achieved a mid range level of encryption with a mean entropy value of 7.93.

Yas A. Alsultanny

2008-01-01

85

Analyzing the Superlative Symmetric Cryptographic Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptology is a science that deals with codes and passwords. Cryptology is alienated into cryptography and cryptanalysis. The Cryptography produces methods to protect the data, and cryptanalysis hack the protected data . Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas - confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange finally which leads to the security of information .Encryption algorithms play a key role in information security systems. This paper provides critical analysis of six most common encryption algorithms namely: DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, AES (Rijndael, and RC6. A comparative study has been carried out for the above six encryption algorithms in terms of encryption key size ,block size, Number of Rounds ,Encryption/decryption time ,CPU process time, CPU clock cycles (in the form of throughput, Power consumption. And these comparisons are used to conclude the best Symmetric Cryptography Encryption algorithm.

panchamukesh chandaka

2011-08-01

86

An Image Encryption Approach Using a Shuffling Map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new image encryption approach is proposed. First, a sort transformation based on nonlinear chaotic algorithm is used to shuffle the positions of image pixels. Then the states of hyper-chaos are used to change the grey values of the shuffled image according to the changed chaotic values of the same position between the above nonlinear chaotic sequence and the sorted chaotic sequence. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption scheme based on a shuffling map shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. Compared with some encryption algorithms, the suggested encryption scheme is more secure. (general)

2009-11-15

87

Optical double image encryption employing a pseudo image technique in the Fourier domain

A novel optical encryption method is proposed involving double image encryption in which one image is introduced as the pseudo image while the other is the original object image. The Double Random Phase Encoding technique is used to encrypt both the pseudo and object images into complex images. A unique binary image is then employed to first generate the random phase key for the object image encryption and then to embed the encrypted object image into the encrypted pseudo image, which acts as host image. Both the second random phase mask used for encoding the pseudo image and the binary image act as encryption keys. If an attacker attempts to crack the random phase key and decrypt the original object image, the pseudo image will be obtained instead. Simulation results and robustness tests are performed which demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm.

Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.

2014-06-01

88

A review of optical image encryption techniques

In this paper we review a number of optical image encryption techniques proposed in the literature inspired by the architecture of the classic optical Double Random Phase Encoding (DRPE) system. The optical DRPE method and its numerical simulation algorithm are first investigated in relation to the sampling considerations at various stages of the system according to the spreading of the input signal in both the space and spatial frequency domains. Then the several well-known optically inspired encryption techniques are examined and categorized into all optical techniques and image scrambling techniques. Each method is numerically implemented and compared with the optical DRPE scheme, in which random phase diffusers (masks) are applied after different transformations. The optical system used for each method is first illustrated and the corresponding unitary numerical algorithm implementation is then investigated in order to retain the properties of the optical counterpart. The simulation results for the sensitivities of the various encryption keys are presented and the robustness of each method is examined. This overview allows the numerical simulations of the corresponding optical encryption systems, and the extra degree of freedom (keys) provided by different techniques that enhance the optical encryption security, to be generally appreciated and briefly compared and contrasted.

Liu, Shi; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.

2014-04-01

89

Image encryption using eight dimensional chaotic cat map

In recent years, a large number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as lack of robustness and security. In this paper, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on eight-dimensional (nonlinear) chaotic cat map. Encryption of image is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of image such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. In traditional methods the key space is small and the security is weak. The proposed algorithm tries to address these problems and also tries to enhance the encryption speed. In this paper an eight dimensional chaotic cat map is used to encrypt the intensity values of pixels using lookup table method thereby significantly increasing the speed and security of encryption. The proposed algorithm is found to be resistive against chosen/known-plaintext attacks, statistical and differential attacks.

Ganesan, K.; Murali, K.

2014-03-01

90

Improved Cryptanalysis of CMC Chaotic Image Encryption Scheme

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Full Text Available Recently, chaos has attracted much attention in the field of cryptography. To study the security with a known image of a symmetric image encryption scheme, the attack algorithm of equivalent key is given. We give the known image attacks under different other conditions to obtain the equivalent key. The concrete step and complexity of the attack algorithm is given. So the symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps is not secure.

Jiansheng Guo

2010-12-01

91

We present a novel method for multiple-image encryption by combining modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) with phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In this proposal, the primitive images are firstly encoded into a single synthetic complex image by phase mutual encoding and MGSA based on GT. Then the complex encoded image is further converted into two computer-generated POMs by carrying out MGSA again in GT domains. The proposed scheme has not any capability limitation that is caused by crosstalk effect between multiplexing images. An optical cascaded GT architecture, in which two POM ciphertexts and decryption phase keys are displayed in the input planes of GTs, respectively, can be employed for decryption. Combined with the POMs as main keys, the transform angles and wavelength of GTs can further increase the security of this system by offering very sensitive additional keys. Moreover, one can adjust the transform angles of GT flexibly without using any axis movement. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang

2014-06-01

92

Optical image encryption via ptychography.

Ptychography is combined with optical image encryption for the first time. Due to the nature of ptychography, not only is the interferometric optical setup that is usually adopted not required any more, but also the encryption for a complex-valued image is achievable. Considering that the probes overlapping with each other is the crucial factor in ptychography, their complex-amplitude functions can serve as a kind of secret keys that lead to the enlarged key space and the enhanced system security. Further, since only introducing the probes into the input of common system is required, it is convenient to combine ptychography with many existing optical image encryption systems for varied security applications. PMID:23632506

Shi, Yishi; Li, Tuo; Wang, Yali; Gao, Qiankun; Zhang, Sanguo; Li, Haifei

2013-05-01

93

Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes

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Full Text Available Image applications have been increasing in recent years. Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness, format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.

Jolly Shah

2011-07-01

94

Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Image applications have been increasing in recent years. Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness, format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.

Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena

2011-01-01

95

Self Contained Encrypted Image Folding

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recently introduced approach for Encrypted Image Folding is generalized to make it Self Contained. The goal is achieved by enlarging the folded image so as to embed all the necessary information for the image recovery. The need for extra size is somewhat compensated by considering a transformation with higher folding capacity. Numerical examples show that the size of the resulting cipher image may be significantly smaller than the plain text one. The implementation of th...

Rebollo-neira, Laura; Bowley, James; Constantinides, Anthony; Plastino, Angel

2012-01-01

96

Studying the Effects of Most Common Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless networks play critical roles in present work, home, and public places, so the needs of protecting of suchnetworks are increased. Encryption algorithms play vital roles in information systems security. Those algorithms consume asignificant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. CPU and memory usability areincreasing with a suitable rates, but battery technology is increasing at slower rate. The problem of the slower increasingbattery technology forms “battery gap”. The design of efficient secure protocols for wireless devices from the view of batteryconsumption needs to understand how encryption techniques affect the consumption of battery power with and without datatransmission. This paper studies the effects of six of the most common symmetric encryption algorithms on power consumptionfor wireless devices. at different settings for each algorithm. These setting include different sizes of data blocks, different datatypes (text, images, and audio file, battery power consumption, different key size, different cases of transmission of the data ,effect of varying signal to noise ratio and finally encryption/decryption speed. The experimental results show the superiority oftwo encryption algorithm over other algorithms in terms of the power consumption, processing time, and throughput .Theseresults can aid in new design of security protocol where energy efficiency is the main focus. Some suggestions for design ofsecure communications systems to handle the varying wireless environment have been provided to reduce the energyconsumption of security protocols.

Diaa Salama

2011-01-01

97

Digital image encryption with chaotic map lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a secure approach for encryption and decryption of digital images with chaotic map lattices. In the proposed encryption process, eight different types of operations are used to encrypt the pixels of an image and one of them will be used for particular pixels decided by the outcome of the chaotic map lattices. To make the cipher more robust against any attacks, the secret key is modified after encrypting each block of sixteen pixels of the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme achieves high security and efficiency. (general)

2011-04-01

98

A novel image encryption scheme based on spatial chaos map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. In this paper, spatial chaos system are used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail. The basic idea is to encrypt the image in space with spatial chaos map pixel by pixel, and then the pixels are confused in multiple directions of space. Using this method one cycle, the image becomes indistinguishable in space due to inherent properties of spatial chaotic systems. Several experimental results, key sensitivity tests, key space analysis, and statistical analysis show that the approach for image cryptosystems provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission from the cryptographic viewpoint

2008-11-01

99

A novel image encryption scheme based on spatial chaos map

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, the chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. In this paper, spatial chaos system are used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail. The basic idea is to encrypt the image in space with spatial chaos map pixel by pixel, and then the pixels are confused in multiple directions of space. Using this method one cycle, the image becomes indistinguishable in space due to inherent properties of spatial chaotic systems. Several experimental results, key sensitivity tests, key space analysis, and statistical analysis show that the approach for image cryptosystems provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission from the cryptographic viewpoint.

Sun Fuyan [College of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: fuyan.sun@gmail.com; Liu Shutang [College of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li Zhongqin [HeiLongJiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China); Lue Zongwang [Information and Communication College, Guilin University of Electronic and Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Corporate Engineering Department, Johnson Electric Co. Ltd., Shenzhen 518125 (China)

2008-11-15

100

Cryptanalysis of an ergodic chaotic encryption algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present the results for the security and the possible attacks on a new symmetric key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity property of a logistic map. After analysis, we use mathematical induction to prove that the algorithm can be attacked by a chosen plaintext attack successfully and give an example to show how to attack it. According to the cryptanalysis of the original algorithm, we improve the original algorithm, and make a brief cryptanalysis. Compared with the original algorithm, the improved algorithm is able to resist a chosen plaintext attack and retain a considerable number of advantages of the original algorithm such as encryption speed, sensitive dependence on the key, strong anti-attack capability, and so on. (general)

2012-04-01

101

International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA – A Typical Illustration

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several symmetric and asymmetric data encryption algorithms. IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm is one of the strongest secret-key block ciphers. In this article, I try to represent the existing IDEA algorithm in a different way. In the following illustration, we would see how the encryption can be expressed in a simpler way.

Sandipan Basu

2011-08-01

102

International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) – A Typical Illustration

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are several symmetric and asymmetric data encryption algorithms. IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is one of the strongest secret-key block ciphers. In this article, I try to represent the existing IDEA algorithm in a different way. In the following illustration, we would see how the encryption can be expressed in a simpler way.

Sandipan Basu

2011-01-01

103

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent times, research on image encryption using chaotic systems has emerged. However, some of the proposed schemes still hinder the system performance and security. In this study, we introduce an efficient image encryption scheme based on pixel bit and combination of polynomial chaotic maps with variable initial parameters. The algorithm takes advantage of the best features of chaotic maps combined with the pixel value bits. The initial parameters and the keystream employed in the encryption process are generated from two chaotic maps. Simulation results and analyses both confirm that the new algorithm possesses high security with less computation for practical image encryption.

Ahmed A. Abd El-Latif

2012-02-01

104

Image Encryption based on the RGB PIXEL Transposition and Shuffling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Privacy is one of the key issues information Security addresses. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.

Quist Aphetsi Kester

2013-06-01

105

Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

Mazloom, Sahar [Faculty of Electrical, Computer and IT Engineering, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sahar.mazloom@gmail.com; Eftekhari-Moghadam, Amir Masud [Faculty of Electrical, Computer and IT Engineering, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: eftekhari@qazviniau.ac.ir

2009-11-15

106

A new encryption and signing algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new method of encryption that orig-inates from the public key cryptography and number theory. Our algorithmwas inspired by the RSA algorithm and Diffie-Hellman key exchange proto-col. It is based on a computationally difficult problem - the discrete logarithmproblem in multiplicative group.

Urszula Romañczuk

2008-09-01

107

Image Encryption Based on Diffusion and Multiple Chaotic Maps

In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative way to ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one of them has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the image encryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption technique using multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by using chaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformation leads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on the initial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps. Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key for the encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryption algorit...

Sathishkumar, G A; Sriraam, Dr N; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3214

2011-01-01

108

Image encryption-decryption system based on gyrator transform and jigsaw transform

In this work an image encryption-decryption system is developed using Gyrator transform (GT) and Jigsaw transform (JT). The encryption system uses two successive GTs and JTs, in order to convert a real image to a real noisy encrypted image. The decryption system is an inverse system with respect to the encryption system. The real image to be encrypted is preprocessed with the purpose of obtaining a real encrypted image, this real encrypted image has the same size as the original image to be encrypted and it is much more convenient for either its storage or transmission. The JT is applied to eliminate the random phase mask used in many encryption systems based on double random phase mask and to increase the security of the encryption-decryption system proposed in this work. Finally, in order to verify the performance of the encryption-decryption system, a digital algorithm was developed. There are four keys used in the encryption-decryption algorithm, which are constituted by the two GTs rotation angles and the two random permutations used in the JTs; all these keys have to be correct for a proper recovery of the original image in the decryption system.

Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, César O.; Mattos, Lorenzo

2013-11-01

109

How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, data encryption standard algorithm is an entrenched technology and still useful for many purposes. In this paper, we use some of the image quality encryption measuring factors to study the effect of data encryption standard algorithm in image ciphering. The results show that the data encryption standard algorithm is fast and it achieves a good encryption rate for image ciphering using different modes of operation.

Said F. El-Zoghdy

2011-03-01

110

Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption

This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations in the dynamics of the system. Such defects are illuminated through a new technique of generalized post proceeding with very low hardware cost. The thesis further discusses two encryption algorithms designed and implemented as a block cipher and a stream cipher. The security of both systems is thoroughly analyzed and the performance is compared with other reported systems showing a superior results. Both systems are realized on Xilinx Vetrix-4 FPGA with a hardware and throughput performance surpassing known encryption systems.

Barakat, Mohamed L.

2012-06-01

111

Base Encryption Dynamic algorithms, Keys, and Symbol Set

All the current modern encryption algorithms utilize fixed symbols for plaintext and cyphertext. What I mean by fixed is that there is a set and limited number of symbols to represent the characters, numbers, and punctuations. In addition, they are usually the same (the plaintext symbols have the same and equivalent counterpart in the cyphertext symbols). Almost all the encryption algorithms rely on a predefined keyspace and length for the encryption/decription keys, and it is usually fixed (number of bits). In addition, the algorithms used by the encryptions are static. There is a predefined number of operatiors, and a predefined order (loops included) of operations. The algorithm stays the same, and the plaintext and cyphertext along with the key are churned through this cypherblock. Base Encryption does the opposite: It utilizes the novel concepts of base conversion, symbol remapping, and dynamic algorithms (dynamic operators and dynamic operations). Base Encryption solves the weakness in todays encryption...

Lin, P H

2000-01-01

112

VLSI Implementation of Data Encryption Standard Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are two main types of cryptography in use today –symmetrico rsecret key cryptography and a symmetric or public key cryptography. Symmetric key cryptography is the oldest type whereas asymmetric cryptography is only being used publicly since the late 1970’s 1 . Asymmetric cryptography was a major milestone in the search for a perfect encryption scheme. Secret key cryptography goes back to at least Egyptian times and is of concern here. It involves the use of only one key which is used for both encryption and decryption (hence the use of the term symmetric. Figure 2.1 depicts this idea. It is necessary for security purposes that the secret key never be revealed To accomplish encryption, most secret key algorithms use two main techniques known assubstitutionandpermutation. Substitution is simply a mapping of one value to another whereas permutation is a reordering of the bit positions for each of the inputs. These techniques are used a number of times in iterations called rounds. Generally, the more rounds there are, the more secure the algrithm. A non-linearity is also introduced into the encryption so that decryption will be computationally infeasible 2 without the secret key. This is achieved with the use of S-boxes which are basically non-linear substitution tables where either the output is smaller than the input or viceversa.

Naveen Kumar,

2012-11-01

113

The Application Research of MD5 Encryption Algorithm in DCT Digital Watermarking

This article did the preliminary study of the application of algorithm for MD5 in the digital watermark. It proposed that copyright information will be encrypted using an algorithm MD5, and made rules for the second value image watermarks, through DCT algorithm that embeds an image by the carrier. The extraction algorithms can pick up the watermark and restore MD5 code.

Xijin, Wang; Linxiu, Fan

114

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext into the ciphertext where plaintext is the input to the encryption process and ciphertext is the output of the encryption process. Decryption isthe process of transforming ciphertext into the plaintext where ciphertext is the input to the decryption process and plaintext is the output of the decryption process. There are various encryption algorithms exist classified as symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms. Here, I present an algorithm for data encryption and decryption which is based on ASCII values of characters in the plaintext. This algorithm is used to encrypt data by using ASCII values of the data to be encrypted. The secret used will be modifying o another string and that string is used as a key to encrypt or decrypt the data. So, it can be said that it is a kind of symmetric encryption algorithm because it uses same key for encryption anddecryption but by slightly modifying it. This algorithm operates when the length of input and the length of key are same.

Akanksha Mathur

2012-09-01

115

Secrecy and Performance Analysis of Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithms

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There can be two vital criteria of selecting an algorithm to fulfil one’s encryption requirement. The security level of the cipher (secrecy) and the encryption time (performance). There is less focus on secrecy of ciphers as a security measurement, thus in this research, Shannon’s theories on secrecy of ciphers are used in-order to calculate the average secrecy of each cipher. Depending on the secrecy level and performance of the algorithm, suitable algorithm for encryption can be sele...

Tharindu Darshana Bandara Weerasinghe

2012-01-01

116

Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hard...

Reaz, Mamun B. I.; Amin, M. S.; Hashim, Fazida H.; Asaduzzaman, K.

2011-01-01

117

Double-image encryption based on the affine transform and the gyrator transform

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a kind of double-image-encryption algorithm by using the affine transform in the gyrator transform domain. Two original images are converted into the real part and the imaginary part of a complex function by employing the affine transform. And then the complex function is encoded and transformed into the gyrator domain. The affine transform, the encoding and the gyrator transform are performed twice in this encryption method. The parameters in the affine transform and the gyrator transform are regarded as the key for the encryption algorithm. Some numerical simulations have validated the feasibility of the proposed image encryption scheme

2010-03-01

118

Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method

2011-11-01

119

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high security communication systems became an urgent need in recent years for both governments and peoples desiring protection from signal interception. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES is a famous block encryption algorithm which has several advantages in data encryption. However, AES suffer from some drawbacks such as high computations, pattern appearance if apply for image encryption, and more hardware requirements. These problems are more complicated when the AES algorithm is used for multimedia encryption. New modification to AES-128 algorithm which reduce the computations and hardware requirements are proposed by enforcement Mixcolumn transformation in five rounds instead of nine rounds as in original AES-128. Second proposed is suggest new simple S-box used for encryption and decryption. The implementation of advanced encryption standard algorithm is important requirement where many researches proposed different items to this purpose. A simply item proposed in this paper to speedy, low cost implementation of Modified Advanced Encryption Standard (MAES cryptographic algorithm is 8085A microprocessor. The results prove that the modifications of AES make implementation it by 8085A microprocessor more effective.

SALIM M. WADI

2013-08-01

120

PDES, Fips Standard Data Encryption Algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of program or function: PDES performs the National Bureau of Standards FIPS Pub. 46 data encryption/decryption algorithm used for the cryptographic protection of computer data. The DES algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher blocks of data consisting of 64 bits under control of a 64-bit key. The key is generated in such a way that each of the 56 bits used directly by the algorithm are random and the remaining 8 error-detecting bits are set to make the parity of each 8-bit byte of the key odd, i. e. there is an odd number of '1' bits in each 8-bit byte. Each member of a group of authorized users of encrypted computer data must have the key that was used to encipher the data in order to use it. Data can be recovered from cipher only by using exactly the same key used to encipher it, but with the schedule of addressing the key bits altered so that the deciphering process is the reverse of the enciphering process. A block of data to be enciphered is subjected to an initial permutation, then to a complex key-dependent computation, and finally to a permutation which is the inverse of the initial permutation. Two PDES routines are included; both perform the same calculation. One, identified as FDES.MAR, is designed to achieve speed in execution, while the other identified as PDES.MAR, presents a clearer view of how the algorithm is executed

1991-01-01

121

Image Encryption Based On Diffusion And Multiple Chaotic Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative wayto ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one ofthem has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the imageencryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption techniqueusing multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by usingchaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformationleads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on theinitial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps.Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key forthe encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryptionalgorithm. The input image of 2-D is transformed into a 1- D array by using two different scanningpattern (raster and Zigzag and then divided into various sub blocks. Then the position permutation andvalue permutation is applied to each binary matrix based on multiple chaos maps. Finally the receiveruses the same sub keys to decrypt the encrypted images. The salient features of the proposed imageencryption method are loss-less, good peak signal –to noise ratio (PSNR, Symmetric key encryption, lesscross correlation, very large number of secret keys, and key-dependent pixel value replacement.

G.A.Sathishkumar

2011-03-01

122

OCML-based colour image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new ways to develop efficient image-encryption schemes. While most of these schemes are based on low-dimensional chaotic maps, it has been proposed recently to use high-dimensional chaos namely spatiotemporal chaos, which is modelled by one-way coupled-map lattices (OCML). Owing to their hyperchaotic behaviour, such systems are assumed to enhance the cryptosystem security. In this paper, we propose an OCML-based colour image encryption scheme with a stream cipher structure. We use a 192-bit-long external key to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of the OCML. We have made several tests to check the security of the proposed cryptosystem namely, statistical tests including histogram analysis, calculus of the correlation coefficients of adjacent pixels, security test against differential attack including calculus of the number of pixel change rate (NPCR) and unified average changing intensity (UACI), and entropy calculus. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well.

2009-04-15

123

A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM AND RC4

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time is reduced by encrypting only the part of the image and maintains a high level of security by shuffling the rest of the image using the shuffling algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.

Deepu Sleeba Philip

2011-09-01

124

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.

Krishnamurthy G N

2009-04-01

125

this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.

Krishnamurthy, G N

2010-01-01

126

LOW POWER ENCRYPTED MIPS PROCESSOR BASED ON AES ALGORITHM

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes the Low power 32-bit encrypted MIPS processor based on AES algorithm and MIPS pipeline architecture. The pipeline stages of MIPS processor are arranged in such a way that pipeline can be clocked at high frequency and clock gating technique is used for reducing power consumption. Encryption blocks of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptosystem and dependency among pipeline stages are explained in detail with the help of block diagram. In order to reduce the power consum...

Kirat Pal Singh; Shivani Parmar

2012-01-01

127

Comparative Study of Speech Encryption Algorithms Using Mobile Applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Speech communication is most popular now days. Everyone wants secure communication that’s way use encrypts and decrypt data scheme. It is basically used for military and business purpose. People want high security level during their communication..The numbers of algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption. However in this paper the work is done on three different kinds of algorithms i.e. NTRU, RSA and RINJDAEL these three popular algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption approach. Basically NTRU and RSA algorithms are asymmetric in nature and RINJDAEL algorithm is symmetric in nature. In speech encryption, first the speech is converted into text then further the text is converted into cipher text. The cipher text is sent to be particular receiver in which transmitter want to communicate. At the receiver end, receiver receives the original data through decryption process. At the end the performance is analyzed of these three approaches respectively. The parameters calculated are Encryption, Decryption and Delay time, complexity, and packet lost, Security level. In this three approaches, Encryption, decryption and delay time, are varying according to the number of bits per seconds. On the Other hand, complexity and packet lost are approximately same. There is no packet lost during transmitting and receiving the data. After the analysis of these three algorithms, The NTRU algorithm is faster in encryption and decryption time than others algorithms. The security level are very high than other algorithms. The android platform are used for these three algorithm to find the results in which algorithm took less time for encrypt or decrypt the data and help to evaluate the performance in speech encryption algorithms.

Jaspreet kaur#1 , Er. Kanwal preet Singh

2013-07-01

128

Image encryption using TSRMSC associated with DWT

A novel technique for gray scale image encryption and decryption scheme using two stage random matrix shift cipher (TSRMSC) associated with discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is proposed. Earlier proposed schemes for encoding and decoding of images discuss only about the keys, but in our proposed approach, keys and the arrangement of random matrix shift cipher parameters are mandatory. We have formulated a formula for the all possible range to choose keys for encrypting and decrypting an image. An examples of computer simulation are give to analyze the capability of this proposed technique. The encrypted image is robust to decoding even on the application of exact keys if the correct arrangement is unknown to the decoder. We have also given comparison between our proposed approach with P. Kumar et al. (J. Opt. 14 (2012) 045401 (8pp)).

Kumar, Manish

2013-10-01

129

An Improved Hash Encryption Algorithm Based on Arnold Mapping

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Hash encryption algorithm based on Arnorld mapping is realized by integration of two-dimensional chaotic system and Hash function, whose encryption keys are the initial value of the Arnorld mapping, iterations, the forming method of hash value, and the digit of hash value and so on. The irreversibility of this algorithm can deactivate the reverse attack from cryptograph to plaintext but fail to work against all the attacks such as plaintext and selective plaintext. According to this article, to improve the initial value of the Arnorld mapping and the iterations of the encryption algorithms by means of increasing the number of the initial value of the Arnorld mapping and changing the constant value of the iterations into variable value and building a more secure hash encryption algorithm can further strengthen encryption, so as to improve the resistant ability of the hash encryption algorithm against such attacks as plaintext, selective plaintext etc. And the experimental data indicates the practicability and effectiveness of the improved hash encryption algorithm based on Arnorld mapping in that an analysis of its confusion and dispersion properties shows that its changing bits and average change probability of every bit of is closer to the ideal 50% 64-bit change probability.

XIANG Yu

2013-07-01

130

Interference-based multiple-image encryption with silhouette removal by position multiplexing.

An approach for multiple-image encryption based on interference and position multiplexing is proposed. In the encryption process, multiple images are analytically hidden into three phase-only masks (POMs). The encryption algorithm for this method is quite simple and does not need iterative encoding. For decryption, both the digital method and optical method could be employed. Also, we analyze the multiplexing capacity through the correlation coefficient. In addition, the silhouette problem that exists in previous interference-based encryption methods with two POMs can be eliminated during the generation procedure of POMs based on the interference principle. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:23759846

Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong

2013-06-10

131

Design and Implementation of Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on FPGA?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development and wide application of computer and communication networks, theinformation security has aroused high attention. Information security is not only applied to the political,military and diplomatic fields, but also applied to the common fields of people’s daily lives. With thecontinuous development of cryptographic techniques, the long-serving DES algorithm with 56-bit key lengthhas been broken because of the defect of short keys. The "Rijndael encryption algorithm" invented byBelgian cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen's had been chosen as the standard AES(Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm whose packet length is 128 bits and the key length is 128 bits, 192bits, or 256 bits. Since 2006, the Rijndael algorithm of advanced encryption standard has become one of themost popular algorithms in symmetric key encryption. AES can resist various currently known attacks.

K. Soumya

2013-09-01

132

Cryptanalysis and security improvement for selective image encryption

Selective image encryption has been considered as an effective method to improve the encryption speed and computation resource by reducing considerable amount of data. In the present paper, the weaknesses of recent method of selective image encryption are presented analytically and the method of security improvement is proposed. The security for selective image encryption is improved in a way that number of selectively significant bits for encryption vary from pixel to pixel. This leads to be uncertain data for encryption and decryption. The examples are to demonstrate and verify for security weaknesses of the recent method and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Hoang, T. M.; Tran, D.

2014-03-01

133

Optical image encryption with spatially incoherent illumination.

A simple optical image encryption system with spatially incoherent illumination is proposed. Only one Fourier lens and one random phase plate are contained in this system. The original image is perturbed by a random phase-only mask located on the aperture plane. The encrypted information is the only intensity distribution that can be directly recorded by a CCD or CMOS. The decryption procedure can be performed digitally and the random phase distribution works as the decryption key. Numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. PMID:23595461

Zang, Jinliang; Xie, Zhenwei; Zhang, Yan

2013-04-15

134

ROI Based Double Encryption Approach for Secure Transaction of Medical Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is on enabling, supporting process in the health care industry for implementing a secure, robust and privacy complaint system for the safe distribution and use of medical image. In this paper, a new method that combines image encryption and watermarking technique for safe transaction of medical image is proposed. This method is based on selecting the ROI in the image as the watermark. This portion is encrypted by linear feedback shift register based stream ciphering which is again encrypted by the key generated by Diffie Hellman Algorithm. The encrypted ROI is embedded into the medical image by Spread spectrum technique. The proposed approach proves to be highly secure as two keys are used for encryption and the secret message is spreaded throughout the Medical image.

VRATESH KUMAR KUSHWAHA

2013-01-01

135

An Improved Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on NiosII

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through the data storage of Rijndael encryption algorithm and the analysis of the characteristics of column mixing and wheel transformation, the author put forward some suggestions for the optimization of Rijndael. Meanwhile, the author design and realize the optimized Rijndael encryption through the SOPC (System on Program Chip). Based on the SOPC of Altera FPGA (Field Programmable Gata Array), the algorithm design is put forward and the center is the embedded soft core NiosII. It is also re...

Tang Jun; Wang Liejun

2013-01-01

136

Study on Digital Image Scrambling Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Encryption algorithm of traditional cryptology has strong safety, but the effect of encrypting images is not good. Digital image scrambling means that a digital image is transformed into a chaotic image which has no evident significance, but the operator can reconstruct the chaotic image into the o...

Wu Xue

2013-01-01

137

Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information security plays a very important role in fast growing information and communication technology. Few applications like medical image security and satellite image security needs to secure only selected portion of the image. This paper describes a concept of selective image encryption in two ways. First method divides the image in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are applied to encryption process. Second method automatically detects the positions of objects, and then selected objects are applied to encryption process. Morphological techniques are used to detect the positions of the objects in given images. These two approaches are specifically developed to encrypt the portion of an image in medical images and satellite image.

NaveenKumar S K

2013-02-01

138

Analysis and Cryptanalysis of a Selective Encryption Method for JPEG Images

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the protection of images. We address the problem of simultaneous selective encryption (SE) and image compression. The SE is done by using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm with the Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode one a part of the Huffman coefficients corresponding to the AC frequencies. For the compression we consider the JPEG algorithm. Our approach is done without affecting the compression rate and by keeping the JPEG bitstream compliance. In the proposed met...

Puech, William; Rodrigues, Jose?; Bors, Adrian

2007-01-01

139

Performance Analysis of AES and MARS Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Block ciphers are very important in communication systems as they provide confidentiality through encryption. The popular block ciphers are Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and MARS algorithms. Each cipher uses several rounds of fixed operations to achieve desired security level. The security level is measured in terms of diffusion and confusion. The diffusion level should be at least equal to strict avalanche criterion (SAC value. Therefore, the number of rounds are chosen such that the algorithm provides the SAC value. This paper presents measured diffusion value of AES and MARS algorithms. Diffusion values are compared for both the algorithms: AES and MARS. Similarly, speed of each algorithm is compared.

H S Mohan

2011-07-01

140

Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hardware implementation. The compression algorithm decomposes images into several different parts. We have used a secured encryption algorithm to encrypt only the crucial parts, which are considerably smaller than the original image, which result in significant reduction in processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. The breadth-first traversal linear lossless quadtree decomposition method is used for the partial compression and RSA is used for the encryption. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system on four different images. We have validated the advantage of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2928 units of LC with a system frequency of 13.42MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA prototyping of a partial encryption of compressed images using lossless quadtree compression and RSA encryption has been successfully implemented with minimum logic cells. It is found that the compression process is faster than the decompression process in linear quadtree approach. Moreover, the RSA simulations show that the encryption process is faster than the decryption process for all four images tested.

Mamun B.I. Reaz

2011-01-01

141

The research on image encryption method based on parasitic audio watermark

In order to improve image encryption strength, an image encryption method based on parasitic audio watermark was proposed in this paper, which relies on double messages such as image domain and speech domain to do image encryption protection. The method utilizes unique Chinese phonetics synthesis algorithm to complete audio synthesis with embedded text, then separate this sentence information into prosodic phrase, obtains complete element set of initial consonant and compound vowel that reflects audio feature of statement. By sampling and scrambling the initial consonant and compound vowel element, synthesizing them with image watermark, and embedding the compound into the image to be encrypted in frequency domain, the processed image contains image watermark information and parasitizes audio feature information. After watermark extraction, using the same phonetics synthesis algorithm the audio information is synthesized and compared with the original. Experiments show that any decryption method in image domain or speech domain could not break encryption protection and image gains higher encryption strength and security level by double encryption.

Gao, Pei-Pei; Zhu, Yao-Ting; Zhang, Shi-Tao

2010-11-01

142

A New Encryption Method for Secure Transmission of Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach is designed for transmitting images securely using a technique called Gödelization followed by the public key encryption. The image which is to be transmitted is transformed into a sequence called Gödel Number Sequence (GNS using a new technique called Gödelization. This is compressed using Alphabetic coding AC and encrypted by an encryption method. This encryption string is transmitted and reconstructed at the decoding end by using thereverse process.

B.V.Rama Devi,

2010-12-01

143

Optical image encryption based on interference under convergent random illumination

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an optical image encryption system based on the interference principle, two pure phase masks are designed analytically to hide an image. These two masks are illuminated with a plane wavefront to retrieve the original image in the form of an interference pattern at the decryption plane. Replacement of the plane wavefront with convergent random illumination in the proposed scheme leads to an improvement in the security of interference based encryption. The proposed encryption scheme retains the simplicity of an interference based method, as the two pure masks are generated with an analytical method without any iterative algorithm. In addition to the free-space propagation distance and the two pure phase masks, the convergence distance and the randomized lens phase function are two new encryption parameters to enhance the system security. The robustness of this scheme against occlusion of the random phase mask of the randomized lens phase function is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with numerical simulation results

2010-09-01

144

Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. It consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. This computation saving is very desirable especially in constrained communications (real-time networking, high-definition delivery, and mobile communications with limited computational power devices. In addition, selective encryption allows preserving some codec functionalities such as scalability. This tutorial is intended to give an overview on selective encryption algorithms. The theoretical background of selective encryption, potential applications, challenges, and perspectives is presented.

Massoudi A

2008-01-01

145

Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. It consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. This computation saving is very desirable especially in constrained communications (real-time networking, high-definition delivery, and mobile communications with limited computational power devices. In addition, selective encryption allows preserving some codec functionalities such as scalability. This tutorial is intended to give an overview on selective encryption algorithms. The theoretical background of selective encryption, potential applications, challenges, and perspectives is presented.

2009-03-01

146

AN IMAGE ENCRYPTION METHOD: SD-ADVANCED IMAGE ENCRYPTION STANDARD: SD-AIES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The security of digital information in modern times is one of the most important factors to keep in mind. For this reason, in this paper, the author has proposed a new standard method of image encryption. The proposed method consists of 4 different stages: 1 First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2 In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3 In third stage, generalized modified Vernam Cipher with feedback mechanism is used on the file to create the next level of encryption; 4 Finally in fourth stage, the whole image file is randomized multiple number of times using modified MSA randomization encryption technique and the randomization is dependent on another number, which is generated from the password provided for encryption method. SD-AIES is an upgraded version of SD-AEI Image Encryption Technique. The proposed method, SD-AIES is tested on different image files and the results were far more than satisfactory.

Somdip Dey

2012-01-01

147

Multiple-image encryption based on phase mask multiplexing in fractional Fourier transform domain.

A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed based on the phase retrieval process and phase mask multiplexing in the fractional Fourier transform domain. First, each original gray-scale image is encoded into a phase only function by using the proposed phase retrieval process. Second, all the obtained phase functions are modulated into an interim, which is encrypted into the final ciphertext by using the fractional Fourier transform. From a plaintext image, a group of phase masks is generated in the encryption process. The corresponding decrypted image can be recovered from the ciphertext only with the correct phase mask group in the decryption process. Simulation results show that the proposed phase retrieval process has high convergence speed, and the encryption algorithm can avoid cross-talk; in addition, its encrypted capacity is considerably enhanced. PMID:23722815

Liansheng, Sui; Meiting, Xin; Ailing, Tian

2013-06-01

148

Polynomial Based Secret Sharing Scheme for Image Encryption Based on Mathematical Theorem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With a ever increasing growth of multimedia applications, security is an important issue in communication and storage of images, and encryption is one of the way to ensure security. Image encryption has applications in internet communication, multimedia systems, medical imaging, telemedicine and military communications. This paper proposes image encryption using secret sharing scheme. According to this process there are two levels of encryption. The first level, generates the random polynomial of degree (t-1 , where t is a threshold value. The constant term is taken as the secret. In the second level construct the transformation matrix using secret and primitive root theorem. This matrix is used for encryption purpose. Experimental results and security analysis shows that the proposed algorithm offers good resistance against brute force attack and statistical crypt analysis.

A. Kalai Selvi

2011-02-01

149

On the Design of Perceptual MPEG-Video Encryption Algorithms

In this paper, some existing perceptual encryption algorithms of MPEG videos are surveyed, and a more effective design is proposed, which selectively encrypts fixed-length codewords (FLC) in MPEG-video bitstreams under the control of three perceptibility factors. Compared with the previously-proposed schemes, the new design can provide more useful features, such as strict size-preservation, on-the-fly encryption and multiple perceptibility, which makes it possible to support more applications with different requirements. Four different methods are suggested to provide better security against known/chosen-plaintext attacks.

Li, S; Cheung, A; Bhargava, B; Li, Shujun; Chen, Guanrong; Cheung, Albert; Bhargava, Bharat

2005-01-01

150

USING DYNAMIC DUAL KEYS ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM AS PARTIAL ENCRYPTION FOR A REAL-TIME DIGITAL VIDEO

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in digital video transmission have increased in the past few years. Security and privacy issues of the transmitted data have become an important concern in multimedia technology. Digital video stream is quite different from traditional textual data because interframe dependencies exist in digital video. Special digital video encryption algorithms are required because of their special characteristics, such as coding structure, large amount of data and real-time constraints. This paper presents a real-time partial encryption to digital video technique depends on Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields which is fast enough to meet the real-time requirements with high level of security. In this technique the I-frame (Intra-frame of the digital video scene is extracted and decomposed the color picture into its three color channels: luma channel (Y and two chrominance channels Cb and Cr, with note that the frames of digital video is in YCbCr color system, the Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields is applied to the Y channel. The encryption technique achieves best timing results, and it provides high level of security by its great resistant against brute force attacks.

Basima Z.Yacob

2012-01-01

151

Securing Image Transmission Using in- Compression Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia is one of the most popular data shared in the Web, and the protection of it via encryption techniques is of vast interest. In this paper, a secure and computationally feasible Algorithm called Optimized Multiple Huffman Tables (OMHT technique is proposed. OMHT depends on using statisticalmodelbased compression method to generate different tables from the same data type of images or videos to be encrypted leading to increase compression efficiency and security of the used tables. A systematic study on how to strategically integrate different atomic operations to build a multimedia encryption system is presented. The resulting system can provide superior performance over other techniques by both its generic encryption and its simple adaptation to multimedia in terms of a joint consideration of security, and bitrate overhead. The effectiveness and robustness of this scheme is verified by measuring its security strength and comparing its computational cost against other techniques. The proposed technique guarantees security, and fastness without noticeable increase in encoded image size

Shaimaa A. El-said

2010-12-01

152

A cryptographic Image Encryption technique based on the RGB PIXEL shuffling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Confidentiality is one of the ultimate goals in information security. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. Rigorous use of advanced mathematical algorithms has played a major role in the success of modern day cryptography. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a new cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.

Quist-Aphetsi Kester, MIEEE

2013-02-01

153

Public Key Cryptosystem Technique Elliptic Curve Cryptography with Generator g for Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper present goal of cryptography is thesecure communication through insecure channelswith the help of an algorithm ‘Elliptic CurveCryptography with generator g for ImageEncryption’. ECC is an efficient technique oftransmitting the image securely. It has been shownthough the image encryption by ECC to transmitsthe image secretly and efficiently recovers the sameat the receiver end. The scheme comprises of theimportant algorithms namely encryption algorithmis used to create every 2-D image pixels of theoriginal image into the ECC points in a finiteabelian group over m GF(2 or E a b m ( , .2TheseECC points convert into cipher image pixels atsender side and decryption algorithm is used to getoriginal image within a very short time with a highlevel of security at the receiver side.

Vinod Kumar Yadav

2012-01-01

154

Cryptanalysis of the Two-Dimensional Circulation Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze the security of the two-dimensional circulation encryption algorithm (TDCEA, recently published by Chen et al. in this journal. We show that there are several flaws in the algorithm and describe some attacks. We also address performance issues in current cryptographic designs.

Bart Preneel

2005-07-01

155

Secrecy and Performance Analysis of Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There can be two vital criteria of selecting an algorithm to fulfil one’s encryption requirement. The security level of the cipher (secrecy and the encryption time (performance. There is less focus on secrecy of ciphers as a security measurement, thus in this research, Shannon’s theories on secrecy of ciphers are used in-order to calculate the average secrecy of each cipher. Depending on the secrecy level and performance of the algorithm, suitable algorithm for encryption can be selected. This paper presents an analysis of some of the widely used symmetric key algorithms which fall under the categories of block and stream ciphers together with the two combined algorithms. [DES, TripleDES, AES, RC2, RC4, Hybrid1 (TripleDES+RC4 and Hybrid2 (AES+RC4 are used]. Analysis is done based on two measurement criteria under two circumstances which is described later in this paper. All the algorithms are implemented in Java using classes available in JAVA package javax.crypto. Separate classes are written to calculate the secrecy of ciphers and the encryption time. Performances of all stream ciphers are higher than that of block ciphers and the combined algorithms have similar performance level to block ciphers. Secrecy level of block ciphers are comparatively higher than that of stream ciphers but there are drastic changes as the data size increases. Hybrid ones have more stable secrecy level.

Tharindu Darshana Bandara Weerasinghe

2012-06-01

156

Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain

This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...

Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105

2011-01-01

157

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography has been widely accepted as a traditional platform of data protection for decades.The most significant and efficient cryptosystems these days are the Symmetric key algorithms for cryptography. Hence, they have a very wide range of applications in many realms. Ad-hoc networks are the most commonly used type in the present scenario because of their non-fixed infrastructure. Providing security to such kinds of network is the main objective of the work here. In this project, we present a systematic approach for selective encryption of data. In the present day scenario where all the wireless ad-hoc network nodes run or work on battery, Full encryption of all the data may lead to a high overhead and also waste the computational power or the resources. Hence, two selective encryption algorithms are introduced and a secure method for communication between the user and the entrusted is also being carried out. Eventually, we carry out an extensive set of experiments using Core Java and Java cryptosystems. A very attractive GUI is being designed to make it more user friendly. This can be used whenever people work remotely and connect to their host server through VPN. We first create an ad-hoc network and communicate between the nodes of the network using basic server client methodology. Two selective encryption algorithms were developed and more than 50 percent encryption of the data was maintained in both the algorithms. However, the security aspect can be changed depending on the kind of the data which is being communicated.

Pavithra. C#1 , Vinod. B. Durdi

2013-05-01

158

Image Encryption Using Chaotic Map and Block Chaining

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Full Text Available In this paper, a new Chaotic Map with Block Chaining (CMBC cryptosystem for image encryption is proposed. It is a simple block cipher based on logistic chaotic maps and cipher block chaining (CBC. The new system utilizes simplicity of implementation, high quality, and enhanced security by the combined properties of chaos and CBC cipher. Implementation of the proposed technique has been realized for experimental purposes, and tests have been carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating its high security. Results confirm that the scheme is unbreakable with reference to many of the well-known attacks. Comparative study with other algorithms indicates the superiority of CMBC security with slight increase in encryption time.

Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

2012-07-01

159

An Enhanced Text to Image Encryption Technique using RGB Substitution and AES

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Full Text Available In network security applications, before transmitting data to a remote machine it is encrypted at the sender side using any standard encryption algorithm. Most of the encryption algorithms make use of secret key without which it becomes very difficult to retrieve the actual data In this paper we propose a method which at first transforms the text into an image using an RGB substitution, and then encrypts the resulting image using AES Algorithm, under this approach, the secret key is smartly sent along with the cipher text in a single transmission, thus it also solves the key exchange problem that generally arises in most of the encryption models. The encryption and decryption process make the use of a combination database for text to image transformation. This paper is divided into following four sections; in section- I, we presented basic introduction of Network Security, in section-II, a survey on related algorithms has been presented, section-III discusses the proposed model and section IV concludes the paper.

Sourabh Singh1 , Anurag Jain

2013-05-01

160

Image Encryption Using Chaos and Block Cipher

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on combination of pixel shuffling and new modified version of simplified AES. Chaotic baker’s map is used for shuffling and improving S-AES efficiency through S-box design. Chaos is used to expand diffusion and confusion in the image. Due to sensitivity to initial conditions, chaotic baker’s map has a good potential for designing dynamic permutation map and S-box. In order to evaluate performance, the propos...

Alireza Jolfaei; Abdolrasoul Mirghadri

2010-01-01

161

Selective Encryption of Human Skin in JPEG Images

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we propose a new approach for selective encryption in the Huffman coding of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The objective is to partially encrypt the human face in an image or video sequence. This approach is based on the AES stream ciphering using Variable Length Coding (VLC) of the Huffman's vector. The proposed scheme allows the decryption of a specific region of the image and results in a significant reduction in...

Rodrigues, Jose?; Puech, William; Bors, Adrian

2006-01-01

162

a Selective Image Encryption Based on Couple Spatial Chaotic Systems

In this paper, we present a selective image encryption system based on couple spatial chaotic systems, the cascade one-dimensional Logistic map and high-dimensional spatial chaotic system has been used to generate the adequate encryption sequence, then the selective gray-level image encryption is implemented with the sequence, which can greatly improve the encryption performance and efficiency. In addition, we also adopt an index array to control the generation of the secret key, a completely different cipher text will be obtained if a pixel's value is altered in the original image, which can resist the differential attack effectively.

Wang, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Tian; Xu, Da-Hai; Chen, Feng

2014-12-01

163

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on a new algorithm to compress and encrypt simultaneously multiple images (target images). This method, which is based upon a specific spectral multiplexing (fusion without overlapping) of the multiple images, aims to achieve a single encrypted image, at the output plane of our system, that contains all information needed to reconstruct the target images. For that purpose, we divide the Fourier plane of the image to transmit into two types of area, i.e., specific and common areas to...

Alfalou, Ayman; Brosseau, C.

2010-01-01

164

Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.). The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth) make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functiona...

Massoudi, A.; Lefebvre, F.; Vleeschouwer, C.; Macq, B.; -j Quisquater, J.

2009-01-01

165

A joint encryption/watermarking system for verifying the reliability of medical images.

In this paper, we propose a joint encryption/water-marking system for the purpose of protecting medical images. This system is based on an approach which combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation, with an encryption algorithm: a stream cipher algorithm (e.g., the RC4) or a block cipher algorithm (e.g., the AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode of operation). Our objective is to give access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origin even though the image is stored encrypted. If watermarking and encryption are conducted jointly at the protection stage, watermark extraction and decryption can be applied independently. The security analysis of our scheme and experimental results achieved on 8-bit depth ultrasound images as well as on 16-bit encoded positron emission tomography images demonstrate the capability of our system to securely make available security attributes in both spatial and encrypted domains while minimizing image distortion. Furthermore, by making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed system is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22801525

Bouslimi, Dalel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cozic, Michel; Roux, Christian

2012-09-01

166

Programmable Cellular Automata Encryption Algorithm Implemented in Reconfigurable Hardware

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents an encryption system based on the PCA (Programmable Cellular Automata) theory and the implementation in reconfigurable hardware in order to achieve high speed communication for real time applications. The proposed encryption algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric key and the entire model was implemented on a reconfigurable hardware in FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays) device of type Spartan 3E XC3S500E in order to take the full advantage of the inhere...

Petre Anghelescu

2013-01-01

167

ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES FOR SECURITY OF IMAGES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the proliferation in technology and advent of internet the data has been digitized, so more emphasis is required for security while transmission and storage to save from unauthorized users. Protecting data in a safe and secure way which does not hamper the access of an authorized authority is difficult and interesting research problem. Many attempts have been made to solve this problem within the cryptographic community. Visual cryptography provides a very powerful technique by which one secret can be distributed into two or more images known as shares. When the shares on transparencies are superimposed exactly together, original secret can be discovered without computer involvement. Image cryptography disrupts the image so that no useful information is seen. The keys used for disruption is used in reverse manner to decrypt the image. This paper discusses the various encryption techniques for better image security and to protect them from unintentional user.

DR. DHIRENDRA MISHRA

2014-01-01

168

MESSAGE ENCRYPTION USING NTRU ALGORITHM ON ANDROID

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS is getting more popular now-a-days. SMS was first used in December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry Christmas" via the Vodafone GSM network to the phone of Richard Jarvis in the UK. It will play a very important role in the future business areas of mobile commerce (M-Commerce. Presently many business organizations use SMS for their business purposes. SMS’s security has become a major concern for business organizations and customers. There is a need for an end to end SMS Encryption in order to provide a secure medium for communication. Security is main concern for any business company such as banks who will provide these mobile banking services. Till now there is no such scheme that provides complete SMSs security. The transmission of an SMS in GSM network is not secure at all. Therefore it is desirable to secure SMS for business purposes by additional encryption. In this thesis, we have analyzed different cryptosystems for implementing to the existing Secure Extensible and Efficient SMS (SEESMS. We planned to implement NTRU cryptosystem into existing SEESMS frame. The NTRU public key cryptosystem was developed in 1996 at Brown University by three mathematicians J. Hoffstein, J.Pipher and J.H. Silverman. It is not that much popular cryptosystems like RSA, ECC and other traditional. The major advantages of NTRU cryptosystem is much faster generating key, encryption time and decryption time as compared to others. It is easily compatible with mobile devices and other portable devices. We have compared theoretically and analysis of NTRU with RSA and ECC cryptosystems at end of my papers. It is theoretically proposed here. We are expecting our novel scheme may show better result than others. So it will provide improve the current security level and fastest speed with respect to key generation, encryption decryption with small key size. This proposal will suitable to any kind of mobile device for SMS communication with suitable data security.

Amanpreet Kaur

2013-10-01

169

Analysis of cipher text size produced by various Encryption Algorithms

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Full Text Available In the digital world, it is the need of the hour to secure the data communication from unauthorized access. Over the time a number of techniques and algorithms have came into operation for its security. This research paper is done qualitatively to emphasize the need for securing the data as well as the fast transmission of the encryptedtext. It concerns the analysis of selected symmetric cipher block encryption algorithms from cipher text size point of view.

MANI ARORA

2011-07-01

170

A fast chaotic block cipher for image encryption

Image encryption schemes based on chaos usually involve real number arithmetic operations to generate the chaotic orbits from the chaotic system. These operations are time-consuming and are normally performed with high-end processors. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a one round encryption scheme for the fast generation of large permutation and diffusion keys based on the sorting of the solutions of the Linear Diophantine Equation (LDE) whose coefficients are integers and dynamically generated from any type of chaotic systems. The high security and low computational complexity are achieved not only by using large permutation based on the sorting of the solutions of LDE but also by generating only one permutation from the sorting of the solutions of the LDE, then by dynamically updating d number of integers (d>2) in the permutation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated using various types of analysis such as entropy analysis, difference analysis, statistical analysis, key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis and speed analysis. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is secure and fast as compared to the two round encryption scheme.

Armand Eyebe Fouda, J. S.; Yves Effa, J.; Sabat, Samrat L.; Ali, Maaruf

2014-03-01

171

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the needs to protect such applications are increased. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information security systems. This work gives an insight into the new concept called hybrid approach of conventional encryption, which gives the concept of strong encryption of the data. The symmetric encryption also called conventional encryption or single key encryption was the only type of encryption is use prior to the development of ...

Dharmendra Kumar Gupta

2012-01-01

172

Shannon Entropy based Randomness Measurement and Test for Image Encryption

The quality of image encryption is commonly measured by the Shannon entropy over the ciphertext image. However, this measurement does not consider to the randomness of local image blocks and is inappropriate for scrambling based image encryption methods. In this paper, a new information entropy-based randomness measurement for image encryption is introduced which, for the first time, answers the question of whether a given ciphertext image is sufficiently random-like. It measures the randomness over the ciphertext in a fairer way by calculating the averaged entropy of a series of small image blocks within the entire test image. In order to fulfill both quantitative and qualitative measurement, the expectation and the variance of this averaged block entropy for a true-random image are strictly derived and corresponding numerical reference tables are also provided. Moreover, a hypothesis test at significance?-level is given to help accept or reject the hypothesis that the test image is ideally encrypted/random-...

Wu, Yue; Agaian, Sos

2011-01-01

173

SMOOTHING AND OPTIMAL COMPRESSION OF ENCRYPTED GRAY SCALE IMAGES

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Full Text Available Compression efficiency of encrypted real-world sources such as images can be improved by exploiting source dependency. Lossless compression of encrypted images can be achieved through SlepianWolf coding. In this correspondence, we propose a resolution progressive compression scheme which compresses an encrypted image progressively in resolution, such that the decoder can observe a lowresolution version of the image, study local statistics based on it, and use the statistics to decode the next resolution level. Good performance is observed both theoretically and experimentally. We deploy smoothing for images at the receiver to mitigate noise.

P.S.Kishore

2012-05-01

174

Triple-DES block of 96 Bits: An application to colour image encryption

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Full Text Available According to international standards, FIPS PUB 146-3, the cryptographic system Triple-Data Encryption Standard (Triple DES encrypts blocks of 64 bits. However, it isn’t difficult to extend the block to 96-bit encryption, which is called Triple-DES-96. This change includes a modification to Triple-DES cryptosystems that appeared recently as the Advanced Encryption Standard - AES - FIPS PUB 197. Including encryption, file M (with m bits is achieved in less time than Triple-DES. Developing Triple DES-96, intends to apply the Factorial Theorem that for this particular case tells us that any permutation on an array of 96 positions can be constructed from 3 permutations on arrays of 64 positions. According to Theorem JV, a given number n with 0 ? n ? 64! - 1 ? 1089, can associate a permutation of 64 positions in 63 steps. This allows applying a variable permutation on an array of 96 positions at the start of the third round, using 3 numbers with 0 ? n_i ? 1089 and for i = 1, 2, 3, instead of using numbers 0 ? n ? 96 ! - 1 ? 10150 for permutations on arrays of 96 positions directly. The algorithm illustrates Triple-DES-96 encryption images in colour, which is carried out without loss of information, that is, does not apply JPEG formats. There is a criterion of how many permutations have to be applied; also a randomness measure of the encrypted image for ?2 value is used.

C. Renteria-Marquez

2013-01-01

175

A one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of chaos

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of a skew tent chaotic map. We divide the chaotic trajectory into sub-intervals and map them to integers, and use this scheme to encrypt plaintext and obtain ciphertext. In this algorithm, the plaintext information in the key is used, so different plaintexts or different total numbers of plaintext letters will encrypt different ciphertexts. Simulation results show that the performance and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm can encrypt plaintext effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)

2012-02-01

176

Double-image encryption by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform

A novel double-image encryption algorithm is proposed by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform. Two original images are first regarded as the amplitude and phase of a complex function. Arnold transform is used to scramble pixels at a local area of the complex function, where the position of the scrambled area and the Arnold transform frequency are generated by the standard map and logistic map respectively. Then the changed complex function is converted by gyrator transform. The two operations mentioned will be implemented iteratively. The system parameters in local pixel scrambling and gyrator transform serve as the keys of this encryption algorithm. Numerical simulation has been performed to test the validity and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm.

Li, Huijuan; Wang, Yurong; Yan, Haitao; Li, Liben; Li, Qiuze; Zhao, Xiaoyan

2013-12-01

177

Plaintext Related Image Encryption Scheme Using Chaotic Map

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Full Text Available A plaintext related image blocking encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper, which includes two kinds of operations on inner-block confusion and inter-block diffusion. Firstly, a float-point lookup table need to be generated by iterating chaotic system; Secondly, choose one of the entries in the look-up table as initial value of chaotic system, and iterate it to produce one secret code sequence for inner-block confusion; Thirdly, by using one pixel value of the former block to locate another entry in the look-up table, iterate it to yield another secret code sequence for inter-block diffusion; Finally, through two rounds of the block-by-block processes, the plain-image will be transformed into the cipher-image. The simulation results show that the proposed method has many good characters.

Yong Zhang

2013-07-01

178

Enabling Similarity Search over Encrypted Images in Cloud

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Full Text Available With the growing popularity of cloud computing, more and more users are willing to outsource their private data to the cloud. To ensure the security of data, data owners usually encrypted their private data before outsourcing them to the cloud server. Though data encryption improves the security of data, it increases the difficulty of data operating. This study focuses on the search of encrypted images in the cloud and proposes an efficient similarity retrieval scheme over encrypted images. The proposed scheme enables data owners to outsource their personal images and the content-based image retrieval service to the cloud without revealing the actual content of the image database to the cloud. The proposed scheme in this study supports the global feature based image retrieval methods under the Euclidean distance metric. Besides, rigorous security analysis and extensive experiments show that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient.

Yi Zhu

2014-01-01

179

Plaintext Related Two-level Secret Key Image Encryption Scheme

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Full Text Available Some chaos-based image encryption schemes using plain-images independent secret code streams have weak encryption security and are vulnerable to chosen plaintext and chosen cipher-text attacks. This paper proposed a two-level secret key image encryption scheme, where the first-level secret key is the private symmetric secret key, and the second-level secret key is derived from both the first-level secret key and the plain image by iterating piecewise linear map and Logistic map. Even though the first-level key is identical, the different plain images will produce different second-level secret keys and different secret code streams. The results show that the proposed has high encryption speed, and also can effectively resist the existing cryptanalytic attacks.

Bin Chen

2012-10-01

180

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)

2012-07-01

181

Programmable Cellular Automata Encryption Algorithm Implemented in Reconfigurable Hardware

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Full Text Available This article presents an encryption system based on the PCA (Programmable Cellular Automata theory and the implementation in reconfigurable hardware in order to achieve high speed communication for real time applications. The proposed encryption algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric key and the entire model was implemented on a reconfigurable hardware in FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays device of type Spartan 3E XC3S500E in order to take the full advantage of the inherent parallelism of the PCA. Based on PCA state transitions certain fundamental transformations are defined which represents block ciphering functions of the proposed enciphering scheme. The experimental results prove that the proposed enciphering scheme provides high speed, good security and it is ideally for hardware implementation in FPGA devices.

Petre Anghelescu

2013-03-01

182

Application of Cosine Zone Plates to Image Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyse the diffraction result of optical field after Cosine zone plate, and theoretically deduce its transform matrix. Under some conditions, its diffraction distribution is a mixture of fractional Fourier spectra. Then we use Cosine zone plate and its diffraction result to image encryption. Possible optical image encryption and decryption implementations are proposed, and some numerical simulation results are also provided. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

2008-08-01

183

Message Based Random Variable Length Key Encryption Algorithm

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Full Text Available Problem statement: A block ciphers provides confidentiality in cryptography but cryptanalysis of the classical block ciphers demonstrated some old weaknesses grabbing a partial key in any stage of encryption procedure leads to reconstructing the whole key. Exhaustive key search shows that key generation should be indeterminist and random for each round. Matching cipher-text attack shows that larger size of block is more secure. In order to overcome analysis mentioned above a new algorithm is designed that is based on random numbers and also can defeat time and memory constraints. Approach: Dynamic and message dependent key generator was created by producing a random number and it was selected as the size of first chunk. Residual value of second chunk divided by first chunk concatenating with first chunk forms the first cipher as an input for SP-boxes. These processes repeated until whole mesaage get involved into the last cipher. Encrypted messages are not equal under different run. Value of random number should be greater than 35 bits and plaintext must be at least 7 bits. A padding algorithm was used for small size messages or big random numbers. Results: Attack on the key generation process was prevented because of random key generation and its dependency to input message. Encryption and decryption times measured between 5 and 27 m sec in 2 GHz Pentium and java platform so time variant and fast enough key generation had been kept collision and timing attacks away due to small seized storage. Long and variable key length made key exhaustive search and differential attack impossible. None fixed size key caused avoidance of replaying and other attacks that can happen on fixed sized key algorithms. Conclusion: Random process employed in this block cipher increased confidentiality of the message and dynamic length substitution in proposed algorithm may lead to maximum cryptographic confusion and consequently makes it difficult for cryptanalysis.

Hamid Mirvaziri

2009-01-01

184

A Digital Watermarking for Lifting Based Compression And Encryption of JPEG 2000 Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the digital world the digital media is currently evolving at such rapidly;copyright protection is become increasingly important.Now a days these media is available with various image formats,due to which they are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality.A wide range of digital media is often distributed by multiple levels of distributors in a compressed and encrypted format.It is sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encrypted media items in the compressed encrypted domain itself for tamper detection or ownership declaration or copyright management purposes.The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data inorder to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.This paper deals with the watermarking of compressed and encrypted JPEG 2000 images.The compression is achieved on JPEG 2000 images by lifting based architecture.The encryption algorithm used is stream cipher.The identification of watermark can be done in the decrypted domain.The watermarking technique used is spread spectrum.This can be implemented through matlab.

Ansu Anna Ponnachen1 , Lidiya Xavier

2013-06-01

185

Programmable Cellular Automata Based Efficient Parallel AES Encryption Algorithm

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Full Text Available Cellular Automata(CA is a discrete computing model which provides simple, flexible and efficient platform for simulating complicated systems and performing complex computation based on the neighborhoods information. CA consists of two components 1 a set of cells and 2 a set of rules . Programmable Cellular Automata(PCA employs some control signals on a Cellular Automata(CA structure. Programmable Cellular Automata were successfully applied for simulation of biological systems, physical systems and recently to design parallel and distributed algorithms for solving task density and synchronization problems. In this paper PCA is applied to develop cryptography algorithms.This paper deals with the cryptography for a parallel AES encryption algorithm based on programmable cellular automata. This proposed algorithm based on symmetric key systems.

Debasis Das

2011-12-01

186

The Collins Formula Applied in Optical Image Encryption

We propose a novel method for image encryption, which is realized by the Collins formula with the random shifting method. The Collins formula can denote different optical transforms by one expression with different ABCD elements. For a generalized optical system, the ABCD elements can be randomly chosen, so the keys are increased and the security of the system is strengthened. Finally, some computer simulations are given for different encryption systems to prove the possibilities. The encryption effect is good, and people without the correct keys can not obtain the information easily.

Chen, Lin-Fei; Zhao, Dao-Mu; Mao, Hai-Dan; Ge, Fan; Guan, Rui-Xia

2013-04-01

187

In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.

Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

2014-04-01

188

Chaotic image encryption based on running-key related to plaintext.

In the field of chaotic image encryption, the algorithm based on correlating key with plaintext has become a new developing direction. However, for this kind of algorithm, some shortcomings in resistance to reconstruction attack, efficient utilization of chaotic resource, and reducing dynamical degradation of digital chaos are found. In order to solve these problems and further enhance the security of encryption algorithm, based on disturbance and feedback mechanism, we present a new image encryption scheme. In the running-key generation stage, by successively disturbing chaotic stream with cipher-text, the relation of running-key to plaintext is established, reconstruction attack is avoided, effective use of chaotic resource is guaranteed, and dynamical degradation of digital chaos is minimized. In the image encryption stage, by introducing random-feedback mechanism, the difficulty of breaking this scheme is increased. Comparing with the-state-of-the-art algorithms, our scheme exhibits good properties such as large key space, long key period, and extreme sensitivity to the initial key and plaintext. Therefore, it can resist brute-force, reconstruction attack, and differential attack. PMID:24711727

Guanghui, Cao; Kai, Hu; Yizhi, Zhang; Jun, Zhou; Xing, Zhang

2014-01-01

189

A NEW DATA HIDING ALGORITHM WITH ENCRYPTED SECRET MESSAGE USING TTJSA SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTO SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work we are proposing a new steganogarphy method to hide any encrypted secret message inside a cover file by substituting in the LSB. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm namely TTJSA developed by Nath et al [10]. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al [2]. The TTJSA method comprises of 3 distinct methods which are also developed by Nath et al[1,7]. The methods are MSA[Meheboob, Saima and Asoke][1], NJJSAA[Neeraj, Joel, Joyshree, Amlan, Asoke][7] and Generalised Modified Vernam Cipher method developed by Nath et al[10]. The authors have used TTJSA method for encryption purpose as it is already proved that TTJSA is very effective even if we have small pattern such as digital watermark or password etc. Moreover the cryptanalysis of TTJSA shows that the standard attack like differential attack or simple plain text attack will not be able to break the encryption method. So the main advantage of this method is that even if the hacker can extract the embedded data from a host file but they can not get back the original secret message. While embedding encrypted secret message we have used the standard LSB substitution method [2]. The present method may be used for hiding very confidential message or password or any private key from one machine to another machine or from one machine to server etc. For sending question papers normally the teachers are sending it through e-mail as normal plain text. Instead of that now they can encrypt it first using TTJSA method and hide the encrypted message in some popular image and send it to destination with full confidence like in between no one will be able to hack it. In defense or in Banking sector also the present method may be used for sending some crucial and important message. The present method may be used to hide any confidential message such as text, audio, image in any image or audio or video file. Keywords: MSA,TTJSA,NJJSAA,LSB,Vernam,Steganography

Sayak Guha

2012-05-01

190

A first approach on an RGB image encryption

Image encryption and decryption are essential for securing images from various types of security attacks. In this paper, we have proposed a first approach for an RGB image encryption and decryption using two stage random matrix affine cipher associated with discrete wavelet transformation. Earlier proposed schemes for encoding and decoding of images discussed only about the keys, but in our proposed approach, keys and the arrangement of RMAC parameters are mandatory. We have also formulated a formula for all the possible range to choose keys for encrypting and decrypting an RGB image. Computer simulation with a standard example and result is given to analyze the capability of the proposed approach. We have given security analysis and comparison between our proposed technique and others to support for robustness of the approach. This approach can be used for transmission of image data efficiently and securely.

Kumar, Manish; Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, R. K.

2014-01-01

191

A novel and robust chaos-based pseudorandom permutation-substitution scheme for image encryption is proposed. It is a loss-less symmetric block cipher and specifically designed for the color images but may also be used for the gray scale images. A secret key of 161-bit, comprising of the initial conditions and system parameter of the chaotic map (the standard map), number of iterations and number of rounds, is used in the algorithm. The whole encryption process is the sequential execution of a preliminary permutation and a fix number of rounds (as specified in the secret key) of substitution and main permutation of the 2D matrix obtained from the 3D image matrix. To increase the speed of encryption all three processes: preliminary permutation, substitution and main permutation are done row-by-row and column-by-column instead of pixel-by-pixel. All the permutation processes are made dependent on the input image matrix and controlled through the pseudo random number sequences (PRNS) generated from the discretization of chaotic standard map which result in both key sensitivity and plaintext sensitivity. However each substitution process is initiated with the initial vectors (different for rows and columns) generated using the secret key and chaotic standard map and then the properties of rows and column pixels of input matrix are mixed with the PRNS generated from the standard map. The security and performance analysis of the proposed image encryption has been performed using the histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, differential analysis, key space analysis, encryption/decryption rate analysis etc. Results suggest that the proposed image encryption technique is robust and secure and can be used for the secure image and video communication applications.

Patidar, Vinod; Pareek, N. K.; Purohit, G.; Sud, K. K.

2011-09-01

192

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then randomized and then, finally embed that randomized QR Code inside some common image. Quick Response Codes (or QR Codes are a type of two-dimensional matrix barcodes used for encoding information. It has become very popular recently for its high storage capacity. The present method is ASA_QR is a combination of strong encryption algorithm and data hiding in two stages to make the entire process extremely hard to break. Here, the secret message is encrypted first and hide it in a QR CodeTM and then again that QR CodeTM is embed in a cover file (picture file in random manner, using the standard method of steganography. In this way the data, which is secured, is almost impossible to be retrieved without knowing the cryptography key, steganography password and the exact unhide method. For encrypting data The authors used a method developed by Nath et al i.e. TTJSA, which is based on generalized modified Vernam Cipher, MSA and NJJSA method; and from the cryptanalysis it is seen that TTJSA is free from any standard cryptographic attacks, like differential attack, plain-text attack or any brute force attack. After encrypting the data using TTJSA,the authors have used standard steganographic method To hide data inside some host file. The present method may be used for sharing secret key, password, digital signature etc.

Somdip Dey

2012-06-01

193

Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibility of proposed method.

2011-01-01

194

SECURE IMAGE DATA BY USING DIFFERENT ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES A REVIEW

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information security is an increasingly important problem in the present era of advanced technology, because of which encryption is becoming very important to ensure security. Popular application of multimedia technology and increasing transmission ability of network gradually leads us to acquire information directly and clearly through Images. The digital images, which are transmitted over the internet, must be protected from unauthorized access during storage and transmission for communication, copyright protection and authentication purposes. This can be accomplished using image encryption which is an intelligent hiding of information. In this paper, I survey on existing work which is used different techniques for image encryption and also give the general introduction about cryptography.

GAYATHRI D.

2013-03-01

195

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES), as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some compa...

2012-01-01

196

Attack to AN Image Encryption Based on Chaotic Logistic Map

This paper offers two different attacks on a freshly proposed image encryption based on chaotic logistic map. The cryptosystem under study first uses a secret key of 80-bit and employed two chaotic logistic maps. We derived the initial conditions of the logistic maps from using the secret key by providing different weights to all its bits. Additionally, in this paper eight different types of procedures are used to encrypt the pixels of an image in the proposed encryption process of which one of them will be used for a certain pixel which is determined by the product of the logistic map. The secret key is revised after encrypting each block which consisted of 16 pixels of the image. The encrypting process have weakness, worst of which is that every byte of plaintext is independent when substituted, so the cipher text of the byte will not change even the other bytes have changed. As a result of weakness, a chosen plaintext attack and a chosen cipher text attack can be completed without any knowledge of the key value to recuperate the ciphered image.

Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Feng; Wang, Tian; Xu, Dahai; Ma, Yutian

2013-12-01

197

Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 10{sup 17} and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value.

Yu, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, J [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Ren, H E [Information and Computer Engineering College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150000 (China); Xu, G S [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Luo, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China)

2006-10-15

198

Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 1017 and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value

2006-10-01

199

Secure Image Encryption without Size Limitation Using Arnold Transform and Random Strategies

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Encryption is an efficient way to protect the contents of digital media. Arnold transform is a significant technique of image encryption, but has weaknesses in security and applications to images of any size. To solve these problems, we propose an image encryption scheme using Arnold transform and random strategies. It is achieved by dividing the image into random overlapping square blocks, generating random iterative numbers and random encryption order, and scrambling pixels of each block us...

Zhenjun Tang; Xianquan Zhang

2011-01-01

200

Optical Image Encryption with Simplified Fractional Hartley Transform

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a new method for image encryption on the basis of simplified fractional Hartley transform (SFRHT). SFRHT is a real transform as Hartley transform (HT) and furthermore, superior to HT in virtue of the advantage that it can also append fractional orders as additional keys for the purpose of improving the system security to some extent. With this method, one can encrypt an image with an intensity-only medium such as a photographic film or a CCD camera by spatially incoherent or coherent illumination. The optical realization is then proposed and computer simulations are also performed to verify the feasibility of this method. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

2008-07-01

201

Optical image encryption based on a radial shearing interferometer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a novel method for optical image encryption based on a modified radial shearing interferometer (MRSI), which is generally used for wavefront reconstruction. In this method, a plaintext image is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM) and then modulated by a random phase mask (RPM), the result is regarded as the input of the radial shearing interferometer and is divided into two coherent lights, which interfere with each other, leading to an interferogram (ciphertext). The aforementioned encryption process can be achieved digitally or optically while the decryption process can only be analytically accomplished. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the validity of this method. (paper)

2013-10-01

202

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classicalgenetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplified data encryption standard can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. In this paper, a comparison between memetic algorithm and genetic algorithm were made in order to investigate the performance for the cryptanalysis on simplified data encryption standard problems(SDES. The methods were tested and various experimental results show that memetic algorithm performs better than the genetic algorithms for such type of NP-Hard combinatorial problem. This paper represents our first effort toward efficient memetic algorithm for the cryptanalysis of SDES.

Poonam Garg

2009-04-01

203

Efficient image or video encryption based on spatiotemporal chaos system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, an efficient image/video encryption scheme is constructed based on spatiotemporal chaos system. The chaotic lattices are used to generate pseudorandom sequences and then encrypt image blocks one by one. By iterating chaotic maps for certain times, the generated pseudorandom sequences obtain high initial-value sensitivity and good randomness. The pseudorandom-bits in each lattice are used to encrypt the Direct Current coefficient (DC) and the signs of the Alternating Current coefficients (ACs). Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme has good cryptographic security and perceptual security, and it does not affect the compression efficiency apparently. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.

2009-06-15

204

Study on Cryptanalysis of the Tiny Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present the Study on a Tiny Encryption Algorithm. There is a requirement to specify cryptographic strength in an objective manner rather than describing it using subjective descriptors such as weak, strong, acceptable etc. Such metrics are essential for describing the characteristics of cryptographic products and technologies. Towards this objective, we use two metrics called the Strict Plaintext Avalanche Criterion (SPAC and the Strict Key Avalanche Criterion (SKAC mentioned in our study that the strength of popular ciphers such as DES and TEA. A related issue of significance in the context of cryptographic applications is the quality of random number generators which need to pass certain tests. In this Paper, we expose DES and TEA to some of the standard random number generator tests.

Rajashekarappa

2013-02-01

205

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES). Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considere...

2012-01-01

206

Secure Image Encryption without Size Limitation Using Arnold Transform and Random Strategies

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is an efficient way to protect the contents of digital media. Arnold transform is a significant technique of image encryption, but has weaknesses in security and applications to images of any size. To solve these problems, we propose an image encryption scheme using Arnold transform and random strategies. It is achieved by dividing the image into random overlapping square blocks, generating random iterative numbers and random encryption order, and scrambling pixels of each block using Arnold transform. Experimental results show that the proposed encryption scheme is robust and secure. It has no size limitation, indicating the application to any size images.

Xianquan Zhang

2011-04-01

207

Image Encryption Based on the General Approach for Multiple Chaotic Systems

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the recent years, researchers developed image encryption methods based on chaotic systems. This paper proposed new image encryption technique based on new chaotic system by adding two chaotic systems: the Lorenz chaotic system and the Rössler chaotic system. The main advantage of this technique is stronger security, as is shown in the encryption tests.

Alsafasfeh, Qais H.; Arfoa, Aouda A.

2011-01-01

208

Image Encryption Based on the General Approach for Multiple Chaotic Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, researchers developed image encryption methods based on chaotic systems. This paper proposed new image encryption technique based on new chaotic system by adding two chaotic systems: the Lorenz chaotic system and the Rössler chaotic system. The main advantage of this technique is stronger security, as is shown in the encryption tests.

Qais H. Alsafasfeh

2011-08-01

209

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the needs to protect such applications are increased. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information security systems. This work gives an insight into the new concept called hybrid approach of conventional encryption, which gives the concept of strong encryption of the data. The symmetric encryption also called conventional encryption or single key encryption was the only type of encryption is use prior to the development of public-key encryption. All the conventional encryption algorithms are very weak concept of encryption and brute-force attack and cryptanalysis attacks can easily determined the plain text. With the increasing use of the secure transmission of data and information over the internet, the need of strong encryption algorithm increasing day by day. In this work of encryption technique we present a new concept of conventional or symmetric encryption algorithm that hybrid two primitive (i.e. Caesar Cipher and Columnar Transposition and weak approach of encryption algorithm in multi stages to make the new approach more secure and strong than the earlier concept. The core of this algorithm is the use of two different secret keys for the Caesar Cipher and Columnar Transposition respectively. The cryptanalysis attack can not determine the plaintext easily, brute-force attack required long time to obtain plaintext. The mechanism used for this new hybrid algorithm is, first encrypt the message by applying Caesar Cipher technique and again Transpose the encrypted message receive from the Caesar Cipher, this process repeat again and again as many times as number of digits in the secret key for the Caesar cipher.

Dharmendra Kumar Gupta

2012-02-01

210

IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES USING CHAOTIC SCHEMES: A REVIEW

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary. It encompasses many problems like encryption, authentication, and key distribution to name a few. The field of modern cryptography providesa theoretical foundation based on which one can understand what exactly these problems are, how to evaluate protocols that purport to solve them and how to build protocols in whose security one can haveconfidence. Advanced digital technologies have made multimedia data widely available. Recently, multimedia applications become common in practice and thus security of multimedia data has become main concern.The basic issues pertaining to the problem of encryption has been discussed and also a survey on image encryption techniques based on chaotic schemes has been dealt in the present communication.The chaotic image encryption can be developed by using properties of chaos including deterministic dynamics, unpredictable behavior and non-linear transform. This concept leads to techniques that can simultaneously provide security functions and an overall visualcheck, which might be suitable in some applications. Digital images are widely used in various applications, that include military, legal and medical systems and these applications need to control access toimages and provide the means to verify integrity of images.

Monisha Sharma

2010-06-01

211

A Review On Data Hiding Techniques In Encrypted Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking into the networking era. There are number of techniques available in the industry to overcome this problem. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is one of the solution, but the problem is the original cover cannot be losslessly recovered by this technique. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent property that the original cover can be recovered without any los after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. This paper enlists the various methods of data hiding in the image like differential expansion, histogram shift or the combination of both the techniques. This is useful in the way that these methods recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.

Ms. Anagha Markandey

2013-10-01

212

Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware.

Donggeon Lee

2014-01-01

213

Efficient hardware implementation of the lightweight block encryption algorithm LEA.

Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859

Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

214

Application of the Chaotic Ergodicity of Standard Map in Image Encryption and Watermarking

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thanks to the exceptionally good properties in chaotic systems, such as sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters, pseudo-randomness and ergodicity, chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been widely studied and developed in recent years. Standard map is chaotic so that it can be employed to shuffle the positions of image pixels to get a totally visual difference from the original images. This paper proposes two novel schemes to shuffle digital images. Different from the conventional schemes based on Standard map, we disorder the pixel positions according to the orbits of the Standard map. The proposed shuffling schemes don’t need to discretize the Standard map and own more cipher leys compared with the conventional shuffling scheme based on the discretized Standard map. The shuffling schemes are applied to encrypt image and disorder the host image in watermarking scheme to enhance the robustness against attacks. Experimental results show that the proposed encryption scheme yields good secure effects. The watermarked images are robust against attacks as well.

Ruisong Ye

2010-11-01

215

Unified compression and encryption algorithm for fast and secure network communications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compression and encryption of data are two vital requirements for the fast and secure transmission of data in the network based communications. In this paper an algorithm is presented based on adaptive Huffman encoding for unified compression and encryption of Unicode encoded textual data. The Huffman encoding weakness that same tree is needed for decoding is utilized in the algorithm presented as an extra layer of security, which is updated whenever the frequency change is above the specified threshold level. The results show that we get compression comparable to popular zip format and in addition to that data has got an additional layer of encryption that makes it more secure. Thus unified algorithm presented here can be used for network communications between different branches of banks, e- Government programs and national database and registration centers where data transmission requires both compression and encryption. (author)

2005-01-01

216

An efficient diffusion approach for chaos-based image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the existing chaos-based image cryptosystems is composed of alternative substitution and diffusion stages. A multi-dimensional chaotic map is usually employed in the substitution stage for image pixel permutation while a one-dimensional (1D) chaotic map is used for diffusion purpose. As the latter usually involves real number arithmetic operations, the overall encryption speed is limited by the diffusion stage. In this paper, we propose a more efficient diffusion mechanism using simple table lookup and swapping techniques as a light-weight replacement of the 1D chaotic map iteration. Simulation results show that at a similar security level, the proposed cryptosystem needs about one-third the encryption time of a similar cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved.

2009-09-15

217

Vector Quantization Techniques For Partial Encryption of Wavelet-based Compressed Digital Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of image communication has increased in recent years. In this paper, newpartial encryption schemes are used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Only6.25-25% of the original data is encrypted for four different images, resulting in asignificant reduction in encryption and decryption time. In the compression step, anadvanced clustering analysis technique (Fuzzy C-means (FCM is used. In the encryptionstep, the permutation cipher is used. The effect of number of different clusters is studied.The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast and secure, and do not reduce thecompression performance of the underlying selected compression methods as shown inexperimental results and conclusion.

H. A. Younis

2009-01-01

218

A fast image encryption scheme based on chaotic standard map

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image cryptosystems have been proposed. One of the architectures of this kind of cryptosystems is composed of multiple rounds of substitution and diffusion. As the confusion and diffusion effects are solely contributed by the substitution and the diffusion stages, respectively, the required overall rounds of operations in achieving a certain level of security is found more than necessary. In this Letter, we suggest to introduce a certain diffusion effect in the substitution stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. Although this leads to a longer processing time in a single round, the overall encryption time is reduced as fewer rounds are required. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing fast cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved.

Wong, K.-W. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: itkwwong@cityu.edu.hk; Kwok, B.S.-H.; Law, W.-S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

2008-04-07

219

A fast image encryption scheme based on chaotic standard map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image cryptosystems have been proposed. One of the architectures of this kind of cryptosystems is composed of multiple rounds of substitution and diffusion. As the confusion and diffusion effects are solely contributed by the substitution and the diffusion stages, respectively, the required overall rounds of operations in achieving a certain level of security is found more than necessary. In this Letter, we suggest to introduce a certain diffusion effect in the substitution stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. Although this leads to a longer processing time in a single round, the overall encryption time is reduced as fewer rounds are required. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing fast cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved

2008-04-07

220

Optical image encryption and hiding based on a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

A method for optical image hiding and for optical image encryption and hiding in the Fresnel domain via completely optical means is proposed, which encodes original object image into the encrypted image and then embeds it into host image in our modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture. The modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer not only provides phase shifts to record complex amplitude of final encrypted object image on CCD plane but also introduces host image into reference path of the interferometer to hide it. The final encrypted object image is registered as interference patterns, which resemble a Fresnel diffraction pattern of the host image, and thus the secure information is imperceptible to unauthorized receivers. The method can simultaneously realize image encryption and image hiding at a high speed in pure optical system. The validity of the method and its robustness against some common attacks are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. PMID:24663801

Li, Jun; Li, Jiaosheng; Shen, Lina; Pan, Yangyang; Li, Rong

2014-02-24

221

New Visual Cryptography Algorithm For Colored Image

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual Cryptography is a special encryption technique to hide information in images, which divide secret image into multiple layers. Each layer holds some information. The receiver aligns the layers and the secret information is revealed by human vision without any complex computation. The proposed algorithm is for color image, that presents a system which takes four pictures as an input and generates three images which correspond to three of the four input pictures. The dec...

Abdulla, Sozan

2010-01-01

222

Double image encryption method using the Arnold transform in the fractional Hartley domain

A new method for double image encryption based on the fractional Hartley transform (FrHT) and the Arnold transform (AT) is proposed in this work. The encryption method encodes the first input image in amplitude and the second input image is encoded in phase, in order to define a complex image. This complex image is successively four times transformed using FrHT and AT, and the resulting complex image represents the encrypted image. The decryption method is the same method as the encryption method applied in the inverse sense. The AT is a process of image shearing and stitching in which pixels of the image are rearranged. This AT is used in the encryption method with the purpose of spreading the information content of the two input images onto the encrypted image and to increase the security of the encrypted image. The fractional orders of the FrHTs and the parameters of the ATs correspond to the keys of the encryption-decryption method. Only when all of those keys are correct in the decryption method, the two original images can be recovered. We present digital results that confirm our approach.

Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, César O.; Jimenez, Carlos J.

2013-11-01

223

Design an Algorithm for Data Encryption and Decryption Using Pentaoctagesimal SNS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is the most effective way of computer science concerned with developing schemes and formula to achieve data and information security through the use of codes. Today the privacy is the main issue to sending information from one point to another in data transmission. Encryption is the procedure that allows messages or information to be encoded in such a way that it is extremely difficult to read or understand where decryption is the procedure to transforming encoded text into the original message and information. In this paper we present an algorithm for data encryption and decryption which is based on number theory. In addition, data encryption using strange number system (especially using pentaoctagesimal (SNS can provide real physical security to data—allowing only authorized users to delete or update data. This algorithm is used pentaoctagesimal strange number system to encrypt data and we propose a better data encryption and decryption strategy, which will offer better security towards all possible ways of attacks while data transmission.

Debasis Das

2013-12-01

224

Partial Encryption of Co mpressed Image Using Threshold Quantization and AES Cipher

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is one of the technological means to provide security to data beingtransmitted on information and communication systems.When it is necessary to securelytransmit data in limited bandwidth, both compression and encryption must be performed.Researchers have combined compression and encryption together to reduce the overallprocessing time.In this paper, new partial encryption schemes are proposed to encrypt only part of thecompressed image.Soft and hard threshold compression methods are used in thecompressionstep and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES cipher is used forthe encryption step. The effect of different threshold values on the performance of the proposed schemes are studied. The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast, secure, and do not reduce the compression performance of the underlying selected compression methods.

H.A.Younis

2012-01-01

225

Chaos-based encryption for fractal image coding

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chaos-based cryptosystem for fractal image coding is proposed. The Rényi chaotic map is employed to determine the order of processing the range blocks and to generate the keystream for masking the encoded sequence. Compared with the standard approach of fractal image coding followed by the Advanced Encryption Standard, our scheme offers a higher sensitivity to both plaintext and ciphertext at a comparable operating efficiency. The keystream generated by the Rényi chaotic map passes the randomness tests set by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, and so the proposed scheme is sensitive to the key. (general)

2012-01-01

226

An image encryption approach based on chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well-known that images are different from texts in many aspects, such as highly redundancy and correlation, the local structure and the characteristics of amplitude-frequency. As a result, the methods of conventional encryption cannot be applicable to images. In this paper, we improve the properties of confusion and diffusion in terms of discrete exponential chaotic maps, and design a key scheme for the resistance to statistic attack, differential attack and grey code attack. Experimental and theoretical results also show that our scheme is efficient and very secure

2005-05-01

227

Design and Analysis of a Novel Digital Image Encryption Scheme

In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 144-bits is proposed. In the substitution process of the scheme, image is divided into blocks and subsequently into color components. Each color component is modified by performing bitwise operation which depends on secret key as well as a few most significant bits of its previous and next color component. Three rounds are taken to complete substitution process. To make cipher more robust, a feedback mechanism is also applied by modifying used secret key after encrypting each block. Further, resultant image is partitioned into several key based dynamic sub-images. Each sub-image passes through the scrambling process where pixels of sub-image are reshuffled within itself by using a generated magic square matrix. Five rounds are taken for scrambling process. The propose scheme is simple, fast and sensitive to the secret key. Due to high order of substitution and permutation, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasibl...

Pareek, Narendra K

2012-01-01

228

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption.

Tzu-Hsiang Hung

2012-06-01

229

This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption. PMID:22969355

Yau, Her-Terng; Hung, Tzu-Hsiang; Hsieh, Chia-Chun

2012-01-01

230

The hybrid hiding encryption algorithm, as its name implies, embraces concepts from both steganography and cryptography. In this exertion, an improved micro-architecture Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of this algorithm is presented. This design overcomes the observed limitations of a previously-designed micro-architecture. These observed limitations are: no exploitation of the possibility of parallel bit replacement, and the fact that the input plaintext was encrypted serially, which caused a dependency between the throughput and the nature of the used secret key. This dependency can be viewed by some as vulnerability in the security of the implemented micro-architecture. The proposed modified micro-architecture is constructed using five basic modules. These modules are; the message cache, the message alignment module, the key cache, the comparator, and at last the encryption module. In this work, we provide comprehensive simulation and implementation results. These are: the timing diagra...

Farouk, Hala A

2011-01-01

231

An Investigation into Encrypted Message Hiding Through Images Using LSB

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data security has become a cause of concern because of the electronic spying especially in the military, government and many sectors of communication fields. This paper investigates a representation forembedding secure data within an image based on substitution method which gives the scope of large amount of secret message hiding within digital images. Specifically we used least significant bit (LSBsubstitution method to encrypt the message in image file. For improving the performance of LSB which is very simple by nature, we performed noise filtering at the beginning of the process to ensure noise-free data to be transmitted through the image. Also, after the extraction of the secure message at the receiver portion of the network, we used Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ method as the error detection and correction process to ensure that the correct data has been transmitted and no information is lost. The improved framework resulted in satisfactory outcomes.

FAHIM IRFAN ALAM

2011-02-01

232

Message Based Random Variable Length Key Encryption Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: A block ciphers provides confidentiality in cryptography but cryptanalysis of the classical block ciphers demonstrated some old weaknesses grabbing a partial key in any stage of encryption procedure leads to reconstructing the whole key. Exhaustive key search shows that key generation should be indeterminist and random for each round. Matching cipher-text attack shows that larger size of block is more secure. In order to overcome analysis mentioned above a new algori...

Hamid Mirvaziri; Ismail, Kasmiran J. M.; Hanapi, Zurina M.

2009-01-01

233

A multiple-image encryption scheme based on the optical wavelet transform (OWT) and the multichannel fractional Fourier transform (MFrFT) is proposed. The scheme can make full use of multi-resolution decomposition of wavelet transform (WT) and multichannel processing of MFrFT. The mentioned properties can achieve the encryption of multi-image and the encryption of single image. When encryption finished, each image gets its own fractional order and independent keys. Analysis of encrypted effects has been completed. Furthermore, the influence of WT type and order are analyzed, and the application and analysis of MFrFT are accomplished as well. Numerical simulation verifies the feasibility of the scheme and shows that the problem of insufficient capacity is better solved, and the flexibility of scheme increases. A simple opto-electronic mixed device to realize the scheme is proposed.

Kong, Dezhao; Shen, Xueju

2014-04-01

234

A NEW DATA HIDING ALGORITHM WITH ENCRYPTED SECRET MESSAGE USING TTJSA SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTO SYSTEM

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present work we are proposing a new steganogarphy method to hide any encrypted secret message inside a cover file by substituting in the LSB. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm namely TTJSA developed by Nath et al [10]. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al [2]. The TTJSA method comprises of 3 distinct methods which are also developed by Nath et al[1,7]. The methods are MSA[Meheboob, Saima and Asoke][1], NJJSAA[Neeraj, Joel, Joyshr...

Sayak Guha

2012-01-01

235

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES, as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high security in their systems may look for a key size bigger than 128-bit AES. In this paper, 128, 192 and 256-bit AES hardware are implemented and compared in terms of throughput and area. The target hardware used in this paper is Virtex XC5VLX50 FPGA from Xilinx. Total area and Throughput results are presented and graphically compared.

Samir El Adib

2012-06-01

236

Applying Encryption Algorithm for Data Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is the next big thing after internet in the field of information technology; some say its a metaphor for internet. It is an Internet-based computing technology, in which software, shared recourses and information, are provided to consumers and devices on-demand, and as per users requirement on a pay per use model. Even though the cloud continues to grow in popularity, Usability and respectability, Problems with data protection and data privacy and other Security issues play a major setback in the field of Cloud Computing. Privacy and security are the key issue for cloud storage. Encryption is a well known technology for protecting sensitive data. Use of the combination of Public and Private key encryption to hide the sensitive data of users, and cipher text retrieval. The paper analyzes the feasibility of the applying encryption algorithm for data security and privacy in cloud Storage.

Mohit Marwaha

2013-01-01

237

In this paper, an image encryption scheme based on polarized light encoding and a phase-truncation approach in the Fresnel transform domain is proposed. The phase-truncated data obtained by an asymmetric cryptosystem is encrypted and decrypted by using the concept of the Stokes-Mueller formalism. Image encryption based on polarization of light using Stokes-Mueller formalism has the main advantage over Jones vector formalism that it manipulates only intensity information, which is measurable. Thus any intensity information can be encrypted and decrypted using this scheme. The proposed method offers several advantages: (1) a lens-free setup, (2) flexibility in the encryption key design, (3) use of asymmetric keys, and (4) immunity against special attack. We present numerical simulation results for gray-scale and color images in support of the proposed security scheme. The performance measurement parameters relative error and correlation coefficient have been calculated to check the effectiveness of the scheme. PMID:23842178

Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K

2013-06-20

238

A sensitive data extraction algorithm based on the content associated encryption technology for ICS

With the development of HD video, the protection of copyright becomes more complicated. More advanced copyright protection technology is needed. Traditional digital copyright protection technology generally uses direct or selective encryption algorithm and the key does not associate with the video content [1]. Once the encryption method is cracked or the key is stolen, the copyright of the video will be violated. To address this issue, this paper proposes a Sensitive Data Extraction Algorithm (SDEA) based on the content associated encryption technology which applies to the Internet Certification Service (ICS). The principle of content associated encryption is to extract some data from the video and use this extracted data as the key to encrypt the rest data. The extracted part from video is called sensitive data, and the rest part is called the main data. After extraction, the main data will not be played or poorly played. The encrypted sensitive data reach the terminal device through the safety certificated network and the main data are through ICS disc. The terminal equipments are responsible for synthesizing and playing these two parts of data. Consequently, even if the main data on disc is illegally obtained, the video cannot be played normally due to the lack of necessary sensitive data. It is proved by experiments that ICS using SDEA can destruct the video effectively with 0.25% extraction rates and the destructed video cannot be played well. It can also guarantee the consistency of the destructive effect on different videos with different contents. The sensitive data can be transported smoothly under the home Internet bandwidth.

Wang, Wei; Hao, Huang; Xie, Changsheng

239

Crypto-Compression of Medical Images by Selective Encryption of DCT

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The traffic of digital images has grown rapidly in the Internet. Security of image becomes important for many sectors mainly for medical applications. Nowadays, the transmission of medical images is a daily routine, especially over wireless (battlefields, traffic accidents, etc). Partial encryption is an approach to reduce the computational resources for huge volumes of multimedia data in low power network. This paper presents a method of partial or selective encryption for JPEG images. It is...

Puech, William; Rodrigues, Jose Marconi

2005-01-01

240

Color image encryption by using Arnold and discrete fractional random transforms in IHS space

In this paper, we propose a novel color image encryption method using discrete fractional random transform (DFRNT) and Arnold transform (AT) in the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) color space. A color image is converted into IHS space from the standard red-green-blue (RGB) space. The intensity component is encrypted by DFRNT, which is a kind of encryption with the secrecy of pixel value and pixel position simultaneously. The hue and saturation components are encrypted using Arnold transform, which is a kind of position scrambling. Comparing to the classical double-random-phase encoding, DFRNT encryption method can save storage space of the encryption keys required to be stored for decryption, meanwhile with the similar security. The fractional order of DFRNT, the random matrix of DFRNT and the iteration numbers of Arnold transform are the encryption keys to enhance the security of the proposed scheme. The performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed against the variation in fractional order, the change of Arnold transform iteration number, known-plaintext attack, noise addition and occlusion of the encrypted image, respectively. Numerical simulation results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Guo, Qing; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

2010-12-01

241

An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Bit Circular Shift and Bi-directional Diffusion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel image encryption scheme based on chaotic system is proposed. The proposed encryption scheme utilizes one tent map to generate a pseudo-random sequence and then shift the bits of the expanding 0-1 image circularly so as to shuffle the image gray values. To make the encryption scheme resist differential attack efficiently, generalized Arnold maps and Bernoulli shift maps are applied to produce two pseudo-random gray value sequences and then diffuse the gray values bi-directionally. The bit circular shift process and diffusion processes greatly confuse the statistical nature between plain-images and cipher-images. Security analyses including key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, statistical analysis, differential attack analysis and information entropy analysis are performed. All the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to frustrate brute-force attack efficiently and can resist statistical attack, differential attack, etc.

Ruisong Ye

2013-12-01

242

A Multilayered Secure, Robust and High Capacity Image Steganographic Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is observed that all of the current steganographic algorithms rely heavily on the conventional encryption systems which do not serve well in the context of image steganography. Advanced encryption standard (AES is one of the most powerful techniques of cryptography which can be used as an integral part of steganographic system for better confidentiality and security. In this paper we propose a reversible image steganographic embedding algorithm consisting of three parts. First, we use the self-synchronization variable codes, viz., T-codes for encoding/compressing the original text message. Next, the encoded binary string is encrypted using an improved AES method. The encrypted message is then embedded in the high frequency bands obtained from the cover image by applying the 1-level decomposition of Double Density Dual Tree Discrete Wavelet Transform (DD DT DWT. This algorithm provides three layer of security- one layer at each level of compression, encryption and embedding, respectively. Thus, there is no chance that the intruder may detect the original message after couple of attacks. The algorithm is compared with the corresponding algorithm based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and found to be better in terms of imperceptibility, robustness and embedding capacity.

S.K.Muttoo

2011-08-01

243

An RGB Image Encryption Supported by Wavelet-based Lossless Compression

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we have proposed a method for an RGB image encryption supported by lifting scheme based lossless compression. Firstly we have compressed the input color image using a 2-D integer wavelet transform. Then we have applied lossless predictive coding to achieve additional compression. The compressed image is encrypted by using Secure Advanced Hill Cipher (SAHC) involving a pair of involutory matrices, a function called Mix() and an operation called XOR. Decryption followed by reconst...

2012-01-01

244

Ensemble Of Blowfish With Chaos Based S Box Design For Text And Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid and extensive usage of Internet in the present decade has put forth information security as an utmost concern. Most of the commercial transactions taking place over the Internet involves a wide variety of data including text, images, audio and video. With the increasing use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing Multimedia data, the fundamental issue of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the information poses a major challenge for security professionals and hassled to the major developments in Cryptography . In cryptography, an S-Box (Substitution-box is a basic componentof symmetric key algorithms, which performs substitution and is typically used to make the relationship between the key and the cipher text non linear and most of the symmetric key algorithms like DES, Blowfish makes use of S boxes. This paper proposes a new method for design of S boxes based on chaos theory. Chaotic equations are popularly known for its randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and ergodicity. The modified design has been tested with blowfish algorithm which has no effective crypt analysis reported against its design till date because of its salient design features including the key dependant s boxes and complex key generation process. However every new key requires pre-processing equivalent to encrypting about 4 kilobytes of text, which is very slow compared to other block ciphers and it prevents its usage in memory limited applications and embedded systems. The modified design of S boxesmaintains the non linearity [3] [5] and key dependency factors of S boxes with a major reduction in time complexity of generation of S boxes and P arrays. The algorithm has been implemented and the proposed design has been analyzed for size of key space, key sensitivity and Avalanche effect. Experimental results on text and Image Encryption show that the modified design of key generation continues to offer the same level of security as the original Blowfish cipher with a less computational overhead in key generation

Jeyamala Chandrasekaran

2011-08-01

245

A Modified Location-Dependent Image Encryption for Mobile Information System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wide spread use of WLAN (Wireless LAN and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. In such scenario, a need for Secure Communication arises. Secure communication is possible through encryption of data. A lot of encryption techniques have evolved over time. However, most of the data encryption techniques are location-independent. Data encrypted with such techniques can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict the location of data decryption. GPS-based encryption (or geoencryption is an innovative technique that uses GPS-technology to encode location information into the encryption keys to provide location based security. In this paper a location-dependent approach is proposed for mobile information system. The mobile client transmits a target latitude/longitude coordinate and an LDEA key is obtained for data encryption to information server. The client can only decrypt the ciphertext when the coordinate acquired form GPS receiver matches with the target coordinate. For improved security, a random key (R-key is incorporated in addition to the LDEA key. The proposed method is applied for images.

Prasad Reddy.P.V.G.D

2010-05-01

246

TJ-ACA: An Advanced Cryptographic Algorithm for Color Images using Ikeda Mapping

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available — Presently, cryptography of images is of high concern due to highly confidential information contained in it. Image encryption is difficult as compared to text encryption because of high correlation among pixels and bulk information capacity. A newly proposed algorithm based on symmetric key algorithm, TJ-ACA, an advanced cryptographic algorithm will make use of pixel position alteration, and pixel intensity surrogation through which a visually changed image i.e. encrypted image is obtained. In this algorithm, ikeda mapping and various methods are used to get highly secure image. To increase the security ikeda mapping is done at five different values instead of single value. This proposed algorithm is applicable for color images and also for images on which steganography has been applied and by this method we get lossless decrypted image. This method resists Brute Force attack.TJ-ACA can be applied to all sizes images which can be used in medical, aerial application.

Taranjit Kaur#1 , Reecha Sharma

2013-05-01

247

Multiple-image encryption scheme based on cascaded fractional Fourier transform.

A multiple-image encryption scheme based on cascaded fractional Fourier transform is proposed. In the scheme, images are successively coded into the amplitude and phase of the input by cascading stages, which ends up with an encrypted image and a series of keys. The scheme takes full advantage of multikeys and the cascaded relationships of all stages, and it not only realizes image encryption but also achieves higher safety and more diverse applications. So multiuser authentication and hierarchical encryption are achieved. Numerical simulation verifies the feasibility of the method and demonstrates the security of the scheme and decryption characteristics. Finally, flexibility and variability of the scheme in application are discussed, and the simple photoelectric mixed devices to realize the scheme are proposed. PMID:23669669

Kong, Dezhao; Shen, Xueju; Xu, Qinzu; Xin, Wang; Guo, Haiqiong

2013-04-20

248

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper a new cryptographic method called UES Version-III has been introduced. Nath et al recently developed few efficient encryption methods such as UES version-I, Modified UES-I, UES version-II, TTJSA, DJMNA Nath et. al showed that TTJSA and DJMNA is most suitable methods to encrypt password or any small message. The name of the present method is Ultra Encryption Standard Version-III. It is a Symmetric key Cryptosystem which includes multiple encryption, bit-wise randomization, new advanced bit-wise encryption technique with feedback. In this paper, the authors have performed encryption entirely at the bit-level to achieve greater strength of encryption. In the result section the authors have shown the spectral analysis of encrypted text as well as plain text. The spectral analysis shows that UES-III is free from standard cryptography attack such as brute force attack, known plain text attack and differential attack

Satyaki Roy

2012-07-01

249

An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme Based on Chaotic Quantum Encryption Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) scheme is demonstrated via the improved quantum chaotic encryption algorithm with the quantum one-time pad based on chaotic operation string. In this scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the aid of the arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. Analysis shows that the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attacker.

2013-01-01

250

An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme Based on Chaotic Quantum Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An arbitrated quantum signature (AQS scheme is demonstrated via the improved quantum chaotic encryption algorithm with the quantum one-time pad based on chaotic operation string. In this scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the aid of the arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. Analysis shows that the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attacker.

Ying Guo

2013-05-01

251

Authentication and Encryption in GSM and 3GUMTS: An Emphasis on Protocols and Algorithms

Mobile communication touches every aspect of our life, it become one of the major dependencies that the 21st Century civilizations rely on. Thereby, security is a major issue that should be targeted by communication technologies. In this paper we will target authentication and encryption in GSM and 3G/UMTS. In order to understand clearly how things work, we will start by presenting the architecture of each network, its major components, its authentication algorithms, protocols used, and KASUMI Block Cipher.

Elouafiq, Ali

2012-01-01

252

Fast ghost imaging and ghost encryption based on the discrete cosine transform

We introduce the discrete cosine transform as an advanced compression tool for images in computational ghost imaging. A novel approach to fast imaging and encryption, the discrete cosine transform, promotes the security level of ghost images and reduces the image retrieval time. To discuss the advantages of this technique we compare experimental outcomes with simulated ones.

Tanha, Mehrdad; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Kheradmand, Reza

2013-11-01

253

An Efficient Stream Cipher Algorithm for Data Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays the data telecommunication security has been provided by most of well-known stream cipher algorithms which are already implemented in different secure protocols such as GSM, SSL, TLS, WEP, Bluetooth etc. These algorithms are A5/1, A5/2, E0 and RC4. On the other hand, these public algorithms already faced to serious security weakness such that they do not provide enough security of proportional plain data in front of cryptanalysis attacks. In this paper we proposed an efficient stream cipher algorithm which generates 23 random bits in each round of processing by parallel random number generator and 115 bits of Initial Vector. This algorithm can implement in high speed communication link more than 100Mb/s and it has passed all of standard cryptographic tests successfully, also it can resist in front of well-known attacks such as algebraic and correlation.

Majid Bakhtiari

2011-05-01

254

An RGB Image Encryption Supported by Wavelet-based Lossless Compression

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a method for an RGB image encryption supported by lifting scheme based lossless compression. Firstly we have compressed the input color image using a 2-D integer wavelet transform. Then we have applied lossless predictive coding to achieve additional compression. The compressed image is encrypted by using Secure Advanced Hill Cipher (SAHC involving a pair of involutory matrices, a function called Mix( and an operation called XOR. Decryption followed by reconstruction shows that there is no difference between the output image and the input image. The proposed method can be used for efficient and secure transmission of image data.

Ch. Samson

2012-09-01

255

A Novel Approach for Data Encryption Standard Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Now a day’s providing Security for data iscomplicated task we have so many security methods that areimplemented and deployed but out of them few are using andserving the needs of society. And we can’t say that any algorithm isperfect and avoids threats. The main goal of any design of anyencryption algorithm must be security against unauthorizedattacks. Within the last decade, data in both the private and publicsectors are increased which requires Availability, Authentication,Confidentiali...

2013-01-01

256

Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm upto 4 Round on Spartan 3

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized upto 4 round using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3 Modelsim. The paper deals with various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc. used in order to provide optimized results.

Nimmi Gupta

2012-02-01

257

A Safety Algorithm of P2P Routing based on Multiple-Encryption Detecting Technology

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nodes can freely join or leave the P2P network, which will lead to much false routing information that can cripple the performance of P2P network. Many hackers also utilize the weaken point to attack the P2P network. We propose a safety routing algorithm for P2P network to resist the routing attack. The algorithm adopts the multiple-encryption detecting technology. The node which launches the communicating connection will periodically detect every node in its routing path by sending some ...

2013-01-01

258

A Selective Encryption for Heterogenous Color JPEG Images Based on VLC and AES Stream Cipher

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, the most important engine to provide confidentiality is encryption. Therefore, the classical and modern ciphers are not suitable for huge quantity of data in real-time environment. Selective encryption (SE) is an approach to encode only the most important portion of the data in order to provide a proportional privacy and to reduce computational requirements. The objective of our work is to leave free the low-resolution image and give full-resolution access only for authorized person...

Rodrigues, Jose?; Puech, William; Bors, Adrian

2006-01-01

259

Joint Watermarking and Encryption of Color Images in the Fibonacci-Haar Domain

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel method for watermarking and ciphering color images, based on the joint use of a key-dependent wavelet transform with a secure cryptographic scheme, is presented. The system allows to watermark encrypted data without requiring the knowledge of the original data and also to cipher watermarked data without damaging the embedded signal. Since different areas of the proposed transform domain are used for encryption and watermarking, the extraction of the hidden information can be performed...

Federica Battisti; Michela Cancellaro; Giulia Boato; Marco Carli; Alessandro Neri

2009-01-01

260

A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed. In the proposed method, the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly, then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out. The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image, which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The computer simulation results of statistical analysis, information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.

2012-10-01

261

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Advanced Standard Encryption Algorithm (AES is widely used in modern consumer electronicproducts for security. The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate wireless sensor networks also use AES algorithm wherelow power consumption is the priority. To reduce the time taken for encryption of huge data, the algorithm hasto be implemented in hardware. To meet the requirement for low area the algorithm has to be implemented insoftware. Hence, a balance has to be achieved between hardware and software implementations in terms of areaand speed, so as to improve the overall performance of the system. Also with the co-design methodology totalthermal power dissipation is reduced. In this paper, 128 bit AES algorithm is implemented with hardware incombination with software using Altera NIOS II Processor platform. Altera’s Quartus II environment is used fordesign of the system. Cyclone II FPGA is used as a development platform. Software program is written in C language. NIOS II ntegrated Development Environment (IDE is used to integrate hardware and software together. By adopting hardware / software co-design methodology for implementation of AES, results show that a onsiderable improvement in speed can be achieved as compared to software only approach. Further, the significant reduction in area is achieved as compared to hardware only approach. By the approach of co-design an optimized design in terms of speed and area is achieved and also the thermal power dissipation is reduced

MEGHANA A. HASAMNIS

2012-05-01

262

Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication

A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.

Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto

2012-07-01

263

An Adaptive Blind Watermarking Algorithm for Color Image

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposed a novel blind color digital watermarking algorithm based on Integer Discrete Wavelet Transform (IDWT) and Human Visual System (HVS). Firstly, color watermark image was processed into one dimension digital information, and color host image was converted into YIQ color space. Then, according to the features of HVS, encrypted watermark was embedded adaptively into the Y luminance component of the YIQ color space in IDWT domain. The proposed algorithm allowed extracting wat...

Qiming Liu

2013-01-01

264

IMPLICATIONS OF BITSUM ATTACK ON TINY ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM AND XTEA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEA and XTEA are block ciphers that uses Fiestal structure. We enciphered a fixed message with different keys using TEA and XTEA cryptographic algorithms. Our interest was to find the correlation of the bitsum of the ciphertext with the bitsums of the corresponding keys. In our attempt, we found that for specific patterns of keys, whatever be the plaintext, the bitsum of the key is in perfect correlation with bitsum of the ciphertext.

Amandeep

2014-01-01

265

A New Loss-Tolerant Image Encryption Scheme Based on Secret Sharing and Two Chaotic Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we propose an efficient loss-tolerant image encryption scheme that protects both confidentiality and loss-tolerance simultaneously in shadow images. In this scheme, we generate the key sequence based on two chaotic maps and then encrypt the image during the sharing phase based on Shamir’s method. Experimental results show a better performance of the proposed scheme for different images than other methods from human vision. Security analysis confirms a high probability to resist both brute-force and collusion attacks.

Li Li

2012-04-01

266

High Security Nested PWLCM Chaotic Map Bit-Level Permutation Based Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chaotic systems produce pseudo-random sequences with good randomness; therefore, these systems are suitable to efficient image encryption. In this paper, a low complexity image encryption based on Nested Piece Wise Linear Chaotic Map (NPWLCM is proposed. Bit planes of the grey or color levels are shuffled to increase the encryption complexity. A security analysis of the proposed system is performed and presented. The proposed method combine pixel shuffling, bit shuffling, and diffusion, which is highly disorder the original image. The initial values and the chaos control parameters of NPWLCM maps are derived from external secret key. The cipher image generated by this method is the same size as the original image and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet. The experimental results of the proposed method show advantages of low complexity, and high-level security.

Qassim Nasir

2012-09-01

267

A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Encryption of images is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of images such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. Due to the exceptionally desirable properties of mixing and sensitivity to initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps, chaos-based encryption has suggested a new and efficient way to deal with the intractable problem of fast and highly secure image encryption. In this paper, the two-dimensional chaotic cat map is generalized to 3D for designing a real-time secure symmetric encryption scheme. This new scheme employs the 3D cat map to shuffle the positions (and, if desired, grey values as well) of image pixels and uses another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to statistical and differential attacks. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security and fast encryption speed of the new scheme.

Chen Guanrong E-mail: gchen@ee.cityu.edu.hk; Mao Yaobin; Chui, Charles K

2004-07-01

268

A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Encryption of images is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of images such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. Due to the exceptionally desirable properties of mixing and sensitivity to initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps, chaos-based encryption has suggested a new and efficient way to deal with the intractable problem of fast and highly secure image encryption. In this paper, the two-dimensional chaotic cat map is generalized to 3D for designing a real-time secure symmetric encryption scheme. This new scheme employs the 3D cat map to shuffle the positions (and, if desired, grey values as well) of image pixels and uses another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to statistical and differential attacks. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security and fast encryption speed of the new scheme

2004-07-01

269

Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption

Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encrypted using chaos based logistic map. This provides an efficient and secure way for image encryption and transmission. The watermarked image is decrypted and a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of the primary as well as secondary watermark from the distorted image.

Dhanalakshmi, R

2010-01-01

270

New Visual Cryptography Algorithm For Colored Image

Visual Cryptography is a special encryption technique to hide information in images, which divide secret image into multiple layers. Each layer holds some information. The receiver aligns the layers and the secret information is revealed by human vision without any complex computation. The proposed algorithm is for color image, that presents a system which takes four pictures as an input and generates three images which correspond to three of the four input pictures. The decoding requires only selecting some subset of these 3 images, making transparencies of them, and stacking them on top of each other, so the forth picture is reconstructed by printing the three output images onto transparencies and stacking them together. The reconstructed image achieved in same size with original secret image.

Abdulla, Sozan

2010-01-01

271

On the security of 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption scheme

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption algorithm, which significantly increases the resistance against statistical and differential attacks, has been proposed recently. It employs a 3D Cat map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and uses the Logistic map to diffuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Based on the factor that it is sufficient to break this cryptosystem only with the equivalent control parameters, some fundamental weaknesses of the cryptosystem are pointed out. With the knowledge of symbolic dynamics and some specially designed plain-images, we can calculate the equivalent initial condition of diffusion process and rebuild a valid equivalent 3D Cat matrix. In this Letter, we will propose a successful chosen-plain-text cryptanalytic attack, which is composed of two mutually independent procedures: the cryptanalysis of the diffusion process and the cryptanalysis of the spatial permutation process. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the lack of security discourages the use of these cryptosystems for practical applications.

Wang Kai [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Pei, W.-J. [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: wjpei@seu.edu.cn; Zou, Liuhua [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song Aiguo [Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); He Zhenya [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2005-08-22

272

On the security of 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption scheme

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption algorithm, which significantly increases the resistance against statistical and differential attacks, has been proposed recently. It employs a 3D Cat map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and uses the Logistic map to diffuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Based on the factor that it is sufficient to break this cryptosystem only with the equivalent control parameters, some fundamental weaknesses of the cryptosystem are pointed out. With the knowledge of symbolic dynamics and some specially designed plain-images, we can calculate the equivalent initial condition of diffusion process and rebuild a valid equivalent 3D Cat matrix. In this Letter, we will propose a successful chosen-plain-text cryptanalytic attack, which is composed of two mutually independent procedures: the cryptanalysis of the diffusion process and the cryptanalysis of the spatial permutation process. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the lack of security discourages the use of these cryptosystems for practical applications

2005-08-22

273

Image encryption based on permutation-substitution using chaotic map and Latin Square Image Cipher

In this paper we presented a image encryption based on permutation-substitution using chaotic map and Latin square image cipher. The proposed method consists of permutation and substitution process. In permutation process, plain image is permuted according to chaotic sequence generated using chaotic map. In substitution process, based on secrete key of 256 bit generate a Latin Square Image Cipher (LSIC) and this LSIC is used as key image and perform XOR operation between permuted image and key image. The proposed method can applied to any plain image with unequal width and height as well and also resist statistical attack, differential attack. Experiments carried out for different images of different sizes. The proposed method possesses large key space to resist brute force attack.

Panduranga, H. T.; Naveen Kumar, S. K.; Kiran

2014-03-01

274

Robust Encryption Algorithm Based Sht in Wireless Sensor Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In bound applications, the locations of events reportable by a device network have to be compelled to stay anonymous. That is, unauthorized observers should be unable to notice the origin of such events by analyzing the network traffic. I analyze 2 forms of downsides: Communication overhead and machine load problem. During this paper, I gift a brand new framework for modeling, analyzing, and evaluating obscurity in device networks. The novelty of the proposed framework is twofold: initial, it introduces the notion of “interval indistinguishability” and provides a quantitative live to model obscurity in wireless device networks; second, it maps supply obscurity to the applied mathematics downside I showed that the present approaches for coming up with statistically anonymous systems introduce correlation in real intervals whereas faux area unit unrelated. I show however mapping supply obscurity to consecutive hypothesis testing with nuisance Parameters ends up in changing the matter of exposing non-public supply data into checking out associate d egree applicable knowledge transformation that removes or minimize the impact of the nuisance data victimization sturdy cryptography algorithmic rule. By doing therefore, I remodel the matter of analyzing real valued sample points to binary codes, that opens the door for committal to writing theory to be incorporated into the study of anonymous etworks. In existing work, unable to notice unauthorized observer in network traffic. However our work in the main supported enhances their supply obscurity against correlation check. the most goal of supply location privacy is to cover the existence of real events.

Uma.G

2014-06-01

275

An Implementation of BLOWFISH Encryption Algorithm using KERBEROS Authentication Mechanism

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sensitive information stored on computers and transmitted over the Internet need to ensure information security and safety measures. Without our knowledge, the Intruders sneak into the systems, misuse it and even create back doors to our computer systems. Thus, there must not be any compromise in securing our resources. Hence, Cryptography is mainly used to ensure secrecy. Access Control Policy is used for securing the resources as initial state, which determines the potential threats, the solutions and the ways of implementation of the security. Various security solutions to block the unauthenticated users starts from a series mechanism from Firewalls to Kerberos, most of them need a strong cryptographic base. Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange ultimately which tend to the security of information. Among which Kerberos authentication promises most secured and unbreakable. It works on the basis of granting tickets for each session and resource access. This paper includes a mechanism that implements the Blowfish algorithm with a 64 bit length key with an improved security assurance.

Ch Panchamukesh

2011-07-01

276

Novel image encryption/decryption based on quantum Fourier transform and double phase encoding

A novel gray-level image encryption/decryption scheme is proposed, which is based on quantum Fourier transform and double random-phase encoding technique. The biggest contribution of our work lies in that it is the first time that the double random-phase encoding technique is generalized to quantum scenarios. As the encryption keys, two phase coding operations are applied in the quantum image spatial domain and the Fourier transform domain respectively. Only applying the correct keys, the original image can be retrieved successfully. Because all operations in quantum computation must be invertible, decryption is the inverse of the encryption process. A detailed theoretical analysis is given to clarify its robustness, computational complexity and advantages over its classical counterparts. It paves the way for introducing more optical information processing techniques into quantum scenarios.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Xia, Juan; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Hua

2013-11-01

277

Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security. (general)

2012-05-01

278

Cryptanalysis and improvement of a digital image encryption method with chaotic map lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A digital image encryption scheme using chaotic map lattices has been proposed recently. In this paper, two fatal flaws of the cryptosystem are pointed out. According to these two drawbacks, cryptanalysts could recover the plaintext by applying the chosen plaintext attack. Therefore, the proposed cryptosystem is not secure enough to be used in the image transmission system. Experimental results show the feasibility of the attack. As a result, we make some improvements to the encryption scheme, which can completely resist our chosen plaintext attack. (general)

2013-05-01

279

A FUZZY LOGIC APPROACH TO ENCRYPTED WATERMARKING FOR STILL IMAGES IN WAVELET DOMAIN ON FPGA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy logic approach is introduced to embed the encrypted watermark in the wavelet domain. The multi-resolution representation based on DWT incorporates a model of Human VisualSystem (HVS. Encryption and digital watermarking techniques need to be incorporated in digital right management. It is clear that these two technologies are complimenting each other, and the completesecurity of the digital contains depends on both. Encryption transforms the original contain into unreadable format and watermarking leaves the digital object intact and recognizable. The objective is to develop simple, real time and robust secure watermarking system, which can be achieved through the hardware implementation. To meet a real time constrain we have proposed parallel computing architecture for wavelet transform. The experimental results demonstrate the high robustness of theproposed algorithm to various attacks like noise additions etc

Pankaj U.Lande

2010-06-01

280

A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes.

Kwok, H.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: hskwok@ee.cityu.edu.hk; Tang, Wallace K.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: kstang@ee.cityu.edu.hk

2007-05-15

281

A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes

2007-05-01

282

The Secretary of Commerce Don Evans this week announced a new encryption standard for the federal government, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). AES is expected to be used by businesses and organizations outside of government as well. AES, which replaces the Data Encryption Standard (DES) that the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) adopted in 1977, has been in production for four years. NIST began a contest in 1997 to determine the best encryption algorithm. The algorithm finally selected in 2000 incorporates the Rijndael encryption formula. From this page, users can read the press release, join an AES discussion forum, access test values and code, and learn more about AES and Rijndael.

2001-01-01

283

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, spe...

Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena

2011-01-01

284

Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, speed, compression friendliness, format compliance and cryptographic security is presented.

Shah, Jolly

2011-01-01

285

Joint Watermarking and Encryption of Color Images in the Fibonacci-Haar Domain

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel method for watermarking and ciphering color images, based on the joint use of a key-dependent wavelet transform with a secure cryptographic scheme, is presented. The system allows to watermark encrypted data without requiring the knowledge of the original data and also to cipher watermarked data without damaging the embedded signal. Since different areas of the proposed transform domain are used for encryption and watermarking, the extraction of the hidden information can be performed without deciphering the cover data and it is also possible to decipher watermarked data without removing the watermark. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Federica Battisti

2009-01-01

286

Multidimensional Z-Matrix with Control Parameters and Its Applications in Image Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An n-dimensional Z-matrix with control parameters is presented, and its periodicity and chaos are testified. Experimental results show that the proposed Z-matrix has a long period and changeable periodicity with different dimensions. Some examples of image encryption with a Z-matrix of different dimensions are listed for demonstrating its applications. (general)

2009-06-01

287

A Reversible Image Steganographic Algorithm Based on Slantlet Transform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present a reversible imagesteganography technique based on Slantlet transform (SLTand using advanced encryption standard (AES method. Theproposed method first encodes the message using two sourcecodes, viz., Huffman codes and a self-synchronizing variablelength code known as, T-code. Next, the encoded binarystring is encrypted using an improved AES method. Theencrypted data so obtained is embedded in the middle andhigh frequency sub-bands, obtained by applying 2-level ofSLT to the cover-image, using thresholding method. Theproposed algorithm is compared with the existing techniquesbased on wavelet transform. The Experimental results showthat the proposed algorithm can extract hidden message andrecover the original cover image with low distortion. Theproposed algorithm offers acceptable imperceptibility,security (two-layer security and provides robustness againstGaussian and Salt-n-Pepper noise attack.

Sushil Kumar

2013-07-01

288

Double-image encryption using discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps

A double-image encryption is proposed based on the discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps. Firstly, an enlarged image is composited from two original plaintexts, in which the pixel positions are relocated and the intensity values are changed by a chaotic confusion-diffusion process, and then two scrambled plaintexts are recovered from the enlarged image. Secondly, the two scrambled plaintexts are encoded into the phase and amplitude part of a complex function which is encrypted into a ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using the discrete fractional random transform generated based on logistic map. Not only the initial values of the logistic maps used in the cryptosystem but also the phase distribution produced in the encryption process can be used as private keys, which makes the proposed scheme has the characteristic of asymmetric encryption technique and high resistance against to the conventional attacks such as chosen plaintext attack, ciphertext-only attack. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Sui, Liansheng; Lu, Haiwei; Wang, Zhanmin; Sun, Qindong

2014-05-01

289

Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encryp...

Dhanalakshmi, R.; Thaiyalnayaki, K.

2010-01-01

290

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we have encrypted a text to an array of data bits through arithmetic coding technique. Forthis, we have assigned a unique range for both, a number of characters and groups using those. Usingunique range we may assign range only 10 characters. If we want to encrypt a large number ofcharacters, then every character has to assign a range with their group range of hundred, thousand andso on. Long textual message which have to encrypt, is subdivided into a number of groups with fewcharacters. Then the group of characters is encrypted into floating point numbers concurrently to theirgroup range by using arithmetic coding, where they are automatically compressed. Depending on key,the data bits from text are placed to some suitable nonlinear pixel and bit positions about the image. Inthe proposed technique, the key length and the number of characters for any encryption process is bothvariable.

Sabyasachi Samanta

2011-03-01

291

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Database encryption refers to the use of encryption techniques to transform a plain text database into a (partially) encrypted database, thus making it unreadable to anyone except those who possess the knowledge of the encryption key(s).

Bouganim, Luc; Guo, Yanli

2009-01-01

292

Synchronization of spatiotemporal semiconductor lasers and its application in color image encryption

Optical chaos is a topic of current research characterized by high-dimensional nonlinearity which is attributed to the delay-induced dynamics, high bandwidth and easy modular implementation of optical feedback. In light of these facts, which adds enough confusion and diffusion properties for secure communications, we explore the synchronization phenomena in spatiotemporal semiconductor laser systems. The novel system is used in a two-phase colored image encryption process. The high-dimensional chaotic attractor generated by the system produces a completely randomized chaotic time series, which is ideal in the secure encoding of messages. The scheme thus illustrated is a two-phase encryption method, which provides sufficiently high confusion and diffusion properties of chaotic cryptosystem employed with unique data sets of processed chaotic sequences. In this novel method of cryptography, the chaotic phase masks are represented as images using the chaotic sequences as the elements of the image. The scheme dras...

Banerjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Misra, A P; 10.1016/j.optcom.2010.12.077

2011-01-01

293

Image encryption and authentication. A fully digital approach

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optical surveillance is one of the basic safeguards measures implemented by the IAEA. If it were possible to have the data carriers replaced and mailed to the IAEA by staff of the State System for Accounting and Control (SSAC) or by the facility operator or, ultimately have the data remotely transmitted to IAEA Headquarters, this would enable the frequency of on-site inspections to be reduced, since the surveillance information would still be available in a timely manner for evaluation at HQ. The IAEA needs to verify the authenticity of the data, whereas the facility operator will insist on the confidentiality of the data; i.e. a third party must not be able to make any use of the data transferred. The present development effort is concentrated on the appropriate camera electronics ensuring uninterrupted electronic authentication and encryption of the video signals from the camera up to the review station. The design concept is described, some crucial aspects are discussed, and the status and perspectives of the project reported. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

1994-12-01

294

Encrypting Digital Camera with Automatic Encryption Key Deletion

A digital video camera includes an image sensor capable of producing a frame of video data representing an image viewed by the sensor, an image memory for storing video data such as previously recorded frame data in a video frame location of the image memory, a read circuit for fetching the previously recorded frame data, an encryption circuit having an encryption key input connected to receive the previously recorded frame data from the read circuit as an encryption key, an un-encrypted data input connected to receive the frame of video data from the image sensor and an encrypted data output port, and a write circuit for writing a frame of encrypted video data received from the encrypted data output port of the encryption circuit to the memory and overwriting the video frame location storing the previously recorded frame data.

Oakley, Ernest C. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

295

An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

296

Multiple-image encryption and authentication with sparse representation by space multiplexing.

A multiple-image encryption and authentication approach by space multiplexing has been proposed. The redundant spaces in the previous security systems employing sparse representation strategy are optimized. With the proposal the information of multiple images can be integrated into a synthesized ciphertext that is convenient for storage and transmission. Only when all the keys are correct can the information of the primary images be authenticated. Computer simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed method is feasible and effective. Moreover, the proposal is also proved to be robust against occlusion and noise attacks. PMID:24216647

Gong, Qiong; Liu, Xuyan; Li, Genquan; Qin, Yi

2013-11-01

297

In this article, a multiple-image encryption method based on the optical interference principle and phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing is proposed. During the encryption process, each secret image is encoded into two analytically obtained POMs and one computer-generated random POM, in which no iterative computation is required. The analytically obtained POMs taken from different secret images are then synthesized by POM multiplexing and further encoded into two complex ciphertext images. The silhouette problem that exists in the earlier interference principle-based encryption approaches is totally resolved by the proposal. Both digital and optical means can be used for decryption. The crosstalk effect between the secret images will not appear in the decrypted results by using the proposed system. Numerical simulations have been given to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposal. We also discuss briefly the influence of information compression on the quality of decrypted images. PMID:24085198

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

2013-10-01

298

A Fresnelet-Based Encryption of Medical Images using Arnold Transform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical images are commonly stored in digital media and transmitted via Internet for certain uses. If a medical information image alters, this can lead to a wrong diagnosis which may create a serious health problem. Moreover, medical images in digital form can easily be modified by wiping off or adding small pieces of information intentionally for certain illegal purposes. Hence, the reliability of medical images is an important criterion in a hospital information system. In this paper, the Fresnelet transform is employed along with appropriate handling of the Arnold transform and the discrete cosine transform to provide secure distribution of medical images. This method presents a new data hiding system in which steganography and cryptography are used to prevent unauthorized data access. The experimental results exhibit high imperceptibility for embedded images and significant encryption of information images.

Muhammad Nazeer

2013-04-01

299

Query Processing Performance and Searching Over Encrypted Data By Using An Efficient Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data is the central asset of today's dynamically operating organization and their business. This data is usually stored in database. A major consideration is applied on the security of that data from the unauthorized access and intruders. Data encryption is a strong option for security of data in database and especially in those organizations where security risks are high. But there is a potential disadvantage of performance degradation. When we apply encryption on database ...

Sharma, Manish; Chaudhary, Atul; Kumar, Santosh

2013-01-01

300

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper adopts a novel approach for ensuring security of data with error detection capability. RAS Transform is a nonlinear recursive Transform. This simple but very effective RAS transform is Permutation Invariant and used to code the digital data at two levels, so that the data is encrypted and also there is multilevel error detection mechanism based on the properties of the RAS Transform. The first type is data independent and the later is data dependent. In data dependant encryption, the partially encrypted data is subjected to RAS Transformation at two levels namely, byte level and block level before transmission. The outcome is 128 bits of encrypted data together with Encryption Key. A code book of only 20 valid code words is generated to represent 256 possible octets of 8-bit data words. From each of the code words, the data word can be uniquely recovered using the data dependent symmetric encryption key. The result of this coding on a sample text data of about 189 characters size is presented.

A.V. Narasimha Rao

2008-10-01

301

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, speed, compression friendliness, format compliance and cryptographic security is presented.

Jolly Shah

2011-03-01

302

A Security Enhanced Approach For Digital Image Steganography Using DWT And RC4 Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the existence of data in another transmission medium to achieve secret communication . Steganography method used in this paper is based on biometrics, ie biometric steganography. And the biometric feature used to implement steganography is skin tone region of images. Here secret data is embedded within skin region of image that will provide an excellent secure location for data hiding. Before embedding secret data is needed to be encrypted using stream cipher encryption scheme RC4.Skin color tone detection is performed by using HSV color space.DWT is the frequency domain in which this biometric steganography is implemented.Secret data is embedded in one of the high frequency subband by tracing the number of skin pixels in that band. . Different embedding steps are applied on the cropped region of the image.ie value of this cropped region will act as a key at the decoder side. This study shows that by adopting an object oriented steganography mechanism, in the sense that, we track skin tone objects in image, we get a higher security and satisfactory PSNR obtained

Amritha.G#1, Meethu Varkey

2013-06-01

303

Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accurately. It could recover tampered block with good image quality when tamper occured within the limits of the anti-tamper radius. It could effectively resist vector quantization and synchronous counterfeiting attacks on self-embedding watermarking schemes.

Xu Shu

2010-06-01

304

An image encryption scheme based on rotation matrix bit-level permutation and block diffusion

This paper proposes a novel image encryption scheme based on rotation matrix bit-level permutation and block diffusion. Firstly, divide plain image into non-overlapping 8 × 8 pixels blocks with a random matrix, then transform each block into an 8 × 8 × 8 three-dimensional (3-D) binary matrix, which has six directions just as a cube. Permutation is performed by multiplying the 3-D matrix by the rotation matrix that relies on plain image according to different direction. Secondly, use block diffusion to further change the statistical characteristics of the image after confusion. Experiment results and analysis show that the scheme can not only achieve a satisfactory security performance, but also have the suitability for a parallel mode and the robustness against noise in communication system.

Zhang, Yushu; Xiao, Di

2014-01-01

305

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work a new algorithm for encryption image is introduced. This algorithm makes it possible to cipher and decipher images by guaranteeing a maximum security. The algorithm introduced is based on stream cipher with nonlinear filtering function. The Boolean function used in this algorithm is resilient function satisfying all the cryptographic criteria necessary carrying out the best possible compromises. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. Experimental results illustrate that the scheme is highly key sensitive, highly resistance to the noises and shows a good resistance against brute-force, Berlekamp-Massey Attack and algebraic attack.

Belmeguenaï Aïssa

2012-09-01

306

We introduce a double optimization procedure for spectrally multiplexing multiple images. This technique is adapted from a recently proposed optical setup implementing the discrete cosine transformation (DCT). The new analysis technique is a combination of spectral fusion based on the properties of DCT, specific spectral filtering, and quantization of the remaining encoded frequencies using an optimal number of bits. Spectrally multiplexing multiple images defines a first level of encryption. A second level of encryption based on a real key image is used to reinforce encryption. A set of numerical simulations and a comparison with the well known JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard have been carried out to demonstrate the improved performances of this method. The focus here will differ from the method of simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images (SFCE) [Opt. Express 19, 24023 (2011)] in the following ways. Firstly, we shall be concerned with optimizing the compression rate by adapting the size of the spectral block to each target image and decreasing the number of bits required to encode each block. This size adaptation is achieved by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) time-frequency criterion. We found that this size adaptation provides a good tradeoff between bandwidth of spectral plane and number of reconstructed output images. Secondly, the encryption rate is improved by using a real biometric key and randomly changing the rotation angle of each block before spectral fusion. By using a real-valued key image we have been able to increase the compression rate of 50% over the original SFCE method. We provide numerical examples of the effects for size, rotation, and shifting of DCT-blocks which play noteworthy roles in the optimization of the bandwidth of the spectral plane. Inspection of the results for different types of attack demonstrates the robustness of our procedure. PMID:23571893

Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Abdallah, N; Jridi, M

2013-04-01

307

An Improved Image Encryption Algorithm based on Chaotic System

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The security of stream cipher, which is known as one of the main cipher techniques, is dependents completely on the quality of generated pseudo-stochastic sequences. Chaotic systems can produce the pseudo-random sequences with good randomness, therefore, these systems are suitable to t...

Shubo Liu; Jing Sun; Zhengquan Xu

2009-01-01

308

In conventional interference-based optical encryption schemes, a potential cracker can retrieve partial information (silhouette) of the secret image using only one phase-only mask (POM). We resolve this drawback using a phase-blend operation and piecewise linear chaotic map (PWLCM) to further encode the POMs. One cannot recover a secret image visibly when inverse phase-blend operation and inverse chaotic permutation are not carried out with the correct decryption keys. Chaotic parameters of PWLCM, and random phase-angle function in the phase-blend operation enlarge the key space and improve the security of the proposed system greatly. Numerical simulations and optoelectronic experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Jinyun

2012-04-01

309

New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protecting data is a very old art and wide use since the Egyptian when they identify the 1st encryption method in this world, the spiciest people categorize protecting data under computer forensic and others locate it under network security, cryptography methods are the backbone of this art, nowadays many of new techniques for the attacker's beings develops, a lot of methods for information protecting start dropping down such as RSA and stander encryption methods, in the same time a new methods has been appeared such as Quantum cryptography, the new methods has faced problems in the key distribution or key management and some time such as RSA there is a function may estimate the keys, In this paper we will make a comparative study between the key management distribution methods, in fact we will talk about QKD Encryption in the fiber optic area vice verse the KDM in the normal networks, for instant there are two known methods, KDM "Diffi- Hellman" and XKMS.

Bilal Bahaa Zaidan

2009-11-01

310

A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method. PMID:24085074

Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

2013-09-01

311

Testing a Variety of Encryption Technologies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Review and test speeds of various encryption technologies using Entrust Software. Multiple encryption algorithms are included in the product. Algorithms tested were IDEA, CAST, DES, and RC2. Test consisted of taking a 7.7 MB Word document file which included complex graphics and timing encryption, decryption and signing. Encryption is discussed in the GIAC Kickstart section: Information Security: The Big Picture--Part VI.

Henson, T J

2001-04-09

312

Recently, a stream encryption scheme using d-bit segment sequences has been proposed. This scheme may generate key avalanche effect. The randomness tests of d-bit segment pseudorandom number generator will be important for implementing such a scheme. Firstly this paper extends Beker and Piper's binary pseudorandom sequence statistical test suite to d-bit segment sequences case. Secondly, a novel 3-dimensional polynomial discrete chaotic map (3DPDCM) is proposed. The calculated Lyapunov exponents of the 3DPCDM are 0.213, 0.125 and - 3.228. Using the 3DPDCM constructs a 6-dimensional generalized synchronization chaotic system. Based on this system, a 8-bit segment chaotic pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG) is introduced. Using the generalized test suite tests 100 key streams generated via the 8-bit PRNG with different initial conditions and perturbed system parameters. The tested results are similar to those of the key streams generated via RC4 PRNG. As an application, using the key streams generated via the CPRNG and the RC4 PRNG encrypts an RGB image Landscape. The results have shown that the encrypted RGB images have significant avalanche effects. This research suggests that the requirements for PRNGs are not as strict as those under the traditional avalanche criteria. Suitable designed chaos-based d-bit string PRNGs may be qualified candidates for the stream encryption scheme with avalanche effect.

Hao, Longjie; Min, Lequan

2014-05-01

313

Simple Encryption/Decryption Application

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an Encryption/Decryption application that is able to work with any type of file; for example: image files, data files, documentation filesÃ¢â‚¬Â¦etc. The method of encryption is simple enough yet powerful enough to fit the needs of students and staff in a small institution. The application uses simple key generation method of random number generation and combination. The final encryption is a binary one performed through rotation of bits and XOR operation applied on each block of data in any file using a symmetric decimal key. The key generation and Encryption are all done by the system itself after clicking the encryption button with transparency to the user. The same encryption key is also used to decrypt the encrypted binary file.

Majdi Al-qdah

2007-06-01

314

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At EUROCRYPT '10, van Dijk et al. presented simple fully- homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes based on the hardness of approximate integer common divisors problems, which were introduced in 2001 by Howgrave-Graham. There are two versions for these problems: the partial version (PACD) and the general version (GACD). The seemingly easier problem PACD was recently used by Coron et al. at CRYPTO '11 to build a more efficient variant of the FHE scheme by van Dijk et al.. We present a new PACD alg...

Chen, Yuanmi; Nguyen, Phong Q.

2012-01-01

315

A chaos-based digital image encryption scheme with an improved diffusion strategy.

Chaos-based image cipher has been widely investigated over the last decade or so to meet the increasing demand for real-time secure image transmission over public networks. In this paper, an improved diffusion strategy is proposed to promote the efficiency of the most widely investigated permutation-diffusion type image cipher. By using the novel bidirectional diffusion strategy, the spreading process is significantly accelerated and hence the same level of security can be achieved with fewer overall encryption rounds. Moreover, to further enhance the security of the cryptosystem, a plain-text related chaotic orbit turbulence mechanism is introduced in diffusion procedure by perturbing the control parameter of the employed chaotic system according to the cipher-pixel. Extensive cryptanalysis has been performed on the proposed scheme using differential analysis, key space analysis, various statistical analyses and key sensitivity analysis. Results of our analyses indicate that the new scheme has a satisfactory security level with a low computational complexity, which renders it a good candidate for real-time secure image transmission applications. PMID:22330475

Fu, Chong; Chen, Jun-jie; Zou, Hao; Meng, Wei-hong; Zhan, Yong-feng; Yu, Ya-wen

2012-01-30

316

Spread spectrum image data hiding in the encrypted discrete cosine transform coefficients

Digital watermarking and data hiding are important tools for digital rights protection of media data. Spread spectrum (SS)-based watermarking and data-hiding approaches are popular due to their outstanding robustness, but their security might not be sufficient. To improve the security of SS, a SS-based image data-hiding approach is proposed by encrypting the discrete cosine transform coefficients of the host image with the piecewise linear chaotic map, before the operation of watermark embedding. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations and analyses of its robustness and security are carried out. The average bit-error-rate values on 100 real images from the Berkeley segmentation dataset under the JPEG compression, additive Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, and cropping attacks are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can maintain the high robustness of traditional SS schemes and, meanwhile, also improve the security. The proposed approach can extend the key space of traditional SS schemes from 10 to 10 and thus can resist brute-force attack and unauthorized detection watermark attack.

Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Z. Jane

2013-10-01

317

Optical Encryption with Jigsaw Transform using Matlab

This article will describe an optical encryption technical of images which it is proposed in an analogical and digital way. The development of the technical to a digital level, it is made to implementing algorithms (routines) in MATLAB. We will propose a functional diagram to the described analogical development from which designated the optical systems associated with each functional block. Level of security that the jigsaw algorithms provide applied on an image, which has been decomposed into its bit-planes, is significantly better if they are applied on an image that has not been previously decomposed.

Giraldo, Leidy Marcela

2012-01-01

318

A Secure Image Based Steganographic Model Using RSA Algorithm and LSB Insertion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the term used to describe the hiding of data in images to avoid detection by attackers. It is an emerging area which is used for secured data transmission over any public media. In this study a novel approach of image steganography based on LSB (Least Significant Bit insertion and RSA encryption technique for the lossless jpeg images has been proposed. This paper discusses an application which ranks images in a users library based on their suitability as cover objects for some data. The data is matched to an image; so there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover the data. The application first encrypts the data using RSA algorithm. The message bits are embedded into the image using Least Significant Bits insertion. Before embedding, the message bits are encrypted using RSA algorithm, resulting in increased robustness. This would decrease the intentional attacks which try to reveal the hidden message. At the receiver side reverse operation has been carried out to get back the original information

Swati Tiwari R. P. Mahajan

2012-02-01

319

Efficient ECC encryption for WSN's

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) provides a secure means of key exchange between communicating nodes using the Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Exchange algorithm. This work presents an ECC encryption implementation using of the DH key exchange algorithm. Both encryption and decryption of text messages using this algorithm, have been attempted. In ECC, encoding is carried out by mapping a message character to an affine point on an elliptic curve. It can be observed from the comparison of the proposed...

Kodali, Ravi Kishore; N V S, Narasimha Sarma

2013-01-01

320

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ZK111 is a fully homomorphic public key encryption algorithm which runs in quadratic time. It's security solely relies upon a very unique 'color-blind' function which is used to create p-adic ring homomorphism.

Khan, Zaryab

2012-01-01

321

Unicity Distance of Quantum Encryption Protocols

Shannon's concept of the unicity distance is present for classical encryption protocols, we attempt to develop it into the quantum context. Firstly we present a classification of the private key encryption protocols, there are five kinds of them. Then we present the definition of the unicity distance of encryption protocols whose plaintext space and key space are both set by classical bits and the algorithm is a quantum algorithm, we call this CCQ-unicity distance. Based on this definition we show two quantum encryption protocols whose CCQ-unicity distance is finite but much bigger than Shannon's unicity distance, and show a quantum encryption protocol with infinite CCQ-unicity distance.

Xiang, Chong

2012-01-01

322

Hyperspectral image compressive projection algorithm

We describe a compressive projection algorithm and experimentally assess its performance when used with a Hyperspectral Image Projector (HIP). The HIP is being developed by NIST for system-level performance testing of hyperspectral and multispectral imagers. It projects a two-dimensional image into the unit under test (UUT), whereby each pixel can have an independently programmable arbitrary spectrum. To efficiently project a single frame of dynamic realistic hyperspectral imagery through the collimator into the UUT, a compression algorithm has been developed whereby the series of abundance images and corresponding endmember spectra that comprise the image cube of that frame are first computed using an automated endmember-finding algorithm such as the Sequential Maximum Angle Convex Cone (SMACC) endmember model. Then these endmember spectra are projected sequentially on the HIP spectral engine in sync with the projection of the abundance images on the HIP spatial engine, during the singleframe exposure time of the UUT. The integrated spatial image captured by the UUT is the endmember-weighted sum of the abundance images, which results in the formation of a datacube for that frame. Compressive projection enables a much smaller set of broadband spectra to be projected than monochromatic projection, and thus utilizes the inherent multiplex advantage of the HIP spectral engine. As a result, radiometric brightness and projection frame rate are enhanced. In this paper, we use a visible breadboard HIP to experimentally assess the compressive projection algorithm performance.

Rice, Joseph P.; Allen, David W.

2009-05-01

323

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In healthcare industry, the patient's medical data plays a vital role because diagnosis of anyailments is done by using those data. The high volume of medical data leads to scalability andmaintenance issues when using health-care provider's on-site picture archiving andcommunication system (PACS and network oriented storage system. Therefore a standard isneeded for maintaining the medical data and for better diagnosis. Since the medical data reflectsin a similar way to individuals’ personal information, secrecy should be maintained. Maintainingsecrecy can be done by encrypting the data, but as medical data involves images and videos,traditional text based encryption/decryption schemes are not adequate for providingconfidentiality. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for securing the DICOM format medicalarchives by providing better confidentiality and maintaining their integrity. Our contribution in thisalgorithm is of twofold: (1 Development of Improved Chaotic based Arnold Cat Map forencryption/decryption of DICOM files and (2 Applying a new hash algorithm based on chaotictheory for those encrypted files for maintaining integrity. By applying this algorithm, the secrecy ofmedical data is maintained. The proposed algorithm is tested with various DICOM format imagearchives by studying the following parameters i PSNR - for quality of images and ii Key - forsecurity.

Suresh Jaganathan

2012-04-01

324

All-Optical video-image encryption enforced security level using ICA

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last two decades, wireless communications have been introduced in various applications. However, the transmitted data can be, at any moment, intercepted by non-authorized person. That could be explain why data encryption and secure transmission have gained enormous popularity. In order to secure data transmission, one should pay attention to two problems: transmission rate and encryption security level. In this manuscript, we address the last two problems by proposing a new videoimage ...

Alfalou, Ayman; Mansour, Ali

2007-01-01

325

A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too

2006-10-01

326

A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too.

Yu, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, J [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Ren, H E [Information and Computer Engineering College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150000 (China); Li, S [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, X D [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China)

2006-10-15

327

In some special multimedia applications, only the regions with semantic information should be provided better protection whereas the other smooth regions can be free of encryption. However, most of the existing multimedia security schemes only consider bits and pixels rather than semantic information during their encryption. Motivated by this, we propose an edge-based lightweight image encryption scheme using chaos-based reversible hidden transform and multiple-order discrete fractional cosine transform. An image is first carried out by the edge detection based on advanced CNN structure with adaptive thresholds to assess data significance in the image. The detection output is a binary image, in which a "1" reflects the detected pixel whereas a "0" is opposite. Both the detected image and the original image are divided into non-overlapping pixel blocks in the same way, respectively. Whether each block is encrypted or not depends on the significance judged by the corresponding detected block. The significant block is performed by reversible hidden transform followed by multiple-order discrete fractional cosine transform parameters and orders of these two transforms are determined by a two dimensional cross chaotic map. Experiment results show the significant contour features of an image that have been largely hidden only by encrypting about half pixels in the average sense. The keys are extremely sensitive and the proposed scheme can resist noise attack to some extent.

Zhang, Yushu; Xiao, Di; Wen, Wenying; Tian, Yuan

2013-12-01

328

A New Public-Key Encryption Scheme Based on Non-Expansion Visual Cryptography and Boolean Operation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, most of the existing public-key encryption schemes are based on complex algorithms with heavy computations. In 1994, Naor and Shamir proposed a simple cryptography method for digital images called visual cryptography. Existing visual cryptography primitives can be considered as a special kind of secret-key cryptography that does not require heavy computations for encrypting and decrypting an image. In this paper, we propose a new public-key encryption scheme for image based on non-expansion visual cryptography and Boolean operation. The proposed scheme uses only Boolean operations and therefore requires comparatively lower computations.

Abdullah M. Jaafar

2010-07-01

329

Probabilistic Encryption Based ECC Mechanism

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elliptic Curve Cryptography provides a secure means of exchanging keys among communicating hosts using the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange algorithm. Encryption and Decryption of texts and messages have also been attempted. In the paper[15], the authors presented the implementation of ECC by first transforming the message into an affine point on the EC, and then applying the knapsack algorithm on ECC encrypted message over the finite field GF(p). The kanp sack problem is not secure in the p...

Krishna, Addepalli V. N.

2011-01-01

330

An Integrated Encryption Scheme Used in Bluetooth Communication Mechanism

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To improve the security level of data Transmission in Bluetooth communication, An Integrated Encryption Scheme algorithm based on IDEA, RSA and MD5 is proposed. The currently hybrid encryption algorithm uses DES and RSA Algorithm, DES use for Encryption of Data and RSA use for Encryption of Key. Hybrid encryption algorithm employed by the Bluetooth to protect the confidentiality of data during transport between two or more devices [2]. In proposed Integrated Encryption Scheme algorithm mechanism makes a full use of advantage of IDEA Algorithm of Data Encryption because it’s faster than RSA Algorithm for long plain text and RSA Algorithm distributed key safely and easily. Digital abstract Algorithm MD5 is adopted in this mechanism. This Mechanism realizes the confidentiality, Completeness, Authentication and Integrity

Bhoopendra Singh Rajput,

2011-09-01

331

Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)

2007-01-01

332

New Way for Encryption Data Using Hourglas

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many encryption algorithms to protect information. Data confidentiality is one of themost important functions of encryption algorithms, it means when the transferring data between differentsystems is vague for unauthorized systems or people. Moreover Encryption algorithms must maintain dataintegrity and provide availability for information. New encryption methods cause the attackers cannot simplyaccess to the information and do not allow discovering the relationship between information and theencrypted one. Therefore availability can be difficult for them. Existing complexities make their longevityand effectiveness increase (Mandal, 2012.In This Article, It has been tried to present an encryption methodwhich has the characteristic of encryption algorithms and also has some unique complexities which are noteasily detectable and efficient.

Hamid Mehdi

2013-10-01

333

A CHALLENGE IN HIDING ENCRYPTED MESSAGE IN LSB AND LSB+1 BIT POSITIONS IN VARIOUS Cover Files

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work basically shows us how one can hide information in encrypted form to any cover file such as .exe files, Microsoft office files, .dbf files, image files, audio files and video files. However, the size of the hidden message must be very small in comparison to cover file which is an executable file. So far no one has tried to hide information inside any executable file. To make the system fully secured we first encrypt the secret message using MSA algorithm (Nath et al.(1 and then we hide the encrypted message inside the cover file. introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have changed both LSB and LSB+1 bits of each byte of the cover file. A generalized method was proposed by Nath etal(2 where they embed the secret message without going for any encryption.. The MSA(1 algorithm introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. The MSA (1 method also incorporates the multiple encryption and decryption process. To initiate the MSA algorithm the user has to enter a text_key, which can be of 16 characters long. This text_key is used to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and the MSA algorithm ensures that any of the pattern may be used for encryption as well as decryption process. To hide encrypted secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 4 consecutive bytes of the cover file such that only LSB and LSB+1 bits are changed depending on the bit pattern of the encrypted secret message. To make system further secured one has to enter a password before the actual steganography process starts. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any non-standard cover file such as executable file, compiler, MS-Office files, Data Base files such as .DBF, text editor such as notepad plus the standard cover files such as image, audio, video files etc. The size of the secret message be very small in comparison to the executable cover file. The present method may be implemented in mobile network, Bank data transactions in government sectors, in police department.

Joyshree Nath

2011-05-01

334

[Wavelet threshold denoising algorithm for CR images].

A wavelet threshold denoising algorithm for CR images is put forward here . A noised CR image is decomposed into wavelet coefficients, which are processed by the algorithm, and the denoised CR image is reconstructed based on the processed coefficients. Examples are too presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm on denoising and, maintaining the detail of the CR images. PMID:16646417

Li, Yong-hui; Zhou, He-qin

2006-01-01

335

High-flexibility optical encryption via aperture movement.

We present a new method using single-path beam-propagation-based imaging via aperture movement for optical encryption. The aperture is sequentially moved in the transverse domain, and a series of diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) are correspondingly recorded during optical encryption. An iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied for the decryption. It is illustrated that the proposed optical security system possesses several significant advantages, such as high flexibility and high security. The proposed optical security system also provides an effective channel to control information assignment and authentication. PMID:24150312

Chen, Wen; Situ, Guohai; Chen, Xudong

2013-10-21

336

Image feature extraction in encrypted domain with privacy-preserving SIFT.

Privacy has received considerable attention but is still largely ignored in the multimedia community. Consider a cloud computing scenario where the server is resource-abundant, and is capable of finishing the designated tasks. It is envisioned that secure media applications with privacy preservation will be treated seriously. In view of the fact that scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) has been widely adopted in various fields, this paper is the first to target the importance of privacy-preserving SIFT (PPSIFT) and to address the problem of secure SIFT feature extraction and representation in the encrypted domain. As all of the operations in SIFT must be moved to the encrypted domain, we propose a privacy-preserving realization of the SIFT method based on homomorphic encryption. We show through the security analysis based on the discrete logarithm problem and RSA that PPSIFT is secure against ciphertext only attack and known plaintext attack. Experimental results obtained from different case studies demonstrate that the proposed homomorphic encryption-based privacy-preserving SIFT performs comparably to the original SIFT and that our method is useful in SIFT-based privacy-preserving applications. PMID:22711774

Hsu, Chao-Yung; Lu, Chun-Shien; Pei, Soo-Chang

2012-11-01

337

Public Key Encryption Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks In tinyOS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available generally, when people consider wireless devices they think of items such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, or laptops. These items are costly, target specialized applications, and rely on the pre-deployment of extensive infrastructure support. In contrast, wireless sensor networks use small, low-cost embedded devices for a wide range of applications and do not rely on any pre-existing infrastructure. The emerging field of wireless sensor networks (WSN combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device called sensor nodes or motes. Through advanced mesh networking protocols, these devices form a sea of connectivity that extends the reach of cyberspace out into the physical world. here some algorithms are implemented and result is analyzed on different platforms like PC MICA,Mica 2, Mica2dot and analyze which algorithm is best for which platform.

Chandni Vaghasia,

2013-03-01

338

Review on Reserving Room Before Encryption for Reversible Data Hiding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking. There are number of techniques available in the industry to maintain security of data. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is comes into the picture, but the problem is the occurrence of distortion in original cover at the time of data extraction. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent way so that the original cover can be recovered without any loss after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. In This paper we propose a novel method by reserving room before encryption (RRBE with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. Using RRBE we can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error and also we can increase the rate of data to be hidden. This is useful in the way that these method recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.

Akshata Malwad

2014-03-01

339

Algorithms for Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the 1980s, there have been many research activities devoted to quantitatively characterizing and imaging human tissues based on sound speed, attenuation coefficient, density, nonlinear B/A parameter, etc., but those efforts have not yet reached the stage of commercialization. However, a new imaging technology termed elastography, which was proposed in the early 1980s, has recently been implemented in commercial clinical ultrasound scanners, and is now being used to diagnose prostates, breasts, thyroids, livers, blood vessels, etc., more quantitatively as a complementary adjunct modality to the conventional B-mode imaging. The purpose of this article is to introduce and review various elastographic algorithms for use in quasistatic or static compression type elasticity imaging modes. Most of the algorithms are based on the cross correlation or autocorrelation function methods, and the fundamental difference is that the time shift is estimated by changing the lag variable in the former, while it is directly obtained from the phase shift at a fixed lag in the latter.

Kwon, Sung Jae [Department of Communication Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

340

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents an advanced version of image encryption technique, which is itself an upgraded version of SD-EI image encryption method. In this new method, SD-EI Ver-2, there are more bit wise manipulations compared to original SD-EI method. The proposed method consist of three stages: 1 First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2 In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3 In last stage, we perform modified Cyclic Bit manipulation. First, the pixel values are again converted to their 8 bit binary format. Then 8 consecutive pixels are chosen and a 8X8 matrix is formed out of these 8 bit 8 pixels. After that, matrix cyclic operation is performed randomized number of times, which is again dependent on the password provided for encryption. After the generation of new 8 bit value of pixels, they are again converted to their decimal format and the new value is written in place of the old pixel value. SD-EI Ver-2 has been tested on different image files and the results were very satisfactory.

Somdip Dey

2012-01-01

341

Optimization Based Image Segmentation by Genetic Algorithms

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many works in the literature focus on the definition of evaluation metrics and criteria that enable to quantify the performance of an image processing algorithm. These evaluation criteria can be used to define new image processing algorithms by optimizing them. In this paper, we propose a general scheme to segment images by a genetic algorithm. The developed method uses an evaluation criterion which quantifies the quality of an image segmentation result. The proposed segmentation method can i...

Chabrier, Sebastien; Rosenberger, Christophe; Emile, Bruno; Laurent, He?le?ne

2008-01-01

342

Robust Secure and Blind Watermarking Based on DWT DCT Partial Multi Map Chaotic Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Commutative Watermarking and Partial Encryption (CWPE algorithm based onDiscrete Wavelet Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform (DWT-DCT for watermarking and Multi-MapWavelet Chaotic Encryption (MMW-CE is proposed. The original host image is first decomposed into foursub-bands using (DWT, each sub-band coefficients are relocated using Arnold transform to create a noiselikeversion, then apply partial encryption scheme using chaotic scrambled random number pattern bitwiseXOR with the scrambled horizontal coefficients only and the shuffled approximation coefficients aredivided into non-overlapping and equal sized blocks. Watermark embedding process is based on extractingthe (DCT middle frequencies of the encrypted approximation coefficients blocks. Comparison basedthreshold of the extracted DCT mid-band coefficients, watermark bits are embedded in the coefficients ofthe corresponding DCT middle frequencies. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm isrobust against common signal processing attacks. The proposed algorithm is able to reduce encryption toone quarter of the image information. Statistical and differential analyses are performed to estimate thesecurity strength of the proposed algorithm. The results of the security analysis show that the proposedalgorithm provides a high security level for real time application.

Esam A. Hagras

2011-12-01

343

Practical algorithmic probability: an image inpainting example

Possibility of practical application of algorithmic probability is analyzed on an example of image inpainting problem that precisely corresponds to the prediction problem. Such consideration is fruitful both for the theory of universal prediction and practical image inpaiting methods. Efficient application of algorithmic probability implies that its computation is essentially optimized for some specific data representation. In this paper, we considered one image representation, namely spectral representation, for which an image inpainting algorithm is proposed based on the spectrum entropy criterion. This algorithm showed promising results in spite of very simple representation. The same approach can be used for introducing ALP-based criterion for more powerful image representations.

Potapov, Alexey; Scherbakov, Oleg; Zhdanov, Innokentii

2013-12-01

344

New parallel binary image thinning algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes new parallel thinning algorithm for binary images. The use of 3X3 mask for pixel deletability in parallel and pixel deletion criteria needed to preserve the connectivity of the image pattern is exclusively discussed. This algorithm preserves the connectivity of an input image. The experimental result shows the better performance in terms of thinning and excessive erosion.

A. Jagan

2010-04-01

345

CHAOS-BASED ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD

This thesis introduces a new chaos-based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES is a well-known encryption algorithm that was standardized by U.S National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) in 2001. The thesis investigates and explores the behavior of the AES algorithm by replacing two of its original modules, namely the S-Box and the Key Schedule, with two other chaos- based modules. Three chaos systems are considered in designing the new modules which are Lorenz system with multiplication nonlinearity, Chen system with sign modules nonlinearity, and 1D multiscroll system with stair case nonlinearity. The three systems are evaluated on their sensitivity to initial conditions and as Pseudo Random Number Generators (PRNG) after applying a post-processing technique to their output then performing NIST SP. 800-22 statistical tests. The thesis presents a hardware implementation of dynamic S-Boxes for AES that are populated using the three chaos systems. Moreover, a full MATLAB package to analyze the chaos generated S-Boxes based on graphical analysis, Walsh-Hadamard spectrum analysis, and image encryption analysis is developed. Although these S-Boxes are dynamic, meaning they are regenerated whenever the encryption key is changed, the analysis results show that such S-Boxes exhibit good properties like the Strict Avalanche Criterion (SAC) and the nonlinearity and in the application of image encryption. Furthermore, the thesis presents a new Lorenz-chaos-based key expansion for the AES. Many researchers have pointed out that there are some defects in the original key expansion of AES and thus have motivated such chaos-based key expansion proposal. The new proposed key schedule is analyzed and assessed in terms of confusion and diffusion by performing the frequency and SAC test respectively. The obtained results show that the new proposed design is more secure than the original AES key schedule and other proposed designs in the literature. The proposed design is then enhanced to increase the operating speed using the divide- and-conquer concept. Such enhancement, did not only make the AES algorithm more secure, but also enabled the AES to be faster, as it can now operate on higher frequencies, and more area-efficient.

Abdulwahed, Naif B.

2013-05-01

346

ENAS-RIF algorithm for image restoration

mage of objects is inevitably encountered by space-based working in the atmospheric turbulence environment, such as those used in astronomy, remote sensing and so on. The observed images are seriously blurred. The restoration is required for reconstruction turbulence degraded images. In order to enhance the performance of image restoration, a novel enhanced nonnegativity and support constants recursive inverse filtering(ENAS-RIF) algorithm was presented, which was based on the reliable support region and enhanced cost function. Firstly, the Curvelet denoising algorithm was used to weaken image noise. Secondly, the reliable object support region estimation was used to accelerate the algorithm convergence. Then, the average gray was set as the gray of image background pixel. Finally, an object construction limit and the logarithm function were add to enhance algorithm stability. The experimental results prove that the convergence speed of the novel ENAS-RIF algorithm is faster than that of NAS-RIF algorithm and it is better in image restoration.

Yang, Yang; Yang, Zhen-wen; Shen, Tian-shuang; Chen, Bo

2012-11-01

347

Image Compression Based on Improved FFT Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Image compression is a crucial step in image processing area. Image Fourier transforms is the classical algorithm which can convert image from spatial domain to frequency domain. Because of its good concentrative property with transform energy, Fourier transform has been widely applied in image coding, image segmentation, image reconstruction. This paper adopts Radix-4 Fast Fourier transform (Radix-4 FFT) to realize the limit distortion for image coding, and to discuss the feasibility and the...

Juanli Hu; Jiabin Deng; Juebo Wu

2011-01-01

348

A fast chaotic encryption scheme based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, a growing number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this Letter, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on one-dimensional piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps. The system is a measurable dynamical system with an interesting property of being either ergodic or having stable period-one fixed point. They bifurcate from a stable single periodic state to chaotic one and vice versa without having usual period-doubling or period-n-tippling scenario. Also, we present the KS-entropy of this maps with respect to control parameter. This algorithm tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space, encryption speed and level of security.

Behnia, S. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: s.behnia@iaurmia.ac.ir; Akhshani, A. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahadpour, S. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Tabriz University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Mohaghegh Ardabili University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmodi, H. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, A. [Department of Engineering, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2007-07-02

349

A fast chaotic encryption scheme based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a growing number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this Letter, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on one-dimensional piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps. The system is a measurable dynamical system with an interesting property of being either ergodic or having stable period-one fixed point. They bifurcate from a stable single periodic state to chaotic one and vice versa without having usual period-doubling or period-n-tippling scenario. Also, we present the KS-entropy of this maps with respect to control parameter. This algorithm tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space, encryption speed and level of security

2007-07-02

350

Fast and secure data transmission using symmetric encryption and lossless compression

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the fast progression of data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming more important in data storage and transmission. While storing and transmitting multimedia data are noteasy and they need large storage devices and high bandwidth network systems. Compression and encryption technologies are important to the efficient solving of network bandwidth and security issues. This paper focus on dual approach of compression and security where compression is achieved through lossless algorithm (either Huffman coding or LZW according to size and type of image data and compressed data is encrypted using traditional DES Algorithm.

Mohini Chaudhari

2013-02-01

351

General Research on Image Segmentation Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As one of the fundamental approaches of digital image processing, image segmentation is the premise of feature extraction and pattern recognition. This paper enumerates and reviews main image segmentation algorithms, then presents basic evaluation methods for them, and finally discusses the prospect of image segmentation. Some valuable characteristics of image segmentation come out based on a large number of comparative experiments.

Qingqiang Yang

2009-10-01

352

Genetic algorithm applied to fractal image compression

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the technique of Genetic Algorithm (GA is applied for Fractal Image Compression (FIC. With the help of this evolutionary algorithm effort is made to reduce the search complexity of matching between range block and domain block. One of the image compression techniques in the spatial domain is Fractal Image Compression but the main drawback of FIC is that it involves more computational time due to global search. In order to improve the computational time and also the acceptable quality of the decoded image, Genetic algorithm is proposed. Experimental results show that the Genetic Algorithm is a better method than the traditional exhaustive search method.

Y. Chakrapani

2009-02-01

353

THE JPEG IMAGE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basis for the JPEG algorithm is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT which extracts spatial frequency information from the spatial amplitude samples. These frequency components are then quantized to eliminate the visual data from the image that is least perceptually apparent, thereby reducing the amount of information that must be stored. The redundant properties of the quantized frequency samples are exploited through quantization, run-length and huffman coding to produce the compressed representation. Each of these steps is reversible to the extent that an acceptable approximation of the original space-amplitude samples can be reconstructed from the compressed form. This paper examines each step in the compression and decompression.

Muzhir Shaban AL-Ani

2013-07-01

354

Multiplexing of encrypted data using fractal masks

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this Letter, we present to the best of our knowledge a new all-optical technique for multiple-image encryption and multiplexing, based on fractal encrypting masks. The optical architecture is a joint transform correlator. The multiplexed encrypted data are stored in a photorefractive crystal. The fractal parameters of the key can be easily tuned to lead to a multiplexing operation without cross talk effects. Experimental results that support the potential of the method are presented.

Monsoriu Serra, Juan Antonio; Barrera, J. F.; Tebaldi, M.; Amaya, D.; Furlan, W. D.; Bolognini, Nestor Alberto; Torroba, Roberto Daniel; Amaya, D.

2012-01-01

355

IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT WITH CRYPTOGRAPHY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To increase the security of messages sent over the internet steganography is used. This paper discussed a technique based on the LSB(least significant bit and a new encryption algorithm. By matching data to an image, there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover data. Before hiding the data in an image the application first encrypts it. Keywords- Steganography, LSB(least significant bit, Encryption, Decryption.

Vikas Tyagi

2012-04-01

356

A RANDOMIZED SELECTIVE ENCRYPTION USING HASHING TECHNIQUE FOR SECURING VIDEO STREAMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital video transmissions are widely used in network nowadays. Hence, securing its contents and keeping privacy is vital. Several encryption algorithms have been proposed earlier to achieve securevideo transmission. But altogether attaining efficiency, security and flexibility is a major challenge. To transmit a digital video, encryption is necessary to protect its contents from attacks. As the size of the videos are usually large their contents has to be compressed before transmission. Encryption is applied on the video content after compression. One of the encryption technique selective encryption is used for encrypting video. It encrypts only a subset of data. The selective encryption algorithm reduces the amount of the data to be encrypted and achieves a required level of security. In this paper we study the existing selective encryption algorithm and its classifications. The challenges in the selective encryptionalgorithms and some future directions are presented.

Lizyflorance. C

2012-11-01

357

A Comparative Analysis of Image Scaling Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image scaling, fundamental task of numerous image processing and computer vision applications, is the process of resizing an image by pixel interpolation. Image scaling leads to a number of undesirable image artifacts such as aliasing, blurring and moiré. However, with an increase in the number of pixels considered for interpolation, the image quality improves. This poses a quality-time trade off in which high quality output must often be compromised in the interest of computation complexity. This paper presents a comprehensive study and comparison of different image scaling algorithms. The performance of the scaling algorithms has been reviewed on the basis of number of computations involved and image quality. The search table modification to the bicubic image scaling algorithm greatly reduces the computational load by avoiding massive cubic and floating point operations without significantly losing image quality.

Chetan Suresh

2013-04-01

358

A hybrid randomized algorithm for image compression

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a randomized algorithm for image compression by improving the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm and by applying the principal component analysis method. Some Numerical examples are provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

Farshid Mehrdoust

2012-11-01

359

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability to construct software, call it a functional ciphertext, which can be remotely executed in encrypted form as an entirely self-contained unit, has the potential for some interesting applications. One such application is the construction of autonomous mobile agents capable of entering into certain types of legally binding contracts on behalf of the sender. At a premium in such circumstances is the ability to protect secret cryptographic keys or other secret information, whi...

Brekne, Tønnes

2001-01-01

360

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the security measures implemented. Steganography is a method which is used to give high level security. Approach: Today, email management and email authenticity must be unquestionable with strong chains of custody, constant availability and tamper-proof security. A secure communication can be achieved through neural based steganography. Email is insecure. Results: This research developed an application which can check the Email content of corporate mails by S-DES algorithm along with the neural networks back propagation approach. A new filtering algorithm is also developed which can used to extract only the JPG images from the corporate emails. Experimental research shows that this algorithm is more accurate and reliable than the conventional methods. Conclusion: We anticipate that this study can also give a clear picture of the current trends in Steganography and the experimental results indicate this method is valid in steganalysis. This method can be used for internet/network security.

P. T. Anitha

2012-01-01

361

Ultrasound medical image deconvolution using CLEAN algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of reconstruction of ultrasound medical images using blind deconvolution algorithm has been recognized as one of the most important aspect in ultrasound images. The image resolution is deteriorated by many parameters such as the diffusive effect in tissues, which produce the speckle noise. We intend to implement a nonlinear algorithm based on joint use of the well known CLEAN method and the Hybrid Parametric Inverse Filtering method. This method suppose an iterative process for ex...

2012-01-01

362

A Review of Encryption Storage

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information leakage leads to very serious consequences. Encryption storage is an effective means of ensuring information security. We summarize several typical encryption storage methods: application layer encryption, filter driver encryption, virtual disk encryption and full disk encryption. At last this paper compares these methods in some respects and provides the references for design and research of encryption storage systems.

Chaowen Chang; Min Liang; Hongzhao Kou; Zhigang Si

2010-01-01

363

Quantum probabilistic encryption protocol based on conjugate coding

We present a quantum probabilistic encryption algorithm of private-key encryption scheme based on conjugate coding of qubit-string. Usually, probabilistic encryption algorithm is adopted in public-key encryption protocols. Here we consider its function of increasing the unicity distance of both classical and quantum private-key encryption scheme. The security of quantum probabilistic private-key encryption against two kinds of attacks is analyzed. Based on no-signalling postulate we show that the scheme can resist the attack to the key. The protocol's security against plaintext attack is also investigated under the concept of information-theoretic indistinguishability of encryption. Finally, we give a conjecture related with the Breidbart's attack.

Yang, Li; Li, Bao

2012-01-01

364

Implementation of Image Morphing Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphing" describes the combination of image warping with a cross-dissolve between images. This term is basically derived from "image metamorphosis". It is an image processing technique which is used as an tool of animation for the metamorphosis from one image to another. The idea is to specify a warp that distorts the first image into the second and its inverse will distort the second image into the first. The first image is gradually distorted and is faded out, while the second image starts out totally distorted toward the first and is faded in. Thus, the early images in the sequence are much like the first source image. The middle image of the sequence is the average of the first source image distorted halfway toward the second one and the destinationimage distorted halfway back toward the first one. The middle image is key if it looks good then probably the entire animated sequence will look good. For morph between faces, the middle image often looks strikingly life-like, like a real person, but clearly it is neither the person in the first nor second image. The morph process consists of warping two images so that they have the same "shape", and then cross dissolving the resulting images.

Nitika Dahiya#1 , Kanika Khanna

2013-06-01

365

A Novel Pavement Distress Image Filtering Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combined the Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT with compressed sensing de-noising theory, this study proposed a compressed sensing image filtering algorithm in the NSCT transform domain. This algorithm adopted the transform domain filtering method. Firstly, the NSCT was used to do multi-scale and multi-directional transform on the input noisy pavement distress Image which was mapped to the transform domain. Then the compressed sensing theory was used to filter the high-frequency sub-band coefficients. The experiment results show that this algorithm improves the effectiveness and timeliness of the pavement distress image filtering.

Feng Xin

2013-01-01

366

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CHAOTIC ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drastic growth in multimedia communication resulted to numerous security issues in the transmission of data. Moreover, the network used for the digital communication does not provide much security for the data transfer. During this time, tens of millions people using the internet options for essential communication and is being a tool for commercial field increased, So that security is an enormously important issue to deal with. We need to be protected confidentiality of data and provide secure connections for it. Hence we necessitate recognizing the different aspects of security and their applications. Many of these applications ranging from secure commerce, protecting passwords or pin and payments to private communications. As we know that, Cryptography is now becoming an essential aspect of the secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing secret code with confident algorithm and key. The basic components of cryptography are encryption and decryption algorithms, digital signature and hashed message authentication code. We know that encryption is the synonym of cryptography. Different kinds of encryption are used in this modern era. Chaotic encryption is the type of the encryption which has adopted the concept of chaos. In this study, we are studying the history of cryptography until chaotic cryptography and analyzing the performance of chaotic encryption technique. The evaluation is performed in terms of encryption speed, the CPU utilization with time and the battery power consumption. The experimental results are specified the efficiency of the algorithms.

K. John Singh

2013-01-01

367

Colony image acquisition system and segmentation algorithms

This paper presents a novel colony analysis system including an adjustable image acquisition subsystem and a wavelet-watershed-based image segmentation algorithm. An illumination box was constructed--both front lightning and back lightning illuminations can be chosen by users based on the properties of Petri dishes. In the illumination box, the lightning is uniform, which makes image processing easy. A digital camera at the top of the box is connected to a PC computer; all the camera functions are controlled by the developed computer software in this study. As usual, in the image processing part, the hardest task is image segmentation which is carried out by the four different algorithms: 1. recursive image segmentation on gray similarity; 2. canny edge detection-based segmentation; 3. the combination of 1 and 2, and 4. colony delineation on wavelet and watershed. The first three algorithms can obtain good results for ordinary colony images, and for the images including a lot of small (tiny) colonies and dark colonies and overlapping (or touching) colonies, the algorithm 4 can obtain better results than the others. The algorithms are tested by using a large number of different colony images, and the testing results are satisfactory.

Wang, Weixing

2011-12-01

368

Key Generation for Fast Inversion of the Paillier Encryption Function

We study fast inversion of the Paillier encryption function. Especially, we focus only on key generation, and do not modify the Paillier encryption function. We propose three key generation algorithms based on the speeding-up techniques for the RSA encryption function. By using our algorithms, the size of the private CRT exponent is half of that of Paillier-CRT. The first algorithm employs the extended Euclidean algorithm. The second algorithm employs factoring algorithms, and can construct the private CRT exponent with low Hamming weight. The third algorithm is a variant of the second one, and has some advantage such as compression of the private CRT exponent and no requirement for factoring algorithms. We also propose the settings of the parameters for these algorithms and analyze the security of the Paillier encryption function by these algorithms against known attacks. Finally, we give experimental results of our algorithms.

Hirano, Takato; Tanaka, Keisuke

369

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, a new transmission system of encrypted image based on novel chaotic system and SPIHT technique is proposed. This chaotic system is made up of two chaotic systems already developed: the discrete-time modified Henon chaotic system and the continuous-time Colpitts one. The transmission system is designed to take profit of two advantages. The first is the use of a robust and standard algorithm (SPIHT which is appropriate to the digital transmission. The second is to introduce farther complexity of the encryption using the chaotic system over secure channel. Through these two advantages, our purpose is to obtain a robust system against pirate attacks. Cryptanalysis and various experiments have been carried out and the results were reported in this paper, which demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed scheme.

Hamiche Hamid

2013-01-01

370

Image denoising based on wavelet transform algorithm

In this paper, a new wavelet threshold denoising algorithm has been proposed based on the correlation characteristics between layers coefficient and the inner-layer coefficient. For each wavelet coefficient, a corresponding threshold is constructed according to the wavelet coefficients between layers and layer-related features. The experimental results show that the ability of this algorithm is better than the traditional algorithm in the aspect of image denoising.

Ha, Yan; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Miao; Su, Qian; Shi, Yue

2011-11-01

371

Encrypted Domain DCT Based on Homomorphic Cryptosystems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signal processing in the encrypted domain (s.p.e.d. appears an elegant solution in application scenarios, where valuable signals must be protected from a possibly malicious processing device. In this paper, we consider the application of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT to images encrypted by using an appropriate homomorphic cryptosystem. An s.p.e.d. 1-dimensional DCT is obtained by defining a convenient signal model and is extended to the 2-dimensional case by using separable processing of rows and columns. The bounds imposed by the cryptosystem on the size of the DCT and the arithmetic precision are derived, considering both the direct DCT algorithm and its fast version. Particular attention is given to block-based DCT (BDCT, with emphasis on the possibility of lowering the computational burden by parallel application of the s.p.e.d. DCT to different image blocks. The application of the s.p.e.d. 2D-DCT and 2D-BDCT to 8-bit greyscale images is analyzed; whereas a case study demonstrates the feasibility of the s.p.e.d. DCT in a practical scenario.

Tiziano Bianchi

2009-01-01

372

Data Based Text Encrypting in Audio

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays data authentication plays a major for the secrete transmission of the data respectively. Here in this data oriented authentication involves encryption followed by the respective decryption. Where in the encryption process takes place in the transmitter end while decryption takes place or handled at the receiver end respectively. Here an algorithm is designed based on the above strategy where complete privacy is maintained by the system. This one of the data hiding technique. Some of the data hiding techniques include cryptography, Stenography and watermarking. Therefore there is a slight variation between all these techniques in their implementation. Here the protection is also follows where we can hide text in text, Speech in the song which is related to the audio based scenario, Text in the song, Image in the image and text in the image respectively. Here the main aim of the projects is to hide the data in the form of text I the signal respectively. Here in this present methodology we are going to implement the method by the name of RSA respectively. Where the experimental analysis show that this particular method is used for the accurate hiding of the data takes place that is in the form of security based scenario.

S. Satyanarayana

2013-08-01

373

Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Electrical Capacitance Tomography

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In view of the low precision of the reconstruction image of Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT at present. A new method of image reconstruction algorithm based on Chebyshev neural net works for Electrical Capacitance Tomography is proposed. This neural network not only expand the identification ability and learning adaptation of the neural network but also has a simple algorithm, a high speed convergence of learning process and excellent characteristics in the linear and nonlinear accurate approximation. The ECT image reconstruction experimental results show that the method can improve the reconstruction image quality and testify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Zhiqiang Man

2011-01-01

374

Advanced Web Image Retrievel Using Clustering Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose a novel methodology for Web Image retrieval system that takes an image as theinput query and retrieves images based on image content. Content Based Image Retrieval is an approachfor retrieving semantically-relevant images from an image store based on algorithmically-derived imagefeatures. We propose an algorithm to represent images using divisive and partitioned based clusteringapproaches. The HSV color component and Haar wavelet transform has been used to extract imagefeatures. These features are taken to segment an image to obtain objects. For segmenting an image,modified k-means clustering algorithm was used to group similar pixel together into K groups with clustercenters. To modify K-means, a divisive based clustering algorithm has been proposed to determine thenumber of cluster and get back with number of cluster to k-means to obtain significant object groups. Inaddition, the similarity distance measure using threshold value and object uniqueness to quantify theresults was also measured.

Umesh K K

2011-12-01

375

IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS FOR DUAL MODE IMAGING SYSTEMS

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level of detail discernable in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes where information barriers are mandatory. However, if a balance can be struck between sufficient information barriers and feature extraction to verify or identify objects of interest, imaging may significantly advance verification efforts. This paper describes the development of combined active (conventional) radiography and passive (auto) radiography techniques for imaging sensitive items assuming that comparison images cannot be furnished. Three image analysis algorithms are presented, each of which reduces full image information to non-sensitive feature information and ultimately is intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying features present in the image. These algorithms are evaluated on both their technical performance in image analysis and their application with or without an explicitly constructed information barrier. The first algorithm reduces images to non-invertible pixel intensity histograms, retaining only summary information about the image that can be used in template comparisons. This one-way transform is sufficient to discriminate between different image structures (in terms of area and density) without revealing unnecessary specificity. The second algorithm estimates the attenuation cross-section of objects of known shape based on transition characteristics around the edge of the object's image. The third algorithm compares the radiography image with the passive image to discriminate dense, radioactive material from point sources or inactive dense material. By comparing two images and reporting only a single statistic from the combination thereof, this algorithm can operate entirely behind an information barrier stage. Together with knowledge of the radiography system, the use of these algorithms in combination can be used to improve verification capability to inspection regimes and improve and substantially increase the likelihood of detecting material diversion.

2010-07-11

376

A Self-synchronizing Stream Encryption Scheme Based on One-Dimensional Coupled Map Lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a self-synchronizing stream encryption scheme based on one-dimensional coupled map lattices which is introduced as a model with the essential features of spatiotemporal chaos, and of great complexity and diffusion capability of the little disturbance in the initial condition. To evaluate the scheme, a series of statistical tests are employed, and the results show good random-look nature of the ciphertext. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to encrypt a grey-scale image to show the key sensitivity.

2007-04-15

377

A Fresnelet-Based Encryption of Medical Images using Arnold Transform

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical images are commonly stored in digital media and transmitted via Internet for certain uses. If a medical information image alters, this can lead to a wrong diagnosis which may create a serious health problem. Moreover, medical images in digital form can easily be modified by wiping off or adding small pieces of information intentionally for certain illegal purposes. Hence, the reliability of medical images is an important criterion in a hospital information system. In...

Nazeer, Muhammad; Nargis, Bibi; Malik, Yasir Mehmood; Kim, Dai-gyoung

2013-01-01

378

Particle imaging velocimetry using genetic algorithm

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is becoming one of essential methods to measure velocity fields of fluid flows. In this paper, a genetic algorithm capable of tracking same particle pairs on two separated images is introduced. The fundamental of the developed technique is based on that on-to-one correspondence is found between two tracer particles selected in two image planes by taking advantage of combinatorial optimization of the genetic algorithm. The fitness function controlling reproductive success in the genetic algorithm is expressed by physical distances between the selected tracer particles. The capability of the developed genetic algorithm is verified by a computer simulation on a forced vortex flow. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Doh, D.H. [Korea Maritime University, Pusan (Korea); Cho, Y.B.; Hong, S.D. [Korea Maritime University Graduate School, Pusan (Korea)

2000-04-01

379

AIDA: Adaptive Image Deconvolution Algorithm

AIDA is an implementation and extension of the MISTRAL myopic deconvolution method developed by Mugnier et al. (2004) (see J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21:1841-1854). The MISTRAL approach has been shown to yield object reconstructions with excellent edge preservation and photometric precision when used to process astronomical images. AIDA improves upon the original MISTRAL implementation. AIDA, written in Python, can deconvolve multiple frame data and three-dimensional image stacks encountered in adaptive optics and light microscopic imaging.

Hom, Erik; Haase, Sebastian; Marchis, Franck

2013-10-01

380

Color Image Clustering using Block Truncation Algorithm

With the advancement in image capturing device, the image data been generated at high volume. If images are analyzed properly, they can reveal useful information to the human users. Content based image retrieval address the problem of retrieving images relevant to the user needs from image databases on the basis of low-level visual features that can be derived from the images. Grouping images into meaningful categories to reveal useful information is a challenging and important problem. Clustering is a data mining technique to group a set of unsupervised data based on the conceptual clustering principal: maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. Proposed framework focuses on color as feature. Color Moment and Block Truncation Coding (BTC) are used to extract features for image dataset. Experimental study using K-Means clustering algorithm is conducted to group the image dataset into various clusters.

Silakari, Sanjay; Maheshwari, Manish

2009-01-01

381

Novel Algorithm for Classification of Medical Images

Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods in medical image databases have been designed to support specific tasks, such as retrieval of medical images. These methods cannot be transferred to other medical applications since different imaging modalities require different types of processing. To enable content-based queries in diverse collections of medical images, the retrieval system must be familiar with the current Image class prior to the query processing. Further, almost all of them deal with the DICOM imaging format. In this paper a novel algorithm based on energy information obtained from wavelet transform for the classification of medical images according to their modalities is described. For this two types of wavelets have been used and have been shown that energy obtained in either case is quite distinct for each of the body part. This technique can be successfully applied to different image formats. The results are shown for JPEG imaging format.

Bhushan, Bharat; Juneja, Monika

2010-11-01

382

RSA Algorithm Implementation for Ciphering Medical Imaging

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we will present a software designed for remote visualization of medical images with data security transfer. This interface is implemented under MATLAB environment. The implementation of the image cryptography system uses the RSA algorithm with 64 bits private key length...

Samoud Ali; Cherif Adnen

2012-01-01

383

Three-dimensional photon counting double-random-phase encryption.

In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) photon counting double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) technique using passive integral imaging. A 3D photon counting DRPE can encrypt a 3D scene and provides more security and authentications due to photon counting Poisson nonlinear transformation on the encrypted image. In addition, 3D imaging allows verification of the 3D object at different depths. Preliminary results and performance evaluation have been presented. PMID:23988912

Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram

2013-09-01

384

Algorithms for image processing and computer vision

A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It's an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists wh

Parker, J R

2010-01-01

385

AN ENSEMBLE CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM FOR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyperspectral image analysis has been used for many purposes in environmental monitoring, remote sensing, vegetation research and also for land cover classification. A hyperspectral image consists of many layers in which each layer represents a specific wavelength. The layers stack on top of one another making a cube-like image for entire spectrum. This work aims to classify the hyperspectral images and to produce a thematic map accurately. Spatial information of hyperspectral images is collected by applying morphological profile and local binary pattern. Support vector machine is an efficient classification algorithm for classifying the hyperspectral images. Genetic algorithm is used to obtain the best feature subjected for classification. Selected features are classified for obtaining the classes and to produce a thematic map. Experiment is carried out with AVIRIS Indian Pines and ROSIS Pavia University. Proposed method produces accuracy as 93% for Indian Pines and 92% for Pavia University.

K.Kavitha

2014-04-01

386

Image Compression Based on Improved FFT Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression is a crucial step in image processing area. Image Fourier transforms is the classical algorithm which can convert image from spatial domain to frequency domain. Because of its good concentrative property with transform energy, Fourier transform has been widely applied in image coding, image segmentation, image reconstruction. This paper adopts Radix-4 Fast Fourier transform (Radix-4 FFT to realize the limit distortion for image coding, and to discuss the feasibility and the advantage of Fourier transform for image compression. It aims to deal with the existing complex and time-consuming of Fourier transform, according to the symmetric conjugate of the image by Fourier transform to reduce data storage and computing complexity. Using Radix-4 FFT can also reduce algorithm time-consuming, it designs three different compression requirements of non-uniform quantification tables for different demands of image quality and compression ratio. Take the standard image Lena as experimental data using the presented method, the results show that the implementation by Radix-4 FFT is simple, the effect is ideal and lower time-consuming.

Jiabin Deng

2011-07-01

387

Dermoscopic Image Segmentation using Machine Learning Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Malignant melanoma is the most frequent type of skin cancer. Its incidence has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Medical image segmentation is the most essential and crucial process in order to facilitate the characterization and visualization of the structure of interest in medical images. Approach: This study explains the task of segmenting skin lesions in Dermoscopy images based on intelligent systems such as Fuzzy and Neural Networks clustering techniques for the early diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma. The various intelligent system based clustering techniques used are Fuzzy C Means Algorithm (FCM, Possibilistic C Means Algorithm (PCM, Hierarchical C Means Algorithm (HCM; C-mean based Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Network, Adaline Neural Network and Regression Neural Network. Results: The segmented images are compared with the ground truth image using various parameters such as False Positive Error (FPE, False Negative Error (FNE Coefficient of similarity, spatial overlap and their performance is evaluated. Conclusion: The experimental results show that the Hierarchical C Means algorithm( Fuzzy provides better segmentation than other (Fuzzy C Means, Possibilistic C Means, Adaline Neural Network, FHNN and GRNN clustering algorithms. Thus Hierarchical C Means approach can handle uncertainties that exist in the data efficiently and useful for the lesion segmentation in a computer aided diagnosis system to assist the clinical diagnosis of dermatologists.

L. P. Suresh

2011-01-01

388

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed ...

2012-01-01

389

KAIRUAIN-algorithm applied on electromagnetic imaging

For time-harmonic Maxwell equations, we consider an inverse scattering problem for the 3D imaging of the constitutive material of an unknown object from the boundary measurements of the electric field. This problem is ill-posed and nonlinear. We introduce the KAIRUAIN-algorithm which is an iterative method of Newton-Kaczmarz type, where we use the approximate inverse for regularizing the solution of the linearized equation at each Newton iteration. We study the convergence of the algorithm and develop a strategy for the choice of the regularizing parameter in a quite general setting. We apply the KAIRUAIN-algorithm to derive an efficient and stable reconstruction method for electromagnetic imaging. We use experimental data provided by the Institut Fresnel, France, to validate the capability of the reconstruction algorithm to retrieve blindly, without any a priori information, the geometry and the dielectric permittivity of the scattering object.

Lakhal, A.

2013-09-01

390

KAIRUAIN-algorithm applied on electromagnetic imaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For time-harmonic Maxwell equations, we consider an inverse scattering problem for the 3D imaging of the constitutive material of an unknown object from the boundary measurements of the electric field. This problem is ill-posed and nonlinear. We introduce the KAIRUAIN-algorithm which is an iterative method of Newton–Kaczmarz type, where we use the approximate inverse for regularizing the solution of the linearized equation at each Newton iteration. We study the convergence of the algorithm and develop a strategy for the choice of the regularizing parameter in a quite general setting. We apply the KAIRUAIN-algorithm to derive an efficient and stable reconstruction method for electromagnetic imaging. We use experimental data provided by the Institut Fresnel, France, to validate the capability of the reconstruction algorithm to retrieve blindly, without any a priori information, the geometry and the dielectric permittivity of the scattering object. (paper)

2013-09-01

391

Symmetric quantum fully homomorphic encryption with perfect security

Suppose some data have been encrypted, can you compute with the data without decrypting them? This problem has been studied as homomorphic encryption and blind computing. We consider this problem in the context of quantum information processing, and present the definitions of quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) and quantum fully homomorphic encryption (QFHE). Then, based on quantum one-time pad (QOTP), we construct a symmetric QFHE scheme, where the evaluate algorithm depends on the secret key. This scheme permits any unitary transformation on any -qubit state that has been encrypted. Compared with classical homomorphic encryption, the QFHE scheme has perfect security. Finally, we also construct a QOTP-based symmetric QHE scheme, where the evaluate algorithm is independent of the secret key.

Liang, Min

2013-12-01

392

Variable Weighted Ordered Subset Image Reconstruction Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose two variable weighted iterative reconstruction algorithms (VW-ART and VW-OS-SART) to improve the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and establish their convergence. In the two algorithms, the weighting varies with the geometrical direction of the ray. Experimental results with both numerical simulation and real CT data demonstrate that the VW-ART has a significant improvement in the quality of reconstructed images ove...

Jinxiao Pan; Tie Zhou; Yan Han; Ming Jiang

2006-01-01

393

Image Compression Algorithms Optimized for MATLAB

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes implementation of the Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT) algorithm to MATLAB. This approach is used in JPEG or MPEGstandards for instance. The substance of these specifications is toremove the considerable correlation between adjacent picture elements.The objective of this paper is not to improve the DCT algorithm itself, but to re-write it to the preferable version for MATLAB thusallows the enumeration with insignificant delay. The method proposed inthis paper allows image c...

Fryza, T.; Hanus, S.

2003-01-01

394

Here is described a preliminary method that enables secure 'anti-search-engine' encryption, where the middleman can participate in the encrypted information exchange, without being able to understand the exchanged information, encrypted using a one-way function, as well as being unaware of one of two main exchange participants.

Kestila, Antti Alexander

2010-01-01

395

The Extensive Bit-level Encryption System (EBES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, the Extensive Bit-level Encryption System (EBES, a bit-level encryption mechanism has been introduced. It is a symmetric key cryptographic technique that combines advanced randomization of bits and serial bitwise feedback generation modules. After repeated testing with a variety of test inputs, frequency analysis, it would be safe to conclude that the algorithm is free from standard cryptographic attacks. It can effectively encrypt short messages and passwords.

Satyaki Roy

2013-04-01

396

Recursive algorithms for implementing digital image filters.

The B-spline functions are used to develop recursive algorithms for the efficient implementation of two-dimensional linear digital image filters. These filters may be spatially varying. The B-splines are used in a representation of the desired point spread function. We show that this leads to recursive algorithms and hardware implementations which are more efficient than either direct spatial domain filter realizations or FFT implementations. The Z-transform is used to develop a discrete version of Duhamel's theorem. A computer architecture for B-spline image filters is proposed and a complexity analysis and comparison to other approaches is provided. PMID:22516640

Ferrari, L A; Sankar, P V; Shinnaka, S; Sklansky, J

1987-03-01

397

ASC-1 : An Authenticated Encryption Stream Cipher

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The goal of the modes of operation for authenticated encryption is to achieve faster encryption and message authentication by performing both the encryption and the message authentication in a single pass as opposed to the traditional encrypt-then-mac approach, which requires two passes. Unfortunately, the use of a block cipher as a building block limits the performance of the authenticated encryption schemes to at most one message block per block cipher evaluation. In this paper, we propose the authenticated encryption scheme ASC-1 (Authenticating Stream Cipher One). Similarly to LEX, ASC-1 uses leak extraction from diÃ?erent AES rounds to compute the key material that is XOR-ed with the message to compute the ciphertext. Unlike LEX, the ASC-1 operates in a CFB fashion to compute an authentication tag over the encrypted message. We argue that ASC-1 is secure by reducingits (IND-CCA , INT-CTXT) security to the problem of distinguishing the case when the round keys are uniformly random from the case when the round keys are generated by a key scheduling algorithm.

Jakimoski, Goce; Khajuria, Samant

2011-01-01

398

Assessment approach for image mosaicing algorithms

In this paper, a novel quantitative assessment approach for image mosaicing algorithms is proposed by evaluating the quality of an output mosaic image and comparing with the input images. Five evaluation indices--entropy, clarity, registration error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and structural similarity--are calculated and combined with the analytic hierarchy process for comprehensive assessment. This approach can overcome the lack of panoramic image and is easy to implement. Experimental results show the objectivity and the validity of the proposed approach.

Zou, Li-Hui; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan

2011-11-01

399

Color encryption scheme based on adapted quantum logistic map

This paper presents a new color image encryption scheme based on quantum chaotic system. In this scheme, a new encryption scheme is accomplished by generating an intermediate chaotic key stream with the help of quantum chaotic logistic map. Then, each pixel is encrypted by the cipher value of the previous pixel and the adapted quantum logistic map. The results show that the proposed scheme has adequate security for the confidentiality of color images.

Zaghloul, Alaa; Zhang, Tiejun; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

2014-04-01

400

ALGORITHMIC IMAGING APPROACH TO IMPOTENCE

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impotence is a common problem that has great impact on the quality of life. Clinical evaluation usually can exclude endocrinologic imbalance, neurogenic dysfunction, and psychological problems as the etiology. A patient who fails to get an erection after vasoactive medications which are injected probably, has hemodynamic impotence. Dynamic studies that include imaging techniques are now available to discriminate between arterial and venous pathology.Doppler ultrasound with color flow and spec...

Mahyar Ghafoori

2012-01-01

401

Algorithms for ophthalmology image registration

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O registo de imagem é um processo para alinhar 2 ou mais imagens da mesma cena recolhidas em tempos diferentes, de pontos de vista diferentes ou por diferentes sensores. O objectivo desta tese é apresentar uma solução manual e uma automática para alinhar imagens do fundo ocular, de modo a providenciar uma ferramenta útil para ajudar os oftalmologistas no diagnóstico. Do lado manual, desenvolveu-se uma interface onde o utilizador pode escolher os pontos de registo e alinhar até 3 image...

Ferreira, Tiago Lui?s Leite Bessa

2012-01-01

402

IMAGE SEGMENTATION: A WATERSHED TRANSFORMATION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this work is to present a new method for image segmentation using mathematicalmorphology. The approach used is based on the watershed transformation. In order to avoid an oversegmentation, we propose to adapt the topological gradient method. The watershed transformation combined with a fast algorithm based on the topological gradient approach gives good results. The numerical tests obtained illustrate the efficiency of our approach for image segmentation.

Lamia Jaafar Belaid

2011-05-01

403

Proximity algorithms for image models: denoising

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces a novel framework for the study of the total-variation model for image denoising. In the model, the denoised image is the proximity operator of the total-variation evaluated at a given noisy image. The total-variation can be viewed as the composition of a convex function (the l1 norm for the anisotropic total-variation or the l2 norm for the isotropic total-variation) with a linear transformation (the first-order difference operator). These two facts lead us to investigate the proximity operator of the composition of a convex function with a linear transformation. Under the assumption that the proximity operator of a given convex function (e.g., the l1 norm or the l2 norm) can be readily obtained, we propose a fixed-point algorithm for computing the proximity operator of the composition of the convex function with a linear transformation. We then specialize this fixed-point methodology to the total-variation denoising models. The resulting algorithms are compared with the Goldstein–Osher split-Bregman denoising algorithm. An important advantage of the fixed-point framework leads us to a convenient analysis for convergence of the proposed algorithms as well as a platform for us to develop efficient numerical algorithms via various fixed-point iterations. Our numerical experience indicates that the methods proposed here perform favorably

2011-04-01

404

Tomographic image reconstructing using systolic array algorithms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Computed Tomography (CT), two-dimensional (2-D) slices or three-dimensional (3-D) volumes of an object are reconstructed from many projected line-integrals (usually x-ray transmission data) around the object. As the data collection capabilities and reconstruction algorithms for CT have become more sophisticated over the years, the demands on computer systems have become correspondingly greater. Also, recent limited-data reconstruction algorithms using iterative schemes between image and projection domains require large amounts of very time-consuming calculations. In this case, repeated use of a constrained projection model (or the Radon transform, named after mathematician Johann Radon) followed by a reconstruction algorithm (or inverse Randon transform) is used to converge on the correct answer. The commonly used algorithm for computing the inverse Radon transform in the above problems is some form of filtered backprojection (FBP). In this paper we look at ways to parallelize this algorithm so that a computer with multiple interconnected processing elements can achieve reconstructed images more rapidly than before. The class of multiprocessor architectures we suggest is known as systolic arrays, which are highly-parallel regularly connected multiprocessors with simple control and data flows. We show, in simulated and experimental results, how this architecture can compute the forward and back-projection algorithms efficiently and at very high rates depending on the number of processors employed

1988-08-05

405

Optical encryption using multiple intensity samplings in the axial domain.

Image encryption with optical means has attracted attention due to its inherent multidimensionality and degrees of freedom, including phase, amplitude, polarization, and wavelength. In this paper, we propose an optical encoding system based on multiple intensity samplings of the complex-amplitude wavefront with axial translation of the image sensor. The optical encoding system is developed based on a single optical path, where multiple diffraction patterns, i.e., ciphertexts, are sequentially recorded through the axial translation of a CCD camera. During image decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is proposed for extracting the plaintext from ciphertexts. The results demonstrate that the proposed phase retrieval algorithm possesses a rapid convergence rate during image decryption, and high security can be achieved in the proposed optical cryptosystem. In addition, other advantages of the proposed method, such as high robustness against ciphertext contaminations, are also analyzed. PMID:23695310

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Bahram

2013-05-01

406

Lossless compression algorithm for multispectral imagers

Multispectral imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring the earth and its environment from space borne and airborne platforms. Multispectral imaging data consists of visible and IR measurements from a scene across space and spectrum. Growing data rates resulting from faster scanning and finer spatial and spectral resolution makes compression an increasingly critical tool to reduce data volume for transmission and archiving. Research for NOAA NESDIS has been directed to finding for the characteristics of satellite atmospheric Earth science Imager sensor data what level of Lossless compression ratio can be obtained as well as appropriate types of mathematics and approaches that can lead to approaching this data's entropy level. Conventional lossless do not achieve the theoretical limits for lossless compression on imager data as estimated from the Shannon entropy. In a previous paper, the authors introduce a lossless compression algorithm developed for MODIS as a proxy for future NOAA-NESDIS satellite based Earth science multispectral imagers such as GOES-R. The algorithm is based on capturing spectral correlations using spectral prediction, and spatial correlations with a linear transform encoder. In decompression, the algorithm uses a statistically computed look up table to iteratively predict each channel from a channel decompressed in the previous iteration. In this paper we present a new approach which fundamentally differs from our prior work. In this new approach, instead of having a single predictor for each pair of bands we introduce a piecewise spatially varying predictor which significantly improves the compression results. Our new algorithm also now optimizes the sequence of channels we use for prediction. Our results are evaluated by comparison with a state of the art wavelet based image compression scheme, Jpeg2000. We present results on the 14 channel subset of the MODIS imager, which serves as a proxy for the GOES-R imager. We will also show results of the algorithm for on NOAA AVHRR data and data from SEVIRI. The algorithm is designed to be adapted to the wide range of multispectral imagers and should facilitate distribution of data throughout globally. This compression research is managed by Roger Heymann, PE of OSD NOAA NESDIS Engineering, in collaboration with the NOAA NESDIS STAR Research Office through Mitch Goldberg, Tim Schmit, Walter Wolf.

Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Gottipati, Srikanth

2008-08-01

407

Efficient parallel algorithms for covering binary images

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given a black and white image, represented by an array of {radical}n x {radical}n binary valued pixels, the author wishes to cover the black pixels with a minimal set of (possibly overlapping) maximal squares. It was recently shown that obtaining a minimum cover with squares for a polygonal binary image having holes is NP-hard. He derives a processor-time-optimal parallel algorithm for the minimal square cover problem, which for any desired computation time T in (log n, n) runs on an EREW-PRAM with (n/T) processors. He also outlines an implementation on a mesh architecture which runs in O({radical}n) time, and is P-T-optimal. Finally, he also shows how to obtain a speedup in the running time of the algorithm when polymorphic communication primitives are available on the mesh. The cornerstone of the algorithm is a novel data structure, the cover graph, which compactly represents the covering relationships between the maximal squares of the image. The size of the cover graph is linear in the number of pixels. This algorithm has applications to problems in VLSI mask generation, incremental update of raster displays, and image compression.

Moitra, D.

1989-01-01