A new chaotic algorithm for image encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper presents a new nonlinear chaotic algorithm (NCA) which uses power function and tangent function instead of linear function. Its structural parameters are obtained by experimental analysis. And an image encryption algorithm in a one-time-one-password system is designed. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption algorithm based on NCA shows advantages of large key space and high-level security, while maintaining acceptable efficiency. Compared with some general encryption algorithms such as DES, the encryption algorithm is more secure
Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm
Catur Iswahyudi; Emy Setyaningsih
2012-01-01
This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. The...
Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Universal Modular Transformation
Jiaying Jia; Qifeng Zou; Xiaoyang Yu; Xue Yang
2010-01-01
Image encryption is essential to assure information security. Universal modular transformation is a widely applied encryption method, but it has some disadvantages such as a relatively small quantity of keys and insecurity. A uniform block encryption method is proposed in this study to improve the image entropy of encryption and an image is encrypted with the universal modular transform combined with a chaotic mapping. Experimental results show that this algorithm can provide good encryption ...
Parallel image encryption algorithm based on discretized chaotic map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, a variety of chaos-based algorithms were proposed for image encryption. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for parallel image encryption. Based on this framework, a new algorithm is designed using the discretized Kolmogorov flow map. It fulfills all the requirements for a parallel image encryption algorithm. Moreover, it is secure and fast. These properties make it a good choice for image encryption on parallel computing platforms
Color Image Encryption Algorithm Combining Compressive Sensing with Arnold Transform
Aidi Zhang; Nanrun Zhou; Lihua Gong
2013-01-01
A new color image encryption algorithm combining compressive sensing with Arnold transform is proposed, which can encrypt the color image into a gray image. Considering the dimensional reduction and random projection of compressive sensing, we utilize compressive sensing to encrypt and compress the three color components of color image simultaneously. The three encrypted and compressed color components’ dimensions are smaller than the original image, thus they can be grouped into a gray...
A new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This Letter presents a new image encryption scheme, which employs an image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses a hyper-chaotic system to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted y image has a random-like behavior
Chaos-based image encryption algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Letter, a new image encryption scheme is presented, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Firstly, the Arnold cat map is used to shuffle the positions of the image pixels in the spatial-domain. Then the discrete output signal of the Chen's chaotic system is preprocessed to be suitable for the grayscale image encryption, and the shuffled image is encrypted by the preprocessed signal pixel by pixel. The experimental results demonstrate that the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior
Color Image Encryption Algorithm Combining Compressive Sensing with Arnold Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aidi Zhang
2013-11-01
Full Text Available A new color image encryption algorithm combining compressive sensing with Arnold transform is proposed, which can encrypt the color image into a gray image. Considering the dimensional reduction and random projection of compressive sensing, we utilize compressive sensing to encrypt and compress the three color components of color image simultaneously. The three encrypted and compressed color components’ dimensions are smaller than the original image, thus they can be grouped into a gray image, and then the gray image is scrambled by Arnold transform to enhance the security. The proposed algorithm can also be applied in the multiple-image encryption. The experimental results show the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm.
Image encryption based on a new total shuffling algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents image encryption scheme, which employs a new image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses the states combination of two chaotic systems to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the new image total shuffling algorithm has a low time complexity and the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior
Meteosat Images Encryption based on AES and RSA Algorithms
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Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Satellite image Security is playing a vital role in the field of communication system and Internet. This work is interested in securing transmission of Meteosat images on the Internet, in public or local networks. To enhance the security of Meteosat transmission in network communication, a hybrid encryption algorithm based on Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA algorithms is proposed. AES algorithm is used for data transmission because of its higher efficiency in block encryption and RSA algorithm is used for the encryption of the key of the AES because of its management advantages in key cipher. Our encryption system generates a unique password every new session of encryption. Cryptanalysis and various experiments have been carried out and the results were reported in this paper, which demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed scheme.
A high performance hardware implementation image encryption with AES algorithm
Farmani, Ali; Jafari, Mohamad; Miremadi, Seyed Sohrab
2011-06-01
This paper describes implementation of a high-speed encryption algorithm with high throughput for encrypting the image. Therefore, we select a highly secured symmetric key encryption algorithm AES(Advanced Encryption Standard), in order to increase the speed and throughput using pipeline technique in four stages, control unit based on logic gates, optimal design of multiplier blocks in mixcolumn phase and simultaneous production keys and rounds. Such procedure makes AES suitable for fast image encryption. Implementation of a 128-bit AES on FPGA of Altra company has been done and the results are as follow: throughput, 6 Gbps in 471MHz. The time of encrypting in tested image with 32*32 size is 1.15ms.
Image encryption a communication perspective
Abd El-Samie, Fathi E; Elashry, Ibrahim F; Shahieen, Mai H; Faragallah, Osama S; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M; Alshebeili, Saleh A
2013-01-01
Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches encryption and substitution-based approaches.Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard,
Design and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithm Using Chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandhya Rani M.H.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Images are widely used in diverse areas such as medical, military, science, engineering, art, advertising, entertainment, education as well as training, increasing the use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing images. So maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of images has become a major concern. This makes encryption necessary. The pixel values of neighbouring pixels in a plain image are strongly correlated. The proposed algorithm breaks this correlation increasing the entropy. Correlation is reduced by changing the pixel position this which is called confusion. Histogram is equalized by changing the pixel value this which is called diffusion. The proposed method of encryption algorithm is based on chaos theory. The plain-image is divided into blocks and then performs three levels of shuffling using different chaotic maps. In the first level the pixels within the block are shuffled. In the second level the blocks are shuffled and in the third level all the pixels in an image are shuffled. Finally the shuffled image is diffused using a chaotic sequence generated using symmetric keys, to produce the ciphered image for transmission. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed algorithm can be used successfully to encrypt/decrypt the images with the secret keys. The analysis of the algorithm also shows that the algorithm gives larger key space and a high key sensitivity. The encrypted image has good encryption effect, information entropy and low correlation coefficient.
Improving a New Logistic Map as a New Chaotic Algorithm for Image Encryption
Omar A Saraereh; Qais Alsafasfeh; Aodeh Arfoa
2013-01-01
Image encryption is not a new field, but the techniques used to encrypt images are constantly being re-evaluated. As computer processing power grows, the need for better encryption algorithms grows with it. In this paper, the attention was focused on the encryption of still images. In particular, a precise look at encryption using chaotic techniques was subjected. In this paper we present improving existing chaotic algorithm (NCA) for image encryption proposed in 2005. The analysis of the fou...
An image encryption algorithm utilizing julia sets and hilbert curves.
Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing
2014-01-01
Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets' parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few parameters for the key generation, which greatly reduces the storage space. Moreover, because of the Julia sets' properties, such as infiniteness and chaotic characteristics, the keys have high sensitivity even to a tiny perturbation. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has large key space, good statistical property, high sensitivity for the keys, and effective resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack. PMID:24404181
Analyzing the Efficiency of Text-to-Image Encryption Algorithm
Ahmad Abusukhon; Mohammad Talib; Maher A. Nabulsi
2012-01-01
Today many of the activities are performed online through the Internet. One of the methods used to protect the data while sending it through the Internet is cryptography. In a previous work we proposed the Text-to-Image Encryption algorithm (TTIE) as a novel algorithm for network security. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of (TTIE) for large scale collection.
Cryptanalyzing a RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaos map
Liu, Yuansheng
2013-01-01
Recently, a RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaos map has been proposed. It was reported that the encryption algorithm can be broken with four pairs of chosen plain-images and the corresponding cipher-images. This paper re-evaluates the security of the encryption algorithm, and finds that the encryption algorithm can be broken efficiently with only one known plain-image. The effectiveness of the proposed known-plaintext attack is supported by both ri...
SECURE PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME USING SCAN BASED ALGORITHM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sumithra Devi K A
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Today data security is very important and high priority topic. With rapid growth in communication and computer technologies, there is a huge data transaction interment, teleconferencing and military applications. For all these applications we need a security. Encryption is the primary solution to provide security to the data, which is travelling on a communication link between any pair of nodes, but Partial encryption is a technique to save computational power, overhead, speed, time and to provide quick security by only encrypting a selected portion of a bit stream. The focus of this paper is on selecting the important part of the image that can efficiently achieve by conceptually selecting the important part of the image. This paper proposes a new approach for partial image encryption using SCAN algorithm. The main idea behind the present work is to select the part of the image is performed by SCAN based permutation of pixels and substitution rule which together form an iterated product cipher. The issue in traditional cryptosystem in many different areas such as wireless networking, mobile phone services and applications in homeland security is energy consumption for encryption of the large volume visual data. So we are dealing with partial encryption.
Using Genetic Algorithm for Symmetric key Generation in Image Encryption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aarti Soni, Suyash Agrawal
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protectinginformation as the importance of security is increasing dayby day with the advent of online transaction processing ande commerce. In now a day the security of digital imagesattracts much attention, especially when these digitalimages are stored in memory or send through thecommunication networks. Genetic algorithms are a class ofoptimization algorithms. Many problems can be solvedusing genetic algorithms through modelling a simplifiedversion of genetic processes. In this paper, I proposed amethod based on Genetic Algorithm which is used togenerate key by the help of pseudo random numbergenerator. Random number will be generated on the basisof current time of the system. Using Genetic Algorithm wecan keep the strength of the key to be good, still make thewhole algorithm good enough. Symmetric key algorithmAES has been proposed for encrypting the image as it isvery secure method for symmetric key encryption.
Cryptanalysis of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A chaos-based image encryption algorithm was proposed in [Z.-H. Guan, F. Huang, W. Guan, Phys. Lett. A 346 (2005) 153]. In this Letter, we analyze the security weaknesses of the proposal. By applying chosen-plaintext and known-plaintext attacks, we show that all the secret parameters can be revealed
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
X. W., Li; D. H., Kim; S. J., Cho; S. T., Kim.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum-length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process [...] , the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. W. Li
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.
Hiral Rathod; Mahendra Singh Sisodia, Sanjay Kumar Sharma
2011-01-01
The primary goal of this paper is securitymanagement. This will provide authentication of users, andintegrity, accuracy and safety of images which is traveling overinternet. Moreover, an image-based data requires more effortduring encryption and decryption. The Proposed Architecturefor encryption and decryption of an image using suitable userdefinedkey is developed with the same objective. In this paper,we introduce a new permutation technique based on thecombination of image permutation and ...
Analysis and Improvement of Encryption Algorithm Based on Blocked and Chaotic Image Scrambling
Yunpeng Zhang; Peng Sun; Liang Yi; Yongqiang Ma; Ziyi Guo
2012-01-01
Based on blocked image scrambling encryption, this study presents a new image encryption algorithm by introducing chaos theory. This algorithm firstly makes spatial scrambling based on image blocking in order to interrupt pixel position, then furthering this interruption through Arnold Mapping in the chaos and transforms pixel RGB color space through optimized Arnold Mapping. After this process, we get the final encrypted image through a series of iteration. This algorithm has a lot of advant...
An improved image encryption algorithm based on chaotic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, two chaotic image encryption schemes have been proposed, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined. This paper provides the chosen plaintext attack to recover the corresponding plaintext of a given ciphertext. Furthermore, it points out that the two schemes are not sufficiently sensitive to small changes of the plaintext. Based on the given analysis, it proposes an improved algorithm which includes two rounds of substitution and one round of permutation to strengthen the overall performance. (general)
Chaos-based image encryption using a hybrid genetic algorithm and a DNA sequence
Enayatifar, Rasul; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi
2014-05-01
The paper studies a recently developed evolutionary-based image encryption algorithm. A novel image encryption algorithm based on a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) masking, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a logistic map is proposed. This study uses DNA and logistic map functions to create the number of initial DNA masks and applies GA to determine the best mask for encryption. The significant advantage of this approach is improving the quality of DNA masks to obtain the best mask that is compatible with plain images. The experimental results and computer simulations both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates excellent encryption but also resists various typical attacks.
A New Algorithm of Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Chaotic Mapping
Musheer Ahmad; M Shamsher Alam
2010-01-01
The combination of chaotic theory and cryptography forms an important field of information security. In the past decade, chaos based image encryption is given much attention in the research of information security and a lot of image encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps have been proposed. Due to some inherent features of images like bulk data capacity and high data redundancy, the encryption of images is different from that of texts; therefore it is difficult to handle them by traditio...
Bouslimi, D; Coatrieux, G; Roux, Ch
2011-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new joint watermarking/encryption algorithm for the purpose of verifying the reliability of medical images in both encrypted and spatial domains. It combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation (QIM), with a block cipher algorithm, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), in CBC mode of operation. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins even though the image is stored encrypted. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded Ultrasound images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. By making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed solution is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22256213
A self-adapting image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To ensure the security of a digital image, a new self-adapting encryption algorithm based on the spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix is proposed in this paper. First, the plain-image is divided into different blocks of the same size, and each block is sorted in ascending order to obtain the corresponding standard ergodic matrix. Then each block is encrypted by the spatiotemporal chaotic system and shuffled according to the standard ergodic matrix. Finally, all modules are rearranged to acquire the final encrypted image. In particular, the plain-image information is used in the initial conditions of the spatiotemporal chaos and the ergodic matrices, so different plain-images will be encrypted to obtain different cipher-images. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the performance and security of the proposed encryption scheme can encrypt the image effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)
The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuiping Zhang
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.
A chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, a number of image encryption algorithms based on the permutation-diffusion structure have been proposed. However, the control parameters used in the permutation stage are usually fixed in the whole encryption process, which favors attacks. In this paper, a chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters is proposed. The control parameters used in the permutation stage and the keystream employed in the diffusion stage are generated from two chaotic maps related to the plain-image. As a result, the algorithm can effectively resist all known attacks against permutation-diffusion architectures. Theoretical analyses and computer simulations both confirm that the new algorithm possesses high security and fast encryption speed for practical image encryption.
Analysis and Improvement of Encryption Algorithm Based on Blocked and Chaotic Image Scrambling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunpeng Zhang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Based on blocked image scrambling encryption, this study presents a new image encryption algorithm by introducing chaos theory. This algorithm firstly makes spatial scrambling based on image blocking in order to interrupt pixel position, then furthering this interruption through Arnold Mapping in the chaos and transforms pixel RGB color space through optimized Arnold Mapping. After this process, we get the final encrypted image through a series of iteration. This algorithm has a lot of advantages such as a large key space, high effectiveness and resisting common attack successfully, but it needs improvements on some aspects, such as the key sensitivity.
An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
A new image encryption algorithm based on the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a new image encryption algorithm on the basis of the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system. While in the process of generating a key stream, the system parameters and the derivative order are embedded in the proposed algorithm to enhance the security. Such an algorithm is detailed in terms of security analyses, including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme has the advantages of large key space and high security for practical image encryption. (general)
Quantum Image Encryption and Decryption Algorithms Based on Quantum Image Geometric Transformations
Zhou, Ri-Gui; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Man-Qun; Shen, Chen-Yi
2013-06-01
Cryptography is the essential subject for network information security to protect important data. Although following the symmetric cryptosystem for which the participations in the communication keep exactly the same keys, the special for the encryption and decryption algorithms proposed in this paper lays in the operational objectives, the quantum image. Firstly, extracts the properties of gray-scale and position from the quantum gray-scale image which the storage expression of image in quantum states is achieved. Along with the geometric transformations in classical images, this article realizes the quantum image geometric transforms by means of designing quantum circuits. Eventually, through a combination of the proposals in previous, the encryption and decryption algorithms on quantum gray-scale images is finally accomplished, which could ensure the confidentiality and security of the information in delivery. The algorithms belong to the application of quantum image geometric transformations, for further, the new explorations for quantum image cryptography researches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Venugopal Reddy
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Medical image security provides challenges and opportunities, watermarking and encryption of medical images provides the necessary control over the flow of medical information. In this paper a dual security approach is employed .A medical image is considered as watermark and is watermarked inside a natural image. This approach is to wean way the potential attacker by disguising the medical image as a natural image. To further enhance the security the watermarked image is encrypted using encryption algorithms. In this paper a multi–objective optimization approach optimized using different metaheuristic approaches like Genetic Algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution ( DE and Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFOA is proposed. Such optimization helps in preserving the structural integrity of the medical images, which is of utmost importance. The water marking is proposed to be implemented using both Lifted Wavelet Transforms (LWT and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD technique. The encryption is done using RSA and AES encryption algorithms. A Graphical User Interface (GUI which enables the user to have ease of operation in loading the image, watermark it, encrypt it and also retrieve the original image whenever necessary is also designed and presented in this paper.
Analysis and improvement of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The security of digital image attracts much attention recently. In Guan et al. [Guan Z, Huang F, Guan W. Chaos-based image encryption algorithm. Phys Lett A 2005; 346: 153-7.], a chaos-based image encryption algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, the cause of potential flaws in the original algorithm is analyzed in detail, and then the corresponding enhancement measures are proposed. Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome these flaws and maintain all the merits of the original one.
Zhang, B.; Sang, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.
2013-03-01
An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image was encrypted into two phase-only masks M1 and M2 via cascaded iterative Fourier transform (CIFT) algorithm. Then, the public-key encryption algorithm RSA was adopted to encrypt M2 into M2' . Finally, a host image was enlarged by extending one pixel into 2×2 pixels and each element in M1 and M2' was multiplied with a superimposition coefficient and added to or subtracted from two different elements in the 2×2 pixels of the enlarged host image. To recover the secret image from the stego-image, the two masks were extracted from the stego-image without the original host image. By applying public-key encryption algorithm, the key distribution was facilitated, and also compared with the image hiding method based on optical interference, the proposed method may reach higher robustness by employing the characteristics of the CIFT algorithm. Computer simulations show that this method has good robustness against image processing.
Novel image encryption algorithm based on cycle shift and chaotic system
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Gu, Sheng-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Qian
2015-05-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm is proposed. The cycle shift in bits of pixels and the chaotic system are employed for the encryption of the proposed scheme. For cycle shift operations, random integers with the same size of the original image are produced to scramble the plaintext image. Moreover, the scrambled image effects the initial values of the chaotic system for the further encryption process, which increases the sensitivity of plaintext images of the scheme. The scrambled image is encrypted into the ciphered image by the keys which are produced by the chaotic system. The simulation experiments and theoretical analyses indicate that the proposed scheme is superior and able to resist exhaustive attack and statistical attack.
An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps
Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez
2015-05-01
A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing
2015-09-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.
A novel image encryption algorithm based on chaotic system and improved Gravity Model
Wang, Xing-yuan; Wei, Na; Zhang, Dou-dou
2015-03-01
In this paper, an image encryption based on chaotic system and improved Gravity Model is presented. Firstly, the original image is shuffled according to two chaotic sequences generating by logistic map. Secondly, the shuffled image is diffused using the improved Gravity Model. Thirdly, in order to improve the influences of the encrypted image by changing one-pixel on the plain image, the logistic chaotic system is used to further diffusion once again. Many experiments are done and security analyses are discussed, which show that the novel algorithm has good effect and it can resist common attacks.
A fast image encryption algorithm based on only blocks in cipher text
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed, in which the shuffling and diffusion is performed simultaneously. The cipher-text image is divided into blocks and each block has k ×k pixels, while the pixels of the plain-text are scanned one by one. Four logistic maps are used to generate the encryption key stream and the new place in the cipher image of plain image pixels, including the row and column of the block which the pixel belongs to and the place where the pixel would be placed in the block. After encrypting each pixel, the initial conditions of logistic maps would be changed according to the encrypted pixel's value; after encrypting each row of plain image, the initial condition would also be changed by the skew tent map. At last, it is illustrated that this algorithm has a faster speed, big key space, and better properties in withstanding differential attacks, statistical analysis, known plaintext, and chosen plaintext attacks
A Brief Study of Video Encryption Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pranali Pasalkar,
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Video is a set of images .Video encryption is encrypting those set of images .Thus video encryption is simply hiding your video from prying eyes .Video monitoring has always been in concerned .Multimedia security is very important for multimedia commerce on Internet such as video on demand and Real time video multicast. There are various video encryption algorithm. All have some kind of weakness .In this paper classification of various existing algorithm, its advantages and disadvantages is discussed.
Image encryption based on phase encoding by means of a fringe pattern and computational algorithms
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J. A., Muńoz Rodriguez; R., Rodríguez-Vera.
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Se presenta una tecnica computacional para encriptación y desencriptación de imágenes. Esta técnica esta basada en la reflexión de la luz, superposicion de intensidad y algoritmos computacionales. La imagen a ser encriptada es un mapa de reflectancia obtenida por medio de la luz reflejada por una es [...] cena. Para efectuar el procedimiento de encriptacion, la imagen es codificada en un patrón de franjas generado por computadora. El modelo del patron de franjas es una función coseno, la cual agrega en su argumento la imagen a ser encriptada como una fase. Esto genera un patron de franjas deformado de acuerdo a la imagen. Para completar la encriptación, se sobrepone una máscara aleatoria sobre el patron de franjas. El procedimiento de desencriptación es efectuado substrayendo la máscara aleatoria de la imagen encriptada y aplicando un metodo de recuperación de fase. Para extraer la fase del patrón de franjas, se usa el método de demodulación heterodino. Para describir la precision de los resultados de imágenes desencriptadas y la robustés de la encriptación, se calcula la raíz del error cuadratico medio. Todos los pasos de la encriptacion y desencriptación se efectúan en forma computacional. De esta manera, los resultados de encriptación y desencriptacion son mejorados. Esto representa una contribución en el campo de la encriptación y desencriptación. Esta técnica es probada con imagenes simuladas y con imágenes reales, y sus resultados son presentados. Abstract in english A computational technique for image encryption and decryption is presented. The technique is based on light reflection, intensity superposition and computational algorithms. The image to be encrypted is a reflectance map obtained by means of the light reflected by a scene. To perform the encryption [...] procedure, the image is encoded in a computer-generated fringe pattern. The model of the fringe pattern is a cosine function, which adds to its argument the image to be encrypted as a phase. It generates a fringe pattern deformed according to the image. To complete the encryption, a random mask is superimposed on the fringe pattern. The decryption procedure is performed by subtracting the random mask from the encrypted image and applying a phase recovery method. To retrieve the phase from the fringe pattern, the heterodyne demodulation method is used. To describe the accuracy of results of the decrypted images and the robustness of the encryption, a root mean square of error is calculated. All steps of the encryption and decryption are performed in computational form. The results of encryption and decryption are thus improved. It represents a contribution to the field of encryption and decryption. This technique is tested with simulated images and real images, and its results are presented.
SECURE PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME USING SCAN BASED ALGORITHM
Sumithra Devi K A; K M Sunjiv Soyjaudah; Parameshachari B D
2013-01-01
Today data security is very important and high priority topic. With rapid growth in communication and computer technologies, there is a huge data transaction interment, teleconferencing and military applications. For all these applications we need a security. Encryption is the primary solution to provide security to the data, which is travelling on a communication link between any pair of nodes, but Partial encryption is a technique to save computational power, overhead, speed, time and to pr...
A novel chaotic block image encryption algorithm based on dynamic random growth technique
Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Lintao; Zhang, Yingqian
2015-03-01
This paper proposes a new block image encryption scheme based on hybrid chaotic maps and dynamic random growth technique. Since cat map is periodic and can be easily cracked by chosen plaintext attack, we use cat map in another securer way, which can completely eliminate the cyclical phenomenon and resist chosen plaintext attack. In the diffusion process, an intermediate parameter is calculated according to the image block. The intermediate parameter is used as the initial parameter of chaotic map to generate random data stream. In this way, the generated key streams are dependent on the plaintext image, which can resist the chosen plaintext attack. The experiment results prove that the proposed encryption algorithm is secure enough to be used in image transmission systems.
Cryptanalyzing an image encryption algorithm based on scrambling and Veginere cipher
ZENG, LI; Liu, Renren; Zhang, Leo Yu; Liu, Yuansheng; Wong, Kwok-Wo
2014-01-01
Recently, an image encryption algorithm based on scrambling and Vegin`ere cipher has been proposed. However, it was soon cryptanalyzed by Zhang et al. using a combination of chosen-plaintext attack and differential attack. This paper briefly reviews the two attack methods proposed by Zhang et al. and outlines the mathematical interpretations of them. Based on their work, we present an improved chosen-plaintext attack to further reduce the number of chosen-plaintexts required...
Analysis and improvement of a hash-based image encryption algorithm
Deng, Shaojiang; Zhan, Yanping; Xiao, Di; Li, Yantao
2011-08-01
The security of digital image attracts much attention recently. A hash-based digital image encryption algorithm has been proposed in Ref. [1]. But both the theoretical analysis and computer simulation show the characteristic of diffusion is too weak to resist Chosen Plaintext Attack and Known Plaintext Attack. Besides, one bit difference of the plain pixel will lead to only one corresponding bit change of the cipher pixel. In our improved algorithm, coupled with self-adaptive algorithm, only one pixel difference of the plain-image will cause changes of almost all the pixels in the cipher-image (NPCR > 98.77%), and the unified average changing intensity is high (UACI > 30.96%). Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome these flaws and maintain all the merits of the original one.
A novel algorithm for image encryption based on mixture of chaotic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaos-based encryption appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on the mixture of chaotic systems is reported. The chaotic cryptography technique used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography. In this algorithm, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, along with its security analysis and implementation. The experimental results based on mixture of chaotic maps approves the effectiveness of the proposed method and the implementation of the algorithm. This mixture application of chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet
Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr. Balika J. Chelliah
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.
Image Encryption Based on Improved Chaotic Sequences
Ming-yang YU
2013-01-01
Image encryption is an active and challenging research area. This article proposes a transposing and scrambling image encryption algorithm based on improved hyper-chaotic sequence to provide enhanced security for encrypted image transmission. The algorithm processes the hyper-chaotic sequence according to the pixel information, which makes the keys be sensitive to original image. Then we apply scrambling and transposing operation to the pixels in image, according to separate scrambling keys a...
Zhou, Nanrun; Zhang, Aidi; Zheng, Fen; Gong, Lihua
2014-10-01
The existing ways to encrypt images based on compressive sensing usually treat the whole measurement matrix as the key, which renders the key too large to distribute and memorize or store. To solve this problem, a new image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm is proposed to realize compression and encryption simultaneously, where the key is easily distributed, stored or memorized. The input image is divided into 4 blocks to compress and encrypt, then the pixels of the two adjacent blocks are exchanged randomly by random matrices. The measurement matrices in compressive sensing are constructed by utilizing the circulant matrices and controlling the original row vectors of the circulant matrices with logistic map. And the random matrices used in random pixel exchanging are bound with the measurement matrices. Simulation results verify the effectiveness, security of the proposed algorithm and the acceptable compression performance.
Image Encryption using the Standard Hill Cipher
Gaurav Agarwal; Saurabh Singh,; Meeta Chaudhary
2010-01-01
In the recent decade of cryptography the concept of image played a big role. Hiding image into another image may be a good idea for image encryption. Considerable work is done in this field. There are many ways to encrypt the image but in this paper we are presenting a new technique of image encryption by the standard hill cipher. Hill cipher algorithm is a technique for symmetric key algorithm in which we use the matrix form key for the encrypting the text data. Images are also a matrix of p...
A joint image encryption and watermarking algorithm based on compressive sensing and chaotic map
Xiao, Di; Cai, Hong-Kun; Zheng, Hong-Ying
2015-06-01
In this paper, a compressive sensing (CS) and chaotic map-based joint image encryption and watermarking algorithm is proposed. The transform domain coefficients of the original image are scrambled by Arnold map firstly. Then the watermark is adhered to the scrambled data. By compressive sensing, a set of watermarked measurements is obtained as the watermarked cipher image. In this algorithm, watermark embedding and data compression can be performed without knowing the original image; similarly, watermark extraction will not interfere with decryption. Due to the characteristics of CS, this algorithm features compressible cipher image size, flexible watermark capacity, and lossless watermark extraction from the compressed cipher image as well as robustness against packet loss. Simulation results and analyses show that the algorithm achieves good performance in the sense of security, watermark capacity, extraction accuracy, reconstruction, robustness, etc. Project supported by the Open Research Fund of Chongqing Key Laboratory of Emergency Communications, China (Grant No. CQKLEC, 20140504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61173178, 61302161, and 61472464), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 106112013CDJZR180005 and 106112014CDJZR185501).
Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.
Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm
Arroyo, D; Li, CQ; Li, SJ; G. Alvarez; Halang, WA
2009-01-01
Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.
Xiaopeng, Deng
2014-04-01
A hybrid attack method, which is based on an iteration process and the decisive role of phase in the propagation process of light, is proposed to break the double image encryption system based on a nonlinear algorithm. The whole attack process contains three steps. First, an approximate value of the encoded image is achieved by using the phase retrieval algorithm when the encryption key, placed in the Fourier spectrum plane, and the ciphertext are used as the two constraints. Then, an approximate value of the joint power spectrum (JPS) is obtained based on the result of the first step. Finally, two approximate values of the original images are obtained by the use of the approximate value of the JPS and other two encryption keys. The simulation results show that the hybrid attack is valid and the cryptosystem is vulnerable to this attack.
Encryption and Decryption of Digital Image Using Color Signal
Gamil R. S. Qaid; S.N. Talbar
2012-01-01
This paper aims at improving the level of security and secrecy provided by the digital color signal-based image encryption. The image encryption and decryption algorithm is designed and implemented to provide confidentiality and security in transmission of the image based data as well as in storage. This new proposed encryption algorithm can ensure the lossless of transmissions of images. The proposed encryption algorithm in this study has been tested on some images and showed good results.
Sang, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Xiang, Zhili; Cai, Bin; Xiang, Hong
2015-01-01
Gyrator transform has been widely used for image encryption recently. For gyrator transform-based image encryption, the rotation angle used in the gyrator transform is one of the secret keys. In this paper, by analyzing the properties of the gyrator transform, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed to search the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since the gyrator transform is continuous, it is time-consuming to exhaustedly search the rotation angle, even considering the data precision in a computer. Therefore, a computational intelligence-based search may be an alternative choice. Considering the properties of severe local convergence and obvious global fluctuations of the gyrator transform, an improved PSO algorithm was proposed to be suitable for such situations. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed improved PSO algorithm can significantly improve the efficiency of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since gyrator transform is the foundation of image encryption in gyrator transform domains, the research on the method of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform is useful for further study on the security of such image encryption algorithms. PMID:26251910
Compressive Optical Image Encryption
Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong
2015-05-01
An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume.
Compressive optical image encryption.
Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong
2015-01-01
An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume. PMID:25992946
Cryptanalysis on an image block encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An image block encryption scheme based on spatiotemporal chaos has been proposed recently. In this paper, we analyse the security weakness of the proposal. The main problem of the original scheme is that the generated keystream remains unchanged for encrypting every image. Based on the flaws, we demonstrate a chosen plaintext attack for revealing the equivalent keys with only 6 pairs of plaintext/ciphertext used. Finally, experimental results show the validity of our attack. (general)
Novel image encryption based on quantum walks.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889
Novel Image Encryption based on Quantum Walks
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889
Image Encryption using the Standard Hill Cipher
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaurav Agarwal
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In the recent decade of cryptography the concept of image played a big role. Hiding image into another image may be a good idea for image encryption. Considerable work is done in this field. There are many ways to encrypt the image but in this paper we are presenting a new technique of image encryption by the standard hill cipher. Hill cipher algorithm is a technique for symmetric key algorithm in which we use the matrix form key for the encrypting the text data. Images are also a matrix of pixels and each pixel has its intensity value. Using this concept we generate a function which select a random key matrix and then encrypt the image using the key matrix. For the decryption we again use this key matrix to get the original image.
Simultaneous transmission for an encrypted image and a double random-phase encryption key
Yuan, Sheng; Zhou, Xin; Li, Da-Hai; Zhou, Ding-Fu
2007-06-01
We propose a method to simultaneously transmit double random-phase encryption key and an encrypted image by making use of the fact that an acceptable decryption result can be obtained when only partial data of the encrypted image have been taken in the decryption process. First, the original image data are encoded as an encrypted image by a double random-phase encryption technique. Second, a double random-phase encryption key is encoded as an encoded key by the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. Then the amplitude of the encrypted image is modulated by the encoded key to form what we call an encoded image. Finally, the encoded image that carries both the encrypted image and the encoded key is delivered to the receiver. Based on such a method, the receiver can have an acceptable result and secure transmission can be guaranteed by the RSA cipher system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saddaf Rubab
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Steganography is a means to hide the existence of information exchange. Using this technique the sender embeds the secret information in some other media. This is done by replacing useless data in ordinary computer files with some other secret information. The secret information could be simple text, encoded text or images. The media used as the embedding plane could be an image, audio, video or text files. Using steganography ensures that no one apart from the sender and the receiver knows about the existence of the message. In this paper, a steganography method based on transforms used i.e. Wavelet and Contourlet. Devised algorithm was used against each transform. Blowfish Encryption method is also embedded to double the security impact. The major advantage of applying transforms is that the image quality is not degraded even if the number of embedded characters is increased. The proposed system operates well in most of the test cases. The average payload capacity is also considerably high.
METRICS OF A NEW SYMMETRICAL ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
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Dr. R. UMARANI
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,CAST, UMARAM and RC6 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. The authentication protocols have been used for authentication and key-exchange processes. A new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper to prevent the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data-exchange in Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN. The new symmetrical algorithm avoids the key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption, decryption, and authentication processes. It operates at a data rate higher than DES, 3DES, AES, UMARAM and RC6 algorithms. It is applied on a text file and an image as an application. The encryption becomes more secure and high data rate than DES,3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for the encryption algorithms like DES, 3DES,AES,CAST,UMARAM and RC6 at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption
Pawan N. Khade; Manish Narnaware
2012-01-01
This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substit...
Testing Image Encryption by Output Feedback (OFB)
Yas A. Alsultanny
2008-01-01
When it is necessary to securely transmit data in open networks, the encryption must be performed. Most of the cryptographic algorithms were mainly developed for text data. Unfortunately, algorithms those are good for textual data might not suitable for image. The OFB mode of encryption implemented to test five images of different resources, by using three combinations (schemes): a combination of an 8-bit input block with an 8-bit feedback block, a combination of an 8-bit input block with a 1...
A Dual Encryption Scheme of Images Using Polarized Light
Alfalou, Ayman; Brosseau, C.
2010-01-01
Motivated by recent interest in polarization encoding, we propose and analyze a dual encryption/decryption scheme. Compared to standard optical encryption methods which are based on phase and amplitude manipulation, this encryption procedure relying on Mueller- Stokes formalism provides a large flexibility in the key encryption design. The effectiveness of our algorithm is discussed thanks to a numerical simulation of the polarization encryption/decryption procedure of a 256 gray-level image....
Image Encryption and Compression for Medical Image Security
Puech, William
2009-01-01
This tutorial presents the problem of protecting the transmission of medical images. The presented algorithms will be applied to images, videos and 3D objects. The main keywords are compression, encryption, watermarking and data hiding.
Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.
Novel Image Encryption based on Quantum Walks
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for ima...
Hybrid Encryption Algorithms in Cloud Computing
Ping Guo; Liping Su; Lijiang Ning; Guangxiang Dan
2013-01-01
The security issues of user privacy and data have become one of the most important factors in cloud computing. In this paper we focus on data encryption and study how to improve the security of data in the cloud through data encryption. Combining the feature of traditional encryption algorithms and the character of cloud platform, we design three hybrid encryption algorithms 3DES-AES, TDAES and TDAESalt. Experiment results show that the designed algorithms ...
Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joyshree Nath
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2. In MSA(1 method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. We have also introduced a new algorithm for encrypting the plain text multiple times. Our method is totally dependent on the random text_key which is to be supplied by the user. The maximum length of the text_key can be of 16 characters long and it may contain any character(ASCII code 0 to 255. We have developed an algorithm to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and hence if someone applies the brute force method then he/she has to give trail for 256! times which is quite absurd. Moreover the multiple encryption method makes the system further secured. For hiding secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 8 consecutive bytes of the cover file. We have introduced password for hiding data in the cover file. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any standard cover file such as image, audio, video files. Because the hidden message is encrypted hence it will be almost impossible for the intruder to unhide the actual secret message from the embedded cover file. This method may be the most secured method in digital water marking.
An Image Encryption Approach Using a Shuffling Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new image encryption approach is proposed. First, a sort transformation based on nonlinear chaotic algorithm is used to shuffle the positions of image pixels. Then the states of hyper-chaos are used to change the grey values of the shuffled image according to the changed chaotic values of the same position between the above nonlinear chaotic sequence and the sorted chaotic sequence. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption scheme based on a shuffling map shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. Compared with some encryption algorithms, the suggested encryption scheme is more secure. (general)
Image encryption by redirection and cyclical shift
Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Wiatrek, Bryan A.; Agaian, Sos S.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we present a novel method for encrypting and decrypting large amounts of data such as two-dimensional (2-D) images, both gray-scale and color, without the loss of information, and using private keys of varying lengths. The proposed method is based on the concept of the tensor representation of an image and splitting the 2-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT) by one-dimensional (1-D) DFTs of signals from the tensor representation, or transform. The splitting of the transform is accomplished in a three-dimensional (3-D) space, namely on the 3-D lattice placed on the torus. Each splitting-signal of the image defines the 2-D DFT along the frequency-points located on the spirals on the torus. Spirals have different form and cover the lattice on the torus in a complex form, which makes them very effective when moving data through and between the spirals, and data along the spirals. The encryption consists of several iterative applications of mapping the 3-D torus into several ones of smaller sizes, and rotates then moves the data around the spirals on all tori. The encryption results in the image which is uncorrelated. The decryption algorithm uses the encrypted data, and processes them in inverse order with an identical number of iterations. The proposed method can be extended to encrypt and decrypt documents as well as other types of digital media. Simulation results of the purposed method are presented to show the performance for image encryption.
Liu, Zhengjun; Li, She; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yanhua; Liu, Shutian
2013-01-01
To enhance the security of double random phase encoding, a kind of amplitude scrambling operation is designed and introduced into an image encryption process. The random data of the second phase mask in double random phase encoding is also employed for scrambling amplitude distribution in order to save the space of storage and transmission of the key information. The scrambling operator is changeable for generating the key. Some numerical simulations have been provided for testing the validity of the image encryption scheme.
Analyzing the Superlative Symmetric Cryptographic Encryption Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
panchamukesh chandaka
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Cryptology is a science that deals with codes and passwords. Cryptology is alienated into cryptography and cryptanalysis. The Cryptography produces methods to protect the data, and cryptanalysis hack the protected data . Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas - confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange finally which leads to the security of information .Encryption algorithms play a key role in information security systems. This paper provides critical analysis of six most common encryption algorithms namely: DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, AES (Rijndael, and RC6. A comparative study has been carried out for the above six encryption algorithms in terms of encryption key size ,block size, Number of Rounds ,Encryption/decryption time ,CPU process time, CPU clock cycles (in the form of throughput, Power consumption. And these comparisons are used to conclude the best Symmetric Cryptography Encryption algorithm.
Mosso, F.; Bolognini, N.; Pérez, D. G.
2015-06-01
We propose, and experimentally demonstrate, a single-lens imaging system as a compact encoding architecture by using a hybrid protocol for data processing. The encryption process consists of coherent light illuminating a random phase mask attached to an input image (the data), then the outgoing complex field propagates until reaching a second random phase mask next to a lens: encrypted data is obtained at some output plane after the lens. We demonstrate the feasibility of this proposal, and highlight the advantages of using tridimensional speckle as a secure random carrier instead of a standard ciphertext recording—holographic-based encryption techniques. Moreover, we expose the compact system benefits compared to conventional encrypting architectures in terms of energy loss and tolerance against classical attacks applicable to any linear cryptosystem. Experimental results validate our approach.
Study on Digital Image Scrambling Algorithm
Wu Xue
2013-01-01
Encryption algorithm of traditional cryptology has strong safety, but the effect of encrypting images is not good. Digital image scrambling means that a digital image is transformed into a chaotic image which has no evident significance, but the operator can reconstruct the chaotic image into the original image by using the specific algorithm. Image scrambling encryption technology based on chaos theory makes use of chaotic signal to encrypt image data flow, which has the advantages of high s...
Image Encryption Using Chaos and Block Cipher
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Jolfaei
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on combination of pixel shuffling and new modified version of simplified AES. Chaotic baker’s map is used for shuffling and improving S-AES efficiency through S-box design. Chaos is used to expand diffusion and confusion in the image. Due to sensitivity to initial conditions, chaotic baker’s map has a good potential for designing dynamic permutation map and S-box. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests included visual test and histogram analysis, randomness test, information entropy, encryption quality, correlation analysis, differential analysis and sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the new cipher has satisfactory security and is more efficient than AES which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of multimedia data.
SALIM M. WADI; NASHARUDDIN ZAINAL
2013-01-01
The high security communication systems became an urgent need in recent years for both governments and peoples desiring protection from signal interception. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a famous block encryption algorithm which has several advantages in data encryption. However, AES suffer from some drawbacks such as high computations, pattern appearance if apply for image encryption, and more hardware requirements. These problems are more complicated when the AES algorithm is used f...
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SECURITY BASED ON ENCRYPTED HYBRID COMPRESSION
D. Ramkumar; Jacob Raglend, I.
2014-01-01
In this research, we propose an image security scheme using hybrid compression techniques. In this scheme, the data is being provided two-fold security by both encryption stage and hiding stage. The data/message which has to be secured undergoes encryption technique at the initial stage. In this stage, the permutation algorithm is employed which requires a pair of numbers as a key to permute the original message. Following the encryption stage, the deformed message is then embedded onto a JPE...
Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes
Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena
2011-01-01
Image applications have been increasing in recent years. Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness, format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.
Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique
Mr. Balika J. Chelliah; Dr. J. Jagadeesan; Sneha Mathur; Saurav Dutta
2014-01-01
Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH) in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which...
A novel image encryption scheme based on spatial chaos map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, the chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. In this paper, spatial chaos system are used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail. The basic idea is to encrypt the image in space with spatial chaos map pixel by pixel, and then the pixels are confused in multiple directions of space. Using this method one cycle, the image becomes indistinguishable in space due to inherent properties of spatial chaotic systems. Several experimental results, key sensitivity tests, key space analysis, and statistical analysis show that the approach for image cryptosystems provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission from the cryptographic viewpoint
How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?
Said F. El-Zoghdy; Yasser A. Nada; Abdo, A. A.
2011-01-01
Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, data...
How Good Is The DES Algorithm In Image Ciphering?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Said F. El-Zoghdy
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Digital Images and video encryption plays an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide security for digital images. Usually the symmetric key ciphering algorithms are used in encrypting digital images because it is fast and use the techniques for block and stream ciphers. Data Encryption Standard is symmetric key encryption algorithm. In spite of the successful cracking of the data encryption standard by massive brute force attacks, data encryption standard algorithm is an entrenched technology and still useful for many purposes. In this paper, we use some of the image quality encryption measuring factors to study the effect of data encryption standard algorithm in image ciphering. The results show that the data encryption standard algorithm is fast and it achieves a good encryption rate for image ciphering using different modes of operation.
Digital image encryption with chaotic map lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a secure approach for encryption and decryption of digital images with chaotic map lattices. In the proposed encryption process, eight different types of operations are used to encrypt the pixels of an image and one of them will be used for particular pixels decided by the outcome of the chaotic map lattices. To make the cipher more robust against any attacks, the secret key is modified after encrypting each block of sixteen pixels of the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme achieves high security and efficiency. (general)
Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message
Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath,
2011-01-01
In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1). For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2). In MSA(1) method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key ma...
Enhanced Tiny Encryption Algorithm with Embedding (ETEA)
Dr. Deepali Virmani; Nidhi Beniwal,; Gargi Mandal,; Saloni Talwar,
2013-01-01
As computer systems become more pervasive and complex, security is increasingly important. Secure Transmission refers to the transfer of data such as confidential or proprietary information over a secure channel. Many secure transmission methods require a type of encryption. Secure transmissions are put in place to prevent attacks such as ARP spoofing and general data loss. Hence, in order to provide a better security mechanism, in this paper we propose Enhanced Tiny Encryption Algorithm wi...
Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. Ttance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.
Image Encryption based on the RGB PIXEL Transposition and Shuffling
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Quist Aphetsi Kester
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Privacy is one of the key issues information Security addresses. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.
Optically-induced-potential-based image encryption.
Chen, Bing-Chu; Wang, He-Zhou
2011-11-01
We present a technique of nonlinear image encryption by use of virtual optics. The image to be encrypted is superposed on a random intensity image. And this superposed image propagates through a nonlinear medium and a 4-f system with single phase key. The image is encrypted to a stationary white noise. The decryption process is sensitive to the parameters of the encryption system and the phase key in 4-f system. This sensitivity makes attackers hard to access the phase key. In nonlinear medium, optically-induced potentials, which depend on intensity of optical wave, make the superposition principle frustrated. This nonlinearity based on optically induced potentials highly improves the secrecy level of image encryption. Resistance against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique proves that it has the high secrecy level. This nonlinear image encryption based on optically induced potentials is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. PMID:22109142
A New Quaternion-Based Encryption Method for DICOM Images.
Dzwonkowski, Mariusz; Papaj, Michal; Rykaczewski, Roman
2015-11-01
In this paper, a new quaternion-based lossless encryption technique for digital image and communication on medicine (DICOM) images is proposed. We have scrutinized and slightly modified the concept of the DICOM network to point out the best location for the proposed encryption scheme, which significantly improves speed of DICOM images encryption in comparison with those originally embedded into DICOM advanced encryption standard and triple data encryption standard algorithms. The proposed algorithm decomposes a DICOM image into two 8-bit gray-tone images in order to perform encryption. The algorithm implements Feistel network like the scheme proposed by Sastry and Kumar. It uses special properties of quaternions to perform rotations of data sequences in 3D space for each of the cipher rounds. The images are written as Lipschitz quaternions, and modular arithmetic was implemented for operations with the quaternions. A computer-based analysis has been carried out, and the obtained results are shown at the end of this paper. PMID:26276993
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SECURITY BASED ON ENCRYPTED HYBRID COMPRESSION
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D. Ramkumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this research, we propose an image security scheme using hybrid compression techniques. In this scheme, the data is being provided two-fold security by both encryption stage and hiding stage. The data/message which has to be secured undergoes encryption technique at the initial stage. In this stage, the permutation algorithm is employed which requires a pair of numbers as a key to permute the original message. Following the encryption stage, the deformed message is then embedded onto a JPEG image by considering the low and high quantization tables. The main motivation behind this research work is to provide image security through compression. The final result is an encrypted and compressed JPEG image with a different image quality. The receiver has to perform the reverse process to extract the original data/information. The performance analysis is performed in terms of PSNR for different quantization tables.
Image Encryption Based on Diffusion and Multiple Chaotic Maps
Sathishkumar, G A; Sriraam, Dr N; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3214
2011-01-01
In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative way to ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one of them has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the image encryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption technique using multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by using chaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformation leads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on the initial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps. Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key for the encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryption algorit...
Cryptanalysis of an ergodic chaotic encryption algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present the results for the security and the possible attacks on a new symmetric key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity property of a logistic map. After analysis, we use mathematical induction to prove that the algorithm can be attacked by a chosen plaintext attack successfully and give an example to show how to attack it. According to the cryptanalysis of the original algorithm, we improve the original algorithm, and make a brief cryptanalysis. Compared with the original algorithm, the improved algorithm is able to resist a chosen plaintext attack and retain a considerable number of advantages of the original algorithm such as encryption speed, sensitive dependence on the key, strong anti-attack capability, and so on. (general)
Image Encryption: An Information Security Perceptive
Narasimhan Aarthie; Rengarajan Amirtharajan
2014-01-01
Information security purported, yet another retrospected technique for secret sharing, highlighted by image encryption. Encryption of images is proven a successful method to communicate confidential information for which countless procedures are unearthed. Still, it continues attracting researchers as usage of images in every means of digital communication has phenomenally increased. Cryptography embraces various encryption methods and offers four chief modes where each one has found its plac...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boriša Ž. Jovanovi?
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Digitalni multimedijalni sadržaj postaje zastupljeniji i sve više se razmenjuje putem ra?unarskih mreža i javnih kanala (satelitske komunikacije, beži?ne mreže, internet, itd. koji predstavljaju nebezbedne medijume za prenos informacija osetljive sadržine. Sve više na zna?aju dobijaju mehanizmi kriptološke zaštite slika i video sadržaja. Tradicionalni sistemi kriptografske obrade u sistemima za prenos ovih vrsta informacija garantuju visok stepen sigurnosti, ali i imaju svoje nedostatke - visoku cenu implementacije i znatno kašnjenje u prenosu podataka. Pomenuti nedostaci se prevazilaze primenom algoritama selektivnog šifrovanja. / Digital multimedia content is becoming widely used and increasingly exchanged over computer network and public channels (satelite, wireless networks, Internet, etc. which is unsecured transmission media for ex changing that kind of information. Mechanisms made to encrypt image and video data are becoming more and more significant. Traditional cryptographic techniques can guarantee a high level of security but at the cost of expensive implementation and important transmission delays. These shortcomings can be exceeded using selective encryption algorithms. Introduction In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES - Data Encryption Algorithm, IDEA - International Data Encryption Algorithm, AES - Advanced Encryption Algorithm etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data, high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth, make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of traditional systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities on the delivery site coder and decoder on the receiving site. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. As its name says, it consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. Theoretical foundation of selective encryption The first theoretical foundation of selective encryption was given indirectly by Claude Elwood Shannon in his work about communication theory of secrecy systems. It is well known that statistics for image and video data differ much from classical text data. Indeed, image and video data are strongly correlated and have strong spatial/temporal redundancy. Evaluation criteria for selective encryption algorithm performance evaluation We need to define a set of evaluation criteria that will help evaluating and comparing selective encryption algorithms. - Tunability - Visual degradation - Cryptographic security - Encryption ratio - Compression friendliness - Format compliance - Error tolerance Classification of selective encryption algorithms One possible classification of selective encryption algorithms is relative to when encryption is performed with respect to compression. This classification is adequate since it has intrinsic consequences on selective encryption algorithms behavior. We consider three classes of algorithms as follows: - Precompression - Incompression - Postcompression Overview of selective encryption algorithms In accordance with their precedently defined classification, selective encryption algorithms were compared, briefly described with advantages and disadvantages and their quality was assessed. Applications Selective encryption mechanisms became more and more important and can be applied in many different areas. Some potential application areas of this mechanism are: - Monitoring encrypted content - PDAs (PDA - Personal Digital Assistant, mobile phones, and other mobile terminals - Multiple encryptions - Transcodability/scalability of encrypted content Conclusion As we can see through foregoing analysis, we can notice that tunability, cryptographic security and error tolerance are the main unsatisfied criteria. Sel
A fractal-based image encryption system
Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.
2014-12-01
This study introduces a novel image encryption system based on diffusion and confusion processes in which the image information is hidden inside the complex details of fractal images. A simplified encryption technique is, first, presented using a single-fractal image and statistical analysis is performed. A general encryption system utilising multiple fractal images is, then, introduced to improve the performance and increase the encryption key up to hundreds of bits. This improvement is achieved through several parameters: feedback delay, multiplexing and independent horizontal or vertical shifts. The effect of each parameter is studied separately and, then, they are combined to illustrate their influence on the encryption quality. The encryption quality is evaluated using different analysis techniques such as correlation coefficients, differential attack measures, histogram distributions, key sensitivity analysis and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite. The obtained results show great potential compared to other techniques.
Akanksha Mathur
2012-01-01
Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext into the ciphertext where plaintext is the input to the encryption process and ciphertext is the output of the encryption process. Decryption isthe process of transforming ciphertext into the plaintext where ciphertext is the input to the decryption process and plaintext is the output of the decryption process. There are various encryption algorithms exist classified as symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms. Here, I present an algor...
International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) – A Typical Illustration
Sandipan Basu
2011-01-01
There are several symmetric and asymmetric data encryption algorithms. IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is one of the strongest secret-key block ciphers. In this article, I try to represent the existing IDEA algorithm in a different way. In the following illustration, we would see how the encryption can be expressed in a simpler way.
A Framework for Encrypting the Huffman Algorithm
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O. Folorunso
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we describe possibilities of adding encryption to the compression features of Huffman algorithm. The encryption ciphers used are Polyalphabetic substitution cipher (public key and Stream cipher (private key. The former encodes by representing two or more ciphertext in the substitution process. This made it very difficult for snifers to be able to decode with simple statistical analysis. The latter encodes the binary digit (bit of each symbol by operating an XOR (exclusive-or gate. Thus, a well-confused text document is achieved with a fast and low computational power. This new method proved more efficient and effective than ordinary Huffman algorithm.
Encryption Algorithm of RSH (Round Sheep Hash
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Chaoqun Liu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available According to the characteristics of hash function, the one-way hash encryption algorithm based on high diophantine equation (RSH is proposed. RSH not only can be used for password encryption, but also can be used for Data integrity check and the digital signature of message digest. These algorithms hash the arbitrary length message into 128 bits, then make the multi-iterations by high diophantine equation, finally produce the numeral string of 128 bits. In the conversion process, because we do not know the high indefinite equation iterative power law, so the resulting string of numbers is very reliable and safe.
Li, Xiao-Wei; Lee, In-Kwon
2015-03-01
In this paper, we propose an image encryption technique to simultaneously encrypt double or multiple images into one encrypted image using computational integral imaging (CII) and fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). In the encryption, each of the input plane images are located at different positions along a pickup plane, and simultaneously recorded in the form of an elemental image array (EIA) through a lenslet array. The recorded EIA to be encrypted is multiplied by FrFT with two different fractional orders. In order to mitigate the drawbacks of occlusion noise in computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR), the plane images can be reconstructed using a modified CIIR technique. To further improve the solution of the reconstructed plane images, a block matching algorithm is also introduced. Numerical simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
A new color image encryption scheme using CML and a fractional-order chaotic system.
Wu, Xiangjun; Li, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
The chaos-based image cryptosystems have been widely investigated in recent years to provide real-time encryption and transmission. In this paper, a novel color image encryption algorithm by using coupled-map lattices (CML) and a fractional-order chaotic system is proposed to enhance the security and robustness of the encryption algorithms with a permutation-diffusion structure. To make the encryption procedure more confusing and complex, an image division-shuffling process is put forward, where the plain-image is first divided into four sub-images, and then the position of the pixels in the whole image is shuffled. In order to generate initial conditions and parameters of two chaotic systems, a 280-bit long external secret key is employed. The key space analysis, various statistical analysis, information entropy analysis, differential analysis and key sensitivity analysis are introduced to test the security of the new image encryption algorithm. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well. Experimental results confirm that, in comparison to other image encryption schemes, the new algorithm has higher security and is fast for practical image encryption. Moreover, an extensive tolerance analysis of some common image processing operations such as noise adding, cropping, JPEG compression, rotation, brightening and darkening, has been performed on the proposed image encryption technique. Corresponding results reveal that the proposed image encryption method has good robustness against some image processing operations and geometric attacks. PMID:25826602
Study on Digital Image Scrambling Algorithm
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Wu Xue
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Encryption algorithm of traditional cryptology has strong safety, but the effect of encrypting images is not good. Digital image scrambling means that a digital image is transformed into a chaotic image which has no evident significance, but the operator can reconstruct the chaotic image into the original image by using the specific algorithm. Image scrambling encryption technology based on chaos theory makes use of chaotic signal to encrypt image data flow, which has the advantages of high safety, rapid encryption speed, large key space and good scrambling effect. The paper studies invalid-key and quasi invalid-key existed in chaotic sequence which is generated by Logistic map, and proposes image scrambling encryption algorithm based on mixed and chaotic sequence. The algorithm has a good robustness for the JPEG compression with the fixed coefficient, and a good fragileness for the illegal manipulation.
Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2012-06-01
This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations in the dynamics of the system. Such defects are illuminated through a new technique of generalized post proceeding with very low hardware cost. The thesis further discusses two encryption algorithms designed and implemented as a block cipher and a stream cipher. The security of both systems is thoroughly analyzed and the performance is compared with other reported systems showing a superior results. Both systems are realized on Xilinx Vetrix-4 FPGA with a hardware and throughput performance surpassing known encryption systems.
A new encryption and signing algorithm
Urszula Romańczuk
2008-01-01
In this paper we describe a new method of encryption that orig-inates from the public key cryptography and number theory. Our algorithmwas inspired by the RSA algorithm and Diffie-Hellman key exchange proto-col. It is based on a computationally difficult problem - the discrete logarithmproblem in multiplicative group.
REVIEW OF IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE BASED ON AES
Rufina Tresa Mendez; Dr.V.S.Jayanthi; Geetha, P.
2014-01-01
Encryption of images has become a necessity in today’s world to protect a confidential image from unauthorized access. Various methods have been proposed and developed in spatial, frequency and hybrid domains to encrypt the image securely. Encryption could either be a full encryption or partial encryption based on the security requirements. In this paper we present an overview of various image encryption techniques based on AES.
Two Phase Clandestain Image Encryption
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V Hemanth
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In today’s internet world is full of data steals and hackers. So, there is a essential to design a system that assists the internet users to interchange their secret and private data safely across the web. Informationhiding process in a Steganography system starts by identifying medium’s redundant bits. The encryptionprocess creates a stego medium by replacing these redundant bits with data from the hidden message. So, we propose a method for encrypting the image, which has two phases. In the first phase, Perform Circular Shift Operations on the image pixels and the number of rotations have been calculated based on the length of the password. In the second phase, the first phase has undergone some bitwise operationswith a carriage image, by doing this; breaking of the cipher text is difficult.
Cryptanalysis of "an improvement over an image encryption method based on total shuffling"
Akhavan, A.; Samsudin, A.; Akhshani, A.
2015-09-01
In the past two decades, several image encryption algorithms based on chaotic systems had been proposed. Many of the proposed algorithms are meant to improve other chaos based and conventional cryptographic algorithms. Whereas, many of the proposed improvement methods suffer from serious security problems. In this paper, the security of the recently proposed improvement method for a chaos-based image encryption algorithm is analyzed. The results indicate the weakness of the analyzed algorithm against chosen plain-text.
Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method
Double-image encryption based on the affine transform and the gyrator transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a kind of double-image-encryption algorithm by using the affine transform in the gyrator transform domain. Two original images are converted into the real part and the imaginary part of a complex function by employing the affine transform. And then the complex function is encoded and transformed into the gyrator domain. The affine transform, the encoding and the gyrator transform are performed twice in this encryption method. The parameters in the affine transform and the gyrator transform are regarded as the key for the encryption algorithm. Some numerical simulations have validated the feasibility of the proposed image encryption scheme
Dual-Layer Video Encryption using RSA Algorithm
Chadha, Aman; Mallik, Sushmit; Chadha, Ankit; Johar, Ravdeep; Mani Roja, M.
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a video encryption algorithm using RSA and Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence, aimed at applications requiring sensitive video information transfers. The system is primarily designed to work with files encoded using the Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) codec, although it can be easily ported for use with Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded files. The audio and video components of the source separately undergo two layers of encryption to ensure a reasonable level of security. Encryption of the video component involves applying the RSA algorithm followed by the PN-based encryption. Similarly, the audio component is first encrypted using PN and further subjected to encryption using the Discrete Cosine Transform. Combining these techniques, an efficient system, invulnerable to security breaches and attacks with favorable values of parameters such as encryption/decryption speed, encryption/decryption ratio and visual degradation; has been put forth. For applications requiring encryption of sensitive data wherein stringent security requirements are of prime concern, the system is found to yield negligible similarities in visual perception between the original and the encrypted video sequence. For applications wherein visual similarity is not of major concern, we limit the encryption task to a single level of encryption which is accomplished by using RSA, thereby quickening the encryption process. Although some similarity between the original and encrypted video is observed in this case, it is not enough to comprehend the happenings in the video.
A known-plaintext heuristic attack on the Fourier plane encryption algorithm
Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; David S. Monaghan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.
2006-01-01
The Fourier plane encryption algorithm is subjected to a known-plaintext attack. The simulated annealing heuristic algorithm is used to estimate the key, using a known plaintext-ciphertext pair, which decrypts the ciphertext with arbitrarily low error. The strength of the algorithm is tested by using this estimated key to decrypt a different ciphertext which was also encrypted using the same original key. We assume that the plaintext is amplitude-encoded real-valued image, and analyze only...
Simultaneous compression and encryption of color video images
Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Abdallah, N.
2015-03-01
We study theoretically a simultaneous compression and encryption method which is optically implementable and well adapted to color images. Remarkably, we also show that an optimized version of this method can be used to process images from video sequences which are treated as multiple images with taking care of temporal redundancy. The major strength of the method is in its generality and robustness against various known-plaintext attacks making this algorithm appealing for color video images.
Image Encryption Based On Diffusion And Multiple Chaotic Maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.A.Sathishkumar
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative wayto ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one ofthem has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the imageencryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption techniqueusing multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by usingchaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformationleads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on theinitial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps.Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key forthe encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryptionalgorithm. The input image of 2-D is transformed into a 1- D array by using two different scanningpattern (raster and Zigzag and then divided into various sub blocks. Then the position permutation andvalue permutation is applied to each binary matrix based on multiple chaos maps. Finally the receiveruses the same sub keys to decrypt the encrypted images. The salient features of the proposed imageencryption method are loss-less, good peak signal –to noise ratio (PSNR, Symmetric key encryption, lesscross correlation, very large number of secret keys, and key-dependent pixel value replacement.
Design of AES Pipelined Architecture for Image Encryption/Decryption Module
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Pravin V. Kinge
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The relentless growth of Internet and communication technologies has made the extensive use of images unavoidable. The specific characteristics of image like high transmission rate with limited bandwidth, redundancy, bulk capacity and correlation among pixels makes standard algorithms not suitable for image encryption. In order to overcome these limitations for real time applications, design of new algorithms that require less computational power while preserving a sufficient level of security has always been a subject of interest. Here Advanced Encryption Standard (AES,as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. AES standard has different key size variants, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. The available AES algorithm is used for data and it is also suitable for image encryption and decryption to protect the confidential image from an unauthorized access. This project proposes a method in which the image data is an input to Pipelined AES algorithm through Textio, to obtain the encrypted image. and the encrypted image is the input to Pipelined AES Decryption to get the original image. This project proposed to implement the 128,192 & 256 bit Pipelined AES algorithm for image encryption and decryption, also to compare the latency , efficiency, security, frequency & throughput . The proposed work will be synthesized and simulated on FPGA family of Xilink ISE 13.2 and Modelsim tool respectively in Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language.
OCML-based colour image encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new ways to develop efficient image-encryption schemes. While most of these schemes are based on low-dimensional chaotic maps, it has been proposed recently to use high-dimensional chaos namely spatiotemporal chaos, which is modelled by one-way coupled-map lattices (OCML). Owing to their hyperchaotic behaviour, such systems are assumed to enhance the cryptosystem security. In this paper, we propose an OCML-based colour image encryption scheme with a stream cipher structure. We use a 192-bit-long external key to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of the OCML. We have made several tests to check the security of the proposed cryptosystem namely, statistical tests including histogram analysis, calculus of the correlation coefficients of adjacent pixels, security test against differential attack including calculus of the number of pixel change rate (NPCR) and unified average changing intensity (UACI), and entropy calculus. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well.
Krishnamurthy G N; Dr. V Ramaswamy
2010-01-01
this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.
PDES, Fips Standard Data Encryption Algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Description of program or function: PDES performs the National Bureau of Standards FIPS Pub. 46 data encryption/decryption algorithm used for the cryptographic protection of computer data. The DES algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher blocks of data consisting of 64 bits under control of a 64-bit key. The key is generated in such a way that each of the 56 bits used directly by the algorithm are random and the remaining 8 error-detecting bits are set to make the parity of each 8-bit byte of the key odd, i. e. there is an odd number of '1' bits in each 8-bit byte. Each member of a group of authorized users of encrypted computer data must have the key that was used to encipher the data in order to use it. Data can be recovered from cipher only by using exactly the same key used to encipher it, but with the schedule of addressing the key bits altered so that the deciphering process is the reverse of the enciphering process. A block of data to be enciphered is subjected to an initial permutation, then to a complex key-dependent computation, and finally to a permutation which is the inverse of the initial permutation. Two PDES routines are included; both perform the same calculation. One, identified as FDES.MAR, is designed to achieve speed in execution, while the other identified as PDES.MAR, presents a clearer view of how the algorithm is executed
Qin, Yi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Qiong
2014-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel method for image encryption by employing the diffraction imaging technique. This method is in principle suitable for most diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, and a typical diffractive imaging architecture using three random phase masks in the Fresnel domain is taken for an example to illustrate it. The encryption process is rather simple because only a single diffraction intensity pattern is needed to be recorded, and the decryption procedure is also correspondingly simplified. To achieve this goal, redundant data are digitally appended to the primary image before a standard encrypting procedure. The redundant data serve as a partial input plane support constraint in a phase retrieval algorithm, which is employed for completely retrieving the plaintext. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:25089966
Comparative Study of Speech Encryption Algorithms Using Mobile Applications
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Jaspreet kaur#1 , Er. Kanwal preet Singh
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Speech communication is most popular now days. Everyone wants secure communication that’s way use encrypts and decrypt data scheme. It is basically used for military and business purpose. People want high security level during their communication..The numbers of algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption. However in this paper the work is done on three different kinds of algorithms i.e. NTRU, RSA and RINJDAEL these three popular algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption approach. Basically NTRU and RSA algorithms are asymmetric in nature and RINJDAEL algorithm is symmetric in nature. In speech encryption, first the speech is converted into text then further the text is converted into cipher text. The cipher text is sent to be particular receiver in which transmitter want to communicate. At the receiver end, receiver receives the original data through decryption process. At the end the performance is analyzed of these three approaches respectively. The parameters calculated are Encryption, Decryption and Delay time, complexity, and packet lost, Security level. In this three approaches, Encryption, decryption and delay time, are varying according to the number of bits per seconds. On the Other hand, complexity and packet lost are approximately same. There is no packet lost during transmitting and receiving the data. After the analysis of these three algorithms, The NTRU algorithm is faster in encryption and decryption time than others algorithms. The security level are very high than other algorithms. The android platform are used for these three algorithm to find the results in which algorithm took less time for encrypt or decrypt the data and help to evaluate the performance in speech encryption algorithms.
ROI Based Double Encryption Approach for Secure Transaction of Medical Images
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VRATESH KUMAR KUSHWAHA
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The main focus is on enabling, supporting process in the health care industry for implementing a secure, robust and privacy complaint system for the safe distribution and use of medical image. In this paper, a new method that combines image encryption and watermarking technique for safe transaction of medical image is proposed. This method is based on selecting the ROI in the image as the watermark. This portion is encrypted by linear feedback shift register based stream ciphering which is again encrypted by the key generated by Diffie Hellman Algorithm. The encrypted ROI is embedded into the medical image by Spread spectrum technique. The proposed approach proves to be highly secure as two keys are used for encryption and the secret message is spreaded throughout the Medical image.
LOW POWER ENCRYPTED MIPS PROCESSOR BASED ON AES ALGORITHM
Shivani Parmar; Kirat Pal Singh
2012-01-01
The paper describes the Low power 32-bit encrypted MIPS processor based on AES algorithm and MIPS pipeline architecture. The pipeline stages of MIPS processor are arranged in such a way that pipeline can be clocked at high frequency and clock gating technique is used for reducing power consumption. Encryption blocks of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptosystem and dependency among pipeline stages are explained in detail with the help of block diagram. In order to reduce the power consum...
Digital Video Encryption Algorithms Based on Correlation-Preserving Permutations
Spyros Magliveras; Dubravko ?ulibrk; Oge Marques; Hari Kalva; Borko Furht; Daniel Socek
2007-01-01
A novel encryption model for digital videos is presented. The model relies on the encryption-compression duality of certain types of permutations acting on video frames. In essence, the proposed encryption process preserves the spatial correlation and, as such, can be applied prior to the compression stage of a spatial-only video encoder. Several algorithmic modes of the proposed model targeted for different application requirements are presented and analyzed in terms of security and perform...
Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods. (paper)
Classification of Novel Selected Region of Interest for Color Image Encryption
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Lahieb Mohammed Jawad
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Securing digital image in exchanging huge multimedia data over internet with limited bandwidth is a significant and sensitive issue. Selective image encryption being an effective method for reducing the amount of encrypted data can achieve adequate security enhancement. Determining and selecting the region of interest in digital color images is challenging for selective image encryption due to their complex structure and distinct regions of varying importance. We propose a new feature in acquiring and selecting Region of Interest (ROI for the color images to develop a selective encryption scheme. The hybrid domain is used to encrypt regions based on chaotic map approach which automatically generates secret key. This new attribute is a vitality facet representing the noteworthy part of the color image. The security performance of selective image encryption is found to enhance considerably based on the rates of encrypted area selection. Computation is performed using MATLAB R2008a codes on eight images (Lena, Pepper, Splash, Airplane, House, Tiffany, Baboon and Sailboat each of size 512*512 pixels obtained from standard USC-SIPI Image Database. A block size of 128*128 pixels with threshold levels 0.0017 and 0.48 are employed. Results are analyzed and compared with edge detection method using the same algorithm. Encrypted area, entropy and correlation coefficients performances reveal that the proposed scheme achieves good alternative in the confined region of interest, fulfills the desired confidentiality and protects image privacy.
Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong; Wang, Zhipeng
2014-09-01
In previous diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, it is impossible to totally retrieve the plaintext from a single diffraction pattern. In this paper, we proposed a new method to achieve this goal. The encryption procedure can be completed by proceeding only one exposure, and the single diffraction pattern is recorded as ciphertext. For recovering the plaintext, a novel median-filtering-based phase retrieval algorithm, including two iterative cycles, has been developed. This proposal not only extremely simplifies the encryption and decryption processes, but also facilitates the storage and transmission of the ciphertext, and its effectiveness and feasibility have been demonstrated by numerical simulations. PMID:25321554
Analysis and Cryptanalysis of a Selective Encryption Method for JPEG Images
Puech, William; Rodrigues, José; Bors, Adrian
2007-01-01
This paper addresses the protection of images. We address the problem of simultaneous selective encryption (SE) and image compression. The SE is done by using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm with the Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode one a part of the Huffman coefficients corresponding to the AC frequencies. For the compression we consider the JPEG algorithm. Our approach is done without affecting the compression rate and by keeping the JPEG bitstream compliance. In the proposed met...
Zhou, Nanrun; Li, Haolin; Wang, Di; Pan, Shumin; Zhou, Zhihong
2015-05-01
Most of the existing image encryption techniques bear security risks for taking linear transform or suffer encryption data expansion for adopting nonlinear transformation directly. To overcome these difficulties, a novel image compression-encryption scheme is proposed by combining 2D compressive sensing with nonlinear fractional Mellin transform. In this scheme, the original image is measured by measurement matrices in two directions to achieve compression and encryption simultaneously, and then the resulting image is re-encrypted by the nonlinear fractional Mellin transform. The measurement matrices are controlled by chaos map. The Newton Smoothed l0 Norm (NSL0) algorithm is adopted to obtain the decryption image. Simulation results verify the validity and the reliability of this scheme.
Developing and Evaluation of New Hybrid Encryption Algorithms
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DiaaSalama AbdElminaam
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks consist of hundreds or thousands of low cost, low power and self-organizing nodes which are highly distributed. As wireless sensor networks continue to grow, so does the need for effective security mechanisms because sensor networks may interact with sensitive data. Encryption algorithms play good roles in information security systems (ISS. Those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as battery power. Wireless Sensor networks are powered by a battery which is a very limited resource. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on networks, but there are also has some drawbacks. The present asymmetric encryption methods and symmetric encryption methods can offer the security levels but with many limitations. For instance key maintenance is a great problem faced in symmetric encryption methods and less security level is the problem of asymmetric encryption methods even though key maintenance is easy. To improve the strength of these algorithms, we propose a new hybrid cryptographic algorithm in this paper. The algorithm is designed using combination of two symmetric cryptographic techniques and two Asymmetric cryptographic techniques. This protocol provides three cryptographic primitives, integrity, confidentiality and authentication. It is a hybrid encryption method where elliptical curve cryptography (ECC and advanced encryption (AES are combined to provide node encryption. RSA algorithm and Blowfish are combined to provide authentication and (MD5 for integrity. The results show that the proposed hybrid cryptographic algorithm gives better performance in terms of computation time and the size of cipher text.This paper tries to present a fair comparison between the new protocols with four existing different hybrid protocols according to power consumption. A comparison has been conducted for those protocols at different settings for each protocol such as different sizes of data blocks, and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
High Throughput AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation on FPGA
Gurmail Singh; Rajesh Mehra,
2011-01-01
This paper describes an efficient hardware realization of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm using FPGA. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard on October 2, 2000 by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels.We use AES 128- bit block size and 128-bit cipher key for the implementation on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. Xilinx ISETM12.4 design tool is used for synthesis ...
Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image
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Mamun B.I. Reaz
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hardware implementation. The compression algorithm decomposes images into several different parts. We have used a secured encryption algorithm to encrypt only the crucial parts, which are considerably smaller than the original image, which result in significant reduction in processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. The breadth-first traversal linear lossless quadtree decomposition method is used for the partial compression and RSA is used for the encryption. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system on four different images. We have validated the advantage of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2928 units of LC with a system frequency of 13.42MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA prototyping of a partial encryption of compressed images using lossless quadtree compression and RSA encryption has been successfully implemented with minimum logic cells. It is found that the compression process is faster than the decompression process in linear quadtree approach. Moreover, the RSA simulations show that the encryption process is faster than the decryption process for all four images tested.
An Improved Hash Encryption Algorithm Based on Arnold Mapping
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XIANG Yu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The Hash encryption algorithm based on Arnorld mapping is realized by integration of two-dimensional chaotic system and Hash function, whose encryption keys are the initial value of the Arnorld mapping, iterations, the forming method of hash value, and the digit of hash value and so on. The irreversibility of this algorithm can deactivate the reverse attack from cryptograph to plaintext but fail to work against all the attacks such as plaintext and selective plaintext. According to this article, to improve the initial value of the Arnorld mapping and the iterations of the encryption algorithms by means of increasing the number of the initial value of the Arnorld mapping and changing the constant value of the iterations into variable value and building a more secure hash encryption algorithm can further strengthen encryption, so as to improve the resistant ability of the hash encryption algorithm against such attacks as plaintext, selective plaintext etc. And the experimental data indicates the practicability and effectiveness of the improved hash encryption algorithm based on Arnorld mapping in that an analysis of its confusion and dispersion properties shows that its changing bits and average change probability of every bit of is closer to the ideal 50% 64-bit change probability.
Zhao, Jianlin; Lu, Hongqiang; Song, Xiaoshan; Li, Jifeng; Ma, Yanghua
2005-05-01
A novel encryption for optical image based on multistage fractional Fourier transforms (FRTs) and pixel scrambling technique is presented in this paper. The principle of pixel scrambling is described and an optical approach to realize the pixel scrambling and decoding is also proposed. Numerical simulation results are given to verify the algorithm, and relative error (RE) between the decoded images and the original image versus the deviation of fractional orders is discussed. Comparing with single FRT encryption, the security using this method for optical image encryption is greatly improved due to the introduction of the pixel scrambling technique.
Optical image encryption based on interference under convergent random illumination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an optical image encryption system based on the interference principle, two pure phase masks are designed analytically to hide an image. These two masks are illuminated with a plane wavefront to retrieve the original image in the form of an interference pattern at the decryption plane. Replacement of the plane wavefront with convergent random illumination in the proposed scheme leads to an improvement in the security of interference based encryption. The proposed encryption scheme retains the simplicity of an interference based method, as the two pure masks are generated with an analytical method without any iterative algorithm. In addition to the free-space propagation distance and the two pure phase masks, the convergence distance and the randomized lens phase function are two new encryption parameters to enhance the system security. The robustness of this scheme against occlusion of the random phase mask of the randomized lens phase function is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with numerical simulation results
Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives
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Massoudi A
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. It consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. This computation saving is very desirable especially in constrained communications (real-time networking, high-definition delivery, and mobile communications with limited computational power devices. In addition, selective encryption allows preserving some codec functionalities such as scalability. This tutorial is intended to give an overview on selective encryption algorithms. The theoretical background of selective encryption, potential applications, challenges, and perspectives is presented.
A New Encryption Method for Secure Transmission of Images
B.V.Rama Devi,; P.Prapoorna Roja; D.Lalitha Bhaskari; Avadhani, P. S
2010-01-01
In this paper, a novel approach is designed for transmitting images securely using a technique called Gödelization followed by the public key encryption. The image which is to be transmitted is transformed into a sequence called Gödel Number Sequence (GNS) using a new technique called Gödelization. This is compressed using Alphabetic coding AC) and encrypted by an encryption method. This encryption string is transmitted and reconstructed at the decoding end by using thereverse process.
A New Encryption Method for Secure Transmission of Images
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B.V.Rama Devi,
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach is designed for transmitting images securely using a technique called Gödelization followed by the public key encryption. The image which is to be transmitted is transformed into a sequence called Gödel Number Sequence (GNS using a new technique called Gödelization. This is compressed using Alphabetic coding AC and encrypted by an encryption method. This encryption string is transmitted and reconstructed at the decoding end by using thereverse process.
Public Key Cryptosystem Technique Elliptic Curve Cryptography with Generator g for Image Encryption
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Vinod Kumar Yadav
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper present goal of cryptography is thesecure communication through insecure channelswith the help of an algorithm ‘Elliptic CurveCryptography with generator g for ImageEncryption’. ECC is an efficient technique oftransmitting the image securely. It has been shownthough the image encryption by ECC to transmitsthe image secretly and efficiently recovers the sameat the receiver end. The scheme comprises of theimportant algorithms namely encryption algorithmis used to create every 2-D image pixels of theoriginal image into the ECC points in a finiteabelian group over m GF(2 or E a b m ( , .2TheseECC points convert into cipher image pixels atsender side and decryption algorithm is used to getoriginal image within a very short time with a highlevel of security at the receiver side.
An Image Encryption Method: SD-Advanced Image Encryption Standard: SD-AIES
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Somdip Dey
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The security of digital information in modern times is one of the most important factors to keep in mind. For this reason, in this paper, the author has proposed a new standard method of image encryption. The proposed method consists of 4 different stages: 1 First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2 In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3 In third stage, generalized modified Vernam Cipher with feedback mechanism is used on the file to create the next level of encryption; 4 Finally in fourth stage, the whole image file is randomized multiple number of times using modified MSA randomization encryption technique and the randomization is dependent on another number, which is generated from the password provided for encryption method. SD-AIES is an upgraded version of SD-AEI Image Encryption Technique. The proposed method, SD-AIES is tested on different image files and the results were far more than satisfactory.
An Improved Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on NiosII
Wang Liejun; Tang Jun
2013-01-01
Through the data storage of Rijndael encryption algorithm and the analysis of the characteristics of column mixing and wheel transformation, the author put forward some suggestions for the optimization of Rijndael. Meanwhile, the author design and realize the optimized Rijndael encryption through the SOPC (System on Program Chip). Based on the SOPC of Altera FPGA (Field Programmable Gata Array), the algorithm design is put forward and the center is the embedded soft core NiosII. It is also re...
Multiple Lookup Table-Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation
Gong, Jin; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin
Anew AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm implementation was proposed in this paper. It is based on five lookup tables, which are generated from S-box(the substitution table in AES). The obvious advantages are reducing the code-size, improving the implementation efficiency, and helping new learners to understand the AES encryption algorithm and GF(28) multiplication which are necessary to correctly implement AES[1]. This method can be applied on processors with word length 32 or above, FPGA and others. And correspondingly we can implement it by VHDL, Verilog, VB and other languages.
Performance Analysis of AES and MARS Encryption Algorithms
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H S Mohan
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Block ciphers are very important in communication systems as they provide confidentiality through encryption. The popular block ciphers are Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and MARS algorithms. Each cipher uses several rounds of fixed operations to achieve desired security level. The security level is measured in terms of diffusion and confusion. The diffusion level should be at least equal to strict avalanche criterion (SAC value. Therefore, the number of rounds are chosen such that the algorithm provides the SAC value. This paper presents measured diffusion value of AES and MARS algorithms. Diffusion values are compared for both the algorithms: AES and MARS. Similarly, speed of each algorithm is compared.
Image Encryption Using Fibonacci-Lucas Transformation
Mishra, Minati; Mishra, Priyadarsini; Adhikary, M. C.; Kumar, Sunit
2012-01-01
Secret communication techniques are of great demand since last 3000 years due to the need of information security and confidentiality at various levels of communication such as while communicating confidential personal data, medical data of patients, defence and intelligence information of countries, data related to examinations etc. With advancements in image processing research, Image encryption and Steganographic techniques have gained popularity over other forms of hidde...
Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin
2013-02-01
This study presents a steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding (DRPE) techniques. Conventional optical image encryption systems can securely transmit valuable images using an encryption method for possible application in optical transmission systems. The steganographic optical image encryption system based on the DRPE technique has been investigated to hide secret data in encrypted images. However, the DRPE techniques vulnerable to attacks and many of the data hiding methods in the DRPE system can distort the decrypted images. The proposed system, based on reversible data hiding, uses a JBIG2 compression scheme to achieve lossless decrypted image quality and perform a prior encryption process. Thus, the DRPE technique enables a more secured optical encryption process. The proposed method extracts and compresses the bit planes of the original image using the lossless JBIG2 technique. The secret data are embedded in the remaining storage space. The RSA algorithm can cipher the compressed binary bits and secret data for advanced security. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves a high data embedding capacity and lossless reconstruction of the original images.
Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image and Separating the Image and Data
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Naresh Achari B., Sri. Swami Naik J
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Since many years, the protection of multimedia system knowledge is changing into vital. The protection of this multimedia system knowledge is often finished coding or knowledge concealment algorithms. To decrease the UTC, the information compression is critical. Since few years, a replacement drawback is making an attempt to mix in a very single step, compression, and coding and knowledge concealment. So far, few solutions are planned to mix image coding and compression for instance. Nowadays, a replacement challenge consists to plant knowledge in encrypted pictures. Since the entropy of encrypted image is supreme, the embedding step, thought of like noise, isn't doable by victimization customary knowledge concealment algorithms. A replacement plan is to use reversible knowledge hiding algorithms on encrypted pictures by wish to get rid of the embedded knowledge before the image decoding. Recent reversible knowledge concealment ways are planned with high capability, however these ways aren't applicable on encrypted pictures. During this paper we tend to propose associate analysis of the native variance of the marked encrypted pictures so as to get rid of the embedded knowledge throughout the decoding step. We’ve got applied our methodology on varied pictures, and that we show and analyze the obtained results.
Image encryption based on nonlinear encryption system and public-key cryptography
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Chi, Yingying
2015-03-01
Recently, optical asymmetric cryptosystem (OACS) has became the focus of discussion and concern of researchers. Some researchers pointed out that OACS was not tenable because of misunderstanding the concept of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS). We propose an improved cryptosystem using RSA public-key algorithm based on existing OACS and the new system conforms to the basic agreement of public key cryptosystem. At the beginning of the encryption process, the system will produce an independent phase matrix and allocate the input image, which also conforms to one-time pad cryptosystem. The simulation results show that the validity of the improved cryptosystem and the high robustness against attack scheme using phase retrieval technique.
Image encryption based on random scrambling of the amplitude and phase in the frequency domain
Liu, Zhengjun; Li, Qiuming; Dai, Jingmin; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Sun, Xiaogang; Liu, Shutian; Ahmad, Muhammad Ashfaq
2009-08-01
We propose an image encryption algorithm by using random position scrambling of the amplitude and phase functions in the frequency domain of optical transform. The positions of amplitude and phase data are scrambled randomly in the horizontal or vertical direction. The random position orders can be regarded as the key of the algorithm. Moreover, random phase encoding is not used in the proposed algorithm. A feasible optical implementation of the encryption algorithm is given. Some numerical simulations have demonstrated the capability of the algorithm.
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Dr. Atul M. Gonsai
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Encryption algorithms play a vital role in information security systems. The study discovers the progress of Encryption algorithms in terms of their diversity of applications. Some of the Encryption algorithms have been developed to make transmission and storage of data more secured and confidential. Different levels of securities are offered by different algorithms depending on how difficult is to break them. If it is difficult to recover the plain text in spite of having substantial amount of cipher text then an algorithm is unconditionally secured. This study provides evaluation of eight of the most common encryption algorithms namely: DES, 3DES, AES (Rijndael, Blowfish, RSA, RC2, RC4, and RC6. From our analysis we came to conclusion that the best algorithm is the one which fulfills our need of security and speed. We come with new design of encryption algorithm based on AES or RSA or RC4, various scripts on NS2 or MATLAB or SCILAB, simulation environment of encrypted wireless network based on NS2 or MATLAB or SCILAB. We will implement newly proposed encryption algorithm on simulated environment and also test performance of proposed algorithm on wireless simulated network. We come with design and implement technique to store encrypted data on secondary storage device.
Performance Analysis of AES and MARS Encryption Algorithms
H S Mohan; A Raji Reddy
2011-01-01
Block ciphers are very important in communication systems as they provide confidentiality through encryption. The popular block ciphers are Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and MARS algorithms. Each cipher uses several rounds of fixed operations to achieve desired security level. The security level is measured in terms of diffusion and confusion. The diffusion level should be at least equal to strict avalanche criterion (SAC) value. Therefore, the number of rounds are chosen such that the a...
Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain
Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...
Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images by Reserving Room before Encryption
Harish G, Smitha Shekar B, Prajwal R, Sunil S Shetty
2014-01-01
Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH) in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s con?dentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may subject to some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. Here, a novel method is p...
Quantum image encryption based on generalized Arnold transform and double random-phase encoding
Zhou, Nan Run; Hua, Tian Xiang; Gong, Li Hua; Pei, Dong Ju; Liao, Qing Hong
2015-04-01
A quantum realization of the generalized Arnold transform is designed. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm based on generalized Arnold transform and double random-phase encoding is proposed. The pixels are scrambled by the generalized Arnold transform, and the gray-level information of images is encoded by the double random-phase operations. The keys of the encryption algorithm include the independent parameters of coefficients matrix, iterative times and classical binary sequences, and thus, the key space is extremely large. Numerical simulations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that the proposed algorithm with good feasibility and effectiveness has lower computational complexity than its classical counterpart.
Double image encryption using gyrator wavelet transform
Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we implement a novel optical information processing tool termed as gyrator wavelet transform for the application of double image encryption using amplitude- and phase-truncation approach. This approach enhances the key space in an asymmetric cryptosystem by adding supplementary security layers, i.e., family of mother wavelet and the gyrator transform order. Double input images bonded with random phase masks are independently gyrator transformed. Amplitude truncation of obtained spectrum generates individual and universal keys while phase truncation generates two real-valued functions. Each of the retrieved amplitude function is discrete wavelet transformed, which results into four different frequency bands. We have fused the obtained wavelet spectrum of an individual image by again gyrator transforming them following amplitude- and phase truncation. The obtained real-valued functions corresponding to each image are bonded to form the encrypted image. After using the correct universal key, individual asymmetric key, type of wavelet, and correct gyrator transform order, the original images are retrieved successfully. Numerical simulation results prove that the proposed scheme is more flexible and effective than existing wavelet fusion schemes.
Implementation Of Encryption Algorithm For Communication By Microcontrollers
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Udayan Patankar
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract- This paper presents novel architecture for the Advanced Encryption algorithm to use it on low end microcontrollers with less number of bits. Now a day’s communication with high data rate transmission and less power consuming system is required which will deliver less error. Though the data rate is enhanced we try to keep things less complicated with respect to its manufacturing and packaging. Thus rather than going for more bits microcontroller we try to implement it with low bit size microcontrollers, which is also a cost effective. As we have heard that from ancient times it was the trend to use coded language for highly secured data as well as for fast communication on the same basis The algorithm used here encrypts frame information using an encrypted key. The key undergoes 4 stages of encryption. Then the frame information is passed through 15 stages of encryption using the encrypted key to create a cipher text. So that system will deliver less error and guaranteed communication is possible.
Selective Encryption of Human Skin in JPEG Images
Rodrigues, José; Puech, William; Bors, Adrian
2006-01-01
In this study we propose a new approach for selective encryption in the Huffman coding of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The objective is to partially encrypt the human face in an image or video sequence. This approach is based on the AES stream ciphering using Variable Length Coding (VLC) of the Huffman's vector. The proposed scheme allows the decryption of a specific region of the image and results in a significant reduction in...
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Er. Maninder Kaur*
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Images can be encrypted in many ways; several techniques have used different encryption methods. In this research, we apply a new modified International Data Encryption Algorithm to encrypt the full image in an efficient secure manner, after encryption the original file will be compressed and we get compressed image. This paper introduced a highly efficient image encryption-then compression (ETC system using wavelet. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction error domain is able to provide a reasonably high level of security. More notably, the proposed compression approach applied to encrypted images is only slightly worse, unencrypted images as inputs. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction error domain is shown to be able to provide a reasonably high level of security. We also demonstrate that an arithmetic coding-based approach can be exploited to efficiently compress the encrypted images. More notably, the proposed compression approach applied to encrypted images is only slightly worse, in terms of compression efficiency, than the state-of-the-art lossless/lossy image coders, which take original, unencrypted images as inputs. In contrast, most of the existing ETC solutions induce significant penalty on the compression efficiency. For the implementation of this proposed work we use the Image Processing Toolbox under Matlab software.
AN ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM FOR IMPROVING DATABASE SECURITY USING ROT & REA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sujitha
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Database is an organized collection of data, many user wants to store their personal and confidential data’s in such database. Unauthorized persons may try to get the data’s from database and misuse them without the owner’s knowledge. To overcome such problem the advanced control mechanism, known as Database security was introduced. Encryption algorithm is one of the way to give protection to the database from various threat or hackers who target to get confidential information. This paper discuss about the proposed encryption algorithm to give security to such database.
Implementation of Encrypted Image Compression Using Resolution Progressive Compression Scheme?
Arunkumar, M; S. Prabu?
2014-01-01
When it is desired to transmit redundant data over an insecure channel, it is customary to encrypt the data. Here the image data is first encrypted and then it undergoes compression in resolution. Here the decoder gets only lower resolution version of the image. The source dependency is exploited to improve the compression efficiency.
Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains
Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for optical information hiding (encryption) of two-dimensional images by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains. The image is initially randomly shifted using the jigsaw transform algorithm, and then a pixel scrambling technique based on the Arnold transform (ART) is applied. The scrambled image is then encrypted in a randomly chosen fractional Fourier domain. These processes can then be iteratively repeated. The parameters of the architecture, including the jigsaw permutation indices, Arnold frequencies, and fractional Fourier orders, form a very large key space enhancing the security level of the proposed encryption system. Optical implementations are discussed as numerical implementation algorithms. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the system's flexibility and robustness.
Optical encryption for large-sized images using random phase-free method
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2015-01-01
We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be...
Two-dimensional DFA scaling analysis applied to encrypted images
Vargas-Olmos, C.; Murguía, J. S.; Ramírez-Torres, M. T.; Mejía Carlos, M.; Rosu, H. C.; González-Aguilar, H.
2015-01-01
The technique of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been widely used to unveil scaling properties of many different signals. In this paper, we determine scaling properties in the encrypted images by means of a two-dimensional DFA approach. To carry out the image encryption, we use an enhanced cryptosystem based on a rule-90 cellular automaton and we compare the results obtained with its unmodified version and the encryption system AES. The numerical results show that the encrypted images present a persistent behavior which is close to that of the 1/f-noise. These results point to the possibility that the DFA scaling exponent can be used to measure the quality of the encrypted image content.
Double-image encryption by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform
Li, Huijuan; Wang, Yurong; Yan, Haitao; Li, Liben; Li, Qiuze; Zhao, Xiaoyan
2013-12-01
A novel double-image encryption algorithm is proposed by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform. Two original images are first regarded as the amplitude and phase of a complex function. Arnold transform is used to scramble pixels at a local area of the complex function, where the position of the scrambled area and the Arnold transform frequency are generated by the standard map and logistic map respectively. Then the changed complex function is converted by gyrator transform. The two operations mentioned will be implemented iteratively. The system parameters in local pixel scrambling and gyrator transform serve as the keys of this encryption algorithm. Numerical simulation has been performed to test the validity and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amnesh Goel
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Encryption is used to prevent data from unauthorized access and with the appalling headway in network technology seen in the past decade; it has become the need of time to encrypt the images before sending over open network. Though researchers has proposed contrastive methods to encrypt images but correlation between pixels RGB value play a imperative part to guess for original image. So, here we introduce a new image encryption method which first rearranges the pixels within image on basis of RGB values and then forward intervening image for encryption. Experimentally it has shown that pixel rearrangement is enough from image encryption point of view but to send image over open network; inter-pixel displacement algorithm is applied to dispense more armament to image before transmission.
Design and Implementation of Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on FPGA?
K. Soumya; G. Shyam Kishore
2013-01-01
With the rapid development and wide application of computer and communication networks, theinformation security has aroused high attention. Information security is not only applied to the political,military and diplomatic fields, but also applied to the common fields of people’s daily lives. With thecontinuous development of cryptographic techniques, the long-serving DES algorithm with 56-bit key lengthhas been broken because of the defect of short keys. The "Rijndael encryption algorithm" in...
Reducing Computational Time of Basic Encryption and Authentication Algorithms
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Sandeep Kumar,
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Today most of data are sending via the internet for sharing, so the trust of data files is decreased. For the trust more security and authentication is needed, less security increase the liability ofattacks on data. Digital signature of the data is a solution to this security problem which provides the reliability, authenticity and accuracy. Most basic algorithm for security and authentication is RSA, DSA, algorithms which uses the different key of different sizes. This work presents ECDSA algorithm to encrypt the data, use parameterized hash algorithm to authenticate the data and also compare both RSA and ECDSA methods in respect of time parameters.
Color image encryption based on paired interpermuting planes
Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Zhi-liang
2015-03-01
A number of chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been proposed in recent years, and most of them employ confusion-diffusion architecture. This paper presents a new confusion scheme based on paired interpermuting planes. In the proposed new confusion operation, an 'exchange and random access strategy' is employed to replace the traditional confusion operations. The efficiency of the proposed scheme was analyzed by evaluating its histogram distribution, its correlation coefficients, its ability to resist differential attacks, its ability to retain information (entropy analysis), its computational speed, and its ability to guarantee the security of its key scheme. Simulations have been carried out and the results confirmed the superior security and computing speed of our scheme compared to other comparable algorithms.
Dharmendra Kumar Gupta
2012-01-01
Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the needs to protect such applications are increased. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information security systems. This work gives an insight into the new concept called hybrid approach of conventional encryption, which gives the concept of strong encryption of the data. The symmetric encryption also called conventional encryption or single key encryption was the only type of encryption is use prior to the development of ...
High Throughput AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation on FPGA
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Gurmail Singh
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient hardware realization of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm using FPGA. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard on October 2, 2000 by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels.We use AES 128- bit block size and 128-bit cipher key for the implementation on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. Xilinx ISETM12.4 design tool is used for synthesis of the design.The design is coded using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language(VHDL. In our fully pipelined design, the operational frequency can be upto 347.6MHz and the throughput can be upto 44.5Gbits/s. The proposed fully pipelined AES realization achieves high throughput requirements and can be used for cryptology applications such as data security
Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 1017 and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value
Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES
Yu, X. Y.; Zhang, J.; Ren, H. E.; Xu, G. S.; Luo, X. Y.
2006-10-01
With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 1017 and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value.
Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Zhang, J [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Ren, H E [Information and Computer Engineering College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150000 (China); Xu, G S [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China); Luo, X Y [College of Measurement-Control Tech and Communications Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150080 (China)
2006-10-15
With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 10{sup 17} and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)
A one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a new one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of a skew tent chaotic map. We divide the chaotic trajectory into sub-intervals and map them to integers, and use this scheme to encrypt plaintext and obtain ciphertext. In this algorithm, the plaintext information in the key is used, so different plaintexts or different total numbers of plaintext letters will encrypt different ciphertexts. Simulation results show that the performance and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm can encrypt plaintext effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)
A pipelined FPGA implementation of an encryption algorithm based on genetic algorithm
Thirer, Nonel
2013-05-01
With the evolution of digital data storage and exchange, it is essential to protect the confidential information from every unauthorized access. High performance encryption algorithms were developed and implemented by software and hardware. Also many methods to attack the cipher text were developed. In the last years, the genetic algorithm has gained much interest in cryptanalysis of cipher texts and also in encryption ciphers. This paper analyses the possibility to use the genetic algorithm as a multiple key sequence generator for an AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) cryptographic system, and also to use a three stages pipeline (with four main blocks: Input data, AES Core, Key generator, Output data) to provide a fast encryption and storage/transmission of a large amount of data.
AN IMAGE ENCRYPTION METHOD: SD-ADVANCED IMAGE ENCRYPTION STANDARD: SD-AIES
Somdip Dey
2012-01-01
The security of digital information in modern times is one of the most important factors to keep in mind. For this reason, in this paper, the author has proposed a new standard method of image encryption. The proposed method consists of 4 different stages: 1) First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from t...
Application of Cosine Zone Plates to Image Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse the diffraction result of optical field after Cosine zone plate, and theoretically deduce its transform matrix. Under some conditions, its diffraction distribution is a mixture of fractional Fourier spectra. Then we use Cosine zone plate and its diffraction result to image encryption. Possible optical image encryption and decryption implementations are proposed, and some numerical simulation results are also provided. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Study on Cryptanalysis of the Tiny Encryption Algorithm
Rajashekarappa; Dr. K M Sunjiv Soyjaudah,; Dr. Sumithra Devi K A,
2013-01-01
In this paper we present the Study on a Tiny Encryption Algorithm. There is a requirement to specify cryptographic strength in an objective manner rather than describing it using subjective descriptors such as weak, strong, acceptable etc. Such metrics are essential for describing the characteristics of cryptographic products and technologies. Towards this objective, we use two metrics called the Strict Plaintext Avalanche Criterion (SPAC) and the Strict Key Avalanche Criterion (SKAC) mention...
Bi-serial DNA Encryption Algorithm(BDEA)
Prabhu, D
2011-01-01
The vast parallelism, exceptional energy efficiency and extraordinary information inherent in DNA molecules are being explored for computing, data storage and cryptography. DNA cryptography is a emerging field of cryptography. In this paper a novel encryption algorithm is devised based on number conversion, DNA digital coding, PCR amplification, which can effectively prevent attack. Data treatment is used to transform the plain text into cipher text which provides excellent security
A Digital Watermarking for Lifting Based Compression And Encryption of JPEG 2000 Images
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Ansu Anna Ponnachen1 , Lidiya Xavier
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In the digital world the digital media is currently evolving at such rapidly;copyright protection is become increasingly important.Now a days these media is available with various image formats,due to which they are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality.A wide range of digital media is often distributed by multiple levels of distributors in a compressed and encrypted format.It is sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encrypted media items in the compressed encrypted domain itself for tamper detection or ownership declaration or copyright management purposes.The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data inorder to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.This paper deals with the watermarking of compressed and encrypted JPEG 2000 images.The compression is achieved on JPEG 2000 images by lifting based architecture.The encryption algorithm used is stream cipher.The identification of watermark can be done in the decrypted domain.The watermarking technique used is spread spectrum.This can be implemented through matlab.
A Chaotic Encryption Algorithm Based on Skew Tent Map
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Chen Shou-gang
2009-04-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development and extensive applications of computer technology, network technology, communication technology, and Internet in particular, the security of network information is becoming increasingly key problems that must be solved urgently. The applying chaos theory to secure communication and information encryption has already become one of the hot research projects on the combination of nonlinear science and information science, and it is a novel branch of high-tech research fields. In this paper, a chaotic encryption algorithm based on skew tent map is proposed. In the process of encryption, its update look-up table depends on plaintext and external key, the 8-bit subkey is dynamically generated with skew tent map and depends on updating look-up table, the key is initial condition X0 of skew tent map, control parameter p and a external key K. Theoretical analysis and simulated experiments show that the algorithm can resist the statistic and differential attacks, and the algorithm has high security.
Graphics processing unit-accelerated double random phase encoding for fast image encryption
Lee, Jieun; Yi, Faliu; Saifullah, Rao; Moon, Inkyu
2014-11-01
We propose a fast double random phase encoding (DRPE) algorithm using a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based stream-processing model. A performance analysis of the accelerated DRPE implementation that employs the Compute Unified Device Architecture programming environment is presented. We show that the proposed methodology executed on a GPU can dramatically increase encryption speed compared with central processing unit sequential computing. Our experimental results demonstrate that in encryption data of an image with a pixel size of 1000×1000, where one pixel has a 32-bit depth, our GPU version of the DRPE scheme can be approximately two times faster than the advanced encryption standard algorithm implemented on a GPU. In addition, the quality of parallel processing on the presented DRPE acceleration method is evaluated with performance parameters, such as speedup, efficiency, and redundancy.
The Collins Formula Applied in Optical Image Encryption
Chen, Lin-Fei; Zhao, Dao-Mu; Mao, Hai-Dan; Ge, Fan; Guan, Rui-Xia
2013-04-01
We propose a novel method for image encryption, which is realized by the Collins formula with the random shifting method. The Collins formula can denote different optical transforms by one expression with different ABCD elements. For a generalized optical system, the ABCD elements can be randomly chosen, so the keys are increased and the security of the system is strengthened. Finally, some computer simulations are given for different encryption systems to prove the possibilities. The encryption effect is good, and people without the correct keys can not obtain the information easily.
Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibility of proposed method.
Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jimenez, C [Grupo GIFES. Universidad de La Guajira. Riohacha (Colombia); Torres, C; Mattos, L, E-mail: carlosj114@gmail.com [Grupo LOI. Universidad Popular del Cesar. Valledupar (Colombia)
2011-01-01
A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibility of proposed method.
Bahman Rashidi; Bahram Rashidi
2013-01-01
This paper presents, a low power 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm based on a novel asynchronous self-timed architecture for encryption of audio signals. An asynchronous system is defined as one where the transfers of information between combinatorial blocks without a global clock signal. The self-timed architectures are asynchronous circuits which perform their function based on local synchronization signals called hand shake, independently from the other modules. This new...
Zhao, Liang; Adhikari, Avishek; Xiao, Di; Sakurai, Kouichi
2012-08-01
An image scrambling encryption scheme for pixel bits was presented by Ye [Ye GD. Image scrambling encryption algorithm of pixel bit based on chaos map. Pattern Recognit Lett 2010;31:347-54], which can be seen as one kind of typical binary image scrambling encryption considering from the bit-plain of size M × (8N). However, recently, some defects existing in the original image encryption scheme, i.e., Ye's scheme, have been observed by Li and Lo [Li CQ, Lo KT. Optimal quantitative cryptanalysis of permutation-only multimedia ciphers against plaintext attacks. Signal Process 2011;91:949-54]. In the attack proposed by Li and Lo at least 3 + ?log2(MN)? plain images of size M × N are used to reveal the permutation matrix W = [w(i, k)] (i ? {1, 2, … , M}; k ? {1, 2, … , 8N}) which can be applied to recover the exact plain image. In the current paper, at first, one type of special plain image/cipher image is used to analyze the security weakness of the original image scrambling scheme under study. The final encryption vectors TM and TN or the decryption vectors TM' and TN' are revealed completely according to our attack. To demonstrate the performance of our attack, a quantified comparison is drawn between our attack and the attack proposed by Li and Lo. Compared with Li and Lo's attack, our attack is more efficient in the general conditions. In particular, when the sizes of images satisfy the condition M = N or M ? 8N, the number of the used plain images/cipher images is at most 9, which is sharply less than 3 + ?log2(MN)? when M and N are of large size. To overcome the weaknesses of the original scheme, in this paper, an improved image scrambling encryption scheme is proposed. In the improved scheme, the idea of the "self-correlation" method is used to resist the chosen-plaintext attack/known-plaintext attack. The corresponding simulations and analyses illustrate that the improved encryption method has good cryptographic properties, and can overcome the weakness of the original image encryption scheme. Finally, farther improvement is briefly presented for the future work.
A Multilayered Secure, Robust and High Capacity Image Steganographic Algorithm
S.K. Muttoo; Sushil Kumar,
2011-01-01
It is observed that all of the current steganographic algorithms rely heavily on the conventional encryption systems which do not serve well in the context of image steganography. Advanced encryption standard (AES) is one of the most powerful techniques of cryptography which can be used as an integral part of steganographic system for better confidentiality and security. In this paper we propose a reversible image steganographic embedding algorithm consisting of three parts. First, we use the...
Message Based Random Variable Length Key Encryption Algorithm
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Hamid Mirvaziri
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: A block ciphers provides confidentiality in cryptography but cryptanalysis of the classical block ciphers demonstrated some old weaknesses grabbing a partial key in any stage of encryption procedure leads to reconstructing the whole key. Exhaustive key search shows that key generation should be indeterminist and random for each round. Matching cipher-text attack shows that larger size of block is more secure. In order to overcome analysis mentioned above a new algorithm is designed that is based on random numbers and also can defeat time and memory constraints. Approach: Dynamic and message dependent key generator was created by producing a random number and it was selected as the size of first chunk. Residual value of second chunk divided by first chunk concatenating with first chunk forms the first cipher as an input for SP-boxes. These processes repeated until whole mesaage get involved into the last cipher. Encrypted messages are not equal under different run. Value of random number should be greater than 35 bits and plaintext must be at least 7 bits. A padding algorithm was used for small size messages or big random numbers. Results: Attack on the key generation process was prevented because of random key generation and its dependency to input message. Encryption and decryption times measured between 5 and 27 m sec in 2 GHz Pentium and java platform so time variant and fast enough key generation had been kept collision and timing attacks away due to small seized storage. Long and variable key length made key exhaustive search and differential attack impossible. None fixed size key caused avoidance of replaying and other attacks that can happen on fixed sized key algorithms. Conclusion: Random process employed in this block cipher increased confidentiality of the message and dynamic length substitution in proposed algorithm may lead to maximum cryptographic confusion and consequently makes it difficult for cryptanalysis.
Programmable Cellular Automata Based Efficient Parallel AES Encryption Algorithm
Das, Debasis
2011-01-01
Cellular Automata(CA) is a discrete computing model which provides simple, flexible and efficient platform for simulating complicated systems and performing complex computation based on the neighborhoods information. CA consists of two components 1) a set of cells and 2) a set of rules . Programmable Cellular Automata(PCA) employs some control signals on a Cellular Automata(CA) structure. Programmable Cellular Automata were successfully applied for simulation of biological systems, physical systems and recently to design parallel and distributed algorithms for solving task density and synchronization problems. In this paper PCA is applied to develop cryptography algorithms. This paper deals with the cryptography for a parallel AES encryption algorithm based on programmable cellular automata. This proposed algorithm based on symmetric key systems.
Simultaneous Color Image Compression and Encryption using Number Theory
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Navaneethakrishnan Navaneethakrishnan
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The dependence on computing machines and utility of information has been growing tremendously in the last few decades. As a result, evolving effective techniques for storing and transmitting the ever increasing volumes of data has become a high priority issue. Image compression addresses the problem by reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the compression process is the removal of redundant data. Selection of a suitable of a suitable compression scheme for a given application depends on the available memory for processing, the number of mathematical computations and the available bandwidth for transmission. The security of digital images is another important issue that has been receiving considerable attention in the recent past. Different image encryption methods have been proposed in the literature towards ensuring the security of data. The encryption process transforms a 2 – D pixel array into a statistically uncorrelated data set. In this paper, an enhanced number theory based color image compression and encryption scheme is proposed. This technique encompasses the twin – based application of image compression and I age encryption simultaneously adopting a model based paradigm for the general compression – encryption standards.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somdip Dey
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then randomized and then, finally embed that randomized QR Code inside some common image. Quick Response Codes (or QR Codes are a type of two-dimensional matrix barcodes used for encoding information. It has become very popular recently for its high storage capacity. The present method is ASA_QR is a combination of strong encryption algorithm and data hiding in two stages to make the entire process extremely hard to break. Here, the secret message is encrypted first and hide it in a QR CodeTM and then again that QR CodeTM is embed in a cover file (picture file in random manner, using the standard method of steganography. In this way the data, which is secured, is almost impossible to be retrieved without knowing the cryptography key, steganography password and the exact unhide method. For encrypting data The authors used a method developed by Nath et al i.e. TTJSA, which is based on generalized modified Vernam Cipher, MSA and NJJSA method; and from the cryptanalysis it is seen that TTJSA is free from any standard cryptographic attacks, like differential attack, plain-text attack or any brute force attack. After encrypting the data using TTJSA,the authors have used standard steganographic method To hide data inside some host file. The present method may be used for sharing secret key, password, digital signature etc.
A NEW DATA HIDING ALGORITHM WITH ENCRYPTED SECRET MESSAGE USING TTJSA SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTO SYSTEM
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Sayak Guha
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In the present work we are proposing a new steganogarphy method to hide any encrypted secret message inside a cover file by substituting in the LSB. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm namely TTJSA developed by Nath et al [10]. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al [2]. The TTJSA method comprises of 3 distinct methods which are also developed by Nath et al[1,7]. The methods are MSA[Meheboob, Saima and Asoke][1], NJJSAA[Neeraj, Joel, Joyshree, Amlan, Asoke][7] and Generalised Modified Vernam Cipher method developed by Nath et al[10]. The authors have used TTJSA method for encryption purpose as it is already proved that TTJSA is very effective even if we have small pattern such as digital watermark or password etc. Moreover the cryptanalysis of TTJSA shows that the standard attack like differential attack or simple plain text attack will not be able to break the encryption method. So the main advantage of this method is that even if the hacker can extract the embedded data from a host file but they can not get back the original secret message. While embedding encrypted secret message we have used the standard LSB substitution method [2]. The present method may be used for hiding very confidential message or password or any private key from one machine to another machine or from one machine to server etc. For sending question papers normally the teachers are sending it through e-mail as normal plain text. Instead of that now they can encrypt it first using TTJSA method and hide the encrypted message in some popular image and send it to destination with full confidence like in between no one will be able to hack it. In defense or in Banking sector also the present method may be used for sending some crucial and important message. The present method may be used to hide any confidential message such as text, audio, image in any image or audio or video file. Keywords: MSA,TTJSA,NJJSAA,LSB,Vernam,Steganography
Cryptanalysis on an Image Scrambling Encryption Scheme Based on Pixel Bit
Zhao, Liang; Adhikari, Avishek; Xiao, Di; Sakurai, Kouichi
Recently, an image scrambling encryption algorithm which makes use of one-dimensional chaos system for shuffling the pixel bits was proposed in [G.-D. Ye, Pattern Recognition Lett. 31(2010) 347-354]. Through the scrambling algorithm, the pixel locations and values can be encrypted at the same time. This scheme can be thought of as a typical binary image scrambling encryption considering the bit-plain of size emph{M}×8emph{N}. In [Li C.Q., Lo K. T., http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0912/0912.1918v2.pdf], Li et al. proposed an attack using more than ?log 2(emph{8M} emph{N}-1)? many known-plaintext images to recover the original plain image with the noise of size M ×N. The same principle is also suitable for the chosen-plaintext attack which can obtain the exact plain image. In the current paper, a simple attack on the original scheme is presented by applying chosen-plaintext images. Using our attack, the encryption vectors emph{TM} and emph{TN} and the decryption vectors TM' and TN' can be recovered completely. The experimental simulations on two standard images of size 128 ×128 and 256 ×256 justify our analysis. It is shown that the recovered images are identical with the corresponding original images. For both the original images, the number of chosen-plaintext images required in our scheme is 9, where as to do the same using the scheme proposed in Li et al.' attack, at least 17 and 19 chosen-plaintext images there will be required respectively. Moreover, the some method can be also used for chosen-ciphertext attack which reveals the decryption vectors TM' and TN' directly. Note that our attacks are also successful under iteration system which is remarked in the conclusions.
A Fast Image Encryption Scheme based on Chaotic Standard Map
Wong, K W; Law, W S; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Kwok, Bernie Sin-Hung; Law, Wing-Shing
2006-01-01
In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image encryption schemes have been proposed. The typical structure of these schemes has the permutation and the diffusion stages performed alternatively. The confusion and diffusion effect is solely contributed by the permutation and the diffusion stage, respectively. As a result, more overall rounds than necessary are required to achieve a certain level of security. In this paper, we suggest to introduce certain diffusion effect in the confusion stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. The purpose is to reduce the workload of the time-consuming diffusion part so that fewer overall rounds and hence a shorter encryption time is needed. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of the encryption speed is thus achieved.
Optical encryption using photon-counting polarimetric imaging.
Maluenda, David; Carnicer, Artur; Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Juvells, Ignasi; Javidi, Bahram
2015-01-26
We present a polarimetric-based optical encoder for image encryption and verification. A system for generating random polarized vector keys based on a Mach-Zehnder configuration combined with translucent liquid crystal displays in each path of the interferometer is developed. Polarization information of the encrypted signal is retrieved by taking advantage of the information provided by the Stokes parameters. Moreover, photon-counting model is used in the encryption process which provides data sparseness and nonlinear transformation to enhance security. An authorized user with access to the polarization keys and the optical design variables can retrieve and validate the photon-counting plain-text. Optical experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the encryption method. PMID:25835825
Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images
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Panduranga H.T
2010-03-01
Full Text Available We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added with original image to obtain encrypted image. The scan methodology is applied to either original image or carrier image, after the addition of original image and carrier image to obtain highly distorted encrypted image. The resulting image is found to be more distorted in hybrid technique. By applying the reverse process we get the decrypted image.
Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images
T, Panduranga H
2010-01-01
We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added with original image to obtain encrypted image. The scan methodology is applied to either original image or carrier image, after the addition of original image and carrier image to obtain highly distorted encrypted image. The resulting image is found to be more distorted in hybrid technique. By applying the reverse process we get the decrypted image.
VIRTEX-5 Fpga Implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm
Rais, Muhammad H.; Qasim, Syed M.
2010-06-01
In this paper, we present an implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm using state-of-the-art Virtex-5 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The design is coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL). Timing simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the designed circuit. Performance evaluation is also done in terms of throughput and area. The design implemented on Virtex-5 (XC5VLX50FFG676-3) FPGA achieves a maximum throughput of 4.34 Gbps utilizing a total of 399 slices.
Muniraj, Inbarasan; Kim, Byoungho; Lee, Byung-Guen
2014-09-20
This paper presents a new method for three-dimensional (3D) scene acquisition via reconstruction with multispectral information and its Fourier-based encryption using computational integral imaging, by which the field of view, resolution, and information security are increased, respectively. The color imaging sensors covered with a Bayer color filter array captures elemental images (EI) at different spectral bands (400 and 700 nm intervals in the visible spectrum). Subsequently, double random phase encryption (DRPE) in the Fourier domain is employed on Bayer formatted EI to encrypt the captured 3D scene. Proper 3D object reconstruction only can be achieved by applying inverse decryption and a geometric ray backpropagation algorithm on the encrypted EI. Further, the high-resolution multispectral 3D scene can be visualized by using various adaptive interpolation algorithms. To objectively evaluate our proposed method, we carried out computational experiments for 3D object sensing, reconstruction, and digital simulations for DRPE. Experiment results validate the feasibility and robustness of our proposed approach, even under severe degradation. PMID:25322135
Secure Image Encryption without Size Limitation Using Arnold Transform and Random Strategies
Zhenjun Tang; Xianquan Zhang
2011-01-01
Encryption is an efficient way to protect the contents of digital media. Arnold transform is a significant technique of image encryption, but has weaknesses in security and applications to images of any size. To solve these problems, we propose an image encryption scheme using Arnold transform and random strategies. It is achieved by dividing the image into random overlapping square blocks, generating random iterative numbers and random encryption order, and scrambling pixels of each block us...
Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu; Chen, Yixiang
2014-08-10
We present a study about information disclosure in phase-truncation-based cryptosystems. The main information of the original image to be encoded can be obtained by using a decryption key in the worst case. The problem cannot be thoroughly solved by imaginary part truncating, keeping the encryption keys as private keys, or applying different phase keys for different plaintexts during each encryption process as well as the phase modulation in the frequency domain. In order to eliminate the risk of unintended information disclosure, we further propose a nonlinear spatial and spectral encoding technique using a random amplitude mask (RAM). The encryption process involving two security layers can be fully controlled by a RAM. The spatial encoding of the plaintext images and the simultaneous encryption of the plaintext images and the encryption key greatly enhance the security of system, avoiding several attacks that have cracked the phase-truncation-based cryptosystems. Besides, the hybrid encryption system retains the advantage of a trap door one-way function of phase truncation. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed encryption algorithm. PMID:25320917
Optical image encryption based on a radial shearing interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a novel method for optical image encryption based on a modified radial shearing interferometer (MRSI), which is generally used for wavefront reconstruction. In this method, a plaintext image is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM) and then modulated by a random phase mask (RPM), the result is regarded as the input of the radial shearing interferometer and is divided into two coherent lights, which interfere with each other, leading to an interferogram (ciphertext). The aforementioned encryption process can be achieved digitally or optically while the decryption process can only be analytically accomplished. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the validity of this method. (paper)
Optical Image Encryption with Simplified Fractional Hartley Transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new method for image encryption on the basis of simplified fractional Hartley transform (SFRHT). SFRHT is a real transform as Hartley transform (HT) and furthermore, superior to HT in virtue of the advantage that it can also append fractional orders as additional keys for the purpose of improving the system security to some extent. With this method, one can encrypt an image with an intensity-only medium such as a photographic film or a CCD camera by spatially incoherent or coherent illumination. The optical realization is then proposed and computer simulations are also performed to verify the feasibility of this method. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Archana garg1 , Harmanjot Singh Dhaliwal2 1
2013-01-01
For the security of data, various solutions algorithms were proposed. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels. This paper presents an efficient FPGA implementation approach of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm. In this paper two different architectures of AES named Basic AES and Fully Pipelined AES have been designe...
MEGHANA A. HASAMNIS; S.S. Limaye
2012-01-01
An Advanced Standard Encryption Algorithm (AES) is widely used in modern consumer electronicproducts for security. The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate wireless sensor networks also use AES algorithm wherelow power consumption is the priority. To reduce the time taken for encryption of huge data, the algorithm hasto be implemented in hardware. To meet the requirement for low area the algorithm has to be implemented insoftware. Hence, a balance has to be achieved between hardware and software implementa...
Efficient image or video encryption based on spatiotemporal chaos system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, an efficient image/video encryption scheme is constructed based on spatiotemporal chaos system. The chaotic lattices are used to generate pseudorandom sequences and then encrypt image blocks one by one. By iterating chaotic maps for certain times, the generated pseudorandom sequences obtain high initial-value sensitivity and good randomness. The pseudorandom-bits in each lattice are used to encrypt the Direct Current coefficient (DC) and the signs of the Alternating Current coefficients (ACs). Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme has good cryptographic security and perceptual security, and it does not affect the compression efficiency apparently. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.
Color image encryption based on gyrator transform and Arnold transform
Sui, Liansheng; Gao, Bo
2013-06-01
A color image encryption scheme using gyrator transform and Arnold transform is proposed, which has two security levels. In the first level, the color image is separated into three components: red, green and blue, which are normalized and scrambled using the Arnold transform. The green component is combined with the first random phase mask and transformed to an interim using the gyrator transform. The first random phase mask is generated with the sum of the blue component and a logistic map. Similarly, the red component is combined with the second random phase mask and transformed to three-channel-related data. The second random phase mask is generated with the sum of the phase of the interim and an asymmetrical tent map. In the second level, the three-channel-related data are scrambled again and combined with the third random phase mask generated with the sum of the previous chaotic maps, and then encrypted into a gray scale ciphertext. The encryption result has stationary white noise distribution and camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, the rotation angle of gyrator transform, the iterative numbers of Arnold transform, the parameters of the chaotic map and generated accompanied phase function serve as encryption keys, and hence enhance the security of the system. Simulation results and security analysis are presented to confirm the security, validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Samir El Adib; Naoufal Raissouni,
2012-01-01
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES), as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high...
A symmetrical image encryption scheme in wavelet and time domain
Luo, Yuling; Du, Minghui; Liu, Junxiu
2015-02-01
There has been an increasing concern for effective storages and secure transactions of multimedia information over the Internet. Then a great variety of encryption schemes have been proposed to ensure the information security while transmitting, but most of current approaches are designed to diffuse the data only in spatial domain which result in reducing storage efficiency. A lightweight image encryption strategy based on chaos is proposed in this paper. The encryption process is designed in transform domain. The original image is decomposed into approximation and detail components using integer wavelet transform (IWT); then as the more important component of the image, the approximation coefficients are diffused by secret keys generated from a spatiotemporal chaotic system followed by inverse IWT to construct the diffused image; finally a plain permutation is performed for diffusion image by the Logistic mapping in order to reduce the correlation between adjacent pixels further. Experimental results and performance analysis demonstrate the proposed scheme is an efficient, secure and robust encryption mechanism and it realizes effective coding compression to satisfy desirable storage.
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Jianhua Wu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available A novel single-channel color image encryption algorithm is proposed, which utilizes the reality-preserving fractional discrete cosine transform in YCbCr space. The color image to be encrypted is decomposed into Y, Cb, and Cr components, which are then separately transformed by Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. The resulting three spectra sequences, obtained by zig-zag scanning the spectra matrices, are truncated and the lower frequency coefficients of the three components are scrambled up into a single matrix of the same size with the original color image. Then the obtained single matrix is encrypted by the fractional discrete cosine transform, which is a kind of encryption with secrecy of pixel value and pixel position simultaneously. The encrypted image is convenient for display, transmission and storage, thanks to the reality-preserving property of the fractional discrete cosine transform. Additionally, the proposed algorithm enlarges the key space by employing the generating sequence as an extra key in addition to the fractional orders. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate the proposed algorithm is feasible, effective and secure. The robustness to noise attack is also guaranteed to some extent.
Image encryption using the two-dimensional logistic chaotic map
Wu, Yue; Yang, Gelan; Jin, Huixia; Noonan, Joseph P.
2012-01-01
Chaos maps and chaotic systems have been proved to be useful and effective for cryptography. In our study, the two-dimensional logistic map with complicated basin structures and attractors are first used for image encryption. The proposed method adopts the classic framework of the permutation-substitution network in cryptography and thus ensures both confusion and diffusion properties for a secure cipher. The proposed method is able to encrypt an intelligible image into a random-like one from the statistical point of view and the human visual system point of view. Extensive simulation results using test images from the USC-SIPI image database demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Security analysis results of using both the conventional and the most recent tests show that the encryption quality of the proposed method reaches or excels the current state-of-the-art methods. Similar encryption ideas can be applied to digital data in other formats (e.g., digital audio and video). We also publish the cipher MATLAB open-source-code under the web page https://sites.google.com/site/tuftsyuewu/source-code.
Improving Security of Parallel Algorithm Using Key Encryption Technique
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R. Swarna Raja
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the recent cloud era, computing moves to a new plane of running large scale scientific applications. Many parallel algorithms have been created to support a large dataset. MapReduce is one such parallel data processing framework adopted widely for scientific research, machine learning and high end computing. The most prevalent implementation of MapReduce is the open source project Hadoop. To protect the integrity and confidentiality of data uploaded, MapReduce introduced a Kerberos-based model with tokens for datablocks and processing nodes. The tokens are symmetrically encrypted and distributed across the nodes. Such a technique is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks like data loss, data modification and stealing of keys. In this study, a novel technique is proposed based on public key encryption on top of the Kerberos model to enhance Security. The various attack scenarios on the current Hadoop implementation model has been analyzed and a secure environment has been proposed. The study shows that the proposed framework provides an improved level of security when using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman with 65,537 keysize consumed 23 milli seconds, while using 257 bits keysize which consumed 21 milli seconds.
A Review On Data Hiding Techniques In Encrypted Images
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Ms. Anagha Markandey
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking into the networking era. There are number of techniques available in the industry to overcome this problem. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is one of the solution, but the problem is the original cover cannot be losslessly recovered by this technique. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent property that the original cover can be recovered without any los after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. This paper enlists the various methods of data hiding in the image like differential expansion, histogram shift or the combination of both the techniques. This is useful in the way that these methods recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.
Enhanced Fast and Secure Hybrid Encryption Algorithm for Message Communication
Shaik Rasool; Md Ateeq ur Rahman; Sridhar, G; K. Hemanth Kunar
2011-01-01
This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem of information which is transmitted in Internet. The encryption standards such as DES (Data Encryption Standard), AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) are widely used to solve the problem of communication over an insecure channel. With advanced technologies in computer hardware and software, these standards seem not to be as secure and fast as one would like. In th...
An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Lorenz System for Low Profile Applications
Anees, Amir
2015-09-01
Advanced encryption standard being a benchmark for encryption is very ideal for digital images encryption for its security reasons but might not be effective for low profile applications due to its high computational and hardware complexity. In this paper, we presents a robust image encryption scheme for these types of applications based on chaotic sequences of Lorenz system, also ensuring the system security as well. The security strength is evident from the results of statistical and key analysis done in this paper.
Samir El Adib; Naoufal Raissouni,
2012-01-01
In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES). Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is th...
Optical image encryption via photon-counting imaging and compressive sensing based ptychography
Rawat, Nitin; Hwang, In-Chul; Shi, Yishi; Lee, Byung-Geun
2015-06-01
In this study, we investigate the integration of compressive sensing (CS) and photon-counting imaging (PCI) techniques with a ptychography-based optical image encryption system. Primarily, the plaintext real-valued image is optically encrypted and recorded via a classical ptychography technique. Further, the sparse-based representations of the original encrypted complex data can be produced by combining CS and PCI techniques with the primary encrypted image. Such a combination takes an advantage of reduced encrypted samples (i.e., linearly projected random compressive complex samples and photon-counted complex samples) that can be exploited to realize optical decryption, which inherently serves as a secret key (i.e., independent to encryption phase keys) and makes an intruder attack futile. In addition to this, recording fewer encrypted samples provides a substantial bandwidth reduction in online transmission. We demonstrate that the fewer sparse-based complex samples have adequate information to realize decryption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating CS and PCI with conventional ptychography-based optical image encryption.
Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images
Panduranga H.T; Naveen Kumar S.K
2010-01-01
We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier ...
Study on Cryptanalysis of the Tiny Encryption Algorithm
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Rajashekarappa
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the Study on a Tiny Encryption Algorithm. There is a requirement to specify cryptographic strength in an objective manner rather than describing it using subjective descriptors such as weak, strong, acceptable etc. Such metrics are essential for describing the characteristics of cryptographic products and technologies. Towards this objective, we use two metrics called the Strict Plaintext Avalanche Criterion (SPAC and the Strict Key Avalanche Criterion (SKAC mentioned in our study that the strength of popular ciphers such as DES and TEA. A related issue of significance in the context of cryptographic applications is the quality of random number generators which need to pass certain tests. In this Paper, we expose DES and TEA to some of the standard random number generator tests.
DATA SECURITY IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK BASED ON FAST ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
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G. Ramesh
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Hacking is one of the greatest problems in the wireless local area networks. Many algorithms have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user safely and correctly. In this paper, a new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed that prevents the outside attacks. The new algorithm avoids key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption and decryption. It operates at high data rate in comparison with The Data Encryption Standard (DES, Triple DES (TDES, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-256, and RC6 algorithms. The new algorithm is applied successfully on both text file and voice message.
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K Kamalam
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and anticipated reciver, imagine the existence of the information, a form of security through obscurity. It is an emerging area which is used for secured data broadcast over any public media. In this study a novel advance of image steganography based on LSB (Least Significant Bit insertion, RSA encryption and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm technique for the lossless jpeg images has been proposed. In this paper, we present a strategy of attaining maximum embedding ability in an image in a way that maximum possible neighboring pixels are analyzed for their frequencies, to determine the amount of content to be added in each pixel. The techniques provide a seamless insertion of data into the carrier image and reduce the error consideration and artifacts insertion required to a minimal. We validate our approach with the help of an experimental evaluation on a prototypic implementation of the proposed model.
The New Image Encryption and Decryption Using Quasi Group
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Ankit Agarwal
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Multimedia Communication is the new age of communication. Image Communication is one of the most popular types of multimedia communication. This type of communication always faces security challenges. Security breach is rising at a rapid rate. Image privacy is facing an even bigger threat. There are several image cryptography techniques having both positive and negative consequences. Via this paper, we are presenting a new approach for image encryption and decryption by using pixel shifting and using Quasigroup (Latin Square without performing translation. It requires low computation as a key. Image pixel reshuffling is done randomly and in a non-repeated manner.
A Secure Symmetric Image Encryption Based on Bit-wise Operation
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Prabir Kr. Naskar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper shows a symmetric image encryption based on bit-wise operation (XORing and Shifting. The basic idea is block ciphering (size of each block is 4 bytes technique to cipher the secret bytes, after that ciphered bytes are again shuffled among N positions (N is the size of secret file. The scheme is combination of substitution as well as transposition techniques which provides additional protection of the secret data. The substitution and transposition are done using dynamic substitution box (SBOX and transposition box (TBOX which are generated using the secret key and made to vary for each block during ciphering. The size of encrypted data is same as the size of secret data and the proposed scheme has been tested using different images. We have also presented the security analysis such as key sensitivity analysis, statistical analysis, and differential analysis to prove the strength of our algorithm against crypto analysis.
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Deeksha Bharti
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding information and an effort to conceal the existence of the embedded information. In recent years many steganography methods have been challenge by steganalysis . Steganalysis algorithm which detects the stego -message by the static analysis of pixel values [1]. In the proposed method, the secret message is encoded by using vigenere encryption method which guarantees the protection of hidden message. Then hiding the secret text in an image by using first component alteration technique .In this technique, 8 bits of blue components are replaced with secret data bits , then that image can be hidden in cover image in non sequential pixel by using variable hope value power of 2 [2,4,8,16].The Proposed method aim not only to provide improved security problems of simple LSB method but also the increased visual quality of stegoimage.
An efficient diffusion approach for chaos-based image encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the existing chaos-based image cryptosystems is composed of alternative substitution and diffusion stages. A multi-dimensional chaotic map is usually employed in the substitution stage for image pixel permutation while a one-dimensional (1D) chaotic map is used for diffusion purpose. As the latter usually involves real number arithmetic operations, the overall encryption speed is limited by the diffusion stage. In this paper, we propose a more efficient diffusion mechanism using simple table lookup and swapping techniques as a light-weight replacement of the 1D chaotic map iteration. Simulation results show that at a similar security level, the proposed cryptosystem needs about one-third the encryption time of a similar cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved.
Role of Statistical tests in Estimation of the Security of a New Encryption Algorithm
Krishna, Addepalli V N
2010-01-01
Encryption study basically deals with three levels of algorithms. The first algorithm deals with encryption mechanism, second deals with decryption Mechanism and the third discusses about the generation of keys and sub keys used in the encryption study. In the given study, a new algorithm is discussed. The algorithm executes a series of steps and generates a sequence. This sequence is being used as sub key to be mapped to plain text to generate cipher text. The strength of the encryption & Decryption process depends on the strength of sequence generated against crypto analysis.. In this part of work some statistical tests like Uniformity tests, Universal tests & Repetition tests are tried on the sequence generated to test the strength of it.
Role of Statistical tests in Estimation of the Security of a New Encryption Algorithm
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Addepalli V.N Krishna
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Encryption study basically deals with three levels of algorithms. The first algorithm deals with encryption mechanism, second deals with decryption Mechanism and the third discusses about the generation of keys and sub keys used in the encryption study. In the given study, a new algorithm is discussed. The algorithm executes a series of steps and generates a sequence. This sequence is being used as sub key to be mapped to plain text to generate cipher text. The strength of the encryption & Decryption process depends on the strength of sequence generated against crypto analysis.. In this part of work some statistical tests like Uniformity tests, Universal tests & Repetition tests are tried on the sequence generated to test the strength of it.
Robust image encryption by combined use of integral imaging and pixel scrambling techniques
Piao, Yong-Ri; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo
2009-11-01
A robust image encryption method by using the integral imaging and pixel scrambling (PS) techniques is proposed. In this method, pixels of the cover image are scrambled with the PS technique and elemental images for this scrambled image are picked up through a lenslet array. Subsequently, an encrypted image is obtained by scrambling these picked-up elemental images. Since this encrypted image has the hologram-like property of data redundancy resulted from the integral imaging scheme, while it can as well be decoded by multiple keys such as the orders of pixel scrambling and the pickup conditions of the elemental images, its security against the various attacks could be dramatically improved. Good experimental results also confirm that the proposed method could provide more enhanced robustness against data loss and Gaussian noises compared to the conventional methods.
Vector Quantization Techniques For Partial Encryption of Wavelet-based Compressed Digital Images
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H. A. Younis
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The use of image communication has increased in recent years. In this paper, newpartial encryption schemes are used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Only6.25-25% of the original data is encrypted for four different images, resulting in asignificant reduction in encryption and decryption time. In the compression step, anadvanced clustering analysis technique (Fuzzy C-means (FCM is used. In the encryptionstep, the permutation cipher is used. The effect of number of different clusters is studied.The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast and secure, and do not reduce thecompression performance of the underlying selected compression methods as shown inexperimental results and conclusion.
Multiple-image encryption based on triple interferences for flexibly decrypting high-quality images.
Li, Wei-Na; Phan, Anh-Hoang; Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam
2015-04-10
We propose a multiple-image encryption (MIE) scheme based on triple interferences for flexibly decrypting high-quality images. Each image is discretionarily deciphered without decrypting a series of other images earlier. Since it does not involve any cascaded encryption orders, the image can be decrypted flexibly by using the novel method. Computer simulation demonstrated that the proposed method's running time is less than approximately 1/4 that of the previous similar MIE method. Moreover, the decrypted image is perfectly correlated with the original image, and due to many phase functions serving as decryption keys, this method is more secure and robust. PMID:25967313
A fast image encryption scheme based on chaotic standard map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image cryptosystems have been proposed. One of the architectures of this kind of cryptosystems is composed of multiple rounds of substitution and diffusion. As the confusion and diffusion effects are solely contributed by the substitution and the diffusion stages, respectively, the required overall rounds of operations in achieving a certain level of security is found more than necessary. In this Letter, we suggest to introduce a certain diffusion effect in the substitution stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. Although this leads to a longer processing time in a single round, the overall encryption time is reduced as fewer rounds are required. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing fast cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved
Unified compression and encryption algorithm for fast and secure network communications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compression and encryption of data are two vital requirements for the fast and secure transmission of data in the network based communications. In this paper an algorithm is presented based on adaptive Huffman encoding for unified compression and encryption of Unicode encoded textual data. The Huffman encoding weakness that same tree is needed for decoding is utilized in the algorithm presented as an extra layer of security, which is updated whenever the frequency change is above the specified threshold level. The results show that we get compression comparable to popular zip format and in addition to that data has got an additional layer of encryption that makes it more secure. Thus unified algorithm presented here can be used for network communications between different branches of banks, e- Government programs and national database and registration centers where data transmission requires both compression and encryption. (author)
Hardware realization of chaos based block cipher for image encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2011-12-01
Unlike stream ciphers, block ciphers are very essential for parallel processing applications. In this paper, the first hardware realization of chaotic-based block cipher is proposed for image encryption applications. The proposed system is tested for known cryptanalysis attacks and for different block sizes. When implemented on Virtex-IV, system performance showed high throughput and utilized small area. Passing successfully in all tests, our system proved to be secure with all block sizes. © 2011 IEEE.
Breaking a novel image encryption scheme based on improved hyperchaotic sequences
Li, Chengqing; Liu, Yuansheng; Xie, Tao
2012-01-01
Recently, a novel image encryption scheme based on improved hyperchaotic sequences was proposed. A pseudo-random number sequence, generated by a hyper-chaos system, is used to determine two involved encryption functions, bitwise exclusive or (XOR) operation and modulo addition. It was reported that the scheme can be broken with some pairs of chosen plain-images and the corresponding cipher-images. This paper re-evaluates security of the encryption scheme and finds that the e...
Optical encryption for large-sized images using random phase-free method
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2015-01-01
We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.
A Light-weight Symmetric Encryption Algorithm Based on Feistel Cryptosystem Structure
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Jingli Zheng
2014-12-01
Full Text Available WSNs is usually deployed in opening wireless environment, its data is easy to be intercepted by attackers. It is necessary to adopt some encryption measurements to protect data of WSNs. But the battery capacity, CPU performance and RAM capacity of WSNs sensors are all limited, the complex encryption algorithm is not fitted for them. The paper proposed a light-level symmetrical encryption algorithm: LWSEA, which adopt minor encryption rounds, shorter data packet and simplified scrambling function. So the calculation cost of LWSEA is very low. We also adopt longer-bit Key and circular interpolation method to produce Child-Key, which raised the security of LWSEA. The experiments demonstrate that the LWSEA possess better "avalanche effect" and data confusion degree, furthermore, its calculation speed is far faster than DES, but its resource cost is very low. Those excellent performances make LWSEA is much suited for resource-restrained WSNs.
An efficient and robust image encryption scheme for medical applications
Kanso, A.; Ghebleh, M.
2015-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel full and selective chaos-based image encryption scheme suitable for medical image encryption applications. The proposed approach consists of several rounds, where each round is made up of two phases, a shuffling phase and a masking phase. Both phases are block-based and use chaotic cat maps to shuffle and mask an input image. To improve the speed of the proposed scheme while maintaining a high level of security, the scheme employs a pseudorandom matrix, of the same size as the input image, in the masking phase of each round. Blocks of this pseudorandom matrix are permuted in each round of the shuffling phase according to the outputs of some chaotic maps. The proposed scheme applies mixing between blocks of the image in order to prevent cryptanalytic attacks such as differential attacks. Simulation results demonstrate high performance of the proposed scheme and show its robustness against cryptanalytic attacks, thus confirming its suitability for real-time secure image communication.
Chaos-based encryption for fractal image coding
Yuen, Ching-Hung; Wong, Kwok-Wo
2012-01-01
A chaos-based cryptosystem for fractal image coding is proposed. The Rényi chaotic map is employed to determine the order of processing the range blocks and to generate the keystream for masking the encoded sequence. Compared with the standard approach of fractal image coding followed by the Advanced Encryption Standard, our scheme offers a higher sensitivity to both plaintext and ciphertext at a comparable operating efficiency. The keystream generated by the Rényi chaotic map passes the randomness tests set by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, and so the proposed scheme is sensitive to the key.
Chaos-based encryption for fractal image coding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A chaos-based cryptosystem for fractal image coding is proposed. The Rényi chaotic map is employed to determine the order of processing the range blocks and to generate the keystream for masking the encoded sequence. Compared with the standard approach of fractal image coding followed by the Advanced Encryption Standard, our scheme offers a higher sensitivity to both plaintext and ciphertext at a comparable operating efficiency. The keystream generated by the Rényi chaotic map passes the randomness tests set by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, and so the proposed scheme is sensitive to the key. (general)
An image encryption approach based on chaotic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well-known that images are different from texts in many aspects, such as highly redundancy and correlation, the local structure and the characteristics of amplitude-frequency. As a result, the methods of conventional encryption cannot be applicable to images. In this paper, we improve the properties of confusion and diffusion in terms of discrete exponential chaotic maps, and design a key scheme for the resistance to statistic attack, differential attack and grey code attack. Experimental and theoretical results also show that our scheme is efficient and very secure
A Single Chip Design And Implementation Of AES -128/192/256 Encryption Algorithms
L.Thulasimani,; Madheswaran, M.
2010-01-01
In this paper an efficient hardware architecture design and implementation of all candidates of AES encryption standards AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256 on the same hardware is proposed. AES algorithm proposed by NIST has been widely accepted as best cryptosystem for wireless communication security. The hardware implementation is useful in wireless security like military and mobile phones. This contribution investigates implementation of AES Encryption with regards to FPGA and VHDL.Optimized and...
MINIMIZATION OF DELAY TIME IN DYNAMIC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS (DEA-RTA)?
Kuti Toyin Sadiq; Madhavi Kumari?
2014-01-01
Real-Time Applications (RTA) such as Voice-over IP (VoIP), Instant messages (IM), and video conferencing are sensitive to delay as they are packets base network services. Providing these services over the internet require high level of security to protect user, data and infrastructures. Encryption process is used to provide the security needed for RTA. The encryption and decryption has to take minimal time to achieve acceptable end-to-end delays. The research algorithm proposes a new symmetri...
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Bahman Rashidi
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents, a low power 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm based on a novel asynchronous self-timed architecture for encryption of audio signals. An asynchronous system is defined as one where the transfers of information between combinatorial blocks without a global clock signal. The self-timed architectures are asynchronous circuits which perform their function based on local synchronization signals called hand shake, independently from the other modules. This new architecture reduced spikes on current consumption and only parts with valid data are working, and also this design does not need any clock pulse. A combinational logic based Rijndael S-Box implementation for the Substitution Byte transformation in AES is proposed, its low area occupancy and high throughput therefore proposed digital design leads to reduction in power consumption. Mix-columns transformation is implemented only based on multiply-by-2 and multiply-by-3 modules with combinational logic. The proposed novel asynchronous self-timed AES algorithm is modeled and verified using FPGA and simulation results from encryption of sound signals is presented, until original characteristics are preserved anymore and have been successfully synthesized and implemented using Xilinx ISE V7.1 and Virtex IV FPGA to target device Xc4vf100. The achieved power consumption is 283 mW in clock frequency of 100 MHz.
Full Restoration of Visual Encrypted Color Images
Persson, Simeon
2011-01-01
While strictly black and white images have been the basis for visual cryptography, there has been a lack of an easily implemented format for colour images. This paper establishes a simple, yet secure way of implementing visual cryptography with colour, assuming a binary data representation.
Aldossari, M; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C
2014-09-22
This study presents and validates an optimized method of simultaneous compression and encryption designed to process images with close spectra. This approach is well adapted to the compression and encryption of images of a time-varying scene but also to static polarimetric images. We use the recently developed spectral fusion method [Opt. Lett.35, 1914-1916 (2010)] to deal with the close resemblance of the images. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. We use a root-mean-square (RMS) optimization criterion to treat compression. Image encryption is realized at different security levels. Firstly, we add a specific encryption level which is related to the different areas of the spectral plane, and then, we make use of several random phase keys. An in-depth analysis at the spectral fusion methodology is done in order to find a good trade-off between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images. Our new proposal spectral shift allows us to minimize the image overlap. We further analyze the influence of the spectral shift on the reconstructed image quality and compression rate. The performance of the multiple-image optical compression and encryption method is verified by analyzing several video sequences and polarimetric images. PMID:25321707
FPGA Can Be Implemented By Using Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm
P.AATHEESWARAN; DR. R.SURESH BABU
2013-01-01
This paper mainly focused in implementation of AES encryption and decryption standard AES-128. All the transformations of both Encryption and Decryption are simulated using an iterative design approach in order to minimize the hardware consumption.. This method can make it a very low-complex architecture, especially in saving the hardware resource in implementing the AES InverseSub Bytes module and Inverse Mix columns module. As the S -box is implemented by look-up-table in this design, the c...
Lang, Jun
2015-03-01
In this paper, we propose a novel color image encryption method by using Color Blend (CB) and Chaos Permutation (CP) operations in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (RPMPFRFT) domain. The original color image is first exchanged and mixed randomly from the standard red-green-blue (RGB) color space to R?G?B? color space by rotating the color cube with a random angle matrix. Then RPMPFRFT is employed for changing the pixel values of color image, three components of the scrambled RGB color space are converted by RPMPFRFT with three different transform pairs, respectively. Comparing to the complex output transform, the RPMPFRFT transform ensures that the output is real which can save storage space of image and convenient for transmission in practical applications. To further enhance the security of the encryption system, the output of the former steps is scrambled by juxtaposition of sections of the image in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier domains and the alignment of sections is determined by two coupled chaotic logistic maps. The parameters in the Color Blend, Chaos Permutation and the RPMPFRFT transform are regarded as the key in the encryption algorithm. The proposed color image encryption can also be applied to encrypt three gray images by transforming the gray images into three RGB color components of a specially constructed color image. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible, secure, sensitive to keys and robust to noise attack and data loss.
DATA SECURITY IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK BASED ON FAST ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
G Ramesh; R.Umarani
2010-01-01
Hacking is one of the greatest problems in the wireless local area networks. Many algorithms have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user safely and correctly. In this paper, a new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed that prevents the outside attacks. The new algorithm avoids key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption and decryption. It operates at high data rate in comparison with The D...
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Tzu-Hsiang Hung
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This study used the complex dynamic characteristics of chaotic systems and Bluetooth to explore the topic of wireless chaotic communication secrecy and develop a communication security system. The PID controller for chaos synchronization control was applied, and the optimum parameters of this PID controller were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. Bluetooth was used to realize wireless transmissions, and a chaotic wireless communication security system was developed in the design concept of a chaotic communication security system. The experimental results show that this scheme can be used successfully in image encryption.
Stego Optical Encryption Based on Chaotic Baker's Map Transformation
Hussain, Iqtadar; Gondal, Muhammad Asif
2014-06-01
In this article, an optical image encryption algorithm based on chaotic baker's map is presented. The stego-image is encrypted with the help of double random phase encoding algorithm and then produced disorder with the help of chaotic transformation. Security test shows that the reading of proposed algorithm is very close to the optimal values.
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Parameshachari Bidare Divakarachari
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Today’s, the most important locomotive to provide confidentiality is image encryption. In real-time applications the classical and modern ciphers are not appropriate because of vast quantity of data. However, certain applications like Pay-TV or Payable Internet Imaging Albums do not require entire part of an encryption, but requires a part of the image to be transparent to all users. Partial encryption is an approach to encode only the most essential portion of the data in order to afford a proportional confidentiality and to trim down the computational requirements and also execution time for encryption is reduced. In this paper, partial image encryption of color images using pixel position manipulation technique based on region of interest is proposed. It offers the amenities of partial encryption and rebuilds the images partially. Here input image is divided in to sub blocks, then selected blocks are encrypted using the proposed technique. The proposed technique promises the rapid security by encrypting the selected blocks of an image.
Color image encryption based on fractional Fourier transforms and pixel scrambling technique
Zhao, Jianlin; Lu, Hongqiang; Fan, Qi
2007-01-01
Color image encryption based on fractional Fourier transform (FRT) and pixel scrambling technique is presented in this paper. In general, color (RGB) image cannot be directly encrypted using a traditional setup for optical information processing, because which is only adapted to process two-dimensional gray image. In the proposed method, a three-dimensional RGB image is decomposed to three two-dimensional gray images (R, G and B values of the color image), and the encryption operation will be done on each two-dimensional gray image, then the encoded color image is available by composing the three two-dimensional encrypted images. The decryption process is an inverse of the encryption. The optical encrypting systems based on the presented method is proposed and simulated. Some results of computer simulation are presented to verify the flexibility and the reliability of this method. The quality of decrypted images would be debased with the difference of the fractional order. The frustrated decryption of monochromic image will affect the color of decrypted image. At the end of this paper, an all-optical and photoelectric encryption/decryption systems solution are presented, and the principle of selecting optical devices are also given.
Design an Algorithm for Data Encryption and Decryption Using Pentaoctagesimal SNS
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Debasis Das
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Encryption is the most effective way of computer science concerned with developing schemes and formula to achieve data and information security through the use of codes. Today the privacy is the main issue to sending information from one point to another in data transmission. Encryption is the procedure that allows messages or information to be encoded in such a way that it is extremely difficult to read or understand where decryption is the procedure to transforming encoded text into the original message and information. In this paper we present an algorithm for data encryption and decryption which is based on number theory. In addition, data encryption using strange number system (especially using pentaoctagesimal (SNS can provide real physical security to data—allowing only authorized users to delete or update data. This algorithm is used pentaoctagesimal strange number system to encrypt data and we propose a better data encryption and decryption strategy, which will offer better security towards all possible ways of attacks while data transmission.
Security enhancement of double-random phase encryption by iterative algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose an approach to enhance the security of optical encryption based on double-random phase encryption in a 4f system. The phase key in the input plane of the 4f system is generated by the Yang–Gu algorithm to control the phase of the encrypted information in the output plane of the 4f system, until the phase in the output plane converges to a predesigned distribution. Only the amplitude of the encrypted information must be recorded as a ciphertext. The information, which needs to be transmitted, is greatly reduced. We can decrypt the ciphertext with the aid of the predesigned phase distribution and the phase key in the Fourier plane. Our approach can resist various attacks. (paper)
Performance Analysis of Most Common Encryption Algorithms on Different Web Browsers
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R. Umarani
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The hacking is the greatest problem in the wireless local area network (WLAN. Many algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES,UMARAM, RC6 and UR5 have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user correctly. We have proposed a Web programming language to be analyzed with five Web browsers in term of their performances to process the encryption of the programming language’s script with the Web browsers. This is followed by conducting tests simulation in order to obtain the best encryption algorithm versus Web browser. The results of the experimental analysis are presented in the form of graphs. We finally conclude on the findings that different algorithms perform differently to different Web browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Netscape Navigator. Hence, we now determine which algorithm works best and most compatible with which Web browser.A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as encryption/decryption speed in the different web Browsers. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde Technical University of Denmark,
Disclosed is a method of transmitting a data set using encryption, wherein the method comprises the steps of: selecting a first encryption technique, wherein said first encryption technique comprises a first encryption algorithm for encrypting plain data into cipher data, and a first decryption algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the first encryption algorithm of said first encryption technique, creating a first encrypted data package comprising cipher data; obtaining a first decryption program; and transmitting said first decryption program and said first encrypted data package to a receiver, wherein the first decryption, upon provision of the specific key and the first encrypted data package, will decrypt the cipher data in the first encrypted data package and reproduce the plain data of the first data package.
Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging
Mehra, Isha; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, Amit K.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Nishchal, Naveen K.
2015-03-01
In this paper, we demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) object encryption using diffractive imaging and digital holography. For this purpose, a microlens array has been fabricated using the thermal reflow method, and then its digital hologram is recorded. The hologram of the microlens is encoded based on multiple intensity samplings of the complex-amplitude wave front with axial translation of the image sensor in the fractional Fourier transform domain. Then, the function is Fresnel propagated for three different positions of the camera, and the corresponding diffraction patterns are recorded as cipher-texts. For decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to extract the hologram from corresponding encrypted images. The corresponding phase profile of the microlens array is then obtained. The simulation results demonstrate that the hologram is decrypted without any stagnation problem and with a rapid convergence rate. High security of the hologram has been achieved in the proposed digital holography-based diffractive imaging scheme. The correlation coefficient, a performance measurement parameter, has been calculated to check the effectiveness of the scheme. The proposed work has been validated through both experimental and simulation results.
Crypto-Compression of Medical Images by Selective Encryption of DCT
Puech, William; Rodrigues, Jose Marconi
2005-01-01
The traffic of digital images has grown rapidly in the Internet. Security of image becomes important for many sectors mainly for medical applications. Nowadays, the transmission of medical images is a daily routine, especially over wireless (battlefields, traffic accidents, etc). Partial encryption is an approach to reduce the computational resources for huge volumes of multimedia data in low power network. This paper presents a method of partial or selective encryption for JPEG images. It is...
A proposed Modified Data Encryption Standard algorithm by Using Fusing Data Techniqu
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Alaa H. AL-Hamami
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Data Encryption Standard (DES is a block cipher that encrypts data in 64-bit blocks. A 64-bit block of plaintext goes in one end of the algorithm and a 64-bit block of cipher text comes out of the other end. Blowfish is a block cipher that encrypts data in 8-byte blocks .Blowfish consists of two parts: a key-expansion part and a data-encryption part. Key expansion converts a variable-length key of at most 56 bytes (448 bits into several subkey arrays totaling 4168 bytes. Blowfish has 16 rounds, such as DES. In this research the fusion philosophy will be used to fuse DES’s with blowfish and Genetic Algorithms by taking the strong points in all of these techniques to create a proposed Fused DES-Blowfish algorithm. The proposed algorithm is presented as a modified DES depending on the advantage in key generation complexity in blowfish and advantage of optimization in Genetic Algorithm to give the optimal solution. The solution will be the depended tool for creation of the strong keys.
Farouk, Hala A
2011-01-01
The hybrid hiding encryption algorithm, as its name implies, embraces concepts from both steganography and cryptography. In this exertion, an improved micro-architecture Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of this algorithm is presented. This design overcomes the observed limitations of a previously-designed micro-architecture. These observed limitations are: no exploitation of the possibility of parallel bit replacement, and the fact that the input plaintext was encrypted serially, which caused a dependency between the throughput and the nature of the used secret key. This dependency can be viewed by some as vulnerability in the security of the implemented micro-architecture. The proposed modified micro-architecture is constructed using five basic modules. These modules are; the message cache, the message alignment module, the key cache, the comparator, and at last the encryption module. In this work, we provide comprehensive simulation and implementation results. These are: the timing diagra...
Wang, Yong-Ying; Wang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Yong; Li, Hui-Juan; Sun, Wen-Jia
2007-07-01
A new method of optical image encryption with binary Fourier transform computer-generated hologram (CGH) and pixel-scrambling technology is presented. In this method, the orders of the pixel scrambling, as well as the encrypted image, are used as the keys to decrypt the original image. Therefore, higher security is achieved. Furthermore, the encrypted image is binary, so it is easy to be fabricated and robust against noise and distortion. Computer simulation results are given to verify the feasibility of this method and its robustness against occlusion and additional noise.
Stego optical encryption based on chaotic S-box transformation
Hussain, Iqtadar; Azam, Naveed Ahmed; Shah, Tariq
2014-09-01
In this article, an optical image encryption algorithm with an information hiding technique is presented. In this algorithm, a secret image is implanted into the cover image. After that the stego-image is encrypted with the help of double random phase encoding algorithm and chaotic substitution box transformation. Also, we present a comparative analysis between images “without substitution box transformation”, “with substitution box transformation” and “with chaotic substitution box transformation”. Security test shows that image transform with chaotic substitution box transformation is better than others. Furthermore we analyze proposed encryption scheme with other existing techniques and come to close that our algorithm is better than others.
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Archana garg1 , Harmanjot Singh Dhaliwal2 1
2013-09-01
Full Text Available For the security of data, various solutions algorithms were proposed. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels. This paper presents an efficient FPGA implementation approach of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES Algorithm. In this paper two different architectures of AES named Basic AES and Fully Pipelined AES have been designed in VHDL. The codes have been synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i software for a Virtex 3 FPGA device. The comparison is being done between the Basic AES and Fully Pipelined AES algorithm on the basis of power consumption, Maximum pin Delay, Clock delay, Slice Flip flops.
An asymmetric single-channel color image encryption based on Hartley transform and gyrator transform
Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq
2015-06-01
A novel asymmetric single-channel color image encryption using Hartley transform and gyrator transform is proposed. A color image is segregated into R, G, and B channels and then each channel is independently Hartley transformed. The three transformed channels are multiplied and then phase- and amplitude truncated to obtain first encrypted image and first decryption key. The encoded image is modulated with a conjugate of random phase mask. The modulated image is gyrator transformed and then phase- and amplitude truncated to get second encrypted image and second decryption key. The asymmetric (decryption) keys, random phase mask, and transformation angle of gyrator transform serve as main keys. The optoelectronic encryption and decryption systems are suggested. Numerical simulation results have been demonstrated to verify the performance and security of the proposed security system.
Compressive optical image encryption with two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography
Li, Jun; Li, Hongbing; Li, Jiaosheng; Pan, Yangyang; Li, Rong
2015-06-01
An image encryption method which combines two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography with compressive sensing (CS) has been proposed in the fully optical domain. An object image is firstly encrypted to two on-axis quadrature-phase holograms using the two random phase masks in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the two encrypted images are highly compressed to a one-dimensional signal using the single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the two compressive encrypted holograms are exactly reconstructed from much less than the Nyquist sampling number of observations by solving an optimization problem, and the original image can be decrypted with only two reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. This method largely decreases holograms data volume for the current optical image encryption system, and it is also suitable for some special optical imaging cases such as different wavelengths imaging and weak light imaging. Numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this novel image encryption method.
Ensemble Of Blowfish With Chaos Based S Box Design For Text And Image Encryption
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Jeyamala Chandrasekaran
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The rapid and extensive usage of Internet in the present decade has put forth information security as an utmost concern. Most of the commercial transactions taking place over the Internet involves a wide variety of data including text, images, audio and video. With the increasing use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing Multimedia data, the fundamental issue of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the information poses a major challenge for security professionals and hassled to the major developments in Cryptography . In cryptography, an S-Box (Substitution-box is a basic componentof symmetric key algorithms, which performs substitution and is typically used to make the relationship between the key and the cipher text non linear and most of the symmetric key algorithms like DES, Blowfish makes use of S boxes. This paper proposes a new method for design of S boxes based on chaos theory. Chaotic equations are popularly known for its randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and ergodicity. The modified design has been tested with blowfish algorithm which has no effective crypt analysis reported against its design till date because of its salient design features including the key dependant s boxes and complex key generation process. However every new key requires pre-processing equivalent to encrypting about 4 kilobytes of text, which is very slow compared to other block ciphers and it prevents its usage in memory limited applications and embedded systems. The modified design of S boxesmaintains the non linearity [3] [5] and key dependency factors of S boxes with a major reduction in time complexity of generation of S boxes and P arrays. The algorithm has been implemented and the proposed design has been analyzed for size of key space, key sensitivity and Avalanche effect. Experimental results on text and Image Encryption show that the modified design of key generation continues to offer the same level of security as the original Blowfish cipher with a less computational overhead in key generation
Kepner, Jeremy; Gadepally, Vijay; Hancock, Braden; Michaleas, Peter; Michel, Elizabeth; Varia, Mayank
2015-01-01
The increasing use of networked sensor systems and networked databases has led to an increased interest in incorporating encryption directly into sensor algorithms and database analytics. MATLAB is the dominant tool for rapid prototyping of sensor algorithms and has extensive database analytics capabilities. The advent of high level and high performance Galois Field mathematical environments allows encryption algorithms to be expressed succinctly and efficiently. This work l...
Asymmetric multiple-image encryption based on the cascaded fractional Fourier transform
Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yuanchao; Tao, Ran
2015-09-01
A multiple-image cryptosystem is proposed based on the cascaded fractional Fourier transform. During an encryption procedure, each of the original images is directly separated into two phase masks. A portion of the masks is subsequently modulated into an interim mask, which is encrypted into the ciphertext image; the others are used as the encryption keys. Using phase truncation in the fractional Fourier domain, one can use an asymmetric cryptosystem to produce a real-valued noise-like ciphertext, while a legal user can reconstruct all of the original images using a different group of phase masks. The encryption key is an indivisible part of the corresponding original image and is still useful during decryption. The proposed system has high resistance to various potential attacks, including the chosen-plaintext attack. Numerical simulations also demonstrate the security and feasibility of the proposed scheme.
A NEW APPROACH FOR REDUCING CACHE TIMING ATTACK IN ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD USING DCF ALGORITHM
SOWMYA SREE DANNINA, K.RAJENDRA PRASAD
2012-01-01
Being accepted by many security related applications as the most secured cipher, The AES- Rijndael algorithm has a long successful existence in the field of global security. Despite of this, the AES is recently found to be broken theoretically. However, a few years back, Daniel Bernstein devised a cachetimingattack that was capable enough to break Rijndael’s seal that encapsulates the encryption key. Our paper proposes a new solution called Dynamic Cache Flushing (DCF) algorithm, which provid...
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Vivek Shrivastava
2013-11-01
Full Text Available As the transmission of data over internet is increasing; the protection issues of data are increasing as well. In order to protect the data and to secure it against intruders, there is a need of such systems which provide security to data. These techniques are known as cryptography or simply cipher. One of the ciphers is International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA. This cipher is symmetric in nature i.e. uses only one key both for encryption and decryption. IDEA uses 128-bit key to encrypt the 64-bit data using certain rounds of operation. In this case, eight and half rounds are used. To augment the protection of data in IDEA, some extra steps of operation will be introduces in the system. For increasing the steps of operation, a different cipher, RSA, is merged with IDEA
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Samir El Adib
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES, as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high security in their systems may look for a key size bigger than 128-bit AES. In this paper, 128, 192 and 256-bit AES hardware are implemented and compared in terms of throughput and area. The target hardware used in this paper is Virtex XC5VLX50 FPGA from Xilinx. Total area and Throughput results are presented and graphically compared.
Applying Encryption Algorithm for Data Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing
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Mohit Marwaha
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Cloud computing is the next big thing after internet in the field of information technology; some say its a metaphor for internet. It is an Internet-based computing technology, in which software, shared recourses and information, are provided to consumers and devices on-demand, and as per users requirement on a pay per use model. Even though the cloud continues to grow in popularity, Usability and respectability, Problems with data protection and data privacy and other Security issues play a major setback in the field of Cloud Computing. Privacy and security are the key issue for cloud storage. Encryption is a well known technology for protecting sensitive data. Use of the combination of Public and Private key encryption to hide the sensitive data of users, and cipher text retrieval. The paper analyzes the feasibility of the applying encryption algorithm for data security and privacy in cloud Storage.
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun
2015-07-01
In this paper, a new optical interference-based encryption method using off-axis circular harmonic component (CHC) expansion and iterative phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform (GT) domain is proposed. Off-axis CHC expansion is employed to divide the inverse GT spectrum of primitive image into two parts: the zero-order CHC and the sum of the other CHCs. The sum term of CHCs is further encrypted into a complex image whose amplitude constraint is devised to be the amplitude of zero-order CHC by the iterative retrieval GT algorithm. The amplitude part of CHC is the final ciphertext which has rotation-symmetric distribution. Three phase-only keys, the main keys of this proposal, are also calculated during the digital encryption process. To recover the primitive image correctly, two identical ciphertexts placed in the two interference branch should be illuminated by two spherical waves with required parameters (wavelength and radius). Moreover, rotational center of ciphertexts must be placed in a predefined position, which is off the optical axis. The transform angles of GTs, the propagation parameters of spherical waves and the relative position of rotational center of ciphertext are sensitive additional keys for correct retrieval. Numerical simulation tests have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
On encryption-compression tradeoff of pre/post-filtered images
Gurijala, Aparna; Khayam, Syed A.; Radha, Hayder; Deller, J. R., Jr.
2005-09-01
Advances in network communications have necessitated secure local-storage and transmission of multimedia content. In particular, military networks need to securely store sensitive imagery which at a later stage may be transmitted over bandwidth-constrained wireless networks. This work investigates compression efficiency of JPEG and JPEG 2000 standards for encrypted images. An encryption technique proposed by Kuo et al. in [4] is employed. The technique scrambles the phase spectrum of an image by addition of the phase of an all-pass pre-filter. The post-filter inverts the encryption process, provided the correct pseudo-random filter coefficients are available at the receiver. Additional benefits of pre/post-filter encryption include the prevention of blocking effects and better robustness to channel noise [4]. Since both JPEG and JPEG 2000 exploit spatial and perceptual redundancies for compression, pre/post-filtered (encrypted) images are susceptible to compression inefficiencies. The PSNR difference between the unencrypted and pre/post-filtered images after decompression is determined for various compression rates. Compression efficiency decreases with an increase in compression rate. For JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression rates between 0.5 to 2.5 bpp, the difference in PSNR is negligible. Partial encryption is proposed wherein a subset of image phase coefficients are scrambled. Due to the phase sensitivity of images, even partial scrambling of the phase information results in unintelligible data. The effect of compression on partially encrypted images is observed for various bit-rates. When 25% of image phase coefficients are scrambled, the JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression performance of encrypted images is almost similar to that of unencrypted images for compression rates in the 0.5 to 3.5 bpp range.
Fast ghost imaging and ghost encryption based on the discrete cosine transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce the discrete cosine transform as an advanced compression tool for images in computational ghost imaging. A novel approach to fast imaging and encryption, the discrete cosine transform, promotes the security level of ghost images and reduces the image retrieval time. To discuss the advantages of this technique we compare experimental outcomes with simulated ones. (paper)
A new optical image encryption method based on multi-beams interference and vector composition
Chen, Linfei; Liu, Jingyu; Wen, Jisen; Gao, Xiong; Mao, Haidan; Shi, Xiaoyan; Qu, Qingling
2015-06-01
In this paper, a new method for optical image encryption based on multi-beams interference principle and vector composition is proposed. In this encryption, the original image is encoded into n-1 phase only masks which are regarded as the keys of the encryption system and a ciphertext according to multi-beams interference principle and vector composition. In decryption process, n beams of parallel incident light illuminate at the phase only masks and the ciphertext, and we can obtain the decrypted image at output plane after Fourier transforms. The security of the proposed method is discussed, finding that no decrypted image can be obtained only when all the keys used are right. Furthermore, the keys can be stored separately resulting in improving the security of encryption system. Computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.
A Space-bit-plane Scrambling Algorithm for Image Based on Chaos
Rui Liu; Xiao-ping Tian
2011-01-01
Image scrambling is an important technique in digital image encryption and digital image watermarking. This paper's main purpose is to research how to scramble image by space-bit-plane operation (SBPO). Based on analyzing traditional bit operation of individual pixels image scrambling method, this paper proposed a new scrambling algorithm. The new scrambling algorithm combined with SBPO and chaotic sequence. First, every eight pixels from different areas of image were selected according to ch...
Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurapati Sundar Teja
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security some arithmetic operations are added with hamming code process. A 3-bit data will be encrypted as 14-bit and using decryption process again we will receives 3-bit original data. The implemented design was tested on Spartan3A FPGA kit.
An Image Encryption Scheme Based on 2D Tent Map and Coupled Map Lattice
Ruisong Ye; Wei Zhou
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a chaos-based image encryption scheme where one 2D tent map with two control parameters is utilized to generate chaotic orbits applied to scramble the pixel positions while one coupled map lattice is employed to yield random gray value sequences to change the gray values so as to enhance the security. Experimental results are carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-force attack an...
Optical transformation based image encryption and data embedding techniques using MATLAB
Bhattacharya, Debalina; Ghosh, Ajay
2015-06-01
The proposed work describes optical transformations such as Fourier transformation and Fresnel transformation based encryption and decryption of images using random phase masks (RPMs). The encrypted images have been embedded in some secret cover files of other formats like text files, word files, audio files etc to increase the robustness in the security applications. So, if any one wants to send confidential documents, it will be difficult for the interloper to unhide the secret information. The whole work has been done in MATLAB®
An Application to prevent SQL Injection Attacks using Randomized Encryption Algorithm
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Pravallika Thatavarthi #1 , Betam Suresh
2013-08-01
Full Text Available By the advanced usage of web, numbers of data we are fetched from anywhere within a minute. So by that way it is very beneficial to us but with the beneficial some issues are there so now we are discussed about that issues. The issues are security of data from the hackers or unauthorized users who change, corrupt, delete or access the data from the web, for handle these issues the developers who develop the website, they used some algorithm by which the data change in encrypted form either from the safety of the hackers we also use the some algorithm at the time of inserting username and password due to that the username and password become encrypted and then they send through url, so the data will be safe. In this paper we discussed about the security of data from the hackers so for that we used the Random Encryption for encrypting the data or username and password and also we use this concept for the RTA process. In which the users request for the number plate number for the vehicle with his/her favorite digits.
An RGB Image Encryption Supported by Wavelet-based Lossless Compression
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Ch. Samson
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a method for an RGB image encryption supported by lifting scheme based lossless compression. Firstly we have compressed the input color image using a 2-D integer wavelet transform. Then we have applied lossless predictive coding to achieve additional compression. The compressed image is encrypted by using Secure Advanced Hill Cipher (SAHC involving a pair of involutory matrices, a function called Mix( and an operation called XOR. Decryption followed by reconstruction shows that there is no difference between the output image and the input image. The proposed method can be used for efficient and secure transmission of image data.
Masoumi, Massoud; Raissi, Farshid; Ahmadian, Mahmoud; Keshavarzi, Parviz
2006-01-01
We are proposing that the recently proposed semiconductor-nanowire-molecular architecture (CMOL) is an optimum platform to realize encryption algorithms. The basic modules for the advanced encryption standard algorithm (Rijndael) have been designed using CMOL architecture. The performance of this design has been evaluated with respect to chip area and speed. It is observed that CMOL provides considerable improvement over implementation with regular CMOS architecture even with a 20% defect rate. Pseudo-optimum gate placement and routing are provided for Rijndael building blocks and the possibility of designing high speed, attack tolerant and long key encryptions are discussed.
A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed. In the proposed method, the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly, then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out. The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image, which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The computer simulation results of statistical analysis, information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.
Analysis of S-box in Image Encryption Using Root Mean Square Error Method
Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan
2012-07-01
The use of substitution boxes (S-boxes) in encryption applications has proven to be an effective nonlinear component in creating confusion and randomness. The S-box is evolving and many variants appear in literature, which include advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box, affine power affine (APA) S-box, Skipjack S-box, Gray S-box, Lui J S-box, residue prime number S-box, Xyi S-box, and S8 S-box. These S-boxes have algebraic and statistical properties which distinguish them from each other in terms of encryption strength. In some circumstances, the parameters from algebraic and statistical analysis yield results which do not provide clear evidence in distinguishing an S-box for an application to a particular set of data. In image encryption applications, the use of S-boxes needs special care because the visual analysis and perception of a viewer can sometimes identify artifacts embedded in the image. In addition to existing algebraic and statistical analysis already used for image encryption applications, we propose an application of root mean square error technique, which further elaborates the results and enables the analyst to vividly distinguish between the performances of various S-boxes. While the use of the root mean square error analysis in statistics has proven to be effective in determining the difference in original data and the processed data, its use in image encryption has shown promising results in estimating the strength of the encryption method. In this paper, we show the application of the root mean square error analysis to S-box image encryption. The parameters from this analysis are used in determining the strength of S-boxes
Modified Prime Number Factorization Algorithm (MPFA) For RSA Public Key Encryption
Kuldeep Singh; Rajesh Kr. Verma; Ritika Chehal
2012-01-01
The Public key encryption security such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm based on positive integer N, which is the product of two prime numbers, the factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a factorization method is proposed, which is used to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The present work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers as per Fermat method and requires fewer steps for factorizatio...
An Algorithm to Generating Inverse S-box for Rijndael Encryption Standard
Hussain, Iqtadar; Gondal, Muhammad Asif
2014-12-01
The S-box transformation is very important step for advanced encryption standard algorithm. The S-box values are generated from the multiplicative inverse of finite field with an affine transform. There are many techniques in literature to generate the multiplicative inverse values. In this paper, a software method of producing the multiplicative inverse values, which is the generator of S-box values will be discussed. The proposed technique is based on the mathematical concept of log and antilog.
Authentication and Encryption in GSM and 3GUMTS: An Emphasis on Protocols and Algorithms
Elouafiq, Ali
2012-01-01
Mobile communication touches every aspect of our life, it become one of the major dependencies that the 21st Century civilizations rely on. Thereby, security is a major issue that should be targeted by communication technologies. In this paper we will target authentication and encryption in GSM and 3G/UMTS. In order to understand clearly how things work, we will start by presenting the architecture of each network, its major components, its authentication algorithms, protoco...
An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme Based on Chaotic Quantum Encryption Algorithm
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Ying Guo
2013-05-01
Full Text Available An arbitrated quantum signature (AQS scheme is demonstrated via the improved quantum chaotic encryption algorithm with the quantum one-time pad based on chaotic operation string. In this scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the aid of the arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. Analysis shows that the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attacker.
Authentication and Encryption in GSM and 3GUMTS: An Emphasis on Protocols and Algorithms
Elouafiq, Ali
2012-01-01
Mobile communication touches every aspect of our life, it become one of the major dependencies that the 21st Century civilizations rely on. Thereby, security is a major issue that should be targeted by communication technologies. In this paper we will target authentication and encryption in GSM and 3G/UMTS. In order to understand clearly how things work, we will start by presenting the architecture of each network, its major components, its authentication algorithms, protocols used, and KASUMI Block Cipher.
Satyaki Roy; Navajit Maitra; Shalabh Agarwal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath,
2012-01-01
In the present paper a new cryptographic method called UES Version-III has been introduced. Nath et al recently developed few efficient encryption methods such as UES version-I, Modified UES-I, UES version-II, TTJSA, DJMNA Nath et. al showed that TTJSA and DJMNA is most suitable methods to encrypt password or any small message. The name of the present method is Ultra Encryption Standard Version-III. It is a Symmetric key Cryptosystem which includes multiple encryption, bit-wise randomization,...
Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication
Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto
2012-07-01
A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.
Somdip Dey; Kalyan Mondal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath
2012-01-01
Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then ...
On the security of 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A 3D Cat map based symmetric image encryption algorithm, which significantly increases the resistance against statistical and differential attacks, has been proposed recently. It employs a 3D Cat map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and uses the Logistic map to diffuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Based on the factor that it is sufficient to break this cryptosystem only with the equivalent control parameters, some fundamental weaknesses of the cryptosystem are pointed out. With the knowledge of symbolic dynamics and some specially designed plain-images, we can calculate the equivalent initial condition of diffusion process and rebuild a valid equivalent 3D Cat matrix. In this Letter, we will propose a successful chosen-plain-text cryptanalytic attack, which is composed of two mutually independent procedures: the cryptanalysis of the diffusion process and the cryptanalysis of the spatial permutation process. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the lack of security discourages the use of these cryptosystems for practical applications
A New Loss-Tolerant Image Encryption Scheme Based on Secret Sharing and Two Chaotic Systems
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Li Li
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, we propose an efficient loss-tolerant image encryption scheme that protects both confidentiality and loss-tolerance simultaneously in shadow images. In this scheme, we generate the key sequence based on two chaotic maps and then encrypt the image during the sharing phase based on Shamir’s method. Experimental results show a better performance of the proposed scheme for different images than other methods from human vision. Security analysis confirms a high probability to resist both brute-force and collusion attacks.
Optical binary image encryption using aperture-key and dual wavelengths.
Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2014-11-17
We described a method where the secret binary image that has been encoded into a single amplitude pattern in Fresnel domain can be recovered based on phase retrieval with an aperture-key and wavelength keys, and no holographic recording is needed in the encryption. The predesigned aperture-key not only realizes the intensity modulation of the encrypted image, but also helps to retrieve the secret image with high quality. All the necessary decryption keys can be kept in digital form that facilitates data transmission and loading in image retrieval process. Numerical simulation results are given for testing the validity and security of the proposed approach. PMID:25402048
An Efficient Stream Cipher Algorithm for Data Encryption
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Majid Bakhtiari
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Nowadays the data telecommunication security has been provided by most of well-known stream cipher algorithms which are already implemented in different secure protocols such as GSM, SSL, TLS, WEP, Bluetooth etc. These algorithms are A5/1, A5/2, E0 and RC4. On the other hand, these public algorithms already faced to serious security weakness such that they do not provide enough security of proportional plain data in front of cryptanalysis attacks. In this paper we proposed an efficient stream cipher algorithm which generates 23 random bits in each round of processing by parallel random number generator and 115 bits of Initial Vector. This algorithm can implement in high speed communication link more than 100Mb/s and it has passed all of standard cryptographic tests successfully, also it can resist in front of well-known attacks such as algebraic and correlation.
Grayscale image encryption using a hyperchaotic unstable dissipative system.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ontanon-García, L.J.; García-Martínez, M.; Campos-Cantón, E.; ?elikovský, Sergej
London : IEEE, 2013, s. 508-512. ISBN 978-1-908320-16-2. [The 8th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST-2013). Londýn (GB), 09.12.2013-12.12.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP103/12/1794 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Hyperchaos * piecewise linear systems * multi-scrolls * chaotic encryption * stream cypher encryption Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory
A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Multi-orbit Hybrid of Discrete Dynamical System
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Ruisong Ye
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A multi-orbit hybrid image encryption scheme based on discrete chaotic dynamical systems is proposed. One generalized Arnold map is adopted to generate three orbits for three initial conditions. Another chaotic dynamical system, tent map, is applied to generate one pseudo-random sequence to determine the hybrid orbit points from which one of the three orbits of generalized Arnold map. The hybrid orbit sequence is then utilized to shuffle the pixels' positions of plain-image so as to get one permuted image. To enhance the encryption security, two rounds of pixel gray values' diffusion is employed as well. The proposed encryption scheme is simple and easy to manipulate. The security and performance of the proposed image encryption have been analyzed, including histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, differential analysis, etc. All the experimental results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is robust and secure and can be used for secure image and video communication applications.
A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Encryption of images is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of images such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. Due to the exceptionally desirable properties of mixing and sensitivity to initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps, chaos-based encryption has suggested a new and efficient way to deal with the intractable problem of fast and highly secure image encryption. In this paper, the two-dimensional chaotic cat map is generalized to 3D for designing a real-time secure symmetric encryption scheme. This new scheme employs the 3D cat map to shuffle the positions (and, if desired, grey values as well) of image pixels and uses another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to statistical and differential attacks. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security and fast encryption speed of the new scheme
Chatterjee, Monish R.; Almehmadi, Fares S.
2015-01-01
Secure information encryption via acousto-optic (AO) chaos with profiled optical beams indicates substantially better performance in terms of system robustness. This paper examines encryption of static and time-varying (video) images onto AO chaotic carriers using Gaussian-profile beams with diffracted data numerically generated using transfer functions. The use of profiled beams leads to considerable improvement in the encrypted signal. While static image encryption exhibits parameter tolerances within about +/-10% for uniform optical beams, profiled beams reduce the tolerance to less than 1%, thereby vastly improving both the overall security of the transmitted information as well as the quality of the image retrieval.
A Parallel Encryption Algorithm for Block Ciphers Based on Reversible Programmable Cellular Automata
Das, Debasis
2010-01-01
A Cellular Automata (CA) is a computing model of complex System using simple rule. In CA the problem space into number of cell and each cell can be one or several final state. Cells are affected by neighbours' to the simple rule. Cellular Automata are highly parallel and discrete dynamical systems, whose behaviour is completely specified in terms of a local relation. This paper deals with the Cellular Automata (CA) in cryptography for a class of Block Ciphers through a new block encryption algorithm based on Reversible Programmable Cellular Automata Theory. The proposed algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric key systems.
Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm upto 4 Round on Spartan 3
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Nimmi Gupta
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized upto 4 round using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3 Modelsim. The paper deals with various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc. used in order to provide optimized results.
Reducing Computational Time of Basic Encryption and Authentication Algorithms
Sandeep Kumar,; Gautam Kumar,; Navjot Singh
2011-01-01
Today most of data are sending via the internet for sharing, so the trust of data files is decreased. For the trust more security and authentication is needed, less security increase the liability ofattacks on data. Digital signature of the data is a solution to this security problem which provides the reliability, authenticity and accuracy. Most basic algorithm for security and authentication is RSA, DSA, algorithms which uses the different key of different sizes. This work presents ECDSA al...
Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes
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Gschwandtner Michael
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the robustness properties of 2D chaotic map image encryption schemes. We investigate the behavior of such block ciphers under different channel error types and find the transmission error robustness to be highly dependent on on the type of error occurring and to be very different as compared to the effects when using traditional block ciphers like AES. Additionally, chaotic-mixing-based encryption schemes are shown to be robust to lossy compression as long as the security requirements are not too high. This property facilitates the application of these ciphers in scenarios where lossy compression is applied to encrypted material, which is impossible in case traditional ciphers should be employed. If high security is required chaotic mixing loses its robustness to transmission errors and compression, still the lower computational demand may be an argument in favor of chaotic mixing as compared to traditional ciphers when visual data is to be encrypted.
Double image encryption using double pixel scrambling and random phase encoding
Zhong, Zhi; Chang, Jie; Shan, Mingguang; Hao, Bengong
2012-03-01
A novel double image encryption method is proposed by utilizing double pixel scrambling technique and random fractional Fourier domain encoding. One of the two original images is encoded into the phase of a complex signal after being scrambled by one matrix, and the other original image encoded into its amplitude after being scrambled by another matrix. The complex signal is then encrypted into stationary white noise by utilizing double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. By applying the correct keys with fractional orders, the random phase masks and the pixel scrambling operation, the two original images can be retrieved without cross-talk. Numerical simulations have been done to prove the validity and the security of the proposed encryption method.
Fractional Fourier-domain random encoding and pixel scrambling technique for double image encryption
Zhong, Zhi; Chang, Jie; Shan, Mingguang; Hao, Bengong
2012-01-01
A double image encryption method is proposed using fractional Fourier-domain random encoding and pixel scrambling technique. One of the two original images is encoded into the phase function of a synthesized input signal after being scrambled, and the other original image encoded into its amplitude. The phase function serves as phase mask in the input domain, and the synthesized input signal is then encrypted into stationary white noise by utilizing random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. The two original images can be retrieved without cross-talk by using the correct keys with fractional orders, the random phase mask and the pixel scrambling operator. Numerical simulations and security analysis have been done to prove the validity and the security of the proposed encryption method.
Improvement of Networked Control Systems Performance Using a New Encryption Algorithm
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Seyed Ali Mesbahifard
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Networked control systems are control systems which controllers and plants are connected via telecommunication network. One of the most important challenges in networked control systems is the problem of network time delay. Increasing of time delay may affect on control system performance extremely. Other important issue in networked control systems is the security problems. Since it is possible that unknown people access to network especially Internet, the probability of terrible attacks such as deception attacks is greater, therefore presentation of methods which could decrease time delay and increase system immunity are desired. In this paper a symmetric encryption with low data volume against deception attacks is proposed. This method has high security and low time delay rather than the other encryption algorithms and could improve the control system performance against deception attacks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Mahamud Hossein
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Storing, transmitting and security of DNA sequences are well known research challenge. The problem has got magnified with increasing discovery and availability of DNA sequences. We have represent DNA sequence compression algorithm based on Dynamic Look Up Table (DLUT and modified Huffman technique. DLUT consists of 43(64 bases that are 64 sub-stings, each sub-string is of 3 bases long. Each sub-string are individually coded by single ASCII code from 33(! to 96(` and vice versa. Encode depends on encryption key choose by user from four base pair {a,t.g and c}and decode also require decryption key provide by the encoded user. Decoding must require authenticate input for encode the data. The sub-strings are combined into a Dynamic Look up Table based pre-coding routine. This algorithm is tested on reverse; complement & reverse complement the DNA sequences and also test on artificial DNA sequences of equivalent length. Speed of encryption and security levels are two important measurements for evaluating any encryption system. Due to proliferate of ubiquitous computing system, where digital contents are accessible through resource constraint biological database security concern is very important issue. A lot of research has been made to find an encryption system which can be run effectively in those biological databases. Information security is the most challenging question to protect the data from unauthorized user. The proposed method may protect the data from hackers. It can provide the three tier security, in tier one is ASCII code, in tier two is nucleotide (a,t,g and c choice by user and tier three is change of label or change of node position in Huffman Tree. Compression of the genome sequences will help to increase the efficiency of their use. The greatest advantage of this algorithm is fast execution, small memory occupation and easy implementation. Since the program to implement the technique have been written originally in the C language, (Windows XP platform, and TC compiler it is possible to run in other microcomputers with small changes (depending on platform and Compiler used. The execution is quite fast, all the operations are carried out in fraction of seconds, depending on the required task and on the sequence length. The technique can approach an effective compression ratio of 1.98 bits/base and even lower. When a user searches for any sequence for an organism, an encrypted compressed sequence file can be sent from the data source to the user. The encrypted compressed file then can be decrypted & decompressed at the client end resulting in reduced transmission time over the Internet. An encrypt compression algorithm that provides a moderately high compression with encryption rate with minimal decryption with decompression time.
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MEGHANA A. HASAMNIS
2012-05-01
Full Text Available An Advanced Standard Encryption Algorithm (AES is widely used in modern consumer electronicproducts for security. The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate wireless sensor networks also use AES algorithm wherelow power consumption is the priority. To reduce the time taken for encryption of huge data, the algorithm hasto be implemented in hardware. To meet the requirement for low area the algorithm has to be implemented insoftware. Hence, a balance has to be achieved between hardware and software implementations in terms of areaand speed, so as to improve the overall performance of the system. Also with the co-design methodology totalthermal power dissipation is reduced. In this paper, 128 bit AES algorithm is implemented with hardware incombination with software using Altera NIOS II Processor platform. Altera’s Quartus II environment is used fordesign of the system. Cyclone II FPGA is used as a development platform. Software program is written in C language. NIOS II ntegrated Development Environment (IDE is used to integrate hardware and software together. By adopting hardware / software co-design methodology for implementation of AES, results show that a onsiderable improvement in speed can be achieved as compared to software only approach. Further, the significant reduction in area is achieved as compared to hardware only approach. By the approach of co-design an optimized design in terms of speed and area is achieved and also the thermal power dissipation is reduced
Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption
Dhanalakshmi, R
2010-01-01
Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encrypted using chaos based logistic map. This provides an efficient and secure way for image encryption and transmission. The watermarked image is decrypted and a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of the primary as well as secondary watermark from the distorted image.
Fully phase image encryption using double random-structured phase masks in gyrator domain.
Singh, Hukum; Yadav, A K; Vashisth, Sunanda; Singh, Kehar
2014-10-01
We propose a method for fully phase image encryption based on double random-structured phase mask encoding in the gyrator transform (GT) domain. The security of the system is strengthened by parameters used in the construction of a structured phase mask (SPM) based on a devil's vortex Fresnel lens (DVFL). The input image is recovered using the correct parameters of the SPMs, transform orders of the GT, and conjugate of the random phase masks. The use of a DVFL-based SPM enhances security by increasing the key space for encryption, and also overcomes the problem of axis alignment associated with an optical setup. The proposed scheme can also be implemented optically. The computed values of mean squared error between the retrieved and the original image show the efficacy of the proposed scheme. We have also investigated the scheme's sensitivity to the encryption parameters, and robustness against occlusion and multiplicative Gaussian noise attacks. PMID:25322235
Algorithms to encrypt and decrypt messages with Magma
Hernández Encinas, Luis; Muńoz Masqué, Jaime; Araceli QUEIRUGA DIOS
2008-01-01
The security in current communications recommend to develop the implementation of cryptographic primitives and algorithms in an effective way. The cryptosystem proposed by Chor and Rivest, which is based on the knapsack problem, has recently been broken by Vaudenay but only when the original parameters are used. In this paper we give a brief overview of some developments in Cryptography and we present a safe implementation for Chor-Rivest Cryptosystem by using Magma software.
Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-bo; Zhang, Yushu
2015-06-01
Recently, intrinsic image features in bit-level (e.g., higher bit-planes carry more information than lower bit-planes) have been widely accepted for building bit-level image cryptosystems. Higher bit-planes are generally handled with enhanced encryption, whereas light attention is paid to lower ones. However, the existing achievements on bit-level image features are solely based on the analyses of standard test images, and they do not hold for some special images, such as medical images. When ciphering these images, such cryptosystems may leak the important information of lower bit-planes, and other inadaptability also exists. In this paper, we firstly give out the inapplicability of the existing bit-level achievements, and then a novel chaos-based image encryption scheme using nonlinear inter-pixel computing and swapping based permutation approach is presented. Simulations and extensive security analyses demonstrate the high level of security for practical secret applications.
Cryptanalysis and improvement of a digital image encryption method with chaotic map lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A digital image encryption scheme using chaotic map lattices has been proposed recently. In this paper, two fatal flaws of the cryptosystem are pointed out. According to these two drawbacks, cryptanalysts could recover the plaintext by applying the chosen plaintext attack. Therefore, the proposed cryptosystem is not secure enough to be used in the image transmission system. Experimental results show the feasibility of the attack. As a result, we make some improvements to the encryption scheme, which can completely resist our chosen plaintext attack. (general)
Optical encryption of unlimited-size images based on ptychographic scanning digital holography.
Gao, Qiankun; Wang, Yali; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi
2014-07-20
The ptychographic scanning operation is introduced into digital holography to expand the field-of-view (FOV). An optical image encryption method based on this technique is further proposed and analyzed. The plaintext is moved sequentially in the way of ptychographic scanning and corresponding pairs of phase-shifted interferograms are recorded as ciphertexts. Then the holographic processing and the ptychographic iterative reconstruction are both employed to retrieve the plaintext. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed system possesses high security level and wide FOV. The proposed method might also be used for other potential applications, such as three-dimensional information encryption and image hiding. PMID:25090206
Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi
2015-08-01
Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.
An Image Encryption Scheme Based on 2D Tent Map and Coupled Map Lattice
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Ruisong Ye
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a chaos-based image encryption scheme where one 2D tent map with two control parameters is utilized to generate chaotic orbits applied to scramble the pixel positions while one coupled map lattice is employed to yield random gray value sequences to change the gray values so as to enhance the security. Experimental results are carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-force attack and possesses good statistical properties to frustrate statistical analysis attacks. Experiments are also performed to illustrate the robustness against malicious attacks like cropping, noising, JPEG compression.
Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security. (general)
Analyses of S-Box in Image Encryption Applications Based on Fuzzy Decision Making Criterion
Rehman, Inayatur; Shah, Tariq; Hussain, Iqtadar
2014-06-01
In this manuscript, we put forward a standard based on fuzzy decision making criterion to examine the current substitution boxes and study their strengths and weaknesses in order to decide their appropriateness in image encryption applications. The proposed standard utilizes the results of correlation analysis, entropy analysis, contrast analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation analysis. These analyses are applied to well-known substitution boxes. The outcome of these analyses are additional observed and a fuzzy soft set decision making criterion is used to decide the suitability of an S-box to image encryption applications.
Wen, Shiping; Zeng, Zhigang; Huang, Tingwen; Meng, Qinggang; Yao, Wei
2015-07-01
This paper investigates the problem of global exponential lag synchronization of a class of switched neural networks with time-varying delays via neural activation function and applications in image encryption. The controller is dependent on the output of the system in the case of packed circuits, since it is hard to measure the inner state of the circuits. Thus, it is critical to design the controller based on the neuron activation function. Comparing the results, in this paper, with the existing ones shows that we improve and generalize the results derived in the previous literature. Several examples are also given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential applications in image encryption. PMID:25594985
A NEW TECHNIQUE BASED ON CHAOTIC STEGANOGRAPHY AND ENCRYPTION TEXT IN DCT DOMAIN FOR COLOR IMAGE
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MELAD J. SAEED
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Image steganography is the art of hiding information into a cover image. This paper presents a new technique based on chaotic steganography and encryption text in DCT domain for color image, where DCT is used to transform original image (cover image from spatial domain to frequency domain. This technique used chaotic function in two phases; firstly; for encryption secret message, second; for embedding in DCT cover image. With this new technique, good results are obtained through satisfying the important properties of steganography such as: imperceptibility; improved by having mean square error (MSE, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and normalized correlation (NC, to phase and capacity; improved by encoding the secret message characters with variable length codes and embedding the secret message in one level of color image only.
Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption
Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka
2010-03-01
Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.
A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samir El Adib
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES. Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is the application. High-speed designs are not always desired solutions. In some applications, such as mobile computing and wireless communications, smaller throughput is demanded. Architecture presented uses memory modules (i.e., Dual-Port RAMs of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs for storing all the results of the fixed operations (i.e., Look-Up Table, and Digital Clock Manager (DCM that we used effectively to optimize the execution time, reduce design area and facilitates implementation in FPGA. The architecture consumes only 326 slices plus 3 Block Random Access Memory (BRAMs. The throughput obtained was of 270 Mbits/s. The target hardware used in this paper is Spartan XC3S500E FPGA from Xilinx. Results are presented and compared with other reference implementations, as known from the technical literature. The presented architecture can be used in a wide range of embedded applications.
Chain of Shuffling and Chaos: A Tied Encryptic Approach
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Padmapriya Praveenkumar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The intellectual growth of computer communication lead to drastic improvement in wireless technology and shrunken the world into palms of the user which paved the path for the security attack issues. The development of the security system became the ultimate. Popular technique widely used in present scenario that provides a better security to secret information is image encryption. Multiple encryption technique has been adopted in this study. The secret image is block shuffled and then chaotic maps such as baker map, skew tent map and Arnold cat map are used to encrypt the image. Further the image is encrypted using Cipher Block Chaining (CBC to contribute the final encrypted image. Metrics such as horizontal, vertical, diagonal correlation, Number of Changing Pixel Rate (NPCR and entropy were calculated for various Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM test images and the performance of the algorithm was analyzed.
An Implementation of BLOWFISH Encryption Algorithm using KERBEROS Authentication Mechanism
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Ch Panchamukesh
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The sensitive information stored on computers and transmitted over the Internet need to ensure information security and safety measures. Without our knowledge, the Intruders sneak into the systems, misuse it and even create back doors to our computer systems. Thus, there must not be any compromise in securing our resources. Hence, Cryptography is mainly used to ensure secrecy. Access Control Policy is used for securing the resources as initial state, which determines the potential threats, the solutions and the ways of implementation of the security. Various security solutions to block the unauthenticated users starts from a series mechanism from Firewalls to Kerberos, most of them need a strong cryptographic base. Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange ultimately which tend to the security of information. Among which Kerberos authentication promises most secured and unbreakable. It works on the basis of granting tickets for each session and resource access. This paper includes a mechanism that implements the Blowfish algorithm with a 64 bit length key with an improved security assurance.
An RSA Encryption Hardware Algorithm using a Single DSP Block and a Single Block RAM on the FPGA
Koji Nakano; Kensuke Kawakami; Song Bo; Yasuaki Ito
2011-01-01
The main contribution of this paper is to present an efficient hardware algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption based on Montgomery multiplication. Modern FPGAs have a number of embedded DSP blocks (DSP48E1) and embedded memory blocks (BRAM). Our hardware algorithm supporting 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption is designed to be implemented using one DSP48E1, one BRAM and few logic blocks (slices) in the Xilinx Virtex-6 family FPGA. The implementation results showed that our RSA module for 204...
Comments on, “A blind source separation-based method for multiple images encryption”
Kumar, Anil; Rhouma, Rhouma; Wang, Yong; Sklavos, Nicolas; Ghose, M. K.
2011-03-01
In this paper we have found that proposed cryptosystem a blind source separation for multiple images encryption suffers from the same weakness as of the previous BSS-based cryptosystems proposed by Lin et al. Hence, it is also vulnerable to various types attacks.
Multidimensional Z-Matrix with Control Parameters and Its Applications in Image Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An n-dimensional Z-matrix with control parameters is presented, and its periodicity and chaos are testified. Experimental results show that the proposed Z-matrix has a long period and changeable periodicity with different dimensions. Some examples of image encryption with a Z-matrix of different dimensions are listed for demonstrating its applications. (general)
A Lightweight White-Box Symmetric Encryption Algorithm against Node Capture for WSNs.
Shi, Yang; Wei, Wujing; He, Zongjian
2015-01-01
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are often deployed in hostile environments and, thus, nodes can be potentially captured by an adversary. This is a typical white-box attack context, i.e., the adversary may have total visibility of the implementation of the build-in cryptosystem and full control over its execution platform. Handling white-box attacks in a WSN scenario is a challenging task. Existing encryption algorithms for white-box attack contexts require large memory footprint and, hence, are not applicable for wireless sensor networks scenarios. As a countermeasure against the threat in this context, in this paper, we propose a class of lightweight secure implementations of the symmetric encryption algorithm SMS4. The basic idea of our approach is to merge several steps of the round function of SMS4 into table lookups, blended by randomly generated mixing bijections. Therefore, the size of the implementations are significantly reduced while keeping the same security efficiency. The security and efficiency of the proposed solutions are theoretically analyzed. Evaluation shows our solutions satisfy the requirement of sensor nodes in terms of limited memory size and low computational costs. PMID:26007737
A Lightweight White-Box Symmetric Encryption Algorithm against Node Capture for WSNs †
Shi, Yang; Wei, Wujing; He, Zongjian
2015-01-01
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are often deployed in hostile environments and, thus, nodes can be potentially captured by an adversary. This is a typical white-box attack context, i.e., the adversary may have total visibility of the implementation of the build-in cryptosystem and full control over its execution platform. Handling white-box attacks in a WSN scenario is a challenging task. Existing encryption algorithms for white-box attack contexts require large memory footprint and, hence, are not applicable for wireless sensor networks scenarios. As a countermeasure against the threat in this context, in this paper, we propose a class of lightweight secure implementations of the symmetric encryption algorithm SMS4. The basic idea of our approach is to merge several steps of the round function of SMS4 into table lookups, blended by randomly generated mixing bijections. Therefore, the size of the implementations are significantly reduced while keeping the same security efficiency. The security and efficiency of the proposed solutions are theoretically analyzed. Evaluation shows our solutions satisfy the requirement of sensor nodes in terms of limited memory size and low computational costs. PMID:26007737
An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Hyperchaotic Rabinovich and Exponential Chaos Maps
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Xiaojun Tong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new four-dimensional hyperchaotic map based on the Rabinovich system to realize chaotic encryption in higher dimension and improve the security. The chaotic sequences generated by Runge-Kutta method are combined with the chaotic sequences generated by an exponential chaos map to generate key sequences. The key sequences are used for image encryption. The security test results indicate that the new hyperchaotic system has high security and complexity. The comparison between the new hyperchaotic system and the several low-dimensional chaotic systems shows that the proposed system performs more efficiently.
Joint Watermarking and Encryption of Color Images in the Fibonacci-Haar Domain
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Federica Battisti
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A novel method for watermarking and ciphering color images, based on the joint use of a key-dependent wavelet transform with a secure cryptographic scheme, is presented. The system allows to watermark encrypted data without requiring the knowledge of the original data and also to cipher watermarked data without damaging the embedded signal. Since different areas of the proposed transform domain are used for encryption and watermarking, the extraction of the hidden information can be performed without deciphering the cover data and it is also possible to decipher watermarked data without removing the watermark. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Enhancing RSA algorithm using Mersenne Primes with reduced size of encrypted file
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Shilpa Madhaorao Pund
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Message passing from source to destination is one of the important aspects of communication. However, it is requiredmany times that this message gets transmitted secretly, so that no unauthorized person gets knowledge of the contents ofthat message. To retain the confidentiality of the message transmitted is a challenging task as it needs to be guaranteedthat the message arrive in the right hands exactly as it was transmitted. Another challenge is of transmitting the messageover a public, insecure channel. In this paper, RSA algorithm is implemented using Mersenne Primes which guaranteesthe primality. This is an enhanced algorithm which increases the strength of RSA by generating large prime numbers andalso reduces the size of encrypted file.
Medical Image Protection using steganography by crypto-image as cover image
Vinay Pandey; Manish Shrivastava
2012-01-01
This paper presents securing the transmission of medical images. The presented algorithms will be applied to images. This work presents a new method that combines image cryptography, data hiding and Steganography technique for denoised and safe image transmission purpose. In This method we encrypt the original image with two shares mechanism encryption algorithm then embed the encrypted image with patient information by using lossless data embedding technique with data hiding method after tha...
Research on image self-recovery algorithm based on DCT
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Shengbing Che
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Image compression operator based on discrete cosine transform was brought up. A securer scrambling locational operator was put forward based on the concept of anti-tamper radius. The basic idea of the algorithm is that it first combined image block compressed data with eigenvalue of image block and its offset block, then scrambled or encrypted and embeded them into least significant bit of corresponding offset block. This algorithm could pinpoint tampered image block and tampering type accurately. It could recover tampered block with good image quality when tamper occured within the limits of the anti-tamper radius. It could effectively resist vector quantization and synchronous counterfeiting attacks on self-embedding watermarking schemes.
Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-11-15
I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.
Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq
2014-10-10
A new optical interference-based multiple-image encryption using spherical wave illumination and gyrator transform is proposed. In this proposal, each secret color image is divided into normalized red, green, and blue component images and independently encoded into corresponding phase-only component images. Then each phase-only component image of all the images are combined together to produce a single-phase-only component image as an input component image, which is bounded with a random phase mask to form a complex image. The two phase-only masks are analytically obtained from the inverse Fourier transformation of the complex image. The host image is chosen as the first phase-only mask, and the complex image hidden in the host image is regarded as the second phase-only mask. The spherical wave is generated to simultaneously illuminate phase-only masks. Then two modulated masks are gyrator transformed. The corresponding transformed images are phase truncated to obtain encrypted images and amplitude truncated to construct decryption keys. The decryption keys, angles of gyrator transform, wavelength and radius of the spherical wave, and individual decryption keys for authorized users are sensitive keys, which enhance the security layers of the system. The proposed system can be implemented by using optoelectronic architecture. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the flexibility of the system. PMID:25322374
System for Information Encryption Implementing Several Chaotic Orbits
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Jiménez-Rodríguez Maricela
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This article proposes a symmetric encryption algorithm that takes, as input value, the original information of length L, that when encoded, generates the ciphertext of greater length LM. A chaotic discrete system (logistic map is implemented to generate 3 different orbits: the first is used for applying a diffusion technique in order to mix the original data, the second orbit is combined with the mixed information and increases the length of L to LM, and with the third orbit, the confusion technique is implemented. The encryption algorithm was applied to encode an image which is then totally recovered by the keys used to encrypt and his respective, decrypt algorithm. The algorithm can encode any information, just dividing into 8 bits, it can cover the requirements for high level security, it uses 7 keys to encrypt and provides good encryption speed
Chen, Linfei; Liu, Jingyu; Wen, Jisen; Mao, Haidan; Ge, Fan; Zhao, Daomu
2015-03-01
In this paper, a new method for optical image encryption based on three-beams interference principle and common vector composition is proposed. An original gray image is divided into three parts of amplitude information and three parts of phase information by a common vector composition. We can put the three parts of amplitude information together to form a color image which is regarded as a ciphertext. And the keys of the encryption system are the three phase information. In the decryption process, three beams of coherent light illuminate at the three parts of the ciphertext, pass through the corresponding phase only masks respectively, and finally the decrypted gray image would be obtained at the output plane after Fourier transform and three-beams interference. Computer simulations are presented to verify the possibility of the proposed method.
Two Fibonacci P-code based image scrambling algorithms
Zhou, Yicong; Agaian, Sos; Joyner, Valencia M.; Panetta, Karen
2008-02-01
Image scrambling is used to make images visually unrecognizable such that unauthorized users have difficulty decoding the scrambled image to access the original image. This article presents two new image scrambling algorithms based on Fibonacci p-code, a parametric sequence. The first algorithm works in spatial domain and the second in frequency domain (including JPEG domain). A parameter, p, is used as a security-key and has many possible choices to guarantee the high security of the scrambled images. The presented algorithms can be implemented for encoding/decoding both in full and partial image scrambling, and can be used in real-time applications, such as image data hiding and encryption. Examples of image scrambling are provided. Computer simulations are shown to demonstrate that the presented methods also have good performance in common image attacks such as cutting (data loss), compression and noise. The new scrambling methods can be implemented on grey level images and 3-color components in color images. A new Lucas p-code is also introduced. The scrambling images based on Fibonacci p-code are also compared to the scrambling results of classic Fibonacci number and Lucas p-code. This will demonstrate that the classical Fibonacci number is a special sequence of Fibonacci p-code and show the different scrambling results of Fibonacci p-code and Lucas p-code.
Multiple-image encryption with spatial information prechoosing and cascaded blocks scrambling
Yang, Yuhua; Wang, Yali; Shi, Yishi; Zhang, Jingjuan; Hao, Wei
2010-11-01
Multiple-image encryption by spatial information prechoosing and cascaded blocks scrambling is proposed. The spatial information of secret multiple-image is pre-chosen in advance to effectively reduce the capacity burden of following encryption system. It is conveniently achieved by selecting or compressing the spatial information of multiple images to meet practical demands. Spatially pre-chosen multiple images are reformed to a new image. Cascaded double random phase encoding system is used to encrypt the new image, and the blocks scrambling is operated at the input of each sub-encoding system. Two main advantages are obtained: 1. Since the spatial information prechoosing enables the whole system to afford much larger information capacity, the effective multiplexing capacity is improved greatly; 2. The combination of blocks scrambling and cascaded random phase encoding not only ensure the much higher system security, but also save the key space and easy the key to save and release compared with the methods by each pixel scrambling. Computer simulations have shown the effectiveness of this method.
2001-01-01
The Secretary of Commerce Don Evans this week announced a new encryption standard for the federal government, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). AES is expected to be used by businesses and organizations outside of government as well. AES, which replaces the Data Encryption Standard (DES) that the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) adopted in 1977, has been in production for four years. NIST began a contest in 1997 to determine the best encryption algorithm. The algorithm finally selected in 2000 incorporates the Rijndael encryption formula. From this page, users can read the press release, join an AES discussion forum, access test values and code, and learn more about AES and Rijndael.
On Perceptual Encryption: Variants of DCT Block Scrambling Scheme for JPEG Compressed Images
Khan, Muhammad Imran; Jeoti, Varun; Malik, Aamir Saeed
In this paper, a perceptual encryption scheme based on scrambling of DCT blocks in JPEG compressed images and its variants are proposed. These schemes are suitable for the environment where perceptual degradation of the multimedia content is required. The security of these techniques is shown to be sufficient against casual attacks. These discussed schemes are kept as light as possible in order to keep the encryption overhead and cost low. Also, an investigation in the progressive degradation of image by increasing the number of the DCT blocks to be scrambled has been carried out. The quality of the degraded multimedia content is measured with objective image quality assessment (IQA) metrics such as SSIM, MS-SSIM, VIF, VIFP and UQI. These IQA metrics provide choice for the selection of control factor.
An RSA Encryption Hardware Algorithm using a Single DSP Block and a Single Block RAM on the FPGA
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Koji Nakano
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is to present an efficient hardware algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption based on Montgomery multiplication. Modern FPGAs have a number of embedded DSP blocks (DSP48E1 and embedded memory blocks (BRAM. Our hardware algorithm supporting 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption is designed to be implemented using one DSP48E1, one BRAM and few logic blocks (slices in the Xilinx Virtex-6 family FPGA. The implementation results showed that our RSA module for 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption runs in 277.26ms. Quite surprisingly, the multiplier in DSP48E1 used to compute Montgomery multiplication works in more than 97% clock cycles over all clock cycles. Hence, our implementation is close to optimal in the sense that it has only less than 3% overhead in multiplication and no further improvement is possible as long as Montgomery multiplication based algorithm is used. Also, since our circuit uses only one DSP48E1 block and one Block RAM, we can implement a number of RSA modules in an FPGA that can work in parallel to attain high throughput RSA encryption/decryption.
A Chaos-based Image Encryption Scheme Using 3D Skew Tent Map and Coupled Map Lattice
Ruisong Ye; Wei Zhou
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a chaos-based image encryption scheme where one 3D skew tent map with three control parameters is utilized to generate chaotic orbits applied to scramble the pixel positions while one coupled map lattice is employed to yield random gray value sequences to change the gray values so as to enhance the security. Experimental results have been carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-fo...
Modified Prime Number Factorization Algorithm (MPFA For RSA Public Key Encryption
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Kuldeep Singh
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The Public key encryption security such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm based on positive integer N, which is the product of two prime numbers, the factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a factorization method is proposed, which is used to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The present work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers as per Fermat method and requires fewer steps for factorization process of RSA modulus N. By experimental results it has been shown that factorization speed becomes increasing as compare to traditional Trial Division method, Fermat Factorization method, Brent’s Factorization method and Pollard Rho Factorization method.
Automatic Color Images Classification Algorithm
Rushdi Saleem Hussein Abu Zneit; Amjad Abu Jazar; Belal Ayyoub
2012-01-01
Numerous research works about the extraction of objects from images have been published. However only recently the focus has shifted to exploiting low-level features to classify images automatically into semantically meaningful and broad categories. This paper presents a novel automatic color image classification algorithm. Initially the color image is divided into classes; each class is a group of pixels that they have the same color after that the object is extracted from the image. In the ...
A New Public-Key Encryption Scheme Based on Non-Expansion Visual Cryptography and Boolean Operation
Abdullah M. Jaafar; Azman Samsudin
2010-01-01
Currently, most of the existing public-key encryption schemes are based on complex algorithms with heavy computations. In 1994, Naor and Shamir proposed a simple cryptography method for digital images called visual cryptography. Existing visual cryptography primitives can be considered as a special kind of secret-key cryptography that does not require heavy computations for encrypting and decrypting an image. In this paper, we propose a new public-key encryption scheme for image based on non-...
Image encryption and authentication. A fully digital approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Optical surveillance is one of the basic safeguards measures implemented by the IAEA. If it were possible to have the data carriers replaced and mailed to the IAEA by staff of the State System for Accounting and Control (SSAC) or by the facility operator or, ultimately have the data remotely transmitted to IAEA Headquarters, this would enable the frequency of on-site inspections to be reduced, since the surveillance information would still be available in a timely manner for evaluation at HQ. The IAEA needs to verify the authenticity of the data, whereas the facility operator will insist on the confidentiality of the data; i.e. a third party must not be able to make any use of the data transferred. The present development effort is concentrated on the appropriate camera electronics ensuring uninterrupted electronic authentication and encryption of the video signals from the camera up to the review station. The design concept is described, some crucial aspects are discussed, and the status and perspectives of the project reported. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meghana Hasamnis
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Embedded system design is becoming complex day by day, combined with reduced time-to-market deadlines. Due to the constraints and complexity in the design of embedded systems, it incorporates hardware / software co-design methodology. An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software parts integrated together on a common platform. A soft-core processor which is a hardware description language (HDL model of a specific processor (CPU can be customized for any application and can be synthesized for FPGA target. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the development environment for embedded systems using LEON 3 and NIOS II Processor, both soft core processors. LEON3 is an open source processor and NIOS II is a commercial processor. Case study under consideration is Rijindael’s Encryption Algorithm (AES. It is a standard encryption algorithm used to encrypt huge bulk of data and for security. Using the co-design methodology the algorithm is implemented on two different platforms. One using the open source and other using the commercial processor and the comparative results of the two different platforms is stated in terms of its performance parameters. The algorithm is partitioned in hardware and software parts and integrated on a common platform.
Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.
2015-06-01
Many phase-truncation-based cryptosystems encounter an information disclosure problem. In this paper, a novel color image encryption using a phase-truncated Fresnel transform and random amplitude mask (RAM) without the risk of information disclosure is proposed. An image is first separated into three channels (red, green, and blue) and using an additional RAM channel the risk of information disclosure encountered in previous encryption methods is eliminated. Moreover unlike previous methods where each channel is encrypted independently, the four channels employed in the proposed method are encrypted using a cascading technique. Robustness of the proposed scheme against attacks is analyzed. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.
Constrained iterative image restoration algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katsaggelos, A.K.
1985-01-01
This thesis considers the problem of image restoration, i.e., the problem of recovering the input image to a space-invariant of space varying linear system from its noisy-blurred output. Iterative algorithms were chosen for solving the restoration problem due to their advantages over non-iterative and recursive techniques. The author introduces soft or statistical constraints, thus making possible the direct incorporation of statistical information about the noise and the image into the algorithm. The first issue addressed concerns the development of constrained iterative restoration algorithms which directly incorporate deterministic and statistical knowledge about the original signal and noise into the restoration. These algorithms are called regularized iterative restoration algorithms. The second issue addressed concerns the development of adaptive regularized iterative restoration algorithms. The soft constraint operator controls the trade-off between sharpness and noise amplification in the restored image. Experimental results obtained by application of the nonadaptive or adaptive regularized iterative algorithms to simulated and photographically blurred images are shown.
A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Justin M
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.
A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques
John Justin M; Manimurugan S
2012-01-01
This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...
L.Thulasimani,; Madheswaran, M.
2010-01-01
In any wireless communication security is crucial during data transmission. The encryption and decryption of data is the major role in the wireless communication for security of the data. Encryption lgorithms are used to ensure the security in the transmission channels. Similarly the area and the power consumption is anothermajor thing to be viewed since most of the mobile terminals are battery operated. So a mobile terminal which has an encryption unit with less area and power consumption i...
VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fazal Noorbasha
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some function which can recognize and correct the error in the received data. Hamming code is one of such forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper the algorithm for hamming code is discussed and then implementation of it in verilog is done to get the results. Hamming code is an upgrading over parity check method. Here a code is implemented in verilog in which 4-bit of information data is transmitted with 3-redundancy bits. In order to do that the proposed method uses a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. It is known that FPGA provides quick implementation and fast hardware verification. It gives facilities of reconfiguring the design construct unlimited number of times. The HDL code is written in verilog, Gate Level Circuit and Layout is implemented in CMOS technology.
An Integrated Encryption Scheme Used in Bluetooth Communication Mechanism
Bhoopendra Singh Rajput,; Prashanna Gupta, Shweta Yadav
2011-01-01
To improve the security level of data Transmission in Bluetooth communication, An Integrated Encryption Scheme algorithm based on IDEA, RSA and MD5 is proposed. The currently hybrid encryption algorithm uses DES and RSA Algorithm, DES use for Encryption of Data and RSA use for Encryption of Key. Hybrid encryption algorithm employed by the Bluetooth to protect the confidentiality of data during transport between two or more devices [2]. In proposed Integrated Encryption Scheme algorithm mechan...
A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Multi-orbit Hybrid of Discrete Dynamical System
Ruisong Ye; Huiqing Huang; Xiangbo Tan
2014-01-01
A multi-orbit hybrid image encryption scheme based on discrete chaotic dynamical systems is proposed. One generalized Arnold map is adopted to generate three orbits for three initial conditions. Another chaotic dynamical system, tent map, is applied to generate one pseudo-random sequence to determine the hybrid orbit points from which one of the three orbits of generalized Arnold map. The hybrid orbit sequence is then utilized to shuffle the pixels' positions of plain-image so as to get one p...
Using Chaotic System in Encryption
Findik, O?uz; Kahramanli, ?irzat
In this paper chaotic systems and RSA encryption algorithm are combined in order to develop an encryption algorithm which accomplishes the modern standards. E.Lorenz's weather forecast' equations which are used to simulate non-linear systems are utilized to create chaotic map. This equation can be used to generate random numbers. In order to achieve up-to-date standards and use online and offline status, a new encryption technique that combines chaotic systems and RSA encryption algorithm has been developed. The combination of RSA algorithm and chaotic systems makes encryption system.
Liu, Hongjun; Kadir, Abdurahman; Gong, Pijuan
2015-03-01
A fast color image encryption scheme based on one-time S-Box is proposed. Three S-Boxes are generated by a complex chaotic system, whose initial values and parameter are dependent on both the random noise and the plain image. Each S-box randomly takes turns to encrypt one of the color components in each pixel adhering to the switching sequence, which is also generated by the complex chaotic system. Some measures are taken to improve the encryption and decryption speed. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme, so it is suitable for color image encryption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.Thulasimani,
2010-07-01
Full Text Available In any wireless communication security is crucial during data transmission. The encryption and decryption of data is the major role in the wireless communication for security of the data. Encryption lgorithms are used to ensure the security in the transmission channels. Similarly the area and the power consumption is anothermajor thing to be viewed since most of the mobile terminals are battery operated. So a mobile terminal which has an encryption unit with less area and power consumption is appreciated. This paper deals with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES which works on a 128 bit data encrypting it with 128,192,256 bits of keys (ciphers in a single hardware unit.
A Universal Encryption Standard
Handschuh, Helena; Vaudenay, Serge
2000-01-01
DES and triple-DES are two well-known and popular encryption algorithms, but they both have the same drawback : their block size is limited to 64 bits. While the cryptographic community is working hard to select and evaluate candidates and finalists for the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) contest launched by NIST in 1997, it might be of interest to propose a secure and simple double block-length encryption algorithm. More than in terms of key length and block size, our Universal Encryption...
Encrypting Digital Camera with Automatic Encryption Key Deletion
Oakley, Ernest C. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A digital video camera includes an image sensor capable of producing a frame of video data representing an image viewed by the sensor, an image memory for storing video data such as previously recorded frame data in a video frame location of the image memory, a read circuit for fetching the previously recorded frame data, an encryption circuit having an encryption key input connected to receive the previously recorded frame data from the read circuit as an encryption key, an un-encrypted data input connected to receive the frame of video data from the image sensor and an encrypted data output port, and a write circuit for writing a frame of encrypted video data received from the encrypted data output port of the encryption circuit to the memory and overwriting the video frame location storing the previously recorded frame data.
Bouganim, Luc; Guo, Yanli
2009-01-01
Database encryption refers to the use of encryption techniques to transform a plain text database into a (partially) encrypted database, thus making it unreadable to anyone except those who possess the knowledge of the encryption key(s).
A Space-bit-plane Scrambling Algorithm for Image Based on Chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Liu
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Image scrambling is an important technique in digital image encryption and digital image watermarking. This paper's main purpose is to research how to scramble image by space-bit-plane operation (SBPO. Based on analyzing traditional bit operation of individual pixels image scrambling method, this paper proposed a new scrambling algorithm. The new scrambling algorithm combined with SBPO and chaotic sequence. First, every eight pixels from different areas of image were selected according to chaotic sequence, and grouped together to form a collection. Second, the SBPO was performed in every collection and built eight pixels of the image with new values. The scrambling image was generated when all pixels were processed. In this way, the proposed algorithm transforms drastically the statistical characteristic of original image information, so, it increases the difficulty of an unauthorized individual to break the encryption. The simulation results and the performance analysis show that the algorithm has large secret-key space, high security, fast scrambling speed and strong robustness, and is suitable for practical use to protect the security of digital image information over the Internet.
Autonomous algorithms for image restoration
Griniasty, Meir
1994-01-01
We describe a general theoretical framework for algorithms that adaptively tune all their parameters during the restoration of a noisy image. The adaptation procedure is based on a mean field approach which is known as ``Deterministic Annealing'', and is reminiscent of the ``Deterministic Bolzmann Machiné'. The algorithm is less time consuming in comparison with its simulated annealing alternative. We apply the theory to several architectures and compare their performances.
Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.
Encryption of Images with 2-dimensional Cellular Automata
Hernández Encinas, Luis; Martín del Rey, Ángel; Hernández Encinas, Ascensión
2002-01-01
We propose to use cellular automata of dimension 2 as graphic cryptosystems. In particular, a 256-coloured graphic cryptosystem is analyzed. Moreover, the security of the cryptosystem is studied and it is proved that it is safe against brute force and chosen-plaintext attacks. The cryptosystem can easily be extended for images defined by pixels with a different number of colours.
A simple public-key attack on phase-truncation-based double-images encryption system
Ding, Xiangling; Yang, Gaobo; He, Dajiang
2015-07-01
Phase-truncation based double-images cryptosystem can avoid the iterative Fourier transforms and realize double-images encryption. In this paper, a simple public-key attack is proposed to break this cryptosystem by using arbitrary position parameters and three public keys. The attack process is composed of two steps. Firstly, the decryption keys are simply generated with the help of arbitrary position parameters and the three public keys. Secondly, the two approximate values of the original images are obtained by using the generated decryption keys. Moreover, the proposed public-key attack is different from the existing attacks. It is not sensitive to position parameters of the double-images and the computing efficiency is also much better. Computer simulation results further prove its vulnerability.
An image processing algorithm for PPCR imaging
Cowen, Arnold R.; Giles, Anthony; Davies, Andrew G.; Workman, A.
1993-09-01
During 1990 The UK Department of Health installed two Photostimulable Phosphor Computed Radiography (PPCR) systems in the General Infirmary at Leeds with a view to evaluating the clinical and physical performance of the technology prior to its introduction into the NHS. An issue that came to light from the outset of the projects was the radiologists reservations about the influence of the standard PPCR computerized image processing on image quality and diagnostic performance. An investigation was set up by FAXIL to develop an algorithm to produce single format high quality PPCR images that would be easy to implement and allay the concerns of radiologists.
An Efficient Image Encryption Scheme Based on a Peter De Jong Chaotic Map and a RC4 Stream Cipher
Hanchinamani, Gururaj; Kulkarni, Linganagouda
2015-09-01
Security is a vital issue in communication and storage of the images and encryption is one of the ways to ensure the security. This paper proposes an efficient image encryption scheme based on a Peter De Jong chaotic map and a RC4 stream cipher. A Peter De Jong map is employed to determine the initial keys for the RC4 stream generator and also during permutation stage. The RC4 stream generator is utilized to generate the pseudo random numbers for the pixel value rotation and diffusion operations. Each encryption round is comprised of three stages: permutation, pixel value rotation and diffusion. The permutation is based on scrambling the rows and columns, in addition, circular rotations of the rows and columns in alternate orientations. The second stage circularly rotates each and every pixel value by utilizing M × N pseudo random numbers. The last stage carries out the diffusion twice by scanning the image in two different ways. Each of the two diffusions accomplishes the diffusion in two orientations (forward and backward) with two previously diffused pixels and two pseudo random numbers. The security and performance of the proposed method is assessed thoroughly by using key space, statistical, differential, entropy and performance analysis. Moreover, two rounds of the call to the encrypt function provide the sufficient security. The experimental results show that the proposed encryption scheme is computationally fast with high security.
A Chaos-based Image Encryption Scheme Using 3D Skew Tent Map and Coupled Map Lattice
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Ruisong Ye
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a chaos-based image encryption scheme where one 3D skew tent map with three control parameters is utilized to generate chaotic orbits applied to scramble the pixel positions while one coupled map lattice is employed to yield random gray value sequences to change the gray values so as to enhance the security. Experimental results have been carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-force attack and possesses good statistical properties to frustrate statistical analysis attacks. Experiments are also performed to illustrate the robustness against malicious attacks like cropping, noising, JPEG compression.
Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2015-01-01
Ghost imaging has attracted more and more current attention due to its marked physical characteristics, and many physical applications, such as sensing and optical security, have been explored. In this letter, we propose ghost imaging using labyrinth-like phase modulation patterns for optical encryption. Since only one phase-only mask should be pre-set and the labyrinth patterns occupy only few spaces, high-efficiency storage or transmission of system keys can be implemented. In addition, each labyrinth pattern (i.e., phase modulation pattern) possesses high randomness and flexibility, hence high security can be guaranteed for the proposed optical encryption.
Image hiding algorithm based on block random scrambling and grayscale transformation
Chen, Yuefen; Lin, Junhuan; Zhang, Shiqing; Chen, Caiming
2010-07-01
A new image scrambling algorithm is proposed in this paper. The secret image is encrypted by both random scrambling based on blocks and grayscale transformation based on a pseudo-random sequence, using two keys respectively. The information embedding is implemented in the space domain through replacing the low four bits of the host image pixels with the high four bits of the secret image pixels. A simple system of image hiding and extraction using the proposed algorithm based on Matlab is realized, and its resistance to noising and cropping is analyzed Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can extract the hided image without knowing the host image information, and has the advantages of simple implementation, large hiding capacity and good safety performance.
Poonam Garg
2010-01-01
Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptana...
Deepan, B; Quan, C; Wang, Y; Tay, C J
2014-07-10
In this paper, a new multiple-image encryption and decryption technique that utilizes the compressive sensing (CS) concept along with a double-random phase encryption (DRPE) has been proposed. The space multiplexing method is employed for integrating multiple-image data. The method, which results in a nonlinear encryption system, is able to overcome the vulnerability of classical DRPE. The CS technique and space multiplexing are able to provide additional key space in the proposed method. A numerical experiment of the proposed method is implemented and the results show that the proposed method has good accuracy and is more robust than classical DRPE. The proposed system is also employed against chosen-plaintext attacks and it is found that the inclusion of compressive sensing enhances robustness against the attacks. PMID:25090076
A hybrid randomized algorithm for image compression
Farshid Mehrdoust
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present a randomized algorithm for image compression by improving the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm and by applying the principal component analysis method. Some Numerical examples are provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.
Security of Hard Disk Encryption
YOUSUF, USMAN
2013-01-01
In order to provide confidentiality to digital information and safety to computer hard disk, encryption is considered to be best solutions. Now a day, several hard disks encryption software’s with a range of different features are commercially available. Majority of the software uses that encryption algorithm, whose cryptanalyses are already known. Now the vital question is that how much these encryption software’s provide security to the data. Any implementation and design flaw leave loop ho...
Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.
2012-01-01
Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes.
Chen, Ming-Chih; Hsiao, Shen-Fu
In this paper, we propose an area-efficient design of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) processor by applying a new common-expression-elimination (CSE) method to the sub-functions of various transformations required in AES. The proposed method reduces the area cost of realizing the sub-functions by extracting the common factors in the bit-level XOR/AND-based sum-of-product expressions of these sub-functions using a new CSE algorithm. Cell-based implementation results show that the AES processor with our proposed CSE method has significant area improvement compared with previous designs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suresh Jaganathan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In healthcare industry, the patient's medical data plays a vital role because diagnosis of anyailments is done by using those data. The high volume of medical data leads to scalability andmaintenance issues when using health-care provider's on-site picture archiving andcommunication system (PACS and network oriented storage system. Therefore a standard isneeded for maintaining the medical data and for better diagnosis. Since the medical data reflectsin a similar way to individuals’ personal information, secrecy should be maintained. Maintainingsecrecy can be done by encrypting the data, but as medical data involves images and videos,traditional text based encryption/decryption schemes are not adequate for providingconfidentiality. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for securing the DICOM format medicalarchives by providing better confidentiality and maintaining their integrity. Our contribution in thisalgorithm is of twofold: (1 Development of Improved Chaotic based Arnold Cat Map forencryption/decryption of DICOM files and (2 Applying a new hash algorithm based on chaotictheory for those encrypted files for maintaining integrity. By applying this algorithm, the secrecy ofmedical data is maintained. The proposed algorithm is tested with various DICOM format imagearchives by studying the following parameters i PSNR - for quality of images and ii Key - forsecurity.
Hardware stream cipher with controllable chaos generator for colour image encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2014-01-01
This study presents hardware realisation of chaos-based stream cipher utilised for image encryption applications. A third-order chaotic system with signum non-linearity is implemented and a new post processing technique is proposed to eliminate the bias from the original chaotic sequence. The proposed stream cipher utilises the processed chaotic output to mask and diffuse input pixels through several stages of XORing and bit permutations. The performance of the cipher is tested with several input images and compared with previously reported systems showing superior security and higher hardware efficiency. The system is experimentally verified on XilinxVirtex 4 field programmable gate array (FPGA) achieving small area utilisation and a throughput of 3.62 Gb/s. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.
Triple-DES block of 96 Bits: An application to colour image encryption
C. Renteria-Marquez; Flores-Carapia, R.; V. M. Silva-Garcia
2013-01-01
According to international standards, FIPS PUB 146-3, the cryptographic system Triple-Data Encryption Standard (Triple DES) encrypts blocks of 64 bits. However, it isn’t difficult to extend the block to 96-bit encryption, which is called Triple-DES-96. This change includes a modification to Triple-DES cryptosystems that appeared recently as the Advanced Encryption Standard - AES - FIPS PUB 197. Including encryption, file M (with m bits) is achieved in less time than Triple-DES. Developing Tri...
Image Fusion using Evolutionary Algorithm (GA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V Jyothi
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Image fusion is the process of combining images taken from different sources to obtain better situational awareness. In fusing source images the objective is to combine the most relevant information from source images into composite image. Genetic algorithm is used for solving optimization problems. Genetic algorithm can be employed to image fusion where some kind of parameter optimization is required.In this paper we proposed genetic algorithm based schemes for image fusion and proved that these schemes perform better than the conventional methods through comparison of parameters namely image quality index, mutual information, root mean square error and peak signal to noise ratio.
Mamtha Shetty; SHREEDHAR A JOSHI
2014-01-01
In this era of digital world, with the evolution of technology, there is an essential need for optimization of online digital data and information. Nowadays, Security and Authenticity of digital data has become a big challenge. This paper proposes an innovative method to authenticate the digital documents. A new method is introduced here, which allows multiple encryption and decryption of digital data.
New Way for Encryption Data Using Hourglas
Hamid Mehdi
2013-01-01
Nowadays, there are many encryption algorithms to protect information. Data confidentiality is one of themost important functions of encryption algorithms, it means when the transferring data between differentsystems is vague for unauthorized systems or people. Moreover Encryption algorithms must maintain dataintegrity and provide availability for information. New encryption methods cause the attackers cannot simplyaccess to the information and do not allow discovering the relationship betwee...
Quantum probabilistic encryption scheme based on conjugate coding
Yang, Li; Xiang, Chong; Li, Bao
2012-01-01
We present a quantum probabilistic encryption algorithm for a private-key encryption scheme based on conjugate coding of the qubit string. A probabilistic encryption algorithm is generally adopted in public-key encryption protocols. Here we consider the way it increases the unicity distance of both classical and quantum private-key encryption schemes. The security of quantum probabilistic private-key encryption schemes against two kinds of attacks is analyzed. By using the n...
Optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting with the help of QR code
Deng, Xiaopeng
2015-08-01
A novel optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting is proposed with the help of quick response (QR) code. In the encryption process, the original image to be encoded is firstly transformed into the corresponding QR code, and then the corresponding QR code is encoded into two phase-only masks (POMs) by using basic vector operations. Finally, the absolute values of the real or imaginary parts of the two POMs are chosen as the ciphertexts. In decryption process, the QR code can be approximately restored by recording the intensity of the subtraction between the ciphertexts, and hence the original image can be retrieved without any quality loss by scanning the restored QR code with a smartphone. Simulation results and actual smartphone collected results show that the method is feasible and has strong tolerance to noise, phase difference and ratio between intensities of the two decryption light beams.
Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-bo; Yu, Hai
2015-03-01
Recently, a double-image encryption scheme using local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform has been proposed [Opt Lasers Eng 2013; 51: 1327-31]. Through our simulations, there is serious cross-talk disturbance in the phase-based image when the encrypted data undergoes noise perturbation or occlusion attack. The disturbance will cause serious deterioration in the retrieved phase-based image and bring about visibility ambiguities to the receiver, and hence downgrades the practicability of the cryptosystem. In this paper, detailed analysis of the cross-talk disturbance in the original scheme will be firstly given out, and then the corresponding improvement is subsequently proposed. Numerical simulations results indicate that the improved scheme well address the cross-talk disturbance and further enhance the security of the original cryptosystem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption. (paper)
A Novel Steganographic Scheme Based on Hash Function Coupled With AES Encryption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rinu Tresa M J
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In the present scenario the use of images increased extremely in the cyber world so that we can easily transfer data with the help of these images in a secured way. Image steganography becomes important in this manner. Steganography and cryptography are the two techniques that are often confused with each other. The input and output of steganogra phy looks alike, but for cryptography the output will be in an encrypted form which always draws attraction to the attacker. This paper combines both steganography and cryptography so that attacker doesn’t know about the existence of message and the message itself is encrypted to ensure more security. The textual data entered by the user is encrypted using AES algorithm. After encryption, the encrypted data is stored in the colour image by using a hash based algorithm. Most of the steganographic algorithms available today is suitable for a specific image format and these algorithms suffers from poor quality of the embedded image. The proposed work does not corrupt the images quality in any form. The striking feature is that this algorithm is suitable for almost all image formats e.g.: jpeg/jpg, Bitmap, TIFF and GIF
New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bilal Bahaa Zaidan
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Protecting data is a very old art and wide use since the Egyptian when they identify the 1st encryption method in this world, the spiciest people categorize protecting data under computer forensic and others locate it under network security, cryptography methods are the backbone of this art, nowadays many of new techniques for the attacker's beings develops, a lot of methods for information protecting start dropping down such as RSA and stander encryption methods, in the same time a new methods has been appeared such as Quantum cryptography, the new methods has faced problems in the key distribution or key management and some time such as RSA there is a function may estimate the keys, In this paper we will make a comparative study between the key management distribution methods, in fact we will talk about QKD Encryption in the fiber optic area vice verse the KDM in the normal networks, for instant there are two known methods, KDM "Diffi- Hellman" and XKMS.
Parallelized Dilate Algorithm for Remote Sensing Image
Suli Zhang; Haoran Hu; Xin Pan
2014-01-01
As an important algorithm, dilate algorithm can give us more connective view of a remote sensing image which has broken lines or objects. However, with the technological progress of satellite sensor, the resolution of remote sensing image has been increasing and its data quantities become very large. This would lead to the decrease of algorithm running speed or cannot obtain a result in limited memory or time. To solve this problem, our research proposed a parallelized dilate algorithm for re...
Medical Image Protection using steganography by crypto-image as cover Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinay Pandey
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents securing the transmission of medical images. The presented algorithms will be applied to images. This work presents a new method that combines image cryptography, data hiding and Steganography technique for denoised and safe image transmission purpose. In This method we encrypt the original image with two shares mechanism encryption algorithm then embed the encrypted image with patient information by using lossless data embedding technique with data hiding method after that for more security. We apply steganography by encrypted image of any other medical image as cover image and embedded images as secrete image with the private key. In receiver side when the message is arrived then we apply the inverse methods in reverse order to get the original image and patient information and to remove noise we extract the image before the decryption of message. We have applied and showed the results of our method to medical images.
Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli
2015-05-01
A new discrete fractional transform defined by the fractional order, periodicity and vector parameters is presented, which is named as the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform. Based on this transform and two-coupled logistic map, a double-image encryption scheme is proposed. First, an enlarged image is obtained by connecting two plaintext images sequentially and scrambled by using a chaotic permutation process, in which the sequences of chaotic pairs generated by using the two-coupled logistic map. Then, the scrambled enlarged image is decomposed into two new components. Second, a chaotic random phase mask is generated based on the logistic map, with which one of two components is converted to the modulation phase mask. Another component is encoded into an interim matrix with the help of the modulation phase mask. Finally, the two-dimensional discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform is performed on the interim matrix to obtain the ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution. The proposed encryption scheme has an obvious advantage that no phase keys are used in the encryption and decryption process, which is convenient to key management. Moreover, the security of the cryptosystem can be enhanced by using extra parameters such as initial values of chaos functions, fractional orders and vector parameters of transform. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Opto-digital spectrum encryption by using Baker mapping and gyrator transform
Chen, Hang; Zhao, Jiguang; Liu, Zhengjun; Du, Xiaoping
2015-03-01
A concept of spectrum information hidden technology is proposed in this paper. We present an optical encryption algorithm for hiding both the spatial and spectrum information by using the Baker mapping in gyrator transform domains. The Baker mapping is introduced for scrambling the every single band of the hyperspectral image before adding the random phase functions. Subsequently, three thin cylinder lenses are controlled by PC for implementing the gyrator transform. The amplitude and phase information in the output plane can be regarded as the encrypted information and main key. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and capability of the proposed encryption algorithm.
Meng, X. F.; Peng, X.; Cai, L. Z.; Li, A. M.; Gao, Z.; Wang, Y. R.
2009-08-01
A hybrid cryptosystem is proposed, in which one image is encrypted to two interferograms with the aid of double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and two-step phase-shifting interferometry (2-PSI), then three pairs of public-private keys are utilized to encode and decode the session keys (geometrical parameters, the second random-phase mask) and interferograms. In the stage of decryption, the ciphered image can be decrypted by wavefront reconstruction, inverse Fresnel diffraction, and real amplitude normalization. This approach can successfully solve the problem of key management and dispatch, resulting in increased security strength. The feasibility of the proposed cryptosystem and its robustness against some types of attack are verified and analyzed by computer simulations.
SECRET DATA HIDING IN ENCRYPTED COMPRESSED VIDEO BITSTREAMS USING CHAOS CRYPTO SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonali.A.Chaudhari
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Early research works have been done on image. Due to few features of images, such as high correlation among pixels and bulk data capacity , previous encryption algorithms are not suitable. Cloud computing has become an important technology trend, which can provide large-scale storage solution and highly efficient computation for video data. It is desired that the video content is accessible in encrypted form to protect from untrustworthy system administrators. The capability of performing data hiding is done in encrypted H.264/AVC video bitstreams which would avoid the leakage of video information also can help to maintain security and privacy concerns with cloud computing. During H.264/AVC compression, the intra-prediction mode (IPM, motion vector difference (MVD and DCT coefficients’ signs are encrypted. For the purpose of content notation and tampering detection, it is necessary to perform data hiding in these encrypted videos. In system, a novel scheme of data hiding is proposed, which includes three section as follows, i.e., H.264/AVC video encryption, data encryption , and data decryption. Chaos crypto system is used here to encrypt/decrypt secret text data before/after data embedding/extraction. video file size is strictly preserved even after encryption and data embedding .
Testing a Variety of Encryption Technologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henson, T J
2001-04-09
Review and test speeds of various encryption technologies using Entrust Software. Multiple encryption algorithms are included in the product. Algorithms tested were IDEA, CAST, DES, and RC2. Test consisted of taking a 7.7 MB Word document file which included complex graphics and timing encryption, decryption and signing. Encryption is discussed in the GIAC Kickstart section: Information Security: The Big Picture--Part VI.
Image Classification Algorithm Based on Sparse Coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liping Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the sparse coding and local features of images are combined to propose a new image classification algorithm. Firstly, online dictionary learning algorithm is employed to train the visual vocabulary based on SIFT features. Secondly, SIFT features are extracted from images and these features are encoded into sparse vector through visual vocabulary. Thirdly, the images are evenly divided into I*I areas and the sparse vectors in each area are pooled, getting a fixed dimension feature vector which represents the whole image. Lastly, to achieve the purpose of image classification, we use support vector machine classifier for learning and recognition. Results from the Caltech-101 and Scene-15 data sets show that, compared with the existing algorithm, the proposed algorithm has a better performance, which can effectively represent the feature of images and improve the accuracy of image classification greatly
DETECTION OF ENCRYPTED BOTNETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Noreen D'silva
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In recent years, botnet is one of the major threats to network security. Many approaches have been proposed to detect botnets by comparing bot features. Usually, these approaches adopt traffic reduction strategy as first step to reduce the flow to following strategies by filtering packets. Botnets have started usingInformation obfuscation techniques include encryption to evade detection. In order to detect encrypted botnet traffic, in this paper we see detection of encrypted botnet traffic from normal network traffic as traffic classification problem. After analyses features of encrypted botnet traffic, we propose a novel meta-level classification algorithm based on content features and flow features of traffic. The content features consist of information entropy and byte frequency distribution, and the flow features consist of port number, payload length and protocol type of application layer. Then we use Naive Bayes classification algorithms to detect botnet traffic.
A hybrid randomized algorithm for image compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshid Mehrdoust
2012-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a randomized algorithm for image compression by improving the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm and by applying the principal component analysis method. Some Numerical examples are provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.
Algorithms for boundary detection in radiographic images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edge detecting techniques applied to radiographic digital images are discussed. Some algorithms have been implemented and the results are displayed to enhance boundary or hide details. An algorithm applied in a pre processed image with contrast enhanced is proposed and the results are discussed
Space-variant polarization scrambling for image encryption obtained with subwavelength gratings
Biener, Gabriel; Niv, Avi; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez
2006-05-01
We present an optical encryption method based on geometrical phase, which is originated from polarization manipulation. The decrypted picture is retrieved by measuring the polarization of the beam emerging from the encrypted element. The encrypted element is achieved by using a computer-generated space-variant subwavelength dielectric grating. Theoretical analyses of the optical concept by use of Jones and Mueller formalisms, as well as experimental results including full optical decryption process are introduced. Digital implementation and the possibility of using watermarking are also discussed.
Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing
Aarti .; Gaurav Pushkarna
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse) noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurrednes...
Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Lee, Byung-Geun; Sheridan, John T
2015-06-15
We present a method of securing multispectral 3D photon-counted integral imaging (PCII) using classical Hartley Transform (HT) based encryption by employing optical interferometry. This method has the simultaneous advantages of minimizing complexity by eliminating the need for holography recording and addresses the phase sensitivity problem encountered when using digital cameras. These together with single-channel multispectral 3D data compactness, the inherent properties of the classical photon counting detection model, i.e. sparse sensing and the capability for nonlinear transformation, permits better authentication of the retrieved 3D scene at various depth cues. Furthermore, the proposed technique works for both spatially and temporally incoherent illumination. To validate the proposed technique simulations were carried out for both the 2D and 3D cases. Experimental data is processed and the results support the feasibility of the encryption method. PMID:26193568
A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Xiao-Wei, Li; Sung-Jin, Cho; In-Kwon, Lee; Seok-Tae, Kim.
Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) image security system combines the use of the smart pixel mapping (SPM) algorithm and the Fibonacci transformation technique is proposed. In order to reconstruct orthoscopic 3D images with improved image quality, a smart pixel mapping process is adopted. Based [...] on the SPM-based computational integral imaging (CII) system, the depth-converted elemental image array (EIA) is obtained for increasing the quality of the reconstructed image. In the encryption process, the depth-converted EIA is scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm. Meanwhile, the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique is used to reconstruct the 3D image in the image reconstruction process. Compared with conventional CII-based 3D image encryption methods, the proposed method enable us to reconstruct high-resolution orthoscopic 3D images at long distance. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, some numerical experiments are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed 3D image security system.
Investigating Encrypted Material
McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe
When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.
Lal, Nidhi; Singh, Anurag Prakash; Kumar, Shishupal
2015-01-01
The security of RSA algorithm depends upon the positive integer N, which is the multiple of two precise large prime numbers. Factorization of such great numbers is a problematic process. There are many algorithms has been implemented in the past years. The offered KNJ -Factorization algorithm contributes a deterministic way to factorize RSA. The algorithm limits the search by only considering the prime values. Subsequently prime numbers are odd numbers accordingly it also re...
Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena
2011-01-01
Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, enc...
A Novel Architecture for an efficient data encryption system
Bhaskar. R; Ramakrishna.A; Venkateshwarlu.K; Haribabu.M
2013-01-01
The standard techniques for providing privacy and security in data networks include encryption/decryption algorithms such as Advanced Encryption System (AES) (private-key) and RSA (public-key). RSA is one of the safest standard algorithms, based on public-key, for providing security in networks. Even though the RSA Algorithm is an old and simple encryption technique, there is a scope to improve its performance. One of the most time consuming processes in RSA encryption/ decryption algorithm i...
An Improved Algorithm For Image Compression Using Geometric Image Approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. J. Rehna
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract- Our dependence on digital media continues to grow and therefore finding competent ways of storing and conveying these large amounts of data has become a major concern. The technique of image compression has then become very essential and highly applicable. In this paper, the performance of an efficient image coding method based on Geometric Wavelets that divides the desired image using a recursive procedure for image coding is explored. The objective of the work is to optimize the performance of geometric wavelet based image coding scheme and to suggest a method to reduce the time complexity of the algorithm. We have used the polar coordinate form of the straight line in the BSP scheme for partitioning the image domain. A novel pruning algorithm is tried to optimize the rate distortion curve and achieve the desired bit rate. The algorithm is also implemented with the concept of no tiling and its effect in PSNR and computation time is explored. The enhanced results show a gain of 2.24 dB over the EZW algorithm and 1.4 dB over the SPIHT algorithm at the bit-rate 0.0625 bpp for the Lena test image. Image tiling is found to reduce considerably the computational complexity and in turn the time complexity of the algorithm without affecting its coding efficiency. The algorithm offers remarkable results in terms of PSNR compared to existing techniques.
Design and Implementation proposed encryption and Hiding Secure Image In an Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asst. Prof. Dr. Baheja k.Shukur,
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Steganography and cryptography are two general methods of transfer vital information in a top-secret method. When we hide the secure image the malicious want to distort this secure image itself. Therefore, the cryptography techniques used must be one of the most powerful techniques. Also cryptography and Steganography are the two major techniques for secret communication. The contents of secret message are scrambled in cryptography, where as in steganography the secret message is embedded into the cover medium. This paper presents hybrid method of cryptography which combined two nonlinear feedbacks register in one non-linear function to produce a strong cryptography technique. The cryptography method is working on the image resulted from the DWT which, used the orthogonal filter. In steganography part we have used most significant method to hide the secret true image into true image. To evaluate our system number of measurements used such as Mean Square Error, Normalized Cross Correlation, Average Difference, Structural Content, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR have been computed between the cover and stego image. Finally histogram plot of cover image, stego image, secret ciphered images have been plotted.
Fast image restoration algorithm of differential confocal microscopy imaging
Wang, Guanyi; Liu, Dali; Qiu, Lirong
2013-12-01
Super resolution image restoration algorithm proposed in this paper uses the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to take image restoration processing of 2D steps image scanned by differential confocal imaging system, assuming that the image is based on Poisson distribution. For optical imaging system, this paper puts forward the more accurate point spread function (PSF) and the concept of image interval matching, and introduces automatic acceleration method and the iteration terminating standard. Experiments on the 2-D image of standard steps indicated that a lateral resolution of 0.1?m has achieved and the recovery time has been obviously shorten.
SRI RAMSHALAKA: A VEDIC METHOD OF TEXT ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION
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Rajkishore Prasad
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates usability of SriRamshalakha, a vedic tool used in Indian Astrology, in the encryption and decryption of plain English text. Sri Ram Shalaka appears in Sri RamChartmanas, one of the very popular sacred epic of Hindu religion, written by great Saint Tulsidasji. SriRamshalakha is used to fetch/infer the approximate answer of questions/decisions by the believers. Basically, the said shalaka embed nine philosophical verses from Sri RamCharitmanas in a matrix form based on which answers to queries are inferred and ingrained. However, none of the verses are visible and directly readable. Thus here we take SriRamshalakha as the ancient Indian method of text encryption and decryption and based on the same algorithms for the encryption and decryption of plain English text areproposed. The developed algorithms are presented with examples and possibility of its use in steganography and text to image transformation are also discussed.
Algorithms for reconstructing images for industrial applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several algorithms for reconstructing objects from their projections are being studied in our Laboratory, for industrial applications. Such algorithms are useful locating the position and shape of different composition of materials in the object. A Comparative study of two algorithms is made. The two investigated algorithsm are: The MART (Multiplicative - Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) and the Convolution Method. The comparison are carried out from the point view of the quality of the image reconstructed, number of views and cost. (Author)
Improved decryption quality and security of a joint transform correlator-based encryption system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some image encryption systems based on modified double random phase encoding and joint transform correlator architecture produce low quality decrypted images and are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. In this work, we analyse the algorithm of some reported methods that optically implement the double random phase encryption in a joint transform correlator. We show that it is possible to significantly improve the quality of the decrypted image by introducing a simple nonlinear operation in the encrypted function that contains the joint power spectrum. This nonlinearity also makes the system more resistant to chosen-plaintext attacks. We additionally explore the system resistance against this type of attack when a variety of probability density functions are used to generate the two random phase masks of the encryption–decryption process. Numerical results are presented and discussed. (paper)
Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palacios, R.
2007-07-01
The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)
Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)
Design and Implementation proposed encryption and Hiding Secure Image In an Image
Asst. Prof. Dr. Baheja k.Shukur,; Alaaldeen Abbas Abdulhassan
2014-01-01
Steganography and cryptography are two general methods of transfer vital information in a top-secret method. When we hide the secure image the malicious want to distort this secure image itself. Therefore, the cryptography techniques used must be one of the most powerful techniques. Also cryptography and Steganography are the two major techniques for secret communication. The contents of secret message are scrambled in cryptography, where as in steganography the secret message...
An Integrated Encryption Scheme Used in Bluetooth Communication Mechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhoopendra Singh Rajput,
2011-09-01
Full Text Available To improve the security level of data Transmission in Bluetooth communication, An Integrated Encryption Scheme algorithm based on IDEA, RSA and MD5 is proposed. The currently hybrid encryption algorithm uses DES and RSA Algorithm, DES use for Encryption of Data and RSA use for Encryption of Key. Hybrid encryption algorithm employed by the Bluetooth to protect the confidentiality of data during transport between two or more devices [2]. In proposed Integrated Encryption Scheme algorithm mechanism makes a full use of advantage of IDEA Algorithm of Data Encryption because it’s faster than RSA Algorithm for long plain text and RSA Algorithm distributed key safely and easily. Digital abstract Algorithm MD5 is adopted in this mechanism. This Mechanism realizes the confidentiality, Completeness, Authentication and Integrity
A CHALLENGE IN HIDING ENCRYPTED MESSAGE IN LSB AND LSB+1 BIT POSITIONS IN VARIOUS Cover Files
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joyshree Nath
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The present work basically shows us how one can hide information in encrypted form to any cover file such as .exe files, Microsoft office files, .dbf files, image files, audio files and video files. However, the size of the hidden message must be very small in comparison to cover file which is an executable file. So far no one has tried to hide information inside any executable file. To make the system fully secured we first encrypt the secret message using MSA algorithm (Nath et al.(1 and then we hide the encrypted message inside the cover file. introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have changed both LSB and LSB+1 bits of each byte of the cover file. A generalized method was proposed by Nath etal(2 where they embed the secret message without going for any encryption.. The MSA(1 algorithm introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. The MSA (1 method also incorporates the multiple encryption and decryption process. To initiate the MSA algorithm the user has to enter a text_key, which can be of 16 characters long. This text_key is used to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and the MSA algorithm ensures that any of the pattern may be used for encryption as well as decryption process. To hide encrypted secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 4 consecutive bytes of the cover file such that only LSB and LSB+1 bits are changed depending on the bit pattern of the encrypted secret message. To make system further secured one has to enter a password before the actual steganography process starts. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any non-standard cover file such as executable file, compiler, MS-Office files, Data Base files such as .DBF, text editor such as notepad plus the standard cover files such as image, audio, video files etc. The size of the secret message be very small in comparison to the executable cover file. The present method may be implemented in mobile network, Bank data transactions in government sectors, in police department.
Algorithms for image processing and computer vision
Parker, J R
2010-01-01
A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It's an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists wh
Classification of Encrypted Text and Encrypted Speech (Short Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajesh Asthana
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The information to be exchanged between two parties can be text data or speech data. This data is encrypted for its security and communicated (to the other end. When an adversary intercepts these encrypted data then in order to recover the actual information, his first step is to identify whether intercepted data is encrypted text or encrypted speech are used. The next step is to get the actual information from encrypted text or encrypted speech. In this paper, pattern recognition techniques are applied for identification of encrypted text and encrypted speech. Some new and modified feature extraction techniques have been used to convert the text and speech data into three-dimensional, four-dimensional, and five-dimensional measurement vectors. These multi-dimensional measurement vectors are converted into two-dimensional vectors using projection pursuit technique based on Sammon.s algorithm and Chien.s algorithm. The quantified classification performances using minimum distance classifier and maximum likelihood classifier have also been given.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(4, pp.420-422, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.497
Area Optimized Advanced Encryption Standard
Mr. Sandip R. Aher; Prof. Dr. G. U. Kharat
2014-01-01
Performance evaluation of the Advanced Encryption Standard candidates has become led to intensive study of both hardware and software implementations. However, number of papers presents various implementation results, it shows that efficiency could still be greatly improved by applying effective design rules adapted to devices and algorithms. This paper shows various approaches for efficient FPGA implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. For different a...
CifrarFS – Encrypted File System Using FUSE
Anagha Kulkarni; Vandana Inamdar
2009-01-01
This paper describes a file system that enables transparent encryption and decryption of files by using advanced, standard cryptographic algorithm, Data Encryption Standard (DES) [1]. Any individual, including super user, or program, that doesn't possess the appropriate passphrase for the directory which contains encrypted files cannot read the encrypted data. Encrypted files can be protected even from those who gain physical possession of the computer on which files reside [2]. ‘CifrarFS’, a...
Dermoscopic Image Segmentation using Machine Learning Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. P. Suresh
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Malignant melanoma is the most frequent type of skin cancer. Its incidence has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Medical image segmentation is the most essential and crucial process in order to facilitate the characterization and visualization of the structure of interest in medical images. Approach: This study explains the task of segmenting skin lesions in Dermoscopy images based on intelligent systems such as Fuzzy and Neural Networks clustering techniques for the early diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma. The various intelligent system based clustering techniques used are Fuzzy C Means Algorithm (FCM, Possibilistic C Means Algorithm (PCM, Hierarchical C Means Algorithm (HCM; C-mean based Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Network, Adaline Neural Network and Regression Neural Network. Results: The segmented images are compared with the ground truth image using various parameters such as False Positive Error (FPE, False Negative Error (FNE Coefficient of similarity, spatial overlap and their performance is evaluated. Conclusion: The experimental results show that the Hierarchical C Means algorithm( Fuzzy provides better segmentation than other (Fuzzy C Means, Possibilistic C Means, Adaline Neural Network, FHNN and GRNN clustering algorithms. Thus Hierarchical C Means approach can handle uncertainties that exist in the data efficiently and useful for the lesion segmentation in a computer aided diagnosis system to assist the clinical diagnosis of dermatologists.
IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT WITH CRYPTOGRAPHY
Vikas Tyagi
2012-01-01
To increase the security of messages sent over the internet steganography is used. This paper discussed a technique based on the LSB(least significant bit) and a new encryption algorithm. By matching data to an image, there is less chance of an attacker being able to use steganalysis to recover data. Before hiding the data in an image the application first encrypts it. Keywords- Steganography, LSB(least significant bit), Encryption, Decryption.
Review on Reserving Room Before Encryption for Reversible Data Hiding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akshata Malwad
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking. There are number of techniques available in the industry to maintain security of data. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is comes into the picture, but the problem is the occurrence of distortion in original cover at the time of data extraction. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent way so that the original cover can be recovered without any loss after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. In This paper we propose a novel method by reserving room before encryption (RRBE with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. Using RRBE we can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error and also we can increase the rate of data to be hidden. This is useful in the way that these method recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.
Universal lossless compression algorithm for textual images
al Zahir, Saif
2012-03-01
In recent years, an unparalleled volume of textual information has been transported over the Internet via email, chatting, blogging, tweeting, digital libraries, and information retrieval systems. As the volume of text data has now exceeded 40% of the total volume of traffic on the Internet, compressing textual data becomes imperative. Many sophisticated algorithms were introduced and employed for this purpose including Huffman encoding, arithmetic encoding, the Ziv-Lempel family, Dynamic Markov Compression, and Burrow-Wheeler Transform. My research presents novel universal algorithm for compressing textual images. The algorithm comprises two parts: 1. a universal fixed-to-variable codebook; and 2. our row and column elimination coding scheme. Simulation results on a large number of Arabic, Persian, and Hebrew textual images show that this algorithm has a compression ratio of nearly 87%, which exceeds published results including JBIG2.
Quantum fully homomorphic encryption scheme based on universal quantum circuit
Liang, Min
2015-08-01
Fully homomorphic encryption enables arbitrary computation on encrypted data without decrypting the data. Here it is studied in the context of quantum information processing. Based on universal quantum circuit, we present a quantum fully homomorphic encryption (QFHE) scheme, which permits arbitrary quantum transformation on any encrypted data. The QFHE scheme is proved to be perfectly secure. In the scheme, the decryption key is different from the encryption key; however, the encryption key cannot be revealed. Moreover, the evaluation algorithm of the scheme is independent of the encryption key, so it is suitable for delegated quantum computing between two parties.
Quantum fully homomorphic encryption scheme based on universal quantum circuit
Liang, Min
2015-05-01
Fully homomorphic encryption enables arbitrary computation on encrypted data without decrypting the data. Here it is studied in the context of quantum information processing. Based on universal quantum circuit, we present a quantum fully homomorphic encryption (QFHE) scheme, which permits arbitrary quantum transformation on any encrypted data. The QFHE scheme is proved to be perfectly secure. In the scheme, the decryption key is different from the encryption key; however, the encryption key cannot be revealed. Moreover, the evaluation algorithm of the scheme is independent of the encryption key, so it is suitable for delegated quantum computing between two parties.
Public Key Encryption Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks In tinyOS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chandni Vaghasia,
2013-03-01
Full Text Available generally, when people consider wireless devices they think of items such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, or laptops. These items are costly, target specialized applications, and rely on the pre-deployment of extensive infrastructure support. In contrast, wireless sensor networks use small, low-cost embedded devices for a wide range of applications and do not rely on any pre-existing infrastructure. The emerging field of wireless sensor networks (WSN combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device called sensor nodes or motes. Through advanced mesh networking protocols, these devices form a sea of connectivity that extends the reach of cyberspace out into the physical world. here some algorithms are implemented and result is analyzed on different platforms like PC MICA,Mica 2, Mica2dot and analyze which algorithm is best for which platform.
Implementation of LBG Algorithm for Image Compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ms. Asmita A.Bardekar#1, Mr. P.A.Tijare
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of LBG algorithm for image compression which makes it possible for creating file sizes of manageable, storable and transmittable dimensions. Image Compression techniques fall under two categories, namely, Lossless and Lossy. The Linde, Buzo, and Gray (LBG algorithm is an iterative algorithm which alternatively solves the two optimality criteria i.e. Nearest neighbor condition and centroid condition. The algorithm requires an initial codebook to start with. Codebook is generated using a training set of images. There are different methods like Random Codes and Splitting in which the initial code book can be obtained. This initial codebook is obtained by the splitting method in LBG algorithm. In this method an initial code vector is set as the average of the entire training sequence. This code vector is then split into two. The iterative algorithm is run with these two vectors as the initial codebook. The final two code vectors are splitted into four and the process is repeated until the desired number of code vector is obtained. The LBGalgorithm is measured by calculating performances such as Compression Ratio (CR, Mean square error (MSE, PeakSignal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR
Algorithm for Fast Registration of Radar Images
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Subrata Rakshit
2002-07-01
Full Text Available Radar imagery provides an all-weather and 24 h coverage, making it ideal for critical defence applications. In some applications, multiple images acquired of an area need to be registered for further processing. Such situations arise for battlefield surveillance based on satellite imagery. The registration has to be done between an earlier (reference image and a new (live image. For automated surveillance, registration is a prerequisite for change detection. Speed is essential due to large volumes of data involved and the need for quick responses. The registration transformation is quite simple, being mainly a global translation. (Scale and rotation corrections can be applied based on known camera parameters. The challenge lies in the fact that the radar images are not as feature-rich as optical images and the image content variation can be as high as 90 per cent. Even though the change on the ground may not be drastic, seasonal variations can significantly alter the radar signatures of ground, vegetation, and water bodies. This necessitates a novel approach different from the techniques developed for optical images. An algorithm has been developed that leads to fast registration of radar images, even in the presence of specular noise and significant scene content variation. The key features of this approach are adaptability to sensor/terrain types, ability to handle large content variations and false positive rejection. The present work shows that this algorithm allows for various cost-performance trade-offs, making it suitable for a wide variety of applications. The algorithm, in various cost-performance configurations, is tested on a set of ERS images. Results of such tests have been reported, indicating the performance of the algorithm for various cost-performance trade-offs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somdip Dey
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents an advanced version of image encryption technique, which is itself an upgraded version of SD-EI image encryption method. In this new method, SD-EI Ver-2, there are more bit wise manipulations compared to original SD-EI method. The proposed method consist of three stages: 1 First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2 In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3 In last stage, we perform modified Cyclic Bit manipulation. First, the pixel values are again converted to their 8 bit binary format. Then 8 consecutive pixels are chosen and a 8X8 matrix is formed out of these 8 bit 8 pixels. After that, matrix cyclic operation is performed randomized number of times, which is again dependent on the password provided for encryption. After the generation of new 8 bit value of pixels, they are again converted to their decimal format and the new value is written in place of the old pixel value. SD-EI Ver-2 has been tested on different image files and the results were very satisfactory.
Hierarchical Image Segmentation Algorithm in Depth Image Processing
Junping Yin; Suran Kong
2013-01-01
Because the traditional iterative graph cut algorithm is time consuming and low in segmentation accuracy, I proposes the method of iterative graph cut to segment images, by analyzing the basic theory of image segmentation, I introduces the balance factor to balance the degree of importance between color texture and depth. Finally it passes detailed experimental simulation, the experiment shows that the result of hierarchical iterative graph cut based on depth image is better than iterative gr...
Evaluation of various deformable image registration algorithms for thoracic images
Kadoya, Noriyuki; Fujita, Yukio; Katsuta, Yoshiyuki; Dobashi, Suguru; Takeda, Ken; Kishi, Kazuma; Kubozono, Masaki; Umezawa, Rei; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Matsushita, Haruo; Jingu, Keiichi
2013-01-01
We evaluated the accuracy of one commercially available and three publicly available deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for thoracic four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Five patients with esophagus cancer were studied. Datasets of the five patients were provided by DIR-lab (dir-lab.com) and consisted of thoracic 4D CT images and a coordinate list of anatomical landmarks that had been manually identified. Expert landmark correspondence was used for evaluating DIR...
Enhanced Throughput AES Encryption
Kunal Lala; Ajay Kumar; Amit Kumar
2012-01-01
This paper presents our experience in implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. We have used 128 bit block size and 128 bit cipher key for the implementation. The AES also known as Rijndael algorithm is used to ensure security of transmission channels. Xilinx design tool 13.3 and Xilinx project navigator design tool are used for synthesis and simulation. Very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) is used for coding. The fully pipelined desig...
Design of AES Algorithm for 128/192/256 Key Length in FPGA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pravin V. Kinge
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The cryptographic algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol changes. The available AES algorithm is used for data and it is also suitable for image encryption and decryption to protect the confidential image from an unauthorized access. This project proposes a method in which the image data is an input to AES algorithm, to obtain the encrypted image. and the encrypted image is the input to AES Decryption to get the original image. This project proposed to implement the 128,192 & 256 bit AES algorithm for data encryption and decryption, also to compare the speed of operation, efficiency, security and frequency . The proposed work will be synthesized and simulated on FPGA family of Xilink ISE 13.2 and Modelsim tool respectively in Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL.
Digital image processing an algorithmic approach with Matlab
Qidwai, Uvais
2009-01-01
Introduction to Image Processing and the MATLAB EnvironmentIntroduction Digital Image Definitions: Theoretical Account Image Properties MATLAB Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage Acquisition, Types, and File I/OImage Acquisition Image Types and File I/O Basics of Color Images Other Color Spaces Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage ArithmeticIntroduction Operator Basics Theoretical TreatmentAlgorithmic Treatment Coding ExamplesAffine and Logical Operations, Distortions, and Noise in ImagesIntroduction Affine Operations Logical Operators Noise in Images Distortions in ImagesAlgorithmic Account
Private predictive analysis on encrypted medical data.
Bos, Joppe W; Lauter, Kristin; Naehrig, Michael
2014-08-01
Increasingly, confidential medical records are being stored in data centers hosted by hospitals or large companies. As sophisticated algorithms for predictive analysis on medical data continue to be developed, it is likely that, in the future, more and more computation will be done on private patient data. While encryption provides a tool for assuring the privacy of medical information, it limits the functionality for operating on such data. Conventional encryption methods used today provide only very restricted possibilities or none at all to operate on encrypted data without decrypting it first. Homomorphic encryption provides a tool for handling such computations on encrypted data, without decrypting the data, and without even needing the decryption key. In this paper, we discuss possible application scenarios for homomorphic encryption in order to ensure privacy of sensitive medical data. We describe how to privately conduct predictive analysis tasks on encrypted data using homomorphic encryption. As a proof of concept, we present a working implementation of a prediction service running in the cloud (hosted on Microsoft's Windows Azure), which takes as input private encrypted health data, and returns the probability for suffering cardiovascular disease in encrypted form. Since the cloud service uses homomorphic encryption, it makes this prediction while handling only encrypted data, learning nothing about the submitted confidential medical data. PMID:24835616
Experimental Study of Fractal Image Compression Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chetan R. Dudhagara
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Image compression applications have been increasing in recent years. Fractal compression is a lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals. The method is best suited for textures and natural images, relying on the fact that parts of an image often resemble other parts of the same image. In this paper, a study on fractal-based image compression and fixed-size partitioning will be made, analyzed for performance and compared with a standard frequency domain based image compression standard, JPEG. Sample images will be used to perform compression and decompression. Performance metrics such as compression ratio, compression time and decompression time will be measured in JPEG cases. Also the phenomenon of resolution/scale independence will be studied and described with examples. Fractal algorithms convert these parts into mathematical data called "fractal codes" which are used to recreate the encoded image. Fractal encoding is a mathematical process used to encode bitmaps containing a real-world image as a set of mathematical data that describes the fractal properties of the image. Fractal encoding relies on the fact that all natural, and most artificial, objects contain redundant information in the form of similar, repeating patterns called fractals.
A complete Classification of Quantum Public-key Encryption Protocols
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2015-01-01
We present a classification of quantum public-key encryption protocols. There are six elements in quantum public-key encryption: plaintext, ciphertext, public-key, private-key, encryption algorithm and decryption algorithm. According to the property of each element which is either quantum or classical, the quantum public-key encryption protocols can be divided into 64 kinds. Among 64 kinds of protocols, 8 kinds have already been constructed, 52 kinds can be proved to be impo...
Hardware Implementation of Multimedia Encryption Techniques Using FPGA
Mohamed, M.A.; M.E. Abou-Elsoud; W.M. Kamal El-Din
2012-01-01
Multimedia encryption algorithm has gain importance nowadays for copyright protection. Many multimedia encryption Techniques had been designed and tested software base. We will implement a library of hardware realization using FPGA of seven multimedia encryption algorithms. Simulation results had shown that blowfish provided the best result. In addition we proposed new encryption method based on cascaded techniques. This cascaded method provides a great improvement .The discussed techniques w...
Hierarchical Image Segmentation Algorithm in Depth Image Processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junping Yin
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Because the traditional iterative graph cut algorithm is time consuming and low in segmentation accuracy, I proposes the method of iterative graph cut to segment images, by analyzing the basic theory of image segmentation, I introduces the balance factor to balance the degree of importance between color texture and depth. Finally it passes detailed experimental simulation, the experiment shows that the result of hierarchical iterative graph cut based on depth image is better than iterative graph cut, while time it takes is much shorter, thus it can segment depth images more effectively
A NOVEL DECONVOLUTION ALGORITHM FOR IMAGE RESTORATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phu Ninh Tran
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A novel deconvolution algorithm for restoring blurred image is introduced. The proposed algorithm can behave two multi-scale frameworks to restore the fuzzy blurred image. One multi-scale framework is used to optimize whole process containing kernel estimation and deconvolution by incorporating an average difference criterion for evaluating the restored image quality, another is applied to optimize kernel estimation process, which are generated kernels in different sizes. Furthermore, the Expectation Maximization (EM method is applied to handle outliers in deconvolution process for suppressing ringing effects. The experimental result shows that the proposed method offers an efficient way to estimate and optimize the blur kernel and obtain good results for deconvolution process.
LSB Based Quantum Image Steganography Algorithm
Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Na; Wang, Luo
2015-04-01
Quantum steganography is the technique which hides a secret message into quantum covers such as quantum images. In this paper, two blind LSB steganography algorithms in the form of quantum circuits are proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR) for quantum images. One algorithm is plain LSB which uses the message bits to substitute for the pixels' LSB directly. The other is block LSB which embeds a message bit into a number of pixels that belong to one image block. The extracting circuits can regain the secret message only according to the stego cover. Analysis and simulation-based experimental results demonstrate that the invisibility is good, and the balance between the capacity and the robustness can be adjusted according to the needs of applications.
Analysis of Image Segmentation Algorithms Using MATLAB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deepika Khare
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Image segmentation has played an important role in computer vision especially for human tracking. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image or a set of contours extracted from the image. Its accuracy but very elusive is very crucial in areas as medical, remote sensing and image retrieval where it may contribute to save, sustain and protect human life. This paper presents the analysis and implementation using MATLAB features and one best result can be selected for any algorithm using the subjective evaluation. We considered the techniques under the following five groups: Edge-based, Clustering-based, Region-based, Threshold-based and Graph-based.
Encryption dynamics and avalanche parameter for "delayed dynamics"-based cryptosystems
Melchert, O.
2012-01-01
The presented article attempts to characterize the encryption dynamics of delayed dynamics based block ciphers, designed for the encryption of binary data. For such encryption algorithms, the encryption process relies on a coupling dynamics with time delay between different bits in the plaintext (i.e.\\ the "initial" message to be encrypted). Here, the principal dynamics of the encryption process is examined and the Hammingdistance is used to quantify the change in ciphertext...
A fast chaotic encryption scheme based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, a growing number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as the lack of robustness and security. In this Letter, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on one-dimensional piecewise nonlinear chaotic maps. The system is a measurable dynamical system with an interesting property of being either ergodic or having stable period-one fixed point. They bifurcate from a stable single periodic state to chaotic one and vice versa without having usual period-doubling or period-n-tippling scenario. Also, we present the KS-entropy of this maps with respect to control parameter. This algorithm tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space, encryption speed and level of security
Steganography Algorithm to Hide Secret Message inside an Image
Ibrahim, Rosziati; Kuan, Teoh Suk
2011-01-01
In this paper, the authors propose a new algorithm to hide data inside image using steganography technique. The proposed algorithm uses binary codes and pixels inside an image. The zipped file is used before it is converted to binary codes to maximize the storage of data inside the image. By applying the proposed algorithm, a system called Steganography Imaging System (SIS) is developed. The system is then tested to see the viability of the proposed algorithm. Various sizes ...
Image reconstruction algorithms for DOIS: a diffractive optic image spectrometer
Lyons, Denise M.; Whitcomb, Kevin J.
1996-06-01
The diffractive optic imaging spectrometer, DOIS, is a compact, economical, rugged, programmable, multi-spectral imager. The design implements a conventional CCD camera and emerging diffractive optical element (DOE) technology in an elegant configuration, adding spectroscopy capabilities to current imaging systems (Lyons 1995). This paper reports on the visible prototype DOIS that was designed, fabricated and characterized. Algorithms are presented for simulation and post-detection processing with digital image processing techniques. This improves the spectral resolution by removing unwanted blurred components from the spectral images. DOIS is a practical image spectrometer that can be built to operate at ultraviolet, visible or infrared wavelengths for applications in surveillance, remote sensing, law enforcement, environmental monitoring, laser communications, and laser counter intelligence.
CHAOS-BASED ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD
Abdulwahed, Naif B.
2013-05-01
This thesis introduces a new chaos-based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES is a well-known encryption algorithm that was standardized by U.S National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) in 2001. The thesis investigates and explores the behavior of the AES algorithm by replacing two of its original modules, namely the S-Box and the Key Schedule, with two other chaos- based modules. Three chaos systems are considered in designing the new modules which are Lorenz system with multiplication nonlinearity, Chen system with sign modules nonlinearity, and 1D multiscroll system with stair case nonlinearity. The three systems are evaluated on their sensitivity to initial conditions and as Pseudo Random Number Generators (PRNG) after applying a post-processing technique to their output then performing NIST SP. 800-22 statistical tests. The thesis presents a hardware implementation of dynamic S-Boxes for AES that are populated using the three chaos systems. Moreover, a full MATLAB package to analyze the chaos generated S-Boxes based on graphical analysis, Walsh-Hadamard spectrum analysis, and image encryption analysis is developed. Although these S-Boxes are dynamic, meaning they are regenerated whenever the encryption key is changed, the analysis results show that such S-Boxes exhibit good properties like the Strict Avalanche Criterion (SAC) and the nonlinearity and in the application of image encryption. Furthermore, the thesis presents a new Lorenz-chaos-based key expansion for the AES. Many researchers have pointed out that there are some defects in the original key expansion of AES and thus have motivated such chaos-based key expansion proposal. The new proposed key schedule is analyzed and assessed in terms of confusion and diffusion by performing the frequency and SAC test respectively. The obtained results show that the new proposed design is more secure than the original AES key schedule and other proposed designs in the literature. The proposed design is then enhanced to increase the operating speed using the divide- and-conquer concept. Such enhancement, did not only make the AES algorithm more secure, but also enabled the AES to be faster, as it can now operate on higher frequencies, and more area-efficient.
A speedy pixon image reconstruction algorithm
Eke, Vincent
1999-01-01
A speedy pixon algorithm for image reconstruction is described. Two applications of the method to simulated astronomical data sets are also reported. In one case, galaxy clusters are extracted from multiwavelength microwave sky maps using the spectral dependence of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect to distinguish them from the microwave background fluctuations and the instrumental noise. The second example involves the recovery of a sharply peaked emission profile, such as might...
An Improved Image Restoration Algorithm for Overcast Based on MSR
Zhen Chen; Jihong Shen
2013-01-01
According to degradation model of cloudy images, the paper uses MSR (multi-scale retinex) algorithm for restoration. But MSR algorithm can’t effectively restore the details and color of images in processing cloudy images, so the paper proposes a new MSR improvement algorithm to process cloudy images. Three scales of traditional MSR is changed into four scales, which means that a Gaussian function with middle scale keeping the details and color of images is added to. And information fusi...
Image Colour Segmentation by Genetic Algorithms
Ramos, V; Ramos, Vitorino; Muge, Fernando
2004-01-01
Segmentation of a colour image composed of different kinds of texture regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields and a decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or unstationary texture fields. In this work, a method is described for evolving adaptive procedures for these problems. In many real world applications data clustering constitutes a fundamental issue whenever behavioural or feature domains can be mapped into topological domains. We formulate the segmentation problem upon such images as an optimisation problem and adopt evolutionary strategy of Genetic Algorithms for the clustering of small regions in colour feature space. The present approach uses k-Means unsupervised clustering methods into Genetic Algorithms, namely for guiding this last Evolutionary Algorithm in his search for finding the optimal or sub-optimal data partition, task that as we know, requires a non-trivial search because of its intrinsic NP-complet...
Simple Encryption/Decryption Application
Majdi Al-qdah; Lin Yi Hui
2007-01-01
This paper presents an Encryption/Decryption application that is able to work with any type of file; for example: image files, data files, documentation filesĂ˘â‚¬Â¦etc. The method of encryption is simple enough yet powerful enough to fit the needs of students and staff in a small institution. The application uses simple key generation method of random number generation and combination. The final encryption is a binary one performed through rotation of bits and XOR operation applied on each b...
GPUs benchmarking in subpixel image registration algorithm
Sanz-Sabater, Martin; Picazo-Bueno, Jose Angel; Micó, Vicente; Ferrerira, Carlos; Granero, Luis; Garcia, Javier
2015-05-01
Image registration techniques are used among different scientific fields, like medical imaging or optical metrology. The straightest way to calculate shifting between two images is using the cross correlation, taking the highest value of this correlation image. Shifting resolution is given in whole pixels which cannot be enough for certain applications. Better results can be achieved interpolating both images, as much as the desired resolution we want to get, and applying the same technique described before, but the memory needed by the system is significantly higher. To avoid memory consuming we are implementing a subpixel shifting method based on FFT. With the original images, subpixel shifting can be achieved multiplying its discrete Fourier transform by a linear phase with different slopes. This method is high time consuming method because checking a concrete shifting means new calculations. The algorithm, highly parallelizable, is very suitable for high performance computing systems. GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) accelerated computing became very popular more than ten years ago because they have hundreds of computational cores in a reasonable cheap card. In our case, we are going to register the shifting between two images, doing the first approach by FFT based correlation, and later doing the subpixel approach using the technique described before. We consider it as `brute force' method. So we will present a benchmark of the algorithm consisting on a first approach (pixel resolution) and then do subpixel resolution approaching, decreasing the shifting step in every loop achieving a high resolution in few steps. This program will be executed in three different computers. At the end, we will present the results of the computation, with different kind of CPUs and GPUs, checking the accuracy of the method, and the time consumed in each computer, discussing the advantages, disadvantages of the use of GPUs.
Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation
Parameshachai B D,; Dr. K M Sunjiv Soyjaudah,; Dr. Sumitra Devi K A,
2013-01-01
Measurement of image quality is important for many image processing applications. Image quality assessment is closely related to image similarity assessment in which quality is based on the differences (or similarity) between a degraded image and the original, unmodified image. There are two ways to measure image quality by subjective or objective assessment. Subjective evaluations are expensive and time-consuming. It is impossible to implement them into automatic real-time systems. Objective...
A Comparative Study of Image Restoration Algorithms using Images from different areas of imaging
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Sruti Sruba Bharali
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider a comparative study of different image restoration algorithms. The images are blurred by using both known and unknown degradation functions. The study emphases on restoration of blurred images by using both blind and non-blind restoration techniques like Lucy Richardson Algorithm (LRA, Weiner Filter Deconvolution (WFD, Regularized Filter Deconvolution (RFD and Blind Image Deconvolution Algorithm (BIDA. Apart from regular images, images from different areas of imaging like medical images and satellite images are considered for this study. Experimental results for the four different image restoration techniques are compared on the basis of performance metrics like PSNR(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, MSE(Mean Square Error and RMSE( Root Mean Square Error.
Public-key encryption with chaos
Kocarev, Ljupco; Sterjev, Marjan; Fekete, Attila; Vattay, Gabor
2004-12-01
We propose public-key encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps, which are generalization of well-known and commercially used algorithms: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), ElGamal, and Rabin. For the case of generalized RSA algorithm we discuss in detail its software implementation and properties. We show that our algorithm is as secure as RSA algorithm.
A Fast SIFT Image Mosaic Algorithm Based on Wavelet Transformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZUO Yi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Recently, SIFT feature matching algorithm is becoming the focus of the image mosaic. In traditional SIFT algorithm, the mosaic procedure is computationally intensive and time-comsuming. For solving this problem, an improved SIFT algorithm is presented in this paper. The proposed algorithm combing wavelet transform into SIFT to simplify the scale-invariant feature extraction process, and speed up the image mosaic. The tests of two images mosaicing with the classical SIFT algorithm and the algorithm proposed in this paper have done respectively. With the control parameter ?=0.5, the classical SIFT algorithm took 1.192 891 seconds to extract the feature points, while the improved algorithm took 0.856 712 seconds. The contrast simulation tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, and show that the speed and accuracy of the proposed algorithm is improved, at the same time the effect of the image mosaic is maintained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. T. Anitha
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the security measures implemented. Steganography is a method which is used to give high level security. Approach: Today, email management and email authenticity must be unquestionable with strong chains of custody, constant availability and tamper-proof security. A secure communication can be achieved through neural based steganography. Email is insecure. Results: This research developed an application which can check the Email content of corporate mails by S-DES algorithm along with the neural networks back propagation approach. A new filtering algorithm is also developed which can used to extract only the JPG images from the corporate emails. Experimental research shows that this algorithm is more accurate and reliable than the conventional methods. Conclusion: We anticipate that this study can also give a clear picture of the current trends in Steganography and the experimental results indicate this method is valid in steganalysis. This method can be used for internet/network security.
Image Fusion Algorithms for Medical Images-A Comparison
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.D. Nandeesh
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of medical image fusion algorithms along with its performance analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT images are used to fuse which form a contemporary image so as to improve the complementary and redundant information for diagnosis purpose. For this, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT, Principle Component Analysis (PCA and curvelet transform techniques are employed and its experimental results are evaluated and compared. Comparison of fusion performance is based on its root mean square error (RMSE, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, Mutual Information (MI and Entropy (H. Comparison results demonstrate the achievement of better performance of fusion by using curvelet transform.
Yang, Xiuping; Min, Lequan; Wang, Xue
2015-05-01
This paper sets up a chaos criterion theorem on a kind of cubic polynomial discrete maps. Using this theorem, Zhou-Song's chaos criterion theorem on quadratic polynomial discrete maps and generalized synchronization (GS) theorem construct an eight-dimensional chaotic GS system. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. The chaotic GS system is used to design a chaos-based pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG). Using FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2, test suit tests the randomness of two 1000 key streams consisting of 20 000 bits generated by the CPRNG, respectively. The results show that there are 99.9%/98.5% key streams to have passed the FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2 test. Numerical simulations show that the different keystreams have an average 50.001% same codes. The key space of the CPRNG is larger than 21345. As an application of the CPRNG, this study gives an image encryption example. Experimental results show that the linear coefficients between the plaintext and the ciphertext and the decrypted ciphertexts via the 100 key streams with perturbed keys are less than 0.00428. The result suggests that the decrypted texts via the keystreams generated via perturbed keys of the CPRNG are almost completely independent on the original image text, and brute attacks are needed to break the cryptographic system.
Inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging principles, algorithms and applications
Chen , Victor C
2014-01-01
Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications is based on the latest research on ISAR imaging of moving targets and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR). With a focus on the advances and applications, this book will provide readers with a working knowledge on various algorithms of ISAR imaging of targets and implementation with MATLAB. These MATLAB algorithms will prove useful in order to visualize and manipulate some simulated ISAR images.
FPGA IMPLEMENTATIONS OF ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD: A SURVEY
Nagarjun Bhat; Shylashree.N; Shridhar, V
2012-01-01
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the most secure symmetric encryption technique that has gained worldwide acceptance. The AES based on the Rijndael Algorithm is an efficient cryptographic technique that includes generation of ciphers for encryption and inverse ciphers for decryption. Higher security and speed of encryption/decryption is ensured by operations like SubBytes (S-box)/Inv. SubBytes (Inv.S-box), MixColumns/Inv. Mix Columns and Key Scheduling. Extensive research has been conduc...
Improved bat algorithm applied to multilevel image thresholding.
Alihodzic, Adis; Tuba, Milan
2014-01-01
Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733
A Novel Architecture for an efficient data encryption system
Bhaskar.R, Ramakrishna.A, Venkateshwarlu.K, Haribabu.M
2013-01-01
— The standard techniques for providing privacy and security in data networks include encryption/decryption algorithms such as Advanced Encryption System (AES) (private-key) and RSA (public-key). RSA is one of the safest standard algorithms, based on public-key, for providing security in networks. Even though the RSA Algorithm is an old and simple encryption technique, there is a scope to improve its performance.
Steganography Algorithm to Hide Secret Message inside an Image
Ibrahim, Rosziati
2011-01-01
In this paper, the authors propose a new algorithm to hide data inside image using steganography technique. The proposed algorithm uses binary codes and pixels inside an image. The zipped file is used before it is converted to binary codes to maximize the storage of data inside the image. By applying the proposed algorithm, a system called Steganography Imaging System (SIS) is developed. The system is then tested to see the viability of the proposed algorithm. Various sizes of data are stored inside the images and the PSNR (Peak signal-to-noise ratio) is also captured for each of the images tested. Based on the PSNR value of each images, the stego image has a higher PSNR value. Hence this new steganography algorithm is very efficient to hide the data inside the image.
A sparse reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic images in nondestructive testing.
Guarneri, Giovanni Alfredo; Pipa, Daniel Rodrigues; Neves Junior, Flávio; de Arruda, Lúcia Valéria Ramos; Zibetti, Marcelo Victor Wüst
2015-01-01
Ultrasound imaging systems (UIS) are essential tools in nondestructive testing (NDT). In general, the quality of images depends on two factors: system hardware features and image reconstruction algorithms. This paper presents a new image reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic NDT. The algorithm reconstructs images from A-scan signals acquired by an ultrasonic imaging system with a monostatic transducer in pulse-echo configuration. It is based on regularized least squares using a l1 regularization norm. The method is tested to reconstruct an image of a point-like reflector, using both simulated and real data. The resolution of reconstructed image is compared with four traditional ultrasonic imaging reconstruction algorithms: B-scan, SAFT, ?-k SAFT and regularized least squares (RLS). The method demonstrates significant resolution improvement when compared with B-scan-about 91% using real data. The proposed scheme also outperforms traditional algorithms in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:25905700
Enhanced Throughput AES Encryption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kunal Lala
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents our experience in implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. We have used 128 bit block size and 128 bit cipher key for the implementation. The AES also known as Rijndael algorithm is used to ensure security of transmission channels. Xilinx design tool 13.3 and Xilinx project navigator design tool are used for synthesis and simulation. Very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL is used for coding. The fully pipelined design was implemented on Virtex 6 FPGA family and a throughput of 49.3Gbits/s was achieved with an operational frequency of 384.793 MHz.
PARAMETRIC EVALUATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS IMAGE COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Sutha Jebakumari
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Wavelet analysis plays a vital role in the signal processing especially in image compression. In this paper, various compression algorithms like block truncation coding, EZW and SPIHT are studied and ana- lyzed; its algorithm idea and steps are given. The parameters for all these algorithms are analyzed and the best parameter for each of these compression algorithms is found out.
PARAMETRIC EVALUATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS IMAGE COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS
V. Sutha Jebakumari; P. Arockia Jansi Rani
2011-01-01
Wavelet analysis plays a vital role in the signal processing especially in image compression. In this paper, various compression algorithms like block truncation coding, EZW and SPIHT are studied and ana- lyzed; its algorithm idea and steps are given. The parameters for all these algorithms are analyzed and the best parameter for each of these compression algorithms is found out.
Image Processing Algorithms – A Comprehensive Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh Prasanna K
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Digital image processing is an ever expanding and dynamic area with applications reaching out into our everyday life such as medicine, space exploration, surveillance, authentication, automated industry inspection and many more areas. These applications involve different processes like image enhancement and object detection [1]. Implementing such applications on a general purpose computer can be easier, but not very time efficient due to additional constraints on memory and other peripheral devices. Application specific hardware implementation offers much greater speed than a software implementation. With advances in the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated technology hardware implementation has become an attractive alternative. Implementing complex computation tasks on hardware and by exploiting parallelism and pipelining in algorithms yield significant reduction in execution times [2].
Color image authentication scheme via multispectral photon-counting double random phase encoding
Moon, Inkyu
2015-05-01
In this paper, we present an overview of a color image authentication scheme via multispectral photon-counting (MPCI) double random phase encoding (DRPE). The MPCI makes image sparse distributed and DRPE lets image be stationary white noise which make intruder attacks difficult. In this method, the original RGB image is down-sampled into Bayer image and then be encrypted with DRPE. The encrypted image is photon-counted and transmitted on internet channel. For image authentication, the decrypted Bayer image is interpolated into RBC image with demosaicing algorithm. Experimental results show that the decrypted image is not visually recognized under low light level but can be verified with nonlinear correlation algorithm.
Implementation of Parallel Algorithms for Image Enhancement Using Matlab
Shaimaa Ibrahem * ,
2014-01-01
This paper presents an efficient implementation of algorithms which are used for image enhancement process, which filter and restore images of big size easy and faster. Application with sequential algorithm can no longer work to improve the program performance. In the image enhancement technique we need to work with large image data which takes a lot of time. Parallel computing is an efficient way to handle large size images and to reduce the processing time. This paper focuse...
Improving night sky star image processing algorithm for star sensors.
Arbabmir, Mohammad Vali; Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohammad; Salahshour, Sadegh; Somayehee, Farshad
2014-04-01
In this paper, the night sky star image processing algorithm, consisting of image preprocessing, star pattern recognition, and centroiding steps, is improved. It is shown that the proposed noise reduction approach can preserve more necessary information than other frequently used approaches. It is also shown that the proposed thresholding method unlike commonly used techniques can properly perform image binarization, especially in images with uneven illumination. Moreover, the higher performance rate and lower average centroiding estimation error of near 0.045 for 400 simulated images compared to other algorithms show the high capability of the proposed night sky star image processing algorithm. PMID:24695142
AN INTENSITY-BASED MEDICAL IMAGE REGISTRATION USING GENETIC ALGORITHM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanmugapriya.S
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Medical imaging plays a vital role to create images of human body for clinical purposes. Biomedical imaging has taken a leap by entering into the field of image registration. Image registration integrates the large amount of medical information embedded in the images taken at different time intervals and images at different orientations. In this paper, an intensity-based real-coded genetic algorithm is used for registering two MRI images. To demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm developed, the alignment of the image is altered and algorithm is tested for better performance. Also the work involves the comparison of two similarity metrics, and based on the outcome the best metric suited for genetic algorithm is studied.
New 2D CA based Image Encryption Scheme and a novel Non-Parametric Test for Pixel Randomness
J, BalaSuyambu; R, Radha; R, Rama
2015-01-01
In this paper we have proposed a new test for pixel randomness using non-parametric method in statistics. In order to validate this new non-parametric test we have designed an encryption scheme based on 2D cellular automata. The strength of the designed encryption scheme is first assessed by standard methods for security analysis and the pixel randomness is then determined by the newly proposed non-parametric method.
The Evaluation Criterion for Color Image Segmentation Algorithms
Luká?, Peter; Hudec, Róbert; Ben?o, Miroslav; Dubcová, Zuzana; Zachariášová, Martina; Kamencay, Patrik
2012-01-01
Image segmentation is first and very important step in image analysis. The main idea of image segmentation is to simplify and change image into easier and meaningful form to analyze. Image segmentation is process, which locate objects in image. Many segmentation algorithms have been created for different applications. The algorithms are used in traffic applications, army applications, web applications, medical applications, studying and many others. In present time, do not exist restful objective methods to evaluate segmentation algorithms. This paper presents evaluation criterion based on measurement of precision of boundary segmentation. Moreover, the automatic segmentation algorithms in comparison with human segmentation results were tested. Four most used image segmentation algorithms, namely, Efficient graph based, K-means, Mean shift and Belief propagation are compared by designed criterion. The criterion computes three evaluation parameters like precision, recall and F1 and the results are presented in the tables and graphs at the end of the paper.
A Self-synchronizing Stream Encryption Scheme Based on One-Dimensional Coupled Map Lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a self-synchronizing stream encryption scheme based on one-dimensional coupled map lattices which is introduced as a model with the essential features of spatiotemporal chaos, and of great complexity and diffusion capability of the little disturbance in the initial condition. To evaluate the scheme, a series of statistical tests are employed, and the results show good random-look nature of the ciphertext. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to encrypt a grey-scale image to show the key sensitivity.
Evolutionary Image Enhancement Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm
Dhirendra Pal Singh; Ashish Khare
2013-01-01
Image Processing is the art of examining, identifying and judging the significances of the Images. Image enhancement refers to attenuation, or sharpening, of image features such as edgels, boundaries, or contrast to make the processed image more useful for analysis. Image enhancement procedures utilize the computers to provide good and improved images for study by the human interpreters. In this paper we proposed a novel method that uses the Genetic Algorithm with Multi-objective criteria to ...
Key Generation for Fast Inversion of the Paillier Encryption Function
Hirano, Takato; Tanaka, Keisuke
We study fast inversion of the Paillier encryption function. Especially, we focus only on key generation, and do not modify the Paillier encryption function. We propose three key generation algorithms based on the speeding-up techniques for the RSA encryption function. By using our algorithms, the size of the private CRT exponent is half of that of Paillier-CRT. The first algorithm employs the extended Euclidean algorithm. The second algorithm employs factoring algorithms, and can construct the private CRT exponent with low Hamming weight. The third algorithm is a variant of the second one, and has some advantage such as compression of the private CRT exponent and no requirement for factoring algorithms. We also propose the settings of the parameters for these algorithms and analyze the security of the Paillier encryption function by these algorithms against known attacks. Finally, we give experimental results of our algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddhartha Mukherjee
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performance of image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model. There are various popular image filters, which consumes large amount of computing resources for processing. Oil paint image filter is one of the very interesting filters, which is very performance hungry. Current research tries to find improvement in oil paint image filter algorithm by using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially. I have also observed in various blogs and forums, the questions for faster oil paint have been asked repeatedly.
AIDA: An Adaptive Image Deconvolution Algorithm
Hom, Erik; Marchis, F.; Lee, T. K.; Haase, S.; Agard, D. A.; Sedat, J. W.
2007-10-01
We recently described an adaptive image deconvolution algorithm (AIDA) for myopic deconvolution of multi-frame and three-dimensional data acquired through astronomical and microscopic imaging [Hom et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1580 (2007)]. AIDA is a reimplementation and extension of the MISTRAL method developed by Mugnier and co-workers and shown to yield object reconstructions with excellent edge preservation and photometric precision [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1841 (2004)]. Written in Numerical Python with calls to a robust constrained conjugate gradient method, AIDA has significantly improved run times over the original MISTRAL implementation. AIDA includes a scheme to automatically balance maximum-likelihood estimation and object regularization, which significantly decreases the amount of time and effort needed to generate satisfactory reconstructions. Here, we present a gallery of results demonstrating the effectiveness of AIDA in processing planetary science images acquired using adaptive-optics systems. Offered as an open-source alternative to MISTRAL, AIDA is available for download and further development at: http://msg.ucsf.edu/AIDA. This work was supported in part by the W. M. Keck Observatory, the National Institutes of Health, NASA, the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics at UC-Santa Cruz, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Knapsack Based ECC Encryption and Decryption
R. Rajaram Ramasamy; M. Amutha Prabakar; M. Indra Devi; M. Suguna
2009-01-01
Elliptic Curve Cryptography provides a secure means of exchanging keys among communicating hosts using the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange algorithm. Encryption and Decryption of texts and messages have also been attempted. This paper presents the implementation of ECC by first transforming the message into an affine point on the EC, and then applying the knapsack algorithm on ECC encrypted message over the finite field GF(p). In ECC we normally start with an affine point called $P_{m}$(x,y). Thi...
Multi-agent Remote Sensing Image Segmentation Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Chen
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Due to fractal network evolution algorithm (FNEA in the treatment of the high spatial resolution remote sensing image (HSRI using a parallel global control strategies which limited when the objects in each cycle by traversal of and not good use the continuity of homogenous area on the space and lead to problems such as bad image segmentation, therefore puts forward the remote sensing image segmentation algorithm based on multi-agent. The algorithm in the merger guidelines, combining the image spectral and shape information, and by using region merging process of multi-agent parallel control integral, its global merger control strategy can ensure algorithm has the advantages of parallel computing and fully considering the regional homogeneity, and continuity. Finally simulation experiment was performed with FNEA algorithms, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is better than FNEA algorithm in dividing the overall effect, has a good stability