- Home
- ▪
- About
- ▪
- News
- ▪
- Advanced Search
- ▪
- Mobile
- ▪
- Contact Us
- ▪
- Site Map
- ▪
- Help

1

Image Encryption on Mobile Phone Using Super Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to obtain the digital image encryption algorithm with a simple but secure process, fast and efficient computing resources. The algorithms developed in this study were super-encryption algorithm that combines two of cipher called Playfair cipher and the Vigenere cipher. To improve security, a keystream generator was used to randomize the order of the next key in Vigenere cipher. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests were implemented with Matlab included visual test and histogram analysis, information entropy, encryption quality, correlation analysis, and also time analysis. The test results show that cipher image looks visually random.The image histogram of the plain image and cipher image also seen a significant difference between the two of them. Testing was also performed on mobile phones with Symbian and BADA operating system based on Java Micro Edition Programming. Trial results show that the algorithm was require less computational resources; with average time for image encryption is 3.76 seconds, and the average time for image decryption is 0.97 seconds. The new proposed image encryption scheme has satisfactory security which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of image data. Keywords: Image encryption, Vigenere cipher, Playfair cipher, Security test

Catur Iswahyudi

2012-08-01

2

A new chaotic algorithm for image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper presents a new nonlinear chaotic algorithm (NCA) which uses power function and tangent function instead of linear function. Its structural parameters are obtained by experimental analysis. And an image encryption algorithm in a one-time-one-password system is designed. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption algorithm based on NCA shows advantages of large key space and high-level security, while maintaining acceptable efficiency. Compared with some general encryption algorithms such as DES, the encryption algorithm is more secure

3

Parallel image encryption algorithm based on discretized chaotic map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, a variety of chaos-based algorithms were proposed for image encryption. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for parallel image encryption. Based on this framework, a new algorithm is designed using the discretized Kolmogorov flow map. It fulfills all the requirements for a parallel image encryption algorithm. Moreover, it is secure and fast. These properties make it a good choice for image encryption on parallel computing platforms

4

A hash-based image encryption algorithm

There exist several algorithms that deal with text encryption. However, there has been little research carried out to date on encrypting digital images or video files. This paper describes a novel way of encrypting digital images with password protection using 1D SHA-2 algorithm coupled with a compound forward transform. A spatial mask is generated from the frequency domain by taking advantage of the conjugate symmetry of the complex imagery part of the Fourier Transform. This mask is then XORed with the bit stream of the original image. Exclusive OR (XOR), a logical symmetric operation, that yields 0 if both binary pixels are zeros or if both are ones and 1 otherwise. This can be verified simply by modulus (pixel1, pixel2, 2). Finally, confusion is applied based on the displacement of the cipher's pixels in accordance with a reference mask. Both security and performance aspects of the proposed method are analyzed, which prove that the method is efficient and secure from a cryptographic point of view. One of the merits of such an algorithm is to force a continuous tone payload, a steganographic term, to map onto a balanced bits distribution sequence. This bit balance is needed in certain applications, such as steganography and watermarking, since it is likely to have a balanced perceptibility effect on the cover image when embedding.

Cheddad, Abbas; Condell, Joan; Curran, Kevin; McKevitt, Paul

2010-03-01

5

Quantum Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Image Correlation Decomposition

A novel quantum gray-level image encryption and decryption algorithm based on image correlation decomposition is proposed. The correlation among image pixels is established by utilizing the superposition and measurement principle of quantum states. And a whole quantum image is divided into a series of sub-images. These sub-images are stored into a complete binary tree array constructed previously and then randomly performed by one of the operations of quantum random-phase gate, quantum revolving gate and Hadamard transform. The encrypted image can be obtained by superimposing the resulting sub-images with the superposition principle of quantum states. For the encryption algorithm, the keys are the parameters of random phase gate, rotation angle, binary sequence and orthonormal basis states. The security and the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm are analyzed. The proposed encryption algorithm can resist brute force attack due to its very large key space and has lower computational complexity than its classical counterparts.

Hua, Tianxiang; Chen, Jiamin; Pei, Dongju; Zhang, Wenquan; Zhou, Nanrun

2014-08-01

6

A new image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Letter presents a new image encryption scheme, which employs an image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses a hyper-chaotic system to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted y image has a random-like behavior

7

Chaos-based image encryption algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Letter, a new image encryption scheme is presented, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Firstly, the Arnold cat map is used to shuffle the positions of the image pixels in the spatial-domain. Then the discrete output signal of the Chen's chaotic system is preprocessed to be suitable for the grayscale image encryption, and the shuffled image is encrypted by the preprocessed signal pixel by pixel. The experimental results demonstrate that the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior

8

Image encryption based on a new total shuffling algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents image encryption scheme, which employs a new image total shuffling matrix to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then uses the states combination of two chaotic systems to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The experimental results demonstrate that the new image total shuffling algorithm has a low time complexity and the suggested encryption algorithm of image has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior

9

Image encryption a communication perspective

Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches encryption and substitution-based approaches.Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard,

Abd El-Samie, Fathi E; Elashry, Ibrahim F; Shahieen, Mai H; Faragallah, Osama S; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M; Alshebeili, Saleh A

2013-01-01

10

Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Decomposition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed chaos-based image encryption algorithm consists of four stages: decomposition, shuffle, diffusion and combination. Decomposition is that an original image is decomposed to components according to some rule. The purpose of the shuffle is to mask original organization of the pixels of the image, and the diffusion is to change their values. Combination is not necessary in the sender. To improve the efficiency, the parallel architecture is taken to process the shuffle and diffusion. To enhance the security of the algorithm, firstly, a permutation of the labels is designed. Secondly, two Logistic maps are used in diffusion stage to encrypt the components. One map encrypts the odd rows of the component and another map encrypts the even rows. Experiment results and security analysis demonstrate that the encryption algorithm not only is robust and flexible, but also can withstand common attacks such as statistical attacks and differential attacks.

Xiuli Song

2013-07-01

11

An Image Encryption Algorithm based on 3D Lorenz map

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this paper a new approach for image encryption is based on chaotic baker map and chaotic Lorenz map in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external secret key of 128 bit and two chaotic maps are employed. The initial conditions for both maps are derived using the external secret key by providing different weight age to all its bits. The results of experiment show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission.

Mrs. A.Anto Steffi

2013-02-01

12

Comparative Analysis and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithms?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of digital communication and multimedia application, security becomesan important issue of communication and storage of images. Image security has found a great need in manyapplications where the information (in the form of image is to be protected from unauthorized access.Encryption is one of the ways to ensure high security. In recent years, encryption technology has beendeveloped and many image encryption methods have been used. These methods produce randomness in theimage so that the content is not visible. Encryption and decryption consume a considerable amount of time.So there is a need for an efficient algorithm. This paper proposed three different image encryptiontechniques for color image. Simulation results are presented and a comparative analysis of the differentmethods is discussed.

Rajinder Kaur

2013-04-01

13

Breaking a novel colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos

Recently, a colour image encryption algorithm based on chaos was proposed by cascading two position permutation operations and one substitution operation, which are all determined by some pseudo-random number sequences generated by iterating the Logistic map. This paper evaluates the security level of the encryption algorithm and finds that the position permutation-only part and the substitution part can be separately broken with only $\\lceil (\\log_2(3MN))/8 \\rceil$ and 2 chosen plain-images, respectively, where $MN$ is the size of the plain-image. Concise theoretical analyses are provided to support the chosen-plaintext attack, which are verified by experimental results also.

Li, Chengqing; Ou, Rong; Wong, Kwok-Wo

2012-01-01

14

Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-...

Li, X. W.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. J.; Kim, S. T.

2013-01-01

15

SECURE PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME USING SCAN BASED ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today data security is very important and high priority topic. With rapid growth in communication and computer technologies, there is a huge data transaction interment, teleconferencing and military applications. For all these applications we need a security. Encryption is the primary solution to provide security to the data, which is travelling on a communication link between any pair of nodes, but Partial encryption is a technique to save computational power, overhead, speed, time and to provide quick security by only encrypting a selected portion of a bit stream. The focus of this paper is on selecting the important part of the image that can efficiently achieve by conceptually selecting the important part of the image. This paper proposes a new approach for partial image encryption using SCAN algorithm. The main idea behind the present work is to select the part of the image is performed by SCAN based permutation of pixels and substitution rule which together form an iterated product cipher. The issue in traditional cryptosystem in many different areas such as wireless networking, mobile phone services and applications in homeland security is energy consumption for encryption of the large volume visual data. So we are dealing with partial encryption.

Sumithra Devi K A

2013-03-01

16

Cryptanalysis of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chaos-based image encryption algorithm was proposed in [Z.-H. Guan, F. Huang, W. Guan, Phys. Lett. A 346 (2005) 153]. In this Letter, we analyze the security weaknesses of the proposal. By applying chosen-plaintext and known-plaintext attacks, we show that all the secret parameters can be revealed

17

Key Generation Using Genetic Algorithm for Image Encryption?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is essential for protecting information as the importance of security is increasingday by day with the advent of online transaction processing and e commerce. Now a day the security of digitalimages are major area of concern, especially when we deal with digital images where it may be stored orsend through the communication channel. Genetic algorithms are a class of optimization algorithms.Genetic algorithms can be used to solve different problems through modeling a simplified version of geneticprocesses. This paper proposed a method based on Genetic Algorithm which is used to generate key by thehelp of random number generator to make the key complex. Key generation will go through a number ofprocess and main criteria for key selection will be the fitness value of the population. AES which is asymmetric key encryption algorithm is used to encrypt the image.

Aarti Soni

2013-06-01

18

An improved piecewise linear chaotic map based image encryption algorithm.

An image encryption algorithm based on improved piecewise linear chaotic map (MPWLCM) model was proposed. The algorithm uses the MPWLCM to permute and diffuse plain image simultaneously. Due to the sensitivity to initial key values, system parameters, and ergodicity in chaotic system, two pseudorandom sequences are designed and used in the processes of permutation and diffusion. The order of processing pixels is not in accordance with the index of pixels, but it is from beginning or end alternately. The cipher feedback was introduced in diffusion process. Test results and security analysis show that not only the scheme can achieve good encryption results but also its key space is large enough to resist against brute attack. PMID:24592159

Hu, Yuping; Zhu, Congxu; Wang, Zhijian

2014-01-01

19

Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum-length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process [...] , the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

X. W., Li; D. H., Kim; S. J., Cho; S. T., Kim.

2013-08-01

20

Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

X. W. Li

2013-08-01

21

An improved image encryption algorithm based on chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, two chaotic image encryption schemes have been proposed, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined. This paper provides the chosen plaintext attack to recover the corresponding plaintext of a given ciphertext. Furthermore, it points out that the two schemes are not sufficiently sensitive to small changes of the plaintext. Based on the given analysis, it proposes an improved algorithm which includes two rounds of substitution and one round of permutation to strengthen the overall performance. (general)

22

GENERAL: An improved image encryption algorithm based on chaotic maps

Recently, two chaotic image encryption schemes have been proposed, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined. This paper provides the chosen plaintext attack to recover the corresponding plaintext of a given ciphertext. Furthermore, it points out that the two schemes are not sufficiently sensitive to small changes of the plaintext. Based on the given analysis, it proposes an improved algorithm which includes two rounds of substitution and one round of permutation to strengthen the overall performance.

Xu, Shu-Jiang; Wang, Ji-Zhi; Yang, Su-Xiang

2008-11-01

23

A New Algorithm of Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Chaotic Mapping

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combination of chaotic theory and cryptography forms an important field of information security. In the past decade, chaos based image encryption is given much attention in the research of information security and a lot of image encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps have been proposed. Due to some inherent features of images like bulk data capacity and high data redundancy, the encryption of images is different from that of texts; therefore it is difficult to handle them by traditional encryption methods. In this communication, a new image encryption algorithm based on three different chaotic maps is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the plain-image is first decomposed into 8x8 size blocks and then the block based shuffling of image is carried out using 2D Cat map. Further, the control parameters of shuffling are randomly generated by employing 2D coupled Logistic map. After that the shuffled image is encrypted using chaotic sequence generated by one-dimensional Logistic map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully encrypt/decrypt the images with same secret keys, and the algorithm has good encryption effect, large key space and high sensitivity to a small change in secret keys. Moreover, the simulation analysis also demonstrates that the encrypted images have good information entropy, very low correlation coefficients and the distribution of gray values of an encrypted image has random-like behavior.

Musheer Ahmad

2010-01-01

24

Chaos-based image encryption using a hybrid genetic algorithm and a DNA sequence

The paper studies a recently developed evolutionary-based image encryption algorithm. A novel image encryption algorithm based on a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) masking, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a logistic map is proposed. This study uses DNA and logistic map functions to create the number of initial DNA masks and applies GA to determine the best mask for encryption. The significant advantage of this approach is improving the quality of DNA masks to obtain the best mask that is compatible with plain images. The experimental results and computer simulations both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates excellent encryption but also resists various typical attacks.

Enayatifar, Rasul; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

2014-05-01

25

A self-adapting image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To ensure the security of a digital image, a new self-adapting encryption algorithm based on the spatiotemporal chaos and ergodic matrix is proposed in this paper. First, the plain-image is divided into different blocks of the same size, and each block is sorted in ascending order to obtain the corresponding standard ergodic matrix. Then each block is encrypted by the spatiotemporal chaotic system and shuffled according to the standard ergodic matrix. Finally, all modules are rearranged to acquire the final encrypted image. In particular, the plain-image information is used in the initial conditions of the spatiotemporal chaos and the ergodic matrices, so different plain-images will be encrypted to obtain different cipher-images. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the performance and security of the proposed encryption scheme can encrypt the image effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)

26

The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.

Shuiping Zhang

2012-02-01

27

Novel image encryption algorithm based on multiple-parameter discrete fractional random transform

A new method of digital image encryption is presented by utilizing a new multiple-parameter discrete fractional random transform. Image encryption and decryption are performed based on the index additivity and multiple parameters of the multiple-parameter fractional random transform. The plaintext and ciphertext are respectively in the spatial domain and in the fractional domain determined by the encryption keys. The proposed algorithm can resist statistic analyses effectively. The computer simulation results show that the proposed encryption algorithm is sensitive to the multiple keys, and that it has considerable robustness, noise immunity and security.

Zhou, Nanrun; Dong, Taiji; Wu, Jianhua

2010-08-01

28

An image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through a series of studies on arithmetic coding and arithmetic encryption, a novel image joint compression-encryption algorithm based on adaptive arithmetic coding is proposed. The contexts produced in the process of image compression are modified by keys in order to achieve image joint compression encryption. Combined with the bit-plane coding technique, the discrete wavelet transform coefficients in different resolutions can be encrypted respectively with different keys, so that the resolution selective encryption is realized to meet different application needs. Zero-tree coding is improved, and adaptive arithmetic coding is introduced. Then, the proposed joint compression-encryption algorithm is simulated. The simulation results show that as long as the parameters are selected appropriately, the compression efficiency of proposed image joint compression-encryption algorithm is basically identical to that of the original image compression algorithm, and the security of the proposed algorithm is better than the joint encryption algorithm based on interval splitting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

29

Analysis and Improvement of Encryption Algorithm Based on Blocked and Chaotic Image Scrambling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on blocked image scrambling encryption, this study presents a new image encryption algorithm by introducing chaos theory. This algorithm firstly makes spatial scrambling based on image blocking in order to interrupt pixel position, then furthering this interruption through Arnold Mapping in the chaos and transforms pixel RGB color space through optimized Arnold Mapping. After this process, we get the final encrypted image through a series of iteration. This algorithm has a lot of advantages such as a large key space, high effectiveness and resisting common attack successfully, but it needs improvements on some aspects, such as the key sensitivity.

Yunpeng Zhang

2012-09-01

30

A new image encryption algorithm based on the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new image encryption algorithm on the basis of the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system. While in the process of generating a key stream, the system parameters and the derivative order are embedded in the proposed algorithm to enhance the security. Such an algorithm is detailed in terms of security analyses, including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme has the advantages of large key space and high security for practical image encryption. (general)

31

A Digital Image Encryption Algorithm Based A Composition of Two Chaotic Logistic Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested several advantages over the traditional encryption algorithms such as high security, speed, reasonable computational overheads and computational power. This paper introduces an efficient chaos-based stream cipher, composing two chaotic logistic maps and a large enough external secret key for image encryption. The external secret key is used to derive the initial conditions for the chaotic maps, and is employed with the two chaotic maps to confuse the relationship between the cipher image and the plain image. In the encryption phase, the pixels are encrypted using an iterative cipher module based feedback and data-dependent inputs mechanism for mixing the current encryption parameters with previously encrypted information. To make the cipher more robust against any attack, the secret key is modified after encryption of each pixel of the plain image. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

Ismail Amr Ismail

2010-07-01

32

Lensless multiple-image optical encryption based on improved phase retrieval algorithm.

A novel architecture of the optical multiple-image encryption based on the modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) by using cascading phase only functions (POFs) in the Fresnel transform (FrT) domain is presented. This proposed method can greatly increase the capacity of the system by avoiding the crosstalk, completely, between the encrypted target images. Each present stage encrypted target image is encoded as to a complex function by using the MGSA with constraining the encrypted target image of the previous stage. Not only the wavelength and position parameters in the FrT domain can be keys to increase system security, the created POFs are also served mutually as the encryption keys to decrypt target image from present stage into next stage in the cascaded scheme. Compared with a prior method [Appl. Opt.48, 2686-2692 (2009)], the main advantages of this proposed encryption system is that it does not need any transformative lenses and this makes it very efficient and easy to implement optically. Simulation results show that this proposed encryption system can successfully achieve the multiple-image encryption via fewer POFs, which is more advantageous in simpler implementation and efficiency than a prior method where each decryption stage requires two POFs to accomplish this task. PMID:22614416

Huang, Jian-Ji; Hwang, Hone-Ene; Chen, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Mu

2012-05-01

33

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, several encryption algorithms have been proposed to protect digital images from cryptographic attacks. These encryption algorithms typically use a relatively small key space and therefore, provide safe, especially if they are of a dimension. In this paper proposes an encryption algorithm for a new image protection scheme based on the rotation of the faces of a Magic Cube. The original image is divided into six sub-images and these sub-images are divided amongst a number of blocks and attached to the faces of a Magic Cube. The faces are then scrambled using rotation of the Magic Cube. Then the rotated image is fed to the AES algorithm which is applied to the pixels of the image to encrypt the scrambled image. Finally, experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme not only encrypts the picture to achieve perfect hiding, but the algorithm can also withstand exhaustive, statistical and differential attacks.

Ahmed Bashir Abugharsa

2012-07-01

34

Analysis and improvement of a chaos-based image encryption algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The security of digital image attracts much attention recently. In Guan et al. [Guan Z, Huang F, Guan W. Chaos-based image encryption algorithm. Phys Lett A 2005; 346: 153-7.], a chaos-based image encryption algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, the cause of potential flaws in the original algorithm is analyzed in detail, and then the corresponding enhancement measures are proposed. Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome these flaws and maintain all the merits of the original one.

35

Optical multiple-image encryption based on phase encoding algorithm in the Fresnel transform domain

A novel method of the optical multiple-image encryption based on the modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) is presented. This proposed method with an architecture of two adjacent phase only functions (POFs) in the Fresnel transform (FrT) domain that can extremely increase capacity of system for completely avoiding the crosstalk between the decrypted images. Each encrypted target image is separately encoded into a POF by using the MGSA which is with constraining the encrypted target image. Each created POF is then added to a prescribed fixed POF composed of a proposed MGSA-based phase encoding algorithm. Not only the wavelength and multiple-position parameters in the FrT domain as keys to increase system security, the created POFs are also served mutually as the encryption keys to decrypt target image based on cascading two POFs scheme. Compared with prior methods [23,24], the main advantages of this proposed encryption system is that it does not need any transformative lenses and that makes it very efficient and easy to implement optically. Simulation results show that this proposed encryption system can successfully achieve the multiple-image encryption with multiple-position keys, which is more advantageous in security than previous work [24] for its decryption process with only two POFs keys to accomplish this task.

Huang, Jian-Ji; Hwang, Hone-Ene; Chen, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Mu

2012-10-01

36

Texture Analysis of Chaotic Coupled Map Lattices Based Image Encryption Algorithm

As of late, data security is key in different enclosures like web correspondence, media frameworks, therapeutic imaging, telemedicine and military correspondence. In any case, a large portion of them confronted with a few issues, for example, the absence of heartiness and security. In this letter, in the wake of exploring the fundamental purposes of the chaotic trigonometric maps and the coupled map lattices, we have presented the algorithm of chaos-based image encryption based on coupled map lattices. The proposed mechanism diminishes intermittent impact of the ergodic dynamical systems in the chaos-based image encryption. To assess the security of the encoded image of this scheme, the association of two nearby pixels and composition peculiarities were performed. This algorithm tries to minimize the problems arises in image encryption.

Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq; Batool, Syeda Iram

2014-09-01

37

Design of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Compound Two-dimensional Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the application of image in internet, security of image became an important issue. The paper designs an image encryption algorithm. Firstly, it analyzes a symmetric image encryption scheme based on a new chaotic map. Analysis shows it isn’t enough safe. Because there are a lot of week keys and duplicate keys in encryption. The diffusion mechanism is too simple to resist plain-text attack. The paper uses two chaotic maps at the same time to solve the problems. The maps are completely different. It designs a method of key generation. Thus it has large key space and avoids the duplicate key. At the same time parts of the key are used as the parameters of classic logistic map. It solves the problem of weak key. Several simulation results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Feng Huang

2011-10-01

38

Nonlinear multiple-image encryption based on mixture retrieval algorithm in Fresnel domain

We propose a novel nonlinear multiple-image encryption based on mixture retrieval algorithm and phase mask multiplexing in Fresnel domain. The encryption process is realized by applying the Yang-Gu algorithm cascaded with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA), which generate a private key and an intermediate phase to ensure high security. In the proposed method, all images are encoded separately into a phase only function (POF). Obtained POFs are integrated into a final POF based on phase mask multiplexing. As a result, cross-talk noise is removed resulting in a large improvement of the encryption capacity. A spatial light modulator (SLM) based optical setup has been suggested for decryption. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system. Results also indicate the high robustness of the system against occlusion and noise attacks.

Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

2014-11-01

39

Image encryption based on phase encoding by means of a fringe pattern and computational algorithms

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se presenta una tecnica computacional para encriptación y desencriptación de imágenes. Esta técnica esta basada en la reflexión de la luz, superposicion de intensidad y algoritmos computacionales. La imagen a ser encriptada es un mapa de reflectancia obtenida por medio de la luz reflejada por una es [...] cena. Para efectuar el procedimiento de encriptacion, la imagen es codificada en un patrón de franjas generado por computadora. El modelo del patron de franjas es una función coseno, la cual agrega en su argumento la imagen a ser encriptada como una fase. Esto genera un patron de franjas deformado de acuerdo a la imagen. Para completar la encriptación, se sobrepone una máscara aleatoria sobre el patron de franjas. El procedimiento de desencriptación es efectuado substrayendo la máscara aleatoria de la imagen encriptada y aplicando un metodo de recuperación de fase. Para extraer la fase del patrón de franjas, se usa el método de demodulación heterodino. Para describir la precision de los resultados de imágenes desencriptadas y la robustés de la encriptación, se calcula la raíz del error cuadratico medio. Todos los pasos de la encriptacion y desencriptación se efectúan en forma computacional. De esta manera, los resultados de encriptación y desencriptacion son mejorados. Esto representa una contribución en el campo de la encriptación y desencriptación. Esta técnica es probada con imagenes simuladas y con imágenes reales, y sus resultados son presentados. Abstract in english A computational technique for image encryption and decryption is presented. The technique is based on light reflection, intensity superposition and computational algorithms. The image to be encrypted is a reflectance map obtained by means of the light reflected by a scene. To perform the encryption [...] procedure, the image is encoded in a computer-generated fringe pattern. The model of the fringe pattern is a cosine function, which adds to its argument the image to be encrypted as a phase. It generates a fringe pattern deformed according to the image. To complete the encryption, a random mask is superimposed on the fringe pattern. The decryption procedure is performed by subtracting the random mask from the encrypted image and applying a phase recovery method. To retrieve the phase from the fringe pattern, the heterodyne demodulation method is used. To describe the accuracy of results of the decrypted images and the robustness of the encryption, a root mean square of error is calculated. All steps of the encryption and decryption are performed in computational form. The results of encryption and decryption are thus improved. It represents a contribution to the field of encryption and decryption. This technique is tested with simulated images and real images, and its results are presented.

J. A., Muñoz Rodriguez; R., Rodríguez-Vera.

40

Single-channel color image encryption using phase retrieve algorithm in fractional Fourier domain

A single-channel color image encryption is proposed based on a phase retrieve algorithm and a two-coupled logistic map. Firstly, a gray scale image is constituted with three channels of the color image, and then permuted by a sequence of chaotic pairs generated by the two-coupled logistic map. Secondly, the permutation image is decomposed into three new components, where each component is encoded into a phase-only function in the fractional Fourier domain with a phase retrieve algorithm that is proposed based on the iterative fractional Fourier transform. Finally, an interim image is formed by the combination of these phase-only functions and encrypted into the final gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using chaotic diffusion, which has camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, chaotic permutation and diffusion makes the resultant image nonlinear and disorder both in spatial domain and frequency domain, and the proposed phase iterative algorithm has faster convergent speed. Additionally, the encryption scheme enlarges the key space of the cryptosystem. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

Sui, Liansheng; Xin, Meiting; Tian, Ailing; Jin, Haiyan

2013-12-01

41

Image encryption algorithm based on the multi-order discrete fractional Mellin transform

A multi-order discrete fractional Mellin transform (MODFrMT) is constructed and directly used to encrypt the private images. The MODFrMT is a generalization of the fractional Mellin transform (FrMT) and is derived by transforming the image with multi-order discrete fractional Fourier transform (MODFrFT) in log-polar coordinates, where the MODFrFT is generalized from the closed-form expression of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) and can be calculated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) to reduce the computation burden. The fractional order vectors of the MODFrMT are sensitive enough to be the keys, and consequently key space of the encryption system is enlarged. The proposed image encryption algorithm has significant ability to resist some common attacks like known-plaintext attack, chosen-plaintext attack, etc. due to the nonlinear property of the MODFrMT. Additionally, Kaplan-Yorke map is employed in coordinate transformation process of the MODFrMT to further enhance the security of the encryption system. The computer simulation results show that the proposed encryption algorithm is feasible, secure and robust to noise attack and occlusion.

Zhou, Nanrun; Wang, Yixian; Wu, Jianhua

2011-12-01

42

We propose a novel nonlinear image-encryption scheme based on a Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) phase-retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel transform domain. The decryption process can be performed using conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) architecture. The encryption is realized by applying G-S phase-retrieval algorithm twice, which generates two asymmetric keys from intermediate phases. The asymmetric keys are generated in such a way that decryption is possible optically with a conventional DRPE method. Due to the asymmetric nature of the keys, the proposed encryption process is nonlinear and offers enhanced security. The cryptanalysis has been carried out, which proves the robustness of proposed scheme against known-plaintext, chosen-plaintext, and special attacks. A simple optical setup for decryption has also been suggested. Results of computer simulation support the idea of the proposed cryptosystem. PMID:24514127

Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K

2014-01-20

43

Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content?s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.

Mr. Balika J. Chelliah

2014-03-01

44

Novel Data Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We always strive to get better algorithms for securing data. A variety of such algorithms are being used in cryptography. Manly block and stream ciphers are available and one of them is International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA, which was regarded arguably as one of the best for encryption purposes. A considerable time has elapsed since its advent and this period has witnessed a wide development in process approaches and applications. The number of transactions and exchanges of data has increased exponentially. Consequently, better and novel attacks on data evolved. Researchers believe that the security of the algorithm needs to be improved keeping a check on the time and space complexity. Within this research work we are looking for a robust algorithm known as NDEA which can be applied for securing modern environment applications.

Rajat Goel

2011-07-01

45

Analysis and improvement of a hash-based image encryption algorithm

The security of digital image attracts much attention recently. A hash-based digital image encryption algorithm has been proposed in Ref. [1]. But both the theoretical analysis and computer simulation show the characteristic of diffusion is too weak to resist Chosen Plaintext Attack and Known Plaintext Attack. Besides, one bit difference of the plain pixel will lead to only one corresponding bit change of the cipher pixel. In our improved algorithm, coupled with self-adaptive algorithm, only one pixel difference of the plain-image will cause changes of almost all the pixels in the cipher-image (NPCR > 98.77%), and the unified average changing intensity is high (UACI > 30.96%). Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome these flaws and maintain all the merits of the original one.

Deng, Shaojiang; Zhan, Yanping; Xiao, Di; Li, Yantao

2011-08-01

46

A novel algorithm for image encryption based on mixture of chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chaos-based encryption appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on the mixture of chaotic systems is reported. The chaotic cryptography technique used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography. In this algorithm, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, along with its security analysis and implementation. The experimental results based on mixture of chaotic maps approves the effectiveness of the proposed method and the implementation of the algorithm. This mixture application of chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet

47

A Novel Text to Image Encryption Technique by AES Rijndael Algorithm with Color Code Conversion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transmission of secure data through the communication spectrum is major issue in current scenario. To ensure the security of the data, many techniques and algorithms were evolved in which the cryptographic techniques are most powerful. Through cryptographic algorithms, the conversion of plain text into unintelligible form made it more secure and protect data from unauthorized users. The proposed scheme focus on the block cipher substitution method that encrypts the given text into blocks. In this paper, our proposed method extends such that, the user given plain text is divided into blocks that are fed to the AES Rijndael encryption process, converted to unreadable format. Each character of the block is then shifted into ASCII value which is, in turn formulated into equivalent color code. Thus, the final encrypted text is in image format which make available for more enrichment to the data. The AES algorithm is chosen for its quick and legible conversion of data. Our proposed method is very flexible technology for 256 ASCII values that is converted into 256 color code.

Shanthi

2014-07-01

48

A Summarization on Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the fast development of the computer technology and information processing technology, the problem of information security is becoming more and more important. Information hiding is usually used to protect the important information from disclosing when it is transmitting over an insecure channel. Digital image encryption is one of the most important methods of image information hiding and camouflage. The image encryption techniques mainly include compression methodology, modern cryptography mechanism, chaos techniques, DNA techniques, and so on. In this paper, we summarize the main encryption algorithms and classify them based on the means. In particular, chaos-based and DNA cryptography-based image encryption algorithms are illustrated and analyzed in detail. Finally, the future direction in this field is discussed.

Zhou Shihua

2010-01-01

49

The existing ways to encrypt images based on compressive sensing usually treat the whole measurement matrix as the key, which renders the key too large to distribute and memorize or store. To solve this problem, a new image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm is proposed to realize compression and encryption simultaneously, where the key is easily distributed, stored or memorized. The input image is divided into 4 blocks to compress and encrypt, then the pixels of the two adjacent blocks are exchanged randomly by random matrices. The measurement matrices in compressive sensing are constructed by utilizing the circulant matrices and controlling the original row vectors of the circulant matrices with logistic map. And the random matrices used in random pixel exchanging are bound with the measurement matrices. Simulation results verify the effectiveness, security of the proposed algorithm and the acceptable compression performance.

Zhou, Nanrun; Zhang, Aidi; Zheng, Fen; Gong, Lihua

2014-10-01

50

An efficient self-adaptive model for chaotic image encryption algorithm

In this paper, an efficient self-adaptive model for chaotic image encryption algorithm is proposed. With the help of the classical structure of permutation-diffusion and double simple two-dimensional chaotic systems, an efficient and fast encryption algorithm is designed. However, different from most of the existing methods which are found insecure upon chosen-plaintext or known-plaintext attack in the process of permutation or diffusion, the keystream generated in both operations of our method is dependent on the plain-image. Therefore, different plain-images will have different keystreams in both processes even just only a bit is changed in the plain-image. This design can solve the problem of fixed chaotic sequence produced by the same initial conditions but for different images. Moreover, the operation speed is high because complex mathematical methods, such as Runge-Kutta method, of solving the high-dimensional partial differential equations are avoided. Numerical experiments show that the proposed self-adaptive method can well resist against chosen-plaintext and known-plaintext attacks, and has high security and efficiency.

Huang, Xiaoling; Ye, Guodong

2014-12-01

51

Cryptanalysis of an image encryption scheme based on a new total shuffling algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chaotic systems have been broadly exploited through the last two decades to build encryption methods. Recently, two new image encryption schemes have been proposed, where the encryption process involves a permutation operation and an XOR-like transformation of the shuffled pixels, which are controlled by three chaotic systems. This paper discusses some defects of the schemes and how to break them with a chosen-plaintext attack.

52

Image Encryption Based on Improved Chaotic Sequences

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is an active and challenging research area. This article proposes a transposing and scrambling image encryption algorithm based on improved hyper-chaotic sequence to provide enhanced security for encrypted image transmission. The algorithm processes the hyper-chaotic sequence according to the pixel information, which makes the keys be sensitive to original image. Then we apply scrambling and transposing operation to the pixels in image, according to separate scrambling keys and grayscale transposing keys. The result of simulation shows that, the encryption algorithm proposed by this article is effective in image encryption and decryption, which could enhance the security of image encryption and reduce the risk of attack

Ming-yang YU

2013-12-01

53

Cryptanalysis on an image block encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An image block encryption scheme based on spatiotemporal chaos has been proposed recently. In this paper, we analyse the security weakness of the proposal. The main problem of the original scheme is that the generated keystream remains unchanged for encrypting every image. Based on the flaws, we demonstrate a chosen plaintext attack for revealing the equivalent keys with only 6 pairs of plaintext/ciphertext used. Finally, experimental results show the validity of our attack. (general)

54

Encryption and Decryption of Digital Image Using Color Signal

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at improving the level of security and secrecy provided by the digital color signal-based image encryption. The image encryption and decryption algorithm is designed and implemented to provide confidentiality and security in transmission of the image based data as well as in storage. This new proposed encryption algorithm can ensure the lossless of transmissions of images. The proposed encryption algorithm in this study has been tested on some images and showed good results.

Gamil R. S. Qaid

2012-03-01

55

Vector power multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform of image encryption algorithm

In this paper, we propose a multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform with its transform order being a real vector, based on which a high-security image encryption scheme is also given. This novel fractional Fourier transform has removed the restriction on the dimension of transform order and highly enhances the security of image encryption scheme proposed in this paper without increasing the computational complexity and hardware cost. The numerical results verify the efficacy and security of this image encryption method. The vector power multi-parameter fractional Fourier transform is a generalized form of the classical fractional Fourier transform with all the previous fractional Fourier transform as its special cases and has theoretical significance in information processing and information security.

Ran, Qiwen; Zhao, Tieyu; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Jian; Xu, Lei

2014-11-01

56

Chaotic Image Encryption Based On Discrete Wavelet

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a digital image encryption algorithm based on discrete wavelet transform and chaos theory is referred. The value of the discrete wavelet transformation coefficient matrix was encrypted and the scrambled by adjusting chaos sequence. The prop ...

Amirhoushang Arab Avval

57

IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is one of the most methods of information hiding. A novel secure encryption method for image encryption is presented in this study. The proposed algorithm based on using singular value decomposition SVD. In this study we start to scramble the image data according to suggested keys (two sequence scrambling process with two different keys to finally create two different matrices. The diagonal matrix from the SVD will be interchanged with the resulted matrices. Another scrambling and diagonal matrices interchange will apply to increase the complexity. The resulted two matrices combine to one matrix according to predefined procedure. The encrypted image is a meaningfull image. The suggested method tested with many images encryption and gives promised results.

Nidhal K. El Abbadi

2014-01-01

58

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data security has become most important aspect while transmission of data and storage. The transmission and exchange of image also needs a high security. Cryptography is used to maintain security. In this paper, we implemented security for image. We have considered an image, read its pixels and convert it into pixels matrix of order as height and width of the image. Replace that pixels into some fixed numbers, generate the key using random generation technique .Encrypting the image using this key ,performing random transposition on encrypted image, converting it into one dimensional encrypted array and finally applied Huffman coding on that array , due this size of the encrypted image is reduced and image is encrypted again .The decryption is reverse process of encryption. Hence the proposed method provides a high security for an image with minimum memory usage.

Dr. T. Bhaskara Reddy

2013-11-01

59

Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.

60

Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2. In MSA(1 method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. We have also introduced a new algorithm for encrypting the plain text multiple times. Our method is totally dependent on the random text_key which is to be supplied by the user. The maximum length of the text_key can be of 16 characters long and it may contain any character(ASCII code 0 to 255. We have developed an algorithm to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and hence if someone applies the brute force method then he/she has to give trail for 256! times which is quite absurd. Moreover the multiple encryption method makes the system further secured. For hiding secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 8 consecutive bytes of the cover file. We have introduced password for hiding data in the cover file. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any standard cover file such as image, audio, video files. Because the hidden message is encrypted hence it will be almost impossible for the intruder to unhide the actual secret message from the embedded cover file. This method may be the most secured method in digital water marking.

Joyshree Nath

2011-03-01

61

Simple and secure Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image Encryption is a wide area of research. Encryption basically deals with converting data or information from its original form to some other form that hides the information in it. The protection of image data from unauthorized access is important. Encryption is employed to increase the data security. The Encrypted Image is secure from any kind cryptanalysis. In the proposed work, the image to be encrypted is decomposed into 8X8 blocks, these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to frequency domain by the DCT , Then, only selected DCT coefficients i.e the DCT coefficients correlated to the higher frequencies of the image block are encrypted. For encryption the DCT coefficients are xored with pseudorandom bit, Pseudorandom bit is generated by Non-Linear Shift back Register. The bits generated by Non-Linear Shift back Register can not be predicted so cryptanalysis becomes difficult. To enhance the security further the unencrypted DCT coefficients are shuffled, since some information may also be stored in DCT coefficient correlating to lower frequency, While encrypting selected DCT coefficients alone will provide complete perceptual encryption, it would be possible for an attacker to gain information about the image from the other coefficients, especially in images that have a lot of edges.

V.V.Divya

2012-11-01

62

Image encryption using the Sudoku matrix

This paper introduces a new effective and lossless image encryption algorithm using a Sudoku Matrix to scramble and encrypt the image. The new algorithm encrypts an image through a three stage process. In the first stage, a reference Sudoku matrix is generated as the foundation for the encryption and scrambling processes. The image pixels' intensities are then changed by using the reference Sudoku matrix values, and then the pixels' positions are shuffled using the Sudoku matrix as a mapping process. The advantages of this method is useful for efficiently encrypting a variety of digital images, such as binary images, gray images, and RGB images without any quality loss. The security keys of the presented algorithm are the combination of the parameters in a 1D chaotic logistic map, a parameter to control the size of Sudoku Matrix and the number of iteration times desired for scrambling. The possible security key space is extremely large. The principles of the presented scheme could be applied to provide security for a variety of systems including image, audio and video systems.

Wu, Yue; Zhou, Yicong; Noonan, Joseph P.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

2010-04-01

63

Testing Image Encryption by Output Feedback (OFB

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When it is necessary to securely transmit data in open networks, the encryption must be performed. Most of the cryptographic algorithms were mainly developed for text data. Unfortunately, algorithms those are good for textual data might not suitable for image. The OFB mode of encryption implemented to test five images of different resources, by using three combinations (schemes: a combination of an 8-bit input block with an 8-bit feedback block, a combination of an 8-bit input block with a 16-bit, or a combination of a 16-bit input block with a 16-bit feedback block. Results showed that higher degree of encryption achieved when the input block and the feedback block are of the same size. The OFB mode achieved a mid range level of encryption with a mean entropy value of 7.93.

Yas A. Alsultanny

2008-01-01

64

Analyzing the Superlative Symmetric Cryptographic Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptology is a science that deals with codes and passwords. Cryptology is alienated into cryptography and cryptanalysis. The Cryptography produces methods to protect the data, and cryptanalysis hack the protected data . Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas - confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange finally which leads to the security of information .Encryption algorithms play a key role in information security systems. This paper provides critical analysis of six most common encryption algorithms namely: DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, AES (Rijndael, and RC6. A comparative study has been carried out for the above six encryption algorithms in terms of encryption key size ,block size, Number of Rounds ,Encryption/decryption time ,CPU process time, CPU clock cycles (in the form of throughput, Power consumption. And these comparisons are used to conclude the best Symmetric Cryptography Encryption algorithm.

Srinivasarao D

2011-08-01

65

An Image Encryption Approach Using a Shuffling Map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new image encryption approach is proposed. First, a sort transformation based on nonlinear chaotic algorithm is used to shuffle the positions of image pixels. Then the states of hyper-chaos are used to change the grey values of the shuffled image according to the changed chaotic values of the same position between the above nonlinear chaotic sequence and the sorted chaotic sequence. The experimental results demonstrate that the image encryption scheme based on a shuffling map shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. Compared with some encryption algorithms, the suggested encryption scheme is more secure. (general)

66

Digital Image Encryption Scheme Based on Multiple Chaotic Systems

Image encryption is a challenging task due to the significant level of sophistication achieved by forgerers and other cybercriminals. Advanced encryption methods for secure transmission, storage, and retrieval of digital images are increasingly needed for a number of military, medical, homeland security, and other applications. In this paper, we introduce a new digital image encryption algorithm. The new algorithm employs multiple chaotic systems and cryptographic primitive operations within the encryption process, which are efficiently implemented on modern processors, and adopts round keys for encryption using a chaotic map. Experiments conducted show that the proposed algorithm possesses robust security features such as fairly uniform distribution, high sensitivity to both keys and plainimages, almost ideal entropy, and the ability to highly de-correlate adjacent pixels in the cipherimages. Furthermore, it has a large key space, which greatly increases its security for image encryption applications.

Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Li, Li; Zhang, Tiejun; Wang, Ning; Song, Xianhua; Niu, Xiamu

2012-06-01

67

Scalable Image Encryption Based Lossless Image Compression

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present days processing of the image compression is the main protective representation with considerable data process on each image progression. Traditionally more number of techniques were introduced for during efficient progression in image compression on the data set representation process of application development. A content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, a data hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image using a data hiding key to create a sparse space to accommodate some additional data. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data hiding key, receiver can extract the additional data though receiver does not know the image content. If the receiver has the encryption key, can decrypt the received data to obtain an image similar to the original one. If the receiver has both the data hiding key and the encryption key, can extract the additional data and recover the original content.

Mrs. Nimse Madhuri S

2014-10-01

68

Evaluating The Performance of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the needs to protect such applications are increased. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information security systems. On the other side, those algorithms consume a significant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. This paper provides evaluation of six of the most common encryption algorithms namely: AES (Rijndael, DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, and RC6. A comparison has been conducted for those encryption algorithms at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of each algorithm.

Diaa Salama Abd Elminaam

2010-05-01

69

Optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and noninterferometric imaging

Information security has attracted much current attention due to the rapid development of modern technologies, such as computer and internet. We propose a novel method for optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and rotatable-phase-mask noninterferometric imaging. An optical image encryption scheme is developed in the gyrator transform domain, and one phase-only mask (i.e., phase grating) is rotated and updated during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract high-quality plaintexts. Conventional encoding methods (such as digital holography) have been proven vulnerably to the attacks, and the proposed optical encoding scheme can effectively eliminate security deficiency and significantly enhance cryptosystem security. The proposed strategy based on the rotatable phase-only mask can provide a new alternative for data/image encryption in the noninterferometric imaging.

Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

2011-11-01

70

We present a novel method for multiple-image encryption by combining modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) with phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In this proposal, the primitive images are firstly encoded into a single synthetic complex image by phase mutual encoding and MGSA based on GT. Then the complex encoded image is further converted into two computer-generated POMs by carrying out MGSA again in GT domains. The proposed scheme has not any capability limitation that is caused by crosstalk effect between multiplexing images. An optical cascaded GT architecture, in which two POM ciphertexts and decryption phase keys are displayed in the input planes of GTs, respectively, can be employed for decryption. Combined with the POMs as main keys, the transform angles and wavelength of GTs can further increase the security of this system by offering very sensitive additional keys. Moreover, one can adjust the transform angles of GT flexibly without using any axis movement. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang

2014-06-01

71

Image Encryption Using Chaos and Block Cipher

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on combination of pixel shuffling and new modified version of simplified AES. Chaotic baker’s map is used for shuffling and improving S-AES efficiency through S-box design. Chaos is used to expand diffusion and confusion in the image. Due to sensitivity to initial conditions, chaotic baker’s map has a good potential for designing dynamic permutation map and S-box. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests included visual test and histogram analysis, randomness test, information entropy, encryption quality, correlation analysis, differential analysis and sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the new cipher has satisfactory security and is more efficient than AES which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of multimedia data.

Alireza Jolfaei

2010-12-01

72

A NOVEL THRESHOLD BASED IMAGE ENCRYPTION FOR BITMAP IMAGES?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is the science of converting confidential information into unintelligible format. To provide security and authentication to the data, many algorithms and techniques were evolved, in which the cryptographic techniques remains best. For the encryption process, Images were considered as the best source to maintain security. The usage of image is good solution for providing better communication. In this proposed method, a new image encryption method is placed. According to proposed methodology, the given image is encrypted as stream ciphers based on the threshold value computed. Two stages were being defined for proposed methodology, first one is the threshold computation, and second one is encryption. This method remains securable and quick access of data is taken place.

K.Berlin

2014-07-01

73

What we believe to be a new technique, based on a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) and a phase modulation scheme in the Fresnel-transform domain, is proposed to reduce cross talks existing in multiple-image encryption and multiplexing. First, each plain image is encoded and multiplexed into a phase function by using the MGSA and a different wavelength/position parameter. Then all the created phase functions are phase modulated to result in different shift amounts of the reconstruction images before being combined together into a single phase-only function. Simulation results show that the cross talks between multiplexed images have been significantly reduced, compared with prior methods [Opt. Lett.30, 1306 (2005); J. Opt. A8, 391 (2006)], thus presenting high promise in increasing the multiplexing capacity and encrypting grayscale and color images. PMID:20016657

Hwang, Hone-Ene; Chang, Hsuan T; Lie, Wen-Nung

2009-12-15

74

Studying the Effects of Most Common Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless networks play critical roles in present work, home, and public places, so the needs of protecting of suchnetworks are increased. Encryption algorithms play vital roles in information systems security. Those algorithms consume asignificant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. CPU and memory usability areincreasing with a suitable rates, but battery technology is increasing at slower rate. The problem of the slower increasingbattery technology forms “battery gap”. The design of efficient secure protocols for wireless devices from the view of batteryconsumption needs to understand how encryption techniques affect the consumption of battery power with and without datatransmission. This paper studies the effects of six of the most common symmetric encryption algorithms on power consumptionfor wireless devices. at different settings for each algorithm. These setting include different sizes of data blocks, different datatypes (text, images, and audio file, battery power consumption, different key size, different cases of transmission of the data ,effect of varying signal to noise ratio and finally encryption/decryption speed. The experimental results show the superiority oftwo encryption algorithm over other algorithms in terms of the power consumption, processing time, and throughput .Theseresults can aid in new design of security protocol where energy efficiency is the main focus. Some suggestions for design ofsecure communications systems to handle the varying wireless environment have been provided to reduce the energyconsumption of security protocols.

Diaa Salama

2011-01-01

75

Digital image encryption with chaotic map lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a secure approach for encryption and decryption of digital images with chaotic map lattices. In the proposed encryption process, eight different types of operations are used to encrypt the pixels of an image and one of them will be used for particular pixels decided by the outcome of the chaotic map lattices. To make the cipher more robust against any attacks, the secret key is modified after encrypting each block of sixteen pixels of the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed image encryption scheme achieves high security and efficiency. (general)

76

Cryptanalysis of an ergodic chaotic encryption algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present the results for the security and the possible attacks on a new symmetric key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity property of a logistic map. After analysis, we use mathematical induction to prove that the algorithm can be attacked by a chosen plaintext attack successfully and give an example to show how to attack it. According to the cryptanalysis of the original algorithm, we improve the original algorithm, and make a brief cryptanalysis. Compared with the original algorithm, the improved algorithm is able to resist a chosen plaintext attack and retain a considerable number of advantages of the original algorithm such as encryption speed, sensitive dependence on the key, strong anti-attack capability, and so on. (general)

77

A Framework for Encrypting the Huffman Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we describe possibilities of adding encryption to the compression features of Huffman algorithm. The encryption ciphers used are Polyalphabetic substitution cipher (public key and Stream cipher (private key. The former encodes by representing two or more ciphertext in the substitution process. This made it very difficult for snifers to be able to decode with simple statistical analysis. The latter encodes the binary digit (bit of each symbol by operating an XOR (exclusive-or gate. Thus, a well-confused text document is achieved with a fast and low computational power. This new method proved more efficient and effective than ordinary Huffman algorithm.

O. Folorunso

2006-01-01

78

Encryption Algorithm of RSH (Round Sheep Hash

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the characteristics of hash function, the one-way hash encryption algorithm based on high diophantine equation (RSH is proposed. RSH not only can be used for password encryption, but also can be used for Data integrity check and the digital signature of message digest. These algorithms hash the arbitrary length message into 128 bits, then make the multi-iterations by high diophantine equation, finally produce the numeral string of 128 bits. In the conversion process, because we do not know the high indefinite equation iterative power law, so the resulting string of numbers is very reliable and safe.

Chaoqun Liu

2011-01-01

79

Enhanced Tiny Encryption Algorithm with Embedding (ETEA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As computer systems become more pervasive and complex, security is increasingly important. Secure Transmission refers to the transfer of data such as confidential or proprietary information over a secure channel. Many secure transmission methods require a type of encryption. Secure transmissions are put in place to prevent attacks such as ARP spoofing and general data loss. Hence, in order to provide a better security mechanism, in this paper we propose Enhanced Tiny Encryption Algorithm with Embedding (ETEA, a data hiding technique called steganography along with the technique of encryption (Cryptography. The advantage of ETEA is that it incorporates cryptography and steganography. The advantage proposed algorithm is that it hides the messages.

Dr. Deepali Virmani

2013-05-01

80

Image Encryption based on the RGB PIXEL Transposition and Shuffling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Privacy is one of the key issues information Security addresses. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.

Quist Aphetsi Kester

2013-06-01

81

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent times, research on image encryption using chaotic systems has emerged. However, some of the proposed schemes still hinder the system performance and security. In this study, we introduce an efficient image encryption scheme based on pixel bit and combination of polynomial chaotic maps with variable initial parameters. The algorithm takes advantage of the best features of chaotic maps combined with the pixel value bits. The initial parameters and the keystream employed in the encryption process are generated from two chaotic maps. Simulation results and analyses both confirm that the new algorithm possesses high security with less computation for practical image encryption.

Ahmed A. Abd El-Latif

2012-02-01

82

A new encryption and signing algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new method of encryption that orig-inates from the public key cryptography and number theory. Our algorithmwas inspired by the RSA algorithm and Diffie-Hellman key exchange proto-col. It is based on a computationally difficult problem - the discrete logarithmproblem in multiplicative group.

Urszula Romañczuk

2008-09-01

83

Image Encryption Based on Diffusion and Multiple Chaotic Maps

In the recent world, security is a prime important issue, and encryption is one of the best alternative way to ensure security. More over, there are many image encryption schemes have been proposed, each one of them has its own strength and weakness. This paper presents a new algorithm for the image encryption/decryption scheme. This paper is devoted to provide a secured image encryption technique using multiple chaotic based circular mapping. In this paper, first, a pair of sub keys is given by using chaotic logistic maps. Second, the image is encrypted using logistic map sub key and in its transformation leads to diffusion process. Third, sub keys are generated by four different chaotic maps. Based on the initial conditions, each map may produce various random numbers from various orbits of the maps. Among those random numbers, a particular number and from a particular orbit are selected as a key for the encryption algorithm. Based on the key, a binary sequence is generated to control the encryption algorit...

Sathishkumar, G A; Sriraam, Dr N; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3214

2011-01-01

84

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SECURITY BASED ON ENCRYPTED HYBRID COMPRESSION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, we propose an image security scheme using hybrid compression techniques. In this scheme, the data is being provided two-fold security by both encryption stage and hiding stage. The data/message which has to be secured undergoes encryption technique at the initial stage. In this stage, the permutation algorithm is employed which requires a pair of numbers as a key to permute the original message. Following the encryption stage, the deformed message is then embedded onto a JPEG image by considering the low and high quantization tables. The main motivation behind this research work is to provide image security through compression. The final result is an encrypted and compressed JPEG image with a different image quality. The receiver has to perform the reverse process to extract the original data/information. The performance analysis is performed in terms of PSNR for different quantization tables.

D. Ramkumar

2014-01-01

85

Image encryption-decryption system based on gyrator transform and jigsaw transform

In this work an image encryption-decryption system is developed using Gyrator transform (GT) and Jigsaw transform (JT). The encryption system uses two successive GTs and JTs, in order to convert a real image to a real noisy encrypted image. The decryption system is an inverse system with respect to the encryption system. The real image to be encrypted is preprocessed with the purpose of obtaining a real encrypted image, this real encrypted image has the same size as the original image to be encrypted and it is much more convenient for either its storage or transmission. The JT is applied to eliminate the random phase mask used in many encryption systems based on double random phase mask and to increase the security of the encryption-decryption system proposed in this work. Finally, in order to verify the performance of the encryption-decryption system, a digital algorithm was developed. There are four keys used in the encryption-decryption algorithm, which are constituted by the two GTs rotation angles and the two random permutations used in the JTs; all these keys have to be correct for a proper recovery of the original image in the decryption system.

Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, César O.; Mattos, Lorenzo

2013-11-01

86

Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption

This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations in the dynamics of the system. Such defects are illuminated through a new technique of generalized post proceeding with very low hardware cost. The thesis further discusses two encryption algorithms designed and implemented as a block cipher and a stream cipher. The security of both systems is thoroughly analyzed and the performance is compared with other reported systems showing a superior results. Both systems are realized on Xilinx Vetrix-4 FPGA with a hardware and throughput performance surpassing known encryption systems.

Barakat, Mohamed L.

2012-06-01

87

Novel optical image encryption scheme based on fractional Mellin transform

A novel nonlinear image encryption scheme is proposed by introducing the fractional Mellin transform (FrMT) into the field of image security. As a nonlinear transform, FrMT is employed to get rid of the potential insecurity of the optical image encryption system caused by the intrinsic object-image relationship between the plaintext and the ciphertext. Different annular domains of the original image are transformed by FrMTs of different orders, and then the outputs are further encrypted by comprehensively using fractional Fourier transform (FrFT), amplitude encoding and phase encoding. The keys of the encryption algorithm include the orders of the FrMTs, the radii of the FrMT domains, the order of the FrFT and the phases generated in the further encryption process, thus the key space is extremely large. An optoelectronic hybrid structure for the proposed scheme is also introduced. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust with noise immunity, sensitive to the keys, and outperforms the conventional linear encryption methods to counteract some attacks.

Zhou, Nanrun; Wang, Yixian; Gong, Lihua

2011-06-01

88

Base Encryption Dynamic algorithms, Keys, and Symbol Set

All the current modern encryption algorithms utilize fixed symbols for plaintext and cyphertext. What I mean by fixed is that there is a set and limited number of symbols to represent the characters, numbers, and punctuations. In addition, they are usually the same (the plaintext symbols have the same and equivalent counterpart in the cyphertext symbols). Almost all the encryption algorithms rely on a predefined keyspace and length for the encryption/decription keys, and it is usually fixed (number of bits). In addition, the algorithms used by the encryptions are static. There is a predefined number of operatiors, and a predefined order (loops included) of operations. The algorithm stays the same, and the plaintext and cyphertext along with the key are churned through this cypherblock. Base Encryption does the opposite: It utilizes the novel concepts of base conversion, symbol remapping, and dynamic algorithms (dynamic operators and dynamic operations). Base Encryption solves the weakness in todays encryption...

Lin, P H

2000-01-01

89

REVIEW OF IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE BASED ON AES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption of images has become a necessity in today’s world to protect a confidential image from unauthorized access. Various methods have been proposed and developed in spatial, frequency and hybrid domains to encrypt the image securely. Encryption could either be a full encryption or partial encryption based on the security requirements. In this paper we present an overview of various image encryption techniques based on AES.

Rufina Tresa Mendez

2014-10-01

90

VLSI Implementation of Data Encryption Standard Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are two main types of cryptography in use today –symmetrico rsecret key cryptography and a symmetric or public key cryptography. Symmetric key cryptography is the oldest type whereas asymmetric cryptography is only being used publicly since the late 1970’s 1 . Asymmetric cryptography was a major milestone in the search for a perfect encryption scheme. Secret key cryptography goes back to at least Egyptian times and is of concern here. It involves the use of only one key which is used for both encryption and decryption (hence the use of the term symmetric. Figure 2.1 depicts this idea. It is necessary for security purposes that the secret key never be revealed To accomplish encryption, most secret key algorithms use two main techniques known assubstitutionandpermutation. Substitution is simply a mapping of one value to another whereas permutation is a reordering of the bit positions for each of the inputs. These techniques are used a number of times in iterations called rounds. Generally, the more rounds there are, the more secure the algrithm. A non-linearity is also introduced into the encryption so that decryption will be computationally infeasible 2 without the secret key. This is achieved with the use of S-boxes which are basically non-linear substitution tables where either the output is smaller than the input or viceversa.

Naveen Kumar,

2012-11-01

91

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital image and information embedding system have number of important multimedia applications. Recently, attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images is more, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be lossless recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. RDH is a technique used to hide data inside image for high security in such a way that original data is not visible. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be subject to some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper, we propose another method in which we simply encrypt an image without its header by using our own algorithm. And thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error.

Priya Jambhulkar

2014-06-01

92

PDES, Fips Standard Data Encryption Algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of program or function: PDES performs the National Bureau of Standards FIPS Pub. 46 data encryption/decryption algorithm used for the cryptographic protection of computer data. The DES algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher blocks of data consisting of 64 bits under control of a 64-bit key. The key is generated in such a way that each of the 56 bits used directly by the algorithm are random and the remaining 8 error-detecting bits are set to make the parity of each 8-bit byte of the key odd, i. e. there is an odd number of '1' bits in each 8-bit byte. Each member of a group of authorized users of encrypted computer data must have the key that was used to encipher the data in order to use it. Data can be recovered from cipher only by using exactly the same key used to encipher it, but with the schedule of addressing the key bits altered so that the deciphering process is the reverse of the enciphering process. A block of data to be enciphered is subjected to an initial permutation, then to a complex key-dependent computation, and finally to a permutation which is the inverse of the initial permutation. Two PDES routines are included; both perform the same calculation. One, identified as FDES.MAR, is designed to achieve speed in execution, while the other identified as PDES.MAR, presents a clearer view of how the algorithm is executed

93

Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method

94

Double-image encryption based on the affine transform and the gyrator transform

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a kind of double-image-encryption algorithm by using the affine transform in the gyrator transform domain. Two original images are converted into the real part and the imaginary part of a complex function by employing the affine transform. And then the complex function is encoded and transformed into the gyrator domain. The affine transform, the encoding and the gyrator transform are performed twice in this encryption method. The parameters in the affine transform and the gyrator transform are regarded as the key for the encryption algorithm. Some numerical simulations have validated the feasibility of the proposed image encryption scheme

95

Chaotic substitution for highly autocorrelated data in encryption algorithm

This paper addresses the major drawback of substitution-box in highly auto-correlated data and proposes a novel chaotic substitution technique for encryption algorithm to sort the problem. Simulation results reveal that the overall strength of the proposed technique for encryption is much stronger than most of the existing encryption techniques. Furthermore, few statistical security analyses have also been done to show the strength of anticipated algorithm.

Anees, Amir; Siddiqui, Adil Masood; Ahmed, Fawad

2014-09-01

96

Image Encryption: An Information Security Perceptive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information security purported, yet another retrospected technique for secret sharing, highlighted by image encryption. Encryption of images is proven a successful method to communicate confidential information for which countless procedures are unearthed. Still, it continues attracting researchers as usage of images in every means of digital communication has phenomenally increased. Cryptography embraces various encryption methods and offers four chief modes where each one has found its place in many journals. This study takes cryptographic Cipher Block Chaining (CBC mode as the fundamental footing which is manipulated in a unique fashion to achieve the goal. This script is coalescing of both Steganography and Cryptography thus ensuring enhanced security. Tentative results testify the routine and thus making it more upright of previously existing image encryption techniques.

Narasimhan Aarthie

2014-01-01

97

A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM AND RC4

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time is reduced by encrypting only the part of the image and maintains a high level of security by shuffling the rest of the image using the shuffling algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.

Deepu Sleeba Philip

2011-09-01

98

this paper demonstrates analysis of well known block cipher CAST-128 and its modified version using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.

Krishnamurthy, G N

2010-01-01

99

Holographic image encryption using random phase mask

Random phase mask has been widely used for increasing security of holographic image encryption. This works study effect of random phase mask on quality of decrypted images through computer simulations. The results show that the image quality depends of the position of the phase mask with respect to the input image.

Widjaja, Joewono

2010-11-01

100

Image encryption using chaotic coupled map lattices with time-varying delays

In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme using coupled map lattices (CML) with time delay is proposed. By employing discretized tent map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and then using delayed coupled map lattices (DCML) to confuse the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image, image encryption algorithms with permutation-diffusion structure are introduced in detail. In the process of generating keystream, the time-varying delay is also embedded in our proposed scheme to enhance the security. Theoretical analysis and computer experiments confirm that the new algorithm possesses high security for practical image encryption.

Tang, Yang; Wang, Zidong; Fang, Jian-an

2010-09-01

101

Comparative Study of Speech Encryption Algorithms Using Mobile Applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Speech communication is most popular now days. Everyone wants secure communication that’s way use encrypts and decrypt data scheme. It is basically used for military and business purpose. People want high security level during their communication..The numbers of algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption. However in this paper the work is done on three different kinds of algorithms i.e. NTRU, RSA and RINJDAEL these three popular algorithms are used for speech encryption and decryption approach. Basically NTRU and RSA algorithms are asymmetric in nature and RINJDAEL algorithm is symmetric in nature. In speech encryption, first the speech is converted into text then further the text is converted into cipher text. The cipher text is sent to be particular receiver in which transmitter want to communicate. At the receiver end, receiver receives the original data through decryption process. At the end the performance is analyzed of these three approaches respectively. The parameters calculated are Encryption, Decryption and Delay time, complexity, and packet lost, Security level. In this three approaches, Encryption, decryption and delay time, are varying according to the number of bits per seconds. On the Other hand, complexity and packet lost are approximately same. There is no packet lost during transmitting and receiving the data. After the analysis of these three algorithms, The NTRU algorithm is faster in encryption and decryption time than others algorithms. The security level are very high than other algorithms. The android platform are used for these three algorithm to find the results in which algorithm took less time for encrypt or decrypt the data and help to evaluate the performance in speech encryption algorithms.

Jaspreet kaur#1 , Er. Kanwal preet Singh

2013-07-01

102

An Improved Rijndael Encryption Algorithm Based on NiosII

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through the data storage of Rijndael encryption algorithm and the analysis of the characteristics of column mixing and wheel transformation, the author put forward some suggestions for the optimization of Rijndael. Meanwhile, the author design and realize the optimized Rijndael encryption through the SOPC (System on Program Chip. Based on the SOPC of Altera FPGA (Field Programmable Gata Array, the algorithm design is put forward and the center is the embedded soft core NiosII. It is also realized the encryption and decryption verification by using the ModelSim software. Compared with the traditional design, Rijndael encryption algorithm undergoes a great breakthrough. The author also evaluated the Rijndael encryption algorithm performance and logic resources occupation.

Wang Liejun

2013-01-01

103

Image encryption scheme by using iterative random phase encoding in gyrator transform domains

An image encryption is discussed based on the random phase encoding method in gyrator domains. An iterative structure of image encryption is designed for introducing more random phases to encrypt image. These random phase functions are generated by a two-dimensional chaotic mapping with the help of computer. The random phases are utilized for increasing the security of this encryption algorithm. In the chaotic mapping relation, the initial value and expression can serve as the key of algorithm. The mapping relation is considered secretly for storage and transmission in practical application in comparison to traditional algorithms. The angle parameter of gyrator transform is an additional key. Some numerical simulations have been given to validate the performance of the encryption scheme.

Liu, Zhengjun; Xu, Lie; Lin, Chuang; Dai, Jingmin; Liu, Shutian

2011-04-01

104

Autosophy data/image compression and encryption

Multimedia data may be transmitted or stored either according to the classical Shannon information theory or according to the newer Autosophy information theory. Autosophy algorithms combine very high "lossless" data and image compression with virtually unbreakable "codebook" encryption. Shannon's theory treats all data items as "quantities", which are converted into binary digits (bit), for transmission in meaningless bit streams. Only "lossy" data compression is possible. A new "Autosophy" theory was developed by Klaus Holtz in 1974 to explain the functioning of natural self-assembling structures, such as chemical crystals or living trees. The same processes can also be used for growing self-assembling data structures, which grow like data crystals or data trees in electronic memories. This provides true mathematical learning algorithms, according to a new Autosophy information theory. Information in essence is only that which can be perceived and which is not already known by the receiver. The transmission bit rates are dependent on the data content only. Applications already include the V.42bis compression standard in modems, the gif and tif formats for lossless image compression, and Autosophy Internet television. A new 64bit data format could make all future communications compatible and solve the Internet's Quality of Service (QoS) problems.

Holtz, Klaus E.; Holtz, Eric S.; Kalienky, Diana

2004-10-01

105

Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging

Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods.

Zafari, Mohammad; kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

2014-10-01

106

ROI Based Double Encryption Approach for Secure Transaction of Medical Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is on enabling, supporting process in the health care industry for implementing a secure, robust and privacy complaint system for the safe distribution and use of medical image. In this paper, a new method that combines image encryption and watermarking technique for safe transaction of medical image is proposed. This method is based on selecting the ROI in the image as the watermark. This portion is encrypted by linear feedback shift register based stream ciphering which is again encrypted by the key generated by Diffie Hellman Algorithm. The encrypted ROI is embedded into the medical image by Spread spectrum technique. The proposed approach proves to be highly secure as two keys are used for encryption and the secret message is spreaded throughout the Medical image.

VRATESH KUMAR KUSHWAHA

2013-01-01

107

Multiple Lookup Table-Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation

Anew AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm implementation was proposed in this paper. It is based on five lookup tables, which are generated from S-box(the substitution table in AES). The obvious advantages are reducing the code-size, improving the implementation efficiency, and helping new learners to understand the AES encryption algorithm and GF(28) multiplication which are necessary to correctly implement AES[1]. This method can be applied on processors with word length 32 or above, FPGA and others. And correspondingly we can implement it by VHDL, Verilog, VB and other languages.

Gong, Jin; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin

108

Image encryption based on synchronization of fractional chaotic systems

This paper deals with a synchronization scheme for two fractional chaotic systems which is applied in image encryption. Based on Pecora and Carroll (PC) synchronization, fractional-order Lorenz-like system forms a master-slave configuration, and the sufficient conditions are derived to realize synchronization between these two systems via the Laplace transformation theory. An image encryption algorithm is introduced where the original image is encoded by a nonlinear function of a fractional chaotic state. Simulation results show that the original image is well masked in the cipher texts and recovered successfully through chaotic signals. Further, the cryptanalysis is conducted in detail through histogram, information entropy, key space and sensitivity to verify the high security.

Xu, Yong; Wang, Hua; Li, Yongge; Pei, Bin

2014-10-01

109

Single Core Hardware Module to Implement Partial Encryption of Compressed Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Real-time secure image and video communication is challenging due to the processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. In order to cope with these concerns, innovative image compression and encryption techniques are required. Approach: In this research, we have introduced partial encryption technique on compressed images and implemented the algorithm on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device that allows for efficient hardware implementation. The compression algorithm decomposes images into several different parts. We have used a secured encryption algorithm to encrypt only the crucial parts, which are considerably smaller than the original image, which result in significant reduction in processing time and computational requirement for encryption and decryption. The breadth-first traversal linear lossless quadtree decomposition method is used for the partial compression and RSA is used for the encryption. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system on four different images. We have validated the advantage of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2928 units of LC with a system frequency of 13.42MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA prototyping of a partial encryption of compressed images using lossless quadtree compression and RSA encryption has been successfully implemented with minimum logic cells. It is found that the compression process is faster than the decompression process in linear quadtree approach. Moreover, the RSA simulations show that the encryption process is faster than the decryption process for all four images tested.

Mamun B.I. Reaz

2011-01-01

110

Optical image encryption based on interference under convergent random illumination

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an optical image encryption system based on the interference principle, two pure phase masks are designed analytically to hide an image. These two masks are illuminated with a plane wavefront to retrieve the original image in the form of an interference pattern at the decryption plane. Replacement of the plane wavefront with convergent random illumination in the proposed scheme leads to an improvement in the security of interference based encryption. The proposed encryption scheme retains the simplicity of an interference based method, as the two pure masks are generated with an analytical method without any iterative algorithm. In addition to the free-space propagation distance and the two pure phase masks, the convergence distance and the randomized lens phase function are two new encryption parameters to enhance the system security. The robustness of this scheme against occlusion of the random phase mask of the randomized lens phase function is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with numerical simulation results

111

A New Encryption Method for Secure Transmission of Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach is designed for transmitting images securely using a technique called Gödelization followed by the public key encryption. The image which is to be transmitted is transformed into a sequence called Gödel Number Sequence (GNS using a new technique called Gödelization. This is compressed using Alphabetic coding AC and encrypted by an encryption method. This encryption string is transmitted and reconstructed at the decoding end by using thereverse process.

B.V.Rama Devi,

2010-12-01

112

AN IMAGE ENCRYPTION METHOD: SD-ADVANCED IMAGE ENCRYPTION STANDARD: SD-AIES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The security of digital information in modern times is one of the most important factors to keep in mind. For this reason, in this paper, the author has proposed a new standard method of image encryption. The proposed method consists of 4 different stages: 1 First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2 In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3 In third stage, generalized modified Vernam Cipher with feedback mechanism is used on the file to create the next level of encryption; 4 Finally in fourth stage, the whole image file is randomized multiple number of times using modified MSA randomization encryption technique and the randomization is dependent on another number, which is generated from the password provided for encryption method. SD-AIES is an upgraded version of SD-AEI Image Encryption Technique. The proposed method, SD-AIES is tested on different image files and the results were far more than satisfactory.

Somdip Dey

2012-01-01

113

Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. It consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. This computation saving is very desirable especially in constrained communications (real-time networking, high-definition delivery, and mobile communications with limited computational power devices. In addition, selective encryption allows preserving some codec functionalities such as scalability. This tutorial is intended to give an overview on selective encryption algorithms. The theoretical background of selective encryption, potential applications, challenges, and perspectives is presented.

2009-03-01

114

Overview on Selective Encryption of Image and Video: Challenges and Perspectives

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES, AES, IDEA, etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data (high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of fully layered systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. It consists of encrypting only a subset of the data. The aim of selective encryption is to reduce the amount of data to encrypt while preserving a sufficient level of security. This computation saving is very desirable especially in constrained communications (real-time networking, high-definition delivery, and mobile communications with limited computational power devices. In addition, selective encryption allows preserving some codec functionalities such as scalability. This tutorial is intended to give an overview on selective encryption algorithms. The theoretical background of selective encryption, potential applications, challenges, and perspectives is presented.

Massoudi A

2008-01-01

115

Polynomial Based Secret Sharing Scheme for Image Encryption Based on Mathematical Theorem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With a ever increasing growth of multimedia applications, security is an important issue in communication and storage of images, and encryption is one of the way to ensure security. Image encryption has applications in internet communication, multimedia systems, medical imaging, telemedicine and military communications. This paper proposes image encryption using secret sharing scheme. According to this process there are two levels of encryption. The first level, generates the random polynomial of degree (t-1 , where t is a threshold value. The constant term is taken as the secret. In the second level construct the transformation matrix using secret and primitive root theorem. This matrix is used for encryption purpose. Experimental results and security analysis shows that the proposed algorithm offers good resistance against brute force attack and statistical crypt analysis.

A. Kalai Selvi

2011-02-01

116

Digital Video Encryption Algorithms Based on Correlation-Preserving Permutations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel encryption model for digital videos is presented. The model relies on the encryption-compression duality of certain types of permutations acting on video frames. In essence, the proposed encryption process preserves the spatial correlation and, as such, can be applied prior to the compression stage of a spatial-only video encoder. Several algorithmic modes of the proposed model targeted for different application requirements are presented and analyzed in terms of security and performance. Experimental results are generated for a number of standard benchmark sequences showing that the proposed method, in addition to providing confidentiality, preserves or improves the compression ratio.

Magliveras Spyros

2007-01-01

117

USING DYNAMIC DUAL KEYS ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM AS PARTIAL ENCRYPTION FOR A REAL-TIME DIGITAL VIDEO

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in digital video transmission have increased in the past few years. Security and privacy issues of the transmitted data have become an important concern in multimedia technology. Digital video stream is quite different from traditional textual data because interframe dependencies exist in digital video. Special digital video encryption algorithms are required because of their special characteristics, such as coding structure, large amount of data and real-time constraints. This paper presents a real-time partial encryption to digital video technique depends on Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields which is fast enough to meet the real-time requirements with high level of security. In this technique the I-frame (Intra-frame of the digital video scene is extracted and decomposed the color picture into its three color channels: luma channel (Y and two chrominance channels Cb and Cr, with note that the frames of digital video is in YCbCr color system, the Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields is applied to the Y channel. The encryption technique achieves best timing results, and it provides high level of security by its great resistant against brute force attacks.

Basima Z.Yacob

2012-01-01

118

An Image Encryption Scheme Using 2D Generalized Sawtooth Maps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a new image encryption scheme based on 2D generalized sawtooth map is proposed. Utilizing the chaoticnature of 2D generalized sawtooth maps, image pixel positions are scrambled and image pixels gray values are changedto encrypt the plain-images. Experimental results have been carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that theproposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-force attack and possesses good statisticalproperties to frustrate statistical analysis attacks.

Ruisong Ye

2014-02-01

119

A cryptographic Image Encryption technique based on the RGB PIXEL shuffling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Confidentiality is one of the ultimate goals in information security. Through encryption one can prevent a third party from understanding raw data during signal transmission. The encryption methods for enhancing the security of digital contents has gained high significance in the current era of breach of security and misuse of the confidential information intercepted and misused by the unauthorized parties. Rigorous use of advanced mathematical algorithms has played a major role in the success of modern day cryptography. This paper sets out to contribute to the general body of knowledge in the area of cryptography application and by developing a new cipher algorithm for image encryption of m*n size by shuffling the RGB pixel values. The algorithm ultimately makes it possible for encryption and decryption of the images based on the RGB pixel. The algorithm was implemented using MATLAB.

Quist-Aphetsi Kester, MIEEE

2013-02-01

120

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption algorithms play a vital role in information security systems. The study discovers the progress of Encryption algorithms in terms of their diversity of applications. Some of the Encryption algorithms have been developed to make transmission and storage of data more secured and confidential. Different levels of securities are offered by different algorithms depending on how difficult is to break them. If it is difficult to recover the plain text in spite of having substantial amount of cipher text then an algorithm is unconditionally secured. This study provides evaluation of eight of the most common encryption algorithms namely: DES, 3DES, AES (Rijndael, Blowfish, RSA, RC2, RC4, and RC6. From our analysis we came to conclusion that the best algorithm is the one which fulfills our need of security and speed. We come with new design of encryption algorithm based on AES or RSA or RC4, various scripts on NS2 or MATLAB or SCILAB, simulation environment of encrypted wireless network based on NS2 or MATLAB or SCILAB. We will implement newly proposed encryption algorithm on simulated environment and also test performance of proposed algorithm on wireless simulated network. We come with design and implement technique to store encrypted data on secondary storage device.

Dr. Atul M. Gonsai

2014-05-01

121

Optimized OFDM Transmission of Encrypted Image Over Fading Channel

This paper compares the quality of diffusion-based and permutation-based encrypted image transmission using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) over wireless fading channel. Sensitivity to carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) is one of the limitations in OFDM transmission that was compensated here. Different OFDM diffusions are investigated to study encrypted image transmission optimization. Peak signal-to-noise ratio between the original image and the decrypted image is used to evaluate the received image quality. Chaotic encrypted image modulated with CFOs compensated FFT-OFDM was found to give outstanding performance against other encryption and modulation techniques.

Eldin, Salwa M. Serag

2014-11-01

122

Cryptanalysis of the Two-Dimensional Circulation Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze the security of the two-dimensional circulation encryption algorithm (TDCEA, recently published by Chen et al. in this journal. We show that there are several flaws in the algorithm and describe some attacks. We also address performance issues in current cryptographic designs.

De Cannière Christophe

2005-01-01

123

Design of FPGA Based Encryption Algorithm using KECCAK Hashing Functions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Security makes the people to stay in the sense of vital modern technological improvements, especially focused in Cryptography process. We have to consider the high level of security, the speed of encryption and the level of hardware which decides the cost in trade basis. The work in this paper concentrates on KECCAK SHA-3 algorithm and the sponge construction encryption process with iterative permutation. Thus it leads to reduced amount of encryption time and more importantly provides the ultimate security level among the previous techniques followed so far. The algorithm uses the hashing function which is used for secured message authentication of data, digital signatures and password protection. The main advantage of this algorithm is it exhibits high level of parallelism. The hardware implementation process on FPGA is very fast and effective

Deepthi Barbara Nickolas#1, Mr. A. Sivasankar

2013-06-01

124

Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain

This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...

Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105

2011-01-01

125

Image Encryption Using Chaotic Map and Block Chaining

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a new Chaotic Map with Block Chaining (CMBC cryptosystem for image encryption is proposed. It is a simple block cipher based on logistic chaotic maps and cipher block chaining (CBC. The new system utilizes simplicity of implementation, high quality, and enhanced security by the combined properties of chaos and CBC cipher. Implementation of the proposed technique has been realized for experimental purposes, and tests have been carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating its high security. Results confirm that the scheme is unbreakable with reference to many of the well-known attacks. Comparative study with other algorithms indicates the superiority of CMBC security with slight increase in encryption time.

Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

2012-07-01

126

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography has been widely accepted as a traditional platform of data protection for decades.The most significant and efficient cryptosystems these days are the Symmetric key algorithms for cryptography. Hence, they have a very wide range of applications in many realms. Ad-hoc networks are the most commonly used type in the present scenario because of their non-fixed infrastructure. Providing security to such kinds of network is the main objective of the work here. In this project, we present a systematic approach for selective encryption of data. In the present day scenario where all the wireless ad-hoc network nodes run or work on battery, Full encryption of all the data may lead to a high overhead and also waste the computational power or the resources. Hence, two selective encryption algorithms are introduced and a secure method for communication between the user and the entrusted is also being carried out. Eventually, we carry out an extensive set of experiments using Core Java and Java cryptosystems. A very attractive GUI is being designed to make it more user friendly. This can be used whenever people work remotely and connect to their host server through VPN. We first create an ad-hoc network and communicate between the nodes of the network using basic server client methodology. Two selective encryption algorithms were developed and more than 50 percent encryption of the data was maintained in both the algorithms. However, the security aspect can be changed depending on the kind of the data which is being communicated.

Pavithra. C#1 , Vinod. B. Durdi

2013-05-01

127

Selective Encryption of Human Skin in JPEG Images

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we propose a new approach for selective encryption in the Huffman coding of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The objective is to partially encrypt the human face in an image or video sequence. This approach is based on the AES stream ciphering using Variable Length Coding (VLC) of the Huffman's vector. The proposed scheme allows the decryption of a specific region of the image and results in a significant reduction in...

Rodrigues, Jose?; Puech, William; Bors, Adrian

2006-01-01

128

a Selective Image Encryption Based on Couple Spatial Chaotic Systems

In this paper, we present a selective image encryption system based on couple spatial chaotic systems, the cascade one-dimensional Logistic map and high-dimensional spatial chaotic system has been used to generate the adequate encryption sequence, then the selective gray-level image encryption is implemented with the sequence, which can greatly improve the encryption performance and efficiency. In addition, we also adopt an index array to control the generation of the secret key, a completely different cipher text will be obtained if a pixel's value is altered in the original image, which can resist the differential attack effectively.

Wang, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Tian; Xu, Da-Hai; Chen, Feng

2014-12-01

129

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, progressive interest is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it preserves the original cover can be recovered without any loss after embedded data is extracted to protect the con?dentiality of image content’s.Earlier method used“vacate room after Encryption” in which data can be embedded by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images. This might cause errors while data extraction or image restoration. However this provides less PSNR value when embedding messages in Images. To address this problem, a proposed method uses Extended Dynamic Histogram Shifting Modulation (EDHS can be done on the image content by the content owner. This method shifts the pixels of histogram based on prediction errors and its neighborhood pixels. The data can be embedded based on the space provided by the proposed histogram shifting method. After reserving space for data hiding by self reversible embedding using EDHS, Image can be encrypted by using proposed novel encryption method. Finally the receiver can restore the image and extract data by using encryption key and data hiding key. Experimental result provides greater PSNR value when compare with the existing work.

K.Latha

2014-01-01

130

ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES FOR SECURITY OF IMAGES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the proliferation in technology and advent of internet the data has been digitized, so more emphasis is required for security while transmission and storage to save from unauthorized users. Protecting data in a safe and secure way which does not hamper the access of an authorized authority is difficult and interesting research problem. Many attempts have been made to solve this problem within the cryptographic community. Visual cryptography provides a very powerful technique by which one secret can be distributed into two or more images known as shares. When the shares on transparencies are superimposed exactly together, original secret can be discovered without computer involvement. Image cryptography disrupts the image so that no useful information is seen. The keys used for disruption is used in reverse manner to decrypt the image. This paper discusses the various encryption techniques for better image security and to protect them from unintentional user.

DR. DHIRENDRA MISHRA

2014-01-01

131

MESSAGE ENCRYPTION USING NTRU ALGORITHM ON ANDROID

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS is getting more popular now-a-days. SMS was first used in December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry Christmas" via the Vodafone GSM network to the phone of Richard Jarvis in the UK. It will play a very important role in the future business areas of mobile commerce (M-Commerce. Presently many business organizations use SMS for their business purposes. SMS’s security has become a major concern for business organizations and customers. There is a need for an end to end SMS Encryption in order to provide a secure medium for communication. Security is main concern for any business company such as banks who will provide these mobile banking services. Till now there is no such scheme that provides complete SMSs security. The transmission of an SMS in GSM network is not secure at all. Therefore it is desirable to secure SMS for business purposes by additional encryption. In this thesis, we have analyzed different cryptosystems for implementing to the existing Secure Extensible and Efficient SMS (SEESMS. We planned to implement NTRU cryptosystem into existing SEESMS frame. The NTRU public key cryptosystem was developed in 1996 at Brown University by three mathematicians J. Hoffstein, J.Pipher and J.H. Silverman. It is not that much popular cryptosystems like RSA, ECC and other traditional. The major advantages of NTRU cryptosystem is much faster generating key, encryption time and decryption time as compared to others. It is easily compatible with mobile devices and other portable devices. We have compared theoretically and analysis of NTRU with RSA and ECC cryptosystems at end of my papers. It is theoretically proposed here. We are expecting our novel scheme may show better result than others. So it will provide improve the current security level and fastest speed with respect to key generation, encryption decryption with small key size. This proposal will suitable to any kind of mobile device for SMS communication with suitable data security.

Amanpreet Kaur

2013-10-01

132

Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original i...

Abuhaiba, Ibrahim S. I.; Hassan, Maaly A. S.

2011-01-01

133

Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurement of image quality is important for many image processing applications. Image quality assessment is closely related to image similarity assessment in which quality is based on the differences (or similarity between a degraded image and the original, unmodified image. There are two ways to measure image quality by subjective or objective assessment. Subjective evaluations are expensive and time-consuming. It is impossible to implement them into automatic real-time systems. Objective evaluations are automatic and mathematical defined algorithm. Subjective measurements can be used to validate the usefulness of objective measurements. Therefore objective methods have attracted more attentions in recent years. Well-known objective evaluation algorithms for measuring image quality include mean squared error (MSE, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, and structural similarity (SSIM. MSE & PSNR are very simple and easy to use. In this paper Image Quality Assessment for Partial Encryption Using Modified Cyclic Bit Manipulation. Proposed Partial Encryption algorithm based on the amount of encryption needed (i.e. percentage of encryption. Various objective evaluation algorithms for measuring image quality like Mean Squared Error (MSE, Peak Signal-To-Noise Ratio (PSNR and Structural Similarity (SSIM etc. will be studied and their results will be compared.

Parameshachai B D,

2013-02-01

134

Reducing Computational Time of Basic Encryption and Authentication Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today most of data are sending via the internet for sharing, so the trust of data files is decreased. For the trust more security and authentication is needed, less security increase the liability ofattacks on data. Digital signature of the data is a solution to this security problem which provides the reliability, authenticity and accuracy. Most basic algorithm for security and authentication is RSA, DSA, algorithms which uses the different key of different sizes. This work presents ECDSA algorithm to encrypt the data, use parameterized hash algorithm to authenticate the data and also compare both RSA and ECDSA methods in respect of time parameters.

Sandeep Kumar,

2011-04-01

135

High Throughput AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation on FPGA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient hardware realization of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm using FPGA. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard on October 2, 2000 by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels.We use AES 128- bit block size and 128-bit cipher key for the implementation on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. Xilinx ISETM12.4 design tool is used for synthesis of the design.The design is coded using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language(VHDL. In our fully pipelined design, the operational frequency can be upto 347.6MHz and the throughput can be upto 44.5Gbits/s. The proposed fully pipelined AES realization achieves high throughput requirements and can be used for cryptology applications such as data security

Gurmail Singh

2011-11-01

136

Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains

In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for optical information hiding (encryption) of two-dimensional images by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains. The image is initially randomly shifted using the jigsaw transform algorithm, and then a pixel scrambling technique based on the Arnold transform (ART) is applied. The scrambled image is then encrypted in a randomly chosen fractional Fourier domain. These processes can then be iteratively repeated. The parameters of the architecture, including the jigsaw permutation indices, Arnold frequencies, and fractional Fourier orders, form a very large key space enhancing the security level of the proposed encryption system. Optical implementations are discussed as numerical implementation algorithms. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the system's flexibility and robustness.

Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.

2013-01-01

137

A one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of chaos

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new one-time one-key encryption algorithm based on the ergodicity of a skew tent chaotic map. We divide the chaotic trajectory into sub-intervals and map them to integers, and use this scheme to encrypt plaintext and obtain ciphertext. In this algorithm, the plaintext information in the key is used, so different plaintexts or different total numbers of plaintext letters will encrypt different ciphertexts. Simulation results show that the performance and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm can encrypt plaintext effectively and resist various typical attacks. (general)

138

A chaotic image encryption scheme owning temp-value feedback

Many round-based chaotic image encryption algorithms employ the permutation-diffusion structure. This structure has been found insecure when the iteration round is equal to one and the secret permutation of some existing schemes can be recovered even a higher round is adopted. In this paper, we present a single round permutation-diffusion chaotic cipher for gray image, in which some temp-value feedback mechanisms are introduced to resist the known attacks. Specifically, we firstly embed the plaintext feedback technique in the permutation process to develop different permutation sequences for different plain-images and then employ plaintext/ciphertext feedback for diffusion to generate equivalent secret key dynamically. Experimental results show that the new scheme owns large key space and can resist the differential attack. It is also efficient.

Zhang, Leo Yu; Hu, Xiaobo; Liu, Yuansheng; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Gan, Jie

2014-10-01

139

Bi-serial DNA Encryption Algorithm(BDEA)

The vast parallelism, exceptional energy efficiency and extraordinary information inherent in DNA molecules are being explored for computing, data storage and cryptography. DNA cryptography is a emerging field of cryptography. In this paper a novel encryption algorithm is devised based on number conversion, DNA digital coding, PCR amplification, which can effectively prevent attack. Data treatment is used to transform the plain text into cipher text which provides excellent security

Prabhu, D

2011-01-01

140

Enabling Similarity Search over Encrypted Images in Cloud

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the growing popularity of cloud computing, more and more users are willing to outsource their private data to the cloud. To ensure the security of data, data owners usually encrypted their private data before outsourcing them to the cloud server. Though data encryption improves the security of data, it increases the difficulty of data operating. This study focuses on the search of encrypted images in the cloud and proposes an efficient similarity retrieval scheme over encrypted images. The proposed scheme enables data owners to outsource their personal images and the content-based image retrieval service to the cloud without revealing the actual content of the image database to the cloud. The proposed scheme in this study supports the global feature based image retrieval methods under the Euclidean distance metric. Besides, rigorous security analysis and extensive experiments show that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient.

Yi Zhu

2014-01-01

141

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed system highlights a novel approach for creating a secure steganographic method using genetic algorithm and visual cryptography for robust encryption in computer forensics. Although there has been an extensive research work in the past, but majority of the research work has no much optimal consideration for robust security towards the encrypted image. The proposed method encodes the secret message in least significant bits of the original image, where the pixels values of the encrypted image are modified by the genetic algorithm to retain their statistic characters, thereby making the detection of secret of message difficult. Use of Genetic algorithm has compelled the system for enhancing the security using optimal selection, mutation, and cross over. The proposed system hides data in a real image and achieve its detection after under went to visual cryptographic. The implementation is done in java platform which shows that the proposed system has better resilienc by considering the Steganalysis and bench marking with optimal visual standards.

Ravindra Gupta

2012-03-01

142

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is used to prevent data from unauthorized access and with the appalling headway in network technology seen in the past decade; it has become the need of time to encrypt the images before sending over open network. Though researchers has proposed contrastive methods to encrypt images but correlation between pixels RGB value play a imperative part to guess for original image. So, here we introduce a new image encryption method which first rearranges the pixels within image on basis of RGB values and then forward intervening image for encryption. Experimentally it has shown that pixel rearrangement is enough from image encryption point of view but to send image over open network; inter-pixel displacement algorithm is applied to dispense more armament to image before transmission.

Amnesh Goel

2012-03-01

143

A Modified Image using DES Algorithm – A Review

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image encryption is distinct from text encryption. Normal text encryption algorithms are not work efficiently onmultimedia objects. To increase security of multimedia data we propose a novel technique. In this paper, we propose anovel scheme to encrypt image object to protect it from external attacks in transmission. This method is based on DataEncryption Algorithm and can be used in data parallel fashion to reduce the time required time to encrypt and decryptimage so that we can attain the purpose of high speed. The method is implemented by block cipher method. Key generationis done using amplitude modulation technique and provides more security against attacks. Pixels of image are rearrangedand algorithm is applied on the basis of channels. Basics are very much similar to DES algorithm with some new schemesrelated to image processing. Significant increment in security is expected to be achieved in the proposed method.

Kushal S. Patel

2013-02-01

144

Color Image Encryption Based on Secret Sharing and Iterations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a novel simple scheme for color image encryption. The RGB color components of the input image are permuted and transformed into the YCbCr color space. Then three simultaneous equations are constructed for secret sharing of the luminance and two chrominance components. After several iterations, the output of this equation set is the encrypted content. These encrypted channels are recomposed to the encrypted image. In image decryption, we merely need to solve the simultaneous equation set based on Largrange’s interpolation with several inverse iterations. The decrypted image is of very high quality for only slight degradation is introduced due to the color space mapping. Security of our scheme is well preserved as long as the permutation key kept secret. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Hao Luo

2010-01-01

145

Plaintext Related Two-level Secret Key Image Encryption Scheme

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some chaos-based image encryption schemes using plain-images independent secret code streams have weak encryption security and are vulnerable to chosen plaintext and chosen cipher-text attacks. This paper proposed a two-level secret key image encryption scheme, where the first-level secret key is the private symmetric secret key, and the second-level secret key is derived from both the first-level secret key and the plain image by iterating piecewise linear map and Logistic map. Even though the first-level key is identical, the different plain images will produce different second-level secret keys and different secret code streams. The results show that the proposed has high encryption speed, and also can effectively resist the existing cryptanalytic attacks.

Bin Chen

2012-10-01

146

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)

147

Application of Cosine Zone Plates to Image Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyse the diffraction result of optical field after Cosine zone plate, and theoretically deduce its transform matrix. Under some conditions, its diffraction distribution is a mixture of fractional Fourier spectra. Then we use Cosine zone plate and its diffraction result to image encryption. Possible optical image encryption and decryption implementations are proposed, and some numerical simulation results are also provided. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

148

Programmable Cellular Automata Based Efficient Parallel AES Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cellular Automata(CA is a discrete computing model which provides simple, flexible and efficient platform for simulating complicated systems and performing complex computation based on the neighborhoods information. CA consists of two components 1 a set of cells and 2 a set of rules . Programmable Cellular Automata(PCA employs some control signals on a Cellular Automata(CA structure. Programmable Cellular Automata were successfully applied for simulation of biological systems, physical systems and recently to design parallel and distributed algorithms for solving task density and synchronization problems. In this paper PCA is applied to develop cryptography algorithms.This paper deals with the cryptography for a parallel AES encryption algorithm based on programmable cellular automata. This proposed algorithm based on symmetric key systems.

Debasis Das

2011-12-01

149

A Digital Watermarking for Lifting Based Compression And Encryption of JPEG 2000 Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the digital world the digital media is currently evolving at such rapidly;copyright protection is become increasingly important.Now a days these media is available with various image formats,due to which they are simple to copy and resell without any loss of quality.A wide range of digital media is often distributed by multiple levels of distributors in a compressed and encrypted format.It is sometimes necessary to watermark the compressed encrypted media items in the compressed encrypted domain itself for tamper detection or ownership declaration or copyright management purposes.The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data inorder to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.This paper deals with the watermarking of compressed and encrypted JPEG 2000 images.The compression is achieved on JPEG 2000 images by lifting based architecture.The encryption algorithm used is stream cipher.The identification of watermark can be done in the decrypted domain.The watermarking technique used is spread spectrum.This can be implemented through matlab.

Ansu Anna Ponnachen1 , Lidiya Xavier

2013-06-01

150

Multiple-image encryption in an interference-based scheme by lateral shift multiplexing

In this paper, a novel multiple-image encryption method is proposed by lateral shift multiplexing of phase-only mask. Multiple images are encrypted into three phase-only masks, one of which is generated in computer and saved as the secret key, and the other two can be obtained with a simple non-iterative algorithm. The optical scheme for decryption is quite simple, and different original images could be successfully retrieved at the output plane while the secret key is laterally shifted continuously with predefined intervals. In addition, the silhouette problem, which persecuted the previous interference-based encryption scheme, is simultaneously eliminated. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results.

Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong

2014-03-01

151

In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.

Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

2014-04-01

152

Chaotic image encryption based on running-key related to plaintext.

In the field of chaotic image encryption, the algorithm based on correlating key with plaintext has become a new developing direction. However, for this kind of algorithm, some shortcomings in resistance to reconstruction attack, efficient utilization of chaotic resource, and reducing dynamical degradation of digital chaos are found. In order to solve these problems and further enhance the security of encryption algorithm, based on disturbance and feedback mechanism, we present a new image encryption scheme. In the running-key generation stage, by successively disturbing chaotic stream with cipher-text, the relation of running-key to plaintext is established, reconstruction attack is avoided, effective use of chaotic resource is guaranteed, and dynamical degradation of digital chaos is minimized. In the image encryption stage, by introducing random-feedback mechanism, the difficulty of breaking this scheme is increased. Comparing with the-state-of-the-art algorithms, our scheme exhibits good properties such as large key space, long key period, and extreme sensitivity to the initial key and plaintext. Therefore, it can resist brute-force, reconstruction attack, and differential attack. PMID:24711727

Guanghui, Cao; Kai, Hu; Yizhi, Zhang; Jun, Zhou; Xing, Zhang

2014-01-01

153

An Assessment on Irrevocable Compression of Encrypted Grayscale Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper may deals with the miscellaneous troubles that may be occurs during the irrevocable compression applied on an encrypted grayscale image. This work is a comparative learn with diverse methods of irrevocable compression such as Compressive sensing technique and Iterative reconstruction technique on encrypted grayscale image. But they practiced a multiplicity of limitations. The major obscurity is to achieve higher compression ratio as well as the better quality of the reconstructed image. The higher compression ratio and the smoother the original image may furnish the better quality of the reconstructed image.

S. Manimurugan,

2012-05-01

154

SECURE NETWORK COMMUNICATION BASED ON TEXT-TO-IMAGE ENCRYPTION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Security becomes an important issue when secure or sensitive information is sent over a network where all computers are connected together. In such a network a computer is recognized by its IP address. Unfortunately, an IP address is attacked by hackers; this is where one host claims to have the IP address of another host and thus sends packets to a certain machine causing it to take some sort of action. In order to overcome this problem cryptography is used. In cryptographic application, the data sent are encrypted first at the source machine using an encryption key then the encrypted data are sent to the destination machine. This way the attacker will not have the encryption key which is required to get the original data and thus the hacker is unable to do anything with the session. In this paper, we propose a novel method for data encryption. Our method is based on private key encryption. We call our method Text-To-Image Encryption (TTIE.

Ahmad Abusukhon

2012-01-01

155

A first approach on an RGB image encryption

Image encryption and decryption are essential for securing images from various types of security attacks. In this paper, we have proposed a first approach for an RGB image encryption and decryption using two stage random matrix affine cipher associated with discrete wavelet transformation. Earlier proposed schemes for encoding and decoding of images discussed only about the keys, but in our proposed approach, keys and the arrangement of RMAC parameters are mandatory. We have also formulated a formula for all the possible range to choose keys for encrypting and decrypting an RGB image. Computer simulation with a standard example and result is given to analyze the capability of the proposed approach. We have given security analysis and comparison between our proposed technique and others to support for robustness of the approach. This approach can be used for transmission of image data efficiently and securely.

Kumar, Manish; Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, R. K.

2014-01-01

156

A NEW DATA HIDING ALGORITHM WITH ENCRYPTED SECRET MESSAGE USING TTJSA SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTO SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work we are proposing a new steganogarphy method to hide any encrypted secret message inside a cover file by substituting in the LSB. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm namely TTJSA developed by Nath et al [10]. For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al [2]. The TTJSA method comprises of 3 distinct methods which are also developed by Nath et al[1,7]. The methods are MSA[Meheboob, Saima and Asoke][1], NJJSAA[Neeraj, Joel, Joyshree, Amlan, Asoke][7] and Generalised Modified Vernam Cipher method developed by Nath et al[10]. The authors have used TTJSA method for encryption purpose as it is already proved that TTJSA is very effective even if we have small pattern such as digital watermark or password etc. Moreover the cryptanalysis of TTJSA shows that the standard attack like differential attack or simple plain text attack will not be able to break the encryption method. So the main advantage of this method is that even if the hacker can extract the embedded data from a host file but they can not get back the original secret message. While embedding encrypted secret message we have used the standard LSB substitution method [2]. The present method may be used for hiding very confidential message or password or any private key from one machine to another machine or from one machine to server etc. For sending question papers normally the teachers are sending it through e-mail as normal plain text. Instead of that now they can encrypt it first using TTJSA method and hide the encrypted message in some popular image and send it to destination with full confidence like in between no one will be able to hack it. In defense or in Banking sector also the present method may be used for sending some crucial and important message. The present method may be used to hide any confidential message such as text, audio, image in any image or audio or video file. Keywords: MSA,TTJSA,NJJSAA,LSB,Vernam,Steganography

Sayak Guha

2012-05-01

157

An Improved Public Key Encryption Algorithm Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved public key encryption algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials. On the base of the semi-group property of Chebyshev polynomials, we import the alternative multiply coefficientto forge the ciphertext tactfully which can make the cipher text-only aattack out of work. The chosen of is decided by the the value of, and the number of can be chosen as required. Besides, The digital signature of the ciphertext not only can prevent the result from faking and tampering attack, but also can make the algorithm have the function of identity authentication. Experimental results and performance analyses show that the improved algorithm has much higher security and practical value.

Xufei Li

2013-02-01

158

Secure And Authenticated Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reversible data hiding a novel technique which is used to embed additional information in the encrypted images, applies in military and medical images, which can be recoverable with original media and the hided data without loss. A number of reversible data hiding techniques were proposed in the recent years, but on analysis, all lacks in providing the security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which work is separable, the receiver can extract the original image or extra embedded data or both according to the keys hold by the receiver. On the other hand the receiver can verify the data hided by the data hider, such that the work proposes both security and authentication. This project proposes a novel reversible data hiding technique which poses both security and authentication for additional data stored in the encrypted images. Also proposed work is separable, the receiver can extract the original image or extra embedded data or both according to the keys hold by the receiver. On the other hand the receiver can verify the data hided by the data hider, such that the work proposes both security and authentication.This work proposes a novel scheme for separable reversible data hiding in encrypted images. In the first phase, a content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, adata-hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image using a data-hiding key to create a sparse space to accommodate some additional data. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data-hiding key, he can extract the additional data though he does not know the image content. If the receiver has the encryption key, he can decrypt the received data to obtain an image similar to the original one, but cannot extract the additional data. If the receiver has both the data-hiding key and the encryption key, he can extract the additional data and recover the original content without any error by exploiting the spatial correlation in natural image when the amount of additional data is not too larg

Dr.V.Khanaa

2013-03-01

159

Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibility of proposed method.

160

Fractional Hartley transform applied to optical image encryption

A new method for image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as addictional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. Computer simulations are also perfomed to confirm the possibilty of proposed method.

Jimenez, C.; Torres, C.; Mattos, L.

2011-01-01

161

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then randomized and then, finally embed that randomized QR Code inside some common image. Quick Response Codes (or QR Codes are a type of two-dimensional matrix barcodes used for encoding information. It has become very popular recently for its high storage capacity. The present method is ASA_QR is a combination of strong encryption algorithm and data hiding in two stages to make the entire process extremely hard to break. Here, the secret message is encrypted first and hide it in a QR CodeTM and then again that QR CodeTM is embed in a cover file (picture file in random manner, using the standard method of steganography. In this way the data, which is secured, is almost impossible to be retrieved without knowing the cryptography key, steganography password and the exact unhide method. For encrypting data The authors used a method developed by Nath et al i.e. TTJSA, which is based on generalized modified Vernam Cipher, MSA and NJJSA method; and from the cryptanalysis it is seen that TTJSA is free from any standard cryptographic attacks, like differential attack, plain-text attack or any brute force attack. After encrypting the data using TTJSA,the authors have used standard steganographic method To hide data inside some host file. The present method may be used for sharing secret key, password, digital signature etc.

Somdip Dey

2012-06-01

162

Simultaneous Color Image Compression and Encryption using Number Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dependence on computing machines and utility of information has been growing tremendously in the last few decades. As a result, evolving effective techniques for storing and transmitting the ever increasing volumes of data has become a high priority issue. Image compression addresses the problem by reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the compression process is the removal of redundant data. Selection of a suitable of a suitable compression scheme for a given application depends on the available memory for processing, the number of mathematical computations and the available bandwidth for transmission. The security of digital images is another important issue that has been receiving considerable attention in the recent past. Different image encryption methods have been proposed in the literature towards ensuring the security of data. The encryption process transforms a 2 – D pixel array into a statistically uncorrelated data set. In this paper, an enhanced number theory based color image compression and encryption scheme is proposed. This technique encompasses the twin – based application of image compression and I age encryption simultaneously adopting a model based paradigm for the general compression – encryption standards.

Navaneethakrishnan Navaneethakrishnan

2012-09-01

163

A Fast Image Encryption Scheme based on Chaotic Standard Map

In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image encryption schemes have been proposed. The typical structure of these schemes has the permutation and the diffusion stages performed alternatively. The confusion and diffusion effect is solely contributed by the permutation and the diffusion stage, respectively. As a result, more overall rounds than necessary are required to achieve a certain level of security. In this paper, we suggest to introduce certain diffusion effect in the confusion stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. The purpose is to reduce the workload of the time-consuming diffusion part so that fewer overall rounds and hence a shorter encryption time is needed. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of the encryption speed is thus achieved.

Wong, K W; Law, W S; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Kwok, Bernie Sin-Hung; Law, Wing-Shing

2006-01-01

164

Simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images.

We report a new spectral multiple image fusion analysis based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and a specific spectral filtering method. In order to decrease the size of the multiplexed file, we suggest a procedure of compression which is based on an adapted spectral quantization. Each frequency is encoded with an optimized number of bits according its importance and its position in the DC domain. This fusion and compression scheme constitutes a first level of encryption. A supplementary level of encryption is realized by making use of biometric information. We consider several implementations of this analysis by experimenting with sequences of gray scale images. To quantify the performance of our method we calculate the MSE (mean squared error) and the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio). Our results consistently improve performances compared to the well-known JPEG image compression standard and provide a viable solution for simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images. PMID:22109426

Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Abdallah, N; Jridi, M

2011-11-21

165

Efficient Digital Encryption Algorithm Based on Matrix Scrambling Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem ofinformation which is transmitted in Internet. We propose a new technique on matrix scrambling which isbased on random function, shifting and reversing techniques of circular queue. We give statisticalanalysis, sequence random analysis, and sensitivity analysis to plaintext and key on the proposed scheme.The experimental results show that the new scheme has a very fast encryption speed and the key space isexpanded and it can resist all kinds of cryptanalytic, statistical attacks, and especially, our new methodcan be also used to solve the problem that is easily exposed to chosen plaintext attack. We give ourdetailed report to this algorithm, and reveal the characteristic of this algorithm by utilizing an example.

M. Kiran Kumar

2010-10-01

166

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption of database is an important topic for research, as secure and efficient encryption algorithms are needed that provide the ability to query over encrypted database and allow optimized encryption and decryption of data. There is always a compromise between the degree of security provided by encryption algorithm and the efficient querying on the database, because the encryption and decryption on database greatly degrade query performance. For this, we propose a new encryption algorithm; Reverse Encryption Algorithm (REA. REA is simple and fast enough for most applications. REA provides maximum security and limits the added time cost for encryption and decryption to as to not degrade the performance of a database system. Privacy protection is one of the fundamental security requirements for database outsourcing. A major threat is information leakage from database access patterns generated by query executions. Recent works propose to protect access patterns by introducing a trusted component with constant storage size. The resulting privacy assurance is as strong as PIR, though with O(1 online computation cost, they still have O(n amortized cost per query due to periodically full database shuffles. In this wok, we design a novel scheme in the same model with provable security, which only shuffles a portion of the database.

Priti V. Bhagat, Rohit Singhal

2013-05-01

167

Chaotic Image Scrambling Algorithm Based on S-DES

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the security requirement improvement of the image on the network, some typical image encryption methods can't meet the demands of encryption, such as Arnold cat map and Hilbert transformation. S-DES system can encrypt the input binary flow of image, but the fixed system structure and few keys will still bring some risks. However, the sensitivity of initial value that Logistic chaotic map can be well applied to the system of S-DES, which makes S-DES have larger random and key quantities. A dual image encryption algorithm based on S-DES and Logistic map is proposed. Through Matlab simulation experiments, the key quantities will attain 1017 and the encryption speed of one image doesn't exceed one second. Compared to traditional methods, it has some merits such as easy to understand, rapid encryption speed, large keys and sensitivity to initial value

168

Improving Security of Parallel Algorithm Using Key Encryption Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent cloud era, computing moves to a new plane of running large scale scientific applications. Many parallel algorithms have been created to support a large dataset. MapReduce is one such parallel data processing framework adopted widely for scientific research, machine learning and high end computing. The most prevalent implementation of MapReduce is the open source project Hadoop. To protect the integrity and confidentiality of data uploaded, MapReduce introduced a Kerberos-based model with tokens for datablocks and processing nodes. The tokens are symmetrically encrypted and distributed across the nodes. Such a technique is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks like data loss, data modification and stealing of keys. In this study, a novel technique is proposed based on public key encryption on top of the Kerberos model to enhance Security. The various attack scenarios on the current Hadoop implementation model has been analyzed and a secure environment has been proposed. The study shows that the proposed framework provides an improved level of security when using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman with 65,537 keysize consumed 23 milli seconds, while using 257 bits keysize which consumed 21 milli seconds.

R. Swarna Raja

2013-01-01

169

This paper presents a new method for three-dimensional (3D) scene acquisition via reconstruction with multispectral information and its Fourier-based encryption using computational integral imaging, by which the field of view, resolution, and information security are increased, respectively. The color imaging sensors covered with a Bayer color filter array captures elemental images (EI) at different spectral bands (400 and 700 nm intervals in the visible spectrum). Subsequently, double random phase encryption (DRPE) in the Fourier domain is employed on Bayer formatted EI to encrypt the captured 3D scene. Proper 3D object reconstruction only can be achieved by applying inverse decryption and a geometric ray backpropagation algorithm on the encrypted EI. Further, the high-resolution multispectral 3D scene can be visualized by using various adaptive interpolation algorithms. To objectively evaluate our proposed method, we carried out computational experiments for 3D object sensing, reconstruction, and digital simulations for DRPE. Experiment results validate the feasibility and robustness of our proposed approach, even under severe degradation. PMID:25322135

Muniraj, Inbarasan; Kim, Byoungho; Lee, Byung-Guen

2014-09-20

170

Optical Image Encryption with Simplified Fractional Hartley Transform

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a new method for image encryption on the basis of simplified fractional Hartley transform (SFRHT). SFRHT is a real transform as Hartley transform (HT) and furthermore, superior to HT in virtue of the advantage that it can also append fractional orders as additional keys for the purpose of improving the system security to some extent. With this method, one can encrypt an image with an intensity-only medium such as a photographic film or a CCD camera by spatially incoherent or coherent illumination. The optical realization is then proposed and computer simulations are also performed to verify the feasibility of this method. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

171

Optical image encryption based on a radial shearing interferometer

We present a novel method for optical image encryption based on a modified radial shearing interferometer (MRSI), which is generally used for wavefront reconstruction. In this method, a plaintext image is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM) and then modulated by a random phase mask (RPM), the result is regarded as the input of the radial shearing interferometer and is divided into two coherent lights, which interfere with each other, leading to an interferogram (ciphertext). The aforementioned encryption process can be achieved digitally or optically while the decryption process can only be analytically accomplished. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the validity of this method.

Lu, Dajiang; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang

2013-10-01

172

Optical image encryption based on a radial shearing interferometer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a novel method for optical image encryption based on a modified radial shearing interferometer (MRSI), which is generally used for wavefront reconstruction. In this method, a plaintext image is first encoded into a phase-only mask (POM) and then modulated by a random phase mask (RPM), the result is regarded as the input of the radial shearing interferometer and is divided into two coherent lights, which interfere with each other, leading to an interferogram (ciphertext). The aforementioned encryption process can be achieved digitally or optically while the decryption process can only be analytically accomplished. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the validity of this method. (paper)

173

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classicalgenetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplified data encryption standard can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. In this paper, a comparison between memetic algorithm and genetic algorithm were made in order to investigate the performance for the cryptanalysis on simplified data encryption standard problems(SDES. The methods were tested and various experimental results show that memetic algorithm performs better than the genetic algorithms for such type of NP-Hard combinatorial problem. This paper represents our first effort toward efficient memetic algorithm for the cryptanalysis of SDES.

Poonam Garg

2009-04-01

174

We present a study about information disclosure in phase-truncation-based cryptosystems. The main information of the original image to be encoded can be obtained by using a decryption key in the worst case. The problem cannot be thoroughly solved by imaginary part truncating, keeping the encryption keys as private keys, or applying different phase keys for different plaintexts during each encryption process as well as the phase modulation in the frequency domain. In order to eliminate the risk of unintended information disclosure, we further propose a nonlinear spatial and spectral encoding technique using a random amplitude mask (RAM). The encryption process involving two security layers can be fully controlled by a RAM. The spatial encoding of the plaintext images and the simultaneous encryption of the plaintext images and the encryption key greatly enhance the security of system, avoiding several attacks that have cracked the phase-truncation-based cryptosystems. Besides, the hybrid encryption system retains the advantage of a trap door one-way function of phase truncation. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed encryption algorithm. PMID:25320917

Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu; Chen, Yixiang

2014-08-10

175

Color image encryption based on gyrator transform and Arnold transform

A color image encryption scheme using gyrator transform and Arnold transform is proposed, which has two security levels. In the first level, the color image is separated into three components: red, green and blue, which are normalized and scrambled using the Arnold transform. The green component is combined with the first random phase mask and transformed to an interim using the gyrator transform. The first random phase mask is generated with the sum of the blue component and a logistic map. Similarly, the red component is combined with the second random phase mask and transformed to three-channel-related data. The second random phase mask is generated with the sum of the phase of the interim and an asymmetrical tent map. In the second level, the three-channel-related data are scrambled again and combined with the third random phase mask generated with the sum of the previous chaotic maps, and then encrypted into a gray scale ciphertext. The encryption result has stationary white noise distribution and camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, the rotation angle of gyrator transform, the iterative numbers of Arnold transform, the parameters of the chaotic map and generated accompanied phase function serve as encryption keys, and hence enhance the security of the system. Simulation results and security analysis are presented to confirm the security, validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Sui, Liansheng; Gao, Bo

2013-06-01

176

We propose a new method for multiple color images encryption by using triplets recombination. In this proposed technique, triplet (R, G and B) components of the secret color image are recorded simultaneously as a real and positive gray image exploiting parallel multi-wavelength recording technology. Arnold transform and phase retrieval algorithm adapted to Fresnel transform domain are used to encode the parallel hybrid result. By using of the proposed technique, each color image is encrypted into a pure phase distribution and combined by superposition. Phase modulation is introduced to eliminate the cross-talk caused by multiple images superposition. The wavelength and transform parameters are provided as keys to enhance the system security. In addition, computer simulations are performed and numerical results are presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

Shi, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Daomu; Huang, Yinbo; Pan, Jianjiang

2013-10-01

177

Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images

We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added with original image to obtain encrypted image. The scan methodology is applied to either original image or carrier image, after the addition of original image and carrier image to obtain highly distorted encrypted image. The resulting image is found to be more distorted in hybrid technique. By applying the reverse process we get the decrypted image.

T, Panduranga H

2010-01-01

178

In this paper, we discuss a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of steganography for security applications such as anti-theft systems and forensic investigation systems. Our proposed method takes advantage of both conventional encryption/decryption algorithms and fragile image watermarking techniques to provide user-friendly interface. It could potentially be of benefit to financial investment companies, the military and security forces in order to keep certain information hidden within other content with a change so subtle that no one who does not know exactly where or how to look will not be able to obtain the data. In our proposed system, a steganographic message known as plaintext is first encrypted by conventional methods to give an extra layer of security, producing a ciphertext. The steganographic message can be either an image or ASCII text, both of which will be discussed. Then, the cover text or image is modified to contain the ciphertext, yielding a encrypted text or a watermarked image. Details of the circuitry for each stage are given with some of the encryption and randomization circuitry not included in full detail for commercial reasons. Test images before and after watermarking will be shown to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed system.

Tickle, Andrew J.; Sun, Jiajing; Gan, Lu; Smith, Jeremy S.

2008-09-01

179

Genetic algorithms are a population-based Meta heuristics. They have been successfully applied to many optimization problems. However, premature convergence is an inherent characteristic of such classical genetic algorithms that makes them incapable of searching numerous solutions of the problem domain. A memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the premature convergence. The cryptanalysis of simplified data encryption standard can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. In this paper, a comparison between memetic algorithm and genetic algorithm were made in order to investigate the performance for the cryptanalysis on simplified data encryption standard problems(SDES). The methods were tested and various experimental results show that memetic algorithm performs better than the genetic algorithms for such type of NP-Hard combinatorial problem. This paper represents our first effort toward efficient memetic algo...

Garg, Poonam

2010-01-01

180

Chaos Encryption Algorithm to Deal with Security Threat to Internet of Things RFID

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internet of Things RFID system is mainly studied problem in current communication area, where the safety of code message become rather important. Chaos encryption algorithm can disperse not only the time area but the scale, which is suitable for computer to deal with and overcome the limitation of block encryption in DES and AES. Using Sequence of the digital to deal with initial value and combining the one dimensional Logistic chaos and three dimensional Lorenz algorithm realize common encryption algorithm of these two chaos methods to calculate the long-term random sequence under the limitation of precision and improve the security.

Tian Xiaoyong

2013-05-01

181

DATA SECURITY IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK BASED ON FAST ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hacking is one of the greatest problems in the wireless local area networks. Many algorithms have been used to prevent the outside attacks to eavesdrop or prevent the data to be transferred to the end-user safely and correctly. In this paper, a new symmetrical encryption algorithm is proposed that prevents the outside attacks. The new algorithm avoids key exchange between users and reduces the time taken for the encryption and decryption. It operates at high data rate in comparison with The Data Encryption Standard (DES, Triple DES (TDES, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-256, and RC6 algorithms. The new algorithm is applied successfully on both text file and voice message.

G. Ramesh

2010-06-01

182

Secure Image Encryption without Size Limitation Using Arnold Transform and Random Strategies

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is an efficient way to protect the contents of digital media. Arnold transform is a significant technique of image encryption, but has weaknesses in security and applications to images of any size. To solve these problems, we propose an image encryption scheme using Arnold transform and random strategies. It is achieved by dividing the image into random overlapping square blocks, generating random iterative numbers and random encryption order, and scrambling pixels of each block using Arnold transform. Experimental results show that the proposed encryption scheme is robust and secure. It has no size limitation, indicating the application to any size images.

Zhenjun Tang

2011-04-01

183

A Color image encryption scheme based on Generalized Synchronization Theorem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Base on a generalized synchronization theorem (GCS for discrete chaotic system, this paper introduces a new 6-dimensional generalized chaos synchronization system based on 3D-Lorenz map. Numerical simulation showed that two pair variables of the synchronization system achieve generalized synchronization via a transform H.Combining with the 2-Dimension non equilateral Arnold transformation, a color image encryption scheme was designed. Analyzing the key sensitivity, key space, histogram, information entropy and correlation of adjacent pixels, it showed that the scheme have sound encryption and decryption effects. Numerical simulations reveal that the scheme is effective in commercial network communication for its strong anti-interference ability.

Han shuangshuang

2013-07-01

184

Image Encryption Based on the General Approach for Multiple Chaotic Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, researchers developed image encryption methods based on chaotic systems. This paper proposed new image encryption technique based on new chaotic system by adding two chaotic systems: the Lorenz chaotic system and the Rössler chaotic system. The main advantage of this technique is stronger security, as is shown in the encryption tests.

Qais H. Alsafasfeh

2011-08-01

185

IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES USING CHAOTIC SCHEMES: A REVIEW

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary. It encompasses many problems like encryption, authentication, and key distribution to name a few. The field of modern cryptography providesa theoretical foundation based on which one can understand what exactly these problems are, how to evaluate protocols that purport to solve them and how to build protocols in whose security one can haveconfidence. Advanced digital technologies have made multimedia data widely available. Recently, multimedia applications become common in practice and thus security of multimedia data has become main concern.The basic issues pertaining to the problem of encryption has been discussed and also a survey on image encryption techniques based on chaotic schemes has been dealt in the present communication.The chaotic image encryption can be developed by using properties of chaos including deterministic dynamics, unpredictable behavior and non-linear transform. This concept leads to techniques that can simultaneously provide security functions and an overall visualcheck, which might be suitable in some applications. Digital images are widely used in various applications, that include military, legal and medical systems and these applications need to control access toimages and provide the means to verify integrity of images.

Monisha Sharma

2010-06-01

186

a Novel Chaotic Image Encryption Scheme Based on Magic Cube Permutation and Dynamic Look-Up Table

This paper puts forward a novel image encryption algorithm that is based on permutation-diffusion architecture. In pixels' permutation stage, algorithm takes full advantage of the idea of magic cube's scrambling. There is only simple cyclic shift operation in each sub-block's permutation, but when the algorithm has disposed the current sub-block, the adjacent sub-blocks will be dealt with, too. In the cyclic shift of each row, stable points will help to decrease the correlation of adjacent pixels. To make encryption procedure uncertain, this paper brings in a parameter named delay-time that is generated by chaotic map. In the diffusion stage, by combining multiple operations and dynamic look-up table together, the proposed algorithm highly increases the uncertainty of the encryption procedure. At last, the experiment results of key space analysis, information entropy analysis, histogram analysis and etc. show that the encryption algorithm has well performance and it can be used in image encryption and transmission.

Wang, Xingyuan; Yang, Lei

2012-11-01

187

An Investigation into Encrypted Message Hiding Through Images Using LSB

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data security has become a cause of concern because of the electronic spying especially in the military, government and many sectors of communication fields. This paper investigates a representation forembedding secure data within an image based on substitution method which gives the scope of large amount of secret message hiding within digital images. Specifically we used least significant bit (LSB)substitution method to encrypt the message in image file. For improving the performance of LSB...

FAHIM IRFAN ALAM; FATEHA KHANAM BAPPEE,; FARID UDDIN AHMED KHONDKER

2011-01-01

188

Vector Quantization Techniques For Partial Encryption of Wavelet-based Compressed Digital Images

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of image communication has increased in recent years. In this paper, newpartial encryption schemes are used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Only6.25-25% of the original data is encrypted for four different images, resulting in asignificant reduction in encryption and decryption time. In the compression step, anadvanced clustering analysis technique (Fuzzy C-means (FCM)) is used. In the encryptionstep, the permutation cipher is used. The effect of number of different clust...

Younis, H. A.; Abdalla, T. Y.; Abdalla, A. Y.

2009-01-01

189

A Review On Data Hiding Techniques In Encrypted Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking into the networking era. There are number of techniques available in the industry to overcome this problem. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is one of the solution, but the problem is the original cover cannot be losslessly recovered by this technique. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent property that the original cover can be recovered without any los after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. This paper enlists the various methods of data hiding in the image like differential expansion, histogram shift or the combination of both the techniques. This is useful in the way that these methods recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.

Ms. Anagha Markandey

2013-10-01

190

Role of Statistical tests in Estimation of the Security of a New Encryption Algorithm

Encryption study basically deals with three levels of algorithms. The first algorithm deals with encryption mechanism, second deals with decryption Mechanism and the third discusses about the generation of keys and sub keys used in the encryption study. In the given study, a new algorithm is discussed. The algorithm executes a series of steps and generates a sequence. This sequence is being used as sub key to be mapped to plain text to generate cipher text. The strength of the encryption & Decryption process depends on the strength of sequence generated against crypto analysis.. In this part of work some statistical tests like Uniformity tests, Universal tests & Repetition tests are tried on the sequence generated to test the strength of it.

Krishna, Addepalli V N

2010-01-01

191

Role of Statistical tests in Estimation of the Security of a New Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption study basically deals with three levels of algorithms. The first algorithm deals with encryption mechanism, second deals with decryption Mechanism and the third discusses about the generation of keys and sub keys used in the encryption study. In the given study, a new algorithm is discussed. The algorithm executes a series of steps and generates a sequence. This sequence is being used as sub key to be mapped to plain text to generate cipher text. The strength of the encryption & Decryption process depends on the strength of sequence generated against crypto analysis.. In this part of work some statistical tests like Uniformity tests, Universal tests & Repetition tests are tried on the sequence generated to test the strength of it.

Addepalli V.N Krishna

2010-06-01

192

Quasi-Linear Time Fully Homomorphic Public Key Encryption Algorithm (ZK111

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ZK111 is a quasi-linear O(n · log n fully Homomorphic encryption (FHE algorithm. It works on a novel idea of “perfectly colorblind function” which is nothing but a very unique way of creating p-adic ring homomorphism from p-adic ring X to p-adic ring Y. Unlike its other FHE counterparts, there is NO “noise” in the cipher text. ZK111 preserves full algebraic homomorphism without compromising its quasi-linear efficiency. It is not only FHE, but also the fastest public-key encryption (PKE algorithm known as of today.. Both encryption and decryption are O(n · log n and algorithm still retains it FHE property. Hence it solves the most intriguing and outstanding problem of cryptography. ZK111 is a probabilistic encryption algorithm by nature, and despite being FHE; it is absolutely immune to chosen and adoptive plaintext attack by design.

Zaryab Khan

2012-11-01

193

Efficient hardware implementation of the lightweight block encryption algorithm LEA.

Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859

Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

194

Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware.

Donggeon Lee

2014-01-01

195

Based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code, a new optical encryption technology that only needs to record one intensity distribution is proposed. In this encryption process, firstly, the QR code is generated from the information to be encrypted; and then the generated QR code is placed in the input plane of 4-f system to have a double random phase encryption. For only one intensity distribution in the output plane is recorded as the ciphertext, the encryption process is greatly simplified. In the decryption process, the corresponding QR code is retrieved using phase retrieval algorithm. A priori information about QR code is used as support constraint in the input plane, which helps solve the stagnation problem. The original information can be recovered without distortion by scanning the QR code. The encryption process can be implemented either optically or digitally, and the decryption process uses digital method. In addition, the security of the proposed optical encryption technology is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations show that this optical encryption system is invulnerable to various attacks, and suitable for harsh transmission conditions.

Wang, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Hong-zhao; Qin, Yi

2014-12-01

196

Quantum secret key encryption algorithm based on quantum discrete logarithm problem

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we first define the quantum discrete logarithm problem (QDLP)which is similar to classical discrete logarithm problem. But, this problem cannot be solved by Shor's quantum algorithm. Based on quantum discrete logarithm problem, we present a novel quantum secret key encryption algorithm. The receiver constructs his quantum channel using their secret key. Then, the sender can use the receiver's quantum channel to encrypt the message. Finally, the receiver dencry...

Chen, Chien-yuan; Hsueh, Chih-cheng

2004-01-01

197

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding information and an effort to conceal the existence of the embedded information. In recent years many steganography methods have been challenge by steganalysis . Steganalysis algorithm which detects the stego -message by the static analysis of pixel values [1]. In the proposed method, the secret message is encoded by using vigenere encryption method which guarantees the protection of hidden message. Then hiding the secret text in an image by using first component alteration technique .In this technique, 8 bits of blue components are replaced with secret data bits , then that image can be hidden in cover image in non sequential pixel by using variable hope value power of 2 [2,4,8,16].The Proposed method aim not only to provide improved security problems of simple LSB method but also the increased visual quality of stegoimage.

Deeksha Bharti

2014-07-01

198

The New Image Encryption and Decryption Using Quasi Group

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia Communication is the new age of communication. Image Communication is one of the most popular types of multimedia communication. This type of communication always faces security challenges. Security breach is rising at a rapid rate. Image privacy is facing an even bigger threat. There are several image cryptography techniques having both positive and negative consequences. Via this paper, we are presenting a new approach for image encryption and decryption by using pixel shifting and using Quasigroup (Latin Square without performing translation. It requires low computation as a key. Image pixel reshuffling is done randomly and in a non-repeated manner.

Ankit Agarwal

2014-07-01

199

An efficient diffusion approach for chaos-based image encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the existing chaos-based image cryptosystems is composed of alternative substitution and diffusion stages. A multi-dimensional chaotic map is usually employed in the substitution stage for image pixel permutation while a one-dimensional (1D) chaotic map is used for diffusion purpose. As the latter usually involves real number arithmetic operations, the overall encryption speed is limited by the diffusion stage. In this paper, we propose a more efficient diffusion mechanism using simple table lookup and swapping techniques as a light-weight replacement of the 1D chaotic map iteration. Simulation results show that at a similar security level, the proposed cryptosystem needs about one-third the encryption time of a similar cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved.

200

A Secure Symmetric Image Encryption Based on Bit-wise Operation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows a symmetric image encryption based on bit-wise operation (XORing and Shifting. The basic idea is block ciphering (size of each block is 4 bytes technique to cipher the secret bytes, after that ciphered bytes are again shuffled among N positions (N is the size of secret file. The scheme is combination of substitution as well as transposition techniques which provides additional protection of the secret data. The substitution and transposition are done using dynamic substitution box (SBOX and transposition box (TBOX which are generated using the secret key and made to vary for each block during ciphering. The size of encrypted data is same as the size of secret data and the proposed scheme has been tested using different images. We have also presented the security analysis such as key sensitivity analysis, statistical analysis, and differential analysis to prove the strength of our algorithm against crypto analysis.

Prabir Kr. Naskar

2014-01-01

201

Vector Quantization Techniques For Partial Encryption of Wavelet-based Compressed Digital Images

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of image communication has increased in recent years. In this paper, newpartial encryption schemes are used to encrypt only part of the compressed data. Only6.25-25% of the original data is encrypted for four different images, resulting in asignificant reduction in encryption and decryption time. In the compression step, anadvanced clustering analysis technique (Fuzzy C-means (FCM is used. In the encryptionstep, the permutation cipher is used. The effect of number of different clusters is studied.The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast and secure, and do not reduce thecompression performance of the underlying selected compression methods as shown inexperimental results and conclusion.

H. A. Younis

2009-01-01

202

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents, a low power 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm based on a novel asynchronous self-timed architecture for encryption of audio signals. An asynchronous system is defined as one where the transfers of information between combinatorial blocks without a global clock signal. The self-timed architectures are asynchronous circuits which perform their function based on local synchronization signals called hand shake, independently from the other modules. This new architecture reduced spikes on current consumption and only parts with valid data are working, and also this design does not need any clock pulse. A combinational logic based Rijndael S-Box implementation for the Substitution Byte transformation in AES is proposed, its low area occupancy and high throughput therefore proposed digital design leads to reduction in power consumption. Mix-columns transformation is implemented only based on multiply-by-2 and multiply-by-3 modules with combinational logic. The proposed novel asynchronous self-timed AES algorithm is modeled and verified using FPGA and simulation results from encryption of sound signals is presented, until original characteristics are preserved anymore and have been successfully synthesized and implemented using Xilinx ISE V7.1 and Virtex IV FPGA to target device Xc4vf100. The achieved power consumption is 283 mW in clock frequency of 100 MHz.

Bahman Rashidi

2013-02-01

203

A fast image encryption scheme based on chaotic standard map

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a variety of effective chaos-based image cryptosystems have been proposed. One of the architectures of this kind of cryptosystems is composed of multiple rounds of substitution and diffusion. As the confusion and diffusion effects are solely contributed by the substitution and the diffusion stages, respectively, the required overall rounds of operations in achieving a certain level of security is found more than necessary. In this Letter, we suggest to introduce a certain diffusion effect in the substitution stage by simple sequential add-and-shift operations. Although this leads to a longer processing time in a single round, the overall encryption time is reduced as fewer rounds are required. Simulation results show that at a similar performance level, the proposed cryptosystem needs less than one-third the encryption time of an existing fast cryptosystem. The effective acceleration of chaos-based image cryptosystems is thus achieved

204

HIGHLY SECURED AND RANDOMIZED IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHIC ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s internet scenario, secured data transfer is very difficult if not impossible due to the technology and computing power availability to the attackers. Hence more robust methods are required to provide a secured data transfer. Though steganographic algorithms are existing, no algorithm is fool proof for long time, as hackers gain more knowledge over time [1]. In this proposed work, a new technique to improve the security of steganographic algorithm by using the high level of randomization is proposed and implemented. It has the high embedding capacity and more robustness in the stego key. In proposed algorithm, message to be transmitted is encrypted. The encrypted message is embedded on image in randomized pixels. The randomness of the position of pixels on which the encrypted message to be embedded will be decided by the stego key. The stego key itself is encrypted and transmitted to other party in a secured form. Hence it is more robust and secured algorithm. The algorithms used for steganography process is Pixel Value Differencing with Modulus (PVDM [6] and Least Significant Bit(LSB algorithms[5] with randomization.

Dr. R. Sridevi

2012-10-01

205

A Review on Keyless User Defined Reversible Encryption for Color Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some limitation of Key oriented techniques, to maintain the key records and increase highcomputational cost. To overcome this limitation to proposed an improved reversible image encryptionrandom hiding approach for keyless image encryption. The objective of this paper to increase the secrecyand confidentiality of images is a multimedia and vibrant area of research. There are two differentapproaches being followed in image encryption, the first approach to key oriented encryption and secondapproach to keyless to random encryption technique for every pixel and to maintain the originality of animage without any loss of quality.

Pratibha S. Ghode

2013-10-01

206

A Security Routing Algorithm of P2P Network Based on Multiple Encryption and Positive Detection

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Routing plays a fundamental role in the P2P network. Most attacks are aiming at P2P routing. We proposed a novel security routing algorithm to fight against those attacks. The algorithm adopt the means of multiple encryption and positive detection and periodically detect each node in routing path using encryption packet, which can accurately find malicious or instable nodes in routing path and exclude them from routing table. Simulation experiments also demonstrate the algorithm can effectively enhance the routing security and reliability of P2P network.

Lu Chuiwei

2013-03-01

207

An image encryption approach based on chaotic maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well-known that images are different from texts in many aspects, such as highly redundancy and correlation, the local structure and the characteristics of amplitude-frequency. As a result, the methods of conventional encryption cannot be applicable to images. In this paper, we improve the properties of confusion and diffusion in terms of discrete exponential chaotic maps, and design a key scheme for the resistance to statistic attack, differential attack and grey code attack. Experimental and theoretical results also show that our scheme is efficient and very secure

208

Chaos-based encryption for fractal image coding

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chaos-based cryptosystem for fractal image coding is proposed. The Rényi chaotic map is employed to determine the order of processing the range blocks and to generate the keystream for masking the encoded sequence. Compared with the standard approach of fractal image coding followed by the Advanced Encryption Standard, our scheme offers a higher sensitivity to both plaintext and ciphertext at a comparable operating efficiency. The keystream generated by the Rényi chaotic map passes the randomness tests set by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, and so the proposed scheme is sensitive to the key. (general)

209

Design and Analysis of a Novel Digital Image Encryption Scheme

In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 144-bits is proposed. In the substitution process of the scheme, image is divided into blocks and subsequently into color components. Each color component is modified by performing bitwise operation which depends on secret key as well as a few most significant bits of its previous and next color component. Three rounds are taken to complete substitution process. To make cipher more robust, a feedback mechanism is also applied by modifying used secret key after encrypting each block. Further, resultant image is partitioned into several key based dynamic sub-images. Each sub-image passes through the scrambling process where pixels of sub-image are reshuffled within itself by using a generated magic square matrix. Five rounds are taken for scrambling process. The propose scheme is simple, fast and sensitive to the secret key. Due to high order of substitution and permutation, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasibl...

Pareek, Narendra K

2012-01-01

210

Effective algorithm to encrypt information based on self-assembly of DNA tiles.

We present an error-tolerance scheme to encrypt information in DNA structures based on a one-time-pad (OTP) cryptosystem that provides theoretically unbreakable security. The problem of the DNA-based OTP encryption is the loss of synchronization between the message and the encryption key due to the DNA property of accepting mismatched base pairs. We propose a new implementation idea of encrypting algorithm with the fourfold fault tolerance against mismatches than the ordinary DNA XOR operation. Although there are several problems to be solved toward the practical use at this moment, it is expected that the molecular computation using DNA tiles will enlarge the application possibility of the OTP cryptosystem. PMID:19749269

Hirabayashi, Miki; Kojima, Hiroaki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

2009-01-01

211

Security enhancement of double-random phase encryption by iterative algorithm

We propose an approach to enhance the security of optical encryption based on double-random phase encryption in a 4f system. The phase key in the input plane of the 4f system is generated by the Yang-Gu algorithm to control the phase of the encrypted information in the output plane of the 4f system, until the phase in the output plane converges to a predesigned distribution. Only the amplitude of the encrypted information must be recorded as a ciphertext. The information, which needs to be transmitted, is greatly reduced. We can decrypt the ciphertext with the aid of the predesigned phase distribution and the phase key in the Fourier plane. Our approach can resist various attacks.

Qian, Sheng-Xia; Li, Yongnan; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

2014-08-01

212

Partial Encryption of Co mpressed Image Using Threshold Quantization and AES Cipher

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptography is one of the technological means to provide security to data beingtransmitted on information and communication systems.When it is necessary to securelytransmit data in limited bandwidth, both compression and encryption must be performed.Researchers have combined compression and encryption together to reduce the overallprocessing time.In this paper, new partial encryption schemes are proposed to encrypt only part of thecompressed image.Soft and hard threshold compression methods are used in thecompressionstep and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES cipher is used forthe encryption step. The effect of different threshold values on the performance of the proposed schemes are studied. The proposed partial encryption schemes are fast, secure, and do not reduce the compression performance of the underlying selected compression methods.

H.A.Younis

2012-01-01

213

Chaos-based color pathological image encryption scheme using one-time keys.

This paper proposes an improved chaos-based color pathological image encryption algorithm, using SHA-2 to generate one-time keys. In order to send different ciphered images to different recipients, the hash value of the plain image and a random number are applied to generate one-time initial conditions for Chebyshev maps, to make the key stream change in every confusion process without changing the common initial values. The permuted image is divided into 256-bit long blocks, the avalanche effect is applied to diffuse the blocks, i.e., each block is XORed with the hash value of the prior block. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust against common attacks. PMID:24480170

Liu, Guoyan; Li, Jie; Liu, Hongjun

2014-02-01

214

By reverse-engineering the modified amplitude-phase retrieval-based attack that has deciphered the phase-truncated double random phase encoding scheme, we proposed a new cryptosystem to encode a target image into a preselected fake image using a modified phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of phase-truncated double random phase encoding. With two private keys that are generated during the encryption, the decryption can be optically realized using a classical linear double random phase encoding method. The proposed cryptosystem has immunity against the recently proposed specific attack and the new attack based on a modified amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity and good performance of our proposed algorithm.

Wang, Xiaogang; Dai, Chaoqing; Chen, Junlang

2014-10-01

215

This study presents and validates an optimized method of simultaneous compression and encryption designed to process images with close spectra. This approach is well adapted to the compression and encryption of images of a time-varying scene but also to static polarimetric images. We use the recently developed spectral fusion method [Opt. Lett.35, 1914-1916 (2010)] to deal with the close resemblance of the images. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. We use a root-mean-square (RMS) optimization criterion to treat compression. Image encryption is realized at different security levels. Firstly, we add a specific encryption level which is related to the different areas of the spectral plane, and then, we make use of several random phase keys. An in-depth analysis at the spectral fusion methodology is done in order to find a good trade-off between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images. Our new proposal spectral shift allows us to minimize the image overlap. We further analyze the influence of the spectral shift on the reconstructed image quality and compression rate. The performance of the multiple-image optical compression and encryption method is verified by analyzing several video sequences and polarimetric images. PMID:25321707

Aldossari, M; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

2014-09-22

216

FPGA Can Be Implemented By Using Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper mainly focused in implementation of AES encryption and decryption standard AES-128. All the transformations of both Encryption and Decryption are simulated using an iterative design approach in order to minimize the hardware consumption.. This method can make it a very low-complex architecture, especially in saving the hardware resource in implementing the AES InverseSub Bytes module and Inverse Mix columns module. As the S -box is implemented by look-up-table in this design, the chip area and power can still be optimized. The new Mix Column transformation improves the performance of the inverse cipher and also reduces the complexity of the system that supports the inverse cipher. As a result this transformation has relatively low relevant diffusion power .This allows for scaling of the architecture towards vulnerable portable and cost-sensitive communications devices in consumer and military applications.

P.AATHEESWARAN

2013-01-01

217

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual Cryptography is a special type of encryption technique to obscure image-based secret information which can be decrypted by Human Visual System (HVS. It is imperceptible to reveal the secret information unless a certain number of shares (k or more among n number of shares are superimposed. As the decryption process is done by human visual system, secret information can be retrieved by anyone if the person gets at least k number of shares. For this, simple visual cryptography is very in secure. In this current work we have proposed a method where we done the encryption in several level. First we use a variable length image key to encrypt the original image then bit sieve procedure is used on resultant image and lastly we perform K-N secret sharing scheme on the final encrypted image. Decryption is done in reverse level of encryption that means we do K-N secret sharing scheme, bit sieve method and image key decryption respectively. As multiple levels of encryptions are being used thus the security is being increased in great extant.

Anupam Bhakta,

2013-06-01

218

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the security of data, various solutions algorithms were proposed. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels. This paper presents an efficient FPGA implementation approach of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES Algorithm. In this paper two different architectures of AES named Basic AES and Fully Pipelined AES have been designed in VHDL. The codes have been synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i software for a Virtex 3 FPGA device. The comparison is being done between the Basic AES and Fully Pipelined AES algorithm on the basis of power consumption, Maximum pin Delay, Clock delay, Slice Flip flops.

Archana garg1 , Harmanjot Singh Dhaliwal2 1

2013-09-01

219

Encrypted imaging based on algebraic implementation of double random phase encoding.

The security of important information captured by sensors and cameras is currently a growing concern as information theft via techniques such as side-channel attacks become increasingly more prevalent. Double random phase encoding (DRPE) is an optical encryption method based on optical Fourier transform that is currently being used to implement secure coherent optical systems. In this paper, we propose a new DRPE implementation for incoherent optical systems based on integral photography that can be applied to "encrypted imaging (EI)" to optically encrypt an image before it is captured by an image sensor. Because the proposed incoherent DRPE is constituted from conventional DRPE by rewriting the optical encryption via discretization and Euler's formula, its security level is the same as that of conventional DRPE. The results of an experiment in which we encrypted a plaintext image optically and then decrypted it numerically demonstrate that our proposed incoherent optical security system is feasible. PMID:24922013

Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

2014-05-10

220

A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed based on the asymmetric technique, in which the encryption keys are not identical to the decryption ones. First, each plain image is scrambled based on a sequence of chaotic pairs generated with a system of two symmetrically coupled identical logistic maps. Then, the phase-only function of each scrambled image is retrieved with an iterative phase retrieval process in the fractional Fourier transform domain. Second, all phase-only functions are modulated into an interim, which is encrypted into the ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution by using the fractional Fourier transform and chaotic diffusion. In the encryption process, three random phase functions are used as encryption keys to retrieve the phase-only functions of plain images. Simultaneously, three decryption keys are generated in the encryption process, which make the proposed encryption scheme has high security against various attacks, such as chosen plaintext attack. The peak signal-to-noise is used to evaluate the quality of the decrypted image, which shows that the encryption capacity of the proposed scheme is enhanced considerably. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Meng, Haining

2014-11-01

221

Quasi-Linear Time Fully Homomorphic Public Key Encryption Algorithm (ZK111)

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ZK111 is a quasi-linear O(n · log n) fully Homomorphic encryption (FHE) algorithm. It works on a novel idea of “perfectly colorblind function” which is nothing but a very unique way of creating p-adic ring homomorphism from p-adic ring X to p-adic ring Y. Unlike its other FHE counterparts, there is NO “noise” in the cipher text. ZK111 preserves full algebraic homomorphism without compromising its quasi-linear efficiency. It is not only FHE, but also the fastest public-key encryption...

Zaryab Khan

2012-01-01

222

In this paper, an image encryption scheme based on polarized light encoding and a phase-truncation approach in the Fresnel transform domain is proposed. The phase-truncated data obtained by an asymmetric cryptosystem is encrypted and decrypted by using the concept of the Stokes-Mueller formalism. Image encryption based on polarization of light using Stokes-Mueller formalism has the main advantage over Jones vector formalism that it manipulates only intensity information, which is measurable. Thus any intensity information can be encrypted and decrypted using this scheme. The proposed method offers several advantages: (1) a lens-free setup, (2) flexibility in the encryption key design, (3) use of asymmetric keys, and (4) immunity against special attack. We present numerical simulation results for gray-scale and color images in support of the proposed security scheme. The performance measurement parameters relative error and correlation coefficient have been calculated to check the effectiveness of the scheme. PMID:23842178

Rajput, Sudheesh K; Nishchal, Naveen K

2013-06-20

223

Applying Encryption Algorithm for Data Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is the next big thing after internet in the field of information technology; some say its a metaphor for internet. It is an Internet-based computing technology, in which software, shared recourses and information, are provided to consumers and devices on-demand, and as per users requirement on a pay per use model. Even though the cloud continues to grow in popularity, Usability and respectability, Problems with data protection and data privacy and other Security issues play a major setback in the field of Cloud Computing. Privacy and security are the key issue for cloud storage. Encryption is a well known technology for protecting sensitive data. Use of the combination of Public and Private key encryption to hide the sensitive data of users, and cipher text retrieval. The paper analyzes the feasibility of the applying encryption algorithm for data security and privacy in cloud Storage.

Mohit Marwaha

2013-01-01

224

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the transmission of data over internet is increasing; the protection issues of data are increasing as well. In order to protect the data and to secure it against intruders, there is a need of such systems which provide security to data. These techniques are known as cryptography or simply cipher. One of the ciphers is International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA. This cipher is symmetric in nature i.e. uses only one key both for encryption and decryption. IDEA uses 128-bit key to encrypt the 64-bit data using certain rounds of operation. In this case, eight and half rounds are used. To augment the protection of data in IDEA, some extra steps of operation will be introduces in the system. For increasing the steps of operation, a different cipher, RSA, is merged with IDEA

Vivek Shrivastava

2013-11-01

225

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES, as the most widely used encryption algorithm in many security applications. Up to today, AES standard has key size variants of 128, 192, and 256-bit, where longer bit keys provide more secure ciphered text output. In the hardware perspective, bigger key size also means bigger area and small throughput. Some companies that employ ultra-high security in their systems may look for a key size bigger than 128-bit AES. In this paper, 128, 192 and 256-bit AES hardware are implemented and compared in terms of throughput and area. The target hardware used in this paper is Virtex XC5VLX50 FPGA from Xilinx. Total area and Throughput results are presented and graphically compared.

Samir El Adib

2012-06-01

226

We propose a method of wavelength multiplexing based on a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) and a cascaded phase modulation scheme in the Fresnel transform domain to reduce the cross talk in the multiple-image-encryption framework. First, each plain image is encoded to a complex function by using the MGSA. Next, the phase components of the created complex functions are multiplexed with different wavelength parameters, and then they are modulated before being combined together as a phase-only function, which is recorded in the first phase-only mask (POM). Finally, the second POM is generated by applying the MGSA again on the amplitude derived from the summation of the total created complex functions. Simulation results show that the cross talk between multiplexed images has been significantly reduced compared with an existing similar method. Therefore, the multiplexing capacity in encrypting multiple gray-scale images can be increased accordingly. PMID:21343993

Chang, Hsuan T; Hwang, Hone-Ene; Lee, Cheng-Ling; Lee, Mn-Ta

2011-02-10

227

DIGITAL COLOR IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON INVERTIBLE MATRIX WITH SECRET SHARING

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the new approach to implement image encryption in digital color images. The self invertible matrix created from the original image is used as keys for the RGB to YCbCr transform and the secret sharing operations. The encryption process carried out by the four steps: pixel permutation, creating RGB matrix, RGB to YCbCr transform and the secret sharing. The quality of the encrypted images are tested with visual inspection and evaluated with different quality measures. The performance of the proposed method is also evaluated by various testing methods.

W.R. Sam Emmanuel

2013-02-01

228

A sensitive data extraction algorithm based on the content associated encryption technology for ICS

With the development of HD video, the protection of copyright becomes more complicated. More advanced copyright protection technology is needed. Traditional digital copyright protection technology generally uses direct or selective encryption algorithm and the key does not associate with the video content [1]. Once the encryption method is cracked or the key is stolen, the copyright of the video will be violated. To address this issue, this paper proposes a Sensitive Data Extraction Algorithm (SDEA) based on the content associated encryption technology which applies to the Internet Certification Service (ICS). The principle of content associated encryption is to extract some data from the video and use this extracted data as the key to encrypt the rest data. The extracted part from video is called sensitive data, and the rest part is called the main data. After extraction, the main data will not be played or poorly played. The encrypted sensitive data reach the terminal device through the safety certificated network and the main data are through ICS disc. The terminal equipments are responsible for synthesizing and playing these two parts of data. Consequently, even if the main data on disc is illegally obtained, the video cannot be played normally due to the lack of necessary sensitive data. It is proved by experiments that ICS using SDEA can destruct the video effectively with 0.25% extraction rates and the destructed video cannot be played well. It can also guarantee the consistency of the destructive effect on different videos with different contents. The sensitive data can be transported smoothly under the home Internet bandwidth.

Wang, Wei; Hao, Huang; Xie, Changsheng

229

An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Chaotic Systems with Changeable Parameters

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes an image encryption scheme based on chaotic system with changeable parameters depending on plain-image. A generalized Arnold map, whose control parameters are changeable and image-dependent during the iteration procedure, is utilized to generate chaotic orbits applied to permute the pixel positions. A diffusion function is also designed to realize the diffusion effect by piece-wise linear chaotic map. In both the permutation process and the diffusion process, the keystreams generated by chaotic maps are all strongly dependent on plain-image, and thereby can improve the encryption security efficiently. The major merits of the proposed image encryption scheme include a huge key space, good statistical nature resisting statistical analysis attack, differential attack, and good resistance against known-plaintext attack and chosen-plaintext attack, etc. Experimental results have been carried out with detailed analysis to show that the proposed scheme can be a potential candidate for practical image encryption.

Ruisong Ye

2014-03-01

230

A Safety Algorithm of P2P Routing based on Multiple-Encryption Detecting Technology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nodes can freely join or leave the P2P network, which will lead to much false routing information that can cripple the performance of P2P network. Many hackers also utilize the weaken point to attack the P2P network. We propose a safety routing algorithm for P2P network to resist the routing attack. The algorithm adopts the multiple-encryption detecting technology. The node which launches the communicating connection will periodically detect every node in its routing path by sending some multiple-encryption detecting packets. By the responding message of the detected nodes, the malicious or disable nodes in its routing path will be accurately located and kicked out of the routing table. Simulation experiments demonstrate the algorithm can effectively improve the safety of the P2P routing and topology stability of the P2P network.

Chuiwei Lu

2013-10-01

231

An Application to prevent SQL Injection Attacks using Randomized Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the advanced usage of web, numbers of data we are fetched from anywhere within a minute. So by that way it is very beneficial to us but with the beneficial some issues are there so now we are discussed about that issues. The issues are security of data from the hackers or unauthorized users who change, corrupt, delete or access the data from the web, for handle these issues the developers who develop the website, they used some algorithm by which the data change in encrypted form either from the safety of the hackers we also use the some algorithm at the time of inserting username and password due to that the username and password become encrypted and then they send through url, so the data will be safe. In this paper we discussed about the security of data from the hackers so for that we used the Random Encryption for encrypting the data or username and password and also we use this concept for the RTA process. In which the users request for the number plate number for the vehicle with his/her favorite digits.

Pravallika Thatavarthi #1 , Betam Suresh

2013-08-01

232

A new double-image encryption method on the joint transform correlator using two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography, based on the calculated intensity of reference beam is proposed. The technique realizes the double-image encryption using one random phase encoding on the joint transform correlator; and only records two quadrature-phase holograms on CCD camera without recording reference-wave intensity or object-wave intensity. With the acquired reference-wave intensity from 2-D correlation coefficient and the keys known, the clear retrieved image can be obtained at high speed by certain algorithm. Its feasibility and validity were verified by a series of computer simulations.

Li, Jun; Zheng, Tao; Liu, Qing-zhi; Li, Rong

2012-04-01

233

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present paper a new cryptographic method called UES Version-III has been introduced. Nath et al recently developed few efficient encryption methods such as UES version-I, Modified UES-I, UES version-II, TTJSA, DJMNA Nath et. al showed that TTJSA and DJMNA is most suitable methods to encrypt password or any small message. The name of the present method is Ultra Encryption Standard Version-III. It is a Symmetric key Cryptosystem which includes multiple encryption, bit-wise randomization,...

Satyaki Roy; Navajit Maitra; Shalabh Agarwal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath

2012-01-01

234

Image encryption with an improved cryptosystem based on a matrix approach

This paper carries out the image encryption with a revised and modified cryptosystem based on a rule-90 cellular automaton. For this purpose, we used an appropriate and convenient matrix approach to implement the main components of the encryption system, two indexed families of permutations and a pseudo-random bit generator. Furthermore, we modify the encryption scheme for improving its security. This makes our encryption proposal resist some common attacks, e.g. chosen plain-text attack, and the encryption and decryption processes are performed in a flexible way. Also, some security aspects of the cryptosystem are evaluated with a series of statistical tests exhibiting good results. It is believed that this proposal fits naturally in the present digital technology and is capable of achieving high levels of performance.

Ramírez-Torres, M. T.; Murguía, J. S.; Carlos, M. Mejía

2014-04-01

235

Optical image encryption based on polarization encoding by liquid crystal spatial light modulators

This work describes a polarization-encoding scheme with cascaded liquid crystal spatial light modulators for two-dimensional exclusive OR logic encryption. The transfer characteristic of the encryption system is analysed to determine suitable polarization modulation for optical realization. Performance is compared across systems that use various displays, including twisted nematic, supertwisted nematic and homogeneously parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal devices. Experiments show that binary image encryption/decryption is accomplished with fair image quality by choosing the orientation of the polarization and modulation conditions. Both simulated and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Tu, Han-Yen; Cheng, Chau-Jern; Chen, Mao-Ling

2004-06-01

236

A Modified Location-Dependent Image Encryption for Mobile Information System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wide spread use of WLAN (Wireless LAN and the popularity of mobile devices increases the frequency of data transmission among mobile users. In such scenario, a need for Secure Communication arises. Secure communication is possible through encryption of data. A lot of encryption techniques have evolved over time. However, most of the data encryption techniques are location-independent. Data encrypted with such techniques can be decrypted anywhere. The encryption technology cannot restrict the location of data decryption. GPS-based encryption (or geoencryption is an innovative technique that uses GPS-technology to encode location information into the encryption keys to provide location based security. In this paper a location-dependent approach is proposed for mobile information system. The mobile client transmits a target latitude/longitude coordinate and an LDEA key is obtained for data encryption to information server. The client can only decrypt the ciphertext when the coordinate acquired form GPS receiver matches with the target coordinate. For improved security, a random key (R-key is incorporated in addition to the LDEA key. The proposed method is applied for images.

Prasad Reddy.P.V.G.D

2010-05-01

237

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A LMS (Learning Management System service is described in this project using Blowfish algorithm. It promotes more accessibility to LMS service providers to send their training modules and syllabus via Internet at any point of the hour much more efficiently. This gives rise to reduced cost of hardware and software tools, which in return would scale-up the e-learning environment. In the existing system RSA algorithm used. It requires more computation time for large volumes of data. To reduce this computation time we are using Blowfish algorithm. The LMS Service utilizes three cloud systems, including an encryption and decryption system, a storagesystem, and LMS application system.

G.Devi, M.Pramod Kumar

2012-08-01

238

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper a new cryptographic method called UES Version-III has been introduced. Nath et al recently developed few efficient encryption methods such as UES version-I, Modified UES-I, UES version-II, TTJSA, DJMNA Nath et. al showed that TTJSA and DJMNA is most suitable methods to encrypt password or any small message. The name of the present method is Ultra Encryption Standard Version-III. It is a Symmetric key Cryptosystem which includes multiple encryption, bit-wise randomization, new advanced bit-wise encryption technique with feedback. In this paper, the authors have performed encryption entirely at the bit-level to achieve greater strength of encryption. In the result section the authors have shown the spectral analysis of encrypted text as well as plain text. The spectral analysis shows that UES-III is free from standard cryptography attack such as brute force attack, known plain text attack and differential attack

Satyaki Roy

2012-07-01

239

A Single Chip Design And Implementation Of AES -128/192/256 Encryption Algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper an efficient hardware architecture design and implementation of all candidates of AES encryption standards AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256 on the same hardware is proposed. AES algorithm proposed by NIST has been widely accepted as best cryptosystem for wireless communication security. The hardware implementation is useful in wireless security like military and mobile phones. This contribution investigates implementation of AES Encryption with regards to FPGA and VHDL.Optimized and synthesized VHDL code for AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256 for encryption of 128-bit data is implemented. Xilinx ISE 9.2i software is used for simulation. Eachalgorithm is tested with sample vectors provided by NIST output results are perfect with minimal delay. The proposed design consumes less power and area which is suitable battery driven mobile phones. Throughput reaches the value of 666.67 Mbps for encryption of 128- bit data with AES-128 key with FPGA device XC2V6000BF957-6.

L.Thulasimani,

2010-05-01

240

Authentication and Encryption in GSM and 3GUMTS: An Emphasis on Protocols and Algorithms

Mobile communication touches every aspect of our life, it become one of the major dependencies that the 21st Century civilizations rely on. Thereby, security is a major issue that should be targeted by communication technologies. In this paper we will target authentication and encryption in GSM and 3G/UMTS. In order to understand clearly how things work, we will start by presenting the architecture of each network, its major components, its authentication algorithms, protocols used, and KASUMI Block Cipher.

Elouafiq, Ali

2012-01-01

241

An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme Based on Chaotic Quantum Encryption Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An arbitrated quantum signature (AQS scheme is demonstrated via the improved quantum chaotic encryption algorithm with the quantum one-time pad based on chaotic operation string. In this scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the aid of the arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. Analysis shows that the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attacker.

Ying Guo

2013-05-01

242

An Efficient Stream Cipher Algorithm for Data Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays the data telecommunication security has been provided by most of well-known stream cipher algorithms which are already implemented in different secure protocols such as GSM, SSL, TLS, WEP, Bluetooth etc. These algorithms are A5/1, A5/2, E0 and RC4. On the other hand, these public algorithms already faced to serious security weakness such that they do not provide enough security of proportional plain data in front of cryptanalysis attacks. In this paper we proposed an efficient stream cipher algorithm which generates 23 random bits in each round of processing by parallel random number generator and 115 bits of Initial Vector. This algorithm can implement in high speed communication link more than 100Mb/s and it has passed all of standard cryptographic tests successfully, also it can resist in front of well-known attacks such as algebraic and correlation.

Majid Bakhtiari

2011-05-01

243

An RGB Image Encryption Supported by Wavelet-based Lossless Compression

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a method for an RGB image encryption supported by lifting scheme based lossless compression. Firstly we have compressed the input color image using a 2-D integer wavelet transform. Then we have applied lossless predictive coding to achieve additional compression. The compressed image is encrypted by using Secure Advanced Hill Cipher (SAHC involving a pair of involutory matrices, a function called Mix( and an operation called XOR. Decryption followed by reconstruction shows that there is no difference between the output image and the input image. The proposed method can be used for efficient and secure transmission of image data.

Ch. Samson

2012-09-01

244

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then ...

Somdip Dey; Kalyan Mondal; Joyshree Nath; Asoke Nath

2012-01-01

245

A novel chaotic map and an improved chaos-based image encryption scheme.

In this paper, we present a novel approach to create the new chaotic map and propose an improved image encryption scheme based on it. Compared with traditional classic one-dimensional chaotic maps like Logistic Map and Tent Map, this newly created chaotic map demonstrates many better chaotic properties for encryption, implied by a much larger maximal Lyapunov exponent. Furthermore, the new chaotic map and Arnold's Cat Map based image encryption method is designed and proved to be of solid robustness. The simulation results and security analysis indicate that such method not only can meet the requirement of imagine encryption, but also can result in a preferable effectiveness and security, which is usable for general applications. PMID:25143990

Zhang, Xianhan; Cao, Yang

2014-01-01

246

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm is an algorithm based on population and many optimization problems are solved with this method, successfully. With increasing demand for computer attacks, security, efficient and reliable Internet has increased. Cryptographic systems have studied the science of communication is hidden, and includes two case categories including encryption, password and analysis. In this paper, several code analyses based on genetic algorithms, tabu search and simulated annealing for a permutation of encrypted text are investigated. The study also attempts to provide and to compare the performance in terms of the amount of check and control algorithms and the results are compared.

Mahdi Sadeghzadeh

2014-02-01

247

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Storing, transmitting and security of DNA sequences are well known research challenge. The problem has got magnified with increasing discovery and availability of DNA sequences. We have represent DNA sequence compression algorithm based on Dynamic Look Up Table (DLUT and modified Huffman technique. DLUT consists of 43(64 bases that are 64 sub-stings, each sub-string is of 3 bases long. Each sub-string are individually coded by single ASCII code from 33(! to 96(` and vice versa. Encode depends on encryption key choose by user from four base pair {a,t.g and c}and decode also require decryption key provide by the encoded user. Decoding must require authenticate input for encode the data. The sub-strings are combined into a Dynamic Look up Table based pre-coding routine. This algorithm is tested on reverse; complement & reverse complement the DNA sequences and also test on artificial DNA sequences of equivalent length. Speed of encryption and security levels are two important measurements for evaluating any encryption system. Due to proliferate of ubiquitous computing system, where digital contents are accessible through resource constraint biological database security concern is very important issue. A lot of research has been made to find an encryption system which can be run effectively in those biological databases. Information security is the most challenging question to protect the data from unauthorized user. The proposed method may protect the data from hackers. It can provide the three tier security, in tier one is ASCII code, in tier two is nucleotide (a,t,g and c choice by user and tier three is change of label or change of node position in Huffman Tree. Compression of the genome sequences will help to increase the efficiency of their use. The greatest advantage of this algorithm is fast execution, small memory occupation and easy implementation. Since the program to implement the technique have been written originally in the C language, (Windows XP platform, and TC compiler it is possible to run in other microcomputers with small changes (depending on platform and Compiler used. The execution is quite fast, all the operations are carried out in fraction of seconds, depending on the required task and on the sequence length. The technique can approach an effective compression ratio of 1.98 bits/base and even lower. When a user searches for any sequence for an organism, an encrypted compressed sequence file can be sent from the data source to the user. The encrypted compressed file then can be decrypted & decompressed at the client end resulting in reduced transmission time over the Internet. An encrypt compression algorithm that provides a moderately high compression with encryption rate with minimal decryption with decompression time.

Syed Mahamud Hossein

2013-09-01

248

A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed. In the proposed method, the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly, then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out. The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image, which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image. The computer simulation results of statistical analysis, information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.

249

A Selective Encryption for Heterogenous Color JPEG Images Based on VLC and AES Stream Cipher

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, the most important engine to provide confidentiality is encryption. Therefore, the classical and modern ciphers are not suitable for huge quantity of data in real-time environment. Selective encryption (SE) is an approach to encode only the most important portion of the data in order to provide a proportional privacy and to reduce computational requirements. The objective of our work is to leave free the low-resolution image and give full-resolution access only for authorized person...

Rodrigues, Jose?; Puech, William; Bors, Adrian

2006-01-01

250

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Advanced Standard Encryption Algorithm (AES is widely used in modern consumer electronicproducts for security. The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate wireless sensor networks also use AES algorithm wherelow power consumption is the priority. To reduce the time taken for encryption of huge data, the algorithm hasto be implemented in hardware. To meet the requirement for low area the algorithm has to be implemented insoftware. Hence, a balance has to be achieved between hardware and software implementations in terms of areaand speed, so as to improve the overall performance of the system. Also with the co-design methodology totalthermal power dissipation is reduced. In this paper, 128 bit AES algorithm is implemented with hardware incombination with software using Altera NIOS II Processor platform. Altera’s Quartus II environment is used fordesign of the system. Cyclone II FPGA is used as a development platform. Software program is written in C language. NIOS II ntegrated Development Environment (IDE is used to integrate hardware and software together. By adopting hardware / software co-design methodology for implementation of AES, results show that a onsiderable improvement in speed can be achieved as compared to software only approach. Further, the significant reduction in area is achieved as compared to hardware only approach. By the approach of co-design an optimized design in terms of speed and area is achieved and also the thermal power dissipation is reduced

MEGHANA A. HASAMNIS

2012-05-01

251

High Security Nested PWLCM Chaotic Map Bit-Level Permutation Based Image Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chaotic systems produce pseudo-random sequences with good randomness; therefore, these systems are suitable to efficient image encryption. In this paper, a low complexity image encryption based on Nested Piece Wise Linear Chaotic Map (NPWLCM is proposed. Bit planes of the grey or color levels are shuffled to increase the encryption complexity. A security analysis of the proposed system is performed and presented. The proposed method combine pixel shuffling, bit shuffling, and diffusion, which is highly disorder the original image. The initial values and the chaos control parameters of NPWLCM maps are derived from external secret key. The cipher image generated by this method is the same size as the original image and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet. The experimental results of the proposed method show advantages of low complexity, and high-level security.

Qassim Nasir

2012-09-01

252

A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Encryption of images is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of images such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. Due to the exceptionally desirable properties of mixing and sensitivity to initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps, chaos-based encryption has suggested a new and efficient way to deal with the intractable problem of fast and highly secure image encryption. In this paper, the two-dimensional chaotic cat map is generalized to 3D for designing a real-time secure symmetric encryption scheme. This new scheme employs the 3D cat map to shuffle the positions (and, if desired, grey values as well) of image pixels and uses another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to statistical and differential attacks. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security and fast encryption speed of the new scheme

253

Image encryption based on permutation-substitution using chaotic map and Latin Square Image Cipher

In this paper we presented a image encryption based on permutation-substitution using chaotic map and Latin square image cipher. The proposed method consists of permutation and substitution process. In permutation process, plain image is permuted according to chaotic sequence generated using chaotic map. In substitution process, based on secrete key of 256 bit generate a Latin Square Image Cipher (LSIC) and this LSIC is used as key image and perform XOR operation between permuted image and key image. The proposed method can applied to any plain image with unequal width and height as well and also resist statistical attack, differential attack. Experiments carried out for different images of different sizes. The proposed method possesses large key space to resist brute force attack.

Panduranga, H. T.; Naveen Kumar, S. K.; Kiran, HASH(0x22c8da0)

2014-06-01

254

An Efficient Quasigroup Based Image Encryption Using Modified Nonlinear Chaotic Maps

This work proposes an efficient quasigroup based image encryption using modified nonlinear chaotic maps, which has good scrambling properties. There are three sets of nonlinear chaotic maps used in the proposed scheme to get good confusion and diffusion properties. The scheme includes, permutation and XORing with first chaotic key. Quasigroup byte substitution uses the second secret key and performs substitution operation to convert the input into cipher. Horizontal diffusion by XORing with adjacent pixels, nonlinear diffusion and vertical diffusion b y XORing with adjacent pixels enhance sensitivity to plaintext and key thereby improve the security level. The security and performance analysis of the proposed image encryption has been performed using the histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, differential analysis and key space analysis. Results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is secure, demonstrates the large key space, the good sensitivity to the key, the perfect confusion and diffusion properties. It may be used for the secure image communication applications.

Sam, I. Shatheesh; Devaraj, P.; Bhuvaneswaran, R. S.

2014-11-01

255

An Implementation of BLOWFISH Encryption Algorithm using KERBEROS Authentication Mechanism

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sensitive information stored on computers and transmitted over the Internet need to ensure information security and safety measures. Without our knowledge, the Intruders sneak into the systems, misuse it and even create back doors to our computer systems. Thus, there must not be any compromise in securing our resources. Hence, Cryptography is mainly used to ensure secrecy. Access Control Policy is used for securing the resources as initial state, which determines the potential threats, the solutions and the ways of implementation of the security. Various security solutions to block the unauthenticated users starts from a series mechanism from Firewalls to Kerberos, most of them need a strong cryptographic base. Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange ultimately which tend to the security of information. Among which Kerberos authentication promises most secured and unbreakable. It works on the basis of granting tickets for each session and resource access. This paper includes a mechanism that implements the Blowfish algorithm with a 64 bit length key with an improved security assurance.

Ch Panchamukesh

2011-07-01

256

Robust Encryption Algorithm Based Sht in Wireless Sensor Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In bound applications, the locations of events reportable by a device network have to be compelled to stay anonymous. That is, unauthorized observers should be unable to notice the origin of such events by analyzing the network traffic. I analyze 2 forms of downsides: Communication overhead and machine load problem. During this paper, I gift a brand new framework for modeling, analyzing, and evaluating obscurity in device networks. The novelty of the proposed framework is twofold: initial, it introduces the notion of “interval indistinguishability” and provides a quantitative live to model obscurity in wireless device networks; second, it maps supply obscurity to the applied mathematics downside I showed that the present approaches for coming up with statistically anonymous systems introduce correlation in real intervals whereas faux area unit unrelated. I show however mapping supply obscurity to consecutive hypothesis testing with nuisance Parameters ends up in changing the matter of exposing non-public supply data into checking out associate d egree applicable knowledge transformation that removes or minimize the impact of the nuisance data victimization sturdy cryptography algorithmic rule. By doing therefore, I remodel the matter of analyzing real valued sample points to binary codes, that opens the door for committal to writing theory to be incorporated into the study of anonymous etworks. In existing work, unable to notice unauthorized observer in network traffic. However our work in the main supported enhances their supply obscurity against correlation check. the most goal of supply location privacy is to cover the existence of real events.

Uma.G

2014-06-01

257

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper we present an architecture to implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES Rijndael algorithm in reconfigurable hardware. Rijndael algorithm is the new AES adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST to replace existing Data Encryption Standard (DES. Compared to software implementation, hardware implementation of Rijndael algorithm provides more physical security as well as higher speed. The first factor to be considered on implementing AES is the application. High-speed designs are not always desired solutions. In some applications, such as mobile computing and wireless communications, smaller throughput is demanded. Architecture presented uses memory modules (i.e., Dual-Port RAMs of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs for storing all the results of the fixed operations (i.e., Look-Up Table, and Digital Clock Manager (DCM that we used effectively to optimize the execution time, reduce design area and facilitates implementation in FPGA. The architecture consumes only 326 slices plus 3 Block Random Access Memory (BRAMs. The throughput obtained was of 270 Mbits/s. The target hardware used in this paper is Spartan XC3S500E FPGA from Xilinx. Results are presented and compared with other reference implementations, as known from the technical literature. The presented architecture can be used in a wide range of embedded applications.

Samir El Adib

2012-06-01

258

Fully phase image encryption using double random-structured phase masks in gyrator domain.

We propose a method for fully phase image encryption based on double random-structured phase mask encoding in the gyrator transform (GT) domain. The security of the system is strengthened by parameters used in the construction of a structured phase mask (SPM) based on a devil's vortex Fresnel lens (DVFL). The input image is recovered using the correct parameters of the SPMs, transform orders of the GT, and conjugate of the random phase masks. The use of a DVFL-based SPM enhances security by increasing the key space for encryption, and also overcomes the problem of axis alignment associated with an optical setup. The proposed scheme can also be implemented optically. The computed values of mean squared error between the retrieved and the original image show the efficacy of the proposed scheme. We have also investigated the scheme's sensitivity to the encryption parameters, and robustness against occlusion and multiplicative Gaussian noise attacks. PMID:25322235

Singh, Hukum; Yadav, A K; Vashisth, Sunanda; Singh, Kehar

2014-10-01

259

Cryptanalysis and improvement of a digital image encryption method with chaotic map lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A digital image encryption scheme using chaotic map lattices has been proposed recently. In this paper, two fatal flaws of the cryptosystem are pointed out. According to these two drawbacks, cryptanalysts could recover the plaintext by applying the chosen plaintext attack. Therefore, the proposed cryptosystem is not secure enough to be used in the image transmission system. Experimental results show the feasibility of the attack. As a result, we make some improvements to the encryption scheme, which can completely resist our chosen plaintext attack. (general)

260

Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security. (general)

261

Optical encryption of unlimited-size images based on ptychographic scanning digital holography.

The ptychographic scanning operation is introduced into digital holography to expand the field-of-view (FOV). An optical image encryption method based on this technique is further proposed and analyzed. The plaintext is moved sequentially in the way of ptychographic scanning and corresponding pairs of phase-shifted interferograms are recorded as ciphertexts. Then the holographic processing and the ptychographic iterative reconstruction are both employed to retrieve the plaintext. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed system possesses high security level and wide FOV. The proposed method might also be used for other potential applications, such as three-dimensional information encryption and image hiding. PMID:25090206

Gao, Qiankun; Wang, Yali; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

2014-07-20

262

Optical color image encryption based on computer generated hologram and chaotic theory

A novel technique of optical color image encryption and decryption based on computer generated hologram (CGH) and chaotic theory is proposed. The tri-color separated images of an image to be encrypted are encoded with three random phase arrays constructed by a chaotic sequence of the deterministic non-linear system, respectively. Then Burch's encoding method using the modified off-axis reference beam is adopted to fabricate the CGH as the encryption image. A clear original color image can be reconstructed as long as the correct initial value of chaotic sequence and the correct system parameters are given. The initial value of chaotic function with a very small change will lead to the generation of an entirely different chaotic sequences. As a result, the random phase array changes dramatically and the original image cannot be recovered rightly. Serving as the secret keys, the initial values of chaotic sequence and system parameters reduce the amount of the key data. And the digital encryption image is also more favorable to be stored and transmitted. The feasibility and its robustness against occlusion and noise attacks are verified by numerical simulations.

Liu, Jian; Jin, Hongzhen; Ma, Lihong; Li, Yong; Jin, Weimin

2013-10-01

263

We propose an image encryption and authentication verification scheme based on fractional nonconventional joint transform correlator architecture. For image encryption, an input image bonded with a random phase mask (RPM) and a separate key phase mask (another RPM) are fractional Fourier transformed independently. The obtained spectra are multiplexed together to what is called as the encrypted fractional joint power spectrum (EFJPS). For decryption, the key phase mask is fractional transformed and multiplied with the EFJPS and its inverse FRT is calculated. To check the quality of the decrypted image, the mean square signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) have been calculated. For security authentication verification, the input image bonded with an RPM and a separate key phase mask (identical RPM) are fractional Fourier transformed with same orders independently. The EFJPS is now fractional transformed with optimum fractional order, which gives a sharp autocorrelation peak in the output, if identical RPMs are used during the encryption process. Parameters such as SNR and peak-to-sidelobe ratio have been calculated to check the effectiveness of the proposed verification scheme. Computer simulation results with a binary text image and phase-encoded text image support the proposed idea.

Rajput, Sudheesh K.; Nishchal, Naveen K.

2012-10-01

264

A double-image encryption is proposed based on the discrete fractional random transform and logistic maps. First, an enlarged image is composited from two original images and scrambled in the confusion process which consists of a number of rounds. In each round, the pixel positions of the enlarged image are relocated by using cat maps which are generated based on two logistic maps. Then the scrambled enlarged image is decomposed into two components. Second, one of two components is directly separated into two phase masks and the other component is used to derive the ciphertext image with stationary white noise distribution by using the cascaded discrete fractional random transforms generated based on the logistic map. The cryptosystem is asymmetric and has high resistance against to the potential attacks such as chosen plaintext attack, in which the initial values of logistic maps and the fractional orders are considered as the encryption keys while two decryption keys are produced in the encryption process and directly related to the original images. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed encryption scheme. PMID:24921762

Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli; Hei, Xinhong

2014-05-01

265

A fast image encryption system based on chaotic maps with finite precision representation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption system with stream cipher structure is proposed. In order to achieve a fast throughput and facilitate hardware realization, 32-bit precision representation with fixed point arithmetic is assumed. The major core of the encryption system is a pseudo-random keystream generator based on a cascade of chaotic maps, serving the purpose of sequence generation and random mixing. Unlike the other existing chaos-based pseudo-random number generators, the proposed keystream generator not only achieves a very fast throughput, but also passes the statistical tests of up-to-date test suite even under quantization. The overall design of the image encryption system is to be explained while detail cryptanalysis is given and compared with some existing schemes

266

We propose a novel interference-based method for multiple-image encryption by phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing. The information of multiple images can be encrypted into two POMs (i.e. ciphertexts) without any iterative process. For correct decryption, one should hold the ciphertexts as well as the private keys, which are also POMs obtained analytically. Moreover, the bothersome silhouette problem can also be thoroughly resolved during the generation procedure of these POMs. The retrieved images by this method are totally free from the cross-talk noise that puzzles previous interference-based multiple-image encryption methods. Numerical results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

Qin, Yi; Jiang, Hualong; Gong, Qiong

2014-11-01

267

Joint Watermarking and Encryption of Color Images in the Fibonacci-Haar Domain

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel method for watermarking and ciphering color images, based on the joint use of a key-dependent wavelet transform with a secure cryptographic scheme, is presented. The system allows to watermark encrypted data without requiring the knowledge of the original data and also to cipher watermarked data without damaging the embedded signal. Since different areas of the proposed transform domain are used for encryption and watermarking, the extraction of the hidden information can be performed without deciphering the cover data and it is also possible to decipher watermarked data without removing the watermark. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Federica Battisti

2009-01-01

268

Multidimensional Z-Matrix with Control Parameters and Its Applications in Image Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An n-dimensional Z-matrix with control parameters is presented, and its periodicity and chaos are testified. Experimental results show that the proposed Z-matrix has a long period and changeable periodicity with different dimensions. Some examples of image encryption with a Z-matrix of different dimensions are listed for demonstrating its applications. (general)

269

A Reversible Image Steganographic Algorithm Based on Slantlet Transform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present a reversible imagesteganography technique based on Slantlet transform (SLTand using advanced encryption standard (AES method. Theproposed method first encodes the message using two sourcecodes, viz., Huffman codes and a self-synchronizing variablelength code known as, T-code. Next, the encoded binarystring is encrypted using an improved AES method. Theencrypted data so obtained is embedded in the middle andhigh frequency sub-bands, obtained by applying 2-level ofSLT to the cover-image, using thresholding method. Theproposed algorithm is compared with the existing techniquesbased on wavelet transform. The Experimental results showthat the proposed algorithm can extract hidden message andrecover the original cover image with low distortion. Theproposed algorithm offers acceptable imperceptibility,security (two-layer security and provides robustness againstGaussian and Salt-n-Pepper noise attack.

Sushil Kumar

2013-07-01

270

Ultrasonic strain imaging algorithms

This dissertation is focused on developing ultrasonic strain imaging algorithms. Strain is estimated in two stages. First, the displacement function is estimated by comparing two ultrasonic scans before and after an externally applied compression. Then, the axial strain is estimated from the displacement function. Realizing the performance and the computational cost of the strain imaging algorithm are directly related to how the displacement function is modeled, we developed three strain imaging algorithms that are different in how the displacement function is modeled. In the adaptive block matching algorithm, the displacement is modeled as a zeroth order Taylor series. The major advantage of this algorithm is that it allows us to estimate strain in real-time. In the deformable mesh algorithm and the DCT algorithm, the displacement function is modeled as the first order Taylor series and cosine series, respectively. The increased complexity in the displacement modeling results in the improved spatial resolution, contrast, and noise of estimated strain images. We compared the performance of these algorithms by measuring the contrast to noise ratio, the modulation transfer function, and the noise equivalent quanta from the strain images.

Zhu, Yanning

271

A novel technique, based on a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGSA) in the Fresnel-transform (FrT) domain, is proposed to encode a color image into three phase-only functions (POFs) for three separated channels: red (R), green (G), and blue (B). The decomposed three RBG channels can avoid the interference of crosstalks efficiently. In proposed decryption process, a color image can be promptly reconstructed by summing of the three decrypted RGB images after the created three POFs which are decrypted one by one. In this paper, all the created three POFs and the system parameters of FrT can be used as the keys for increasing security that are also demonstrated. The computer application simulations to the partial color encryption and decryption are given to validate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Hwang, Hone-Ene

2012-03-01

272

A new optical interference-based multiple-image encryption using spherical wave illumination and gyrator transform is proposed. In this proposal, each secret color image is divided into normalized red, green, and blue component images and independently encoded into corresponding phase-only component images. Then each phase-only component image of all the images are combined together to produce a single-phase-only component image as an input component image, which is bounded with a random phase mask to form a complex image. The two phase-only masks are analytically obtained from the inverse Fourier transformation of the complex image. The host image is chosen as the first phase-only mask, and the complex image hidden in the host image is regarded as the second phase-only mask. The spherical wave is generated to simultaneously illuminate phase-only masks. Then two modulated masks are gyrator transformed. The corresponding transformed images are phase truncated to obtain encrypted images and amplitude truncated to construct decryption keys. The decryption keys, angles of gyrator transform, wavelength and radius of the spherical wave, and individual decryption keys for authorized users are sensitive keys, which enhance the security layers of the system. The proposed system can be implemented by using optoelectronic architecture. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the flexibility of the system. PMID:25322374

Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

2014-10-10

273

Multiple-image encryption with spatial information prechoosing and cascaded blocks scrambling

Multiple-image encryption by spatial information prechoosing and cascaded blocks scrambling is proposed. The spatial information of secret multiple-image is pre-chosen in advance to effectively reduce the capacity burden of following encryption system. It is conveniently achieved by selecting or compressing the spatial information of multiple images to meet practical demands. Spatially pre-chosen multiple images are reformed to a new image. Cascaded double random phase encoding system is used to encrypt the new image, and the blocks scrambling is operated at the input of each sub-encoding system. Two main advantages are obtained: 1. Since the spatial information prechoosing enables the whole system to afford much larger information capacity, the effective multiplexing capacity is improved greatly; 2. The combination of blocks scrambling and cascaded random phase encoding not only ensure the much higher system security, but also save the key space and easy the key to save and release compared with the methods by each pixel scrambling. Computer simulations have shown the effectiveness of this method.

Yang, Yuhua; Wang, Yali; Shi, Yishi; Zhang, Jingjuan; Hao, Wei

2010-11-01

274

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public-key cryptosystems for quantum messages are considered from two aspects: public-key encryption and public-key authentication. Firstly, we propose a general construction of quantum public-key encryption scheme, and then construct an information-theoretic secure instance. Then, we propose a quantum public-key authentication scheme, which can protect the integrity of quantum messages. This scheme can both encrypt and authenticate quantum messages. It is information-theore...

Liang, Min; Yang, Li

2012-01-01

275

A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.

John Justin M

2012-03-01

276

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedded system design is becoming complex day by day, combined with reduced time-to-market deadlines. Due to the constraints and complexity in the design of embedded systems, it incorporates hardware / software co-design methodology. An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software parts integrated together on a common platform. A soft-core processor which is a hardware description language (HDL model of a specific processor (CPU can be customized for any application and can be synthesized for FPGA target. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the development environment for embedded systems using LEON 3 and NIOS II Processor, both soft core processors. LEON3 is an open source processor and NIOS II is a commercial processor. Case study under consideration is Rijindael’s Encryption Algorithm (AES. It is a standard encryption algorithm used to encrypt huge bulk of data and for security. Using the co-design methodology the algorithm is implemented on two different platforms. One using the open source and other using the commercial processor and the comparative results of the two different platforms is stated in terms of its performance parameters. The algorithm is partitioned in hardware and software parts and integrated on a common platform.

Meghana Hasamnis

2012-06-01

277

VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some function which can recognize and correct the error in the received data. Hamming code is one of such forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper the algorithm for hamming code is discussed and then implementation of it in verilog is done to get the results. Hamming code is an upgrading over parity check method. Here a code is implemented in verilog in which 4-bit of information data is transmitted with 3-redundancy bits. In order to do that the proposed method uses a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. It is known that FPGA provides quick implementation and fast hardware verification. It gives facilities of reconfiguring the design construct unlimited number of times. The HDL code is written in verilog, Gate Level Circuit and Layout is implemented in CMOS technology.

Fazal Noorbasha

2014-04-01

278

A Novel Statistical Analysis of Chaotic S-box in Image Encryption

The S-box is utilized within different block ciphers and the complexity of encryption basically relies on the quality of S-box. The quality of S-box could be measured by breaking down its statistical properties. The S-box is the main non-linear component in different block ciphers fit for creating confusion. Numerous S-boxes have been proposed with comparative algebraic and statistical properties. Thusly, it is off and on again hard to pick S-box for a specific application. The performances of these S-boxes vary and rely on the way of information and their applications. In this paper; we have proposed a novel chaotic S-box by applying affine transformation to study their strengths in order to determine their suitability in image encryption. The proposed chaotic S-box is tested for different criterion such mean squared error, root mean squared error, mean absolute error, peak signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, universal image quality index and enhancement error. The results of these analyses are further examined and are used to determine the appropriateness of S-box to image encryption applications.

Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq

2014-09-01

279

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In any wireless communication security is crucial during data transmission. The encryption and decryption of data is the major role in the wireless communication for security of the data. Encryption lgorithms are used to ensure the security in the transmission channels. Similarly the area and the power consumption is anothermajor thing to be viewed since most of the mobile terminals are battery operated. So a mobile terminal which has an encryption unit with less area and power consumption is appreciated. This paper deals with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES which works on a 128 bit data encrypting it with 128,192,256 bits of keys (ciphers in a single hardware unit.

L.Thulasimani,

2010-07-01

280

Blowfish Encryption Using Key Secured Block Based Transformation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Encryption is a process of converting a one form of information in another form which is hard to understand .Now a days, a large amount of information get transfer with wired or wireless network. Information contents may be textual data or image data. Therefore encryption of text or image is most important during secure transmission of information. Images are widely used in several processes like military field, medical imaging, video conferencing where confidentiality about image information is very important. As we know, pixels in plain image are strongly correlated. Image information get perceive due to this high correlation. Most of available image encryption algorithms are used for encryption of pixel information only but key secured block based transformation technique change the position of pixels and provide low correlation among image pixels so that less amount of information get perceived . The block transformation algorithm divides the image in to no. of blocks and shuffles their position of blocks to decrease the Correlation and increase its entropy value. Divide an image in more no. of blocks gives the more security of image. Transformation table will decide new positions of blocks. The aim of Key secured block transformation is to enhance the security of an image. Here, key provide a security for transformation table .Different keys generated for different types of image so ,if input image data changed automatically key will also get change. Here key is used for two purposes, one for to build transformation table and second to encrypt image data. So as key changed, transformation table will also get change and image get transformed with this new transformation table. Block Transformed image is then passed for encryption process. Here we used Blowfish image encryption algorithm because of variable and longest key size. At the receiver side these blocks are retransformed in to their original position and performed a decryption process which gives the original image.

Mrs.Dhanashri M.Torgalkar

2014-03-01

281

Medical Images Watermarking Algorithm Based on Improved DCT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Targeting at the incessant securities problems of digital information management system in modern medical system, this paper presents the robust watermarking algorithm for medical images based on Arnold transformation and DCT. The algorithm first deploys the scrambling technology to encrypt the watermark information and then combines it with the visual feature vector of the image to generate a binary logic series through the hash function. The sequence as taken as keys and stored in the third party to obtain ownership of the original image. Having no need for artificial selection of a region of interest, no capacity constraint, no participation of the original medical image, such kind of watermark extracting solves security and speed problems in the watermark embedding and extracting. The simulation results also show that the algorithm is simple in operation and excellent in robustness and invisibility. In a word, it is more practical compared with other algorithms

Yv-fan SHANG

2013-12-01

282

In this paper, we analyze the problems of vulnerability in the original multi chaotic systems-based image encryption scheme proposed by Huang and Nien [Optics Communications 282 (2009) 2123-2127]. A self-synchronizing method is proposed as enhancement measures to solve the problems and defeat cryptanalysis. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the proposed encryption scheme is much more secure than the original one. At the same time, it holds the merits of the original scheme.

Xiao, Di; Shih, Frank Y.

2010-08-01

283

In this article, a multiple-image encryption method based on the optical interference principle and phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing is proposed. During the encryption process, each secret image is encoded into two analytically obtained POMs and one computer-generated random POM, in which no iterative computation is required. The analytically obtained POMs taken from different secret images are then synthesized by POM multiplexing and further encoded into two complex ciphertext images. The silhouette problem that exists in the earlier interference principle-based encryption approaches is totally resolved by the proposal. Both digital and optical means can be used for decryption. The crosstalk effect between the secret images will not appear in the decrypted results by using the proposed system. Numerical simulations have been given to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposal. We also discuss briefly the influence of information compression on the quality of decrypted images. PMID:24085198

Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

2013-10-01

284

A Fresnelet-Based Encryption of Medical Images using Arnold Transform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical images are commonly stored in digital media and transmitted via Internet for certain uses. If a medical information image alters, this can lead to a wrong diagnosis which may create a serious health problem. Moreover, medical images in digital form can easily be modified by wiping off or adding small pieces of information intentionally for certain illegal purposes. Hence, the reliability of medical images is an important criterion in a hospital information system. In this paper, the Fresnelet transform is employed along with appropriate handling of the Arnold transform and the discrete cosine transform to provide secure distribution of medical images. This method presents a new data hiding system in which steganography and cryptography are used to prevent unauthorized data access. The experimental results exhibit high imperceptibility for embedded images and significant encryption of information images.

Muhammad Nazeer

2013-04-01

285

Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes.

Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

2012-01-01

286

A Security Enhanced Approach For Digital Image Steganography Using DWT And RC4 Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the existence of data in another transmission medium to achieve secret communication . Steganography method used in this paper is based on biometrics, ie biometric steganography. And the biometric feature used to implement steganography is skin tone region of images. Here secret data is embedded within skin region of image that will provide an excellent secure location for data hiding. Before embedding secret data is needed to be encrypted using stream cipher encryption scheme RC4.Skin color tone detection is performed by using HSV color space.DWT is the frequency domain in which this biometric steganography is implemented.Secret data is embedded in one of the high frequency subband by tracing the number of skin pixels in that band. . Different embedding steps are applied on the cropped region of the image.ie value of this cropped region will act as a key at the decoder side. This study shows that by adopting an object oriented steganography mechanism, in the sense that, we track skin tone objects in image, we get a higher security and satisfactory PSNR obtained

Amritha.G#1, Meethu Varkey

2013-06-01

287

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, speed, compression friendliness, format compliance and cryptographic security is presented.

Jolly Shah

2011-03-01

288

Image Steganography Using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Blowfish Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is one of the methods of secret communication that hides the existence of message so that a viewer cannot detect the transmission of message and hence cannot try to decrypt it. It is the process of embedding secret data in the cover image without significant changes to the cover image. A cryptography algorithm is used to convert the secret messages to an unreadable form before embedding. These algorithms keep the messages from stealing, destroying from unintended users on the internet and hence provide security. Cryptography was introduced for making data secure. But alone cryptography cannot provide a better security approach because the scrambled message is still available to the eavesdropper. There arises a need of data hiding. So the propose technique use a combination of steganography and cryptography for improving the security. The proposed technique use Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Blowfish algorithm. The proposed method calculates LSB of each DC coefficient and replace with each bit of secret message. The proposed embedding method using DCT with LSB obtained better PSNR values. Blowfish algorithm is used for encryption and decryption of text message using a secret-key block cipher. This technique makes sure that the message has been encrypted before hiding it into a cover image. Blowfish is an improvement over DES, 3DES, etc designed to increase security and to improve performance.

Monika Gunjal

2014-05-01

289

Fractional Fourier plane image encryption technique using radial hilbert-, and Jigsaw transform

A new method for image encryption using integral order radial Hilbert transform (RHT) filter in the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) domain has been proposed. The technique is implemented using the popular double random phase encoding method in the fractional Fourier domain. The random phase masks (RPMs), integral orders of the RHT, fractional orders of FRT, and indices of the Jigsaw transform (JT) have been used as keys for encryption and decryption. Simulation results have been presented and the schematic representation for optical implementation has been proposed. The mean-square-error and signal-to-noise ratio between the decrypted image and the input image have been calculated for the correct as well as incorrect orders of the RHT. Effect of occlusion and noise on the performance of the proposed scheme has also been studied. The robustness of the technique has been verified against attack using partial windows of the correct random phase masks. Similar investigations have also been carried out for the chosen-, and the known-plain-text attacks.

Joshi, Madhusudan; Shakher, Chandra; Singh, Kehar

2010-07-01

290

An Attack on Wavelet Tree Shuffling Encryption Schemes

With the ubiquity of the internet and advances in technology, especially digital consumer electronics, demand for online multimedia services is ever increasing. While it's possible to achieve a great reduction in bandwidth utilization of multimedia data such as image and video through compression, security still remains a great concern. Traditional cryptographic algorithms/systems for data security are often not fast enough to process the vast amounts of data generated by the multimedia applications to meet the realtime constraints. Selective encryption is a new scheme for multimedia content protection. It involves encrypting only a portion of the data to reduce computational complexity(the amount of data to encrypt)while preserving a sufficient level of security. To achieve this, many selective encryption schemes are presented in different literatures. One of them is Wavelet Tree Shuffling. In this paper we assess the security of a wavelet tree shuffling encryption scheme.

Assegie, Samuel; Salama, Paul; King, Brian

291

Encryption And Decryption Using One Pad Time Algorithm In Mac Layer

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides standard instructions on how to protect messages, text, audio, video with one-time pad encryption.The encryption is performed with nothing more than a pencil and paper, but provides absolute message security. If properly applied, it is mathematically impossible for any eavesdropper to decrypt or break the message without the proper key. Although the Internet can be used to provide high connectivity between two parties, it does not always provide strong protection for private communications. Here we describe a strong cryptographic solution to this problem using one-time pads.

SHACHISHARMA

2013-06-01

292

An Improved Image Encryption Algorithm based on Chaotic System

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The security of stream cipher, which is known as one of the main cipher techniques, is dependents completely on the quality of generated pseudo-stochastic sequences. Chaotic systems can produce the pseudo-random sequences with good randomness, therefore, these systems are suitable to t...

Zhengquan Xu; Jing Sun; Shubo Liu

2009-01-01

293

Triple-DES block of 96 Bits: An application to colour image encryption

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to international standards, FIPS PUB 146-3, the cryptographic system Triple-Data Encryption Standard (Triple DES) encrypts blocks of 64 bits. However, it isn’t difficult to extend the block to 96-bit encryption, which is called Triple-DES-96. This change includes a modification to Triple-DES cryptosystems that appeared recently as the Advanced Encryption Standard - AES - FIPS PUB 197. Including encryption, file M (with m bits) is achieved in less time than Triple-DES. Developing T...

Renteria-marquez, C.; Flores-carapia, R.; Silva-garcia, V. M.

2013-01-01

294

New Way for Encryption Data Using Hourglas

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, there are many encryption algorithms to protect information. Data confidentiality is one of themost important functions of encryption algorithms, it means when the transferring data between differentsystems is vague for unauthorized systems or people. Moreover Encryption algorithms must maintain dataintegrity and provide availability for information. New encryption methods cause the attackers cannot simplyaccess to the information and do not allow discovering the relationship betwee...

Hamid Mehdi

2013-01-01

295

Key rotation multiplexing for multiple-image optical encryption in the Fresnel domain

We introduce a key rotation multiplexing method into the double random phase encoding system for multiple-image optical encryption in the Fresnel domain. Each plaintext is encoded into a stationary-white-noise ciphertext by the same only phase mask located at the input plane, and another only phase mask with a certain rotation angle located at the transform plane. All ciphertexts encoded from different plaintexts are added together to produce a final ciphertext, which serves as a single data source for different plaintexts decryption. Thus, the mask located at transform plane can be utilized to decrypt different plaintexts with a certain rotation angle. Also, we perform computer simulations to investigate how the quantization level of decrypted key and CCD, respectively, affect the decrypted quality and the number of images that can be multiplexed.

Yong-Liang, Xiao; Su, Xianyu; Li, Sikun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zeng, Shuguang

2011-06-01

296

Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-15

297

Selective object encryption for privacy protection

This paper introduces a new recursive sequence called the truncated P-Fibonacci sequence, its corresponding binary code called the truncated Fibonacci p-code and a new bit-plane decomposition method using the truncated Fibonacci pcode. In addition, a new lossless image encryption algorithm is presented that can encrypt a selected object using this new decomposition method for privacy protection. The user has the flexibility (1) to define the object to be protected as an object in an image or in a specific part of the image, a selected region of an image, or an entire image, (2) to utilize any new or existing method for edge detection or segmentation to extract the selected object from an image or a specific part/region of the image, (3) to select any new or existing method for the shuffling process. The algorithm can be used in many different areas such as wireless networking, mobile phone services and applications in homeland security and medical imaging. Simulation results and analysis verify that the algorithm shows good performance in object/image encryption and can withstand plaintext attacks.

Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Cherukuri, Ravindranath; Agaian, Sos

2009-05-01

298

New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protecting data is a very old art and wide use since the Egyptian when they identify the 1st encryption method in this world, the spiciest people categorize protecting data under computer forensic and others locate it under network security, cryptography methods are the backbone of this art, nowadays many of new techniques for the attacker's beings develops, a lot of methods for information protecting start dropping down such as RSA and stander encryption methods, in the same time a new methods has been appeared such as Quantum cryptography, the new methods has faced problems in the key distribution or key management and some time such as RSA there is a function may estimate the keys, In this paper we will make a comparative study between the key management distribution methods, in fact we will talk about QKD Encryption in the fiber optic area vice verse the KDM in the normal networks, for instant there are two known methods, KDM "Diffi- Hellman" and XKMS.

Bilal Bahaa Zaidan

2009-11-01

299

A Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Color Image Based on DWT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient digital watermark embedding algorithm for color image was presented in this paper, which is based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT and the spectral characteristics of human vision system. Firstly, three color separations was performed for color image, and color components of color image were transformed by DWT. Secondly, the embedding position of the watermark was confirmed by comparing the energy value of the low frequency sub-band in the transformed blue component and green component. Thirdly, the watermark was made Arnold Transform for encryption and was embedded in the color component with a larger power. Finally, this paper made the simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of the watermark. The simulation results showed that the embedded watermark had good invisibility and robustness for the common image processing, such as filtering, noise, especially compression and cropping.

Huming Gao

2013-06-01

300

In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption.

Chen, Jun-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Yushu

2014-12-01

301

Simple Encryption/Decryption Application

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an Encryption/Decryption application that is able to work with any type of file; for example: image files, data files, documentation filesÃ¢â‚¬Â¦etc. The method of encryption is simple enough yet powerful enough to fit the needs of students and staff in a small institution. The application uses simple key generation method of random number generation and combination. The final encryption is a binary one performed through rotation of bits and XOR operation applied on each block of data in any file using a symmetric decimal key. The key generation and Encryption are all done by the system itself after clicking the encryption button with transparency to the user. The same encryption key is also used to decrypt the encrypted binary file.

Majdi Al-qdah

2007-06-01

302

In this paper, we have described a simple and secure double random phase encoding and decoding system to encrypt and decrypt a two-dimensional gray scale image. We have used jigsaw transforms of the second random phase mask and the encrypted image. The random phase mask placed in the Fourier plane is broken into independent non-overlapping segments by applying the jigsaw transform. To make the system more secure, a jigsaw transform on the encrypted image is also carried out. The encrypted image is also broken into independent non-overlapping segments. The jigsaw transform indices of random phase code and the encrypted image form the keys for the successful retrieval of the data. Encrypting with this technique makes it almost impossible to retrieve the image without using both the right keys. Results of computer simulation have been presented in support of the proposed idea. Mean square error (MSE) between the decrypted and the original image has also been calculated in support of the technique.

Singh, Madan; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Kehar

2008-10-01

303

Optical Encryption with Jigsaw Transform using Matlab

This article will describe an optical encryption technical of images which it is proposed in an analogical and digital way. The development of the technical to a digital level, it is made to implementing algorithms (routines) in MATLAB. We will propose a functional diagram to the described analogical development from which designated the optical systems associated with each functional block. Level of security that the jigsaw algorithms provide applied on an image, which has been decomposed into its bit-planes, is significantly better if they are applied on an image that has not been previously decomposed.

Giraldo, Leidy Marcela

2012-01-01

304

A Novel Steganographic Scheme Based on Hash Function Coupled With AES Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present scenario the use of images increased extremely in the cyber world so that we can easily transfer data with the help of these images in a secured way. Image steganography becomes important in this manner. Steganography and cryptography are the two techniques that are often confused with each other. The input and output of steganogra phy looks alike, but for cryptography the output will be in an encrypted form which always draws attraction to the attacker. This paper combines both steganography and cryptography so that attacker doesn’t know about the existence of message and the message itself is encrypted to ensure more security. The textual data entered by the user is encrypted using AES algorithm. After encryption, the encrypted data is stored in the colour image by using a hash based algorithm. Most of the steganographic algorithms available today is suitable for a specific image format and these algorithms suffers from poor quality of the embedded image. The proposed work does not corrupt the images quality in any form. The striking feature is that this algorithm is suitable for almost all image formats e.g.: jpeg/jpg, Bitmap, TIFF and GIF

Rinu Tresa M J

2014-04-01

305

Image Compression Algorithms Using Dct

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression is the application of Data compression on digital images. The discrete cosine transform (DCT is a technique for converting a signal into elementary frequency components. It is widely used in image compression. Here we develop some simple functions to compute the DCT and to compress images. An image compression algorithm was comprehended using Matlab code, and modified to perform better when implemented in hardware description language. The IMAP block and IMAQ block of MATLAB was used to analyse and study the results of Image Compression using DCT and varying co-efficients for compression were developed to show the resulting image and error image from the original images. Image Compression is studied using 2-D discrete Cosine Transform. The original image is transformed in 8-by-8 blocks and then inverse transformed in 8-by-8 blocks to create the reconstructed image. The inverse DCT would be performed using the subset of DCT coefficients. The error image (the difference between the original and reconstructed image would be displayed. Error value for every image would be calculated over various values of DCT co-efficients as selected by the user and would be displayed in the end to detect the accuracy and compression in the resulting image and resulting performance parameter would be indicated in terms of MSE , i.e. Mean Square Error.

Er. Abhishek Kaushik

2014-04-01

306

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ZK111 is a fully homomorphic public key encryption algorithm which runs in quadratic time. It's security solely relies upon a very unique 'color-blind' function which is used to create p-adic ring homomorphism.

Khan, Zaryab

2012-01-01

307

A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding

Cryptography is always very important in data origin authentications, entity authentication, data integrity and confidentiality. In recent years, a variety of chaotic cryptographic schemes have been proposed. These schemes has typical structure which performed the permutation and the diffusion stages, alternatively. The random number generators are intransitive in cryptographic schemes and be used in the diffusion functions of the image encryption for diffused pixels of plain image. In this paper, we propose a chaotic encryption scheme based on pseudorandom bit padding that the bits be generated by a novel logistic pseudorandom image algorithm. To evaluate the security of the cipher image of this scheme, the key space analysis, the correlation of two adjacent pixels and differential attack were performed. This scheme tries to improve the problem of failure of encryption such as small key space and level of security.

Sadra, Yaser; Fard, Zahra Arasteh

2012-01-01

308

Robust Watermarking Framework with DCT Based Encryption

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since several years,, the protection of multimedia data is becoming extremely important. The protection of the multimedia data might be performed with encryption or data hiding algorithms. To address the transmission time, information compression is required. If you take benefit from the character of cryptographic schemes and digital watermarking, the copyright of multimedia contents can possibly be well protected. Our objective will be to give access to the outcomes of one's image integrity ...

Sri Lakshmi, L.; Sk, Salma Begum

2013-01-01

309

Unicity Distance of Quantum Encryption Protocols

Shannon's concept of the unicity distance is present for classical encryption protocols, we attempt to develop it into the quantum context. Firstly we present a classification of the private key encryption protocols, there are five kinds of them. Then we present the definition of the unicity distance of encryption protocols whose plaintext space and key space are both set by classical bits and the algorithm is a quantum algorithm, we call this CCQ-unicity distance. Based on this definition we show two quantum encryption protocols whose CCQ-unicity distance is finite but much bigger than Shannon's unicity distance, and show a quantum encryption protocol with infinite CCQ-unicity distance.

Xiang, Chong

2012-01-01

310

A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too

311

Using a Grid to Evaluate the Threat of Zombie Networks against Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large network of compromised computers currently available can be used to run complex algorithms in order to solve problems considered to be beyond current computational power. A distribute algorithm for obtaining prime number is presented. The algorithm was run in a grid system to obtain all prime numbers up to 240, measuring execution times and storage requirements. Extrapolating the results to larger limits it was found that using zombie networks it is possible to obtain prime number up to a limit of 250. The main conclusion is that using this technique, low transfer rates and storage capabilities are the current limiting factors, surpassing the limited computing power. (Author)

312

A New Public-Key Encryption Scheme Based on Non-Expansion Visual Cryptography and Boolean Operation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, most of the existing public-key encryption schemes are based on complex algorithms with heavy computations. In 1994, Naor and Shamir proposed a simple cryptography method for digital images called visual cryptography. Existing visual cryptography primitives can be considered as a special kind of secret-key cryptography that does not require heavy computations for encrypting and decrypting an image. In this paper, we propose a new public-key encryption scheme for image based on non-expansion visual cryptography and Boolean operation. The proposed scheme uses only Boolean operations and therefore requires comparatively lower computations.

Abdullah M. Jaafar

2010-07-01

313

Random Image Embedded in Videos using LSB Insertion Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Video Steganography is one of the important techniques for hiding user data in secure manner. Now – a – days the security of the data transmission in the broadcasting spectrum remains more complex to do. Hence there exists many techniques such as encryption of data, compression of data, Stegno of data were evolved. Video Steganography is a technique to hide any kind of files into a carrying Video. In this paper a new technique is proposed to hide the image file within the frames of video. Here, the frames chosen to embed the image are completely done in a random manner. Hence, the intruder while extracting the video to frames cannot able to detect the existence of the image placed within the frames. The sequential frame extraction also allows the user to randomly choose the frame to embed the image. On the other hand the video is considered as one of the better solution to embed the image since the image holds larger size. It provides higher security to the transmitted image. The LSB algorithm is used to embed the image to video frames.

K.Parvathi Divya

2014-07-01

314

A CHALLENGE IN HIDING ENCRYPTED MESSAGE IN LSB AND LSB+1 BIT POSITIONS IN VARIOUS Cover Files

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work basically shows us how one can hide information in encrypted form to any cover file such as .exe files, Microsoft office files, .dbf files, image files, audio files and video files. However, the size of the hidden message must be very small in comparison to cover file which is an executable file. So far no one has tried to hide information inside any executable file. To make the system fully secured we first encrypt the secret message using MSA algorithm (Nath et al.(1 and then we hide the encrypted message inside the cover file. introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message we have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1. For hiding secret message we have changed both LSB and LSB+1 bits of each byte of the cover file. A generalized method was proposed by Nath etal(2 where they embed the secret message without going for any encryption.. The MSA(1 algorithm introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. The MSA (1 method also incorporates the multiple encryption and decryption process. To initiate the MSA algorithm the user has to enter a text_key, which can be of 16 characters long. This text_key is used to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and the MSA algorithm ensures that any of the pattern may be used for encryption as well as decryption process. To hide encrypted secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 4 consecutive bytes of the cover file such that only LSB and LSB+1 bits are changed depending on the bit pattern of the encrypted secret message. To make system further secured one has to enter a password before the actual steganography process starts. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any non-standard cover file such as executable file, compiler, MS-Office files, Data Base files such as .DBF, text editor such as notepad plus the standard cover files such as image, audio, video files etc. The size of the secret message be very small in comparison to the executable cover file. The present method may be implemented in mobile network, Bank data transactions in government sectors, in police department.

Joyshree Nath

2011-05-01

315

Image Compression Using Harmony Search Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression techniques are important and useful in data storage and image transmission through the Internet. These techniques eliminate redundant information in an image which minimizes the physical space requirement of the image. Numerous types of image compression algorithms have been developed but the resulting image is still less than the optimal. The Harmony search algorithm (HSA, a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the music improvisation process of musicians, was applied as the underlying algorithm for image compression. Experiment results show that it is feasible to use the harmony search algorithm as an algorithm for image compression. The HSA-based image compression technique was able to compress colored and grayscale images with minimal visual information loss.

Ryan Rey M. Daga

2012-09-01

316

Design and Implementation proposed encryption and Hiding Secure Image In an Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography and cryptography are two general methods of transfer vital information in a top-secret method. When we hide the secure image the malicious want to distort this secure image itself. Therefore, the cryptography techniques used must be one of the most powerful techniques. Also cryptography and Steganography are the two major techniques for secret communication. The contents of secret message are scrambled in cryptography, where as in steganography the secret message is embedded into the cover medium. This paper presents hybrid method of cryptography which combined two nonlinear feedbacks register in one non-linear function to produce a strong cryptography technique. The cryptography method is working on the image resulted from the DWT which, used the orthogonal filter. In steganography part we have used most significant method to hide the secret true image into true image. To evaluate our system number of measurements used such as Mean Square Error, Normalized Cross Correlation, Average Difference, Structural Content, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR have been computed between the cover and stego image. Finally histogram plot of cover image, stego image, secret ciphered images have been plotted.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Baheja k.Shukur,

2014-02-01

317

High-flexibility optical encryption via aperture movement.

We present a new method using single-path beam-propagation-based imaging via aperture movement for optical encryption. The aperture is sequentially moved in the transverse domain, and a series of diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) are correspondingly recorded during optical encryption. An iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied for the decryption. It is illustrated that the proposed optical security system possesses several significant advantages, such as high flexibility and high security. The proposed optical security system also provides an effective channel to control information assignment and authentication. PMID:24150312

Chen, Wen; Situ, Guohai; Chen, Xudong

2013-10-21

318

Algorithms for Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the 1980s, there have been many research activities devoted to quantitatively characterizing and imaging human tissues based on sound speed, attenuation coefficient, density, nonlinear B/A parameter, etc., but those efforts have not yet reached the stage of commercialization. However, a new imaging technology termed elastography, which was proposed in the early 1980s, has recently been implemented in commercial clinical ultrasound scanners, and is now being used to diagnose prostates, breasts, thyroids, livers, blood vessels, etc., more quantitatively as a complementary adjunct modality to the conventional B-mode imaging. The purpose of this article is to introduce and review various elastographic algorithms for use in quasistatic or static compression type elasticity imaging modes. Most of the algorithms are based on the cross correlation or autocorrelation function methods, and the fundamental difference is that the time shift is estimated by changing the lag variable in the former, while it is directly obtained from the phase shift at a fixed lag in the latter.

319

Photoacoustic imaging with deconvolution algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impulse response of the ultrasonic transducer used for detection is crucial for photoacoustic imaging with high resolution. We demonstrate a reconstruction method that allows the optical absorption distribution of a sample to be reconstructed without knowing the impulse response of the ultrasonic transducer. A convolution relationship between photoacoustic signals measured by an ultrasound transducer and optical absorption distribution is developed. Based on this theory, the projection of the optical absorption distribution of a sample can be obtained directly by deconvolving the recorded PA signal originating from a point source out of that from the sample. And a modified filtered back projection algorithm is used to reconstruct the optical absorption distribution. We constructed a photoacoustic imaging system to validate the reconstruction method and the experimental results demonstrated that the reconstructed images agreed well with the original phantom samples. The spatial resolution of the system reaches 0.3 mm

320

Medical Image Protection using steganography by crypto-image as cover Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents securing the transmission of medical images. The presented algorithms will be applied to images. This work presents a new method that combines image cryptography, data hiding and Steganography technique for denoised and safe image transmission purpose. In This method we encrypt the original image with two shares mechanism encryption algorithm then embed the encrypted image with patient information by using lossless data embedding technique with data hiding method after that for more security. We apply steganography by encrypted image of any other medical image as cover image and embedded images as secrete image with the private key. In receiver side when the message is arrived then we apply the inverse methods in reverse order to get the original image and patient information and to remove noise we extract the image before the decryption of message. We have applied and showed the results of our method to medical images.

Vinay Pandey,

2012-09-01

321

Review on Reserving Room Before Encryption for Reversible Data Hiding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days there is very big problem of data hacking. There are number of techniques available in the industry to maintain security of data. So, data hiding in the encrypted image is comes into the picture, but the problem is the occurrence of distortion in original cover at the time of data extraction. That’s why Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it offers the excellent way so that the original cover can be recovered without any loss after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. In This paper we propose a novel method by reserving room before encryption (RRBE with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. Using RRBE we can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error and also we can increase the rate of data to be hidden. This is useful in the way that these method recovers the image with its original quality with improved PSNR ratio.

Akshata Malwad

2014-03-01

322

Hardware Implementation of Multimedia Encryption Techniques Using FPGA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia encryption algorithm has gain importance nowadays for copyright protection. Many multimedia encryption Techniques had been designed and tested software base. We will implement a library of hardware realization using FPGA of seven multimedia encryption algorithms. Simulation results had shown that blowfish provided the best result. In addition we proposed new encryption method based on cascaded techniques. This cascaded method provides a great improvement .The discussed techniques were tested on multimedia database.

M.A. Mohamed

2012-03-01

323

Practical algorithmic probability: an image inpainting example

Possibility of practical application of algorithmic probability is analyzed on an example of image inpainting problem that precisely corresponds to the prediction problem. Such consideration is fruitful both for the theory of universal prediction and practical image inpaiting methods. Efficient application of algorithmic probability implies that its computation is essentially optimized for some specific data representation. In this paper, we considered one image representation, namely spectral representation, for which an image inpainting algorithm is proposed based on the spectrum entropy criterion. This algorithm showed promising results in spite of very simple representation. The same approach can be used for introducing ALP-based criterion for more powerful image representations.

Potapov, Alexey; Scherbakov, Oleg; Zhdanov, Innokentii

2013-12-01

324

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents an advanced version of image encryption technique, which is itself an upgraded version of SD-EI image encryption method. In this new method, SD-EI Ver-2, there are more bit wise manipulations compared to original SD-EI method. The proposed method consist of three stages: 1 First, a number is generated from the password and each pixel of the image is converted to its equivalent eight binary number, and in that eight bit number, the number of bits, which are equal to the length of the number generated from the password, are rotated and reversed; 2 In second stage, extended hill cipher technique is applied by using involutory matrix, which is generated by same password used in second stage of encryption to make it more secure; 3 In last stage, we perform modified Cyclic Bit manipulation. First, the pixel values are again converted to their 8 bit binary format. Then 8 consecutive pixels are chosen and a 8X8 matrix is formed out of these 8 bit 8 pixels. After that, matrix cyclic operation is performed randomized number of times, which is again dependent on the password provided for encryption. After the generation of new 8 bit value of pixels, they are again converted to their decimal format and the new value is written in place of the old pixel value. SD-EI Ver-2 has been tested on different image files and the results were very satisfactory.

Somdip Dey

2012-01-01

325

Image Classification through integrated K- Means Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image Classification has a significant role in the field of medical diagnosis as well as mining analysis and is even used for cancer diagnosis in the recent years. Clustering analysis is a valuable and useful tool for image classification and object diagnosis. A variety of clustering algorithms are available and still this is a topic of interest in the image processing field. However, these clustering algorithms are confronted with difficulties in meeting the optimum quality requirements, automation and robustness requirements. In this paper, we propose two clustering algorithm combinations with integration of K-Means algorithm that can tackle some of these problems. Comparison study is made between these two novel combination algorithms. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms are very effective in producing desired clusters of the given data sets as well as diagnosis. These algorithms are very much useful for image classification as well as extraction of objects.

Balasubramanian Subbiah

2012-03-01

326

Image Classification Algorithm Based on Sparse Coding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the sparse coding and local features of images are combined to propose a new image classification algorithm. Firstly, online dictionary learning algorithm is employed to train the visual vocabulary based on SIFT features. Secondly, SIFT features are extracted from images and these features are encoded into sparse vector through visual vocabulary. Thirdly, the images are evenly divided into I*I areas and the sparse vectors in each area are pooled, getting a fixed dimension feature vector which represents the whole image. Lastly, to achieve the purpose of image classification, we use support vector machine classifier for learning and recognition. Results from the Caltech-101 and Scene-15 data sets show that, compared with the existing algorithm, the proposed algorithm has a better performance, which can effectively represent the feature of images and improve the accuracy of image classification greatly

Liping Wang

2014-01-01

327

CHAOS-BASED ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD

This thesis introduces a new chaos-based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES is a well-known encryption algorithm that was standardized by U.S National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) in 2001. The thesis investigates and explores the behavior of the AES algorithm by replacing two of its original modules, namely the S-Box and the Key Schedule, with two other chaos- based modules. Three chaos systems are considered in designing the new modules which are Lorenz system with multiplication nonlinearity, Chen system with sign modules nonlinearity, and 1D multiscroll system with stair case nonlinearity. The three systems are evaluated on their sensitivity to initial conditions and as Pseudo Random Number Generators (PRNG) after applying a post-processing technique to their output then performing NIST SP. 800-22 statistical tests. The thesis presents a hardware implementation of dynamic S-Boxes for AES that are populated using the three chaos systems. Moreover, a full MATLAB package to analyze the chaos generated S-Boxes based on graphical analysis, Walsh-Hadamard spectrum analysis, and image encryption analysis is developed. Although these S-Boxes are dynamic, meaning they are regenerated whenever the encryption key is changed, the analysis results show that such S-Boxes exhibit good properties like the Strict Avalanche Criterion (SAC) and the nonlinearity and in the application of image encryption. Furthermore, the thesis presents a new Lorenz-chaos-based key expansion for the AES. Many researchers have pointed out that there are some defects in the original key expansion of AES and thus have motivated such chaos-based key expansion proposal. The new proposed key schedule is analyzed and assessed in terms of confusion and diffusion by performing the frequency and SAC test respectively. The obtained results show that the new proposed design is more secure than the original AES key schedule and other proposed designs in the literature. The proposed design is then enhanced to increase the operating speed using the divide- and-conquer concept. Such enhancement, did not only make the AES algorithm more secure, but also enabled the AES to be faster, as it can now operate on higher frequencies, and more area-efficient.

Abdulwahed, Naif B.

2013-05-01

328

Algorithms for boundary detection in radiographic images

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Edge detecting techniques applied to radiographic digital images are discussed. Some algorithms have been implemented and the results are displayed to enhance boundary or hide details. An algorithm applied in a pre processed image with contrast enhanced is proposed and the results are discussed

329

Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurredness are the types of noise that occur during transmission and capturing. For denoising the image there are some algorithms which denoise the image.

Aarti

2014-05-01

330

Enhanced Throughput AES Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents our experience in implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. We have used 128 bit block size and 128 bit cipher key for the implementation. The AES also known as Rijndael algorithm is used to ensure security of transmission channels. Xilinx design tool 13.3 and Xilinx project navigator design tool are used for synthesis and simulation. Very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL is used for coding. The fully pipelined design was implemented on Virtex 6 FPGA family and a throughput of 49.3Gbits/s was achieved with an operational frequency of 384.793 MHz.

Kunal Lala

2012-09-01

331

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the security measures implemented. Steganography is a method which is used to give high level security. Approach: Today, email management and email authenticity must be unquestionable with strong chains of custody, constant availability and tamper-proof security. A secure communication can be achieved through neural based steganography. Email is insecure. Results: This research developed an application which can check the Email content of corporate mails by S-DES algorithm along with the neural networks back propagation approach. A new filtering algorithm is also developed which can used to extract only the JPG images from the corporate emails. Experimental research shows that this algorithm is more accurate and reliable than the conventional methods. Conclusion: We anticipate that this study can also give a clear picture of the current trends in Steganography and the experimental results indicate this method is valid in steganalysis. This method can be used for internet/network security.

P. T. Anitha

2012-01-01

332

A RANDOMIZED SELECTIVE ENCRYPTION USING HASHING TECHNIQUE FOR SECURING VIDEO STREAMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital video transmissions are widely used in network nowadays. Hence, securing its contents and keeping privacy is vital. Several encryption algorithms have been proposed earlier to achieve securevideo transmission. But altogether attaining efficiency, security and flexibility is a major challenge. To transmit a digital video, encryption is necessary to protect its contents from attacks. As the size of the videos are usually large their contents has to be compressed before transmission. Encryption is applied on the video content after compression. One of the encryption technique selective encryption is used for encrypting video. It encrypts only a subset of data. The selective encryption algorithm reduces the amount of the data to be encrypted and achieves a required level of security. In this paper we study the existing selective encryption algorithm and its classifications. The challenges in the selective encryptionalgorithms and some future directions are presented.

Lizyflorance. C

2012-11-01

333

A Novel Pavement Distress Image Filtering Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combined the Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT with compressed sensing de-noising theory, this study proposed a compressed sensing image filtering algorithm in the NSCT transform domain. This algorithm adopted the transform domain filtering method. Firstly, the NSCT was used to do multi-scale and multi-directional transform on the input noisy pavement distress Image which was mapped to the transform domain. Then the compressed sensing theory was used to filter the high-frequency sub-band coefficients. The experiment results show that this algorithm improves the effectiveness and timeliness of the pavement distress image filtering.

Feng Xin

2013-01-01

334

Design of AES Algorithm for 128/192/256 Key Length in FPGA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cryptographic algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol changes. The available AES algorithm is used for data and it is also suitable for image encryption and decryption to protect the confidential image from an unauthorized access. This project proposes a method in which the image data is an input to AES algorithm, to obtain the encrypted image. and the encrypted image is the input to AES Decryption to get the original image. This project proposed to implement the 128,192 & 256 bit AES algorithm for data encryption and decryption, also to compare the speed of operation, efficiency, security and frequency . The proposed work will be synthesized and simulated on FPGA family of Xilink ISE 13.2 and Modelsim tool respectively in Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL.

Pravin V. Kinge

2014-05-01

335

Image denoising based on wavelet transform algorithm

In this paper, a new wavelet threshold denoising algorithm has been proposed based on the correlation characteristics between layers coefficient and the inner-layer coefficient. For each wavelet coefficient, a corresponding threshold is constructed according to the wavelet coefficients between layers and layer-related features. The experimental results show that the ability of this algorithm is better than the traditional algorithm in the aspect of image denoising.

Ha, Yan; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Miao; Su, Qian; Shi, Yue

2012-01-01

336

Why Information Security Demands Transform Domain, Compression and Encryption?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the advancement of technology and networking techniques, it is possible to transmit images at a lower bit rate and at the same time with high security. In order to fulfil the security needs of image transmission, several encryption, decryption and image encoding techniques have been put forward. The encryption discussed in this study is the PN (Pseudo Random Number sequence based encryption using Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG algorithm. In the proposed method, initially the image is portioned into blocks. Run length encoding is done for the level shifted image. Then Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and quantization was done and Difference of Quantized DC (DQDC was calculated. Then the quantized blocks are shuffled based on the PN sequence and then the scrambled images are arranged in zigzag order. Then finally run length and Huffman lossless compression are done to eliminate the additional bits generated using PN codes. Metrics like correlation coefficient, Unified Average Changing Intensity (UACI, Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR were computed to prove the sternness of the proposed method.

Padmapriya Praveenkumar

2014-01-01

337

A Review of Encryption Storage

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information leakage leads to very serious consequences. Encryption storage is an effective means of ensuring information security. We summarize several typical encryption storage methods: application layer encryption, filter driver encryption, virtual disk encryption and full disk encryption. At last this paper compares these methods in some respects and provides the references for design and research of encryption storage systems.

Chaowen Chang

2010-01-01

338

Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Electrical Capacitance Tomography

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In view of the low precision of the reconstruction image of Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT at present. A new method of image reconstruction algorithm based on Chebyshev neural net works for Electrical Capacitance Tomography is proposed. This neural network not only expand the identification ability and learning adaptation of the neural network but also has a simple algorithm, a high speed convergence of learning process and excellent characteristics in the linear and nonlinear accurate approximation. The ECT image reconstruction experimental results show that the method can improve the reconstruction image quality and testify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Zhiqiang Man

2011-01-01

339

IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS FOR DUAL MODE IMAGING SYSTEMS

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level of detail discernable in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes where information barriers are mandatory. However, if a balance can be struck between sufficient information barriers and feature extraction to verify or identify objects of interest, imaging may significantly advance verification efforts. This paper describes the development of combined active (conventional) radiography and passive (auto) radiography techniques for imaging sensitive items assuming that comparison images cannot be furnished. Three image analysis algorithms are presented, each of which reduces full image information to non-sensitive feature information and ultimately is intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying features present in the image. These algorithms are evaluated on both their technical performance in image analysis and their application with or without an explicitly constructed information barrier. The first algorithm reduces images to non-invertible pixel intensity histograms, retaining only summary information about the image that can be used in template comparisons. This one-way transform is sufficient to discriminate between different image structures (in terms of area and density) without revealing unnecessary specificity. The second algorithm estimates the attenuation cross-section of objects of known shape based on transition characteristics around the edge of the object's image. The third algorithm compares the radiography image with the passive image to discriminate dense, radioactive material from point sources or inactive dense material. By comparing two images and reporting only a single statistic from the combination thereof, this algorithm can operate entirely behind an information barrier stage. Together with knowledge of the radiography system, the use of these algorithms in combination can be used to improve verification capability to inspection regimes and improve and substantially increase the likelihood of detecting material diversion.

340

An Improved Algorithm For Image Compression Using Geometric Image Approximation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract- Our dependence on digital media continues to grow and therefore finding competent ways of storing and conveying these large amounts of data has become a major concern. The technique of image compression has then become very essential and highly applicable. In this paper, the performance of an efficient image coding method based on Geometric Wavelets that divides the desired image using a recursive procedure for image coding is explored. The objective of the work is to optimize the performance of geometric wavelet based image coding scheme and to suggest a method to reduce the time complexity of the algorithm. We have used the polar coordinate form of the straight line in the BSP scheme for partitioning the image domain. A novel pruning algorithm is tried to optimize the rate distortion curve and achieve the desired bit rate. The algorithm is also implemented with the concept of no tiling and its effect in PSNR and computation time is explored. The enhanced results show a gain of 2.24 dB over the EZW algorithm and 1.4 dB over the SPIHT algorithm at the bit-rate 0.0625 bpp for the Lena test image. Image tiling is found to reduce considerably the computational complexity and in turn the time complexity of the algorithm without affecting its coding efficiency. The algorithm offers remarkable results in terms of PSNR compared to existing techniques.

V. J. Rehna

2014-06-01

341

Quantum probabilistic encryption protocol based on conjugate coding

We present a quantum probabilistic encryption algorithm of private-key encryption scheme based on conjugate coding of qubit-string. Usually, probabilistic encryption algorithm is adopted in public-key encryption protocols. Here we consider its function of increasing the unicity distance of both classical and quantum private-key encryption scheme. The security of quantum probabilistic private-key encryption against two kinds of attacks is analyzed. Based on no-signalling postulate we show that the scheme can resist the attack to the key. The protocol's security against plaintext attack is also investigated under the concept of information-theoretic indistinguishability of encryption. Finally, we give a conjecture related with the Breidbart's attack.

Yang, Li; Li, Bao

2012-01-01

342

We present a novel image hiding method based on phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of nonlinear double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. Two phase-only masks (POMs) are efficiently determined by using the phase retrieval algorithm, in which two cascaded phase-truncated fractional Fourier transforms (FrFTs) are involved. No undesired information disclosure, post-processing of the POMs or digital inverse computation appears in our proposed method. In order to achieve the reduction in key transmission, a modified image hiding method based on the modified phase retrieval algorithm and logistic map is further proposed in this paper, in which the fractional orders and the parameters with respect to the logistic map are regarded as encryption keys. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:25321769

Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

2014-09-22

343

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, a new transmission system of encrypted image based on novel chaotic system and SPIHT technique is proposed. This chaotic system is made up of two chaotic systems already developed: the discrete-time modified Henon chaotic system and the continuous-time Colpitts one. The transmission system is designed to take profit of two advantages. The first is the use of a robust and standard algorithm (SPIHT which is appropriate to the digital transmission. The second is to introduce farther complexity of the encryption using the chaotic system over secure channel. Through these two advantages, our purpose is to obtain a robust system against pirate attacks. Cryptanalysis and various experiments have been carried out and the results were reported in this paper, which demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed scheme.

Hamiche Hamid

2013-01-01

344

A Noise Removal Algorithm of Color Image

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An algorithm of the color image noise removal algorithm is put forward based on the pixel operations. The idea of the algorithm is to read every pixel in a set order and determine whether the pixel level is consistent with the probability density function of impulse noise or not. If it is similar to noise pixel, the number of impulse noise in a certain mask is counted. If the number is less than the given threshold, the pixel is considered as possible noise. The pixel value is not unchanged. Otherwise it is considered as noise, the result mask operation of the pixel is to replace the pixel value. Otherwise it isn’t considered as noise, the pixel value is also unchanged. The experimental results show that the algorithm is applicable to the gray noisy image and the color noisy image.It has the advantages of higher speed and more stable noise removal effects.

WANG Jianwei

2013-07-01

345

Color Image Clustering using Block Truncation Algorithm

With the advancement in image capturing device, the image data been generated at high volume. If images are analyzed properly, they can reveal useful information to the human users. Content based image retrieval address the problem of retrieving images relevant to the user needs from image databases on the basis of low-level visual features that can be derived from the images. Grouping images into meaningful categories to reveal useful information is a challenging and important problem. Clustering is a data mining technique to group a set of unsupervised data based on the conceptual clustering principal: maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. Proposed framework focuses on color as feature. Color Moment and Block Truncation Coding (BTC) are used to extract features for image dataset. Experimental study using K-Means clustering algorithm is conducted to group the image dataset into various clusters.

Silakari, Sanjay; Maheshwari, Manish

2009-01-01

346

Key Generation for Fast Inversion of the Paillier Encryption Function

We study fast inversion of the Paillier encryption function. Especially, we focus only on key generation, and do not modify the Paillier encryption function. We propose three key generation algorithms based on the speeding-up techniques for the RSA encryption function. By using our algorithms, the size of the private CRT exponent is half of that of Paillier-CRT. The first algorithm employs the extended Euclidean algorithm. The second algorithm employs factoring algorithms, and can construct the private CRT exponent with low Hamming weight. The third algorithm is a variant of the second one, and has some advantage such as compression of the private CRT exponent and no requirement for factoring algorithms. We also propose the settings of the parameters for these algorithms and analyze the security of the Paillier encryption function by these algorithms against known attacks. Finally, we give experimental results of our algorithms.

Hirano, Takato; Tanaka, Keisuke

347

AIDA: Adaptive Image Deconvolution Algorithm

AIDA is an implementation and extension of the MISTRAL myopic deconvolution method developed by Mugnier et al. (2004) (see J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21:1841-1854). The MISTRAL approach has been shown to yield object reconstructions with excellent edge preservation and photometric precision when used to process astronomical images. AIDA improves upon the original MISTRAL implementation. AIDA, written in Python, can deconvolve multiple frame data and three-dimensional image stacks encountered in adaptive optics and light microscopic imaging.

Hom, Erik; Haase, Sebastian; Marchis, Franck

2013-10-01

348

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CHAOTIC ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drastic growth in multimedia communication resulted to numerous security issues in the transmission of data. Moreover, the network used for the digital communication does not provide much security for the data transfer. During this time, tens of millions people using the internet options for essential communication and is being a tool for commercial field increased, So that security is an enormously important issue to deal with. We need to be protected confidentiality of data and provide secure connections for it. Hence we necessitate recognizing the different aspects of security and their applications. Many of these applications ranging from secure commerce, protecting passwords or pin and payments to private communications. As we know that, Cryptography is now becoming an essential aspect of the secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing secret code with confident algorithm and key. The basic components of cryptography are encryption and decryption algorithms, digital signature and hashed message authentication code. We know that encryption is the synonym of cryptography. Different kinds of encryption are used in this modern era. Chaotic encryption is the type of the encryption which has adopted the concept of chaos. In this study, we are studying the history of cryptography until chaotic cryptography and analyzing the performance of chaotic encryption technique. The evaluation is performed in terms of encryption speed, the CPU utilization with time and the battery power consumption. The experimental results are specified the efficiency of the algorithms.

Ancy Mariam Babu

2013-01-01

349

Data Based Text Encrypting in Audio

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays data authentication plays a major for the secrete transmission of the data respectively. Here in this data oriented authentication involves encryption followed by the respective decryption. Where in the encryption process takes place in the transmitter end while decryption takes place or handled at the receiver end respectively. Here an algorithm is designed based on the above strategy where complete privacy is maintained by the system. This one of the data hiding technique. Some of the data hiding techniques include cryptography, Stenography and watermarking. Therefore there is a slight variation between all these techniques in their implementation. Here the protection is also follows where we can hide text in text, Speech in the song which is related to the audio based scenario, Text in the song, Image in the image and text in the image respectively. Here the main aim of the projects is to hide the data in the form of text I the signal respectively. Here in this present methodology we are going to implement the method by the name of RSA respectively. Where the experimental analysis show that this particular method is used for the accurate hiding of the data takes place that is in the form of security based scenario.

Bommala Suneel Kumar

2013-08-01

350

Encrypted Domain DCT Based on Homomorphic Cryptosystems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signal processing in the encrypted domain (s.p.e.d. appears an elegant solution in application scenarios, where valuable signals must be protected from a possibly malicious processing device. In this paper, we consider the application of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT to images encrypted by using an appropriate homomorphic cryptosystem. An s.p.e.d. 1-dimensional DCT is obtained by defining a convenient signal model and is extended to the 2-dimensional case by using separable processing of rows and columns. The bounds imposed by the cryptosystem on the size of the DCT and the arithmetic precision are derived, considering both the direct DCT algorithm and its fast version. Particular attention is given to block-based DCT (BDCT, with emphasis on the possibility of lowering the computational burden by parallel application of the s.p.e.d. DCT to different image blocks. The application of the s.p.e.d. 2D-DCT and 2D-BDCT to 8-bit greyscale images is analyzed; whereas a case study demonstrates the feasibility of the s.p.e.d. DCT in a practical scenario.

Tiziano Bianchi

2009-01-01

351

AN ENSEMBLE CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM FOR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyperspectral image analysis has been used for many purposes in environmental monitoring, remote sensing, vegetation research and also for land cover classification. A hyperspectral image consists of many layers in which each layer represents a specific wavelength. The layers stack on top of one another making a cube-like image for entire spectrum. This work aims to classify the hyperspectral images and to produce a thematic map accurately. Spatial information of hyperspectral images is collected by applying morphological profile and local binary pattern. Support vector machine is an efficient classification algorithm for classifying the hyperspectral images. Genetic algorithm is used to obtain the best feature subjected for classification. Selected features are classified for obtaining the classes and to produce a thematic map. Experiment is carried out with AVIRIS Indian Pines and ROSIS Pavia University. Proposed method produces accuracy as 93% for Indian Pines and 92% for Pavia University.

K.Kavitha

2014-04-01

352

An image-data-compression algorithm

Cluster Compression Algorithm (CCA) preprocesses Landsat image data immediately following satellite data sensor (receiver). Data are reduced by extracting pertinent image features and compressing this result into concise format for transmission to ground station. This results in narrower transmission bandwidth, increased data-communication efficiency, and reduced computer time in reconstructing and analyzing image. Similar technique could be applied to other types of recorded data to cut costs of transmitting, storing, distributing, and interpreting complex information.

Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

1981-01-01

353

Parallel asynchronous systems and image processing algorithms

A new hardware approach to implementation of image processing algorithms is described. The approach is based on silicon devices which would permit an independent analog processing channel to be dedicated to evey pixel. A laminar architecture consisting of a stack of planar arrays of the device would form a two-dimensional array processor with a 2-D array of inputs located directly behind a focal plane detector array. A 2-D image data stream would propagate in neuronlike asynchronous pulse coded form through the laminar processor. Such systems would integrate image acquisition and image processing. Acquisition and processing would be performed concurrently as in natural vision systems. The research is aimed at implementation of algorithms, such as the intensity dependent summation algorithm and pyramid processing structures, which are motivated by the operation of natural vision systems. Implementation of natural vision algorithms would benefit from the use of neuronlike information coding and the laminar, 2-D parallel, vision system type architecture. Besides providing a neural network framework for implementation of natural vision algorithms, a 2-D parallel approach could eliminate the serial bottleneck of conventional processing systems. Conversion to serial format would occur only after raw intensity data has been substantially processed. An interesting challenge arises from the fact that the mathematical formulation of natural vision algorithms does not specify the means of implementation, so that hardware implementation poses intriguing questions involving vision science.

Coon, D. D.; Perera, A. G. U.

1989-01-01

354

Image Compression Based on Improved FFT Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression is a crucial step in image processing area. Image Fourier transforms is the classical algorithm which can convert image from spatial domain to frequency domain. Because of its good concentrative property with transform energy, Fourier transform has been widely applied in image coding, image segmentation, image reconstruction. This paper adopts Radix-4 Fast Fourier transform (Radix-4 FFT to realize the limit distortion for image coding, and to discuss the feasibility and the advantage of Fourier transform for image compression. It aims to deal with the existing complex and time-consuming of Fourier transform, according to the symmetric conjugate of the image by Fourier transform to reduce data storage and computing complexity. Using Radix-4 FFT can also reduce algorithm time-consuming, it designs three different compression requirements of non-uniform quantification tables for different demands of image quality and compression ratio. Take the standard image Lena as experimental data using the presented method, the results show that the implementation by Radix-4 FFT is simple, the effect is ideal and lower time-consuming.

Juanli Hu

2011-07-01

355

Dermoscopic Image Segmentation using Machine Learning Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Malignant melanoma is the most frequent type of skin cancer. Its incidence has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Medical image segmentation is the most essential and crucial process in order to facilitate the characterization and visualization of the structure of interest in medical images. Approach: This study explains the task of segmenting skin lesions in Dermoscopy images based on intelligent systems such as Fuzzy and Neural Networks clustering techniques for the early diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma. The various intelligent system based clustering techniques used are Fuzzy C Means Algorithm (FCM, Possibilistic C Means Algorithm (PCM, Hierarchical C Means Algorithm (HCM; C-mean based Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Network, Adaline Neural Network and Regression Neural Network. Results: The segmented images are compared with the ground truth image using various parameters such as False Positive Error (FPE, False Negative Error (FNE Coefficient of similarity, spatial overlap and their performance is evaluated. Conclusion: The experimental results show that the Hierarchical C Means algorithm( Fuzzy provides better segmentation than other (Fuzzy C Means, Possibilistic C Means, Adaline Neural Network, FHNN and GRNN clustering algorithms. Thus Hierarchical C Means approach can handle uncertainties that exist in the data efficiently and useful for the lesion segmentation in a computer aided diagnosis system to assist the clinical diagnosis of dermatologists.

L. P. Suresh

2011-01-01

356

Encryption And Portable Data Storage

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The protection of data is key issue in today’s world. The wide of availability and use of portable technologies such as USB flash has increased concern about securing the data resides on these devices. Because USB flash drives are small, relatively inexpensive, and easy to use, the security of the information stored on these thumb drives is on-going concern. A number of approaches to safeguarding the information stored on these drives are available. This paper examines one approach to this goal through the use of encryption. This method encrypts all the data on the drive. In addition the fact the data on the drive is encrypted is not visually obvious when viewing the contents of the disk. The proposed approach uses publically available and free encryption algorithms. A user password is needed to view and access the data that has been encrypted. The proposed methodology is quick and easy to use. Individuals who routinely carry around their USB drives need to be able to decrypt and encrypt the device quickly and conveniently. Furthermore, if the device is lost, it is still possible with the method advocated in this paper to include information about how to return the device to the owner without compromising the secured data on the drive. Without encrypting the data on portable drives, the user risks the disclosure of information. This paper argues that portable storage should be secured and suggests a way to secure the data through password and encryption that further enhances the usability and flexibility of the USB flash drive. The paper includes the results and analysis of an undergraduate student survey that determined what habits and practices they followed with respect to securing their personal data and files. Some of the questions included in the analysis are the following: Do you encrypt your USB flash drive?Do you use any type of security for your USB flash drive?How important do you think security is for a flash drive? (A Likert scaleDo you use passwords to protect your USB flash drive?Do you backup your work?Do you think it is important to use security when using a USB flash drive? The findings of the survey help to understand the perspective of today’s students and how to address the critical need to secure their information and data files with them.

Cynthia L. Knott

2011-04-01

357

Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for morphological image processing

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with efficient algorithms for morphological image processing. Each chapter deals with some algorithm from the field of mathematical morphology. Reviews of existing algorithms, as well as new algorithms or improvements to existing algorithms are given. In most chapters, the focus is on the design and implementation of parallel algorithms. The interest for parallel algorithms is mainly driven by the growing demand of real-time 2D image processing applications, and algorithms f...

Meijster, Arnold

2004-01-01

358

Color Secret Image Encryption and Share Generation for Multiple-Secret Threshold Visual Cryptography

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual Cryptography Scheme (VCS is a type of secret sharing scheme which allows the encoding of a secret image into n shares that distributed to n participants. Each share constitutes some information and when k shares out of n stack together the secret will reveal. However; less than k shares are not work. The advantage of the visual secret sharing scheme is its decryption process i.e. to decrypt the secret using Human Visual System without any computation. Traditional Visual Cryptography suffers from share identification problem. This problem can be solved by Multiple-Secret threshold visual cryptography (MVCS, which adds a meaningful cover image in each share. The proposed work presents threshold Visual cryptographic schemes in Color Images. This method uses half toning method to provide color image as a secret image. Then the secret image can be embedded in the original image by generating shares using Zigzags scanning method. Experimental result of proposed system provides robust security than conventional visual cryptographic schemes.

P. Kavipriya M.E

2014-02-01

359

ALGORITHMIC IMAGING APPROACH TO IMPOTENCE

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impotence is a common problem that has great impact on the quality of life. Clinical evaluation usually can exclude endocrinologic imbalance, neurogenic dysfunction, and psychological problems as the etiology. A patient who fails to get an erection after vasoactive medications which are injected probably, has hemodynamic impotence. Dynamic studies that include imaging techniques are now available to discriminate between arterial and venous pathology.Doppler ultrasound with color flow and spec...

Mahyar Ghafoori

2012-01-01

360

Two fast algorithms of image inpainting

Digital image inpainting is an interesting new research topic in multimedia computing and image processing since 2000. This talk covers the most recent contributions in digital image inpainting and image completion, as well as concepts in video inpainting. Image inpainting refers to reconstructing the corrupt regions where the data are all destroyed. A primary class of the technique is to build up a Partial Differential Equation (PDE), consider it as a boundary problem, and solve it by some iterative method. The most representative and creative one of the inpainting algorithms is Bertalmio-Sapiro-Caselles-Bellester (BSCB) model. After summarizes the development of image inpainting technique, this paper points the research at the improvement on BSCB model, and proposes two algorithms to solve the two drawbacks of this model. The first is selective adaptive interpolation which develops the traditional adaptive interpolation algorithm by introducing a priority value. Besides much faster than BSCB model, it can improve the inpainting effects. The second takes selective adaptive interpolation as a preprocessing step, reduces the operation time and improves the inpainting quality further.

He, Yuqing; Hou, Zhengxin; Wang, Chengyou

2008-03-01

361

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we made a comprehensive BER simulation study of a quasi- orthogonal space time block encoded (QO-STBC multiple-input single output(MISO system. The communication system under investigation has incorporated four digital modulations (QPSK, QAM, 16PSK and 16QAM over an Additative White Gaussian Noise (AWGN and Raleigh fading channels for three transmit and one receive antennas. In its FEC channel coding section, three schemes such as Cyclic, Reed-Solomon and ½-rated convolutionally encoding have been used. Under implementation of merely low complexity ML decoding based channel estimation and RSA cryptographic encoding /decoding algorithms, it is observable from conducted simulation test on encrypted text message transmission that the communication system with QAM digital modulation and ½-rated convolutionally encoding techniques is highly effective to combat inherent interferences under Raleigh fading and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channels. It is also noticeable from the study that the retrieving performance of the communication system degrades with the lowering of the signal to noise ratio (SNR and increasing in order of modulation.

Most. Farjana Sharmin

2012-04-01

362

Medical Image Communication Using Halftone Algorithms

Physicians frequently need to see retinal, biopsy, and other images, produced originally by medical diagnostic equipment and then processed by computers. At present this is done using either time-consuming photography or expensive video equipment. We have used digital halftoning as a method for fast communication of images both on print and on computer terminal screens. This method quickly produces a good-quality halftone rendition of a grey-scale image. These images are suitable for display and printout on inexpensive devices that normally do not have grey-scale capability. The algorithm is based on a previously published error-propagation technique. We improved the algorithm by including a factor that accounts for the difference in size between light and dark points on various devices. The algorithm is extended to devices that have two bitplanes (VT240), and the execution and transmission times are reduced. At Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, this program has been used in processing and reporting the results of muscle and nerve biopsies. At the Eye Research Institute in Boston, it has been used to report the results of retinal visual field mapping. This technique has a wide range of applications. It allows "image processing" to be done on computers that have no traditional image-processing hardware. It allows several users to operate simultaneously on time-shared systems that have only a single image-processor. Images are displayed on 1 or 2 bitplane devices (LA50 printers or VT240 terminals). It allows image transmission over long distances --replacing video communication equipment with RS232 cables and modems.

Goldstein, Robert B.; Peli, Eli; Wooledge, Karl

1987-10-01

363

ALGORITHMIC IMAGING APPROACH TO IMPOTENCE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Impotence is a common problem that has great impact on the quality of life. Clinical evaluation usually can exclude endocrinologic imbalance, neurogenic dysfunction, and psychological problems as the etiology. A patient who fails to get an erection after vasoactive medications which are injected probably, has hemodynamic impotence. Dynamic studies that include imaging techniques are now available to discriminate between arterial and venous pathology.Doppler ultrasound with color flow and spectral analysis,dynamic infusion corpus cavernosometry and cavernosography, and selective internal pudendal arteriography are outpatient diagnostic procedures that will differentiate, image and quantify the abnormalities in patients with hemodynamic impotence. Not all tests are needed in every patient. Each of these examinations is preceded with the intracavernosal injection of vasoactive medication. Papaverine hydrochloride, phentolamine mesylate, or prostaglandin El will overcome normal sympathetic tone and produce an erection by smooth muscle relaxation and arterial dilatation in a normal patient. Color-flow Doppler and spectral analysis will showthe cavernosal arteries and can identify the hemodynamic effects of stricture or occlusion. Peak systolic velocity is measured. Normal ranges are well established. Spectral analysis also is used to predict the presence of venous disease. Sizable venous leaks in the dorsal penile vein are readily imaged.While the technique may not adequately identify low-grade venous pathology, it will identify the size and location of fibrous plaque formation associated with Peyronie's disease. Cavernosography or cavernosometry is a separate procedure that will quantitate the severity of venousincompetence as well as specifically identify the various avenues of systemic venous return that must be localized if venous occlusive therapy is chosen. In this study, the peak arterial systolic occlusion pressure is quantified during erection,and the presence of arterial pathology can be confirmed.The arterial data are not as reliable as the ultrasound-obtained data because they rely on audible Doppler, which can be obscured in the underlying "noise" heard with erection. The arterial data obtained with both of these examinations are quantitative and replace the qualitative audible Doppler used previously. Specialized equipment allows dynamic data acquisition, ensuring that the needed information is obtained at peak stimulation.Arteriography is done only if reconstructive surgery is contemplated. The examination includes subselective catheterization of the internal pudendal arteries, magnification technique, and evaluation of the recurrent epigastric arteries, which will be harvested for revascularization. An arterial operation is usually successful in younger patients with perineal trauma with a single point of stenosis or occlusion but has been least successful in those patients with atherosclerosis because of the multifocal nature of this disease. Diagnostic information available today is more specific and reliable than at any time in the past and can realistically estimate the severity of the hemodynamic disorder and allow individual treatment options. Ongoing studies will show whether the data these studies provide make an important difference in the treatment of vascular impotence.

Mahyar Ghafoori

2012-05-01

364

Experimental Study of Fractal Image Compression Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image compression applications have been increasing in recent years. Fractal compression is a lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals. The method is best suited for textures and natural images, relying on the fact that parts of an image often resemble other parts of the same image. In this paper, a study on fractal-based image compression and fixed-size partitioning will be made, analyzed for performance and compared with a standard frequency domain based image compression standard, JPEG. Sample images will be used to perform compression and decompression. Performance metrics such as compression ratio, compression time and decompression time will be measured in JPEG cases. Also the phenomenon of resolution/scale independence will be studied and described with examples. Fractal algorithms convert these parts into mathematical data called "fractal codes" which are used to recreate the encoded image. Fractal encoding is a mathematical process used to encode bitmaps containing a real-world image as a set of mathematical data that describes the fractal properties of the image. Fractal encoding relies on the fact that all natural, and most artificial, objects contain redundant information in the form of similar, repeating patterns called fractals.

Chetan R. Dudhagara

2012-08-01

365

A CNN Computing Algorithm for Image Correlation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To computing the correlationcoefficients between two images, this paper proposesan algorithm based on the use of cellular neuralnetworks (CNNs, in which most operations(calculations are achieved by parallel processing.Thus, on the one hand, we can reduce computing time;on the other hand, the computing time will notincrease proportionally with increasing the size of thetemplate images. By integrating the CNN algorithm ona emulated digital CNN-Universal Machineimplemented on FPGA (Field Programmable GateArray there will be possible to perform some task inreal time in the case of a system developed to assistpeople with visual impairments or in a medicaldiagnosis assistance system, for processing andanalysis of computer tomography images.

?EPELEA Laviniu

2010-10-01

366

ASC-1 : An Authenticated Encryption Stream Cipher

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The goal of the modes of operation for authenticated encryption is to achieve faster encryption and message authentication by performing both the encryption and the message authentication in a single pass as opposed to the traditional encrypt-then-mac approach, which requires two passes. Unfortunately, the use of a block cipher as a building block limits the performance of the authenticated encryption schemes to at most one message block per block cipher evaluation. In this paper, we propose the authenticated encryption scheme ASC-1 (Authenticating Stream Cipher One). Similarly to LEX, ASC-1 uses leak extraction from diÆerent AES rounds to compute the key material that is XOR-ed with the message to compute the ciphertext. Unlike LEX, the ASC-1 operates in a CFB fashion to compute an authentication tag over the encrypted message. We argue that ASC-1 is secure by reducingits (IND-CCA , INT-CTXT) security to the problem of distinguishing the case when the round keys are uniformly random from the case when the round keys are generated by a key scheduling algorithm.

2011-01-01

367

An enhanced fractal image denoising algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, there has been a significant development in image denoising using fractal-based method. This paper presents an enhanced fractal predictive denoising algorithm for denoising the images corrupted by an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) by using quadratic gray-level function. Meanwhile, a quantization method for the fractal gray-level coefficients of the quadratic function is proposed to strictly guarantee the contractivity requirement of the enhanced fractal coding, and in terms of the quality of the fractal representation measured by PSNR, the enhanced fractal image coding using quadratic gray-level function generally performs better than the standard fractal coding using linear gray-level function. Based on this enhanced fractal coding, the enhanced fractal image denoising is implemented by estimating the fractal gray-level coefficients of the quadratic function of the noiseless image from its noisy observation. Experimental results show that, compared with other standard fractal-based image denoising schemes using linear gray-level function, the enhanced fractal denoising algorithm can improve the quality of the restored image efficiently

368

An enhanced fractal image denoising algorithm

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, there has been a significant development in image denoising using fractal-based method. This paper presents an enhanced fractal predictive denoising algorithm for denoising the images corrupted by an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) by using quadratic gray-level function. Meanwhile, a quantization method for the fractal gray-level coefficients of the quadratic function is proposed to strictly guarantee the contractivity requirement of the enhanced fractal coding, and in terms of the quality of the fractal representation measured by PSNR, the enhanced fractal image coding using quadratic gray-level function generally performs better than the standard fractal coding using linear gray-level function. Based on this enhanced fractal coding, the enhanced fractal image denoising is implemented by estimating the fractal gray-level coefficients of the quadratic function of the noiseless image from its noisy observation. Experimental results show that, compared with other standard fractal-based image denoising schemes using linear gray-level function, the enhanced fractal denoising algorithm can improve the quality of the restored image efficiently.

Lu Jian [College of Mathematics and Computational Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)], E-mail: jianlu1979@163.com; Ye Zhongxing [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zou Yuru [College of Mathematics and Computational Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Ye Ruisong [Institute of Mathematics, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

2008-11-15

369

Integral imaging can provide a feasible and efficient technique for multiple-image encoding system. The computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique reconstructs a set of plane images along the output plane, whereas the resolution of the reconstructed images will degrade due to the partial occlusion of other reconstructed images. Meanwhile, CIIR is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction method, in which the superimposition causes the undesirable interference. To overcome these problems, we first utilize the block matching algorithm to eliminate the occlusion-disturbance and introduce the back-propagation neural network algorithm to compensate for the low-resolution image. In the encryption, a computational integral imaging pickup technique is employed to record the multiple-image simultaneously to form an elemental image array (EIA). The EIA is then encrypted by combining the use of maximum length cellular automata (CA) and the double random phase encoding algorithm. Some numerical simulations have been made to demonstrate the performance of this encryption algorithm.

Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

2014-03-01

370

Analysis of Image Segmentation Algorithms Using MATLAB

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image segmentation has played an important role in computer vision especially for human tracking. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image or a set of contours extracted from the image. Its accuracy but very elusive is very crucial in areas as medical, remote sensing and image retrieval where it may contribute to save, sustain and protect human life. This paper presents the analysis and implementation using MATLAB features and one best result can be selected for any algorithm using the subjective evaluation. We considered the techniques under the following five groups: Edge-based, Clustering-based, Region-based, Threshold-based and Graph-based.

Deepika Khare

2012-02-01

371

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan-Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro ...

Kapil Kumar Gupta; Rizwan Beg, M.; Jitendra Kumar Niranjan

2011-01-01

372

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan- Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the windo...

Gupta, Kapil Kumar; Beg, Rizwan; Niranjan, Jitendra Kumar

2012-01-01

373

Image Compression Algorithms Optimized for MATLAB

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes implementation of the Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT algorithm to MATLAB. This approach is used in JPEG or MPEGstandards for instance. The substance of these specifications is toremove the considerable correlation between adjacent picture elements.The objective of this paper is not to improve the DCT algorithm itself, but to re-write it to the preferable version for MATLAB thusallows the enumeration with insignificant delay. The method proposed inthis paper allows image compression calculation almost two hundredtimes faster compared with the DCT definition.

S. Hanus

2003-12-01

374

Variable Weighted Ordered Subset Image Reconstruction Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose two variable weighted iterative reconstruction algorithms (VW-ART and VW-OS-SART to improve the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART and establish their convergence. In the two algorithms, the weighting varies with the geometrical direction of the ray. Experimental results with both numerical simulation and real CT data demonstrate that the VW-ART has a significant improvement in the quality of reconstructed images over ART and OS-SART. Moreover, both VW-ART and VW-OS-SART are more promising in convergence speed than the ART and SART, respectively.

Ming Jiang

2006-10-01

375

Pavement Image Segmentation Based on FCM Algorithm Using Neighborhood Information

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard FCM algorithm takes the pixel gray-scale information into account only, while ignoring the spatial location of pixels, so the standard FCM algorithm is sensitive to noise. This paper present a pavement image segmentation algorithm based on FCM algorithm using neighborhood information. The presented algorithm introduces neighborhood information into membership function to improve the standard FCM algorithm. It can eliminate noise effectively and retain the boundary information. The experiments by synthetic images and real pavement images show that the presented algorithm in this paper performs more robust to noise than the standard FCM algorithm and retain the boundary information effectively.

Guofeng Qin

2012-11-01

376

A Survey on Joint Compression and Encryption Techniques for Video Data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: When we send any video data over the network it consumes more time. This is due to the huge size of the video file when compared to text file. Therefore, video data should be compressed before sending to the destination. Another important factor during data transfer is security. Joint compression and encryption is employed to enable faster and secured transmission of video data. Approach: Compression and encryption algorithms can be classified into two main categories: Independent encryption technique and joint compression and encryption technique. Independent encryption techniques can further be classified as heavy weight and light weight encryption algorithms. There are many algorithms available in the joint compression and encryption technique. Comparative study of the above mentioned algorithms is done in this study. Results: Based on our study, found joint compression and encryption algorithms reduced 40% of the memory storage size and they increased execution speed up to 21%. Conclusion: Joint compression and encryption algorithms perform better in terms of speed and security when compared to independent encryption algorithms. This is because they employ compression before encryption.

R. Manimegalai

2012-01-01

377

New Interpolation Algorithm for Image Inpainting

In this paper, the relationship between image pixels’ coordinators and their colors is considered as a mapping function. A novel algorithm based on radial basis function network is applied to construct a local best approximation of this function, and then the damaged pixels are restored via interpolation. In the algorithm, the mapping function is constructed pixel by pixel to minimize the interpolation error and decrease its complexity. To proceed over lager damaged areas, we compute interpolations of different overlapping coefficients to combine global frequency and local spatial information together. This contributes to restore more detail information. Experimental results show that the algorithm can restore the missing information correctly and can be effectively used in reconstruction of complex signal functions.

Chang, Lin; Chongxiu, Yu

378

An Efficient Encryption Algorithm for P2P Networks Robust Against Man-in-the-Middle Adversary

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P networks have become popular as a new paradigm for information exchange and are being used in many applications such as file sharing, distributed computing, video conference, VoIP, radio and TV broadcasting. This popularity comes with security implications and vulnerabilities that need to be addressed. Especially duo to direct communication between two end nodes in P2P networks, these networks are potentially vulnerable to Man-in-the-Middle attacks. In this paper, we propose a new public-key cryptosystem for P2P networks that is robust against Man-in-the-Middle adversary. This cryptosystem is based on RSA and knapsack problems. Our precoding-based algorithm uses knapsack problem for performing permutation and padding random data to the message. We show that comparing to other proposed cryptosystems, our algorithm is more efficient and it is fully secure against an active adversary.

Roohallah Rastaghi

2012-11-01

379

AN EFFICIENT MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise suppression in medical images is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A trade-off between noise reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made in a way that enhances the diagnostically relevant image content. Image processing specialists usually lack the biomedical expertise to judge the diagnostic relevance of the De-noising results. For example, in ultrasound images, speckle noise may contain information useful to medical experts the use of speckledtexture for a diagnosis was discussed in. Also biomedical images show extreme variability and it is necessary to operate on a case by case basis. This motivates the construction of robust and Efficient denoising methods that are applicable to various circumstances, rather than being optimal under very specific conditions. In this paper, we propose one robust method that adapts itself to various types of image noise as well as to the preference of the medical expert: a single parameter can be used to balance the preservation of relevant details against the degree of noise reduction. The proposed algorithm is simple to implement and fast. We demonstrate its usefulness for denoising and enhancement of the CT, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance images

SRINIVASAKIRAN GOTTAPU

2013-05-01

380

State Of Art in Homomorphic Encryption Schemes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demand for privacy of digital data and of algorithms for handling more complex structures have increased exponentially over the last decade. However, the critical problem arises when there is a requirement for publicly computing with private data or to modify functions or algorithms in such a way that they are still executable while their privacy is ensured. This is where homomorphic cryptosystems can be used since these systems enable computations with encrypted data. A fully homomorphic encryption scheme enables computation of arbitrary functions on encrypted data.. This enables a customer to generate a program that can be executed by a third party, without revealing the underlying algorithm or the processed data. We will take the reader through a journey of these developments and provide a glimpse of the exciting research directions that lie ahead. In this paper, we propose a selection of the most important available solutions, discussing their properties and limitations.

S. Sobitha Ahila

2014-02-01

381

Image Colour Segmentation by Genetic Algorithms

Segmentation of a colour image composed of different kinds of texture regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields and a decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or unstationary texture fields. In this work, a method is described for evolving adaptive procedures for these problems. In many real world applications data clustering constitutes a fundamental issue whenever behavioural or feature domains can be mapped into topological domains. We formulate the segmentation problem upon such images as an optimisation problem and adopt evolutionary strategy of Genetic Algorithms for the clustering of small regions in colour feature space. The present approach uses k-Means unsupervised clustering methods into Genetic Algorithms, namely for guiding this last Evolutionary Algorithm in his search for finding the optimal or sub-optimal data partition, task that as we know, requires a non-trivial search because of its intrinsic NP-complet...

Ramos, V; Ramos, Vitorino; Muge, Fernando

2004-01-01

382

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan- Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro sort algorithm begins with Quick sort and switches to heap sort when the recursion depth exceeds a level based on the number of elements being sorted. This approach has the advantage of fast noise reduction by reducing the comparison time. It also significantly speed up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time image processing. This approach will extend the Infrared images applications for medicine and video conferencing.

Gupta, Kapil Kumar; Niranjan, Jitendra Kumar

2012-01-01

383

A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan-Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro sort algorithm begins with Quick sort and switches to heap sort when the recursion depth exceeds a level based on the number of elements being sorted. This approach has the advantage of fast noise reduction by reducing the comparison time. It also significantly speed up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time image processing. This approach will extend the Infrared images applications for medicine and video conferencing.

Kapil Kumar Gupta

2011-11-01

384

Probabilistic Encryption Based ECC Mechanism

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elliptic Curve Cryptography provides a secure means of exchanging keys among communicating hosts using the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange algorithm. Encryption and Decryption of texts and messages have also been attempted. In the paper[15], the authors presented the implementation of ECC by first transforming the message into an affine point on the EC, and then applying the knapsack algorithm on ECC encrypted message over the finite field GF(p. The kanp sack problem is not secure in the present standards and more over in the work the authors in their decryption process used elliptic curve discrete logarithm to get back the plain text. This may form a computationally infeasible problem if the values are large enough in generating the plain text. In the present work the output of ECC algorithm is provided with probabilistic features which make the algorithm free from Chosen cipher text attack. Thus by having key lengths of even less than 160 bits, the present algorithm provides sufficient strength against crypto analysis and whose performance can be compared with standard algorithms like RSA.

Addepalli V.N. Krishna

2011-04-01

385

Cost-sensitive hardware encryption of existing wireless communication networks

In the defense industry it is becoming necessary in some cases to encrypt an existing unencrypted or weakly encrypted wireless communication link. Factors affecting such a requirement include classification of data that was not previously classified, sustaining an aging system that is no longer state-of-the-art, repurposing a communication link for a new function requiring encryption, or a change in the acceptability of an existing encryption algorithm. In these cases it is usually desirable to insert encryption and decryption capabilities into the communication network without drastically changing the function, structure, or characteristics of the existing network. The easiest way to accomplish this is usually through a software update. However, that is not always possible for various reasons which will be explained. This paper will discuss the general process by which encryption can be implemented using electronics hardware, and will place an emphasis on reducing costs along the way.

Kaminski, Ben; Wannemacher, Adam

2012-06-01

386

AN EFFICIENT MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING ALGORITHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noise suppression in medical images is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A trade-offbetween noise reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made in a way thatenhances the diagnostically relevant image content. Image processing specialists usually lack thebiomedical expertise to judge the diagnostic relevance of the De-noising results. For example, in ultrasoundimages, speckle noise may contain information useful to medical experts the use of speckled texture for adiagnosis was discussed in. Also biomedical images show extreme variability and it is necessary to operateon a case by case basis. This motivates the construction of robust and Efficient denoising methods that areapplicable to various circumstances, rather than being optimal under very specific conditions. In this paper,we propose one robust method that adapts itself to various types of image noise as well as to the preferenceof the medical expert: a single parameter can be used to balance the preservation of relevant details againstthe degree of noise reduction. The proposed algorithm is simple to implement and fast. We demonstrate itsusefulness for denoising and enhancement of the CT, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance images.

M.VENUGOPAL RAO

2013-05-01

387

Machine Learning Algorithms Implemented in Image Analysis

A typical core facility is faced with a wide variety of experimental paradigms, samples, and images to be analyzed. They typically have one thing in common: a need to segment features of interest from the rest of the image. In many cases, for example fluorescence images with good contrast and signal to noise, intensity segmentation may be successful. Often, however, images may not be acquired in optimum conditions, or features of interest are not distinguished by intensity alone. Examples we encountered are: retina fundus photographs, histological stains, DAB immunohistochemistry, etc. We used machine learning algorithms as implemented in FIJI to isolate specific features in longitudinal retinal photographs of non-human primates. Images acquired over several years with different technologies, cameras and skills were analyzed to evaluate small changes with precision. The protocol used includes: Scale-Invariant feature Transform (SIFT) registration, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and Weka training. Variance of results for different images of the same time point and for different raters of the same images was less than 10% in most cases.

Chen, J.; Renner, L.; Neuringer, M.; Cornea, A.

2014-01-01

388

Image Tag Recommendation Algorithm Using Tensor Factorization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to provide high quality tags for digital images according to users’ interest. As there are three main elements in image tag recommendation problem, tensor factorization technology is utilized in this work. In this paper, the parameters of the tensor factorization model are represented as latent variables, and the key functions of the tensor factorization model can be implemented by integrating three matrices(person matrix, image matrix, and tag matrix into one tensor. The key problem of image tag recommendation is to obtain the top ranked tags which are suitable not only to image visual contents but also to users’ interest. Afterwards, the top ranked tags are obtained by a predictor utilizing the proposed tensor factorization model. Therefore, the image tag recommendation problem can be converted to calculate the ranking scores by maximizing the ranking statistic AUC. Finally, performance evaluation is conducted on the NUS-WIDE dataset using MRR, S@k, P@k, and NDCG metric. Experimental results show that the proposed image tag recommendation algorithm performs better than other methods

Yong-sheng Wang

2014-03-01

389

The hurried development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information. In additional, digital document is also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it may face many threats. It became necessary to find an appropriate protection due to the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information. Furthermore, there is no formal method to be followed to discover a hidden data. In this paper, a new information hiding framework is presented.The proposed framework aim is implementation of framework computation between advance encryption standard (AES) and distortion technique (DT) which embeds information in image page within executable file (EXE file) to find a secure solution to cover file without change the size of cover file. The framework includes two main functions; first is the hiding of the information in the image page of EXE file, through the execution of four process (specify the cover file, spec...

Naji, A W; Zaidan, B B; Al-Khateeb, Wajdi F; Khalifa, Othman O; Zaidan, A A; Gunawan, Teddy S

2009-01-01

390

Modified Curvelet Thresholding Algorithm for Image Denoising

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study introduced an adaptive thresholding method for removing additive white Gaussian noise from digital images. Approach: Curvelet transform employed in the proposed scheme provides sparse decomposition as compared to the wavelet transform methods which being nongeometrical lack sparsity and fail to show optimal rate of convergence. Results: Different behaviors of curvelet transform maxima of image and noise across different scales allow us to design the threshold operator adaptively. Multiple thresholds depending on the scale and noise variance are calculated to locally suppress the curvelet transform coefficients so that the level of threshold is different at every scale. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed algorithm succeeded in providing improved denoising performance to recover the shape of edges and important detailed components. Simulation results proved that the proposed method can obtain a better image estimate than the wavelet based restoration methods.

Al D. Ali

2010-01-01

391

A Fast SIFT Image Mosaic Algorithm Based on Wavelet Transformation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, SIFT feature matching algorithm is becoming the focus of the image mosaic. In traditional SIFT algorithm, the mosaic procedure is computationally intensive and time-comsuming. For solving this problem, an improved SIFT algorithm is presented in this paper. The proposed algorithm combing wavelet transform into SIFT to simplify the scale-invariant feature extraction process, and speed up the image mosaic. The tests of two images mosaicing with the classical SIFT algorithm and the algorithm proposed in this paper have done respectively. With the control parameter ?=0.5, the classical SIFT algorithm took 1.192 891 seconds to extract the feature points, while the improved algorithm took 0.856 712 seconds. The contrast simulation tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, and show that the speed and accuracy of the proposed algorithm is improved, at the same time the effect of the image mosaic is maintained.

ZUO Yi

2014-05-01

392

Face Protection by Fast Selective Encryption in a Video

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose an approach for monitoring human activities in an indoor environment using detected and tracked face and selective encryption. The objective is to encrypt partially the human face in a video sequence. This approach is based on AES stream ciphering using VLC (Variable Length Coding) of the Huffman's vector. The proposed scheme allows scalable decryption of a specific region of image and result in a significant reduction in encrypting and decrypting processing time. It ...

Rodrigues, Jose?; Puech, William; Meuel, Peter; Bajard, Jean-claude; Chaumont, Marc

2006-01-01

393

Encryption Quality Analysis in MPEG Video Format

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, an attempt is made to analyze four fast MPEG video encryption algorithms. These algorithms use a secret key randomly changing the sign bits of DCT coefficients and/or the sign bits of motion vectors. The encryption effects are achieved by the IDCT during MPEG video decompression processing. These algorithms add very small overhead to MPEG codec. Software implementations are fast enough to meet the real time requirement of MPEG video applications and thus the analysis shows that satisfactory results can be obtained using these video encryption algorithms. The experiments conducted helped us analyze two points. First, to test the encryption results with overheads added to MPEG codec and second, encoding time with varying key lengths. We believe that these experiments will produce satisfactory results and thus help to know the efficiency and application of such algorithms in the real world. And will also give us a chance to analyze the drawbacks in the existing algorithms so that certain modification may be suggested for getting fast and better security.

Priyanka Sharma

2013-11-01

394

Digital Signature and Watermark Methods For Image Authentication using Cryptography Analysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The digital signature and watermarking methods are used for image authentication. Digital signature encodes the signature in a file separate from the original image. Cryptographic algorithms have suggested several advantages over the traditional encryption algorithms such as high security, speed, reasonablecomputational overheads and computational power. A digital watermark and signature method for image authentication using cryptography analysis is proposed. The digital signature created for the originalimage and apply watermark. Images are resized before transmission in the network. After digital signature and water marking an image, apply the encryption and decryption process to an image for the authentication. The encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks for the encryption of an image using public key and decrypt that image using private key.

M.Sreerama Murty

2011-06-01

395

A novel single-channel color-image watermarking with digital-optics means based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and a neighboring pixel value subtraction algorithm in the discrete-cosine-transform (DCT) domain is proposed. The converted two-dimensional indexed image matrix from an original color image is encrypted to four interferograms by a PSI and double random-phase encoding technique. Then the interferograms are embedded in one chosen channel of an enlarged color host image in the DCT domain. The hidden color image can be retrieved by DCT, the improved neighboring pixel value subtraction algorithm, an inverse encryption process, and color image format conversion. The feasibility of this method and its robustness against some types of distortion and attacks from the superposed image with different weighting factors are verified and analyzed by computer simulations. This approach can avoid the cross-talk noise due to direct information superposition, enhance the imperceptibility of hidden data, and improve the efficiency of data transmission.

Meng, Xiang-Feng; Cai, Lu-Zhong; Yang, Xiu-Lun; Xu, Xian-Feng; Dong, Guo-Yan; Shen, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yu-Rong

2007-07-01

396

Algorithms evaluation for fundus images enhancement

Color images of the retina inherently involve noise and illumination artifacts. In order to improve the diagnostic quality of the images, it is desirable to homogenize the non-uniform illumination and increase contrast while preserving color characteristics. The visual result of different pre-processing techniques can be very dissimilar and it is necessary to make an objective assessment of the techniques in order to select the most suitable. In this article the performance of eight algorithms to correct the non-uniform illumination, contrast modification and color preservation was evaluated. In order to choose the most suitable a general score was proposed. The results got good impression from experts, although some differences suggest that not necessarily the best statistical quality of image is the one of best diagnostic quality to the trained doctor eye. This means that the best pre-processing algorithm for an automatic classification may be different to the most suitable one for visual diagnosis. However, both should result in the same final diagnosis.

Braem, V.; Marcos, M.; Bizai, G.; Drozdowicz, B.; Salvatelli, y. A.

2011-12-01

397

Algorithms evaluation for fundus images enhancement

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Color images of the retina inherently involve noise and illumination artifacts. In order to improve the diagnostic quality of the images, it is desirable to homogenize the non-uniform illumination and increase contrast while preserving color characteristics. The visual result of different pre-processing techniques can be very dissimilar and it is necessary to make an objective assessment of the techniques in order to select the most suitable. In this article the performance of eight algorithms to correct the non-uniform illumination, contrast modification and color preservation was evaluated. In order to choose the most suitable a general score was proposed. The results got good impression from experts, although some differences suggest that not necessarily the best statistical quality of image is the one of best diagnostic quality to the trained doctor eye. This means that the best pre-processing algorithm for an automatic classification may be different to the most suitable one for visual diagnosis. However, both should result in the same final diagnosis.

398

MR Brain Image Segmentation using Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important task in digital image processing is image segmentation. This paper put forward an unique image segmentation algorithm that make use of a Markov Random Field (MRF hybrid with biologically inspired technique Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA for Brain Magnetic Resonance Images The proposed new algorithm works on the image pixel data and a region/neighborhood map to form a context in which they can merge. Hence, the MR brain image is segmented using MRF-BFOA and the results are compared to traditional metaheuristic segmentation method Genetic Algorithm. All the experiment results show that MRF-BFOA has better performancethan that of standard MRF-GA

E. Ben George

2012-10-01

399

Key Generation of Attribute Based Broadcast Encryption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broadcast Encryption (BE scheme is allows the sender to securely distribute a data to a dynamically changing set of users over a unsecure channel. Attribute based Broadcast Encryption (ABBE is a excellent approach for broadcasting. Existing BE classical BE approach required an explicitly specified decrypter list. In ABBE differentiate groups of users by their attribute. In ABBE encrypter enforces an expressive access policy composed of one or more attributes. ABBE is more flexible and efficient with reduce storage overhead. Proposed algorithm is ABBE using RSA. Merge the advantage of both the algorithm. Using this scheme reduce the burden of key calculation of ABBE. RSA provide secure transmission over transmission channel. Main advantage of rsa is prime factorization. in this scheme use attribute as a prime number.

MANALI.B.CHAUDHARI, VIRAL.V.KAPADIA

2013-05-01

400

In this paper, a novel optical cryptosystem is proposed that uses amplitude- and phase-truncation approach in joint transform correlator (JTC) architecture. Due to amplitude- and phase- truncation, the encryption scheme becomes asymmetric and cryptanalysis of the scheme reveals that it is resistant to hybrid attack. This hybrid attack is the combination of specific attack on asymmetric cryptosystem and chosen-plaintext attack on JTC. We also carry out authentication verification using this correlation geometry. The scheme can be implemented digitally or optically employing a conventional JTC. Computer simulation results validate the proposed method.

Mehra, Isha; Rajput, Sudheesh K.; Nishchal, Naveen K.

2014-01-01